Science.gov

Sample records for river-influenced coastal regions

  1. Time-Series Analysis of Remotely-Sensed SeaWiFS Chlorophyll in River-Influenced Coastal Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; McMahon, Erin; Shen, Suhung; Hearty, Thomas; Casey, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The availability of a nearly-continuous record of remotely-sensed chlorophyll a data (chl a) from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, now longer than ten years, enables examination of time-series trends for multiple global locations. Innovative data analysis technology available on the World Wide Web facilitates such analyses. In coastal regions influenced by river outflows, chl a is not always indicative of actual trends in phytoplankton chlorophyll due to the interference of colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments; significant chl a timeseries trends for coastal regions influenced by river outflows may nonetheless be indicative of important alterations of the hydrologic and coastal environment. Chl a time-series analysis of nine marine regions influenced by river outflows demonstrates the simplicity and usefulness of this technique. The analyses indicate that coastal time-series are significantly influenced by unusual flood events. Major river systems in regions with relatively low human impact did not exhibit significant trends. Most river systems with demonstrated human impact exhibited significant negative trends, with the noteworthy exception of the Pearl River in China, which has a positive trend.

  2. Winter conditioning of the Cascadian margin upwelling system: Remote forcing and coastal river influences (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, B. R.; Goni, M. A.; Evans, W.; Harris, K. E.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Skyllingstad, E. D.; Wall, C.; Wetz, M.; White, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Cascadian margin stretches along the North American Pacific coast from Cape Mendocino to Vancouver Island, and across the land-ocean margin from the crest of the coastal mountains to the California Current. Carbonate system chemistry in these coastal waters is among the most dynamic in the world, with high net community productivity driving the system to a regionally important CO2 sink, while upwelled, respiration-influenced waters carry such elevated CO2 that they are often corrosive to biogenic carbonates. Most of the focus on this ecosystem has been on the influence of the seasonal upwelling and interaction with the upper thermocline of the ocean interior; recently, however, the downwelling-season has been recognized as critical in shaping the carbon cycling of the ecosystem. We present a combination of in-water survey and mooring data from river, estuary, and shelf waters; remote-sensing of coastal surface waters and watershed precipitation; and modeling results describing the physics of coastal circulation and storm-event precipitation and river discharge that shows how the winter conditions control carbon cycling. Coastally-trapped internal waves propagating northward from remote upwelling regions to the south lead to shoaling of the pycnocline such that upwelled source waters are present far inshore of the shelfbreak months before the onset of upwelling favorable winds. The close proximity of upwelled source waters to inner shelf upwelling locations leads to rapid transition in response to late winter and early spring upwelling favorable wind events. Winter storms and closely coupled flooding events deliver regionally significant amounts of nutrient-rich, low-CO2 fresh waters to the coastal ocean during downwelling conditions that retain these inputs on the shelf, and this fuels phytoplankton blooms that are a significant contribution to the annual net community production. These blooms and river influences maintain low coastal surface water pCO2 during

  3. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere promotes a cascade of physical and chemical changes affecting all levels of biological organization, and the evidence from local to global scales has shown that such anthropogenic climate change has triggered significant responses in the Earth's biota. The increased concentration of CO2 is likely to cause a corresponding increase in ocean acidification (OA). In addition, economically valuable shellfish species predominantly inhabit coastal regions both in natural stocks and/or in managed stocks and farming areas. Many coastal ecosystems may experience seawater pCO2 levels significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere, which in this case are strongly linked to biological processes and/or the impact of two important processes; river plumes and coastal upwelling events, which indeed interplay in a very dynamic way on continental shelves, resulting in both source or sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems receive persistent acid inputs as a result of freshwater discharges from river basins into the coastal domain. In this context, since shellfish resources and shellfish aquaculture activities predominantly occur in nearshore areas, it is expected that shellfish species inhabiting river-influenced benthic ecosystems will be exposed persistently to acidic conditions that are suboptimal for its development. In a wider ecological context, little is also known about the potential impacts of acid waters on the performance of larvae and juveniles of almost all the marine species inhabiting this benthic ecosystem in Eastern Southern Pacific Ocean. We present here the main results of a research study aimed to investigate the environmental conditions to which economically valuable calcifiers shellfish species are exposed in a river-influenced continental shelf off Central Chile. By using isotopic measurements in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool (d13C-DIC) we showed the effect of the remineralization of

  4. Modern Environmental Changes on Amapa Coastal Plain under Amazon River Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, V. F.; Figueiredo, A. G.; Silveira, O. M.; Polidori, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Amazonian coastal environment is very dynamic compared to other coasts. It is situated at the edge of the Earth's largest forest, and is segmented by fluvial systems, with the biggest being the Amazon River. The rivers are particularly influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which controls the water and particle discharge, and the flooding regime. Moderate and strong El Nino conditions correlate with low-precipitation periods, and La Nina events cause precipitation to increase. These variables and others related to the Amazon dispersal system create an interesting area for the study of global and regional environmental changes. The Araguari River floodplain on the Amapa coast is influenced by natural processes of global scale such as ENSO events and ITCZ, and by local processes such as Amazon River discharge, tides and tidal bore (pororoca). Anthropogenic processes such as extensive water-buffalo farming also promote environmental changes. Time- series analyses of remote sensing images and suspended sediment have shown that the maximum turbidity zone inside Araguari River is related to the pororoca phenomenon. The pororoca remobilizes sediment from the river bottom and margins, developing sediment suspension >15 g/l as it passes - creating fluid muds. The pororoca also introduces Amazon- and shelf-derived sediment into the Araguari estuary. Measurements during eight spring-tide cycles indicate erosion of 3 cm of consolidated mud and deposition of 1 cm. The pororoca also influences the remobilization and cycling of nutrients and consequently affects the distribution of benthic organisms, including benthonic foraminifera and thecamoebians. For more than a century, the coastal plain has had water-buffalo farming (>42,000 animals today), which modifies the drainage system and affects sedimentary processes. Areas with more buffalo trails have higher suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) during the dry season and lower SSC during the rainy season

  5. REGION 4-SESD COASTAL PROGRAM PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) coastal activities include projects to support the Region 4 Water Management Division Coastal programs. These field investigations include development of a Quality Assurance Project Plan for field sample collection and a sub...

  6. Dense brine formation in Arctic coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachmeister, Lon E.; Payne, James R.

    In the past 2 years, winter field programs have been conducted along the northeast coast of the Chukchi Sea to study the formation and fate of very cold and salty water produced during fall freeze up and lead refreezing processes. These programs, headed by Lon E. Hachmeister of Envirosphere Company, Bellevue, Wash., and James R. Payne of Science Applications International Corporation, La Jolla, Calif., have been funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (NOAA/OCSEAP) to better understand physical processes in arctic coastal regions in regard to potential impact bv oil and gas development.

  7. River Influences on Shelf Ecosystems: Initial Impressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, B. M.

    2004-12-01

    The overall goal of RISE (River Influences on Shelf Ecosystems) is to determine the extent to which regional productivity differences are a result of the presence of the river plume-e.g., it's turbidity, stratification, species composition and nutrient load, as well as its effect on mixing and advection. The first RISE cruise took place in July 2004, using the R/V Wecoma and the R/V Point Sur. Upwelling/downwelling was much more intermittent than is typical of this month; riverflow varied by almost a factor of two between the beginning and end of the cruise. Overall, a wide range of environmental conditions were sampled (although not persistent and strong upwelling). The often shallow (1-5 m) river plume environment combined with the intermittent wind and tidal forcing proved challenging for the observational team. Nevertheless sufficient data were collected to characterize those time and space scales and to present an initial look at sources and sinks of nutrients and plankton. Detailed nutrient/plankton measurements along repeated sections north and south of the plume and along its axis were made aboard the Wecoma. In addition, surface Argos-tracked drifters were deployed and a subset was followed to examine changes over time. Laboratory studies of growth, dilution and grazing were performed onboard. Profiles of turbulence as well as high frequency, high vertical and horizontal resolution measurements of fluorescence, optical backscatter and velocity were collected from the Point Sur towing instrumentation in proximity to the Wecoma. Detailed 3-D large scale and frontal water property/velocity/particle size surveys were performed from the Point Sur using a towed Triaxus. Tidal variability was much stronger than anticipated-even in modest riverflows surface drifters were transported all the way across the shelf to the slope in one tidal excursion: this result has important implications for plankton/larval/juvenile fish export, growth and survival. Variability on

  8. Tracking Cholera in Coastal Regions using Satellite Observations

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet S; Akanda, Ali S; Islam, Shafiqul

    2010-01-01

    Cholera remains a significant health threat across the globe. The pattern and magnitude of the seven global pandemics suggest that cholera outbreaks primarily originate in coastal regions and then spread inland through secondary means. Cholera bacteria show strong association with plankton abundance in coastal ecosystems. This review study investigates relationship(s) between cholera incidence and coastal processes and explores utility of using remote sensing data to track coastal plankton blooms, using chlorophyll as a surrogate variable for plankton abundance, and subsequent cholera outbreaks. Most studies over the last several decades have primarily focused on the microbiological and epidemiological understanding of cholera outbreaks. Accurate identification and mechanistic understanding of large scale climatic, geophysical and oceanic processes governing cholera-chlorophyll relationship is important for developing cholera prediction models. Development of a holistic understanding of these processes requires long and reliable chlorophyll dataset(s), which are beginning to be available through satellites. We have presented a schematic pathway and a modeling framework that relate cholera with various hydroclimatic and oceanic variables for understanding disease dynamics using latest advances in remote sensing. Satellite data, with its unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage, have potentials to monitor coastal processes and track cholera outbreaks in endemic regions. PMID:21072249

  9. Multidecadal simulation of coastal fog with a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Travis A.; Sloan, Lisa C.; Chuang, Patrick Y.; Faloona, Ian C.; Johnstone, James A.

    2013-06-01

    In order to model stratocumulus clouds and coastal fog, we have coupled the University of Washington boundary layer model to the regional climate model, RegCM (RegCM-UW). By comparing fog occurrences observed at various coastal airports in the western United States, we show that RegCM-UW has success at modeling the spatial and temporal (diurnal, seasonal, and interannual) climatology of northern California coastal fog. The quality of the modeled fog estimate depends on whether coast-adjacent ocean or land grid cells are used; for the model runs shown here, the oceanic grid cells seem to be most appropriate. The interannual variability of oceanic northern California summertime fog, from a multi-decadal simulation, has a high and statistically significant correlation with the observed interannual variability ( r = 0.72), which indicates that RegCM-UW is capable of investigating the response of fog to long-term climatological forcing. While RegCM-UW has a number of aspects that would benefit from further investigation and development, RegCM-UW is a new tool for investigating the climatology of coastal fog and the physical processes that govern it. We expect that with appropriate physical parameterizations and moderate horizontal resolution, other climate models should be capable of simulating coastal fog. The source code for RegCM-UW is publicly available, under the GNU license, through the International Centre for Theoretical Physics.

  10. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-02-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  11. Regional Risk Assessment for climate change impacts on coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, F; Rizzi, J; Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2015-12-15

    Coastal aquifers have been identified as particularly vulnerable to impacts on water quantity and quality due to the high density of socio-economic activities and human assets in coastal regions and to the projected rising sea levels, contributing to the process of saltwater intrusion. This paper proposes a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrated with a chain of numerical models to evaluate potential climate change-related impacts on coastal aquifers and linked natural and human systems (i.e., wells, river, agricultural areas, lakes, forests and semi-natural environments). The RRA methodology employs Multi Criteria Decision Analysis methods and Geographic Information Systems functionalities to integrate heterogeneous spatial data on hazard, susceptibility and risk for saltwater intrusion and groundwater level variation. The proposed approach was applied on the Esino River basin (Italy) using future climate hazard scenarios based on a chain of climate, hydrological, hydraulic and groundwater system models running at different spatial scales. Models were forced with the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario for the period 2071-2100 over four seasons (i.e., winter, spring, summer and autumn). Results indicate that in future seasons, climate change will cause few impacts on the lower Esino River valley. Groundwater level decrease will have limited effects: agricultural areas, forests and semi-natural environments will be at risk only in a region close to the coastline which covers less than 5% of the total surface of the considered receptors; less than 3.5% of the wells will be exposed in the worst scenario. Saltwater intrusion impact in future scenarios will be restricted to a narrow region close to the coastline (only few hundred meters), and thus it is expected to have very limited effects on the Esino coastal aquifer with no consequences on the considered natural and human systems. PMID:26282744

  12. Critical review of studies on atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, D.L.; Kaleel, R.J.

    1982-09-01

    This study effort was required as a preliminary step prior to initiation of field measurements of atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is in the process of planning an extensive field measurement program to generate data which will serve as improved data bases for licensing decisions, confirmation of regulations, standards, and guides, and for site characterizations. The study being reported here is an effort directed to obtaining as much information as is possible from existing studies that is relevant toward NRC's objectives. For this study, reports covering research and meteorological measurements conducted for industrial purposes, utility needs, military objectives, and academic studies were obtained and critically reviewed in light of NRC's current data needs. This report provides an interpretation of the extent of existing usable information, an indication of the potential for tailoring existing research toward current NRC information needs, and recommendations for several follow-on studies which could provide valuable additional information through reanalysis of the data. Recommendations are also offered regarding new measurement programs. Emphasis is placed on the identification and acquisition of data from atmospheric tracer studies conducted in coastal regions. A total of 225 references were identified which deal with the coastal atmosphere, including meteorological and tracer measurement programs, theoretical descriptions of the relevant processes, and dispersion models.

  13. Trace metal concentrations in estuaries and coastal regions

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.D.

    1994-12-31

    Estuaries and coastal regions are highly variable in the physical and hydrographic conditions. As a result of heavy urbanization and industrialization of the head waters of most estuaries, there are substantial localized inputs of contaminants to the estuary. These factors combined with the flushing characteristics of individual estuaries to create relatively unique features that result in variation in the typical levels of trace metals for these systems. This makes intercomparison of the estuaries difficult. Comparability among estuaries becomes even more difficult when metals analyses are conducted without proper control of field and laboratory contamination, now firmly established in the trace metal analytical literature as a prerequisite for reliable marine trace metals analysis. This paper compares the concentrations of selected trace metal (Ag, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in the waters of several major estuaries of the United States. The basis of comparison is that all samples war collected under rigid trace metal clean collection and analysis procedures. Generally, metal concentrations within the estuaries are similar. Metal concentrations in the higher salinity coastal regions are more similar in concentration. The comparison provides a baseline of typical concentrations of these trace metals in the coastal waters against which future analytical results can be compared.

  14. Climate Outreach Using Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System Portals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Hernandez, D. L.; Wakely, A.; Bochenek, R. J.; Bickel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal oceans are dynamic, changing environments affected by processes ranging from seconds to millennia. On the east and west coast of the U.S., regional observing systems have deployed and sustained a remarkable diverse array of observing tools and sensors. Data portals visualize and provide access to real-time sensor networks. Portals have emerged as an interactive tool for educators to help students explore and understand climate. Bringing data portals to outreach events, into classrooms, and onto tablets and smartphones enables educators to address topics and phenomena happening right now. For example at the 2015 Charleston Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Festival, visitors navigated the SECOORA (Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing regional Association) data portal to view the real-time marine meteorological conditions off South Carolina. Map-based entry points provide an intuitive interface for most students, an array of time series and other visualizations depict many of the essential principles of climate science manifest in the coastal zone, and data down-load/ extract options provide access to the data and documentation for further inquiry by advanced users. Beyond the exposition of climate principles, the portal experience reveals remarkable technologies in action and shows how the observing system is enabled by the activity of many different partners.

  15. Regional vicarious gain adjustment for coastal VIIRS products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Jennifer; Arnone, Robert; Ladner, Sherwin; Fargion, Giulietta S.; Lawson, Adam; Martinolich, Paul; Vandermeulen, Ryan

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Ocean Cal/Val Team, Naval Research Lab - Stennis Space Center (NRL-SSC) has been working to facilitate calibration and validation of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) ocean color products. By relaxing the constraints of the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) methodology for vicarious calibration of ocean color satellites and utilizing the Aerosol Robotic Network Ocean Color (AERONET-OC) system to provide in situ data, we investigated differences between remotely sensed water leaving radiance and the expected in situ response in coastal areas and compare the results to traditional Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) calibration/validation activities. An evaluation of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP)-VIIRS ocean color products was performed in coastal waters using the time series data obtained from the Northern Gulf of Mexico AERONET-OC site, WaveCIS. The coastal site provides different water types with varying complexity of CDOM, sedimentary, and chlorophyll components. Time series data sets were used to develop a vicarious gain adjustment (VGA) at this site, which provides a regional top of the atmospheric (TOA) spectral offset to compare the standard MOBY spectral calibration gain in open ocean waters.

  16. Coastal Downscaling Experiments: Can CESM Fields Successfully Force Regional Coastal Ocean Simulations with Strong Freshwater Forcing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCready, P.; Bryan, F.; Tseng, Y. H.; Whitney, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal ocean accounts for about half of the global fish harvest, but is poorly resolved in global climate models (a one-degree grid barely sees the continental shelf). Moreover, coastal ocean circulation is strongly modified by river freshwater sources, often coming from estuarine systems that are completely unresolved in the coarse grid. River freshwater input in CESM is added in a practical but ad hoc way, by imposing a surface salinity sink over a region of the ocean approximating the plume area of a given river. Here we present results from a series of model experiments using a high-resolution (1.5 km) ROMS model of the NE Pacific, including the Columbia River and the inland waters of Puget Sound. The base model does multi-year hindcasts using the best available sources of atmospheric (MM5/WRF), ocean (NCOM), river (USGS), and tidal forcing. It has been heavily validated against observations of all sorts, and performs well, so it is an ideal test bed for downscaling experiments. The model framework also does biogeochemistry, including oxygen, and carbon chemistry is being added to make forecasts of Ocean Acidification.This high-resolution ROMS model is systematically run in downscaling experiments for the year 2005 with combinations of CESM forcing (CAM, POP, and rivers) swapped in. Skill is calculated using observations. It is found that the runs with CESM forcing generally retain much of the skill of the base model. A compact metric of response to freshwater forcing is used, which is the mechanical energy required to destratify a shallow coastal volume. This, along with the average temperature and salinity of the volume, are used to characterize and compare runs, including the original CESM-POP fields. Finally the model is run with projected CESM simulation forcing at the end of 21st century based on a set of RCP scenarios, and the compact metrics are used to quantify differences from 2005.

  17. Assessment of contaminants in Dubai coastal region, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Darwish, H. A.; Abd El-Gawad, E. A.; Mohammed, F. H.; Lotfy, M. M.

    2005-12-01

    Coastal uses and other human activities have inevitably impinged on the Gulf environment; therefore, these regions require continuous monitoring. The investigated area covered the maximum fragments of Dubai coastal region in the Arabian Gulf. The determination of major oxides and trace metal concentrations in Dubai sediments revealed three heavily and moderately contaminated regions. One is in the far northeastern part at Al-Hamriya Sts 1 3 and contaminated by Fe, Cu, Pb, and Zn; the second is in the mid-northeastern part at Dry Docks and contaminated by Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn; and finally, the third is in the near southwestern part at Dubal and contaminated by Fe, Mg, Cr, Ni, and Zn. Al-Hamriya St 3 represented the highest values of Cu, Pb, and Zn, whereas Dubal exhibited the maximum values of Fe, Mg, Ba, Cr, Mn, Ni, and V. The anthropogenic discharge and natural deposits are the main sources of contamination. In general, all trace and major elements showed the minimal levels at Jebel Ali Sanctuary (Sts 11, 12, 13) except for Sr and Ca, which showed their maximum values. The highest concentrations of Ca and Sr are mainly attributed to carbonate gravel sands and sands, which cover most stations. Each of V and Ni showed negative correlation with TPH, which may be indicated that the source of oil contamination in the region is not related to crude oil but mostly attributable to anthropogenic sources. The significant positive correlation, which was found between trace metals and TOC indicates that organic matter plays an important role in the accumulation of trace metals in case of Cu, Zn, and Pb.

  18. Modelization of highly nonlinear waves in coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouin, Maïté; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Ferrant, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The proposed work deals with the development of a highly non-linear model for water wave propagation in coastal regions. The accurate modelization of surface gravity waves is of major interest in ocean engineering, especially in the field of marine renewable energy. These marine structures are intended to be settled in coastal regions where the effect of variable bathymetry may be significant on local wave conditions. This study presents a numerical model for the wave propagation with complex bathymetry. It is based on High-Order Spectral (HOS) method, initially limited to the propagation of non-linear wave fields over flat bottom. Such a model has been developed and validated at the LHEEA Lab. (Ecole Centrale Nantes) over the past few years and the current developments will enlarge its application range. This new numerical model will keep the interesting numerical properties of the original pseudo-spectral approach (convergence, efficiency with the use of FFTs, …) and enable the possibility to propagate highly non-linear wave fields over long time and large distance. Different validations will be provided in addition to the presentation of the method. At first, Bragg reflection will be studied with the proposed approach. If the Bragg condition is satisfied, the reflected wave generated by a sinusoidal bottom patch should be amplified as a result of resonant quadratic interactions between incident wave and bottom. Comparisons will be provided with experiments and reference solutions. Then, the method will be used to consider the transformation of a non-linear monochromatic wave as it propagates up and over a submerged bar. As the waves travel up the front slope of the bar, it steepens and high harmonics are generated due to non-linear interactions. Comparisons with experimental data will be provided. The different test cases will assess the accuracy and efficiency of the method proposed.

  19. Regional Sea Level Variation: California Coastal Subsidence (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, G.; Hammond, W. C.; Nerem, R.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite altimetry over the last two decades has measured variations in geocentric sea level (GSL), relative to the Earth system center of mass, providing valuable data to test models of physical oceanography and the effects of global climate change. The societal impacts of sea level change however relate to variations in local sea level (LSL), relative to the land at the coast. Therefore, assessing the impacts of sea level change requires coastal measurements of vertical land motion (VLM). Indeed, ΔLSL = ΔGSL - ΔVLM, with subsidence mapping 1:1 into LSL. Measurements of secular coastal VLM also allow tide-gauge data to test models of GSL over the last century in some locations, which cannot be provided by satellite data. Here we use GPS geodetic data within 15 km of the US west coast to infer regional, secular VLM. A total of 89 GPS stations met the criteria that time series span >4.5 yr, and do not have obvious non-linear variation, as may be caused by local instability. VLM rates for the GPS stations are derived in the secular reference frame ITRF2008, which aligns with the Earth system center of mass to ×0.5 mm/yr. We find that regional VLM has different behavior north and south of the Mendocino Triple Junction (MTJ). The California coast has a coherent regional pattern of subsidence averaging 0.5 mm/yr, with an increasing trend to the north. This trend generally matches GIA model predictions. Around San Francisco Bay, the observed coastal subsidence of 1.0 mm/yr coherently decreases moving away from the Pacific Ocean to very small subsidence on the east shores of the bay. This gradient is likely caused by San Andreas-Hayward Fault tectonics, and possibly by differential surface loading across the bay and Sacramento-San Joachim River Delta. Thus in addition to the trend in subsidence from GIA going northward along the California coast, tectonics may also play a role where the plate boundary fault system approaches the coast. In contrast, we find that VLM

  20. Multiresolution in CROCO (Coastal and Regional Ocean Community model)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debreu, Laurent; Auclair, Francis; Benshila, Rachid; Capet, Xavier; Dumas, Franck; Julien, Swen; Marchesiello, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    CROCO (Coastal and Regional Ocean Community model [1]) is a new oceanic modeling system built upon ROMS_AGRIF and the non-hydrostatic kernel of SNH, gradually including algorithms from MARS3D (sediments)and HYCOM (vertical coordinates). An important objective of CROCO is to provide the possibility of running truly multiresolution simulations. Our previous work on structured mesh refinement [2] allowed us to run two-way nesting with the following major features: conservation, spatial and temporal refinement, coupling at the barotropic level. In this presentation, we will expose the current developments in CROCO towards multiresolution simulations: connection between neighboring grids at the same level of resolution and load balancing on parallel computers. Results of preliminary experiments will be given both on an idealized test case and on a realistic simulation of the Bay of Biscay with high resolution along the coast. References: [1] : CROCO : http://www.croco-ocean.org [2] : Debreu, L., P. Marchesiello, P. Penven, and G. Cambon, 2012: Two-way nesting in split-explicit ocean models: algorithms, implementation and validation. Ocean Modelling, 49-50, 1-21.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region; Santa Barbara Channel Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.

    2009-01-01

    USGS coastal and ocean science in the Western United States and the Pacific integrates scientific expertise in geology, water resources, biology, and geography. Operating from 10 major science centers in the Western Region, the USGS is addressing a broad geographic and thematic range of important coastal and marine issues. In California, the Santa Barbara Channel represents one area of focus.

  2. Environmental Indicators for the Coastal Region of North American Great Lakes: Introduction and Prospectus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental indicators are benchmarks for the current conditions of the Great Lakes coastal region and provide measurable endpoints to assess the success of future management, conservation, protection, and restoration of this important resource.

  3. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  4. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps

    PubMed Central

    Lortie, Christopher J.; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or ‘stressful’ environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%). Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping the outcome of net

  5. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Camila de Toledo; Lortie, Christopher J; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or 'stressful' environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%). Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping the outcome of net

  6. Transformations and Fates of Terrigenous Dissolved Organic Matter in River-influenced Ocean Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichot, Cedric G.

    Rivers contribute about 0.25 Pg of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon (tDOC) to the ocean each year. The fate and transformations of this material have important ramifications for the metabolic state of the ocean, air-sea CO2 exchange, and the global carbon cycle. Stable isotopic compositions and terrestrial biomarkers suggest tDOC must be efficiently mineralized in ocean margins. Nonetheless, the extent of tDOC mineralization in these environments remains unknown, as no quantitative estimate is available. The complex interplay of biogeochemical and physical processes in these systems compounded by the limited practicality of chemical proxies (organic biomarkers, isotopic compositions) make the quantification of tDOC mineralization in these dynamic systems particularly challenging. In this dissertation, new optical proxies were developed (Chapters 1 and 2) and facilitated the first quantitative assessment of tDOC mineralization in a dynamic river-influenced ocean margin (Chapter 3) and the monitoring of continental runoff distributions in the coastal ocean using remote sensing (Chapter 4). The optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were used as optical proxies for dissolved organic carbon concentration ([DOC]) and %tDOC. In both proxies, the CDOM spectral slope coefficient ( S275-295) was exploited for its informative properties on the chemical nature and composition of dissolved organic matter. In the first proxy, a strong relationship between S275-295 and the ratio of CDOM absorption to [DOC] facilitated accurate retrieval (+/- 4%) of [DOC] from CDOM. In the second proxy, the existence of a strong relationship between S275-295 and the DOC-normalized lignin yield facilitated the estimation of the %tDOC from S 275-295. Using the proxies, the tDOC concentration can be retrieved solely from CDOM absorption coefficients (lambda = 275-295 nm) in river-influenced ocean margins. The practicality of optical proxies facilitated the calculation

  7. THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper assesses the potential impacts of climate change on the mid-Atlantic coastal (MAC) region of the United States. In order of increasing uncertainty, it is projected that sea level, temperature and streamflow will increase in the MAC region in response to higher levels o...

  8. Coastal erosion impacts under climate change scenarios at the regional scale in the North Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critto, A.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Rizzi, J.; Zabeo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate change is likely to pose additional pressures on coastal ecosystems by accelerating sea level rise, storms, flooding and erosion. Specifically, coastal erosion is an issue of major concern for estuarine and deltaic coastal areas and ecosystems and it is expected to increase in size and magnitude due to climate change forcing. Accordingly, the use of climate change scenarios in the assessment of coastal erosion risks could improve the development of sustainable adaptation strategies. In order to analyze the potential consequences of climate change on coastal erosion processes and evaluate the related impacts on coastal receptors (i.e. beaches, river mouths, wetlands and protected areas), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to the North Adriatic coast (Italy). Climate induced hazards were analyzed by means of regional hydrodynamic models that provide information about the main coastal erosion stressors (i.e. increases in mean sea-level, changes in wave height and variations in the extent of sediments deposition at the sea bottom) under climate change scenarios (i.e. regional climate projections). Site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators (e.g. vegetation cover, geomorphology, sediment budget, protection level, population density and wetland extension) and hazard metrics were aggregated in the RRA methodology in order to develop exposure, susceptibility, risk and damage maps that identify and prioritize hot-spot areas and vulnerable targets at the regional scale. Future seasonal exposure maps of coastal erosion at the regional scale depict a worse situation in winter and autumn for the future period 2070-2100 and highlight hot-spot exposure areas surrounding the Po River Delta. Moreover, risk maps highlighted that the receptors (i.e. exposure units) at higher risk to coastal erosion are beaches, wetlands and river mouths with relevant percentages of the territory characterized by higher risk scores

  9. Episodicity in phytoplankton dynamics in a coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jönsson, Bror F.; Salisbury, Joseph E.

    2016-06-01

    Much is still unknown about the control of oceanic biological production, especially in coastal areas where daily changes can be as large as seasonal variability. Both data scarcity and a lack of methods with sufficient coverage in space and time hinder our progress. Here we present a satellite-derived proxy for net community production where simulated velocity fields are combined with satellite data to create a comprehensive accounting of spatial and temporal scales of biological production in the Southern California Bight. Statistical analyses show that rare events exert a major influence when estimating mean production over seasonal time scales: about 65% of change in biomass is caused by the 10% highest values in our data set. The results suggest that frequencies of rare events might be as important for biological production as seasonal averages. Our work highlights the need for additional data sets sampled at higher frequencies and shorter spatial scales.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinsinger, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    USGS Western Region Coastal and Ocean Science is interdisciplinary, collaborative, and integrates expertise from all USGS Disciplines, and ten of its major Science Centers, in Alaska, Hawai'i, California, Washington, and Oregon. The scientific talent, laboratories, and research vessels in the Western Region and across the Nation, strategically position the USGS to address broad geographic and oceanographic research topics. USGS information products inform resource managers and policy makers who must balance conservation mandates with increasing demands for resources that sustain the Nation's economy. This fact sheet describes but a few examples of the breadth of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore, and ocean environments along our Nation's West Coast and Pacific Islands.

  11. Benefits of coastal recreation in Europe: identifying trade-offs and priority regions for sustainable management.

    PubMed

    Ghermandi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the welfare dimension of the recreational services of coastal ecosystems through the application of a meta-analytical value transfer framework, which integrates Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for the characterization of climate, biodiversity, accessibility, and anthropogenic pressure in each of 368 regions of the European coastal zone. The relative contribution of international, domestic, and local recreationists to aggregated regional values is examined. The implications of the analysis for prioritization of conservation areas and identification of good management practices are highlighted through the comparative assessment of estimated recreation values, current environmental pressures, and existing network of protected sites. PMID:25656628

  12. Risk assessment of tropical storm surges for coastal regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Wang, H.; Liu, G. M.; Sun, X. Y.; Fei, X. Y.; Wang, P. T.; Lv, T. T.; Xue, Z. S.; He, Y. W.

    2014-05-01

    Storm surges are responsible for much of the damage and loss of life associated with landfalling tropical cyclones (TCs). Thus, understanding the characteristics of risk associated with TC storm surges for the coastal regions of China is of great interest. Based on a comprehensive assessment of hazard indices for TC storm surges and vulnerability indices for coastal counties, we obtained a risk assessment for coastal regions of China as a county-level unit. The hazard index was calculated using a model based on the parameters of a TC landfall frequency index (f) and maximum storm surge elevation (MSSE). The MSSE was calculated from the TC maximum sustained wind and tide gauge records using a regression function. Vulnerability indices were obtained from indices on socioeconomics, land use, the ecological environment, and resilience. From this study, it can be concluded that the hazard level of TC storm surges increases from north to south along the Chinese coast, the vulnerabilities have significant spatial heterogeneity, and coastal regions of China can be divided into four zones of risk level. The results of this study can provide scientific support for marine disaster mitigation and decision making. Additionally, the risk assessment methodology used here for storm surges could be extended and applied to other coastal areas.

  13. Speed-up matching method with navigation data for UAV remote sensing images of coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Gangwu; Di, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    UAV remote sensing platform can obtain images of target regions quickly. It has distinct advantages in the detection of oil spill, the emergency response of searching and rescuing, the survey of coastal regions, etc. However, the existing UAV images are difficult to meet the needs of rapid processing, because the amount of their data is too large and the traditional processing methods take too much time in the matching stage. This paper designs a speed-up matching algorithm which utilizes navigation data in UAV to get the elements of exterior orientation. The algorithm is based on the collinearity equation with the flat terrain in the coastal regions. Those elements can be used to compute the original homography matrix and overlapping regions. After extracting interest points by SURF algorithm, the matching method only chooses some points in overlapping regions for matching stage. The algorithm can improve the matching speed , and also can decrease mismatching to improve the accuracy.

  14. Projected climate change for the coastal plain region of Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climatic patterns for the Coastal Plain region of Georgia, USA, centered on Tifton, Georgia (31 28 30N, 83 31 54W) were examined for long term patterns in precipitation and air temperature. Climate projections based upon output from seven Global Circulation Models (GCMs) and three future Green Hous...

  15. Associations between accelerated glacier mass wastage and increased summer temperature in coastal regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyurgerov, M.; McCabe, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Low-elevation glaciers in coastal regions of Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, individual ice caps around the Greenland ice sheet, and the Patagonia Ice Fields have an aggregate glacier area of about 332 ?? 103 km 2 and account for approximately 42% of all the glacier area outside the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. They have shown volume loss, especially since the end of the 1980s, increasing from about 45% in the 1960s to nearly 67% in 2003 of the total wastage from all glaciers on Earth outside those two largest ice sheets. Thus, a disproportionally large contribution of coastal glacier ablation to sea level rise is evident. We examine cumulative standardized departures (1961-2000 reference period) of glacier mass balances and air temperature data in these four coastal regions. Analyses indicate a strong association between increases in glacier volume losses and summer air temperature at regional and global scales. Increases in glacier volume losses in the coastal regions also coincide with an accelerated rate of ice discharge from outlet glaciers draining the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets. These processes imply further increases in sea level rise. ?? 2006 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  16. IMPACTS OF GLOBAL CHANGE ON UV EXPOSURE IN COASTAL SHELF REGIONS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global change has a variety of impact on UV exposure in coastal shelf regions of the southeastern United States. Changes in solar UV reaching the water surface have been caused by human alterations of atmospheric composition such as depletion of the ozone layer.

  17. 40 CFR 81.149 - Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  18. 40 CFR 81.152 - Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  19. Rural Poverty in Three Southern Regions: Mississippi Delta, Ozarks, Southeast Coastal Plain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, John L.

    The focus of this report is on poverty and its relationships to certain individual characteristics as distributed across 3 regions: the Ozarks, Mississippi Delta, and Southeast Coastal Plain. After a broad description of these areas, the study looks at (1) age of household heads, (2) number of persons in households, (3) housing quality (running…

  20. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.). On January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3393... rule implementing the Atlantic HMS electronic dealer ] reporting system (76 FR 37750; June 28, 2011) or...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National...

  1. Causes and consequences of ecosystem service regionalization in a coastal suburban watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Mark B. Green; Pellerin, Brian A.; Morse, Nathaniel B.; Hopkinson, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    The demand for ecosystem services and the ability of natural ecosystems to provide those services evolve over time as population, land use, and management practices change. Regionalization of ecosystem service activity, or the expansion of the area providing ecosystem services to a population, is a common response in densely populated coastal regions, with important consequences for watershed water and nitrogen (N) fluxes to the coastal zone. We link biophysical and historical information to explore the causes and consequences of change in ecosystem service activity—focusing on water provisioning and N regulation—from 1850 to 2010 in a coastal suburban watershed, the Ipswich River watershed in northeastern Massachusetts, USA. Net interbasin water transfers started in the late 1800s due to regionalization of water supply for use by larger populations living outside the Ipswich watershed boundaries, reaching a peak in the mid-1980s. Over much of the twentieth century, about 20 % of river runoff was diverted from reaching the estuary, with greater proportions during drought years. Ongoing regionalization of water supply has contributed to recent declines in diversions, influenced by socioecological feedbacks resulting from the river drying and fish kills. Similarly, the N budget has been greatly perturbed since the suburban era began in the 1950s due to food and lawn fertilizer imports and human waste release. However, natural ecosystems are able to remove most of this anthropogenic N, mitigating impacts on the coastal zone. We propose a conceptual model whereby the amount and type of ecosystem services provided by coastal watersheds in urban regions expand and contract over time as regional population expands and ecosystem services are regionalized. We hypothesize that suburban watersheds can be hotspots of ecosystem service sources because they retain sufficient ecosystem function to still produce services that meet increasing demand from the local population

  2. Coal geology of the U.S. Gulf Coastal region

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, P.D.; Aubourg, C.E.; Crowley, S.S.

    1999-07-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a comprehensive assessment of the major coal regions of the country. In this program, known as the National Coal Resource Assessment, the quantity and quality of coals that are expected to be mined during the next 30 years will be characterized. For the Gulf Coast region, the evaluation will include reviews of the stratigraphic setting, resource potential, and the quality of the lignites in four coal-producing areas. These areas are: the Sabine Uplift (including parts of Texas and Louisiana), Northeast Texas, Central Texas, and South Texas. The results of these efforts will be a series of digital Geographic Information System (GIS) maps, text, and tables that will be published in a CD-ROM format. These products, along with a national summary CD-ROM, are expected to be completed in 1999. This paper is to present a review of Gulf Coast coal geology and to outline the USGS assessment efforts for the Gulf Coast region. Most coal in the Gulf Coast area is produced from the Paleocene Wilcox Group, and minor amounts of coal are produced from the Ecocene Jackson and Claiborne Groups. Initial results indicate that for coals being mined in the Sabine Uplift, Northeast, and Central Texas areas mean moisture values are about 34%, mean ash yields range from 12 to 15%, and mean calorific values range from about 5,800 to 6,900 Btu/lb (all data are on an as-received basis). Detailed bed and zone analysis in all areas indicate that resource figures will be greater than previous estimates that have usually combined multiple coal horizons to estimate cumulative coal thicknesses for a formation. Ongoing research in the Sabine Uplift and Northeast study areas suggests that coal zones in both the upper and lower Wilcox may be more laterally extensive than previous studies indicate.

  3. Contrasting food-web support bases for adjoining river-influenced and non-river influenced continental shelf ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallin, Michael A.; Cahoon, Lawrence B.; Durako, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations and distributions in two adjoining regions of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB), Onslow Bay and nearshore Long Bay, were investigated over a 3-year period. Onslow Bay represents the northernmost region of the SAB, and receives very limited riverine influx. In contrast, Long Bay, just to the south, receives discharge from the Cape Fear River, draining the largest watershed within the State of North Carolina, USA. Northern Long Bay is a continental shelf ecosystem that has a nearshore area dominated by nutrient, turbidity and water-color loading from inputs from the river's plume. Average planktonic chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 4.2 μg l -1 near the estuary mouth, to 3.1 μg l -1 7 km offshore in the plume's influence, to 1.9 μg l -1 at a non-plume station 7 km offshore to the northeast. Average areal planktonic chlorophyll a was approximately 3X that of benthic chlorophyll a at plume-influenced stations in Long Bay. In contrast, planktonic chlorophyll a concentrations in Onslow Bay were normally <0.50 μg l -1 at a nearshore (8 km) site, and <0.15 μg l -1 at sites located 45 and 100 km offshore. However, high water clarity ( KPAR 0.10-0.25 m -1) provides a favorable environment for benthic microalgae, which were abundant both nearshore (average 58.3 mg m -2) and to at least 45 km offshore in Onslow Bay (average 70.0 mg m -2) versus average concentrations of 10-12 mg m -2 for river-influenced areas of Long Bay. This provides evidence that much of the inner shelf food web in Onslow Bay is based on benthic microalgal production, in contrast to a plankton-based food web in northern Long Bay and more southerly areas of the SAB.

  4. Optimizing velocities and transports for complex coastal regions and archipelagos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, Patrick J.; Agarwal, Arpit; Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J.

    2015-05-01

    We derive and apply a methodology for the initialization of velocity and transport fields in complex multiply-connected regions with multiscale dynamics. The result is initial fields that are consistent with observations, complex geometry and dynamics, and that can simulate the evolution of ocean processes without large spurious initial transients. A class of constrained weighted least squares optimizations is defined to best fit first-guess velocities while satisfying the complex bathymetry, coastline and divergence strong constraints. A weak constraint towards the minimum inter-island transports that are in accord with the first-guess velocities provides important velocity corrections in complex archipelagos. In the optimization weights, the minimum distance and vertical area between pairs of coasts are computed using a Fast Marching Method. Additional information on velocity and transports are included as strong or weak constraints. We apply our methodology around the Hawaiian islands of Kauai/Niihau, in the Taiwan/Kuroshio region and in the Philippines Archipelago. Comparisons with other common initialization strategies, among hindcasts from these initial conditions (ICs), and with independent in situ observations show that our optimization corrects transports, satisfies boundary conditions and redirects currents. Differences between the hindcasts from these different ICs are found to grow for at least 2-3 weeks. When compared to independent in situ observations, simulations from our optimized ICs are shown to have the smallest errors.

  5. Topographic controls on bioproductivity and organic carbon deposition, Oman Arabian Sea coastal upwelling region

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, J.C.; Hay, W.W.

    1989-03-01

    Ocean boundary currents impinging on swallow shelves and coastal capes may undergo oceanward divergence driven by the conservation of potential vorticity. This process may result in local upwelling, enhanced primary productivity, and increased organic richness in sediments. Combined with reconstructions of past coastline configurations and models of paleo-ocean circulation, the recognition of this process should enable the hindcasting of more specific sites of organic carbon enrichment than has previously been possible. Preliminary investigations of ocean circulation along the southeastern coast of Arabia during recent southwest monsoon seasons suggest that continental shelf topography and coastal promontories act to focus upwelling. Thermal infrared NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer images acquired during the 1981, 1982, 1983, and 1985 southwest monsoon seasons depict localized regions of depressed sea surface temperature near a major shelf break and coastal capes. These regions of cooler surface water may result from topographically focused upwelling plumes. Present work includes the development of a numerical ocean model to predict the effect of topography on the southwest monsoon current as it encounters the Omani coast. Thermal infrared and visible band satellite remote sensing is being integrated with in-situ vertical temperature profiles and sea surface temperature observations in order to assess horizontal and vertical water motion and surface layer bioproductivity during the monsoonal upwelling season. The effects of topographically focused coastal upwelling on organic carbon deposition are being assessed by the mapping of the total organic carbon content of surface sea-floor sediments.

  6. Northeast Coastal Ocean Forecast System (NECOFS): A Multi-scale Global-Regional-Estuarine FVCOM Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsley, R. C.; Chen, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Northeast Coastal Ocean Forecast System (NECOFS) is a global-regional-estuarine integrated atmosphere/surface wave/ocean forecast model system designed for the northeast US coastal region covering a computational domain from central New Jersey to the eastern end of the Scotian Shelf. The present system includes 1) the mesoscale meteorological model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting); 2) the regional-domain FVCOM covering the Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank/New England Shelf region (GOM-FVCOM); 3) the unstructured-grid surface wave model (FVCOM-SWAVE) modified from SWAN with the same domain as GOM-FVCOM; 3) the Mass coastal FVCOM with inclusion of inlets, estuaries and intertidal wetlands; and 4) three subdomain wave-current coupled inundation FVCOM systems in Scituate, MA, Hampton River, NH and Mass Bay, MA. GOM-FVCOM grid features unstructured triangular meshes with horizontal resolution of ~ 0.3-25 km and a hybrid terrain-following vertical coordinate with a total of 45 layers. The Mass coastal FVCOM grid is configured with triangular meshes with horizontal resolution up to ~10 m, and 10 layers in the vertical. Scituate, Hampton River and Mass Bay inundation model grids include both water and land with horizontal resolution up to ~5-10 m and 10 vertical layers. GOM-FVCOM is driven by surface forcing from WRF model output configured for the region (with 9-km resolution), the COARE3 bulk air-sea flux algorithm, local river discharges, and tidal forcing constructed by eight constituents and subtidal forcing on the boundary nested to the Global-FVCOM. SWAVE is driven by the same WRF wind field with wave forcing at the boundary nested to Wave Watch III configured for the northwestern Atlantic region. The Mass coastal FVCOM and three inundation models are connected with GOM-FVCOM through one-way nesting in the common boundary zones. The Mass coastal FVCOM is driven by the same surface forcing as GOM-FVCOM. The nesting boundary conditions for the inundation models

  7. Regional shoreline change and coastal erosion hazards in Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Erikson, Li H.; Harden, E. Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Historical shoreline positions along the mainland Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska were digitized and analyzed to determine the long-term rate of change. Average shoreline change rates and ranges from 1947 to the mid-2000s were determined every 50 meters between Barrow and Demarcation Point, at the U.S.-Canadian border. Results show that shoreline change rates are highly variable along the coast, with an average regional shoreline change rate of-2.0 m/yr and localized rates of up to -19 m/yr. The highest erosion rates were observed at headlands, points, and associated with breached thermokarst lakes. Areas of accretion were limited, and generally associated with spit extension and minor beach accretion. In general, erosion rates increase from east to west, with overall higher rates east of Harrison Bay.

  8. Regional shoreline change and coastal erosion hazards in Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Harden, E.L.; Richmond, B.M.; Erikson, L.H.

    2011-01-01

    Historical shoreline positions along the mainland Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska were digitized and analyzed to determine the long-term rate of change. Average shoreline change rates and ranges from 1947 to the mid-2000s were determined every 50 meters between Barrow and Demarcation Point, at the U.S.-Canadian border. Results show that shoreline change rates are highly variable along the coast, with an average regional shoreline change rate of-2.0 m/yr and localized rates of up to -19 m/yr. The highest erosion rates were observed at headlands, points, and associated with breached thermokarst lakes. Areas of accretion were limited, and generally associated with spit extension and minor beach accretion. In general, erosion rates increase from east to west, with overall higher rates east of Harrison Bay. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  9. Subsatellite experiments in a coastal region of the Black sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhanov, V.; Bogatov, N.; Ermoshkin, A.; Kazakov, V.; Kemarskaya, O.; Lobanov, V.; Repina, I.; Titov, V.; Troitskaya, Yu.; Zuikova, E.

    2009-04-01

    The results of field experiments carried out in 2007, 2008 in a north-east part of the Black sea in region of city Gelendzhik, are given. Experiments targeted the development of a bottom topography remote (radar and optical) diagnostics. Experimental area is characterized by abrupt depth dumping (fall 50 - 1250 m), and irregularity of a bank vault (numerous canyons). Such bottom topography in the presence of alongshore current creates favorable conditions for hydrodynamic perturbations on thermocline and corresponding anomalies on sea surface and in atmospheric surface layer characteristics. The simultaneous measurement of atmospheric near-surface layer, sea surface and sea bulk parameters synchronously with reception of the radar image from the satellite ENVISAT was feature of the given experiment. The ground-based measurements were carried out simultaneously from high coast by means of X-band radar and from R/V "Aquanaut" (Institute of Oceanology RAS). The meteorological conditions during observations varied considerably. The wind velocity changed from 0 up to 10 m/c, heaving - from 0 up to 4 balls. The short-term atmospheric precipitations were observed. The bottom topography was measured by echo-sounder. Investigation of the hydrological characteristics was carried out by combined SVP-CTD probe. The current field was measured by ADCP. The surface wave characteristics in length range 4 mm - 1 m were measured by X and Ka radar and two-dimensional optical spectrum analyzer. Air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and direction were measured. Sonic anemometer-thermometer for recording horizontal and vertical components of the wind and temperature fluctuations in the surface layer was used. The connection of current field heterogeneities with a bottom configuration in region of depth dumping is investigated. The correlation of radar signal with current speed in near-surface region is observed also. For example, the slicks are observed

  10. Historical Bathymetry and Bathymetric Change: Mississippi-Alabama Coastal Region 1847-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buster, N. A.; Morton, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Rapid landloss and seafloor change around the Mississippi and Alabama (MS-AL) barrier islands are of great concern to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies. The islands provide areas for both wildlife protection and recreational use, and they serve as a natural first line of defense for the mainland against storm activity. Typically, as sediment erodes from the barrier islands, it becomes entrained in the littoral system, where it is redistributed by alongshore currents. In the MS-AL coastal area, many decades of decreased sediment supply, sea-level rise, storm activity, and human activities have affected the entire coastal zone, including changes in alongshore sediment transport. To better assess nearshore seafloor characteristics, historical bathymetric soundings from the time periods 1847-1856, 1916-1920, and 1960-1970, along with bathymetric data collected in 2008 and 2009, were compiled to create multiple-year digital bathymetric grids of the MS-AL coastal region. The bathymetric grids were then compared with each other to create five bathymetric-change maps. These maps illustrate seafloor change (and indirectly, shoreline change) over the last 160 years around the MS-AL barrier islands and within Mississippi Sound. From the mid-1800s to the early 1900s, the majority of the system remained in its natural state, including erosion of the east (updrift) ends of the islands and lateral deposition on their western (downdrift) spits, with associated modifications to the nearshore bathymetry including natural-inlet migration. After channels were dredged through Mississippi Sound and between barrier islands, the dynamics of the system changed. Westward migration of the islands was terminated at two dredged-channel locations, resulting in increased erosion downdrift as the nearshore environments became increasingly sediment starved. Sedimentation around the channels was modified, and Mississippi Sound shoaled due to both spoil from channel dredging and

  11. The Power of Three: Coral Reefs, Seagrasses and Mangroves Protect Coastal Regions and Increase Their Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Guannel, Greg; Arkema, Katie; Ruggiero, Peter; Verutes, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Natural habitats have the ability to protect coastal communities against the impacts of waves and storms, yet it is unclear how different habitats complement each other to reduce those impacts. Here, we investigate the individual and combined coastal protection services supplied by live corals on reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests during both non-storm and storm conditions, and under present and future sea-level conditions. Using idealized profiles of fringing and barrier reefs, we quantify the services supplied by these habitats using various metrics of inundation and erosion. We find that, together, live corals, seagrasses, and mangroves supply more protection services than any individual habitat or any combination of two habitats. Specifically, we find that, while mangroves are the most effective at protecting the coast under non-storm and storm conditions, live corals and seagrasses also moderate the impact of waves and storms, thereby further reducing the vulnerability of coastal regions. Also, in addition to structural differences, the amount of service supplied by habitats in our analysis is highly dependent on the geomorphic setting, habitat location and forcing conditions: live corals in the fringing reef profile supply more protection services than seagrasses; seagrasses in the barrier reef profile supply more protection services than live corals; and seagrasses, in our simulations, can even compensate for the long-term degradation of the barrier reef. Results of this study demonstrate the importance of taking integrated and place-based approaches when quantifying and managing for the coastal protection services supplied by ecosystems. PMID:27409584

  12. The Power of Three: Coral Reefs, Seagrasses and Mangroves Protect Coastal Regions and Increase Their Resilience.

    PubMed

    Guannel, Greg; Arkema, Katie; Ruggiero, Peter; Verutes, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Natural habitats have the ability to protect coastal communities against the impacts of waves and storms, yet it is unclear how different habitats complement each other to reduce those impacts. Here, we investigate the individual and combined coastal protection services supplied by live corals on reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests during both non-storm and storm conditions, and under present and future sea-level conditions. Using idealized profiles of fringing and barrier reefs, we quantify the services supplied by these habitats using various metrics of inundation and erosion. We find that, together, live corals, seagrasses, and mangroves supply more protection services than any individual habitat or any combination of two habitats. Specifically, we find that, while mangroves are the most effective at protecting the coast under non-storm and storm conditions, live corals and seagrasses also moderate the impact of waves and storms, thereby further reducing the vulnerability of coastal regions. Also, in addition to structural differences, the amount of service supplied by habitats in our analysis is highly dependent on the geomorphic setting, habitat location and forcing conditions: live corals in the fringing reef profile supply more protection services than seagrasses; seagrasses in the barrier reef profile supply more protection services than live corals; and seagrasses, in our simulations, can even compensate for the long-term degradation of the barrier reef. Results of this study demonstrate the importance of taking integrated and place-based approaches when quantifying and managing for the coastal protection services supplied by ecosystems. PMID:27409584

  13. Long-term SO2 dispersion modeling over a coastal region.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A L; Parsons, M C; Roberts, S E; Shea, P J; Khan, F L; Husain, T

    2003-04-01

    Air dispersion modeling over coastal regions has proven to be a remarkable challenge in the field of air quality. Many conventional plume dispersion models, such as ISC2 and HYSPLIT, are unable to model such dispersion with the precision that is necessary to accurately predict ground-level concentrations in coastal areas. Considering this, the present work was carried out with two primary objectives: i) to evaluate the effectiveness of currently available mathematical models in predicting plume dispersion over a coastal region and ii) to study the impact of sulfur dioxide emissions from a petroleum refinery over a different community located in the adjacent area. This study demonstrates that CALPUFF predictions are more reliable compared to those of the other models studied, however the operation of CALPUFF is highly data intensive and in many instances, it is difficult to obtain all required input data. This is a particular problem for regions outside ofthe United States of America where sufficient data is difficult to obtain. In addition, the study concluded that the predicted annual average SO2 concentrations in the nearby communities are well within regulatory limits. PMID:12755441

  14. Energy and resource basis of an Italian coastal resort region integrated using emergy synthesis.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Paolo; Paoli, Chiara; Tilley, David R; Fabiano, Mauro

    2009-10-01

    Sustainable development of coastal zones must balance economic development that encourages human visitation from a larger population with desires that differ from the local residents with the need to maintain opportunities for the local resident society and conserve ecological capital, which may serve as the basis for residents. We present a case study in which the sustainability level of a coastal zone (Riviera del Beigua), located along the Ligurian coast of north-western Italy, was assessed through the lens of systems ecology using emergy synthesis to integrate across economic, social and environmental sub-systems. Our purposes were (1) to quantify the environmental sustainability level of this coastal zone, (2) to evaluate the role of tourism in affecting the economy, society and environment, and (3) to compare emergy synthesis to Butler's Tourism Area Life Cycle model (TALC). Results showed that 81% of the total emergy consumption in the coastal zone was derived from external sources, indicating that this tourist-heavy community was not sustainable. Tourism, as the dominant economic sub-system, consumed 42% of the total emergy budget, while local residents used the remaining 58%. The progressive stages of the TALC model were found to parallel the dynamic changes in the ratio of external emergy inputs to local emergy inputs, suggesting that emergy synthesis could be a useful tool for detecting a tourist region's TALC stage. Use of such a quantitative tool could expedite sustainability assessment to allow administrative managers to understand the complex relationship between a region's economy, environment and resident society so sound policies can be developed to improve overall sustainability. PMID:19783358

  15. Response of decadal climatic variations to solar signals in the coastal region of the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raspopov, O. M.; Dergachev, V. A.; Shumilov, O. I.; Nevanlinna, H.

    2003-04-01

    Variations in annual temperatures in the coastal region of the Barents sea in Murmansk (69 N, 33 E) for the period of instrumental records since 1878 have been analyzed. Annual temperature variations have been found to exhibit a pronounced decadal periodicity of the order of 1-1.8 degrees Celsius. Comparison of temperature variations with variations in solar activity (Wolf numbers W) point to the synchronism between decadal temperature variations and the 11-year Schwabe solar cycle. Spectral analysis of the tree ring growth (Pinus Sylvestris L.) in Tuloma Valley near Murmansk for the last 350 years has revealed variations in the tree ring growth with a period of 11-12 years. Thus, decadal climatic variations with the period of the Schwabe solar cycle are typical of the coastal region of the Barents sea. The amplitudes of the observed temperature variations (1-1.8 degrees Celsius) cannot be interpreted as resulting from changes in solar irradiation during the 11-year cycle. These changes are of the order of 0.15%, which can lead to the global temperature response of the order of 0.1-0.3 degrees Celsius. Therefore, a 5-6-fold enhancement of the solar signals takes place in the coastal region of the Barents sea. A similar solar signal enhancement was revealed earlier in variations in the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the Pacific Ocean. Possible reasons for enhancement of solar signals in variations in SST in the Pacific Ocean were considered by White et al.(2000) on the basis of the model of the delayed action oscillator in the ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system. It is probable that in the Northern Atlantic region a similar solar signal enhancement occurs in the ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system. This work was supported by INTAS, Grant 97-31008; PFBR, Grant 00-05-64921 and NorFa.

  16. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Lisa P.; Sousa, Ana I.; Alves, Fátima L.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping. PMID:26964892

  17. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Lisa P.; Sousa, Ana I.; Alves, Fátima L.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-03-01

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  18. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Lisa P; Sousa, Ana I; Alves, Fátima L; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-01-01

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping. PMID:26964892

  19. Using Existing Coastal Models To Address Ocean Acidification Modeling Needs: An Inside Look at Several East and Gulf Coast Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewett, E.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem forecast models have been in development for many US coastal regions for decades in an effort to understand how certain drivers, such as nutrients, freshwater and sediments, affect coastal water quality. These models have been used to inform coastal management interventions such as imposition of total maximum daily load allowances for nutrients or sediments to control hypoxia, harmful algal blooms and/or water clarity. Given the overlap of coastal acidification with hypoxia, it seems plausible that the geochemical models built to explain hypoxia and/or HABs might also be used, with additional terms, to understand how atmospheric CO2 is interacting with local biogeochemical processes to affect coastal waters. Examples of existing biogeochemical models from Galveston, the northern Gulf of Mexico, Tampa Bay, West Florida Shelf, Pamlico Sound, Chesapeake Bay, and Narragansett Bay will be presented and explored for suitability for ocean acidification modeling purposes.

  20. Measuring Capacity for Resilience among Coastal Counties of the US Northern Gulf of Mexico Region

    PubMed Central

    Reams, Margaret A.; Lam, Nina S. N.; Baker, Ariele

    2016-01-01

    Many have voiced concern about the long-term survival of coastal communities in the face of increasingly intense storms and sea level rise. In this study we select indicators of key theoretical concepts from the social-ecological resilience literature, aggregate those indicators into a resilience-capacity index, and calculate an index score for each of the 52 coastal counties of Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida. Building upon Cutter’s Social Vulnerability Index work [1], we use Factor Analysis to combine 43 variables measuring demographics, social capital, economic resources, local government actions, and environmental conditions within the counties. Then, we map the counties’ scores to show the spatial distribution of resilience capacities. The counties identified as having the highest resilience capacities include the suburban areas near New Orleans, Louisiana and Tampa, Florida, and the growing beach-tourist communities of Alabama and central Florida. Also, we examine whether those counties more active in oil and gas development and production, part of the region’s “energy coast”, have greater capacity for resilience than other counties in the region. Correlation analyses between the resilience-capacity index scores and two measures of oil and gas industry activity (total employment and number of business establishments within five industry categories) yielded no statistically significant associations. By aggregating a range of important contextual variables into a single index, the study demonstrates a useful approach for the more systematic examination and comparison of exposure, vulnerability and capacity for resilience among coastal communities.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Western Region: Coastal ecosystem responses to influences from land and sea, Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Sea otters and the nearshore ecosystems they inhabit-from highly urbanized California to relatively pristine Alaska-are the focus of a new multidisciplinary study by scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and a suite of international, academic and government collaborators. The Coastal Ecosystem Responses to Influences from Land and Sea project will investigate the many interacting variables that influence the health of coastal ecosystems along the Northeast Pacific shore. These ecosystems face unprecedented challenges, with threats arising from the adjacent oceans and lands. From the ocean, challenges include acidification, sea level rise, and warming. From the land, challenges include elevated biological, geological and chemical pollutants associated with burgeoning human populations along coastlines. The implications of these challenges for biological systems are only beginning to be explored. Comparing sea otter population status indicators from around the northeastern Pacific Rim, will begin the process of defining factors of coastal ecosystem health in this broad region.

  2. Role of wetlands in attenuation of storm surges using coastal circulation model (ADCIRC), Chesapeake Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Mithun; Ferreira, Celso; Lawler, Seth

    2014-05-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, Virginia is subject to storm surge from extreme weather events nearly year-round; from tropical storms and hurricanes during the summer and fall, (e.g., hurricanes Isabel [2003] and Sandy [2012]), and from nor'easters during the winter (e.g., winter storms Nemo and Saturn [2013]). Coastal wetlands can deliver acute fortification against incoming hurricane storm surges. Coastal wetlands and vegetation shape the hydrodynamics of storm surge events by retaining water and slowing the propagation of storm surge, acting as a natural barrier to flooding. Consequently, a precise scheme to quantify the effect of wetlands on coastal surge levels was also prerequisite. Two wetland sites were chosen in the Chesapeake Bay region for detailed cataloging of vegetation characteristics, including: height, stem diameter, and density. A framework was developed combining these wetlands characterizations with numerical simulations. Storms surges were calculated using Coastal circulation model (ADCIRC) coupled to a wave model (SWAN) forced by an asymmetric hurricane vortex model using an unstructured mesh (comprised of 1.8 million nodes) under a High Performance Computing environment. The Hurricane Boundary Layer (HBL) model was used to compute wind and pressure fields for historical tropical storms and for all of the synthetic storms. Wetlands were characterized in the coupled numerical models by bathymetric and frictional resistance. Multiple model simulations were performed using historical hurricane data and hypothetical storms to compare the predicted storm surge inundation resulting from various levels of wetlands expansion or reduction. The results of these simulations demonstrate the efficacy of wetlands in storm surge attenuation and also the outcome will scientifically support planning of wetlands restoration projects with multi-objective benefits for society.

  3. Influence of sea-land breezes on the tempospatial distribution of atmospheric aerosols over coastal region.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsieh-Hung; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Lin, Chitsan; Lin, Yuan-Chung

    2011-04-01

    The influence of sea-land breezes (SLBs) on the spatial distribution and temporal variation of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere was investigated over coastal Taiwan. PM was simultaneously sampled at inland and offshore locations during three intensive sampling periods. The intensive PM sampling protocol was continuously conducted over a 48-hr period. During this time, PM2.5 and PM(2.5-10) (PM with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 microm and between 2.5 and 10 microm, respectively) were simultaneously measured with dichotomous samplers at four sites (two inland and two offshore sites) and PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameters < or =10 microm) was measured with beta-ray monitors at these same 4 sites and at 10 sites of the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network. PM sampling on a mobile air quality monitoring boat was further conducted along the coastline to collect offshore PM using a beta-ray monitor and a dichotomous sampler. Data obtained from the inland sites (n=12) and offshore sites (n=2) were applied to plot the PM10 concentration contour using Surfer software. This study also used a three-dimensional meteorological model (Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Meteorological Model 5) and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions to simulate surface wind fields and spatial distribution of PM10 over the coastal region during the intensive sampling periods. Spatial distribution of PM10 concentration was further used in investigating the influence of SLBs on the transport of PM10 over the coastal region. Field measurement and model simulation results showed that PM10 was transported back and forth across the coastline. In particular, a high PM10 concentration was observed at the inland sites during the day because of sea breezes, whereas a high PM10 concentration was detected offshore at night because of land breezes. This study revealed that the accumulation of PM in the near-ocean region because of SLBs influenced the

  4. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the northwestern region. Volume I. Text

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the Northwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Bay, Gulf, and Franklin Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. 40 figures, 108 tables.

  5. Managing saltwater intrusion in coastal arid regions and its societal implications for agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Al-Khatri, Ayisha; Schütze, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Coastal aquifers in arid and semiarid regions are particularly at risk due to intrusion of salty marine water. Since groundwater is predominantly used in irrigated agriculture, its excessive pumping - above the natural rate of replenishment - strengthen the intrusion process. Using this increasingly saline water for irrigation, leads to a destruction of valuable agricultural resources and the economic basis of farmers and their communities. The limitation of resources (water and soil) in these regions requires a societal adaptation and change in behaviour as well as the development of appropriate management strategies for a transition towards stable and sustainable future hydrosystem states. Besides a description of the system dynamics and the spatial consequences of adaptation on the resources availability, the contribution combines results of an empirical survey with stakeholders and physically based modelling of the groundwater-agriculture hydrosystem interactions. This includes an analysis of stakeholders' (farmers and decision makers) behaviour and opinions regarding several management interventions aiming on water demand and water resources management as well as the thinking of decision makers how farmers will behave. In this context, the technical counter measures to manage the saltwater intrusion by simulating different groundwater pumping strategies and scenarios are evaluated from the economic and social point of view and if the spatial variability of the aquifer's hydrogeology is taken into consideration. The study is exemplarily investigated for the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture.

  6. Optimal integrated management of groundwater resources and irrigated agriculture in arid coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, J.; Schütze, N.; Heck, V.

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater systems in arid coastal regions are particularly at risk due to limited potential for groundwater replenishment and increasing water demand, caused by a continuously growing population. For ensuring a sustainable management of those regions, we developed a new simulation-based integrated water management system. The management system unites process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques for managing both water quality and water quantity of a strongly coupled groundwater-agriculture system. Due to the large number of decision variables, a decomposition approach is applied to separate the original large optimisation problem into smaller, independent optimisation problems which finally allow for faster and more reliable solutions. It consists of an analytical inner optimisation loop to achieve a most profitable agricultural production for a given amount of water and an outer simulation-based optimisation loop to find the optimal groundwater abstraction pattern. Thereby, the behaviour of farms is described by crop-water-production functions and the aquifer response, including the seawater interface, is simulated by an artificial neural network. The methodology is applied exemplarily for the south Batinah re-gion/Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Due to contradicting objectives like profit-oriented agriculture vs aquifer sustainability, a multi-objective optimisation is performed which can provide sustainable solutions for water and agricultural management over long-term periods at farm and regional scales in respect of water resources, environment, and socio-economic development.

  7. Occurrence and transport of 17 perfluoroalkyl acids in 12 coastal rivers in south Bohai coastal region of China with concentrated fluoropolymer facilities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Fu, Yaning; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Liu, Shijie; Xie, Shuangwei; Xiao, Yang; Giesy, John P

    2014-07-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are emerging contaminants that have raised great concern in recent years. While PFAAs manufacturing becomes regulated in developed countries, production has been partly shifted to China. Eight fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities located in the South Bohai coastal region, one of the most populated areas of China, have been used to manufacture PFAA-related substances since 2001. The environmental consequence of the intensive production of PFAAs in this region remains largely unknown. We analyzed 17 PFAAs in twelve coastal rivers of this region, and found staggeringly high concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) ranging from 0.96 to 4534.41 ng/L. The highest concentration was observed in the Xiaoqing River which received effluents from certain fluoropolymer facilities. Principal component analysis indicated similar sources of several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in all rivers, which indicated that atmospheric transport, wastewater treatment and surface runoff also acted as important supplements to direct discharge to surface water. PMID:24747105

  8. Groundwater Modeling in Coastal Arid Regions Under the Influence of Marine Saltwater Intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Marc; Kolditz, Olaf; Grundmann, Jens; Liedl, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The optimization of an aquifer's "safe yield", especially within agriculturally used regions, is one of the fundamental tasks for nowaday's groundwater management. Due to the limited water ressources in arid regions, conflict of interests arise that need to be evaluated using scenario analysis and multicriterial optimization approaches. In the context of the government-financed research project "International Water Research Alliance Saxony" (IWAS), the groundwater quality for near-coastal, agriculturally used areas is investigated under the influence of marine saltwater intrusion. Within the near-coastal areas of the study region, i.e. the Batinah plains of Northern Oman, an increasing agricultural development could be observed during the recent decades. Simultaneously, a constant lowering of the groundwater table was registered, which is primarily due to the uncontrolled and unsupervised mining of the aquifers for the local agricultural irrigation. Intensively decreased groundwater levels, however, cause an inversion of the hydraulic gradient which is naturally aligned towards the coast. This, in turn,leads to an intrusion of marine saltwater flowing inland, endangering the productivity of farms near the coast. Utilizing the modeling software package OpenGeoSys, which has been developed and constantly enhanced by the Department of Environmental Informatics at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ; Kolditz et al., 2008), a three-dimensional, density-dependent model including groundwater flow and mass transport is currently being built up. The model, comprehending three selected coastal wadis of interest, shall be used to investigate different management scenarios. The main focus of the groundwater modelling are the optimization of well positions and pumping schemes as well as the coupling with a surface runoff model, which is also used for the determination of the groundwater recharge due to wadi runoff downstream of retention dams. Based on

  9. Simulating spatial adaption of groundwater pumping on seawater intrusion in coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Ladwig, Robert; Schütze, Niels; Walther, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Coastal aquifer systems are used intensively to meet the growing demands for water in those regions. They are especially at risk for the intrusion of seawater due to aquifer overpumping, limited groundwater replenishment and unsustainable groundwater management which in turn also impacts the social and economical development of coastal regions. One example is the Al-Batinah coastal plain in northern Oman where irrigated agriculture is practiced by lots of small scaled farms in different distances from the sea, each of them pumping their water from coastal aquifer. Due to continuous overpumping and progressing saltwater intrusion farms near the coast had to close since water for irrigation got too saline. For investigating appropriate management options numerical density dependent groundwater modelling is required which should also portray the adaption of groundwater abstraction schemes on the water quality. For addressing this challenge a moving inner boundary condition is implemented in the numerical density dependent groundwater model which adjusts the locations for groundwater abstraction according to the position of the seawater intrusion front controlled by thresholds of relative chloride concentration. The adaption process is repeated for each management cycle within transient model simulations and allows for considering feedbacks with the consumers e.g. the agriculture by moving agricultural farms more inland or towards the sea if more fertile soils at the coast could be recovered. For finding optimal water management strategies efficiently, the behaviour of the numerical groundwater model for different extraction and replenishment scenarios is approximated by an artificial neural network using a novel approach for state space surrogate model development. Afterwards the derived surrogate is coupled with an agriculture module within a simulation based water management optimisation framework to achieve optimal cropping pattern and water abstraction schemes

  10. Increasing Incidence of Tuberculosis Infection in the Coastal Region of Northern Miyagi after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tatsuya; Ohuchi, Miyako; Terui, Yuki; Kiryu, Kouji; Shikano, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake struck off the northeast coast of Japan. Within an hour of the earthquake, devastating tsunamis swept over the coastal region of the Miyagi Prefecture, facing Pacific Ocean. Accordingly, more than 400,000 residents were forced to stay at evacuation shelters. We investigated the changes in tuberculosis prevalence after the disaster. Annual data for all tuberculosis patients between April 1, 2009 and March 31, 2013 were extracted from the database of the Miyagi Prefectural Government. In the coastal region of Northern Miyagi, the number of tuberculosis patients increased in the post-disaster period (p < 0.001, 9.6 vs.19.1 per 100,000 people), compared to the pre-disaster period. In contrast, its prevalence did not change in the inland region of Northern Miyagi and the coastal and inland regions of Southern Miyagi. Importantly, in the inland and coastal regions of Northern Miyagi, the number of patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) increased in the post-disaster period (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in the coastal shelters, 11 evacuees with the history of contacting tuberculosis patients were diagnosed with LTBI, whereas no cases of LTBI patients were observed in the inland shelters. Thus, staying in the coastal shelters was a risk factor for contracting tuberculosis (OR: 19.31, 95% CI: 1.11-334.80); indeed, twice as many evacuees visited each coastal shelter on April 1, 2011, compared to the inland region. We should prepare the shelters to avoid overcrowding, and long-term observation is required to detect the prevalence of tuberculosis infection. PMID:26936409

  11. Sea-Based Infrared Scene Interpretation by Background Type Classification and Coastal Region Detection for Small Target Detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    Sea-based infrared search and track (IRST) is important for homeland security by detecting missiles and asymmetric boats. This paper proposes a novel scheme to interpret various infrared scenes by classifying the infrared background types and detecting the coastal regions in omni-directional images. The background type or region-selective small infrared target detector should be deployed to maximize the detection rate and to minimize the number of false alarms. A spatial filter-based small target detector is suitable for identifying stationary incoming targets in remote sea areas with sky only. Many false detections can occur if there is an image sector containing a coastal region, due to ground clutter and the difficulty in finding true targets using the same spatial filter-based detector. A temporal filter-based detector was used to handle these problems. Therefore, the scene type and coastal region information is critical to the success of IRST in real-world applications. In this paper, the infrared scene type was determined using the relationships between the sensor line-of-sight (LOS) and a horizontal line in an image. The proposed coastal region detector can be activated if the background type of the probing sector is determined to be a coastal region. Coastal regions can be detected by fusing the region map and curve map. The experimental results on real infrared images highlight the feasibility of the proposed sea-based scene interpretation. In addition, the effects of the proposed scheme were analyzed further by applying region-adaptive small target detection. PMID:26404308

  12. Sea-Based Infrared Scene Interpretation by Background Type Classification and Coastal Region Detection for Small Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    Sea-based infrared search and track (IRST) is important for homeland security by detecting missiles and asymmetric boats. This paper proposes a novel scheme to interpret various infrared scenes by classifying the infrared background types and detecting the coastal regions in omni-directional images. The background type or region-selective small infrared target detector should be deployed to maximize the detection rate and to minimize the number of false alarms. A spatial filter-based small target detector is suitable for identifying stationary incoming targets in remote sea areas with sky only. Many false detections can occur if there is an image sector containing a coastal region, due to ground clutter and the difficulty in finding true targets using the same spatial filter-based detector. A temporal filter-based detector was used to handle these problems. Therefore, the scene type and coastal region information is critical to the success of IRST in real-world applications. In this paper, the infrared scene type was determined using the relationships between the sensor line-of-sight (LOS) and a horizontal line in an image. The proposed coastal region detector can be activated if the background type of the probing sector is determined to be a coastal region. Coastal regions can be detected by fusing the region map and curve map. The experimental results on real infrared images highlight the feasibility of the proposed sea-based scene interpretation. In addition, the effects of the proposed scheme were analyzed further by applying region-adaptive small target detection. PMID:26404308

  13. Multi-objective optimisation for a sustainable groundwater resources and agricultural management in arid coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Heck, Vera; Schütze, Niels

    2014-05-01

    The scarcity of freshwater in coastal arid regions, coupled with an ongoing population growth, makes optimal water management crucial. Excessive use of groundwater for irrigation in agriculture puts those regions at risk of saltwater intrusion which limits the agricultural opportunities. To solve these problems, a simulation based integrated water management system has been developed to ensure a long-term profitable and sustainable water resources and agricultural management. Within the system, a groundwater module, assessing the water resources availability, and an agricultural module, controlling irrigation and cultivation, are connected in an optimisation module, optimising the water management. To reduce the computational complexity of the optimisation procedure, surrogate models are applied which describe the behaviour of the groundwater and agriculture process models regarding the most relevant variables for management. Furthermore, the optimisation problem is decomposed into a two-step optimisation. An analytical inner optimisation estimates irrigation practices and crop patterns, while an outer evolutionary optimisation algorithm determines the overall water abstraction scenarios, based on results of the inner optimisation. By these two features, consequent surrogate model application and decomposition of optimisation, the computational complexity of the optimisation problem is reduced considerably, allowing the consideration of specific regional and temporal aspects in the management tool. The methodology is demonstrated by an exemplary application of the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Due to contradicting objectives like profit-oriented agriculture vs. aquifer sustainability, multi-objective optimisation is performed. Optimisation runs for different simulation periods and management strategies show that a

  14. Spatio-temporal variations in aerosol properties over the oceanic regions between coastal India and Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubey, Jai Prakash; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Babu, S. Suresh; Gogoi, Mukunda M.

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD), mass concentrations of black carbon (MB) and composite aerosols (MT) in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were made during onward [Dec 2007 to Jan 2008; Northern Hemispheric (NH) winter] and return (Mar-Apr 2008; NH spring) legs of the trans-continental cruise of 27th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) during International Polar Year of 2007-2008. Large latitudinal gradients are seen; with AOD decreasing from coastal India (AOD~0.45) to coastal Antarctica (AOD~0.04) during NH winter. The measurements also evidenced a strong seasonality of AOD over all regions, with a decrease of the values and gradient in NH spring. BC concentration in the MABL decreases exponentially from 3800 ng m-3 (over 10°N) to 624 ng m-3 near equator and much lower values (<100 ng m-3) over southern oceanic region. Seasonality in the latitudinal gradients of AOD, MB and MT exists over regions north of 20°S. Multi campaign [Pilot Expedition to Southern Ocean (2004), Special Expedition to Larsemann Hills (2007) and Tropical Indian Ocean cruise (2010)] analysis over these oceanic regions showed that the pattern over the regions (south of 20°S) remained the same. Seasonality of AOD exists over Atlantic Ocean as well. Temporal variation of AOD at different latitudes derived from AERONET data also showed marked seasonality and latitudinal variation in northern hemisphere than in southern Hemisphere. Satellite retrieved AOD showed good correlation with the ship borne measurements; while GOCART retrieved AOD underestimates but gives a measure of the spatial variations.

  15. Investigation of Northeastern North America Coastal Circulation Using a Nested Regional Circulation Hindcast Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; He, R.

    2008-12-01

    A regional coastal circulation model was used to hindcast circulation over the middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and Gulf of Maine (GOM) shelf from November 2003 to June 2008. Realistic atmospheric forcing, tidal harmonics and real-time river runoff data were used to drive the hindcast. In addition, this regional model was nested inside the data assimilative global HYCOM, which provides dynamically consistent and numerically accurate its initial and open boundary conditions. Model hindcast solutions were gauged against in situ observations, including coastal sea levels, satellite altimeter sea surface height, mooring observed temperature and salinity time series, glider hydrographic transects, and long term means of depth-averaged current analysis. Such data/model comparisons show the nested regional model is skillful in capturing major regional shelf circulation variability, lending confidence for using 4-year of time and space continuous hindcast fields (January 2004-December 2007) to depict shelf- wide circulation dynamics, along- and cross-shelf transport and the associated momentum balances. Model hindcast solutions confirm the existence of the equatorward shelf circulation with gradually decreased alongshore transport from north to south. Mean alongshelf current is characterized by a strong shelf-break jet, whereas the cross-shelf current is characterized by complex convergence and divergence on the shelf. Mean cross-shelf transports were estimated along 200-m isobath. Momentum balance analyses further nonlinear advection, stress and diffusion term all contribute to the ageostrophic circulation in the along- isobath directions, whereas in the across-isobath direction, the nonlinear advection is predominate. Our nested regional circulation model was also coupled with a 11-component ecosystem model. Some preliminary bio-physical modeling result will also be presented.

  16. Emissions and Distribution of Reactive Iodine from Seaweed in Coastal Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Schmitt, Stefan; Kreher, Karin; Johnston, Paul; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Emissions and Distribution of Reactive Iodine from Seaweed in Coastal Regions Reactive iodine species impact atmospheric chemistry in several ways. They play an important role in the process of ozone destruction at mid-latitudes and possibly in polar regions. Besides bromine, reactive iodine compounds also affect the atmospheric cleaning mechanisms by changing its oxidation capacity. Recent field studies indicate that reactive iodine may impact the local climate in coastal areas by playing a key role in the formation of new particles which could influence cloud micro physical properties. Particularly high concentrations of the reactive iodine are found at mid-latitude coastal sites, which are emitted by seaweed exposed to oxidative stress during low tide. However, previous measurements of iodine and iodine oxide have been performed only at very few sites, mainly at the atmospheric research station Mace Head located at the west coast of Ireland. Thus, there is still very limited knowledge on the involved seaweed species and their contribution to local, regional and global iodine emissions and also the potential iodine mediated particle formation. In order to investigate these questions, we performed extensive measurements at ten different sites along the west coast of Ireland in 2011 and 2012. We applied a mobile Long Path (LP)-DOAS for path averaged IO measurements and open path Cavity Enhanced (CE-) DOAS for IO in-situ measurements. Similar to LP-DOAS, open path CE-DOAS measures trace gases directly in the atmosphere. Additionally, another Long Path-DOAS system monitoring IO, OIO and I2, was permanently located at Mace Head. This allows an inter-comparison of the different locations with the reference station Mace Head while respecting the influence of temporally varying meteorology. We observed significant differences to former investigations and conclusions. First, IO concentrations were much higher (typically factor of 10 and more) on every measuring site

  17. Abundance and Distribution Characteristics of Microplastics in Surface Seawaters of the Incheon/Kyeonggi Coastal Region.

    PubMed

    Chae, Doo-Hyeon; Kim, In-Sung; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Song, Young Kyoung; Shim, Won Joon

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics in marine environments are of emerging concern due to their widespread distribution, their ingestion by various marine organisms, and their roles as a source and transfer vector of toxic chemicals. However, our understanding of their abundance and distribution characteristics in surface seawater (SSW) remains limited. We investigated microplastics in the surface microlayer (SML) and the SSW at 12 stations near-shore and offshore of the Korean west coast, Incheon/Kyeonggi region. Variation between stations, sampling media, and sampling methods were compared based on abundances, size distribution, and composition profiles of microsized synthetic polymer particles. The abundance of microplastics was greater in the SML (152,688 ± 92,384 particles/m(3)) than in SSW and showed a significant difference based on the sampling method for SSWs collected using a hand net (1602 ± 1274 particles/m(3)) and a zooplankton trawl net (0.19 ± 0.14 particles/m(3)). Ship paint particles (mostly alkyd resin polymer) accounted for the majority of microplastics detected in both SML and SSWs, and increased levels were observed around the voyage routes of large vessels. This indicates that polymers with marine-based origins become an important contributor to microplastics in coastal SSWs of this coastal region. PMID:26135299

  18. A new version of regional ocean reanalysis for coastal waters of China and adjacent seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guijun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Xidong; Wu, Xinrong; Fu, Hongli; Zhang, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Lianxin; Li, Dong

    2013-07-01

    A new regional ocean reanalysis over multiple decades (1958-2008) for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been completed by the National Marine Data and Information Service (NMDIS) under the CORA (China Ocean ReAnalysis) project. Evaluations were performed on three aspects: (1) the improvement of general reanalysis quality; (2) eddy structures; and (3) decadal variability of sea surface height anomalies (SSHAs). Results showed that the quality of the new reanalysis has been enhanced beyond ˜40% (39% for temperature, 44% for salinity) in terms of the reduction of root mean squared errors (RMSEs) for which the reanalysis values were compared to observed values in the observational space. Compared to the trial version released to public in 2009, the new reanalysis is able to reproduce more detailed eddy structures as seen in satellite and in situ observations. EOF analysis of the reanalysis SSHAs showed that the new reanalysis reconstructs the leading modes of SSHAs much better than the old version. These evaluations suggest that the new CORA regional reanalysis represents a much more useful dataset for the community of the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  19. A regional ocean reanalysis system for coastal waters of China and adjacent seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guijun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xuefeng; Li, Dong; He, Zhongjie; Wang, Xidong; Wu, Xinrong; Yu, Ting; Ma, Jirui

    2011-05-01

    A regional ocean reanalysis system for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been developed by the National Marine Data and Information Service (NMDIS). It produces a dataset package called CORA (China ocean reanalysis). The regional ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model with a generalized coordinate system (POMgcs). The model is parallelized by NMDIS with the addition of the wave breaking and tidal mixing processes into model parameterizations. Data assimilation is a sequential three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) scheme implemented within a multigrid framework. Observations include satellite remote sensing sea surface temperature (SST), altimetry sea level anomaly (SLA), and temperature/salinity profiles. The reanalysis fields of sea surface height, temperature, salinity, and currents begin with January 1986 and are currently updated every year. Error statistics and error distributions of temperature, salinity and currents are presented as a primary evaluation of the reanalysis fields using sea level data from tidal gauges, temperature profiles, as well as the trajectories of Argo floats. Some case studies offer the opportunity to verify the evolution of certain local circulations. These evaluations show that the reanalysis data produced provide a good representation of the ocean processes and phenomena in the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  20. Osmotically driven membrane process for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenyu; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Abu-Ghdaib, Muhannad; Zhan, Tong; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Amy, Gary

    2014-01-01

    An osmotic detention pond was proposed for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions. Forward osmosis was employed as a bridge to utilize natural osmotic energy from seawater for concentrating and reusing urban runoff water, and as a barrier to reject runoff-derived contaminants. The process was demonstrated by a lab scale testing using synthetic urban runoff (as the feed solution) and synthetic seawater (as the draw solution). The submerged forward osmosis process was conducted under neutral, acidic and natural organic matter fouling condition, respectively. Forward osmosis flux decline was mainly attributed to the dilution of seawater during a semi-batch process in lab scale testing. However, it is possible to minimize flux decrease by maintaining a constant salinity at the draw solution side. Various changes in urban runoff water quality, including acidic conditions (acid rain) and natural organic matter presence, did not show significant effects on the rejection of trace metals and phosphorus, but influenced salt leakage and the rejection of nitrate and total nitrogen. Rejection of trace metals varied from 98% to 100%, phosphorus varied from 97% to 100, nitrate varied from 52% to 94% and total nitrogen varied from 65% to 85% under different feed water conditions. The work described in this study contributes to an integrated system of urban runoff management, seawater desalination and possible power generation in coastal regions to achieve a sustainable solution to the water-energy nexus. PMID:24099852

  1. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald M.; Burkholder, JoAnn M.; Cochlan, William P.; Glibert, Patricia M.; Gobler, Christopher J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Kudela, Raphael; Parsons, Michael L.; Rensel, J. E. Jack; Townsend, David W.; Trainer, Vera L.; Vargo, Gabriel A.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal waters of the United States (U.S.) are subject to many of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) poisoning syndromes and impacts. These include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and various other HAB phenomena such as fish kills, loss of submerged vegetation, shellfish mortalities, and widespread marine mammal mortalities. Here, the occurrences of selected HABs in a selected set of regions are described in terms of their relationship to eutrophication, illustrating a range of responses. Evidence suggestive of changes in the frequency, extent or magnitude of HABs in these areas is explored in the context of the nutrient sources underlying those blooms, both natural and anthropogenic. In some regions of the U.S., the linkages between HABs and eutrophication are clear and well documented, whereas in others, information is limited, thereby highlighting important areas for further research. PMID:19956363

  2. Mapping seagrass beds and coral reefs in the coastal region of Vietnam using VNREDSAT-1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, K. V.; Chen, C. F.; Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. R.; Tong Phuoc, H. S.; Nguyen, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seagrass beds and coral reefs are two important ecosystems in the coastal zone. They play an important role to protect and shelter various marine organisms. Both seagrass beds and coral reefs could prevent the coastline from erosion. While seagrass stabilizes sediments and acts as a biofilter, coral reefs can control carbon dioxide in the ocean water. Besides, seagrass also provides direct food for many fish and marine animals. Therefore, mapping seagrass beds and coral reefs is very important for coastal management and conservation. In May 2013, Vietnam launched the first satellite for earth observations, called Vietnam Natural Resources, Environment and Disaster Monitoring Satellite (VNREDSAT-1). It is a great opportunity for environmental monitoring in the country using the data from this satellite. The objective of this study is to use the VNREDSAT-1 data to map seagrass beds and coral reefs in the coastal region of Ninh Hai district, Ninh Thuan province, Vietnam, where the seagrass still remains in good a condition. We processed the VNREDSAT-1 image through four steps: (1) Atmospheric correction using Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum radiative transfer model (6S), (2) Sun glint removal by using Hedley method, (3) Water column correction using the depth-variant index (DII) proposed by Lyzenga, and (4) Image classification using the maximum likelihood algorithm. The mapping results verified with the ground reference data showed a good overall accuracy of 75% and Kappa coefficient of 0.7. The total area of seagrass beds was approximately 323.09 ha, which mainly distributed in My Hoa and Thai An villages. The total area of coral reefs was approximately 564.42 ha, located along the coast and on outer area to seagrass and shoreline reefs. This study demonstrates the applicability of VNREDSAT-1 for underwater habitat monitoring. The results could be useful for natural resources managers to devise strategies for management and

  3. Estimation of regional material yield from coastal landslides based on historical digital terrain modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution historical (1942) and recent (1994) digital terrain models were derived from aerial photographs along the Big Sur coastline in central California to measure the long-term volume of material that enters the nearshore environment. During the 52-year measurement time period, an average of 21 000 ?? 3100 m3 km-1 a-1 of material was eroded from nine study sections distributed along the coast, with a low yield of 1000 ?? 240 m3 km-1 a-1 and a high of 46 700 ?? 7300 m3 km-1 a-1. The results compare well with known volumes from several deep-seated landslides in the area and suggest that the processes by which material is delivered to the coast are episodic in nature. In addition, a number of parameters are investigated to determine what influences the substantial variation in yield along the coast. It is found that the magnitude of regional coastal landslide sediment yield is primarily related to the physical strength of the slope-forming material. Coastal Highway 1 runs along the lower portion of the slope along this stretch of coastline, and winter storms frequently damage the highway. The California Department of Transportation is responsible for maintaining this scenic highway while minimizing the impacts to the coastal ecosystems that are part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. This study provides environmental managers with critical background data on the volumes of material that historically enter the nearshore from landslides, as well as demonstrating the application of deriving historical digital terrain data to model landscape evolution. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Submarine groundwater discharge(SGD) and SGD-driven nutrient fluxes along the estuarine and coastal regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.; Wang, X.; Su, N.; Ji, T.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is one of important processes of Land/Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone(LOICZ). So, SGD has recently been receiving wide academic attention in hydrology and biogeochemistry. Moreover, SGD-driven nutrients to estuarine and coastal regions play one of important roles not only on nutrient components but their structure, then may impact on the concerned eco-environments.In the present work, we summarized recent research on SGD via Ra and Rn isotopes along estuary and coastal regions of China. After estimation of fluxes from riverine input, atmospheric deposition, etc., the finding showed that SGD via nutrient fluxes into the coastal zone were one of important input sources from bays, lagoon to estuarine and coastal zones. not negligible either the Huanghe estuary, Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea(YS), or the East China Sea (ECS), Northern South China Sea. As expected, the results from bays and lagoons of coastal zones of China also suggested SGD-driven nutrient fluxes was much more important for nutrient cycles, especial for nitrogen's case. Such large SGD-driven nutrient fluxes should be impaction on the eco-environments and contribution on the spring blooms of the YS, red tidal and hypoxia of the ECS, etc..

  5. Regional-scale assessment of tipping points for Mediterranean Coastal Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazi, Katerina; Destouni, Georgia; Koussis, Antonis D.

    2013-04-01

    Along the densely populated Mediterranean coasts several aquifers are already suffering sea-water intrusion. This phenomenon can accelarate in the future due to increased fresh groundwater abstractions, along with climate-driven sea-level rise and possible decline of the natural recharge of aquifers. Acceleration of sea intrusion is a major concern for the sustainability of coastal populations that depend on groundwater for their water supply. We use the recently developed, generalized analytical model of Koussis et al. (2012) that accounts for the generally present and usually hydraulically significant aquifer slope that has previously been ignored in analytical sharp-interface solutions of seawater intrusion. Koussis et al (2012) extended the Strack-Girinskii discharge-potential approach to steady interface flow in sloping phreatic aquifers by approximating the gravity-driven flow component. This model uses the Ghyben-Herzberg sharp interface relationship and the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation. We investigate, at the regional scale, sea intrusion changes in unconfined sloping Mediterranean aquifers due to sea-level rise and recharge decline and subject to different inland boundary (control) conditions and groundwater abstraction rates. We focus our study on three well-known Mediterranean aquifers (slopes 0.3 - 1.7 %): (a) The Nile Delta Aquifer (middle and east section), (b) the Israeli Coastal Aquifer, and (c) the Akrotiri aquifer, Cyprus. We validate our simulation results for these aquifers with results from previous studies performed with variable-density models for the same present and future climate and sea-level conditions. We then use the new analytical model to assess seawater intrusion into Mediterranean aquifers under various scenarios of future sea-level rise and recharge decline, combined with different levels of aquifer exploitation for the Mediterranean region. Some scenarios for these aquifers show non-linear responses to future changes

  6. Biogenic halocarbons from coastal oceanic upwelling regions as tropospheric halogen source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Kirstin; Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Hepach, Helmke; Fiehn, Alina; Atlas, Elliot; Quack, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    Halogenated very short lived substances (VSLS) are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. Recently, oceanic upwelling regions in the tropical East Atlantic were identified as strong sources of brominated halocarbons to the troposphere. During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were investigated above the Peruvian Upwelling for the first time. This study presents novel observations of the three VSLS bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide together with high resolution meteorological measurements and Lagrangian transport modelling. Although relatively low oceanic emissions were observed, except for methyl iodide, surface atmospheric abundances were elevated. Radiosonde launches during the cruise revealed a low, stable MABL and a distinct trade inversion above acting both as strong barriers for convection and trace gas transport in this region. Significant correlations between observed atmospheric VSLS abundances, sea surface temperature, relative humidity and MABL height were found. We used a simple source-loss estimate to identify the contribution of oceanic emissions to observed atmospheric concentrations which revealed that the observed marine VSLS abundances were dominated by horizontal advection below the trade inversion. The observed VSLS variations can be explained by the low emissions and their accumulation under different MABL and trade inversion conditions. Finally, observations from a second Peruvian Upwelling cruise with R/V SONNE during El Nino in October 2015 will be compared to highlight the role of different El Nino Southern Oscillation conditions. This study confirms the importance of coastal oceanic upwelling and trade wind systems on creating effective transport barriers in the lowermost atmosphere controlling the distribution of VSLS abundances above coastal ocean upwelling

  7. Interaction Between Two Distinct Mesoscale Circulations During Summer in the Coastal Region of Eastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Aaron P.; Raman, Sethu

    2016-07-01

    The interaction of two phenomena, a sea-breeze front and a thermally-driven local circulation, is investigated during the summer season. The sea-breeze circulation in the coastal Carolinas (USA) can be quite strong and the sea-breeze front often propagates well inland. The Sandhills, an area of sandy soils, is oriented roughly parallel to the coast and is located approximately 180 km inland. Differential heating is a strong driving force for convective development in this coastal region and the Sandhills front develops from the thermally-driven circulation caused by the differential heating of differing soil types. The sea-breeze and the Sandhills circulations have been previously studied independently, however, the interaction of these two phenomena is not well known. A combination of remote sensing, in situ observations, and numerical simulations is used to examine the interaction of these two fronts with remote sensing and in situ observations revealing the differential heating that occurs along the Sandhills region. Radar reflectivity is used to identify the two frontal features that converge and result in enhanced convection. A modelling simulation reveals the vertical structure of the frontal features, their propagation, and interaction, highlighting the interaction of the two fronts that results in enhanced convection between the Sandhills and the coast. Over the Sandhills region, differential heating triggers convective storms. Radar reflectivity and numerical simulation indicate the outflows from these convective storms to produce a shallow Sandhills front that in turn propagates toward the coast. As the two opposing fronts, the Sandhills front and the sea-breeze front, converge and interact, intense convection occurs resulting in additional storms.

  8. Interaction Between Two Distinct Mesoscale Circulations During Summer in the Coastal Region of Eastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Aaron P.; Raman, Sethu

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of two phenomena, a sea-breeze front and a thermally-driven local circulation, is investigated during the summer season. The sea-breeze circulation in the coastal Carolinas (USA) can be quite strong and the sea-breeze front often propagates well inland. The Sandhills, an area of sandy soils, is oriented roughly parallel to the coast and is located approximately 180 km inland. Differential heating is a strong driving force for convective development in this coastal region and the Sandhills front develops from the thermally-driven circulation caused by the differential heating of differing soil types. The sea-breeze and the Sandhills circulations have been previously studied independently, however, the interaction of these two phenomena is not well known. A combination of remote sensing, in situ observations, and numerical simulations is used to examine the interaction of these two fronts with remote sensing and in situ observations revealing the differential heating that occurs along the Sandhills region. Radar reflectivity is used to identify the two frontal features that converge and result in enhanced convection. A modelling simulation reveals the vertical structure of the frontal features, their propagation, and interaction, highlighting the interaction of the two fronts that results in enhanced convection between the Sandhills and the coast. Over the Sandhills region, differential heating triggers convective storms. Radar reflectivity and numerical simulation indicate the outflows from these convective storms to produce a shallow Sandhills front that in turn propagates toward the coast. As the two opposing fronts, the Sandhills front and the sea-breeze front, converge and interact, intense convection occurs resulting in additional storms.

  9. Documentation of revisions to the regional aquifer system analysis model of the New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voronin, Lois M.

    2004-01-01

    The model, which simulates flow in the New Jersey Coastal Plain sediments, developed for the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) program was revised. The RASA model was revised with (1) a rediscretization of the model parameters with a finer cell size, (2) a spatially variable recharge rate that is based on rates determined by recent studies and, (3) ground-water withdrawal data from 1981 to 1998. The RASA model framework, which subdivided the Coastal Plain sediments into 10 aquifers and 9 confining units, was preserved in the revised model. A transient model that simulates flow conditions from January 1, 1968 to December 31, 1998, was constructed using 21 stress periods. The model was calibrated by attempting to match the simulated results with (1) estimated base flow for five river basins, (2) measured water levels in long-term hydrographs for 28 selected observation wells, and (3) potentiometric surfaces in the model area for 1978, 1983, 1998, 1993, and 1998 conditions. The estimated and simulated base flow in the five river basins compare well. In general, the simulated water levels matched the interpreted potentiometric surfaces and the measured water levels of the hydrographs within 25 feet.

  10. Sea-level Rise Increases the Frequency of Nuisance Flooding in Coastal Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moftakhari Rostamkhani, H.; Aghakouchak, A.; Sanders, B. F.; Feldman, D.; Sweet, W.; Matthew, R.; Luke, A.

    2015-12-01

    The global warming-drivensea-level rise (SLR) posesa serious threat for population and assets in flood-prone coastal zones over the next century. The rate of SLR is accelerated in recent decades and is expected to increase based on current trajectories of anthropogenic activities and greenhouse gas emissions. Over the 20th century, an increase in the frequency of nuisance (minor) flooding has been reported due to the reduced gap between tidal datum and flood stage. Nuisance flooding (NF), however non-destructive, causes public inconvenience, business interruption, and substantial economic losses due to impacts such as road closures and degradation of infrastructure. It also portends an increased risk in severe floods. Here we report substantial increases in NF along the coasts of United States due to SLR over the past decades. We then take the projected SLR under the least and the most extreme representative concentration pathways (e.gRCP2.6 and RCP 8.5) to estimate the increase in NF in the near- (2030) and mid-term (2050) future. The results suggest that projected SLR will cause up to two-fold more frequent NF by 2050, compared with the 20th century. The projected increase in NF will have significant socio-economic impacts and pose public health risks especially in rapidly urbanized coastal regions.

  11. Optimal groundwater management using surrogate models: a case study for an arid coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Niels; Roy, Tirthankar; Marco, Brettschneider; Jens, Grundmann

    2013-04-01

    Optimal water management is an indispensible need for the arid coastal regions. Due to the high water demand in various consumption sectors, excess water is often driven out from the aquifer resulting into water table drawdown and seawater intrusion. While applied in irrigation, the excess salinity level in the pumped water jeopardizes the agricultural production. Robust management strategies are required to combat this problem taking into consideration the profit from agriculture as well as the sustainability of the aquifer. For optimal groundwater resources management, a two-dimensional transient density dependent groundwater flow and salt transport model was developed with the help of the simulation package OpenGeoSys (OGS) and then it was replaced by trained approximate surrogates i.e. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Gaussian Process Model (GPM). The relatively new GPM showed satisfactory performance with a little compromise in the computational time. With the surrogate groundwater model mono-criteria and multi/criteria optimization runs over a period of more than 60 years are conducted using the evolutionary algorithm CMA-ES. The proposed methodology has significant applicability in the decision making for groundwater and agriculture related issues in the arid coastal aquifers since it offers high effectiveness and efficiency.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Alaska Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland-Bartels, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a bureau of the Department of the Interior (DOI), is the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and mapping agency. The bureau's science strategy 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges - U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017' describes the USGS vision for its science in six integrated areas of societal concern: Understanding Ecosystems and Predicting Ecosystem Change; Climate Variability and Change; Energy and Minerals; Hazards, Risk, and Resilience; Environment and Wildlife in Human Health; and Water Census of the United States. USGS has three Regions that encompass nine geographic Areas. This fact sheet describes examples of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore terrestrial, and ocean environments in the Alaska Area.

  13. Home Oxygen Program review: Regionalization in Vancouver Coastal Health and British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in the 1980s, the Home Oxygen Program in British Columbia was centrally managed by the Ministry of Health. Initially a small program with few clients across the province, it soon became a large program with many clients and increasing expenditures. A pilot program started in Victoria (British Columbia) in 1996 demonstrated that managing the program locally could offer better client care, better contract management and significant cost savings. In 2002, the pilot’s model and recommendations were implemented in British Columbia’s five health authorities. The present review details the experiences of regionalizing the program in the Vancouver Coastal Health authority. After fine adjustments to the model were developed and new contracts and criteria changes made, better care for clients was provided than the previous centralized model at a reduced cost to the taxpayer. PMID:26078624

  14. Evaluations of the saltwater-groundwater interface from borehole temperature in a coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Makoto

    2000-03-01

    An interface between saltwater and groundwater was evaluated by monitoring the vertical groundwater temperature profiles. The temperature gradients were found to be constant below certain depths in boreholes, however the gradients decreased above the depths and the temperature profiles were convex in a coastal region. The depth to change in the vertical thermal gradient indicates a hydrological boundary, where upward groundwater flow exists above the boundary and no water flow exists below the boundary. Estimated depths to the interface between saltwater and fresh water using groundwater temperature agreed well with the depths calculated by traditional methods using groundwater potentials and with the results of the groundwater salinity. Results suggest that temperature may be an economical and reliable alternative to traditional methods.

  15. Diurnal warming in shallow coastal seas: Observations from the Caribbean and Great Barrier Reef regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Minnett, P. J.; Berkelmans, R.; Hendee, J.; Manfrino, C.

    2014-07-01

    A good understanding of diurnal warming in the upper ocean is important for the validation of satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) against in-situ buoy data and for merging satellite SSTs taken at different times of the same day. For shallow coastal regions, better understanding of diurnal heating could also help improve monitoring and prediction of ecosystem health, such as coral reef bleaching. Compared to its open ocean counterpart which has been studied extensively and modeled with good success, coastal diurnal warming has complicating localized characteristics, including coastline geometry, bathymetry, water types, tidal and wave mixing. Our goal is to characterize coastal diurnal warming using two extensive in-situ temperature and weather datasets from the Caribbean and Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Results showed clear daily warming patterns in most stations from both datasets. For the three Caribbean stations where solar radiation is the main cause of daily warming, the mean diurnal warming amplitudes were about 0.4 K at depths of 4-7 m and 0.6-0.7 K at shallower depths of 1-2 m; the largest warming value was 2.1 K. For coral top temperatures of the GBR, 20% of days had warming amplitudes >1 K, with the largest >4 K. The bottom warming at shallower sites has higher daily maximum temperatures and lower daily minimum temperatures than deeper sites nearby. The averaged daily warming amplitudes were shown to be closely related to daily average wind speed and maximum insolation, as found in the open ocean. Diurnal heating also depends on local features including water depth, location on different sections of the reef (reef flat vs. reef slope), the relative distance from the barrier reef chain (coast vs. lagoon stations vs. inner barrier reef sites vs. outer rim sites); and the proximity to the tidal inlets. In addition, the influence of tides on daily temperature changes and its relative importance compared to solar radiation was quantified by

  16. Chemistry and quality of groundwater in a coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Subba; Vidyasagar, G.; Surya Rao, P.; Bhanumurthy, P.

    2014-11-01

    The chemistry of groundwater in the coastal region between Chirala and Ongole of Andhra Pradesh, India shows pollution to varying extent. The relative contribution of ions in six zones divided based on TDS indicates unsuitability of groundwater here for drinking, irrigation and industrial use. The water is brackish except in first zone and further alkaline. TDS is less than 1,000 mg/L in first zone, while it is more in other zones. This classification of groundwater into zones is also investigated by hydrogeochemical facies, genetic classification, mechanisms of groundwater chemistry and geochemical signatures. Hydrogeochemical facies of Na+>Mg2+>Ca2+: {{HCO}}3^{ - } > Cl- > SO 4^{2 - } is observed from zone I, while that of Na+>Mg2+>Ca2+:Cl- > HCO 3^{ - } > SO 4^{2 - } from second to sixth zones. The genetic classification of groundwater in first and second zones is HCO 3^{ - } type and supported by good drainage conditions, while zones III to VI belong to Cl- category evident from poor drainage scenario. The location of six zones on mechanisms of groundwater chemistry supports sluggish drainage conditions of second to six zones, while predominate rock-water interaction in first zone. The geochemical signatures (HCO 3^{ - } :Cl- > 1 and Na+:Cl- < 1) also endorse the pollution. The quantities of chemical species (Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO 3^{ - } , Cl ^{ - } , SO 4^{2 - } , NO 3^{ - } and F ^{ - } ) and TDS in all zones are far greater than the stipulated limits for drinking. The United States Salinity Laboratory plots discriminated the suitability of groundwater in second to sixth zones for irrigation after only special soil treatment. Higher concentrations of TDS, HCO 3^{ - } , Cl- and SO 4^{2 - } in all zones render it unsuitable for industry too. This information is crucial for public and civic authorities for taking up strategic management plan for preventing further deterioration of hydrogeochemical environmental conditions of this part of the coastal region.

  17. A decomposition approach for optimal management of groundwater resources and irrigated agriculture in arid coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Schütze, Niels; Heck, Vera

    2013-04-01

    For ensuring an optimal sustainable water resources management in arid coastal environments, we develop a new simulation based integrated water management system. It aims at achieving best possible solutions for groundwater withdrawals for agricultural and municipal water use including saline water management together with a substantial increase of the water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture. To achieve a robust and fast operation of the management system, it unites process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques for managing both, water quality and water quantity of a strongly coupled groundwater-agriculture system. However, such systems are characterized by a large number of decision variables if abstraction schemes, cropping patterns and cultivated acreages are optimised simultaneously for multiple years. Therefore, we apply the principle of decomposition to separate the original large optimisation problem into smaller, independent optimisation problems which finally allow for a faster and more reliable solution. At first, within an inner optimisation loop, cropping patterns and cultivated acreages are optimised to achieve a most profitable agricultural production for a given amount of water. Thereby, the behaviour of farms is described by crop-water-production functions which can be derived analytically. Secondly, within an outer optimisation loop, a simulation based optimisation is performed to find optimal groundwater abstraction pattern by coupling an evolutionary optimisation algorithm with an artificial neural network for modelling the aquifer response, inclusive the seawater interface. We demonstrate the decomposition approach by an exemplary application of the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. We show the effectiveness of our methodology for the evaluation

  18. Analysis of Stakeholder's Behaviours for an Improved Management of an Agricultural Coastal Region in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Ayisha Al; Jens, Grundmann; der Weth Rüdiger, van; Niels, Schütze

    2015-04-01

    Al Batinah coastal area is the main agricultural region in Oman. Agriculture is concentrated in Al Batinah, because of more fertile soils and easier access to water in the form of groundwater compared to other administrative areas in the country. The region now is facing a problem as a result of over abstraction of fresh groundwater for irrigation from the main aquifer along the coast. This enforces the inflow of sea water into the coastal aquifer and causes salinization of the groundwater. As a consequence the groundwater becomes no longer suitable for irrigation which impacts the social and economical situation of farmers as well as the environment. Therefore, the existing situation generates conflicts between different stakeholders regarding water availability, sustainable aquifer management, and profitable agricultural production in Al Batinah region. Several management measures to maintain the groundwater aquifer in the region, were implemented by the government. However, these solutions showed only limited successes for the existing problem. The aim of this study now is to evaluate the implementation potential of several management interventions and their combinations by analysing opinions and responses of all relevant stakeholders in the region. This is done in order to identify potential conflicts among stakeholders to a participatory process within the frame of an integrated water resources management and to support decision makers in taking more informed decisions. Questionnaires were designed for collecting data from different groups of stakeholders e.g. water professionals, farmers from the study area and decision makers of different organizations and ministries. These data were analysed statistically for each group separately as well as regarding relations amongst groups by using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software package. Results show, that the need to improve the situation is supported by all groups. However, significant

  19. A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid. Biting Flies of the Coastal Region. Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 227, 231, 232. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are three units related to coastal and oceanic awareness. The units are: (1) A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid; (2) Biting Flies of the Coastal Region; and (3) Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. All three units were designed for secondary school students. Each unit contains teacher background materials, student activity materials,…

  20. Regional Comparisons of Coastal Sediment Contamination Detected by a Biomarker (P450 HRGS; EPA Method 4425)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jack W.; Hartwell, S I.; Hameedi, M J.

    2005-01-01

    Pollution investigations by the Center for Coastal Assessment and Monitoring of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been conducted since 1984 and have incorporated extensive biological and chemical analyses. Since 1993, one of the suites of biological tests utilized in these studies has been the biomarker P450HRGS, which is more recently referred to as EPA Method 4425. Extracts of sediments are applied to a human cell line with a reporter gene at the CYP1A1 site. Light produced by the extracts is a function of the concentrations and potencies of those compounds with an affinity for Ah-receptor (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dioxins/furans). These compounds are carcinogenic, can produce chronic toxicity, and those containing chlorine are persistent and bioaccumulated. Nineteen coastal regions and 1309 samples from the three U.S. coasts have been evaluated as part of the NOAA investigations. The stratified random sampling approach used by NOAA provides estimates of the areas (km2) of each region containing levels of the compounds above thresholds. From analysis of the data base, sediments with concentrations at or below 11 ?g benzo[a]pyrene equivalents (B[a]PEq)/g would not be expected to produce effects on the benthos. At 32 ?g B[a]PEq/g and above there is the potential for impacts on the biota, and above 60 ?g/g, the degradation of the benthic community has been observed. Several of the regional surveys found no samples at or above 60 ?g B[a]PEq/g, but 60% of the samples from New York Harbor (280 km2) were above this level. Analyses of data from Puget Sound and Chesapeake Bay demonstrate an increase in samples above 32 ?g B[a]PEq/g in more populated and industrial regions. A targeted investigation of the distribution of the three important classes of compounds identified by Method 4425 would be more cost effective by first screening samples by this method before expending substantial funds in

  1. Agricultural Conservation Practices and Wetland Ecosystem Services in a Wetland-Dominated Landscape: The Piedmont-Coastal Plain Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the wetlands-rich eastern Coastal Plain and Piedmont region, diverse inland wetlands (riverine, depressional, wet flats) have been impacted by or converted to agriculture. Farm Bill conservation practices that restore or enhance wetlands can return their ecological functions and services to the a...

  2. COASTAL ZONES, A REPORT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT TEAM FOR THE GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impacts of climate change on coastal areas can be expected to have a regional signature that depends on the local climate change and the local geomorphological, biogeochemical, ecological and social factors that affect the sensitivity to climate. Here we present an assessment of...

  3. PHOTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF CDOM IN WATERS FROM SELECTED COASTAL REGIONS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological and photochemical degradation of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were investigated in controlled experiments using waters from southeastern U.S. estuaries, from the Mississippi River plume and Gulf of Mexico, and from the coastal shelf region in the Florida Key...

  4. Monitoring Coastal Processes at Local and Regional Geographic Scales with UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starek, M. J.; Bridges, D.; Prouty, D.; Berryhill, J.; Williams, D.; Jeffress, G.

    2014-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) provide a powerful tool for coastal mapping due to attractive features such as low cost data acquisition, flexibility in data capture and resolution, rapid response, and autonomous flight. We investigate two different scales of UAS platforms for monitoring coastal processes along the central Texas Gulf coast. Firstly, the eBee is a small-scale UAS weighing ~0.7 kg designed for localized mapping. The imaging payload consists of a hand held RGB digital camera and NIR digital camera, both with 16.1 megapixel resolutions. The system can map up to 10 square kilometers on a single flight and is capable of acquiring imagery down to 1.5 cm ground sample distance. The eBee is configured with a GPS receiver, altitude sensor, gyroscope and a radio transmitter enabling autonomous flight. The system has a certificate of authorization (COA) from the FAA to fly over the Ward Island campus of Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (TAMUCC). The campus has an engineered beach, called University Beach, located along Corpus Christi Bay. A set of groins and detached breakwaters were built in an effort to protect the beach from erosive wave action. The eBee is being applied to periodically survey the beach (Figure 1A). Through Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques, eBee-derived image sequences are post-processed to extract 3D topography and measure volumetric change. Additionally, when water clarity suffices, this approach enables the extraction of shallow-water bathymetry. Results on the utilization of the eBee to monitor beach morphodynamics will be presented including a comparison of derived estimates to RTK GPS and airborne lidar. Secondly, the RS-16 UAS has a 4 m wingspan and 11 kg sensor payload. The system is remotely piloted and has a flight endurance of 12 to 16 hours making it suitable for regional scale coastal mapping. The imaging payload consists of a multispectral sensor suite measuring in the visible, thermal IR, and ultraviolet ranges of the

  5. Fluoride occurrence in the groundwater in a coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Subba; Rao, P. Surya; Dinakar, A.; Rao, P. V. Nageswara; Marghade, Deepali

    2015-09-01

    Fluoride (F-) content varies from 0.60 to 1.80 mg/L in the coastal region between Chirala and Ongole of Andhra Pradesh, India. It exceeds the threshold limit of 1.20 mg/L in 20 % of the total groundwater samples. The aim of the present study is to assess the controlling factors of F- content. The study area experiences a dry climate and is underlain by Charnockite Group of rocks over which the river and coastal alluvium occur. The results of the study identify the four factors that control the high F- content. First one is related to alkalinity, leading to active dissolution and leaching of F--bearing minerals, which supports the positive correlation of F- with pH and HCO3 -. A longer water residence time in the clays is the second factor, which activates not only solubility and dissolution of F--bearing minerals, but also anion exchange between F- and OH-. Third factor is a result of higher Na+ due to impact of saline water, ion exchange between Na+ and Ca2+, and precipitation of CaCO3. This reduces the Ca2+ content, causing dissolution of CaF2 to maintain the chemical equilibria, which is supported by positive correlation between Na2+ and F-. The influence of anthropogenic activities is the last factor, which acts as an additional source of F-. Thus, the shallow groundwater shows higher content of F- and the hydrogeochemical facies also support this hypothesis. The study suggests the remedial measures to reduce the F- content.

  6. Impact of oil spill from ship on air quality around coastal regions of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Song, Sang-Keun

    2010-05-01

    Regional air quality around coastal regions, where regular maritime traffic emissions from cargo, other commercial, fishing and military vessels are significantly active, can be affected by their direct emission of primary air pollutants (NOx, SO2, particulate matter (PM), etc.). For instance, harbor traffic exerted an important impact on NO2, SO2, O3, and PM levels. In addition, regional air quality around coastal regions is also affected by oil spill caused by ship accident in the coast. On 7 Dec., 2007, a barge carrying a crane hit the oil tanker MT Hebei Sprit off the west coast of the Republic of Korea, Yellow Sea (approximately 10 km off the coast), at 0700 local time, causing the spill of total estimated 12,547 tons of Iranian heavy (IH) and Kuwait Export (KE) crude oils. Since then, oil began coming on shore late in the night on 7 Dec. More than 150 km of coastline had been identified as being impacted by 17 Dec. Much of the affected area is part of the Taean-gun National Park and the nearest coastal city to spilled area is Taean. On 8 Dec., the flow of oil from the tanker was stopped when the holes were patched. The accident is the worst oil spill in Korea and the spill area is about one-third of the size of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The short- and long-term effects of oil spill on marine environment have been numerously studied, not on atmospheric environment. In this study, the air quality impact near spilled area by the evaporation of hydrocarbons from the oil spill is studied in detail. The evaporation rates of the volatile fractions of the crude oils released by oil spill were estimated based on their mole fractions of crude oils and mass transfer coefficients. Based on a molecular diffusion process, the flux of spilled oil component (Fivap, mol m-2 s-1) can be expressed as follows: Fivap = Kivap(Civap - C∞vap) (1) where Civap is concentration (mol m-3) of a component i of crude oil vapor in the air at the oil-air interface; C∞vap is the

  7. An oil spill accident and its impact on ozone levels in the surrounding coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Kang, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2011-02-01

    An oil spill on the west coast of the Republic of Korea was investigated with regard to its impact on ozone (O 3) concentration levels in the surrounding regions. The accident occurred on December 7, 2007 with the total estimate of 12,500 tons of Iranian Heavy plus Kuwait Export crude oils. The evaporation rates of the volatile hydrocarbon fractions in these crude oils were estimated based on the molar fractions of crude oils and their mass transfer coefficients. Their emission rates parameterized with several key environmental parameters (e.g., wind speed, seawater temperature, and salinity) along with oil type information were then applied in the 3-D chemical transport model. Photochemical production of O 3 in winter just after the accident was relatively insignificant due to very low photochemical activity. For the case/sensitivity study, the photochemical production of O 3 simulated under the hot summer weather conditions was predicted to be significant at the same magnitude of the oil spill. This study confirms that an oil spill, if occurring around coastal regions, can alter O 3 levels to a large extent depending on the meteorological conditions.

  8. Urban Effects on Lightning Flash Density in the Coastal Region of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Y.; Binshtok, G.; Price, C.

    2009-04-01

    Lightning in the coastal region of Israel occurs mostly in the December-February period, with an average flash density of ~1.2 flashes/km2/year, increasing from south to north and reaching a maximum near the port city of Haifa and the near-by Carmel Mountain. Based on lightning data from the LPATS system, obtained during the winter seasons of 2004/5-2006/7, we mapped flash density by using high-resolution Google-earth visualization tools. We note that maximum lightning activity occurs just west of the coastline above the Mediterranean Sea and decreases over land. The urban complex of the metropolitan Tel-Aviv area shows a clear increase in lightning density compared to more rural regions to its north and south. A second maximum is present near Haifa and its surrounding industrial complex. An increase in positive-ground flash density is present downwind from the Tel-Aviv urban area. A clear mid-week effect is also apparent in the flash density of positive ground flashes with peak currents > 50 kA north-east of the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area. Considering the Urban-Heat Island (UHI) effect, we can explain this as a dynamic consequence driven by wind-shear pushing the upper positive charge center eastward relative to the lower part of convective thunderstorms.

  9. Assessing coastal plumes in a region of multiple discharges: the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Yong; Terrill, Eric J; Cornuelle, Bruce D

    2009-10-01

    The San Diego/Tijuana border region has several environmental challenges with regard to assessing water quality impacts resulting from local coastal ocean discharges for which transport is not hindered by political boundaries. While an understanding of the fate and transport of these discharged plumes has a broad audience, the spatial and temporal scales of the physical processes present numerous challenges in conducting assessment with any fidelity. To address these needs, a data-driven model of the transport of both shoreline and offshore discharges is developed and operated in a hindcast mode for a four-year period to analyze regional connectivity between the discharges and the receiving of waters and the coastline. The plume exposure hindcast model is driven by surface current data generated by a network of high-frequency radars. Observations provided by both boat-based CTD measurements and fixed oceanographic moorings are used with the Roberts-Snyder-Baumgartner model to predict the plume rise height. The surface transport model outputs are compared with shoreline samples of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and the skill of the model to assess low water quality is evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. PMID:19848160

  10. Primary production and plankton carbon biomass in a river-influenced upwelling area off Concepción, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriarte, Jose Luis; Vargas, Cristian A.; Tapia, Fabián J.; Bermúdez, Rafael; Urrutia, Roberto E.

    2012-01-01

    The combined influence of freshwater inputs and wind-driven upwelling may generate contrasting environmental conditions over small spatial scales in the coastal ocean. Over two consecutive years (mid-2006 through to mid-2008), we compared the springtime and wintertime composition, biomass, and primary production of the main phytoplankton groups at two coastal stations (RV and UW) near the Itata River mouth in the upwelling area off central Chile. Hydrographic and nutrient profiles showed distinct seasonal features: a relatively weak surface thermocline and weak river influence at both stations in spring, and in winter a stronger surface halocline at station RV, located closer to the river mouth. At both stations, primary production (24-8000 mg C m -2 d -1) and chlorophyll-a concentrations (5-20 mg Chl-a m -3) were highest in the spring, with a dominance of microphytoplankton ( Chaetoceros spp., Thalassiosira spp.). Total primary production and chlorophyll-a in the winter corresponded mostly to smaller size fractions (pico- and nanoplankton), which dominated the phytoplankton community (>50%) in terms of carbon biomass at station RV. At this river-influenced station, small autotrophic and heterotrophic groups (<20 μm), including picophytoeukaryotes, photo- and heterotrophic nanoflagellates, and ciliates, were two to four times more abundant than at station UW. We conclude that most of the integrated carbon biomass and production rates during winter months are accounted for by small cells in the microbial food web. This component of the phytoplankton community may be enhanced in response to the additional surface input of nutrients by river discharges into the nearshore environment.

  11. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  12. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rajen, Gauray

    1999-06-01

    The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy

  13. [Concentration distribution of metal elements in atmospheric aerosol under different weather conditions in Qingdao Coastal Region].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Jian-Hua; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Xiang-Yu; Shen, Heng-Qing; Liu, Ming-Xu

    2014-10-01

    To know the influence of different weather conditions on the concentration of metal elements in aerosols in the coastal region, total suspended particles (TSP) samples were collected from April to May 2012, and August 2012 to March 2013 in the Qingdao coastal region, and common trace metals were analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results showed that Al, Ca, Fe, Na, K and Mg were the dominant metal elements in TSP, and the sum of the six elements accounted for 94.2% of the sum of all metals. TSP and metal elements had significant monthly variations, Fe, Al, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Ba, Mn, Ti, Sr and Li had the highest concentration in November and January, while Be, Sc, Co, Ni and Cr showed the highest value in January. Na had the highest concentration in August, November and February, and the lowest in December. Pb had the highest concentration in January and February, and the lowest in August and December. Enrichment factors indicated that Be, Co, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Sr and Ti were mainly affected by natural sources; Li, Cr, Ni, Zn, Ba and Na were affected by natural sources and part of anthropogenic sources; Pb was mainly from anthropogenic sources. Different weather conditions had great impact on TSP and metal elements concentrations, all the measured metals had the highest concentrations in smog except Ti. Compared with the sunny day, the concentration of atmospheric particulate Ti decreased, while the other elements increased by 1 to 4 times in smog. Li, Be, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe, Mg and Mn had little variation in concentration in foggy day, and the concentration of Pb and Na increased considerably. The concentration of Co, Ca and Ti reduced obviously in fog. Except for Cr, Co and Ti, the other elements increased by 1 to 3 times in haze. Most of the elements had the minimal enrichment factors in sunny day, while the other had the maximal enrichment factor in

  14. Carbon Sequestration in Wetland Soils of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands play an important but complex role in the global carbon cycle, contributing to the ecosystem service of greenhouse gas regulation through carbon sequestration. Although coastal wetlands occupy a small percent of the total US land area, their potential for carbon...

  15. Glacial erosion of bedrock and preliminary Quaternary stratigraphy in the western Lake Erie coastal region

    SciTech Connect

    Shideler, G.I. ); Stone, B.D. )

    1994-04-01

    An analysis of 120 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and onshore well records in the southwestern Lake Erie coastal zone shows a highly dissected bedrock surface. Regional subsurface data confirm extensive glacial modification of the preglacial landscape and the differential erosion of bedrock units. Areas of deep glacial scour coincide with shale and dolostone subcrop belts, in which bedrock strike direction was subparallel to glacial flow directions during early and late phases of glaciation. Locally, deep scouring also occurred over zones of fractured bedrock. In southeastern Michigan, large bedrock valleys, widened and deepened by glacial erosion, are preserved on the north side of the area of the Erie ice lobe. To the south in areas of axial flow of the Erie lobe and southerly ice flow during glacial maxima, traces of preglacial valleys have been more severely modified by glacial erosion in diverging directions. Striations in the region record three such diverging ice-flow directions of the last ice sheet. In one quarry, the position and cross-cutting erosional relationships of the three striation sets indicate their relative ages, from oldest to youngest: SSW, SW, and W. The SSW-trending set is overlain by a compact, loamy till containing abundant Canadian-shield crystalline gravel clasts. The till and the striations record the initial Late Wisconsinan ice advance into the region. The younger striation sets are overlain by the clayey, shale-rich till of the Erie lobe. Onshore, glaciolacustrine massive silty clay overlies the clayey till and fills broad troughs between areas of till at the surface. Offshore, seismic profiles reveal stratification in the clay, which is overlain by late Holocene mud. A nearby test hole through the beach west of Turtle Creek suggests a valley-fill sequence consisting of Late Wisconsinan till overlain by 5 m of organic mud deposited during the late Holocene transgression of Late Erie.

  16. Recurrence Times for Eartthquakes at the Coastal Region of Oaxaca - Guerrero, MEXICO (Zone 8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.

    2013-05-01

    Oaxaca is the most seismic active region in Mexico with 68 larger events, (mb > 6.5; Ms> 7.0) from 1542 to 1989, which implies roughly a large earthquake every 6.5 years; including an earthquake with M=8.5 which generate the most important historical tsunami in Mexico. It is also the most studied from a seismic point of view. Three types of earthquakes take place in the region: low angle thrust fault (associated to the subduction process) with a depth between 15 to 25 km; normal fault with a depth between 65 and 120 km with epicenters north of Oaxaca City (17°N); normal fault with a depth between 25 to 40 km with epicenters between the coast and Oaxaca City. A seismogenic zoning based in seismic, tectonic and historical seismicity studies zones was proposed in 1989; eight zones were defined, two zone along the coast, one for the isthmus and rest inland. 23 Years later, 4 larger earthquake have occurred in the region that seems agreed with the recurrence models proposed. Here the Zone 8 (Oaxaca - Guerrero coastal) is revised, 12 earthquakes have taken place in this Zone since 1655. However, special mention for the earthquakes in this Zone is the San Sixto Earthquake (March, 28, 1787, M=8.4) which is the biggest historical earthquake in Mexico, and generates the most important local tsunami in Mexico with 18 m high waves at a distance of 6 km inland (Núñez-Cornú et al, 2009). After this earthquake there was a seismic quiescence of 141 years, for the next earthquake in the Zone (1928), after that this Zone became the most seismic active Zone in Mexico (Núñez-Cornú. 1996) with 7 earthquakes in 85 years.

  17. Bloom forming and toxic phytoplankton in transitional and coastal waters of Cantabria region coast (Southeastern Bay of Biscay, Spain).

    PubMed

    Seoane, Sergio; Puente, Araceli; Guinda, Xabier; Juanes, Jose Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Phytoplankton monitoring has extended to practically all the regions of the European coast due to the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. In this way, the study of phytoplankton taxonomic composition and dynamic is being performed in many areas poorly studied or not studied before. During the last years, a monitoring programme has been carried out at the coast of Cantabria region (SE Bay of Biscay); the presence of some potentially toxic and bloom forming species (>7.5 × 10⁵ cells per litre) has been observed. Diatoms and cryptophytes are the main blooming taxa in this region in the majority of the estuaries and in some of the coastal sites. All estuaries and coastal stations showed at least one potentially toxic species, being the dinoflagellates the group with the highest number of taxa observed. The potentially toxic species found in highest concentrations were the genera Pseudo-nitzschia and Chrysochromulina. PMID:23017945

  18. Observed and modeled surface Lagrangian transport between coastal regions in the Adriatic Sea with implications for marine protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Daniel F.; Griffa, Annalisa; Zambianchi, Enrico; Suaria, Giuseppe; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Russo, Aniello; Bellomo, Lucio; Mantovani, Carlo; Celentano, Paolo; Molcard, Anne; Borghini, Mireno

    2016-04-01

    Surface drifters and virtual particles are used to investigate transport between seven coastal regions in the central and southern Adriatic Sea to estimate the degree to which these regions function as a network. Alongshore coastal currents and cyclonic gyres are the primary circulation features that connected regions in the Adriatic Sea. The historical drifter observations span 25 years and, thus, provide estimates of transport between regions realized by the mean surface circulation. The virtual particle trajectories and a dedicated drifter experiment show that southeasterly Sirocco winds can drive eastward cross-Adriatic transport from the Italian coast near the Gargano Promontory to the Dalmatian Islands in Croatia. Southeasterly winds disrupt alongshore transport on the west coast. Northwesterly Mistral winds enhanced east-to-west transport and resulted in stronger southeastward coastal currents in the western Adriatic current (WAC) and export to the northern Ionian Sea. The central Italian regions showed strong connections from north to south, likely realized by alongshore transport in the WAC. Alongshore, downstream transport was weaker on the east coast, likely due to the more complex topography introduced by the Dalmatian Islands of Croatia. Cross-Adriatic connection percentages were higher for east-to-west transport. Cross-Adriatic transport, in general, occurred via the cyclonic sub-gyres, with westward (eastward) transport observed in the northern (southern) arms of the central and southern gyres.

  19. Long-term fluctuations of water resources availability and its implications for a sustainable management of arid agricultural coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Freshwater scarcity and ongoing population growth associated with increasing water demands are major challenges for water management in coastal arid regions. Excessive use of groundwater for irrigation in agriculture puts those regions at risk of saltwater intrusion which limits agricultural opportunities. Additionally, some arid regions are characterised by a cyclic climate in which longer periods of dry years are followed by longer periods of wet years. This results also in long-term fluctuations of groundwater replenishment rates and water resources availability which may reach the same order of magnitude like long-term average values. Therefore, these long-term fluctuations should be considered for water resources management planning and operation. In order to evaluate their impact a simulation-based integrated water management system for coastal arid regions is used. The management system couples a groundwater module, assessing the water resources availability, and an agricultural module, controlling irrigation and cultivation within an optimisation module which allow for multi-objective optimisation of the water management regarding profitable and sustainable water resources and agricultural management on farm and regional scale. To achieve a fast and robust operation of the water management system, surrogate models are used which emulate the behaviour of physically based process models and a hierarchical optimisation scheme is applied. The water management system is driven by different scenarios of the water resources availability which were generated by using time series analyses and modelling of local groundwater replenishment rates. An application is performed for the south Batinah coastal region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Several scenarios of water resources availability are used to compare long-term and adaptive

  20. Sedimentation in Pacific Northwest Coastal Streams -- Evidence from Regional Surveys of Bed Substrate Size and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, P. R.; Faustini, J. M.; Larsen, D. P.

    2003-12-01

    We examined evidence of anthropogenic sedimentation in Oregon and Washington coastal streams using relatively rapid measurements taken from surveys during summer low flows (probability sample, n= 104 reaches). We inferred bankfull channel dimensions from evidence at low flow and compared bed substrate geometric mean diameter (Dgm) with critical diameter (D*cbf) calculated from estimated bed shear stress at bankfull flow stage. We derived an index of Relative Bed Stability, RBS* = Dgm / D*cbf, based on a modified Shield's criterion for incipient motion that includes adjustments to bed shear stress for energy dissipated by large wood and channel irregularities. D*cbf averaged 56 percent of unadjusted values, and Dgm ranged from silt to boulder size. Log10[RBS*] in streams relatively undisturbed by humans was generally between -0.7 and +0.5, showing approximate balance between observed and mobile substrates, but declined to low values (-1.5 to -3.0) in streams with substantial riparian and basin disturbances. Streams draining soft sedimentary lithology showed greater apparent response to these disturbances than did those draining hard basalt lithology. The association of low RBS* with land disturbance, and the stronger absolute values of correlation of Dgm (negative) than D*cbf (zero or positive) with land disturbance in this region strongly suggest that activities including road building, land-clearing, logging and agriculture have augmented sediment supplies and increased fine sediments in stream beds.

  1. Multi-sensor observation of precipitation in a coastal region of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, Alexis; Grazioli, Jacopo; Genthon, Christophe; DelGuasta, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of a Italian-French-Swiss collaboration, a suite of instruments dedicated to the observation of solid precipitation was deployed at the French Antarctic station Dumont d'Urville on the coast of Adélie Land in Antarctica during (southern) summer 2015-2016. On the remote sensing side, a depolarization lidar (531 nm), a 24-GHz vertical Doppler profiler (MRR from Metek) and a scanning X-band polarimetric radar (called MXPol) were nearly collocated. For measurement at the ground level, a weather station (for local meteorological conditions), a weighing gauge (Pluvio2 from OTT, with wind shield), an optical disdrometer (Biral) and a multi-angle snowflake camera (MASC) were complementing the remote sensing instruments. In addition, daily radiosounding records collected by MeteoFrance were available. This experimental set up was built in order to investigate the added value of remote sensing for the monitoring and understanding of Antarctic precipitation (variability, microphysics), as well as to collect reference data for the evaluation of satellite precipitation products derived from CloudSat and simulated from numerical prediction weather models. Moreover, the potential of radar measurement to distinguish blowing snow from precipitation, an acute problem in the windy coastal regions of Antarctica, was also investigated. This contribution presents the motivation, the set-up and a first analysis of this unprecedented data set about Antarctic precipitation.

  2. Seasonal distribution of microbial activity in bioaerosols in the outdoor environment of the Qingdao coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xi; Qi, Jianhua; Li, Hongtao; Dong, Lijie; Gao, Dongmei

    2016-09-01

    Microbial activities in the atmosphere can indicate the physiological processes of microorganisms and can indirectly affect cloud formation and environmental health. In this study, the microbial activity in bioaerosols collected in the Qingdao coastal region was investigated using the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis method to detect the enzyme activity of microorganisms. The results showed that the microbial activity ranged from 5.49 to 102 ng/m3 sodium fluorescein from March 2013 to February 2014; the average value was 34.4 ng/m3. Microbial activity has no statistical correlation with total microbial quantity. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that meteorological factors such as atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and wind speed accounted for approximately 35.7% of the variation of the microbial activity, although their individual impacts on microbial activity varied. According to the correlation analysis, atmospheric temperature and wind speed had a significant positive and negative influence on microbial activity, respectively, whereas relative humidity and wind direction had no significant influence. The seasonal distribution of microbial activity in bioaerosols was in the order of summer > autumn > winter > spring, with high fluctuations in the summer and autumn. Microbial activity in bioaerosols differed in different weather conditions such as the sunny, foggy, and hazy days of different seasons. Further in situ observations in different weather conditions at different times and places are needed to understand the seasonal distribution characteristics of microbial activity in bioaerosols and the influence factors of microbial activity.

  3. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in surface sediments of the west Guangdong coastal region, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangming; Lu, Qingyuan; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Ding, Xigui; Wang, Jin

    2016-07-15

    Heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn), organic carbon and grain size of 237 surface sediment samples and one sediment core, taken from the west Guangdong coastal region in January 2008, were analyzed to evaluate the spatial distribution and pollution status. Results show that the ranges of the measured heavy metal concentrations in sediments are as follows: 8.33-39.49mg/kg for As, 0.1-1.49mg/kg for Cd, 33-108mg/kg for Cr, 11.5-78.8mg/kg for Cu, 0.04-0.26mg/kg for Hg, 21-73mg/kg for Pb, 56-248mg/kg for Zn. The heavy metal enrichment is closely associated with Corg and grain size. Both the metal enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index indicate that there was no detected pollution on metals As, Cr, Cu, Pb in our study area and a slight to moderate contamination of Cd, Hg and Zn. However, As, Cr and Cu have showed a certain risk. PMID:27197765

  4. Historical record of metal accumulation and lead source in the southeastern coastal region of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dhong-il; Jung, Seung Woon; Choi, Man Sik; Kang, Sun Mee; Jung, Hoi Soo; Choi, Jin Yong

    2013-09-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals and Pb isotopes were measured in the 1-M HCl leaching fraction of core sediments spanning the last 400 years. This sedimentary record of pollution history in metal concentrations shows a good correlation with the increases in industrialization, urbanization, and energy consumption since 1901s. Notably, the Pb concentration and the (207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios were constant before the 1910s (16.7 μg/g, 0.844, and 2.098, respectively), whereas they increased steadily up to 21.9 μg/g, 0.848, and 2.101 after the 1910s. The correlations between Pb isotope ratios ((206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb) showed different linear regression trends for core sediments before and after the 1910s, indicating differences in Pb sources. Our interpretation suggests that the source of anthropogenic Pb in Korean coastal region and the Yellow Sea shelf was presumed to be Chinese coals or ores, which have also played a major role as sources of atmospheric particulate Pb. PMID:23838415

  5. Nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, T.; Nagata, T.; Ijichi, M.; Furuya, K.

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen fixation in temperate oceans is a potentially important, but poorly understood process that may influence the marine nitrogen budget. This study determined seasonal variations in nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community within the euphotic zone in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific. Nitrogen fixation as high as 13.6 nmol N L-1 d-1 was measured from early summer to fall when the surface temperature exceeded 14.2 °C (but was lower than 24.3 °C) and the surface nitrate concentration was low (≤ 0.30 μM), although we also detected nitrogen fixation in subsurface layers (42-62 m) where nitrate concentrations were high (> 1 μM). Clone library analysis results indicated that nifH gene sequences were omnipresent throughout the investigation period. During the period when nitrogen fixation was detected (early summer to fall), the genes affiliated with UCYN-A, Trichodesmium, and γ-proteobacterial phylotype γ-24774A11 were frequently recovered. In contrast, when nitrogen fixation was undetectable (winter to spring), many sequences affiliated with Cluster III diazotrophs (putative anaerobic bacteria) were recovered. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that UCYN-A was relatively abundant from early to late summer compared with Trichodesmium and γ-24774A11, whereas Trichodesmium abundance was the highest among the three groups during fall.

  6. Modification of misovortices during landfall in the Japan Sea coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Ryohei; Kusunoki, Kenichi; Inoue, Hanako Y.; Arai, Ken-ichiro; Nishihashi, Masahide; Fujiwara, Chusei; Shimose, Ken-ichi; Mashiko, Wataru; Sato, Eiichi; Saito, Sadao; Hayashi, Syugo; Yoshida, Satoru; Suzuki, Hiroto

    2015-05-01

    Misovortices frequently occur near the coastline of the Japan Sea during wintertime cold air outbreaks, generally developing over the sea and moving inland. To clarify the behavior of misovortices during landfall, temporal changes in the intensity and tilt of 12 misovortices over the coastal region of the Japan Sea were investigated during the winters of 2010/11 and 2011/12 using an X-band Doppler radar. For 11 vortices whose diameters were more than twice the effective radar beamwidth, the temporal change in the peak tangential velocity at lower levels (averaged below 400 m AGL) was analyzed. It was found that 8 out of the 11 vortices decreased after progressing between 0 and 6 km inland. For the remaining three vortices, the patterns of Doppler velocity couplet became unclear between 0 and 5 km inland, suggesting that these vortices also decayed soon after landfall. For four of the vortices, for which the analysis of the temporal evolution of tilt with height was made possible by several successive volume scans, the forward tilt with height increased after landfall. This study showed that modification to both the intensity and tilt with height of misovortices occurred after landfall.

  7. A Science Plan for a Comprehensive Regional Assessment of the Atlantic Coastal Plain Aquifer System in Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, Robert J.; Bolton, David W.; Cleaves, Emery T.; Gerhart, James M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    The Maryland Coastal Plain region is, at present, largely dependent upon ground water for its water supply. Decades of increasing pumpage have caused ground-water levels in parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain to decline by as much as 2 feet per year in some areas of southern Maryland. Continued declines at this rate could affect the long-term sustainability of ground-water resources in Maryland's heavily populated Coastal Plain communities and the agricultural industry of the Eastern Shore. In response to a recommendation in 2004 by the Advisory Committee on the Management and Protection of the State's Water Resources, the Maryland Geological Survey and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a science plan for a comprehensive assessment that will provide new scientific information and new data management and analysis tools for the State to use in allocating ground water in the Coastal Plain. The comprehensive assessment has five goals aimed at improving the current information and tools used to understand the resource potential of the aquifer system: (1) document the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the aquifer system in the Maryland Coastal Plain and appropriate areas of adjacent states; (2) conduct detailed studies of the regional ground-water-flow system and water budget for the aquifer system; (3) improve documentation of patterns of water quality in all Coastal Plain aquifers, including the distribution of saltwater; (4) enhance ground-water-level, streamflow, and water-quality-monitoring networks in the Maryland Coastal Plain; and (5) develop science-based tools to facilitate sound management of the ground-water resources in the Maryland Coastal Plain. The assessment, as designed, will be conducted in three phases and if fully implemented, is expected to take 7 to 8 years to complete. Phase I, which was initiated in January 2006, is an effort to assemble all the information and investigation tools needed to do a more comprehensive assessment of

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment of Shrimp Culture Practice in Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. M.; Rouf, M. A.; Hambrey, J.

    2008-12-01

    The rapid unplanned expansion of coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh poses risks in degrading environment. The unsustainable aquaculture practices are suspected to impart significant nutrient load to the ecosystem. Nevertheless, shrimp production is very less and susceptible to sever mortality. For this, the study aimed to understand the management practices and nutrient flux from some represented shrimp ponds in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. A comprehensive study from 2002 to 2004 was done in an aquatic system comprising a river (Semi diurnal tidal system), a canal and 10 shrimp ponds along with wider area survey to verify the issues under a DFID-funded research project involving Nautilus Consultants Ltd. (UK). In the study area (Dumuria under the district Khulna) shrimp culture practices were mostly improved extensive. Shrimp were being produced without proper pond preparation, fry nursing, stocking or feed management due to lack of technical somehow and the risks involved with higher levels of investment. Consequently production rates were very low, averaging only 191 Kg/ha. Very high mortality of shrimp was reported in some of the farms using shallow ponds immediately after heavy rainfall. This may due to the sudden fluctuation of water pH and/or water temperature and salinity. The water quality in shrimp ponds during grow out period was in acceptable range except lower trend of DO and ammonia nitrogen. Year round water quality observations indicated that there were no major differences among the river, canal and pond water that might be due to the high water flushing rate (468%). The nutrient dynamics estimation indicates that 48.7 kg/ha/cycle of nitrogen and 28.96 kg/ha/cycle of phosphorus were added to the pond as an input mostly from fertilizer and feed. Among the inputs, only 33.4% of nitrogen and 6% of phosphorus were removed as harvested form. A large portion, 39.1% N and 92% P were remained in the sediments and unaccounted for. Average intake of

  9. The Lower Chesapeake Bay LTAR: A coastal urban-agricultural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mccarty, G.; Alfieri, J. G.; Cavigelli, M.; Cosh, M. H.; Hapeman, C. J.; Kustas, W. P.; Maul, J.; Mirsky, S.; Pooler, M.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Schomberg, H.; Timlin, D. J.; Rice, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, located in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S., is the largest estuary in North America. The watershed area includes six states from New York to Virginia and is nearly 167,000 km2 in size with more than 150 rivers and streams entering the 300-km Bay main stem. Forested and agricultural lands make up 58 and 22 percent of the land use, respectively. Nearly 9 percent is urban and suburban use, and the watershed is home to over 17 million people. However, the population is expected to reach 19 million by 2025, raising the potential for conflict between the agricultural and urban communities over land and water use and in protecting natural resources, especially in the lower portion of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The Lower Chesapeake Bay study area, part of the USDA-ARS Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network, will provide much-needed data to support decisions at this critical agriculture-urban interface. Current long-term projects seek to assess the economic, production, and environmental performance of conventional and organic cropping systems and to evaluate the resilience of these systems to climate change. Large-scale studies are being conducted to examine the effects of land-use and landscape characteristics on ecosystem services and on energy, water, nutrient, carbon, and pest dynamics within watersheds. New in-situ measurement and remote sensor technologies are being considered with the expectancy that the data streams will be available on-line and for use in modeling. Results and outcomes of these research efforts will greatly benefit the national LTAR network and will be applicable to other US coastal urban-agricultural regions.

  10. Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaitzeff, J. B. (Editor); Cornillon, P. (Editor); Aubrey, D. A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

  11. Investigation of Long-Term Impacts of Urbanization and Global Warming in a Coastal Tropical Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comarazamy, D. E.; Gonzalez, J.; Luvall, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this project is to gain a better understanding of the climate impacts caused by the combined effects of land cover and land use (LCLU) changes and increasing global concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in tropical coastal areas, taking as the test case the densely populated northeast region of the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. The research uses an integrated approach of high-resolution remote sensing information linked to the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), which was employed to perform ensembles of climate simulations (combining 2-LCLU and 2-GHG concentration scenarios). Reconstructed agricultural maps are used to define past LCLU, and combined with reconstructed sea surface temperatures (SST) for the same period form the PAST climate scenario (1951-1956); while the PRESENT scenario (2000-2004) was additionally supported by the high resolution remote sensing data. The climate reconstruction approach is validated with available observed climate data from surface weather stations for both periods simulated. The selection of the past and present climate scenarios considers large-scale biases (i.e. ENSO/NAO) as reflected in the region of interest. Direct and cross comparison of the results is allowing quantifying single, combined, and competitive effects. Results indicate that urban sprawl dominates the pattern and magnitude of maximum temperature differences, while global GHG have dominant effects on minimum temperatures (following regional tendencies). To further investigate impacts of land use the Thermal Response Number (TRN) and Bowen ratio are analyzed. The TRN is a surface property defined as the ratio of the surface net radiation to the rate of change in surface temperature over shorts periods of time, it expresses how a particular surface partitions energy into non-radiative surface energy budget terms (i.e., latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and soil heat flux or storage). Natural vegetated surfaces have a greater TRN

  12. Mesoscale eddies in the coastal upwelling region of the tropical northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütte, Florian; Brandt, Peter; Karstensen, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The mesoscale variability in the tropical northeast Atlantic (between 12°N - 22°N and 15°W - 26°W) is examined and characterised. We applied two automated methods for eddy identification to 16 years of satellite altimetry measurements: the geometrical method, based on closed streamlines around eddy cores, and the Okubo-Weiß method, based on the relationship between vorticity and the strain tensors. In general, both methods agree well. On average about 125 (±11) eddies per year were identified, separating in 52% cyclones and 48% anticylones. We found an average radius of about 50 (±20) km, a westward propagation speed of about 2.8 (±1.2) km/d and an average lifetime of about 40 days. Several eddies (more anticylones than cyclones) were detectable up to 300 days. Three main eddy formation regions in the coastal upwelling region that can be associated with headlands of the coast are detectable. This suggests that dynamic instability of the along-shore current is an important generation mechanism. We identified that cyclones are produced predominantly during boreal winter, especially in January, whereas anticyclones are generated predominantly during boreal summer. From the three eddy generation areas, almost all eddies propagate westward along distinct corridors with a small polarity depending meridional deflection (anticyclones - equatorward, cyclones - poleward). Considering occupied area and number of eddies, about 17% of the tropical northeast Atlantic region under investigation was occupied by eddies in every moment in time. About 30 (±5) eddies per year originate from the upwelling region off Senegal and Mauretania. Considering in-situ temperature and salinity observations (Argo, ship, mooring data) within and outside of eddies detected by the algorithms the mean vertical structure of the mesoscale eddies were determined. From together 2191 Profiles, 106 (144) profiles were within anticyclonic (cyclonic) mesoscale eddies. On average the maximum

  13. Gulf of California biogeographic regions based on coastal zone color scanner imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SantamaríA-Del-Angel, Eduardo; Alvarez-Borrego, Saúl; Müller-Karger, Frank E.

    1994-04-01

    Topographically, the Gulf of California is divided into a series of basins and trenches that deepen to the south. Maximum depth at the mouth is greater than 3000 m. Most of the northern gulf is less than 200 m deep. The gulf has hydrographic features conducive to high primary productivity. Upwelling events have been described on the basis of temperature distributions at the eastern coast during winter and spring and at the western coast during summer. Tidal amplitude may be as high as 9 m in the upper gulf. On the basis of discrete phytoplankton sampling, the gulf was previously divided into four geographic regions. This division took into consideration only the space distribution, taxonomic composition, and abundance of microphytoplankton. With the availability of the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) imagery, we were able to include the time variability of pigments to make a more detailed biogeographic division of the gulf. With weekly composites of the imagery, we generated time series of pigment concentrations for 33 locations throughout the gulf and for the whole life span of the CZCS. The time series show a clear seasonal variation, with maxima in winter and spring and minima in summer. The effect of upwelling at the eastern coast is clearly evident, with high pigment concentrations. The effect of the summer upwelling off the Baja California coast is not evident in these time series. Time series from locations on the western side of the gulf also show maxima in winter and spring that are due to the eddy circulation that brings upwelled water from the eastern side. Principal-component analysis was applied to define 14 regions. Ballenas Channel, between Angel de la Guarda and Baja California, and the upper gulf always appeared as very distinct regions. Some of these 14 regions relate to the geographic distributions of important faunal groups, including the benthos, or their life cycles. For example, the upper gulf is a place for reproduction and the nursery of

  14. Regional assessment of sediment contamination from marshes to the continental shelf: Results of the western component of the US EPA National Coastal Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA) program on the U.S. West Coast was designed as a pilot project to explore assessment of new components of coastal resources not previously incorporated in the NCA. The Western Regional component of the NCA program began with a two yea...

  15. Modeling and water quality assessment during realisation of the coastal projects in Sochi region (Black sea coast of Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhoda-Shumskikh, L.

    2012-04-01

    Sochi region is the unique subtropical resort on the Black Sea coast of Russia. Nowadays due to Sochi is the capital of the Olympic game 2014, the government of the Russian Federation accepts the special federal program of Black Sea coast development. Program foresees the existing and creation of new coastal recreational and touristic complexes along the Russian Black Sea coast, such as complex of yacht harbors, water centers (aqua-centers), network of port localities and etc. These coastal projects are different, but the main problems of the environmental impact assessment are the same. The environmental impact and the relative damage should be assessed at the stage of construction as well as at the stage of operation. The key problem for the recreation coastal zone is water quality management. The port localities network as example is considered. To increase the accuracy and informative of forecasts for the coastal zone conditions the system-dynamic model has been developed, what allows to estimate the quality of the sea water, including that in the semi-enclosed coastal water areas with the limited water exchange. The model of water quality in the coastal zone includes the equations of deposit concentration changes and chemical substances evolution in the studied areas. The model incorporates joint description of cycles of two biogenic elements - nitrogen and phosphorus. The system is completely defined by the biogeochemical reactions. The sizes of such water areas allow the applying the full mixing and zero-dimensional models of water quality. The circulation of water inside the area is taken into account additionally. Water exchange in the semi-enclosed coastal water areas is defined by the discharge through the open parts of area border. The novelty of the offered model is its adaptation to the specific conditions of semi-enclosed coastal water areas. At the same time, the model contains details of the biogeochemical processes to complete modelling of the

  16. Organic and Inorganic Matter in Louisiana Coastal Waters: Vermilion, Atchafalaya, Terrebonne, Barataria, and Mississippi Regions.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) spectral absorption, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, and the particulate fraction of inorganic (PIM) and organic matter (POM) were measured in Louisiana coastal waters at Vermilion, Atchafalaya, Terrebonne, Barataria, and...

  17. SEDIMENTATION IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL STREAMS -- EVIDENCE FROM REGIONAL SURVEY OF BED SUBSTRATE SIZE AND STABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excessive erosion, transport and deposition of sediment are major problems in streams and rivers throughout the United States. We examined evidence of anthropogenic sedimentation in Oregon and Washington coastal streams using relatively rapid measurements taken from surveys duri...

  18. Evaluation of High-Resolution Ocean Surface Vector Winds Measured by QuikSCAT Scatterometer in Coastal Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Wenqing; Liu, W. Timothy; Stiles, Bryan W.

    2004-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT covers approximately 90% of the global ocean under clear and cloudy condition in 24 h, and the standard data product has 25-km spatial resolution. Such spatial resolution is not sufficient to resolve small-scale processes, especially in coastal oceans. Based on range-compressed normalized backscatter and a modified wind retrieval algorithm, a coastal wind dataset at 12.5-km resolution was produced. Even with larger error, the high-resolution winds, in medium to high strength, would still be useful over coastal ocean. Using measurements from moored buoys from the National Buoy Data Center, the high-resolution QuikSCAT wind data are found to have similar accuracy as standard data in the open ocean. The accuracy of both high- and standard-resolution winds, particularly in wind directions, is found to degrade near shore. The increase in error is likely caused by the inadequacy of the geophysical model function/ambiguity removal scheme in addressing coastal conditions and light winds situations. The modified algorithm helps to bring the directional accuracy of the high-resolution winds to the accuracy of the standard-resolution winds in near-shore regions, particularly in the nadir and far zones across the satellite track.

  19. Deterioration of coastal groundwater quality in Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Venkataramann; Ramachandramoorthy, Thiagarajan; Chandramohan, A

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out in the Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District to characterize the physico-chemical characteristics of 87 groundwater samples in Island and 112 groundwater samples in mainland which include pH, EC, TDS, salinity, total alkalinity, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total hardness, chloride and fluoride. Heavy inorganic load in majority of the groundwater samples has been estimated due to the salinity, TDS, TH and chloride beyond the threshold level which substantiates the percolation of sea water into the freshwater confined zones. Although the groundwater sources are available in plenty, the scarcity of potable water is most prevalent in this coastal area. The Water Quality Index (WQI) and Langeleir Saturation Index (LSI) have also been calculated to know the potable and corrosive/incrusting nature of the water samples. The statistical tools such as principal component analysis, box plots and correlation matrix have also been used to explain the influence of different physico-chemical parameters with respect to one another among the groundwater samples. The percentage of groundwater samples in mainland was more than that in Island with respect to the acceptable limit of WHO drinking standard, especially in TDS, CH, TH and chloride but the converse is observed in the case of fluoride. About 8% of the mainland aquifers and 42% of Island aquifers were identified to have fluoride greater than 1.5 mg/l. The signature of salt-water intrusion is observed from the ratio of Cl/CO(3)(2-) + HCO(3) and TA/TH. A proper management plan to cater potable water to the immediate needs of the people is to be envisaged. PMID:22527453

  20. Paleoclimatic significance of Middle Pleistocene glacial deposits in the Kotzebue Sound region, northwest coastal Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Roof, S.R.; Brigham-Grette, J. )

    1992-01-01

    During Middle Pleistocene time, glaciers extended from the western Brooks Range in NW Alaska to the coast at Kotzebue Sound, forming Baldwin Peninsula, a 120 km-long terminal moraine. Marine, glacigenic, and fluvial facies exposed along coastal bluffs surrounding Kotzebue Sound and Hotham Inlet indicate that at least the initial stages of the glacial advance occurred while sea level was high enough to cover the shallow Bering Shelf. Although it is presently uncertain if the ice actually reached tidewater before extensive middle-latitude ice-sheet formation, the marine and glacigenic facies clearly indicate that this advance must have occurred significantly out-of-phase with lower latitude glaciation. The authors believe an ice-free Bering Sea provided the moisture for glacier growth during the waning phases of a global interglacial climate. Although the magnitude of the Baldwin Peninsula advance was large compared to late Pleistocene advances, the timing with respect to sea level is consistent with observations by Miller and de Vernal that late Pleistocene polar glaciations also occurred near the end of interglacial periods, when global sea level was high, high-latitude oceans were relatively warm, and summer insolation was decreasing. An important implication of this out-of-phase glaciation hypothesis is that the critical transition point between climate states may be earlier in the interglacial-glacial cycle than previously thought. Because it appears that climate change is initiated in polar regions while the rest of Earth is experiencing an interglacial climate, many of their climate models must be revised. The glacial record at Baldwin Peninsula provides an opportunity to test, revise, and perhaps extend this out-of-phase glaciation hypothesis to the middle Pleistocene interval.

  1. Reproductive tract infections in rural women from the highlands, jungle, and coastal regions of Peru.

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia J.; Chavez, Susana; Feringa, Barbara; Chiappe, Marina; Li, Weili; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Cárcamo, César; Holmes, King K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalences and manifestations of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in rural Peruvian women. METHODS: During 1997-98, we visited 18 rural districts in coastal, highlands, and jungle regions of Peru. We administered standardized questionnaires and pelvic examinations to members of women's community-based organizations; and collected vaginal fluid for pH, amine odour, Gram stain, microscopy, and culture for Trichomonas vaginalis; cervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; human papilloma virus (HPV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and blood for syphilis serology. FINDINGS: The 754 participants averaged 36.9 years of age and 1.7 sex partners ever; 77% reported symptoms indicative of RTIs; 51% and 26% reported their symptoms spontaneously or only with specific questioning, respectively. Symptoms reported spontaneously included abnormal vaginal discharge (29.3% and 22.9%, respectively). One or more RTIs, found in 70.4% of participants, included bacterial vaginosis (43.7%), trichomoniasis (16.5%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (4.5%), chlamydial infection (6.8%), gonorrhoea (1.2%), syphilis seropositivity (1.7%), cervical HPV infection (4.9%), and genital warts or ulcers (2.8%). Of 715 adequate Pap smears, 7 revealed cancer, 4 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and 15 low-grade SIL. Clinical algorithms had very low sensitivity and predictive values for cervical infection, but over half the women with symptoms of malodorous vaginal discharge, signs of abnormal vaginal discharge, or both, had bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. CONCLUSION: Overall, 77% of women had symptoms indicative of RTIs, and 70% had objective evidence of one or more RTIs. Women with selected symptoms and signs of vaginal infection could benefit from standard metronidazole therapy. PMID:15508193

  2. Hell and High Water: Diminished Septic System Performance in Coastal Regions Due to Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jennifer A; Loomis, George W; Amador, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may affect the ability of soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) to treat wastewater in coastal regions of the Northeastern United States. Higher temperatures and water tables can affect treatment by reducing the volume of unsaturated soil and oxygen available for treatment, which may result in greater transport of pathogens, nutrients, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to groundwater, jeopardizing public and aquatic ecosystem health. The soil treatment area (STA) of an OWTS removes contaminants as wastewater percolates through the soil. Conventional STAs receive wastewater from the septic tank, with infiltration occurring deeper in the soil profile. In contrast, shallow narrow STAs receive pre-treated wastewater that infiltrates higher in the soil profile, which may make them more resilient to climate change. We used intact soil mesocosms to quantify the water quality functions of a conventional and two types of shallow narrow STAs under present climate (PC; 20°C) and climate change (CC; 25°C, 30 cm elevation in water table). Significantly greater removal of BOD5 was observed under CC for all STA types. Phosphorus removal decreased significantly from 75% (PC) to 66% (CC) in the conventional STA, and from 100% to 71-72% in shallow narrow STAs. No fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) were released under PC, whereas up to 17 and 20 CFU 100 mL-1 were released in conventional and shallow narrow STAs, respectively, under CC. Total N removal increased from 14% (PC) to 19% (CC) in the conventional STA, but decreased in shallow narrow STAs, from 6-7% to less than 3.0%. Differences in removal of FCB and total N were not significant. Leaching of N in excess of inputs was also observed in shallow narrow STAs under CC. Our results indicate that climate change can affect contaminant removal from wastewater, with effects dependent on the contaminant and STA type. PMID:27583363

  3. Towards a unified modeling system of predicting the transport of radionuclides in coastal sea regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung Tae; Brovchenko, Igor; Maderich, Vladimir; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Qiao, Fangli

    2016-04-01

    We present in this talk a recent progress in developing a unified modeling system of predicting three-dimensional transport of radionuclides coupled with multiple-scale circulation, wave and suspended sediment modules, keeping in mind the application to coastal sea regions with non-uniform distribution of suspended and bed sediments of both cohesive and non-cohesive types. The model calculates the concentration fields of dissolved and particulate radionuclides in bottom sediment as well as in water column. The transfer of radioactivity between the water column and the pore water in the upper layer of the bottom sediment is governed by diffusion processes. The phase change between dissolved and particulate radionuclides is written in terms of absorption/desorption rates and distribution coefficients. The dependence of distribution coefficients is inversely proportional to the sediment particle size. The hydrodynamic numerical model SELFE that solves equations for the multiple-scale circulation, the wave action and sand transport on the unstructured grids has been used as a base model. We have extended the non-cohesive sediment module of SELFE to the form applicable to mixture of cohesive and non-cohesive sedimentary regimes by implementing an extended form of erosional rate and a flocculation model for the determination of settling velocity of cohesive flocs. Issues related to the calibration of the sediment transport model in the Yellow Sea are described. The radionuclide transport model with one-step transfer kinetics and single bed layer has been initially developed and then applied to Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. The model has been in this study verified through the comparison with measurements of 137Cs concentration in bed sediments. Preliminary application to the Yellow and East China Seas with a hypothetical release scenario are described. On-going development of the radionuclide transport model using two-step transfer kinetics and multiple bed layers

  4. The relationship of crime and oil development in the coastal regions of Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthra, Asha D.

    This project examines the relationship between patterns of crime and the development of the oil and gas extraction industry in the coastal regions of Louisiana. The suggestion of a link between these phenomena has often been made, but little systematic research has been conducted to determine if there is indeed a crime-oil development nexus. Limited previous research has focused primarily on the issue of "boom and bust" cycles on some forms of deviant behavior, but the data and the methods used were inadequate, and thus, the resulting conclusions were often misleading or possibly erroneous. During the course of this project, a comprehensive database is constructed that facilitates a longitudinal analysis of concomitant variation in crime patterns and oil extraction activity. Annual crime data are obtained at the parish and county level for all years beginning in 1974 and merged with corresponding social and economic data. This dataset allows for a multivariate pooled time series analysis, with adequate controls, to determine the degree of influence between oil activity and crime patterns. The results from the analysis suggest that changes in oil activity and high levels of labor market involvement in the offshore oil industry are not strongly associated with community disruption in the form of crime. The only statistically significant effects due to changes in oil activity are decreased levels of homicide and aggravated assault. Oil development is not associated with any other crime in the analysis despite accounting for the boom and bust cycles of the oil industry over a 25 year period for 12 parishes that are highly involved in the industry. As the industry becomes more active and undergoes an increased labor demand, incidents of homicide and assault decline in the community. This finding does not support some previous boomtown model research that argues that energy development causes higher rates of social disruption, including higher crime rates (Seydlitz et al

  5. The Removal of Terrestrial Dissolved Organic Matter in Coastal Regions by Photo-Flocculation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulla, H. A.; Mopper, K.

    2015-12-01

    The fate of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM) as it moves to open ocean was the focus of many studies for the last three decades, most of these studies were focused on three major removal processes: 1) Photochemical mineralization of tDOM (conversion to inorganic forms); 2) Microbial oxidation; and 3) Mixing-induced flocculation. Based on recent estimations, the combination of theses removal processes accounts for ~20-35% of the loss of tDOM in estuaries and coastal regions; which is far from closing the gap between the riverine fluxes of tDOM and the amount of tDOM detected in the open ocean. In a preliminary experiment to determine if photo-flocculation indeed occurs at pH values and ionic strengths found in estuaries. A 0.1-μm filtered riverine was diluted 1:1 with artificial seawater and MilliQ water to yield final salinities ranging from 0 - 15; the pH of the saline samples was ranged from 6-8. Photo-flocculation was observed for all salinities, with particles organic carbon (POC) values ranged from 3.2 to 8.5% of the original DOC. Interestingly, the composition of the Photo-flocculated particles in the saline samples was markedly different from the zero salinity samples as shown in their FT-IR spectra. The photo-flocculated particles that formed in the saline samples appear to be rich in carbohydrate and amide functionalities (protein-like), while containing insignificant deprotonated carboxylate. While the flocs that formed in freshwater (salinity zero) are richer in deprotonated carboxyl groups, and relatively depleted in carbohydrate functionality.

  6. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the coastal region of Oman using DRASTIC index method in GIS environment.

    PubMed

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Rajmohan, Natarajan; Al-Yaroubi, Saif

    2008-12-01

    A study was carried out to develop a vulnerability map for Barka region in the North Batina of Oman using DRASTIC vulnerability index method in GIS environment. DRASTIC layers were created using data from published reports and the seven DRASTIC layers were processed by the ArcGIS geographic information system. Finally, DRASTIC maps were created for 1995 and 2004 to understand the long-term changes in the vulnerability index. DRASTIC vulnerability maps were evaluated using groundwater quality data such as chemical and biological parameters. DRASTIC vulnerability maps of 1995 and 2004 indicate that the northern part of Barka is more vulnerable to pollution than southern part and the central part of Barka also shows high relative vulnerability which is mostly related to the high conductivity values. Moreover, the changes in water level due to high abstraction rate of groundwater reflect in the vulnerability maps and low vulnerability area is increased in the southern part during 2004 compared to 1995. Moreover, regional distribution maps of nitrate, chloride and total and fecal coliforms are well correlated with DRASTIC vulnerability maps. In contrast to this, even though DRASTIC method predicted the central part of the study region is highly vulnerable, both chemical and biological parameters show lower concentrations in this region compared to coastal belt, which is mainly due to agricultural and urban development. In Barka, urban development and agricultural activities are very high in coastal region compared to southern and central part of the study area. Hence, this study concluded that DRASTIC method is also applicable in coastal region having ubiquitous contamination sources. PMID:18095181

  7. Hydraulic and thermal soil Parameter combined with TEM data at quaternary coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Ima; Kirsch, Reinhard; Scheer, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    In order to generate a more efficient method of planning and dimensioning small- and medium sized geothermal power plants at quaternary subsurface a basic approach has been attempted. Within the EU-project CLIWAT, the coastal region of Denmark, Germany, Netherlands and Belgium has been investigated and air borne electro magnetic data was collected. In this work the regional focus was put on the isle of Föhr. To describe the subsurface with relevant parameters one need the information from drillings and geophysical well logging data. The approach to minimize costs and use existing data from state agencies led the investigation to the combination of specific electrical resistivity data and hydraulic and thermal conductivity. We worked out a basic soil/hydraulic conductivity statistic for the isle of Föhr by gathering all well logging data from the island and sorted the existing soil materials to associated kf -values. We combined specific electrical resistivity with hydraulic soil properties to generate thermal conductivity values by extracting porosity. Until now we generated a set of rough data for kf - values and thermal conductivity. The air borne TEM data sets are reliable up to 150 m below surface, depending on the conductivity of the layers. So we can suppose the same for the differentiated parameters. Since this is a very rough statistic of kf -values, further more investigation has to be made. Although the close connection to each area of investigation either over existing logging data or laboratory soil property values will remain necessary. Literature: Ahmed S, de Marsily G, Talbot A (1988): Combined Use of Hydraulic and Electrical Properties of an Aquifer in a Geostatistical Estimation of Transmissivity. - Groundwater, vol. 26 (1) Burschil T, Scheer W, Wiederhold H, Kirsch R (2012): Groundwater situation on a glacially affected barrier island. Submitted to Hydrology and Earth System Sciences - an Interactive Open Access Journal of the European

  8. Unsafe Practice of Extracting Potable Water From Aquifers in the Southwestern Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, S. H.; Ahmed, A. U.; Iqbal, M. Z.

    2009-05-01

    The groundwater resource is of paramount importance to the lives and livelihoods of the millions of people in Bangladesh. Unfortunately, high levels of arsenic have been found in groundwater in many parts of Bangladesh. Besides, the salinity in water systems in the coastal areas has increased as a consequence of the flow diversion from the upper reaches of Ganges River by the neighboring country India. Since hand- pumped groundwater (tube) wells are the only viable sources of drinking water, maintaining drinking water security for over 6 million people in the south-west (SW) region has been a major challenge for the Bangladesh Government. Due to rapid exploitation of groundwater resources in excess of recharge capacity, non-saline water sources in the SW region have already been depleted and the hand tube wells have mostly been abandoned. Meanwhile, shrimp farming has resulted in saline water infiltration into the perched aquifer system in many areas. A recent survey covering123 wells out of 184, extending to a depth of 330 m, showed high salinity in water. Combined factors of rapid exploitation of shallow groundwater, depletion of the deep aquifers and the subsequent saline water intrusion into these aquifers have put long-term sustainability of the remaining fresh groundwater resource into jeopardy. Very high concentrations of nitrite are found in this study in many tube wells in the area where samples have been drawn from aquifer systems up to 244 m deep. Nitrite concentrations in 35 wells randomly sampled in this study range from 16.98 to 43.11 mg/L, averaging 27.55 mg/L. This is much higher than the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 mg/L set by the U.S. EPA for human consumption. Simultaneously, dissolved oxygen (DO) is found to be very low (0.1 to 2 mg/L). There are numerous reports and anecdotal evidences of "Blue Baby Syndrome" (methemoglobinemia) in the region, which is generally due to gradual suffocation caused by poor transport of oxygen from the

  9. Landslide susceptibility mapping in the coastal region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvala, R. C.; Camarinha, P. I.; Canavesi, V.

    2013-05-01

    The exposure of populations in risk areas is a matter of global concern, because it is a determining factor for the natural disasters occurrences. Furthermore, it has also been observed an intensification of extreme hydrometeorological events that has triggered disasters in various parts of the globe, further increasing the need for monitoring and alerting for natural disasters, aiming the safeguarding of life and minimize economic losses. Accordingly, different methodologies for risk assessment have been proposed, focusing on the specific natural hazards. Particularly for Brazil, which has economic axis of development in the regions near the coast, it is common to observe the process of urbanization advancing on steep slopes of the mountain regions. This characteristic causes the population exposure to the natural hazards related to the mass movements, which the landslides stood out as the cause of many deaths and economic losses every year. Thus, prior to risk analysis (when human occupation intersect with natural hazard), it is essential to analyze the susceptibility, which reflects the physical and environmental conditions that trigger for such phenomena. However, this task becomes a major challenge due to the difficulty of finding databases with good quality. In this context, this paper presents a methodology based only on spatial information in the public domain, integrated into a Geographic Information System free, in order to analyze the landslides susceptibility. In a first effort, we evaluated four counties of Southeastern Brazil - Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba - located in a region that includes the rugged reliefs of Serra do Mar and the transition to the coastal region, that have historic of disasters related. It is noteworthy that the methodology takes into account many variables that was weighted and crossed by Fuzzy Gamma technique, such as: topography (horizontal and vertical curvature of the slopes), geology, geomorphology, slope

  10. Watershed Influences on Nearshore Waters Across the Entire US Great Lakes Coastal Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have combined three elements of observation to enable a comprehensive characterization of the Great Lakes nearshore that links nearshore conditions with their adjacent coastal watersheds. The three elements are: 1) a shore-parallel, high-resolution survey of the nearshore usin...

  11. MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL STREAMS STUDY: STATISTICAL DESIGN FOR REGIONAL ASSESSMENT AND LANDSCAPE MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A network of stream-sampling sites was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) as part of collaborative research between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey. A stratified random sampling with unequal wei...

  12. MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL STREAMS STUDY: STATISTICAL DESIGN FOR REGIONAL ASSESSMENT AND LANDSCAPE MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A network of stream-sampling sites was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) a collaborative study between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey. A stratified random sampling with unequal weighting was u...

  13. Future riverine nitrogen export to US coastal regions: Prospects for improving water quality considering population growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess nitrogen (N) in the environment degrades ecosystems and adversely affects human health. Here we examine predictions of contemporary (2000) and future (2030) coastal N loading in the continental US by the Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (NEWS) model. Future output is from s...

  14. Future riverine nitrogen export to US coastal regions: Prospects for improving water quality amid population growth.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess nitrogen (N) in the environment degrades ecosystems and adversely affects human health. Here we examine predictions of contemporary (2000) and future (2030) coastal N loading in the continental US by the Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (NEWS) model. Future scenarios were b...

  15. Geohazards and myths: ancient memories of rapid coastal change in the Asia-Pacific region and their value to future adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid coastal change is common in the Asia-Pacific region yet an understanding of its causes, recurrence times, and impacts is not always clear through the use of conventional geological methods. It is suggested that myths (traditional [oral] tales) are underutilized sources of information about coastal change in this region. This is illustrated by consideration of myths likely to recall (early) Holocene sea-level rise, particularly along the coasts of India and Australia, as well as myths recalling rapid episodic coastal emergence and submergence, the latter including the disappearance of entire landmasses (islands). Two examples of how details in such myths can inform geological understanding of coastal change are given. The first argues that myths recalling the rapid flooding of coastal cities/lowlands are likely to represent memories of extreme wave events superimposed on a rising (postglacial) sea level. The second suggests that many myths about landmass/island disappearance fail to report the occurrence of rapid (coseismic and aseismic) subsidence even though they provide inferential evidence that this occurred. Few such myths are known to the author from many parts of Asia yet it is likely they exist and could, as elsewhere in the world, help illuminate the understanding of the nature and chronology of rapid coastal change. The challenges involved in helping communities in the Asia-Pacific region adapt to future coastal changes might be partly overcome by the use of appropriate myths to demonstrate precedents and engender local participation in adaptation strategies.

  16. Growth and invasive potential of Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae) within the coastal prairie region: the effects of soil and moisture regime

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrilleaux, T.C.; Grace, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The introduced tree Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae) is considered a serious threat to the preservation of the coastal prairie region of Louisiana and Texas, although it is currently uncommon in the western part of the region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of location, soils, and available moisture on the growth and survival of S. sebiferum in coastal prairie. In a field experiment, S. sebiferum mortality was significantly greater at a western site than at central and eastern sites. The greatest mortality and least growth of surviving plants occurred on a soil from the western region, regardless of site. A greenhouse study also found that S. sebiferum growth was lowest on the western soil. Watering frequency significantly affected S. sebiferum growth, except on the western soil. Sapium sebiferum growth responded to both nitrogen and phosphorum additions for all soils. Soil analyses revealed the highest sand, sodium, and phosphorus contents, and much higher electrical conductivity in the western soil. It is concluded that the soil examined from the western region is unfavorable for S. sebiferum growth, though not to the extent to preclude S. sebiferum completely. Evidence suggests that soil salinity may be the primary cause of the poor S. sebiferum growth at the western site.

  17. Post-tsunami Assessment in the Coastal Region Between Kanyakumari and Ovari, Tamil Nadu—A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, S.; Chandrasekar, N.; Hentry, C.; Rajamanickam, M.; Immanuel, J. Loveson; Subramanian, P. Siva

    Coastal zones are dynamic areas that are constantly undergoing change in response to a multitude of factors including sea level rise, wave and current patterns, hurricanes and human influences. On 26th December 2004, huge waves smashed across the shore between Kanyakumari and Ovari. As they crossed the beach, the waves up to 30 feet tall. Many people are dead due to crush and pull to sea and drowned as the mighty waves withdraw. Many villages have been obliterated, the death tale could exceed 300 but the damage to the property is very high. The size of the tsunami is related to the area that moves on the ocean bottom and how far it moves. This region is manifested with marine terrace, sand dunes, beach ridges, estuaries, floodplains, beaches, mangroves, peneplains, uplands, sea cliff, etc. We have attempted the shoreline dynamics using beach profile survey, and coastal environment changes through online survey, governmental, records and coastal geomorphological studies using remote sensing technique. The major destructions are identified in this paper.

  18. The Impact of the Danube River Mouths Geomorphological Processes on the Ecosystem, Coastal Development and Regional Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateescu, Razvan; Malciu, Viorel; Spinu, Alina

    2013-04-01

    The anthropogenic influences on the Danube Delta Coast, with major effect on the evolution of its littoral processes are represented by the perturbation of the longshore sediment transport, due to coastal constructions, and as well due to the decrease of solid discharge, as a consequence of the hydro-technical works/dams extension in the reception basin, as well in the main course of the rivers. Certain vulnerable areas of the Danube Delta Coast are strongly influenced by inland works/development as well as Danube flow regime, at regional and local scale. In the Sulina arm area, the extension of the channel jetties had a double effect, representing the cut-off of the south coast current, carrier of a portion of the solid load on the Chilia arm, and removal of its own load out of the coastal circulation in the offshore currents. The sand dunes dynamics including the sediment changes between submerged shore and dunes system are major issues within the channel entrance. The work presents the results on the impacts of the coastal geomorphological processes of the Danube Delta on navigation and ecological areas. Thus, the variability of the sea-land interface, for a period of several decades, has been revisited on the basis of the historical maps, coastal survey of emerged beach profiles, sand dunes and recent GPS measurement, developed on the Romanian Danube Delta littoral, together with certain impact assessments in the delta areas, including the ecosystem response to shoreline variability, sediment transport on short and medium term, in the context in which the major factor is the Danube discharge, as well the sea-level rise.

  19. Exploring the fate, transport and risk of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) in a coastal region of China using a multimedia model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shijie; Lu, Yonglong; Xie, Shuangwei; Wang, Tieyu; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and related substances have been widely applied in both industrial processes and domestic products in China. Exploring the environmental fate and transport of PFOS using modeling methods provides an important link between emission and multimedia diffusion which forms a vital part in the human health risk assessment and chemical management for these substances. In this study, the gridded fugacity based BETR model was modified to make it more suitable to model transfer processes of PFOS in a coastal region, including changes to PFOS partition coefficients to reflect the influence of water salinity on its sorption behavior. The fate and transport of PFOS in the Bohai coastal region of China were simulated under steady state with the modified version of the model. Spatially distributed emissions of PFOS and related substances in 2010 were estimated and used in these simulations. Four different emission scenarios were investigated, in which a range of half-lives for PFOS related substances were considered. Concentrations of PFOS in air, vegetation, soil, fresh water, fresh water sediment and coastal water were derived from the model under the steady-state assumption. The median modeled PFOS concentrations in fresh water, fresh water sediment and soil were 7.20ng/L, 0.39ng/g and 0.21ng/g, respectively, under Emission Scenario 2 (which assumed all PFOS related substances immediately degrade to PFOS) for the whole region, while the maximum concentrations were 47.10ng/L, 4.98ng/g and 2.49ng/g, respectively. Measured concentration data for PFOS in the Bohai coastal region around the year of 2010 were collected from the literature. The reliability of the model results was evaluated by comparing the range of modeled concentrations with the measured data, which generally matched well for the main compartments. Fate and transfer fluxes were derived from the model based on the calculated inventory within the compartments, transfer fluxes between

  20. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  1. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the Northwestern Region. Volume II. Data appendix. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the Northwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Bay, Gulf, and Franklin Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. This volume contains appendices presenting data on public utilities, transportation, recreation and tourism, mineral and oil production, and environmental issues and regulations. 31 figures, 187 tables.

  2. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the southwestern region. Volume II. Data appendix, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the southwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Charlotte, Collier, DeSoto, Hillsborough, Lee, Manatee, Monroe, Pasco, Pinellas, and Sarasota Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. This volume contains appendices presenting data on land use, public utilities, transportation, recreation and tourism. 21 figures, 141 tables.

  3. Thermal response to the surface heat flux in a macrotidal coastal region (Nuevo Gulf, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, Andrés L.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Dellatorre, Fernando G.

    2016-07-01

    At mid-latitudes, sea water temperature shows a strong seasonal cycle forced by the incident surface heat flux. As depth decreases, the heat flux incidence is damped by the horizontal flux, which prevents the indefinite growth of the seasonal temperature range. In the present work, cross-shore transport in the west coast of Nuevo Gulf (Argentina) was analyzed. Processes tending to cool the coastal waters in summer and to warm the coastal waters in winter, were identified through temperature measurements, surface heat flux and tidal height. The simplified models proposed here provide a feedback mechanism that links changes in surface heat flux with changes in the horizontal heat flux during both seasons. On shorter time scales, tide produces significant variations in the height of the water column, therefore influencing temperature fluctuations and the direction of the horizontal flow.

  4. Atmospheric marine boundary layer mixing rates in the California coastal region. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schacher, G.E.; Fairall, C.W.; Davidson, K.L.

    1980-05-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School has conducted five research cruises in California coastal waters for which sufficient data was obtained to allow boundary layer mixing rates to be determined. These data have been processed to determine the mixing rates. The rates have been correlated with meteorological conditions and geographical location and average values for use in air pollution models have been determined. A simplified method for calculating the mixing rate from mean meteorological parameters is presented.

  5. Seawater Intrusion and groundwater quality of the coastal area in Tripoli region, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Rashid; Rinder, Thomas; Dietzel, Martin; Leis, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    In Libya groundwater is the main source of freshwater, providing a vital supplement to surface water sources. Groundwater availability and quality are however, vulnerable both to climate change and over-abstraction. In Libyan cities where the water table has lowered there has been a consequent impact on agricultural activities. Groundwater aquifers are either renewable or non-renewable. The renewable aquifers are those located in the north coastal strip with high precipitation rates. The large non-renewable sedimentary groundwater basins cover extensive areas in the central and southern parts of Libya and contribute large quantities of freshwater for local use, industrial and agricultural development. Seawater intrusion is a problem in the coastal areas of Libya. Most productive agricultural fields are in the northern coastal areas of the country where irrigation predominantly relies on groundwater. Seawater has moved inland because of heavy exploitation of the Miocene-Quaternary aquifer in order to meet the increasing water demand. The physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as electrical conductivity, pH, temperature and individual ion content were determined. Most of the wells showed high values of electrical conductivity. The increase of water salinity is directly related to the extreme pumping of shallow coastal aquifers and movement of seawater towards inland. In some samples the increase of salinity corresponds to the ions abundant in seawater. In those solutions molar ratios of Cl/Br indicate influence of seawater intrusion. According to mixing calculations between fresh groundwater of the study area and Mediterranean seawater, the estimated concentration of seawater ranges from 10 to 15 wt%.

  6. Regional evaluation of particulate matter composition in an Atlantic coastal area (Cantabria region, northern Spain): Spatial variations in different urban and rural environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruti, A.; Fernández-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the major components (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Al, NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl - and TC) and trace-metal levels (As, Ni, Cd, Pb, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Rh and Hg) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 at an Atlantic coastal city (Santander, Cantabria region, Northern Spain). Additional samples were collected in other urban sites of the Cantabria region to assess the metal content found in different urban environments within the region. To control for the mass attributed to inland regional background particulate matter, samples were also collected in Los Tojos village. The spatial variability of the major PM components shows that PM origins are different at inland and coastal sites. In the coastal city of Santander, the most important contributors are (i) the marine aerosol and (ii) the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and the total carbon (TC) in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. Additionally, the influence of the coastal location on the ionic balance of PM is also studied. The trace metal spatial variability is studied using the coefficient of divergence (COD), which shows that the levels of trace metals at the three studied urban sites are mainly influenced by local emission sources. The main local tracers are identified as follows: Mn in the Santander area; Mo, Cr and Pb at Reinosa; and Ni and V at Castro Urdiales. A more detailed source apportionment study of the local trace metals at Santander is conducted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF); these two receptor models report complementary information. From these statistical analyses, the identified sources of trace metals in PM 10 are urban background sources, industrial sources and traffic. The industrial factor was dominated by Mn, Cu and Pb, which are trace metals used in steel production and manganese-ferroalloy production plant. With respect to PM 2.5, the identified emission sources of trace metals are combustion processes as well as traffic and

  7. Regional scenarios of sea level rise and impacts on Basque (Bay of Biscay) coastal habitats, throughout the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chust, Guillem; Caballero, Ainhoa; Marcos, Marta; Liria, Pedro; Hernández, Carlos; Borja, Ángel

    2010-03-01

    Global climate models have predicted a rise on mean sea level of between 0.18 m and 0.59 m by the end of the 21st Century, with high regional variability. The objectives of this study are to estimate sea level changes in the Bay of Biscay during this century, and to assess the impacts of any change on Basque coastal habitats and infrastructures. Hence, ocean temperature projections for three climate scenarios, provided by several atmosphere-ocean coupled general climate models, have been extracted for the Bay of Biscay; these are used to estimate thermosteric sea level variations. The results show that, from 2001 to 2099, sea level within the Bay of Biscay will increase by between 28.5 and 48.7 cm, as a result of regional thermal expansion and global ice-melting, under scenarios A1B and A2 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. A high-resolution digital terrain model, extracted from LiDAR, data was used to evaluate the potential impact of the estimated sea level rise to 9 coastal and estuarine habitats: sandy beaches and muds, vegetated dunes, shingle beaches, sea cliffs and supralittoral rock, wetlands and saltmarshes, terrestrial habitats, artificial land, piers, and water surfaces. The projected sea level rise of 48.7 cm was added to the high tide level of the coast studied, to generate a flood risk map of the coastal and estuarine areas. The results indicate that 110.8 ha of the supralittoral area will be affected by the end of the 21st Century; these are concentrated within the estuaries, with terrestrial and artificial habitats being the most affected. Sandy beaches are expected to undergo mean shoreline retreats of between 25% and 40%, of their width. The risk assessment of the areas and habitats that will be affected, as a consequence of the sea level rise, is potentially useful for local management to adopt adaptation measures to global climate change.

  8. Influence of climate and land use in carbon biogeochemistry in lower reaches of rivers in central southern Chile: Implications for the carbonate system in river-influenced rocky shore environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Claudia A.; DeGrandpre, Michael D.; Lagos, Nelson A.; Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Cascales, Emma-Karin; Vargas, Cristian A.

    2015-04-01

    Freshwater discharge affects the biogeochemistry of river-influenced nearshore environments by contributing with carbon and nutrients. An increase in human activities in river basins may alter the natural riverine nutrients and carbon export to coastal ecosystems. Along a wide latitudinal range (32°55'S-40°10'S), this study explores the role of climate and land use in determining the nutrient and carbon concentrations in the river mouth and fluxes to adjacent coastal areas. Between winter 2011 and fall 2012, we collected monthly samples in five river mouths in central southern Chile and at rocky shore sites affected by river plumes. Basins were characterized by different land uses and meteorological conditions along this latitudinal range. Water samples were collected for pH measurements, nutrients, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, particulate organic carbon, and isotopic signatures (δ13C). Our results show a north-south gradient in concentrations of nutrients and carbon. The highest concentrations were observed in the Maipo basin, which presents the highest percentage of urban-industrial activities. Nutrients and carbon contributions, in most cases, were lowest in the southern Valdivia basin, which has the least human intervention and a greater percentage of vegetation. The Biobío River had the highest nutrient and carbon fluxes, in most cases, due to its high river discharge. Our results show the influence of river plume effects on carbon and nitrogen concentrations in river-influenced rocky shore sites. Moreover, our study suggests that land use might influence some parameters of carbonate system in rivers and river-influenced rocky shore environments. River-influenced rocky shore environments may exhibit suppression in aragonite saturation state with implications for calcifiers inhabiting these marine environments.

  9. Propagation of coastally trapped waves in the Northern Benguela studied with hydrographic moorings and a regional circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, Lydia; Junker, Tim; Mohrholz, Volker; Schmidt, Martin; van der Plas, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Upwelling in the Northern Benguela is mainly driven by local winds but nutrient and oxygen conditions on the shelf are largely determined by the intrusion of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) through the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF). The poleward spreading of tropical waters is related to the propagation of Kelvin and continental shelf waves originating from the Equatorial Atlantic and bending poleward at the African coast. The strength of this remote forcing is thought to be especially relevant to the interannual variability of the upwelling system. We test the hypothesis that the poleward spreading of tropical water is driven by the combined action of both I) coastally trapped waves of equatorial origin bringing tropical water to the ABF zone and II) locally forced waves generating the undercurrent which advects SACW onto the shelf. Signals of poleward propagating waves were found in satellite altimeter data up to 12°S. To detect the propagation of coastally trapped waves further south in-situ measurements have been conducted. Three hydrographic moorings equipped inter alia with ADCPs have been deployed and maintained within the framework of the projects GENUS, SACUS and PREFACE. For the first time, simultaneous current measurements on the Namibian shelf have been realized at three different positions. The moorings are located in the Cunene cell, the Northern Namibian cell and the Central Namibian cell. By means of a regional circulation model based on MOM the propagation of coastally trapped waves are investigated with high spatial and temporal resolution (about 8km along the Namibian coast, 2-hour averages). It has been demonstrated that modelled meridional transports correspond well with long term measurements obtained by a mooring off Walvis Bay. The power spectral density shows sharp peaks for the tidal and inertial frequencies. A large proportion of kinetic energy accounts for the sub-inertial frequency range. Meridional transport signals were found to

  10. Assessment of water quality using cluster analysis in coastal region of Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Swapnil R; Vijay, Ritesh

    2011-07-01

    The coastal water quality of Mumbai is deteriorating due to various point and non-point wastewater sources. Hence, it is desirable to monitor coastal water quality for various water-related activities like bathing, contact water sports, recreation, and commercial fishing. The objective of this paper is to assess the seasonal water quality on the basis of seawater standards. Based on water-quality analysis of 17 seafronts and beaches, most of the parameters were exceeding the standards. The statistical cluster analysis was carried out for evaluating impact of wastewater and sewage discharges. The hierarchical cluster analysis resulted into three clustered groups, namely less polluted, moderately polluted, and highly polluted sites with similar characteristics of water quality. Mahim was found to be worst-affected beach due to incoming organic load from the Mithi river in comparison to other seafronts and beaches. Unaccounted sources of sewage and wastewater should be identified and rerouted through sewerage system by improving collection efficiency, treatment, and proper disposal for achieving designated receiving water quality standards. PMID:20835920

  11. Interactive effects of global and regional change on a coastal ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reise, Karsten; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.

    2008-03-01

    Shallow waters and lowland meet at the same level in the Wadden Sea, but are separated by walls of coastal defense. What are the prospects of this coastal ecosystem in a warmer world? We focus on tidal waters and inshore sedimentary bottoms, expect nutrient supply from land to decline and species introductions, temperature and sea level to rise. The effects are interrelated and will have an increasing likelihood of abrupt and irreversible developments. The biotic interactions are hardly predictable but we anticipate the following changes to be more likely than others: blooms of phytoplankton will be weak mainly because of increasing pelagic and benthic grazing pressure, both facilitated by warming. Possibly birds feeding on mollusks will encounter decreasing resource availability while fish-eaters benefit. Extensive reefs of Pacific oysters could facilitate aquatic macrophytes. Sea level rise and concomitant hydrodynamics above tidal flats favor well-anchored suspension feeders as well as burrowing fauna adapted to dynamic permeable sand. With high shares of immigrants from overseas and the south, species richness will increase; yet the ecosystem stability may become lower. We suggest that for the next decades invasions of introduced species followed by warming and declining nutrient supply will be the most pressing factor on the changes in the Wadden Sea ecosystem, and the effects of sea level rise to be the key issue on the scale of the whole century and beyond.

  12. Evidence for a Tsunami Event and Coastal Reorganization in the New York Metropolitan Region ~2300 yr BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krentz, S.; Goodbred, S.; Nitsche, F.; McHugh, C.; Carbotte, S.; Slagle, A.; Klein, E.

    2008-12-01

    It is widely recognized that major events such as tsunamis have significant effects on coastal systems over short timescales. While many of these systems show a recovery to the pre-event dynamic equilibrium, it is less well known how often such a recovery does not occur. Recent studies document a widespread reorganization occurring in the New York and New Jersey coastal region between 2100-2400 yr BP that has persisted to the present. Sediment cores and shallow-seismic surveys also reveal a high energy, potentially tsunamigenic event occurring at the same time, possibly as the source of this reorganization. In Great South Bay backbarrier lagoon, a prominent event layer of gravel-based sands and reworked shell deposits sits at the transition between between highly vegetated fresh/brackish marsh deposits and the current open estuarine conditions. The facies is well constrained by radiocarbon dates to 2200-2400 yr BP and is consistent with grain size and distribution of tsunamigenic emplacement. In the nearby Hudson River estuary an erosional unconformity, dated between 2000-2400 yr BP, is observed in the seismic and core data. Also in this portion of the Hudson is a series of distinct woody debris layers, dated between 2200-2400 yr BP. Further south, off Sandy Hook, is another prominent Holocene unconformity as well as a chaotic mass- wasting deposit containing terrigenous clay clasts mixed with marine sediments and mollusks. On the New Jersey shelf, a 20cm thick sandy mass-flow recovered at 600 m of water depth and dated at 2170 is also documented. Geologic evidence seems to show that the ~2300 yr BP event had a considerable and enduring impact on the coastal system. As the NY-NJ coast is one of significant population, understanding the recurrence and impact of such an event is critical.

  13. Storms or cold fronts: what is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coastal region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, L. J.; Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Ruiz-Merchan, J. K.; Higgins, A. E.; Henriquez, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms to extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean in an attempt to determine the extent of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed. Furthermore, the study wishes to establish the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the height of the wave. For this reason, it is necessary to establish the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. The significant height values for the areas focused on in the study were calculated in accordance with Gumbel's extreme value methodology. The methodology was evaluated using data from the reanalysis of the spectral National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WAVEWATCH III® (WW3) model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombian Caribbean coastline (continental and insular) between the years 1979 and 2009. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and those caused by cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira). In the central area (consisting of Baja Guajira, and the cities of Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena), the strong impact of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. However, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast (ranging from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá), the extreme values of wave heights are lower than in the previously mentioned regions, despite being dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from

  14. 30,000 years of hydroclimatic variability in the coastal southwest United States: regional synthesis and forcings analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal southwest United States is characterized by a winter dominated hydroclimate. Far from dependable, this region's supply of winter precipitation is highly variable and often characterized by hydrologic opposites - droughts and floods. Predicting future precipitation and hydrologic dynamics requires a paleoperspective. Here, we present an up-to-date synthesis of hydroclimatic variability over the past 30,000 years. A variety of terrestrial-based studies are examined and compared to understand patterns of regional hydroclimatic change. This comparison is extended into the San Joaquin Basin of California where future climate change will impact the region's agricultural stability and economy. Particularly interesting is the apparent role that Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) play in modulating the region's hydroclimate over a variety of timescales. Are past periods of above average Pacific SSTs analogs for future global warming? If yes, the region might expect an increase in winter precipitation as SSTs rise in response to global warming. However, how this potential precipitation increase is manifest is unknown. For example, will the intensity of precipitation events increase and thus present increased flood hazards and diminished freshwater capture? Finally, we present evidence for changes in the source of winter precipitation over time as well as ecological responses to past hydrologic change.

  15. Estimation of Vulnerability of Coastal Regions Using the Central Pressure of Typhoon Based on Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimura, R.

    2014-12-01

    Typhoons strike the Kyushu Island in the west of Japan a few times a year. Damage of the maritime structures by storm surges and wind waves induced by typhoon frequently occurs in the western prefectures, for example, Kumamoto Prefecture. The coastline in this prefecture is complex. It faces open and closed seas. The coastline is divided into 4 coastal regions in this paper. Each coast has different topographical characteristics. Using data on the damage of maritime structures caused by typhoons during past 25 years from 1980 to 2004 and the path and central pressure of typhoons during past 110 years from 1902 to 2011, damage of 4 regions along the coast line of Kumamoto Prefecture in Japan for 13 groups of typhoon with different paths is estimated. All typhoons had passed through an area delineated by a latitude of 30° N and 35° N and at a longitude of 127° E and 132° E. The improved Central Pressure (iCP) Method can be used to estimate the damage of maritime structures that will occur along the coast before typhoon strikes. The improved Central Pressure Method is developed based on the 25 years from 1980 to 2004. The estimation of the damage is done using the central pressure of typhoon at a latitude of 30° N. To develop the central pressure method considering the influence of global warming, the data of the central pressure of typhoons based on the 100 years more term is needed. The trend of the depression of central pressure due to the global warming is discussed using the central pressure based on the 110 years term typhoon data. Furthermore, the risk of each coastal regions in a future is estimated using the increasing or decreasing value of central pressure which is determined on this period data.

  16. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability to flooding: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, L.; Calabrese, L.; Salerno, G.; Ciavola, P.; Armaroli, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting and comparing two methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, to evaluate coastal vulnerability and to produce hazard and risk maps for coastal floods, in the framework of the EU Floods Directive. The first approach was adopted before the directive had been issued. Three scenarios of damage were designed (1-, 10-, 100-year return periods), produced by the concurrent occurrence of a storm, high surge levels and high-water spring tidal levels. Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along 187 equally spaced profiles, and these were added to the tidal and atmospheric water level contributions. The result is a list of 10 vulnerability typologies. To satisfy the requirements of the directive, the Geological, Seismic and Soil Service (SGSS) recently implemented a different methodology that considers three scenarios (10-, 100- and > 100-year return periods) in terms of wave setup (not including run-up) plus the contribution of surge levels as well as the occurrence of high-water springs. The flooded area extension is determined by a series of computations that are part of a model built into ArcGIS®. The model uses as input a high-resolution lidar DEM that is then processed using a least-path cost analysis. Inundation maps are then overlapped with land use maps to produce risk maps. The qualitative validation and the comparison between the two methods are also presented, showing a positive agreement.

  17. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability to flooding: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, L.; Calabrese, L.; Salerno, G.; Ciavola, P.; Armaroli, C.

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at presenting and comparing two methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region, northern Italy, to evaluate coastal vulnerability and to produce hazard and risk maps for coastal floods, in the framework of the EU Floods Directive. The first approach was adopted before the Directive had been issued. Three scenarios of damage were designed (1, 10, 100-year return periods), produced by the concurrent happening of a storm, high surge levels and high water spring tidal levels. Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along 187 equally spaced profiles and these were added to the tidal and atmospheric water level contributions. The result is a list of ten vulnerability typologies. To satisfy the requests of the Directive, the Geological, Seismic and Soil Service (SGSS) recently implement a different methodology that considers three scenarios (10, 100 and > 100-year return periods) in terms of set-up (not including run-up) plus the contribution of surge levels as well as the High Water Springs. The flooded area extension is determined by a series of computations that are part of a model built into ArcGIS®. The model uses as input a high resolution Lidar DEM that is then processed using the Cost-Distance tool of ArcGIS®. Inundation maps are then overlapped to land use maps to produce risk maps. The qualitative validation and the comparison between the two methods are also presented, showing a positive agreement.

  18. Biological validation of physical coastal waters classification along the NE Atlantic region based on rocky macroalgae distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Elvira; Puente, Araceli; Juanes, José Antonio; Neto, João M.; Pedersen, Are; Bartsch, Inka; Scanlan, Clare; Wilkes, Robert; Van den Bergh, Erika; Ar Gall, Erwan; Melo, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    A methodology to classify rocky shores along the North East Atlantic (NEA) region was developed. Previously, biotypes and the variability of environmental conditions within these were recognized based on abiotic data. A biological validation was required in order to support the ecological meaning of the physical typologies obtained. A database of intertidal macroalgae species occurring in the coastal area between Norway and the South Iberian Peninsula was generated. Semi-quantitative abundance data of the most representative macroalgal taxa were collected in three levels: common, rare or absent. Ordination and classification multivariate analyses revealed a clear latitudinal gradient in the distribution of macroalgae species resulting in two distinct groups: one northern and one southern group, separated at the coast of Brittany (France). In general, the results based on biological data coincided with the results based on physical characteristics. The ecological meaning of the coastal waters classification at a broad scale shown in this work demonstrates that it can be valuable as a practical tool for conservation and management purposes.

  19. A Storm Surge and Coastal Inundation Model TESTBED for the South Eastern Region of U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Y.; Davis, J. R.; Figueiredo, R.; Liu, B.; Luettich, R.; Paramygin, V. A.; Weaver, R. J.; Weisberg, R. H.; Xie, L.; Zheng, L.

    2012-12-01

    Since 2008, a Regional Testbed has been comparing storm surge models in terms of historical storm simulations and coastal inundation maps, e.g., Base Flood Elevation (BFE) (flood elevation with a 1% annual chance of occurrence) and Surge Atlas. The models include two structured grid (CH3D and POM) and two unstructured grid (ADCIRC and FVCOM) models. During 2008, the storm surge and coastal inundation in the Chesapeake Bay and the Outer Banks of North Carolina during Hurricane Isabel was simulated and the results compared in an independent but non-interoperable effort by partners. In 2009-2010, an additional model SLOSH was added, and all five models were used to simulate the storm surge and coastal inundation in southwest Florida during Hurricane Charley and the results compared. Model inputs and outputs were designed in an interoperable fashion, using common model input data, parameterization and coefficients, common model output formats using a common model data grid. Thirty scenarios were developed to test the sensitivity of the models to bathymetry, storm forcing, wind drag coefficient, bottom friction, Coriolis, 2D vs. 3D formulation, etc. Various types of model products, including time series of storm surge and maximum inundation over the entire model domain, were compared to each other and measured data. The detailed model simulations and comparisons required considerable computational and analysis time, but resulted in the discovery of how model features affected the model accuracy, leading to an overall improvement of all the models used. Testbed results showed differences in storm surge elevation and coastal inundation during both Isabel and Charley. While the simulated water level at the observed stations generally did not differ by more than 20% and no model appears to be consistently superior / inferior to any other model, there are more significant differences in the produced inundation maps. The computational efficiency differs considerably among the

  20. An evaluation of ocean color model estimates of marine primary productivity in coastal and pelagic regions across the globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, V. S.; Friedrichs, M. A. M.; Antoine, D.; Armstrong, R. A.; Asanuma, I.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Ciotti, A. M.; Dowell, M.; Hoepffner, N.; Hyde, K. J. W.; Ishizaka, J.; Kameda, T.; Marra, J.; Mélin, F.; Morel, A.; O'Reilly, J.; Scardi, M.; Smith, W. O., Jr.; Smyth, T. J.; Tang, S.; Uitz, J.; Waters, K.; Westberry, T. K.

    2010-09-01

    Nearly half of the earth's photosynthetically fixed carbon derives from the oceans. To determine global and region specific rates, we rely on models that estimate marine net primary productivity (NPP) thus it is essential that these models are evaluated to determine their accuracy. Here we assessed the skill of 21 ocean color models by comparing their estimates of depth-integrated NPP to 1156 in situ 14C measurements encompassing ten marine regions including the Sargasso Sea, pelagic North Atlantic, coastal Northeast Atlantic, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Arabian Sea, subtropical North Pacific, Ross Sea, West Antarctic Peninsula, and the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone. Average model skill, as determined by root-mean square difference calculations, was lowest in the Black and Mediterranean Seas, highest in the pelagic North Atlantic and the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone, and intermediate in the other six regions. The maximum fraction of model skill that may be attributable to uncertainties in both the input variables and in situ NPP measurements, was nearly 72%. Contrary to prior studies, ocean color models were not highly challenged in extreme conditions of surface chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature, nor in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters. On average, the simplest depth/wavelength integrated models performed no worse than the more complex depth/wavelength resolved models. Water column depth (distance to coastlines) was the primary influence on ocean color model performance such that average skill was significantly higher at depths greater than 250 m, suggesting that ocean color models are more challenged in Case-2 waters (coastal) than in Case-1 (pelagic) waters. Given that in situ chlorophyll-a data was used as input data, algorithm improvement is required to eliminate the poor performance of ocean color models in Case-2 waters that are close to coastlines. Finally, ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms are challenged by optically complex Case-2 waters

  1. An evaluation of ocean color model estimates of marine primary productivity in coastal and pelagic regions across the globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, V. S.; Friedrichs, M. A. M.; Antoine, D.; Armstrong, R. A.; Asanuma, I.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Ciotti, A. M.; Dowell, M.; Hoepffner, N.; Hyde, K. J. W.; Ishizaka, J.; Kameda, T.; Marra, J.; Mélin, F.; Morel, A.; O'Reilly, J.; Scardi, M.; Smith, W. O., Jr.; Smyth, T. J.; Tang, S.; Uitz, J.; Waters, K.; Westberry, T. K.

    2011-02-01

    Nearly half of the earth's photosynthetically fixed carbon derives from the oceans. To determine global and region specific rates, we rely on models that estimate marine net primary productivity (NPP) thus it is essential that these models are evaluated to determine their accuracy. Here we assessed the skill of 21 ocean color models by comparing their estimates of depth-integrated NPP to 1156 in situ 14C measurements encompassing ten marine regions including the Sargasso Sea, pelagic North Atlantic, coastal Northeast Atlantic, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Arabian Sea, subtropical North Pacific, Ross Sea, West Antarctic Peninsula, and the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone. Average model skill, as determined by root-mean square difference calculations, was lowest in the Black and Mediterranean Seas, highest in the pelagic North Atlantic and the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone, and intermediate in the other six regions. The maximum fraction of model skill that may be attributable to uncertainties in both the input variables and in situ NPP measurements was nearly 72%. On average, the simplest depth/wavelength integrated models performed no worse than the more complex depth/wavelength resolved models. Ocean color models were not highly challenged in extreme conditions of surface chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature, nor in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters. Water column depth was the primary influence on ocean color model performance such that average skill was significantly higher at depths greater than 250 m, suggesting that ocean color models are more challenged in Case-2 waters (coastal) than in Case-1 (pelagic) waters. Given that in situ chlorophyll-a data was used as input data, algorithm improvement is required to eliminate the poor performance of ocean color NPP models in Case-2 waters that are close to coastlines. Finally, ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms are challenged by optically complex Case-2 waters, thus using satellite-derived chlorophyll-a to

  2. Advanced Regional and Decadal Predictions of Coastal Inundation for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B.; Corbett, D. R.; Donnelly, J. P.; Kemp, A.; Lin, N.; Lindeman, K.; Mann, M. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Rahmstorf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Future inundation of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts will depend upon sea-level rise and the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones, each of which will be affected by climate change. Through ongoing, collaborative research we are employing new interdisciplinary approaches to bring about a step change in the reliability of predictions of such inundation. The rate of sea level rise along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts increased throughout the 20th century. Whilst there is widespread agreement that it continue to accelerate during the 21st century, great uncertainty surrounds its magnitude and geographic variability. Key uncertainties include the role of continental ice sheets, mountain glaciers, and ocean density changes. Insufficient understanding of these complex physical processes precludes accurate prediction of sea-level rise. New approaches using semi-empirical models that relate instrumental records of climate and sea-level rise have projected up to 2 m of sea-level rise by AD 2100. But the time span of instrumental sea-level records is insufficient to adequately constrain the climate:sea-level relationship. We produced new, high-resolution proxy sea-level reconstructions to provide crucial additional constraints to such semi-empirical models. Our dataset spans the alternation between the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' and 'Little Ice Age'. Before the models can provide appropriate data for coastal management and planning, they must be complemented with regional estimates of sea-level rise. Therefore, the proxy sea-level data has been collected from four study areas (Connecticut, New Jersey, North Carolina and Florida) to accommodate the required extent of regional variability. In the case of inundation arising from tropical cyclones, the historical and observational records are insufficient for predicting their nature and recurrence, because they are such extreme and rare events. Moreover, future storm surges will be superimposed on background sea

  3. Optimum contracted-for water supply for hotels in arid coastal regions.

    PubMed

    Lamei, A; von Münch, E; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water for their domestic water demands, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their domestic water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum requirement that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). This paper describes a model to determine what value a hotel should choose for its contracted-for water supply in order to minimize its total annual water costs. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.The managers of hotels with expected high occupancy rates (74% and above) can contract for more than 80%. On the other hand, hotels with expected lower occupancy rates (60% and less) can contract for less than 70% of the peak daily domestic water demand. With a green area ratio of 40 m(2)/room or less, an on-site wastewater treatment plant can satisfy the required irrigation demand for an occupancy rate as low as 42%. Increasing the ratio of green irrigated area to 100 m(2)/room does not affect the contracted-for water supply at occupancy rates above 72%; at lower occupancy rates, however, on-site treated wastewater is insufficient for irrigating the green areas. Increasing the green irrigated area to 120 m(2)/room increases the need for additional water, either from externally sourced treated wastewater or potable water. The cost of the former is much lower than the latter (0.58 versus 1.52 to 2.14 US$/m(3) in the case study area). PMID:19403967

  4. Combining operational models and data into a dynamic vessel risk assessment tool for coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, R.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Neves, R.

    2015-07-01

    The technological evolution in terms of computational capacity, data acquisition systems, numerical modelling and operational oceanography is supplying opportunities for designing and building holistic approaches and complex tools for newer and more efficient management (planning, prevention and response) of coastal water pollution risk events. A combined methodology to dynamically estimate time and space variable shoreline risk levels from ships has been developed, integrating numerical metocean forecasts and oil spill simulations with vessel tracking automatic identification systems (AIS). The risk rating combines the likelihood of an oil spill occurring from a vessel navigating in a study area - Portuguese Continental shelf - with the assessed consequences to the shoreline. The spill likelihood is based on dynamic marine weather conditions and statistical information from previous accidents. The shoreline consequences reflect the virtual spilled oil amount reaching shoreline and its environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities. The oil reaching shoreline is quantified with an oil spill fate and behaviour model running multiple virtual spills from vessels along time. Shoreline risks can be computed in real-time or from previously obtained data. Results show the ability of the proposed methodology to estimate the risk properly sensitive to dynamic metocean conditions and to oil transport behaviour. The integration of meteo-oceanic + oil spill models with coastal vulnerability and AIS data in the quantification of risk enhances the maritime situational awareness and the decision support model, providing a more realistic approach in the assessment of shoreline impacts. The risk assessment from historical data can help finding typical risk patterns, "hot spots" or developing sensitivity analysis to specific conditions, whereas real time risk levels can be used in the prioritization of individual ships, geographical areas, strategic tug positioning and

  5. Combining operational models and data into a dynamic vessel risk assessment tool for coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, R.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Neves, R.

    2016-02-01

    The technological evolution in terms of computational capacity, data acquisition systems, numerical modelling and operational oceanography is supplying opportunities for designing and building holistic approaches and complex tools for newer and more efficient management (planning, prevention and response) of coastal water pollution risk events. A combined methodology to dynamically estimate time and space variable individual vessel accident risk levels and shoreline contamination risk from ships has been developed, integrating numerical metocean forecasts and oil spill simulations with vessel tracking automatic identification systems (AIS). The risk rating combines the likelihood of an oil spill occurring from a vessel navigating in a study area - the Portuguese continental shelf - with the assessed consequences to the shoreline. The spill likelihood is based on dynamic marine weather conditions and statistical information from previous accidents. The shoreline consequences reflect the virtual spilled oil amount reaching shoreline and its environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities. The oil reaching shoreline is quantified with an oil spill fate and behaviour model running multiple virtual spills from vessels along time, or as an alternative, a correction factor based on vessel distance from coast. Shoreline risks can be computed in real time or from previously obtained data. Results show the ability of the proposed methodology to estimate the risk properly sensitive to dynamic metocean conditions and to oil transport behaviour. The integration of meteo-oceanic + oil spill models with coastal vulnerability and AIS data in the quantification of risk enhances the maritime situational awareness and the decision support model, providing a more realistic approach in the assessment of shoreline impacts. The risk assessment from historical data can help finding typical risk patterns ("hot spots") or developing sensitivity analysis to specific conditions, whereas real

  6. [Community composition of phytoplankton in Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling region in summer and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Lin, Mao; Lin, Geng-Ming; Xiang, Peng

    2011-02-01

    Based on the investigation data of 133 samples from 30 grid stations in the Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling region (21.6 degrees - 24.3 degrees N,115.7 degrees -118.7 degrees E) in 11-16 June 2009, this paper studied the phytoplankton species composition and cell abundance in the region in three dimensions (vertical, horizontal, and sectional), and approached their relations with major environmental factors. A total of 159 taxa belonging to 85 genera of 4 phyla were identified, among which, diatom was predominant, followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanophyceae mainly composed of Trichodesmium also occupied a greater proportion, but Chrysophyceae was only checked out in the upper 10 m water layer at coastal stations. The dominant species were Rhizosolenia alata f. gracillma, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudonitzschia pungens, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Paralia sulcata, Guinadia striata, Trichodesmium thiebautii, Ceratium fusus, and Gyrodinium spirale. Most of the phytoplankton taxa were cosmopolitan species, followed by warm-water species, while tropic high-salinity or oceanic eurythermal species were lesser. The cell abundance of the phytoplankton was average of 67.59 x10(2) ind x L(-1). In vertical profile, the cell abundance of the phytoplankton was the highest in surface water, and decreased with water depth. In horizontal and sectional profiles, the cell abundance had no definite patterns, but the high abundance region was in Nanao Island water area, being anastomosed with the center of upwelling region, which indicated that the weak and small intensity of deep-sea water upwelling caused lesser phytoplankton cell abundance and superposition. The comparatively high phytoplankton cell abundance in the four sections (B, C, D, E) along Nanao-Zhangpu was resulted from the upwelling from Taiwan Bank. The phytoplankton cell abundance had a significant positive correlation with the PO4(3-) concentration in the upper 10 m water layer, but no

  7. Aerosol characteristics in a coastal region (results from MAPTIP) Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Gathman, S.G.; Jensen, D.R.

    1995-08-01

    In coastal areas, the simplifying assumptions of horizontal homogeneity used in open ocean analysis are not always useable. Various human-generated aerosol sources such as towns and industrial centers can provide a complex portrait of merging plumes of non-natural aerosols which are advected out to the littoral zones. The extensive meteorological and aerosol measurements made during the Marine Aerosol Properties and Thermal Imager Performance (MAPTIP) experiment provided an ideal opportunity to view how these aerosol were advected from their sources to the littoral zone of the North Sea. MAPTIP was conducted along the Dutch coast in October/November 1993. The NCCOSC, RDTE DIV (NRaD) instrumented Navajo aircraft flew two star pattern flights a day during the experiment at altitudes below 500 feet. During these flights, aerosol size distribution measurements along the flight path were being continuously recorded. These measurements were utilized for making aerosol concentration maps of the various sized aerosol groups. This paper shows the mesoscale effects of aerosol advection making the marine boundary layer in a littoral zone much more complicated than that of an open ocean.

  8. The infantile visceral leishmaniasis: could it attack Egyptian north coastal region again?

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Ahmed, Gabr M Sayed; Gaber, Wafaa Aly I; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by three species of the L. donovani complex: L. donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi. Infections with these organisms are often asymptomatic or very mild, but in a minority of individuals there is progression to severe symptomatic disease. This is associated with spread of the infection throughout the reticuloendothelial system. L. infantum typically affect children below the age of 5 years. However, IVL can also occur in immunosuppressed adults, such as transplant recipients and patients receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy or patients suffering from chronic intestinal schistosomiasis. IVL was encountered in Al-Agamy, Alexandria on 1983 with Phlebotomus langeroni. This vector is still abundant with low density away from Al-Agamy. Urbanization of the north coastal area in the vicinity of Alexandria changes the ecological status but how does it affect the behavior of sandflies; mainly the IVL vector Phlebotomus langeroni? Many employees and their families return home from Libya with fever with or without other accompanying symptoms. Fever can be a manifestation of a minor, self-limited process or can herald a progressive, life-threatening illness. The detection of Phlebotomus langeroni in El-Hamam City, Sedi Barany City, and Matrooh City and the abundance P. papatasii in these three cities in addition to Al Agamy must be taken into consideration of the Public Health Authority. PMID:24640860

  9. Atlantic Flyway Review: Piedmont?Coastal Plain, Region IV, Fall 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dawson, D.K.

    2002-01-01

    Ten banding stations, six inland, four coastal, monitored the fall songbird migration from Maryland to Florida. Comparing the eight stations that were operated in both 2000 and 2001, net-hours of effort declined 5.3% from 60,649 to 57,405, but birds per 100 net-hours increased from 40.1 to 46.6. Myrtle Warblers were especially abundant this year, while numbers of catbirds declined. At my Laurel station, I compared my fall catch for the first five years (1973-77) with that for the past five years (1997-2001) and found the totals nearly identical (2175 and 2169), but it took nearly three times the number of net-hours to achieve the same total in the current period. A migrating Gray-cheeked Thrush, in spite of being captured 10 times in 17 days, increased its weight from 31.0 g to a record 51.7 g in 13 days.

  10. International workshop: Planning for climate change through integrated coastal management. Volume 2: Country and regional reports

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This workshop included reports from the following countries: Argentina; Bulgaria; Egypt; Estonia; Fiji; Indonesia; Mozambique; Nigeria; Oman; The Philippines; Senegal; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Thailand; and Tuvalu; Regional reports were included on the following: Small Island Developing States of the Pacific; South Pacific Regional Environment Program; and Sea Level Rise Impacts on Central America.

  11. Large and local-scale influences on physical and chemical characteristics of coastal waters of Western Europe during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tréguer, Paul; Goberville, Eric; Barrier, Nicolas; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Morin, Pascal; Bozec, Yann; Rimmelin-Maury, Peggy; Czamanski, Marie; Grossteffan, Emilie; Cariou, Thierry; Répécaud, Michel; Quéméner, Loic

    2014-11-01

    There is now a strong scientific consensus that coastal marine systems of Western Europe are highly sensitive to the combined effects of natural climate variability and anthropogenic climate change. However, it still remains challenging to assess the spatial and temporal scales at which climate influence operates. While large-scale hydro-climatic indices, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) or the East Atlantic Pattern (EAP) and the weather regimes such as the Atlantic Ridge (AR), are known to be relevant predictors of physical processes, changes in coastal waters can also be related to local hydro-meteorological and geochemical forcing. Here, we study the temporal variability of physical and chemical characteristics of coastal waters located at about 48°N over the period 1998-2013 using (1) sea surface temperature, (2) sea surface salinity and (3) nutrient concentration observations for two coastal sites located at the outlet of the Bay of Brest and off Roscoff, (4) river discharges of the major tributaries close to these two sites and (5) regional and local precipitation data over the region of interest. Focusing on the winter months, we characterize the physical and chemical variability of these coastal waters and document changes in both precipitation and river runoffs. Our study reveals that variability in coastal waters is connected to the large-scale North Atlantic atmospheric circulation but is also partly explained by local river influences. Indeed, while the NAO is strongly related to changes in sea surface temperature at the Brest and Roscoff sites, the EAP and the AR have a major influence on precipitations, which in turn modulate river discharges that impact sea surface salinity at the scale of the two coastal stations.

  12. Mesozoic exhumation in the coastal region of NW Iberia: Preliminary constraints from apatite fission-track cooling ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Marrón, Joaquina; Barbero, Luis; Menéndez-Duarte, Rosana; Fernández, Susana

    2013-04-01

    Apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from the Iberian Massif, along the northern coastal region in Galicia are presented. The study aims at unravelling the exhumation history of this higher topography coastal region, the so-called Rías Altas region, next to the northern Iberian margin. The rough topography region is bound to the south by the WNW-ESE trending As Pontes dextral strike-slip fault zone. This fault was active since ca. 30 Ma (Rupelian) up to ca. 21 Ma (Aquitanian). The area comprises mainly Late Proterozoic to Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks from the hinterland of the Variscan orogen. A N-S AFT ages profile from the coast to the southern block of the As Pontes fault reveal progressively younger ages toward the south with the oldest ages (242 ± 12 Ma) located near the coast and the youngest age being 124 ± 7 Ma. The AFT ages at both sides of the As Pontes fault in samples taken at the same elevation are similar within error (124 ± 7and 127 ± 7 Ma) indicating that this strike-slip fault did not cause significant differential exhumation during Oligocene-Early Miocene times. Another important feature shown by these data is that the age-elevation relationship (AER) is negative, the youngest ages being located at the highest elevation (ca. 1000 m. a. s. l). This agrees with recent published data from the easternmost part of the present study area and is an indication of Post-Early Cretaceous long residence time within the upper 2 or 3 km of the crust at temperatures lower than those of the apatite partial annealing zone (60 to 120°C). We interpret the registered exhumation history as mostly related to rifting processes in Pre-Early Cretaceous times. Possibly recording surface processes associated to the two stage rifting episodes in the Triassic and in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous that culminated with formation of the north Iberian Margin. The negative AER suggests that since Early Cretaceous times the whole area underwent topographic changes

  13. Random error analysis of marine xCO2 measurements in a coastal upwelling region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Janet J.; Cueva, Alejandro; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Lara-Lara, Ruben; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying and identifying measurement error is an ongoing challenge for carbon cycle science to constrain measurable uncertainty related to the sources and sinks of CO2. One source of uncertainty in measurements is derived from random errors (ε); thus, it is important to quantify their magnitude and their relationship to environmental variability in order to constrain local-to-global carbon budgets. We applied a paired-observation method to determine ε associated with marine xCO2 in a coastal upwelling zone of an eastern boundary current. Continuous data (3-h resolution) from a mooring platform during upwelling and non-upwelling seasons was analyzed off of northern Baja California in the California Current. To test the rigor of the algorithm to calculate ε we propose a method for determining daily mean time series values that may be affected by ε. To do this we used either two or three variables in the function, but no significant differences for ε mean values were found due to the large variability in ε (-0.088 ± 27 ppm for two variables and -0.057 ± 28 ppm for three variables). Mean ε values were centered on zero, with low values of ε more frequent than greater values, and follow a double exponential distribution. Random error variability increased with higher magnitudes of xCO2, and in general, ε variability increased in relation to upwelling conditions (up to ∼9% of measurements). Increased ε during upwelling suggests the importance of meso-scale processes on ε variability and could have a large influence seasonal to annual CO2 estimates. This approach could be extended and modified to other marine carbonate system variables as part of data quality assurance/quality control and to quantify uncertainty (due to ε) from a wide variety of continuous oceanographic monitoring platforms.

  14. Composition and interannual variability of phytoplankton in a coastal upwelling region (Lisbon Bay, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A.; Palma, S.; Oliveira, P. B.; Moita, M. T.

    2009-11-01

    From July 2001 to May 2005, at a fixed station located in Lisbon Bay (Cascais: 38° 41' N, 09° 24' W), surface seawater samples were collected on a weekly basis. We aimed to describe at different temporal scales, short-term to interannual, the phytoplankton community in relation to hydrographic conditions. Maxima of the main phytoplankton groups varied according to the seasonality of upwelling/downwelling cycles and nutrient availability and were associated with particular hydrological mesoscale structures highlighted by satellite images. Short succession cycles were identified dependent on coastal upwelling events. Intermittent and weak pulses allowed the coexistence of species from different succession stages and groups, although having consecutive maxima. The interannual differences observed in the phytoplankton community, in Lisbon Bay, varied according to both the duration and strength of the upwelling events and to precipitation and Tagus river flow regimes. Diatoms developed and were dominant, during spring-summer under prevailing upwelling conditions and silicon availability. Short upwelling pulses appeared to be unfavourable for diatoms maintenance. When upwelling weakened and SST increased due to onshore advection of warmer waters, coccolithophores dominated. This assemblage was the second most abundant during the study, in particular during the short transition period from upwelling (summer) to downwelling seasons (autumn) distributing in the largest range of hydrographical conditions between diatoms (maximum turbulence) during early spring and dinoflagellates (maximum stratification) during summer to further dominate during autumn and winter. Nitrites and nitrates seemed to favour greater developments of this group. Dinoflagellates peaked mainly during summer and were the less abundant through the four years due to the decrease of lasting convergence periods. Like coccolithophores, a preference for warmer waters emerged but this group seemed to have a

  15. Pre- analysis assessment of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) products in the region of Malaysian coastal water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, M. A. H.; Omar, K. M.; Din, A. H. M.; Reba, M. N. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the pre-analysis of validation between the acquisition satellite data and in situ data. To carry out this assessment, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data are acquired to be regressed with SST In situ. With the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite with a sensor on the Terra spacecraft, data sets of the global distribution of sea surface temperature are retrieved, and need to be validated and analyzed. Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS) also has an archived data of Optimal Interpolation SST (OISST) that can be retrieved based on satellite track of altimeter. The aim of this paper is to present intercomparison study between pixel based (MODIS SST) and point based (RADS SST). The value of root mean square error (rmse) is computed to see the performance of the data product. It is an assessment and evaluation to see the performance for both data. The objective of this paper is to evaluate Malaysian coastal area through validation with in situ data. To achieve the objective, we perform pre-analysis study of the MODIS products and RADS SST to see the performance of both data in terms of spatial value during seasonal changes. However, the scope of this analysis covers only on the spatial MODIS pixel value and the OISST point value during the southwest monsoon daytime. From the result, RADS SST/RADS show higher root mean square error (rmse) at 0.731/0.677 (before calibration) and 0.6951/0.476 (after calibration). From the rmse result, we could deduce that the RADS SST has random error arising from the fact that the interpolated points are based on the track.

  16. Directory of Personnel in Research, Technology, Education, Administration and Management. Development Activities in the Marine Environment of the Coastal Plains Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecca, Christyna E.

    Listed in this directory are individuals concerned currently with marine activities on the coasts of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, and the adjacent offshore area, known administratively as the Coastal Plains Region. The categories for the listings include educational institutions, state and county agencies, and federal agencies. The…

  17. Coastal Ecosystems of Latin America and the Caribbean. Objectives, Priorities and Activities of Unesco's COMAR Project for the Latin American and Caribbean Region, Caracas, Venezuela, 15-19 November 1982. Unesco Reports in Marine Science 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    To further the knowledge of the resources of coastal ecosystems and the general lines along which they function, Unesco implemented a "Major Interregional Project on Research and Training Leading to the Integrated Management of Coastal Systems" (COMAR). In addition, a proposed regional cooperative program called the "Regional Project for Research…

  18. Mean circulation in the coastal ocean off northeastern North America from a regional-scale ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; He, R.

    2015-07-01

    A regional-scale ocean model was used to hindcast the coastal circulation over the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and Gulf of Maine (GOM) from 2004 to 2013. The model was nested inside a data assimilative global ocean model that provided initial and open boundary conditions. Realistic atmospheric forcing, tides and observed river runoff were also used to drive the model. Hindcast solutions were compared against observations, which included coastal sea levels, satellite altimetry sea surface height, in situ temperature and salinity measurements in the GOM, and observed mean depth-averaged velocities. Good agreements with observations suggest that the hindcast model is capable of capturing the major circulation variability in the MAB and GOM. Time- and space-continuous hindcast fields were used to depict the mean circulation, along- and cross-shelf transport and the associated momentum balances. The hindcast confirms the presence of the equatorward mean shelf circulation, which varies from 2.33 Sv over the Scotian Shelf to 0.22 Sv near Cape Hatteras. Using the 200 m isobath as the shelf/slope boundary, the mean cross-shelf transport calculations indicate that the shelfbreak segments off the Gulf of Maine (including the southern flank of Georges Bank and the Northeast Channel) and Cape Hatteras are the major sites for shelf water export. The momentum analysis reveals that the along-shelf sea level difference from Nova Scotia to Cape Hatteras is about 0.36 m. The nonlinear advection, stress, and horizontal viscosity terms all contribute to the ageostrophic circulation in the along-isobath direction, whereas the nonlinear advection plays a dominant role in determining the ageostrophic current in the cross-isobath direction.

  19. Mean circulation in the coastal ocean off northeastern North America from a regional-scale ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; He, R.

    2014-12-01

    A regional-scale ocean model was used to hindcast the coastal circulation over the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and Gulf of Maine (GOM) from 2004 to 2013. The model was nested inside a data assimilative global ocean model that provided initial and open boundary conditions. Realistic atmospheric forcing, tides and observed river runoff were also used to drive the model. Hindcast solutions were compared against observations, which included coastal sea levels, satellite altimetry sea surface height, temperature and salinity time series in the GOM, glider transects in the MAB, and observed mean depth-averaged velocities by Lentz (2008a). Good agreements with observations suggest that the hindcast model is capable of capturing the major circulation variability in the MAB and GOM. Time- and space-continuous hindcast fields were used to depict the mean circulation, along- and cross-shelf transport and the associated momentum balances. The hindcast confirms the presence of the equatorward mean shelf circulation, which varies from 2.33 Sv at Scotian Shelf to 0.22 Sv near Cape Hatteras. Using the 200 m isobath as the shelf/slope boundary, the mean cross-shelf transport calculations indicate that the shelfbreak segments off the Gulf of Maine (including the southern flank of Georges Bank and the Northeast Channel) and Cape Hatteras are the major sites for shelf water export. The momentum analysis reveals that the along-shelf sea level difference from Nova Scotia to Cape Hatteras is about 0.36 m. The nonlinear advection, stress, and horizontal viscosity terms all contribute to the ageostrophic circulation in the along-isobath direction, whereas the nonlinear advection plays a dominant role in determining the ageostrophic current in the cross-isobath direction.

  20. Clinical chemistry profiles in injection heroin users from Coastal Region, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the co-burden of injection drug use and HIV is increasing in Africa, little is known about the laboratory markers of injection drug use and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Kenyan injection drug users. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the clinical chemistry profiles and identifying the key laboratory markers of HIV infection during ART in injection heroin users (IHUs). Methods Clinical chemistry measurements were performed on serum samples collected from HIV-1 infected ART-experienced (n = 22), naive (n = 16) and HIV-1 negative (n = 23) IHUs, and healthy controls (n = 15) from Mombasa, coastal Kenya. Results HIV uninfected IHUs had lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (P = 0.023) as ART-exposed IHUs exhibited lower albumin (P = 0.014) and higher AST to platelet index (APRI) (P < 0.0001). All IHUs presented with lower aspartate aminotransferase to ALT values (P = 0.001) and higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P = 0.002). ART-naive IHUs had higher globulin levels (P = 0.013) while ART-experienced and naive IHUs had higher albumin to total protein (P < 0.0001) and albumin to globulin (P < 0.0001) values. In addition, CD4+ T cells correlated with ALT (ρ = −0.522, P = 0.011) and CRP (rho, ρ = 0.529, P = 0.011) in HIV negative and ART-experienced IHUs, respectively. HIV-1 viral load correlated with albumin to globulin index in ART-experienced (ρ = −0.468, P = 0.037) and naive (ρ = −0.554, P = 0.040) IHUs; and with albumin to total protein index (ρ = −0.554, P = 0.040) and globulin (ρ = 0.570, P = 0.033) in ART-naive IHUs. Conclusion Absolute ALT, albumin, globulin, and CRP measurements in combination with APRI, AST to ALT, albumin to total protein and albumin to globulin indices may be useful laboratory markers for screening IHUs for initiating and monitoring treatment. PMID:25057262

  1. Contamination profiles of antifouling biocides in selected coastal regions of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi; Ohji, Madoka; Ismail, Ahmad Bin; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2009-04-01

    The concentrations of butyltins (BTs) in sediment from Peninsular Malaysia along the Strait of Malacca and their spatial distribution are discussed. The concentrations of BTs were high in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia where there is a lot of ship traffic, because trade is prosperous. The concentrations of monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and tributyltin (TBT) in sediment from the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia were in the range 4.1-242 microg/kg dry weight (dw), 1.1-186 microg/kg dw, and 0.7-228 microg/kg dw, respectively. A higher percentage of TBT was observed in the area where TBT concentrations were high. The concentrations of monophenyltin (MPT), diphenyltin (DPT), and triphenyltin (TPT) were in the range <0.1-121 microg/kg dw, 0.4-27 microg/kg dw, and 0.1-34 microg/kg dw in sediment from Peninsular Malaysia, respectively. MPT was the dominant phenyltin species. MBT, DBT, and TBT in green mussel (Perna viridis) samples were detected in the range 41-102 microg/kg, 3-5 microg/kg, and 8-32 microg/kg, respectively. A tolerable average residue level (TARL) was estimated at 20.4 microg/kg from a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.25 microg TBTO/kg body weight/day. The maximum value of TBT detected in green mussel samples was the value near the TARL. TPTs were not detected in green mussel samples. The concentrations of Diuron and Irgarol 1051 in sediment from Peninsular Malaysia were in the range <0.1-5 microg/kg dw and <0.1-14 microg/kg dw, respectively. High concentrations of these compounds were observed in locations where the concentrations of TBT were high. Sea Nine 211, Dichlofluanid, and Pyrithiones were not detected in sediment. The concentrations of antifouling biocides in Melaka and the Strait of Johor were investigated in detail. BTs were found in similar concentrations among all sampling sites from Melaka, indicating that BT contamination spread off the coast. However, Sea Nine 211, Diuron, and Irgarol 1051 in the sediment from

  2. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region Kasatochi Volcano Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGange, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Alaska is noteworthy as a region of frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The region contains 52 historically active volcanoes, 14 of which have had at least one major eruptive event since 1990. Despite the high frequency of volcanic activity in Alaska, comprehensive studies of how ecosystems respond to volcanic eruptions are non-existent. On August 7, 2008, Kasatochi Volcano, in the central Aleutian Islands, erupted catastrophically, covering the island with ash and hot pyroclastic flow material. Kasatochi Island was an annual monitoring site of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge (AMNWR); therefore, features of the terrestrial and nearshore ecosystems of the island were well known. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), AMNWR, and University of Alaska Fairbanks began long-term studies to better understand the effects of the eruption and the role of volcanism in structuring ecosystems in the Aleutian Islands, a volcano-dominated region with high natural resource values.

  3. Advanced geological modeling of coastal-marine cassiterite placers based on data on deposits in Russia'S Eastern Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalomov, A. V.; Tabolich, S. E.; Chefranov, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical model of coastal-marine tin placers formed in the alongshore drift flow is developed using the mass balance method. The physical meaning of the coefficients included in the model is considered. Coastal-marine placers are quantitatively estimated. The simulation adequacy is confirmed by the data on coastal-marine tin-bearing placer deposits at the Pevek ore cluster (Chaun Bay, East Siberian Sea). We suggest that the obtained equations be used for surveying and exploration. Identified patterns are used to estimate the tin placer potential in one of the coastal areas in the Eastern Arctic Basin.

  4. Monitoring habitat restoration projects: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Pacific Region Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program and Coastal Program Protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Hollar, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Pacific Region (Region 1) includes more than 158 million acres (almost 247,000 square miles) of land base in Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Hawai`i, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the Republic of Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Region 1 is ecologically diverse with landscapes that range from coral reefs, broadleaf tropical forests, and tropical savannahs in the Pacific Islands, to glacial streams and lakes, lush old-growth rainforests, inland fjords, and coastal shoreline in the Pacific Northwest, to the forested mountains, shrub-steppe desert, and native grasslands in the Inland Northwest. Similarly, the people of the different landscapes perceive, value, and manage their natural resources in ways unique to their respective regions and cultures. The Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program (Partners Program) and Coastal Program work with a variety of partners in Region 1 including individual landowners, watershed councils, land trusts, Soil and Water Conservation Districts, non-governmental organizations, Tribal governments, Native Hawaiian organizations, and local, State, and Federal agencies. The Partners Program is the FWS's vanguard for working with private landowners to voluntarily restore and conserve fish and wildlife habitat. Using non-regulatory incentives, the Partners Program engages willing partners to conserve and protect valuable fish and wildlife habitat on their property and in their communities. This is accomplished by providing the funding support and technical and planning tools needed to make on-the-ground conservation affordable, feasible, and effective. The primary goals of the Pacific Region Partners Program are to: Promote citizen and community-based stewardship efforts for fish and wildlife conservation Contribute to the recovery of at-risk species, Protect the environmental integrity of the National Wildlife

  5. Immune factors and fatty acid composition in human milk from river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China.

    PubMed

    Urwin, Heidi J; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Yixiong; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Frøyland, Livar; Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2013-06-01

    Breast milk fatty acid composition may be affected by the maternal diet during gestation and lactation. The influence of dietary and breastmilk fatty acids on breast milk immune factors is poorly defined. We determined the fatty acid composition and immune factor concentrations of breast milk from women residing in river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China, which differ in their consumption of lean fish and oily fish. Breast milk samples were collected on days 3–5 (colostrum), 14 and 28 post-partum (PP) and analysed for soluble CD14 (sCD14), transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1, TGF-b2, secretory IgA (sIgA) and fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of breast milk differed between the regions and with time PP. The concentrations of all four immune factors in breast milk decreased over time, with sCD14, sIgA and TGF-b1 being highest in the colostrum in the river and lake region. Breast milk DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were positively associated, and g-linolenic acid and EPA negatively associated, with the concentrations of each of the four immune factors. In conclusion, breast milk fatty acids and immune factors differ between the regions in China characterised by different patterns of fish consumption and change during the course of lactation. A higher breast milk DHA and AA concentration is associated with higher concentrations of immune factors in breast milk, suggesting a role for these fatty acids in promoting gastrointestinal and immune maturation of the infant. PMID:23148871

  6. INTEGRATION OF COASTAL ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS FOR THE U.S. MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAlA) Project began in 1994 as a partnership between USEPA's Region III Office and Office of Research and Development. This multi-year initiative was envisioned to: (1) improve the quality of environmental science and promote the use of sou...

  7. The U.S. Geological Survey coal assessment of the Gulf Coastal region, a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, P.D.; Aubourg, C.E.; Crowley, S.S.

    1998-12-31

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a comprehensive assessment of the major coal regions of the country. This program, known as the National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA), is focused on five major coal-bearing regions in the country: the Appalachian basin, Illinois basin, Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, Colorado Plateau, and the Gulf Coast region. In this program, the authors are characterizing the quantity and quality of coals that are expected to be mined during the next 30 years. As part of this effort, they are conducting an evaluation of the stratigraphic setting, resource potential, and the quality of the lignites in five coal-producing areas within the Gulf Coast region. The results of these efforts will be a series of digital Geographic Information System (GIS) maps, text, and tables that will be published in a CD-ROM format. These products, along with a national summary CD-ROM, are expected to be completed by 1999. The assessment of the Gulf Coast region is focused primarily on four areas that are currently producing coal as shown in a figure. These areas are the: (1) Sabine area, which includes parts of northwest Louisiana and northeast Texas; (2) northeast Texas; (3) central Texas; and (4) south Texas. In addition, a fifth area in Mississippi has been evaluated because a new surface mine has been proposed for that area. The Gulf Coast coal region produces about 57 million short tons of coal annually from the states of Louisiana and Texas from Wilcox Group coals. The primary intervals of study for this project are the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) and selected coal-producing intervals (such as the Eocene Jackson and Claiborne Groups, and Cretaceous Olmos Formation in south Texas) that are producing or have potential for producing coal in the near future. The objectives of this project are to provide high-quality, organized information and interpretations on the location, quality, and quantity of the coal to be mined in the Gulf

  8. Regional background concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) in coastal sediments of the South Sea of Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Yunho; Choi, Man Sik; Lee, Ji Youn; Jang, Dong Jun

    2014-06-01

    The background concentration (BC) of metals in coastal sediments may be a useful tool for assessing the extent of sediment contamination by human activities. This study presents an approach to establish BCs that are applicable at the regional scale, particularly for coastal areas with relatively tortuous coastlines and complex coastal geology and/or geomorphology like the South Sea of Korea. The approach is based on the sorption hypothesis for metal enrichment of coastal sediments and was verified using 33 core and 187 surface sediments. The concentrations of major and heavy metals, grain size parameters, organic carbon, and sedimentation rates were determined. Cs was selected as the most suitable geochemical normalizer to correct the grain-size effect. Non-contaminated samples from core sediments were selected according to the sedimentation rate, 32 types of profile pattern based on metal concentrations and metal/Cs ratios, and their variability in past sediments. Metal concentrations in the selected non-contaminated samples were well correlated with Cs, with a given Cs amounts in surface sediments corresponding to the lowest metal concentrations. This result supported the use of a procedure based on the sorption hypothesis, which was then used to synthesize all core samples and establish the regional BC of heavy metals in the coastal sediments. Linear regression equations between metal and Cs concentrations provided the following BCs of metals in coastal sediments in the South Sea of Korea: 70 (Cr), 13 (Co), 30 (Ni), 13 (Cu), 87 (Zn), and 23 (Pb)mg/kg at 8mg/kg of Cs (mean concentration of 393 sediments). PMID:24636889

  9. Crustal structure of the coastal and marine San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Tom, (Edited By)

    2002-01-01

    In summary, these studies were carried out in an environment where background information on faults in the San Francisco Bay region was sought. Much of the structural information presented here comes from experiments of a style unlikely to be conducted by the USGS in the near future. Together, the chapters in this volume provide a structural framework for a major part of a complex strike-slip fault system.

  10. The Common Occurrence of Highly Supercooled Drizzle and Rain near the Coastal Regions of the Western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; DeMott, Paul J.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Rasmussen, R M.; McDonough, Frank; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf; Suski, Kaitlyn; Cazorla, Alberto; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-09-05

    The formation of highly supercooled rain was documented by aircraft observations in clouds at a wide range of conditions near the coastal region of the western United States. Several case studies are described in detail using combined cloud and aerosol measurements to document both the highly super-cooled condition and the relatively pristine aerosol conditions under which it forms. The case studies include: (1) Marine convective clouds over the coastal waters of northern California, as measured by cloud physics probes flown on a Gulfstream-1 aircraft during the CALWATER campaign in February and early March 2011. The clouds had extensive drizzle in their tops, which extended downward to the 0°C isotherm as supercooled rain. Ice multiplication was observed only in mature parts of the clouds where cloud water was already depleted. (2) Orographically triggered convective clouds in marine air mass over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to the east of Sacramento, as measured in CALWATER. Supercooled rain was observed down to -21°C. No indications for ice multiplication were evident. (3) Orographic layer clouds over Yosemite National Park, also measured in CALWATER. The clouds had extensive drizzle at -21°C, which intensified with little freezing lower in the cloud, and (4) Supercooled drizzle drops in layer clouds near Juneau, Alaska, as measured by the Wyoming King Air as part of a FAA project to study aircraft icing in this region. Low concentrations of CCN was a common observation in all these clouds, allowing for the formation of clouds with small concentration of large drops that coalesced into supercooled drizzle and raindrops. Another common observation was the absence of ice nuclei and/or ice crystals in measurable concentrations was associated with the persistent supercooled drizzle and rain. Average ice crystal concentrations were 0.007 l-1 at the top of convective clouds at -12°C and 0.03 l-1 in the case of layer clouds at -21°C. In combination these

  11. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3‑ in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  12. Numerical simulation study of ozone episodes in complex terrain and coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian-Ping

    Ozone episodes occurred from 1999 to 2004 were investigated using the PATH (Pollutants in the Atmosphere and their Transport over Hong Kong) model system. PATH is consisted of three main modules: a meso-scale meteorological model (MM5), an emission processing module (EMS-95) and an Eulerian transport and chemistry model (SAQM). The synoptic patterns conducive to the occurrence of O3 episodes in Hong Kong were categorized by an inspection of the weather charts during the 6-year period from 1999 to 2004. They included Cyclonic, Anti-cyclonic and Trough synoptic patterns. About 56% of ozone episodes over the past 6 years were resulted from cyclonic (C) weather patterns. About 28% of ozone episodes were attributed to the anti-cyclonic (A) synoptic pattern, and the remaining high ozone episodes (about 16%) happened when the low-pressure trough (T) extended over south China sea. As an example, a typhoon-related ozone episode occurred in 1999 was studied in detail using PATH model system. The direct observation-simulation comparisons and statistical evaluations suggested very good performance on modeling of meteorology and acceptable performance on simulations of surface ozone concentrations. The integrated process rate (IPR) analysis method was implemented in SAQM to identify the relative contribution of regional transport and local chemical reactions to O3 formation during the O3 episode. The integrated reaction rate (IRR) was applied to examine the O3-NO x-VOC relationship through quantifying NOx-cycle and OH-cycle in both urban and rural areas in Hong Kong. IPR analysis was employed to three different synoptic patterns of ozone episodes occurred from year 2000 to year 2004 to identify the relative contributions of regional transport and chemical reactions to the ozone formation in Hong Kong. They included twenty-four cases related to the activities of tropical cyclones or typhoons traveling over the South China Sea and Northwestern Pacific, fifteen cases associated

  13. Investigation of Long-Term Impacts of Urbanization when Considering Global Warming for a Coastal Tropical Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonalez, Jorge E.; Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Smith, T.

    2010-01-01

    The overachieving goal of this project is to gain a better understanding of the climate impacts caused by the combined effects of land cover and land use (LCLU) changes and increasing global concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in tropical coastal areas, regions where global, regional and local climate phenomena converge, taking as the test case the densely populated northeast region of the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. The research uses an integrated approach of high-resolution remote sensing information linked to a high resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), which was employed to perform ensembles of climate simulations (combining 2-LCLU and 2-GHG concentration scenarios). Reconstructed agricultural maps are used to define past LCLU, and combined with reconstructed sea surface temperatures (SST) for the same period form the PAST climate scenario (1951-1956); while the PRESENT scenario (2000-2004) was additionally supported by high resolution remote sensing data (10-m-res). The climate reconstruction approach is validated with available observed climate data from surface weather stations for both periods of time simulated. The selection of the past and present climate scenarios considers large-scale biases (i.e. ENSO/NAO) as reflected in the region of interest. Direct and cross comparison of the results is allowing quantifying single, combined, and competitive effects. Results indicate that global GHG have dominant effects on minimum temperatures (following regional tendencies), while urban sprawl dominates maximum temperatures. To further investigate impacts of land use the Bowen Ratio and the thermal response number (TRN) are analyzed. The Bowen ratio indicates that forestation of past agricultural high areas have an overwhelmingly mitigation effect on increasing temperatures observed in different LCLU scenarios, but when abandoned agricultural lands are located in plains, the resulting shrub/grass lands produce higher surface

  14. Fog Prediction for Road Traffic Safety in a Coastal Desert Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartok, Juraj; Bott, Andreas; Gera, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Modern weather prediction models use relatively high grid resolutions as well as sophisticated parametrization schemes for microphysical and other subgrid-scale atmospheric processes. Nonetheless, with these models it remains a difficult task to perform successful numerical fog forecasts since many factors controlling a particular fog event are not yet sufficiently simulated. Here we describe our efforts to create a mechanism that produces successful predictions of fog in the territory located on the north coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Our approach consists in the coupling of the one-dimensional PAFOG fog model with the three-dimensional WRF 3.0 (Weather Research and Forecast) modelling system. The proposed method allows us to construct an efficient operative road traffic warning system for the occurrence of fog in the investigated region. In total 84 historical situations were studied during the period 2008-2009. Moreover, results of operative day-by-day fog forecasting during January and February 2010 are presented. For the investigated arid and hot climate region the land-sea breeze circulation seems to be the major factor affecting the diurnal variations of the meteorological conditions, frequently resulting in the formation of fog.

  15. The Impact of Urbanization on the Regional Aeolian Dynamics of an Arid Coastal Dunefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alexander; Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic impact on the geomorphology of many landscapes are inextricably connected but are often neglected due to the difficulty in making a direct link between the quasi natural and human processes that impact the environment. This research focuses on the Maspalomas dunefield, located on the southern coast of Gran Canaria, in the Canary Island Archipelago. The tourism industry in Maspalomas has led to intensive urbanization since the early 1960's over an elevated alluvial terrace that extends into the dunefield. Urbanization has had a substantial impact on both the regional airflow conditions and the geomorphological development of this transverse dune system. As a result airflow and sediment has been redirected in response to the large scale construction efforts. In situ data was collected during field campaigns using high resolution three-dimensional anemometry to identify the various modifications within the dunefield relative to incipient regional airflow conditions. The goal is to analyse the flow conditions near the urbanized terrace in relation to areas that are located away from the influence of the buildings and to verify numerical modelling results. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is used in order to expand the areal extent of analysis by providing an understanding of relevant flow dynamics (e.g. flow velocity, directionality, turbulence, shear stresses, etc.) at the mesoscale. An integrative three dimensional model for CFD simulations was created to address the impact of both the urban area (i.e. hotels, commercial centers, and residential communities) as well as the dune terrain on regional flow conditions. Early modelling results show that there is significant flow modification around the urban terrace with streamline compression, acceleration, and deflection of flow on the windward side of the development. Consequently downwind of the terrace there is an area of highly turbulent flow conditions and well developed separation and

  16. Advanced Regional and Decadal Predictions of Coastal Inundation for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B. P.; Donnelly, J. P.; Corbett, D. R.; Kemp, A.; Lindeman, K.; Mann, M. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Rahmstorf, S.

    2012-12-01

    Future inundation of the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts will depend upon both sea-level rise and the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones, each of which will be affected by climate change. In this proposal, we will employ new interdisciplinary approaches to bring about a step change in the reliability of predictions of such inundation. The rate of sea-level rise along the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts has increased throughout the 20th century. Whilst there is widespread agreement that it continue to accelerate during the 21st century, great uncertainty surrounds its magnitude and geographic distribution. Key uncertainties include the role of continental ice sheets, mountain glaciers and ocean density changes. Insufficient understanding of these complex physical processes precludes accurate prediction of sea-level rise. New approaches using semi-empirical models that relate instrumental records of climate and sea-level rise have projected up to 2 m of sea-level rise by AD 2100. But the time span of instrumental sea-level records is insufficient to adequately constrain the climate:sea-level relationship. Here, we produce new high resolution proxy data of sea-level and temperature to provide crucial additional constraints to such semi-empirical models. Our dataset will span the alternation between the "Medieval Climate Anomaly" and "Little Ice Age". Before the models can provide appropriate data for coastal management and planning, they must be complemented with regional estimates of sea-level rise. Therefore, the proxy sea-level data has been collected from six study areas (Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, Georgia and Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida) to accommodate the required extent of regional variability. In the case of inundation arising from tropical cyclones, the historical and observational records are insufficient for predicting their nature and recurrence, because they are such extreme and rare events. Moreover, in the future, the resultant

  17. Digital Elevations and Extents of Regional Hydrogeologic Units in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Aquifer System From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Jason P.; David C. Andreasen; Mcfarland, E. Randolph; Watt, Martha K.

    2016-01-01

    Digital geospatial datasets of the extents and top elevations of the regional hydrogeologic units of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina were developed to provide an updated hydrogeologic framework to support analysis of groundwater resources. The 19 regional hydrogeologic units were delineated by elevation grids and extent polygons for 20 layers: the land and bathymetric surface at the top of the unconfined surficial aquifer, the upper surfaces of 9 confined aquifers and 9 confining units, and the bedrock surface that defines the base of all Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. The delineation of the regional hydrogeologic units relied on the interpretive work from source reports for New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina rather than from re-analysis of fundamental hydrogeologic data. This model of regional hydrogeologic unit geometries represents interpolation, extrapolation, and generalization of the earlier interpretive work. Regional units were constructed from available digital data layers from the source studies in order to extend units consistently across political boundaries and approximate units in offshore areas.Though many of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain hydrogeologic units may extend eastward as far as the edge of the Atlantic Continental Shelf, the modeled boundaries of all regional hydrogeologic units in this study were clipped to an area approximately defined by the furthest offshore extent of fresh to brackish water in any part of the aquifer system, as indicated by chloride concentrations of 10,000 milligrams per liter. Elevations and extents of units that do not exist onshore in Long Island, New York, were not included north of New Jersey. Hydrogeologic units in North Carolina were included primarily to provide continuity across the Virginia-North Carolina State boundary, which was important for defining the southern edge of

  18. Accuracy Assessment of Aqua-MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Over Coastal Regions: Importance of Quality Flag and Sea Surface Wind Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. C.; Wang, J.; Zeng, J.; Petrenko, M.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Ichoku, C.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal regions around the globe are a major source for anthropogenic aerosols in the atmosphere, but the underlying surface characteristics are not favorable for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) algorithms designed for retrieval of aerosols over dark land or open-ocean surfaces. Using data collected from 62 coastal stations worldwide from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) from approximately 2002-2010, accuracy assessments are made for coastal aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from MODIS aboard Aqua satellite. It is found that coastal AODs (at 550 nm) characterized respectively by the MODIS Dark Land (hereafter Land) surface algorithm, the Open-Ocean (hereafter Ocean) algorithm, and AERONET all exhibit a log-normal distribution. After filtering by quality flags, the MODIS AODs respectively retrieved from the Land and Ocean algorithms are highly correlated with AERONET (with R(sup 2) is approximately equal to 0.8), but only the Land algorithm AODs fall within the expected error envelope greater than 66% of the time. Furthermore, the MODIS AODs from the Land algorithm, Ocean algorithm, and combined Land and Ocean product show statistically significant discrepancies from their respective counterparts from AERONET in terms of mean, probability density function, and cumulative density function, which suggest a need for future improvement in retrieval algorithms. Without filtering with quality flag, the MODIS Land and Ocean AOD dataset can be degraded by 30-50% in terms of mean bias. Overall, the MODIS Ocean algorithm overestimates the AERONET coastal AOD by 0.021 for AOD less than 0.25 and underestimates it by 0.029 for AOD greater than 0.25. This dichotomy is shown to be related to the ocean surface wind speed and cloud contamination effects on the satellite aerosol retrieval. The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reveals that wind speeds over the global coastal region 25 (with a mean and median

  19. Current Land Subsidence and Sea Level Rise along the North American Coastal Region: Observations from 10-Year (2005-2014) Closely-Spaced GPS and Tide Gauge Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Yu, J.; Kearns, T.; Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    Strong evidence has proved that the global sea-level is now rising at an increased rate and it is projected to continue to rise. However the rise of the sea-level is not uniform around the world. The local or relative sea-level rise will be of great concern to the coastal regions. The combination of the land subsidence and global sea-level rise causes the relative sea-level to rise. Relative sea-level rise increases the risk of flooding and wetland loss problems in near coastal areas, which in turn have important economic, environmental, and human health consequences for the heavily populated and ecologically important coastal region. However the role played by the coastal land subsidence is commonly absent during the discussion of sea-level rise problems. The sea-level can be measured in two ways: satellite altimetry and tide gauges. The sea-level measured by satellite is called the geocentric sea-level that is relative to earth center and the one measured by tide gauges is called local sea-level that is relative to the land. The tide gauge measurements of the local sea-level do not distinguish between whether the water is rising or the land is subsiding. In some coastal areas, land subsidence is occurring at a higher rate than the geocentric sea-level is rising. This can have a great local effect. GPS technology has proven to be efficient and accurate for measuring and tracking absolute land elevation change. There are about 300 publically available Continuously Operating Reference GPS Stations (CORS) within 15 km from the coastal line along North America. In this study, we use publicly available long-history (> 5 years) CORS data to derive current (2005-2014) coastal subsidence in North America. Absolute coastal sea-level rise will be determined by combing the land subsidence and relative sea-level measurements. This study shows that the relative sea-level of the Alaska area appears to be falling because the land is uplifting; this study also shows that the

  20. The effect of global warming scenarios on soybean and peanut yields in the Coastal Plain region of Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Laitta, M.T.; Huebner, N.J.

    1996-09-01

    This study is an evaluation of peanut and soybean yield in the Coastal Plain of Georgia as a function of seasonal water deficit scenarios. An analytical model of the Thornthwaite water balance model, based on historical temperature and precipitation data, is used to evaluate the probable response of crop productivity to climate changes in selected counties in South Georgia. The input of temperature and precipitation values for each site is based on the results of three general circulation models (GCM), which were regionally tailored to the Southeastern United States. A regression analysis was preformed to establish a numerical relationship between historical yield and moisture deficits. This model, in association with projected GCM model deficits, was used to predict future crop yields. Our results showed that given all GCM models evaluated, deficit periods for the selected sites will increase both the intensity and duration droughts in the southeastern U.S. Of the two crops analyzed, it was found that soybeans showed a higher sensitivity to moisture deficits than did peanuts.

  1. Hydrogeological investigation of shallow aquifers in an arid data-scarce coastal region (El Daba'a, northwestern Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Mohamed; van Geldern, Robert; Bubenzer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogeological investigations in arid regions are particularly important to support sustainable development. The study area, El Daba'a in northwestern Egypt, faces scarce water resources as a result of reported climate change that particularly affects the southern Mediterranean coast and increases stress on the local groundwater reserves. This change in climate affects the area in terms of drought, over-pumping and unregulated exploration of groundwater for irrigation purposes. The hydrogeological investigation is based on a multidisciplinary data-layer analysis that includes geomorphology, geology, slope, drainage lines, soil type, structural lineaments, subsurface data, stable isotopes, and chemical analyses. The study area contains Pleistocene and middle Miocene marine limestone aquifers. Based on lithology and microfacies analysis, the middle Miocene aquifer is subdivided into two water-bearing zones. The area is affected by sets of faults and anticline folds, and these structures are associated with fractures and joints that increase permeability and facilitate the recharge of groundwater. Stable isotope data indicate that groundwater of both the Pleistocene and middle Miocene aquifers is recharged by modern precipitation. The high salinity values observed in some groundwater wells that tap both aquifers could be attributed to leaching and dissolution processes of marine salts from the aquifers' marine limestone matrix. In addition, human activities can also contribute to an increase in groundwater salinity. A future water exploration strategy, based on the results from the multidisciplinary data-layer analysis, is proposed for the area. The derived scientific approach is transferable to other arid coastal areas with comparable conditions.

  2. Regional assessment of CO2-solubility trapping potential: a case study of the coastal and offshore Texas Miocene interval.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changbing; Treviño, Ramón H; Zhang, Tongwei; Romanak, Katherine D; Wallace, Kerstan; Lu, Jiemin; Mickler, Patrick J; Hovorka, Susan D

    2014-07-15

    This study presents a regional assessment of CO2-solubility trapping potential (CSTP) in the Texas coastal and offshore Miocene interval, comprising lower, middle, and upper Miocene sandstone. Duan's solubility model [Duan et al. Mar. Chem. 2006, 98, 131-139] was applied to estimate carbon content in brine saturated with CO2 at reservoir conditions. Three approaches (simple, coarse, and fine) were used to calculate the CSTP. The estimate of CSTP in the study area varies from 30 Gt to 167 Gt. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the CSTP in the study area is most sensitive to storage efficiency, porosity, and thickness and is least sensitive to background carbon content in brine. Comparison of CSTP in our study area with CSTP values for seven other saline aquifers reported in the literature showed that the theoretical estimate of CO2-solubility trapping potential (TECSTP) has a linear relationship with brine volume, regardless of brine salinity, temperature, and pressure. Although more validation is needed, this linear relationship may provide a quick estimate of CSTP in a saline aquifer. Results of laboratory experiments of brine-rock-CO2 interactions and the geochemical model suggest that, in the study area, enhancement of CSTP caused by interactions between brine and rocks is minor and the storage capacity of mineral trapping owing to mineral precipitation is relatively trivial. PMID:24956931

  3. Biological and physical oceanographic observations pertaining to the trawl fishery in a region of persistent coastal upwelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, J. T.; Gibson, D. B.; Evans, T. O.; Breaker, L.; Wrigley, R. C.; Broenkow, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    An upwelling episode in the Point Sal region of the central California coast is examined by using data obtained by a data buoy. The episodes was interrupted by the abrupt abatement of the strong wind which promotes coastal upwelling. The mean hourly upwelling index is calculated to be higher than the 20 year mean monthly value. During 3 days of light wind commercial bottom trawl operations were possible. Shipboard estimates of chlorophyll content in surface waters during trawling show the high concentrations that are indicative of a rich biomass of phytoplankton, a result of the upwelling episode. Satellite imagery shows the extent of the upwelling water to be of the order of 100 km offshore; the result of many upwelling episodes. Shipboard echo sounder data show the presence of various delmersal species and of zooplakton; the latter graze on the phytoplankton in the upper euphotic layers. The fish catch data are recorded according to species for 2 days of trawling, and the catch per trawl hour is recorded.

  4. Seasonal dynamics of nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, T.; Nagata, T.; Ijichi, M.; Furuya, K.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation in temperate oceans is a potentially important, but poorly understood process that may influence the marine nitrogen budget. This study determined seasonal variations in nitrogen fixation and nifH gene diversity within the euphotic zone in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific. Nitrogen fixation as high as 13.6 nmolN L-1 d-1 was measured from early summer to fall when the surface temperature exceeded 14.2 °C and the surface nitrate concentration was low (≤ 0.30 μM), although we also detected nitrogen fixation in subsurface layers (42-62 m) where nitrate concentrations were high (> 1 μM). During periods with high nitrogen fixation, the nifH sequences of UCYN-A were recovered, suggesting that these groups played a key role in nitrogen fixation. The nifH genes were also recovered in spring and winter when nitrogen fixation was undetectable. These genes consisted of many sequences affiliated with Cluster III diazotrophs (putative anaerobic bacteria), which hitherto have rarely been reported to be abundant in surface diazotroph communities in marine environments.

  5. HIGH PREVALENCE OF ENTEROINVASIVE ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED IN A REMOTE REGION OF NORTHERN COASTAL ECUADOR

    PubMed Central

    VIEIRA, NADIA; BATES, SARAH J.; SOLBERG, OWEN D.; PONCE, KARINA; HOWSMON, REBECCA; CEVALLOS, WILLIAM; TRUEBA, GABRIEL; RILEY, LEE; EISENBERG, JOSEPH N. S.

    2008-01-01

    Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) causes dysentery; however, it is less widely reported than other etiological agents in studies of diarrhea worldwide. Between August 2003 and July 2005, stool samples were collected in case-control studies in 22 rural communities in northwestern Ecuador. Infection was assessed by PCR specific for LT and STa genes of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), the bfp gene of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and the ipaH gene of both enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigellae. The pathogenic E. coli most frequently identified were EIEC (3.2 cases/100 persons) and Shigellae (1.5 cases/100 persons), followed by ETEC (1.3 cases/100 persons), and EPEC (0.9 case/100 persons). EIEC exhibited similar risk-factor relationships with other pathotypes analyzed but different age-specific infection rates. EIEC was the predominant diarrheagenic bacteria isolated in our community-based study, a unique observation compared with other regions of the world. PMID:17360879

  6. Verification of ECMWF, GFS and WRF forecast in coastal desert region of Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaj, Pavol; Bartoková, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    Forecast skill of different models over Middle East region is presented. ECMWF has 12.5 km resolution, while WRF with 16 km and nested 5 km grid is initialized by GFS. The comparison encompasses first half of year 2012 and 48-72 hours forecasts, which are evaluated by standard scores Bias, Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). In Dubai Emirate, the temperature RMSE of ECMWF is higher by 1.5 deg. C on average. As far as the desert terrain is flat and the station is 100km form the coast, the reason is not straightforward result of better resolution. More precise capturing of the diurnal variation especially the sea breeze phenomenon seems of higher importance. 9 other stations were examined.

  7. Characterization of Summertime Oceanic Boundary Conditions for Coastal and Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübler, G.; Parrish, D. D.; Aikin, K. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Ives, M.; Thouret, V.; Nédélec, P.; Cammas, J.; Team, A.

    2009-12-01

    Most detailed photochemical modeling must be carried out at regional or air basin scales in order to achieve the spatial resolution and detailed treatment of the chemical mechanisms required for realistic treatment of local air quality. Consequently these models must define upwind boundary conditions at the edge of the model domain. Uncertainty in the appropriate boundary conditions contributes significantly to the overall uncertainty of the photochemical modeling in California. Here we will investigate the available data sets to define to the extent possible the average summertime oceanic boundary conditions, the variability about that average, and the horizontal and vertical variability of the boundary conditions. The data sets considered will include ozone sondes launched from Trinidad Head CA, ozone and carbon monoxide profiles measured by MOZAIC aircraft flights into 4 west coast US cities, and the many chemical species measured on four aircraft flights conducted during the CARB-ARCTAS campaign during summer 2008

  8. Microbial Diversity of a Brazilian Coastal Region Influenced by an Upwelling System and Anthropogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Juliano C.; Araujo, Fabio V.; Coelho-Souza, Sergio A.; Peixoto, Raquel S.; Oliveira, Joana A. L.; Santos, Henrique F.; Dávila, Alberto M. R.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Upwelling systems are characterised by an intense primary biomass production in the surface (warmest) water after the outcrop of the bottom (coldest) water, which is rich in nutrients. Although it is known that the microbial assemblage plays an important role in the food chain of marine systems and that the upwelling systems that occur in southwest Brazil drive the complex dynamics of the food chain, little is known about the microbial composition present in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a molecular survey based on SSU rRNA gene from the three domains of the phylogenetic tree of life present in a tropical upwelling region (Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The aim was to analyse the horizontal and vertical variations of the microbial composition in two geographically close areas influenced by anthropogenic activity (sewage disposal/port activity) and upwelling phenomena, respectively. A lower estimated diversity of microorganisms of the three domains of the phylogenetic tree of life was found in the water of the area influenced by anthropogenic activity compared to the area influenced by upwelling phenomena. We observed a heterogenic distribution of the relative abundance of taxonomic groups, especially in the Archaea and Eukarya domains. The bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla, whereas the microeukaryotic community was dominated by Metazoa, Fungi, Alveolata and Stramenopile. The estimated archaeal diversity was the lowest of the three domains and was dominated by uncharacterised marine Crenarchaeota that were most closely related to Marine Group I. Conclusions/Significance The variety of conditions and the presence of different microbial assemblages indicated that the area of Arraial do Cabo can be used as a model for detailed studies that contemplate the correlation between pollution-indicating parameters and the depletion of microbial diversity in areas close

  9. Calibration studies on mollusc shells in the Peru-Chile coastal region submitted to ENSO impacts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortlieb, L.; Guzman, N.; El Jouhari, L.; Carré, M.

    2003-04-01

    Mollusc shells have an exceptional potential for high resolution paleoclimatic records and, unlike corals, ice cores and even tree rings, have the advantage to be widely distributed along the world coastlines. For the reconstruction of seasonal or intra annual climate variability, this kind of fast-growing biogenic material is particularly suitable. Several preliminary studies involving stable isotope variations within modern, as well as Early and Middle Holocene, bivalve shells from Peru and northern Chile showed relatively short-lived excursions which depict thermal anomalies linked to regional ENSO impacts. The Eastern Pacific region (30^oS-1^oS) which is actually the area where the strongest SST signal of ENSO is obtained, and where abundant archaeological shell deposits and fossiliferous marine terrace units are preserved, thus offers a great opportunity to develop a new proxy for paleo-ENSO studies. Oxygen isotope data were classically obtained through series of sub-samples along the major growth axis of marine molluscs. However this traditional approach only provides a rough evidence for the record of anomalous conditions during weeks or months. Recent technical developments allowing a much higher resolution in the geochemical measurements and in the microstructural observations of the sampled material, associated to a better understanding of the biomineralisation processes, renewed significantly the modality of the calibration studies. The CONCHAS project involves coupled measurements of seawater parameters and variations of geochemical and isotopic composition at a daily, or subdaily, scale. The studies bear upon half a dozen species of molluscs (bivalves and one gastropod) and include inter-specific comparisons on individuals growing in a given environment (natural or controlled artificially). The first results indicate clearly that all the factors that control the growth rate of the carbonate skeleton and the precise timing of the biomineral deposition

  10. In-roads to the spread of antibiotic resistance: regional patterns of microbial transmission in northern coastal Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Goldstick, Jason; Cevallos, William; Trueba, Gabriel; Levy, Karen; Scott, James; Percha, Bethany; Segovia, Rosana; Ponce, Karina; Hubbard, Alan; Marrs, Carl; Foxman, Betsy; Smith, David L; Trostle, James

    2012-05-01

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance (AR) increases treatment cost and probability of failure, threatening human health worldwide. The relative importance of individual antibiotic use, environmental transmission and rates of introduction of resistant bacteria in explaining community AR patterns is poorly understood. Evaluating their relative importance requires studying a region where they vary. The construction of a new road in a previously roadless area of northern coastal Ecuador provides a valuable natural experiment to study how changes in the social and natural environment affect the epidemiology of resistant Escherichia coli. We conducted seven bi-annual 15 day surveys of AR between 2003 and 2008 in 21 villages. Resistance to both ampicillin and sulphamethoxazole was the most frequently observed profile, based on antibiogram tests of seven antibiotics from 2210 samples. The prevalence of enteric bacteria with this resistance pair in the less remote communities was 80 per cent higher than in more remote communities (OR = 1.8 [1.3, 2.3]). This pattern could not be explained with data on individual antibiotic use. We used a transmission model to help explain this observed discrepancy. The model analysis suggests that both transmission and the rate of introduction of resistant bacteria into communities may contribute to the observed regional scale AR patterns, and that village-level antibiotic use rate determines which of these two factors predominate. While usually conceived as a main effect on individual risk, antibiotic use rate is revealed in this analysis as an effect modifier with regard to community-level risk of resistance. PMID:21957121

  11. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Seabirds Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinsinger, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    From the cold, high Arctic area of Alaska to the warm, tropical Pacific area of Hawai'i, a diverse array of seabird species numbering in the millions of individuals live off the bounty of the Pacific Ocean. Many come to land only to nest and raise their young - these are species supremely adapted for life on the water, whether it be near the coast or hundreds of miles at sea. Those seabirds that reside in the North Pacific year-round are joined each summer by millions of migrant birds that leave the southern hemisphere in winter for better feeding conditions in the north. Seabirds in the Pacific remain one of the great wildlife spectacles on the earth. Yet, seabirds face a number of threats such as oil spills, introduction of predators to their nesting islands, and conflicts with fisheries. State and Federal agencies require increasingly sophisticated information on population dynamics, breeding biology, and feeding ecology to successfully manage these species and their ecosystems. Within the Western Region of the USGS, scientists from the Alaska Science Center (ASC), Western Ecological Research Center (WERC), and Pacific Islands Ecosystems Research Center are leading the way in conducting research on many of these little known species. Their aim is to improve our understanding of seabirds in the Pacific and to provide information to support informed management of the birds and their ecosystems.

  12. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yawei; Pan, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS) had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g). Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution. PMID:24688410

  13. Water quality and hydrology in a coastal region of The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rees Vellinga, E.; Toussaint, C. G.; Wit, K. E.

    For horticultural and agricultural water use, as well as with regard to environmental needs, it is imperative to maintain a good quality of the surface waters in central-west Netherlands. However, many factors with a deteriorating influence exist. To determine the influence of the various factors, a multidisciplinary investigation was carried out and the results were laid down in an extensive report in 1976 by the Institute for Land and Water Management Research (I.C.W.). This paper gives the summary of this geological and hydrological survey, and the data of groundwater as well as surface water quality. Information about the chemical composition of the surface waters and the groundwater aquifers is given in maps and graphs, and the methods with which the geohydrological data have been analyzed and applied are discussed. The influence on surface water quality of the most important polluting sources was established, and a conspectus of their contribution is given. Of these sources some are natural ones, whose contribution is almost impossible to be lowered. Other sources are the result of human activities within the area, which could be and are combated. A special and external source is the inlet water coming from the river Rhine. Fresh water is supplied to the central-west Netherlands region to compensate evaporation from the crops and also to flush the canals and ditches in order to combat the influence of the natural internal sources (in particular saline seepage) and the remainder of the other internal ones. In this context the quality of the Rhine water, the only source of fresh inlet water, remains of grave concern.

  14. Sand resources, regional geology, and coastal processes for shoreline restoration: case study of Barataria shoreline, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Flocks, James G.; Kulp, Mark; Penland, Shea; Britsch, Louis D.

    2002-01-01

    The Louisiana barrier shoreline of Barataria Basin, which lies within the western Mississippi River delta, has undergone significant retreat during the past 100 years. The most practical restoration method to rebuild these shorelines is sand nourishment. Seismic and sonar interpretations verified with geologic samples (vibracores and borings) indicate that there are nine sand targets within the Barataria study area that meet or exceed the minimum criteria for potential resource sites. However, the near surface lithology in the basin is typically silts and clays. Locating suitable sand resources for shoreline restoration is challenging. The sand units are associated with geologic depositional systems such as ebb-tidal deltas, distributary mouth bars, and channel fill (undifferentiated fluvial or tidal inlet channels). The nine potential sand targets consist primarily of fine sand and can be delineated into three surficial and six buried features. The surficial features contain approximately 10% of the total sand resources identified. At least 90% of the sand resources need overburden sediment removed prior to use; almost 570 million yd3 (438.5 mil m3) of overburden will need to be removed if the entire resource is mined. In this study, we identified 396 to 532 mil yd3 (305.8 to 410.8 mil m3) of potential sand deposits for shoreline restoration. Previous studies using less dense survey methods greatly over-estimated sand resources available in this area. Many fluvial channels reported previously as sand-filled are mud-filled. Contrary to these previous studies, few fluvial subsystems in this region have abundant sand resources.

  15. Phytoplankton community structure and nitrogen nutrition in Leeuwin Current and coastal waters off the Gascoyne region of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Christine E.; Waite, Anya M.; Thompson, Peter A.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.

    2007-04-01

    Within the coastal waters of the eastern Indian Ocean adjacent to Western Australia, we tested the hypothesis that regenerated production (and, by inference, the microbial food web) would predominate in oligotrophic Leeuwin Current (LC) and offshore (OS) surface waters. Conversely, we expected that new production would be more important within the ˜5 times more productive shelf countercurrents (Ningaloo and Capes Currents; NC&CC) and the LC&OS deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Phytoplankton species composition and abundance were assessed using both light microscopy and chemotaxonomic methods, and isotopic nitrogen uptake experiments ( 15NO 3-, 15NH 4+) were performed at trace (0.05 μM) and saturating (5.0 μM) levels. Phytoplankton community structure was statistically distinct between LC&OS and countercurrent regions. Picoplankton (unicellular cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes) accounted for a mean of 55-65% of pigment biomass in LC&OS waters, with haptophytes as the other primary contributor (21-32%). Conversely, within countercurrent and shelf regions, diatoms (up to 22%) and haptophytes (up to 57%) were more abundant, although cyanobacteria still played an important role (up to 40% of pigment biomass). Absolute NO 3- uptake rates for all samples ranged between 0.5 and 7.1 nmol L -1 h -1, and in countercurrent waters were not significantly different at the surface (3.0±2.1 nmol L -1 h -1; mean±SD) compared to the DCM (2.7±2.3 nmol L -1 h -1). However, in LC&OS waters, rates were significantly lower at the surface (1.2±0.7 nmol L -1 h -1) than the DCM (3.9±2.5 nmol L -1 h -1; p=0.05). These values represent conservative estimates for the region due to methodological difficulties encountered with nitrogen uptake experiments in these oligotrophic waters. In contrast with the distinct community composition between different water types, mean estimates of the f-ratio were similar across sampling depths and water types: 0.17±0.07 at the surface and 0.16±0.06 at

  16. Influences of riverine and upwelling waters on the coastal carbonate system off Central Chile and their ocean acidification implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Cristian A.; Contreras, Paulina Y.; Pérez, Claudia A.; Sobarzo, Marcus; Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Salisbury, Joe

    2016-06-01

    A combined data set, combining data from field campaigns and oceanographic cruises, was used to ascertain the influence of both river discharges and upwelling processes, covering spatial and temporal variation in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and aragonite saturation state. This work was conducted in one of the most productive river-influenced upwelling areas in the South Pacific coasts (36°S). Additionally, further work was also conducted to ascertain the contribution of different DIC sources, influencing the dynamics of DIC along the land-ocean range. Six sampling campaigns were conducted across seven stations at the Biobío River basin, covering approximately 200 km. Three research cruises were undertaken simultaneously, covering the adjacent continental shelf, including 12 sampling stations for hydrographic measurements. Additionally, six stations were also sampled for chemical analyses, covering summer, winter, and spring conditions over 2010 and 2011. Our results evidenced that seaward extent of the river plume was more evident during the winter field campaign, when highest riverine DIC fluxes were observed. The carbonate system along the river-ocean continuum was very heterogeneous varying over spatial and temporal scales. High DIC and pCO2 were observed in river areas with larger anthropogenic effects. CO2 supersaturation at the river plume was observed during all campaigns due to the influence of low pH river waters in winter/spring and high-pCO2 upwelling waters in summer. δ13CDIC evidenced that main DIC sources along the river and river plume corresponded to the respiration of terrestrial organic matter. We have linked this natural process to the carbonate saturation on the adjacent river-influenced coastal area, suggesting that Ωaragonite undersaturation in surface/subsurface waters is largely modulated by the influence of both river discharge and coastal upwelling events in this productive coastal area. Conditions of low Ωaragonite might impact

  17. NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's coastal resources on a state, regional and national basis. Based on NCA monitoring from 1999-2001, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters (at over 2500 locati...

  18. Exogenous processes study in the coastal zone of the large reservoirs in the archaeological monuments placement (Volga-Kama region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynullin, Iskander; Usmanov, Bulat

    2014-05-01

    The problem of conservation of archaeological heritage is highly relevant for the Republic of Tatarstan (RT), because in its territory identified, studied and registered around 4,300 archaeological sites. Most of archaeological sites from the Mesolithic to the late Middle Ages, now situated in the coastal zone of reservoirs where archaeological objects destroying because of intensive abrasion processes. The Volga and Kama rivers region attracted people for millennia. This territory of the Russian Plain is abounding in archaeological sites of various ages. During the Upper Paleolithic study region was quite convenient for living activity of the first inhabitants because of its situation out of the glacier limits. The sites on the banks are deposited within deluvial sediments of the Late Valday glaciation which have been accumulated on the slope of the Volga and Kama valleys, placing the third terrace and the segmentations of the second terrace over the flood-plain and now completely or fragmentary destroyed by reservoir waters. The analysis of remote sensing (1958-2013) and field survey (2011-2013) data performed. Georeferencing and alignment of the historical maps with remote sensing data makes possible to reveal mistakes in old site plans and re-create the shape of the destroyed archaeological objects, as well to get the exact size of the monument and its correct orientation. Results showed also that the studying sites caused a great rate of destruction of coastline. Cultural heritage sites monitoring, with information about the chronology, cultural layer value, settlement specifics, etc., taking into account the methods used in landscape ecology and field archaeological survey, allows to evaluate damage and the intensity of archaeological sites destruction through the dangerous exogenous processes estimation. Exogenous processes data and archaeological GIS integration will form unified system of archaeological rescue works, will provide analysis of large amount

  19. Two faces of agricultural intensification hanging over aquatic biodiversity: The case of chironomid diversity from farm ponds vs. natural wetlands in a coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoy, Encarnación; Casas, J. Jesús

    2015-05-01

    Increasing agricultural land use and intensification have given rise to the loss and eutrophication of coastal wetlands worldwide. In Mediterranean coastal regions, irrigated agriculture, in turn, has prompted the proliferation of farm ponds which might compensate for wetland loss and degradation if their management regimen results are compatible with biodiversity conservation. Here, we studied regional (γ-), local (α-) and interlocal (β-) diversities of chironomids in coastal wetlands and irrigation ponds from a Mediterranean region, to determine the contribution of each habitat type to regional diversity, and to disentangle which environmental factors, anthropogenic or natural, contributed most to explain diversity patterns. Regional diversity was slightly, but still significantly, higher in natural wetlands than in farm ponds, which can be attributed to the significantly higher β-diversity in natural wetlands, since, despite the much larger surface area of wetlands, both habitat types did not differ in local diversity (α-diversity). In both habitats, however, the contribution of β-diversity to regional diversity was higher compared to that of α-diversity, and the component 'spatial species turnover' exceeded that of the component 'nestedness' of β-diversity. This, together with an outstanding assemblage complementarity (approx. 50%) between habitat types, emphasizes the vital contribution of farm ponds, together with natural wetlands, to regional diversity. Despite the higher salinity and eutrophication of natural wetlands that tended to reduce diversity in chironomid assemblages, their more heterogeneous shore line likely compensated somewhat for such negative effects. Unlike wetlands, the homogeneous and unvegetated shore of farm ponds, in conjunction with their intensive management, probably induced adverse effects on local and interlocal diversity. Specific recommendations are given in this regards to mitigate impacts and improve the value of both

  20. The Effect of River Alkalinity on Coastal Aragonite Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Meo, O.; Salisbury, J.

    2008-12-01

    As atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase, concern about ocean acidification is rising. Although a great deal of recent research has been focused on this topic, little has been done to explore how land and ocean interactions are affecting coastal acidification. This study addresses the regional variability of total alkalinity (TA) in rivers and its effect on the aragonite saturation state (Ω) at river mouths. The TA concentration of river water is its ability to buffer changes in pH, while Ω is an index that expresses the availability of calcium and carbonate ions (e.g. for shell formation). Local river sampling in New England (USA) and New Brunswick (CAN) showed regional differences in TA concentrations (203-2155 μmol/L), which are likely related to bedrock and land use patterns. USGS alkalinity data for rivers entering the East and Gulf Coasts (USA) ranged from 181-3598 μmol/L and showed a regional pattern of low TA in northern rivers and higher TA in the southern and Gulf rivers. Estimated aragonite saturation states (0.0- 5.6) revealed that most rivers were under-saturated (Ω < 1) and only a few rivers (mainly entering the Gulf) were super-saturated (Ω > 1). This widespread under-saturation near the coast may have detrimental effects for calcifying organisms that rely on aragonite to build their shells. Further study is needed to determine the spatial extent of river influence on acidification of coastal waters and to elucidate the ways in which anticipated climate change will alter the chemistry of river water entering the ocean.

  1. Regional variability in bed-sediment concentrations of wastewater compounds, hormones and PAHs for portions of coastal New York and New Jersey impacted by hurricane Sandy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick; Gibson, Cathy A; Fisher, Shawn C.; Fisher, Irene; Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly; Romanok, Kristin; Foreman, William; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Focazio, Michael J.; Jones, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    Bed sediment samples from 79 coastal New York and New Jersey, USA sites were analyzed for 75 compounds including wastewater associated contaminants, PAHs, and other organic compounds to assess the post-Hurricane Sandy distribution of organic contaminants among six regions. These results provide the first assessment of wastewater compounds, hormones, and PAHs in bed sediment for this region. Concentrations of most wastewater contaminants and PAHs were highest in the most developed region (Upper Harbor/Newark Bay, UHNB) and reflected the wastewater inputs to this area. Although the lack of pre-Hurricane Sandy data for most of these compounds make it impossible to assess the effect of the storm on wastewater contaminant concentrations, PAH concentrations in the UHNB region reflect pre-Hurricane Sandy conditions in this region. Lower hormone concentrations than predicted by the total organic carbon relation occurred in UHNB samples, suggesting that hormones are being degraded in the UHNB region.

  2. Regional variability in bed-sediment concentrations of wastewater compounds, hormones and PAHs for portions of coastal New York and New Jersey impacted by hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Patrick J; Gibson, Catherine A; Fisher, Shawn C; Fisher, Irene J; Reilly, Timothy J; Smalling, Kelly L; Romanok, Kristin M; Foreman, William T; ReVello, Rhiannon C; Focazio, Michael J; Jones, Daniel K

    2016-06-30

    Bed sediment samples from 79 coastal New York and New Jersey, USA sites were analyzed for 75 compounds including wastewater associated contaminants, PAHs, and other organic compounds to assess the post-Hurricane Sandy distribution of organic contaminants among six regions. These results provide the first assessment of wastewater compounds, hormones, and PAHs in bed sediment for this region. Concentrations of most wastewater contaminants and PAHs were highest in the most developed region (Upper Harbor/Newark Bay, UHNB) and reflected the wastewater inputs to this area. Although the lack of pre-Hurricane Sandy data for most of these compounds make it impossible to assess the effect of the storm on wastewater contaminant concentrations, PAH concentrations in the UHNB region reflect pre-Hurricane Sandy conditions in this region. Lower hormone concentrations than predicted by the total organic carbon relation occurred in UHNB samples, suggesting that hormones are being degraded in the UHNB region. PMID:27177500

  3. The common occurrence of highly supercooled drizzle and rain near the coastal regions of the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; DeMott, Paul; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Rasmussen, Roy; McDonough, Frank; Comstock, Jennifer; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason; Jonsson, Haflidi; Suski, Kaitlyn; Cazorla, Alberto; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-09-01

    supercooled rain and drizzle from cloud tops at -12 to -21°C down to the 0° isotherm was documented by aircraft observations in clouds over a wide range of meteorological situations under relatively pristine marine aerosol conditions. The Gulfstream-1 aircraft during the CalWater campaign in February and early March 2011 measured clouds over the coastal waters of northern California, orographically triggered convective clouds over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, and orographic layer clouds over Yosemite National Park. Supercooled drizzle in layer clouds near Juneau, Alaska, was measured by the Wyoming King Air as part of a FAA project to study aircraft icing in this region. Low concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) were commonly observed in all of these clouds, allowing for the formation of clouds with small concentrations of mostly large drops that coalesced into supercooled drizzle and raindrops. Another common observation was the absence of ice nuclei (IN) and/or ice crystals in measurable concentrations, associated with persistent supercooled drizzle and rain. Average ice crystal concentrations were 0.007 l-1 at the top of convective clouds at -12°C and 0.03 l-1 in the case of layer clouds at -21°C. In combination, these two conditions of low concentrations of CCN and very few IN provide ideal conditions for the formation of highly supercooled drizzle and rain. These results help explain the anomalously high incidences of aircraft icing at cold temperatures in U.S. west coast clouds and highlight the need to include aerosol effects when simulating aircraft icing with cloud models.

  4. Ambient air benzene at background sites in China's most developed coastal regions: exposure levels, source implications and health risks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-04-01

    Benzene is a known human carcinogen causing leukemia, yet ambient air quality objectives for benzene are not available in China. The ambient benzene levels at four background sites in China's most developed coastal regions were measured from March 2012 to February 2013. The sites are: SYNECP, in the Northeast China Plain (NECP); YCNCP, in the North China Plain (NCP); THYRD, in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and DHPRD, in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). It was found that the mean annual benzene levels (578-1297 ppt) at the background sites were alarmingly higher, especially when compared to those of 60-480 pptv monitored in 28 cities in the United States. Wintertime benzene levels were significantly elevated at both sites (SYNECP and YCNCP) in northern China due to heating with coal/biofuels. Even at these background sites, the lifetime cancer risks of benzene (1.7-3.7E-05) all exceeded 1E-06 set by USEPA as acceptable for adults. At both sites in northern China, good correlations between benzene and CO or chloromethane, together with much lower toluene/benzene (T/B) ratios, suggested that benzene was largely related to coal combustion and biomass/biofuel burning. At the DHPRD site in the PRD, benzene revealed a highly significant correlation with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), indicating that its source was predominantly from vehicle emissions. At the THYRD site in the YRD, higher T/B ratios and correlations between benzene and tetrachloroethylene, or MTBE, implied that benzene levels were probably affected by both traffic-related and industrial emissions. PMID:25618820

  5. Mitigation of Disasters Due to Severe Climate Events: from Policy to Practice,the West African Coastal Region Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ediang, Okuku

    2016-07-01

    The distributive pattern of disaster due to severe climate events over the coast of West Africa especially Nigeria was examined using yearly mean disaster due to severe climatic events for the period of 30 years (1981-2010) from the marine stations in the coastal region of Nigeria. Graphical and isohyetal analyses were used to look into the patter of severe weather events over the area considered and to see if the severe weather events is increasing or not in the coast of West Africa especially the Nigerian coast and how to mitigate ,were policy relating to severe weather events are discussed. The paper conclude that due to the nature of coast of West Africa and Nigeria in particular, it enjoys longer severe weather events season than dry during the wet season, it is common to observe periods of enhanced or suppressed convective activity to persist over the wide areas for somedays. This paper also contributes to the wealth of knowledge already existing on Indigenous people play major roles in preserving the ecosystem especially during severe weather events . This has resulted in the recent calls for the integration of indigenous knowledge systems into global knowledge system strategies. Until now, integrating local knowledge systems into severe weather events and climate change concerns is not a completely new idea. A comprehensive review of literature using electronic and non-electronic databases formed the methodology. The paper conclude also by drawing the attention that by targeting Promoting indigenous people's participation in severe weather events and climate change issues is an important initiative towards adaptation and sustainable development in Africa and around the world. It is increasingly realized that the global knowledge system has dominated research, policies and programmes that address current severe weather events and climate change's challenges,mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  6. Roseovarius marisflavi sp. nov., isolated from an amphioxus breeding zone in the coastal region of the Yellow Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Zhao, Rui; Ji, Shiqi; Shi, Xiaochong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2013-09-01

    A novel Gram stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain H50(T), was isolated from an amphioxus breeding zone in the coastal region of the Yellow Sea, China. Cells were observed to be ovoid or short rods, lacked flagella and were found to contain bacteriochlorophyll a. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate was found to be accumulated. The temperature range for growth was determined to be 0-37 °C (optimum 28-37 °C). The halotolerance range for growth is 1-15 % NaCl (optimum 2-7 %). The pH range for growth is 6.0-8.0 (optimum 7.0). The major fatty acids were identified as C18:1ω7c and C16:0. The following polar lipids were found to be present: diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and a lipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was determined to be Q-10. DNA G+C content was determined to be 57.7 mol%. Strain H50(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Pelagicola litoralis DSM 18290(T) (96.1 %), Roseovarius mucosus DSM 17069(T) (95.8 %) and Roseovarius tolerans DSM 11457(T) (95.7 %). In the phylogenetic trees, strain H50(T) was clustered with the genus Roseovarius but not Pelagicola. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, strain H50(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Roseovarius, for which the name Roseovarius marisflavi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H50(T) (=CGMCC 1.10799(T)=JCM 17553(T)). PMID:23828179

  7. Quality of shallow groundwater and drainage water in irrigated agricultural lands in a Mediterranean coastal region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Odemiş, Berkant; Bozkurt, Sefer; Ağca, Necat; Yalçin, Mehmet

    2006-04-01

    Spatial and seasonal differences in water quality of drainage water and unconfined shallow groundwater were related to irrigation in Samandağ, a Mediterranean coastal region. Eighteen wells, seven drainage points and Orontes River were monitored bimonthly for one year for analyses of electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), cations (Na, K, Ca + Mg) and anions (CO(3), HCO(3), Cl and SO(4)). Agricultural irrigation using saline groundwater decreased water quality of Orontes River during the irrigation season (May to September) more than during the non-irrigation season (October to April). Seasonal fluctuations in water quality of shallow groundwater were greater during the irrigation season than the non-irrigation season in the study area. Excessive use of groundwater resulted in a decline in the water table levels in the irrigation season. Water table level rose up to the soil surface in areas where there was a lack of drainage or poor drainage, due to the impact of precipitation in the winter. SAR and pH values of drainage water increased in the irrigation season, while the other properties of drainage water decreased. Irrigation water quality of Orontes River was classified as C(3)S(1) in both seasons. Irrigation water quality of shallow groundwater and drainage water varied from C(2)S(1) to C(4)S(2) in one year. Drainage and well waters were found to be different on yearly basis in terms of Na, SAR (p<0.01) and Ca + Mg concentrations (p<0.001). Ca + Mg concentrations for both sources were different for all sampling dates (p<0.001). PMID:16614781

  8. The effect of sea-water intrusion due to the large scale construction in a coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, S.; Jin, S.; Woo, N. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, H.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    This study was carried out for estimating the seawater intrusion at the disturbed aquifer by a large scale construction when building a power plant in a coastal region, located in southeastern part of the Korean peninsula. Groundwater sampling and vertical profiling of electrical conductivity(EC) for 8 monitoring wells were carried. EC profiling results shows that maximum EC for PW-5, 6 and 7 is over 40 mS/cm, for PZ-1, 3, 4 and 8 is 18.76, 4.46, 26.16, 21.42 mS/cm and for PZ-2 is 0.79 mS/cm,respectively. Chemical composition of water samples shows that water types of Na-Cl for PZ-5, 6, and 7 (excavated and backfilled area), Na-Cl-SO4 for PZ-4 and PZ-8, Na-Ca-Mg-Cl for PZ-1, Ca-Na-SO4-Cl for PZ-2, and Mg-Ca-Na-SO4 for PZ-3. In addition, the bivariate plot of SO4/Cl(meq ratios) and SO4(mmol/L) indicates that PZ-4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 appear to be seawater, PZ-1 is located at mixing zone between freshwater and seawater, and PZ-2 is freshwater. However, based on the high SO42- level and (HCO3-/Sum anions} ratio less than 0.8, groundwater at PZ-3 seems to show the gypsum dissolution. The gypsum dissolution was attributed to the effect of sea-water intrusion on ageing of lean concrete that was used for backfill around the PZ-3. Key words : large scale construction, EC profiling, hydrochemistry, sea-water intrusion, concrete ageing Acknowledgement This study has been carried out under the Nuclear R&D Program [No. 2010-0001070] supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Republic of Korea.

  9. Spatiotemporal patterns and source implications of aromatic hydrocarbons at six rural sites across China's developed coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhou; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Yang, Weiqiang; Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are important anthropogenic precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Here we measured ambient aromatic hydrocarbons from March 2012 to February 2014 at six rural sites in China's developed coastal regions. On average, benzene (B) comprised > 50% of total benzene (B), toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E), and xylenes (X) (BTEX) at sites in the Northeast China Plain (NECP) or in the North China Plain (NCP), whereas T, E, and X accounted for > 77% of total BTEX at sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta in the south. BTEX at the northern sites was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with combustion tracer-carbon monoxide (CO) but weakly correlated with traffic marker-methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), suggesting that their main sources were coal and biofuel/biomass burning with substantially elevated B levels during the winter heating period. In contrast, BTEX at the southern sites originated mainly from traffic-related and/or industrial emission sources, as indicated by the poor correlations with CO but highly significant (p < 0.01) correlations with MTBE and tetrachloroethylene, an industrial emission tracer. The B/CO emission ratios from measurement agreed within a factor of 2 with that of a previous widely used emission inventory of China, but the T/CO ratio at the NECP site and the o-X/CO ratio at the NCP site were 29% and 38% of that in the inventory, respectively; the E/CO and X/CO ratios at the YRD site were 3.2-3.5 fold that in the emission inventory.

  10. Gains from trans-boundary water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems: a case study for the Minho region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roebeling, P. C.; Brito, A. G.; Rocha, J.; Alves, H.; Mamede, J.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide, aquatic and coastal ecosystems are affected by point and diffuse source water pollution originating from rural, urban and industrial land uses in catchments, even though these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental and economic perspective. Integrated Catchment and Coastal Zone Management (ICCZM) specifically takes into account this inherent relationship between terrestrial land use, surface and ground water pollution, aquatic and coastal ecosystem state, and associated environmental values. To warrant sustainable regional economic development, we need to balance the marginal costs from terrestrial water pollution abatement and the associated marginal benefits from aquatic and coastal resource appreciation. In doing so, however, we need to differentiate between intra- and trans-boundary catchments because benefactors and beneficiaries from water quality improvement are not one and the same. In trans-boundary catchments, private (national) welfare maximizing rates of water quality improvement differ across nations as benefits from water quality improvement generally accrue to one nation while the costs are paid by multiple nations. While approaches for water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems are fairly recent though existent, water quality management in trans-boundary catchments poses additional challenges. The objective of this paper is to develop and apply a deterministic optimal control approach that allows us to explore private and social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems. For a case study of the Minho region in the Iberian Peninsula, we estimate nation-specific water pollution abatement cost (based on management practice adoption) and benefit (based on aquatic and coastal environmental values) functions, to determine as well as compare private (national) and social (trans-national) welfare maximizing rates of water

  11. Late Quaternary tectonic deformation in the Cape Arago-Bandon region of coastal Oregon as deduced from wave-cut platforms

    SciTech Connect

    McInelly, G.W.; Kelsey, H.M. )

    1990-05-10

    The Cape Arago region of south central Oregon sits on the upper plate of the Cascadia subduction zone about 80 km east of the base of the continental slope. The style of late Pleistocene deformation along the Cascadia forearc near Cape Arago is well expressed by the altitudinal variation of a set of five uplifted wave-cut platforms. These platforms record open folding, with a half wavelength of about 6-7 km, as well as late Quaternary offset on flexural-slip reverse faults that parallel bedding in the underlying bedrock. The folds have produced both landward and seaward tilts to the uplifted wave-cut platforms. Because the folds cut obliquely across the coastline, the magnitude of coastal uplift is variable. In the case of the lowest, 80 ka wave-cut platform, this variable uplift has resulted in coastal deformation ranging from subsidence to a maximum uplift of 0.8 m/kyr. Quantitative analysis of the mechanism of flexural slip folding for the South Slough syncline near Cape Arago indicates that the late Quaternary strain rate has decreased in the last 200 kyr. Evidence of past great subduction-style earthquakes, such as regional uplift and regional landward tilting of wave-cut platforms, or regional submergence of coastlands, is lacking in the Cape Arago region. Instead, the deformational style is controlled by folding. Though localized folding is dominant, the occurrence of great subduction-style earthquakes is not precluded because localized folding could occur concurrently with regional coseismic deformation.

  12. Holocene sea surface temperatures in the East African Coastal Current region and their relationship with North Atlantic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnert, Henning; Kuhlmann, Holger; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Pätzold, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The East African Coastal Current (EACC) is one of the western boundary currents of the Indian Ocean and represents the only pathway for southern water masses to enter the Arabian Sea. Today, sea surface temperatures (SST) in the western boundary currents region covary with those in large parts of the central tropical Indian Ocean. The latter play an important role in global climate by influencing the mean state of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and associated Atlantic SST anomalies (Hoerling et al., 2001). In the EACC region paleoclimate data are sparse and its Holocene temperature history is unexplored. We present data from a 5 m long sediment core retrieved off northern Tanzania where the EACC flows northward year-round. Proximity to the Pangani River mouth provides a steady sediment supply. We have reconstructed SST from Mg/Ca and stable oxygen isotope ratios (^18O) of the surface-dwelling planktonic foraminifera species Globigerinoides ruber (sensu stricto). Our record spans the time period from 9700 to 1400 years BP at an average temporal resolution of 40 years. The Holocene is characterized by a sequence of intervals representing cool, warm, cool, and intermediate SST, with boundaries at 7.8, 5.6, and 4.4 ka BP. SST anomalies relative to the series mean range from -0.6 to +0.75 ° C. This pattern strikingly resembles a Northwest Atlantic foraminiferal ^18O record (Cléroux et al., 2012), with warm Indian SST corresponding to low Atlantic foraminiferal ^18O (indicating low sea surface density). This matches the modern situation on the interdecadal time-scale, where a warm Indian Ocean leads to a shift of the NAO towards a positive mean state, which is accompanied by SST warming over much of the low- and mid-latitude western Atlantic and a displacement of the Gulf Stream path. We hypothesize that this mechanism also operates on millennial time-scales to explain the obvious similarities in the SST patterns observed in the Northwest Atlantic and western

  13. NIMBUS-7 CZCS. Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery for Selected Coastal Regions. North America - Europe. South America - Africa - Antarctica. Level 2 Photographic Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) is the first spacecraft instrument devoted to the measurement of ocean color. Although instruments on other satellites have sensed ocean color, their spectral bands, spatial resolution, and dynamic range were optimized for geographical or meteorological use. In the CZCS, every parameter is optimized for use over water to the exclusion of any other type of sensing. The signal-to-noise ratios in the spectral channels sensing reflected solar radiance are higher than those required in the past. These ratios need to be high because the ocean is such a poor reflecting surface that the majority of the signal seen by the reflected energy channels at spacecraft altitudes is backscattered solar radiation from the atmosphere rather than reflected solar energy from the ocean. The CZCS is a conventional multichannel scanning radiometer utilizing a rotating plane mirror at a 45 deg angle to the optic axis of a Cassegrain telescope. The mirror scans 360 deg; however, only 80 deg of data centered on the spacecraft nadir is collected for ocean color measurements. Spatial resolution at spacecraft nadir is 825x825 m with some degradation at the edges of the scan swath. The useful swath width from a spacecraft altitude of 955 km is 1600 km.

  14. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaroli, Clara; Perini, Luisa; Calabrese, Lorenzo; Ciavola, Paolo; Salerno, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    In the last years a large number of catastrophic events have occurred along worldwide coastlines (e.g.: 2012 Super-storm Sandy, US East Coast). European countries have to face similar calamities such as those caused by the recent Xaver cyclone (December 2013). The Emilia-Romagna coastline, Italy, along the North Adriatic Sea, is affected by storms that cause extensive damages. The coast has low elevations, is highly urbanised and there is a massive presence of defence structures. The area is micro-tidal (neap/spring tide ranges = 0.4/0.8 m), low energetic (65% Hs<=1 m) but subjected to significant surge levels (1 year return period = 0.85 m). Therefore an evaluation of the vulnerability of the coastal area is an urgent matter. The Regional Geological Survey has completed an analysis of three scenarios of damage produced by the concurrent happening of a marine storm and high surge levels (1-in-1, 10, 100 year return period) and high spring tidal levels (+0.45 m MSL). Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along the whole coastline (on 187 equally spaced profiles extracted from LIDAR datasets). The result is a list of ten typology of different levels of damage obtained through the comparison between the computed water levels, for each scenario and along each profile, and the topography/human occupation of the coast. The assessment reveals that 60% of the coastline is vulnerable to the 1-in-1 year return period scenario, thus even modal meteorological conditions can generate significant losses. A comparison was made between the produced typologies and the actual damage caused by a recent storm and the correspondence is almost identical, underlining that the method is reliable. Because the above-mentioned methodology is only punctual, the Geological Survey has started a different evaluation of the areal extension of inundations. The methodology considers the concurrent happening of the same return period storms but in terms of wave set-up only (not including

  15. Regional Risk Assessment for the analysis of the risks related to storm surge extreme events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Europe's coast faces a variety of climate change threats from extreme high tides, storm surges and rising sea levels. In particular, it is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels, thus posing higher risks to coastal locations currently experiencing coastal erosion and inundation processes. In 2007 the European Commission approved the Flood Directive (2007/60/EC), which has the main purpose to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks for inland and coastal areas, thus reducing the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activities. Improvements in scientific understanding are thus needed to inform decision-making about the best strategies for mitigating and managing storm surge risks in coastal areas. The CLIMDAT project is aimed at improving the understanding of the risks related to extreme storm surge events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy), considering potential climate change scenarios. The project implements a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology developed in the FP7 KULTURisk project for the assessment of physical/environmental impacts posed by flood hazards and employs the DEcision support SYstem for Coastal climate change impact assessment (DESYCO) for the application of the methodology to the case study area. The proposed RRA methodology is aimed at the identification and prioritization of targets and areas at risk from water-related natural hazards in the considered region at the meso-scale. To this aim, it integrates information about extreme storm surges with bio-geophysical and socio-economic information (e.g. vegetation cover, slope, soil type, population density) of the analyzed receptors (i.e. people, economic activities, cultural heritages, natural and semi-natural systems). Extreme storm surge hazard scenarios are defined using tide gauge time series coming from 28 tide gauge

  16. GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Assessment of Change within a Coastal Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Twumasi, Yaw A.; Merem, Edmund C.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economic activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel approach for assessing

  17. Near-Surface Phytoplankton Pigment from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner in the Subantarctic Region Southeast of New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banse, Karl; English, David C.

    1997-01-01

    Primarily based on satellite images, the phytoplankton concentration southeast (down- stream) of New Zealand in the High Nitrate - Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) Subantarctic water between the Subtropical Convergence (STC) and the Polar Front (PF) is believed to be higher than in the remainder of the Pacific Sector. Iron enrichment is assumed to be the reason, To study the question, near-surface phytoplankton pigment estimates from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner for up to 7 yr were reprocessed with particular attention to interference by clouds. Monthly mean images were created for the U,S. JGOFS Box along 170 deg W and means for individual dates calculated for 7 large areas between 170 deg E and 160 deg W, 45 deg and 58 deg S, well offshore of New Zealand and principally between and away from the STC and PF. The areal means are about as low as in other HNLC regions (most values between 0.1 and 0.4 or 0.5 mg/ sq m, with very few winter images; median of seasonal means, 0.26 mg/sq m) except at times near the STC, The higher means tend to occur in late summer and autumn, However, contrary to expectations, neither the PF nor the environs of the Subantarctic Front are distinguished by a zone of increased pigment. Also, of 24 spring-summer images of oceanic islands in mostly pigment-poor water, 17 yielded no recognizable elevated pigment; islands were 5 times surrounded by approximately doubled concentrations (ca 100 km in diameter), and 2 cases may have been associated with an extensive bloom. Inspection of offshore images showed concentrations of 1 greater than or equal to(up to 5) mg/sq m in rare patches of 65 to 200 km size on approximately one-tenth of the dates; such patches were not seen in Sub-antarctic waters of the eastern Pacific Sector. A case is made for Australian airborne iron supply being the cause that, presumably, would enhance large-celled phytoplankton. Since, however, the putative iron supply from the seabed around the oceanic islands or the near

  18. Surface circulation in Block Island Sound and adjacent coastal and shelf regions: A FVCOM-CODAR comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yunfang; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Ullman, Dave; Butman, Bradford; Lin, Huichan

    2016-04-01

    CODAR-derived surface currents in Block Island Sound over the period of June 2000 through September 2008 were compared to currents computed using the Northeast Coastal Ocean Forecast System (NECOFS). The measurement uncertainty of CODAR-derived currents, estimated using statistics of a screened nine-year time series of hourly-averaged flow field, ranged from 3 to 7 cm/s in speed and 4° to 14° in direction. The CODAR-derived and model-computed kinetic energy spectrum densities were in good agreement at subtidal frequencies, but the NECOFS-derived currents were larger by about 28% at semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal frequencies. The short-term (hourly to daily) current variability was dominated by the semidiurnal tides (predominantly the M2 tide), which on average accounted for ∼87% of the total kinetic energy. The diurnal tidal and subtidal variability accounted for ∼4% and ∼9% of the total kinetic energy, respectively. The monthly-averaged difference between the CODAR-derived and model-computed velocities over the study area was 6 cm/s or less in speed and 28° or less in direction over the study period. An EOF analysis for the low-frequency vertically-averaged model current field showed that the water transport in the Block Island Sound region was dominated by modes 1 and 2, which accounted for 89% and 7% of the total variance, respectively. Mode 1 represented a relatively stationary spatial and temporal flow pattern with a magnitude that varied with season. Mode 2 was characterized mainly by a secondary cross-shelf flow and a relatively strong along-shelf flow. Process-oriented model experiments indicated that the relatively stationary flow pattern found in mode 1 was a result of tidal rectification and its magnitude changed with seasonal stratification. Correlation analysis between the flow and wind stress suggested that the cross-shelf water transport and its temporal variability in mode 2 were highly correlated to the surface wind forcing. The mode 2

  19. Two-way multi-band optical/IR transmission measurements in the Persian Gulf coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Arie N.; Fritz, Peter J.

    2005-10-01

    The atmospheric conditions in the Persian Gulf region are significantly different from other places in the world. The particle size distribution may vary daily and during the day. The aerosols can contribute to the amount of rainfall over land, important for the nations around the Gulf. In 2004 NASNGSFC and NRL (Naval Research Laboratory) introduced a proposal to improve the modelling of aerosol transport for the Persian Gulf area. The proposal included a measurement campaign in the UAE (United Arabian Emirates), held in the summer/fall of 2004, sponsored by the DWRS (Department of Water Resources Studies) in Abu Dhabi: UAEz (Unified Aerosol Experiment in the UAE). In this campaign NASA installed a number of multi-spectral sun-photometers at various locations in the UAE (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov). NRL installed ground based and airborne particle samplers. In addition, TNO (the Netherlands) installed its multi-band opticaUIR transmissometer, in order to collect horizontal, path-integrated transmission data. This device provides additional information on the scattering behaviour of the aerosols compared to the other instruments, which either integrate scattering over the full vertical path (the NASA sun-photometers, providing the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)) or sample the particles in-situ (the NRL particle samplers, providing size distribution and composition). This paper deals with our transmission measurement set-up, which was located in a coastal area near Abu Dhabi. This location allowed the investigation of the local variability of the atmospheric conditions: from desert dust to pollution, such as fossil fuel and biomass burning, depending on the wind direction. For logistic reasons a set-up was chosen with a retro-reflector. This choice implies consequences for the calibration procedure and measurement accuracy, which are discussed in detail. Also the effects of path-inhomogeneity and scintillation for such a two-way set-up are considered. Results are

  20. Agriculture and future riverine nitrogen export to US coastal regions: Insights from the Nutrient Export from WaterSheds Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine contemporary (2000) and future (2030) estimates of coastal N loads in the continental US by the Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (NEWS) model. Future estimates are based on Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) scenarios and two additional scenarios that reflect “...

  1. High resolution field monitoring in coastal wetlands of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic to support quantification of storm surge attenuation at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquier, A. E.; Haddad, J.; Lawler, S.; Garzon Hervas, J. L.; Ferreira, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy (2012) demonstrated the vulnerability of the US East Coast to extreme events, and motivated the exploration of resilient coastal defenses that incorporate both hard engineering and natural strategies such as the restoration, creation and enhancement of coastal wetlands and marshes. Past laboratory and numerical studies have indicated the potential of wetlands to attenuate storm surge, and have demonstrated the complexity of the surge hydrodynamic interactions with wetlands. Many factors control the propagation of surge in these natural systems including storm characteristics, storm-induced hydrodynamics, landscape complexity, vegetation biomechanical properties and the interactions of these different factors. While previous field studies have largely focused on the impact of vegetation characteristics on attenuation processes, few have been undertaken with holistic consideration of these factors and their interactions. To bridge this gap of in-situ field data and to support the calibration of storm surge and wave numerical models such that wetlands can be correctly parametrized on a regional scale, we are carrying out high resolution surveys of hydrodynamics (pressure, current intensity and direction), morphology (topo-bathymetry, micro-topography) and vegetation (e.g. stem density, height, vegetation frontal area) in 4 marshes along the Chesapeake Bay. These areas are representative of the ecosystems and morphodynamic functions present in this region, from the tidal Potomac marshes to the barrier-island back-bays of the Delmarva Peninsula. The field monitoring program supports the investigation of the influence of different types of vegetation on water level, swell and wind wave attenuation and morphological evolution during storm surges. This dataset is also used to calibrate and validate numerical simulations of hurricane storm surge propagation at regional and local scales and to support extreme weather coastal resilience planning in the region

  2. The numerical calculation of hydrological processes in the coastal zone of the Black Sea region in the city of Poti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Sh. Rustaveli National Science Foundation) The serious environmental problems started in Poti after transfer of the main flow of the river Rioni to the north. As a result the flooding of the city stopped, but the reduction of water consumption in the city channel, caused a decrease of the sediments carried away by the river, what leads to coastal erosion. The coast changes are connected with the movement of the waves and currents in the coastal part of the sea. In the paper, the three-dimensional mathematical model of sediment transport and coastal zone lithodynamics is developed. The finite element formulations for the problems of wave modes, coastal currents, sediment transport and evolution of the coastal zone of the sea, are given. The numerical algorithms, implemented in the form of software. Programs are allowing to bring the solutions of the tasks to numerical results. The numerical modeling was developed in three stages. In the first stage the topography of the coast and the initial geometry of the structures are considered as an input parameters. Then, coastal wave field is calculated for the conditions prescribed in the initial wave. In the second stage, the calculated wave field is used to estimate the spatial distribution of the radiation stresses near-bottom orbital velocity. In the third stage the coastal wave fields and flow fields are used in the sub-models of sediment transport and changes in the topography of the coast. In the numerical solution of basic equations of motion of the waves, coastal currents and changes in sea bottom topography we use: finite element, finite difference methods and the method of upper relaxation, Crank-Nicolson scheme. As an example, we are giving the results of research of the wave regime in the coastal area of the city of Poti (700X600m) adjacent to the port of Poti. The bottom profile, in this area is rather complicated. During the calculations of the average rise of

  3. COASTAL 2000 MONITORING IN THE NORTHEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal 2000 is a partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and coastal states to develop a national coastal monitoring program. This joint effort will permit for the first time regional comparisons of coastal resource conditions. It will also provide a nationw...

  4. A five-year study of coastal recirculation and its effect on air pollutants over the East Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Ilan; Dayan, Uri; Mahrer, Yitzhak

    2008-08-01

    Many studies have shown that air pollutants concentrations in coastal cities may be gravely affected by coastal recirculation. In this study an attempt is made to examine the properties of coastal recirculation over a long period (5 yrs) at multiple sites along the East Mediterranean Sea (EMS). For this purpose, a single station quantitative measure of horizontal recirculation is used based on wind field measurements over periods of 1-96 hrs. The horizontal recirculation is examined with respect to the integration time period, synoptic flow, seasonality, coastline variations, elevation, and air pollutants concentrations. The interaction between synoptic and mesoscales is shown to be a governing factor by allowing or overruling the land sea breeze winds. Favorite conditions for coastal recirculation are shown to be light or variable winds such as under a Cole or a High-Pressure system. The monthly distribution of the recirculation potential has a bimodal behavior with two peaks during the transitional seasons and October in particular. This is as a result of the annual cycle of night-time land-sea temperature difference driving the land breeze and the more frequent passage of synoptic scale flows with an easterly wind component at the EMS. Two factors leading to variations along the coastline are the urban heat island, weakening the breeze winds and reducing recirculation potential, and the concaved shape of the southern shoreline that causes a convergence and strengthening of the land breeze, thus supporting recirculation. The primary pollutants NOx and SO2 have the highest concentrations during weak daily mean wind speeds. O3 levels depict an almost opposite image of NOx, with higher values for both high and low recirculation, possibly resulting from either long range transport or coastal recirculation.

  5. Previously unrecognized regional structure of the Coastal Belt of the Franciscan Complex, northern California, revealed by magnetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.; Wentworth, C.M.; McLaughlin, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic anomalies provide surprising structural detail within the previously undivided Coastal Belt, the westernmost, youngest, and least-metamorphosed part of the Franciscan Complex of northern California. Although the Coastal Belt consists almost entirely of arkosic graywacke and shale of mainly Eocene age, new detailed aeromagnetic data show that it is pervasively marked by long, narrow, and regularly spaced anomalies. These anomalies arise from relatively simple tabular bodies composed principally of magnetic basalt or graywacke confined mainly to the top couple of kilometers, even though metamorphic grade indicates that these rocks have been more deeply buried, at depths of 5–8 km. If true, this implies surprisingly uniform uplift of these rocks. The basalt (and associated Cretaceous limestone) occurs largely in the northern part of the Coastal Belt; the graywacke is recognized only in the southern Coastal Belt and is magnetic because it contains andesitic grains. The magnetic grains were not derived from the basalt, and thus require a separate source. The anomalies define simple patterns that can be related to folding and faulting within the Coastal Belt. This apparent simplicity belies complex structure mapped at outcrop scale, which can be explained if the relatively simple tabular bodies are internally deformed, fault-bounded slabs. One mechanism that can explain the widespread lateral extent of the thin layers of basalt is peeling up of the uppermost part of the oceanic crust into the accretionary prism, controlled by porosity and permeability contrasts caused by alteration in the upper part of the subducting slab. It is not clear, however, how this mechanism might generate fault-bounded layers containing magnetic graywacke. We propose that structural domains defined by anomaly trend, wavelength, and source reflect imbrication and folding during the accretion process and local plate interactions as the Mendocino triple junction migrated north, a

  6. Previously unrecognized regional structure of the Coastal Belt of the Franciscan Complex, northern California, revealed by magnetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, Victoria; Jachens, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; McLaughlin, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic anomalies provide surprising structural detail within the previously undivided Coastal Belt, the westernmost, youngest, and least-metamorphosed part of the Franciscan Complex of northern California. Although the Coastal Belt consists almost entirely of arkosic graywacke and shale of mainly Eocene age, new detailed aeromagnetic data show that it is pervasively marked by long, narrow, and regularly spaced anomalies. These anomalies arise from relatively simple tabular bodies composed principally of magnetic basalt or graywacke confi ned mainly to the top couple of kilometers, even though metamorphic grade indicates that these rocks have been more deeply buried, at depths of 5–8 km. If true, this implies surprisingly uniform uplift of these rocks. The basalt (and associated Cretaceous limestone) occurs largely in the northern part of the Coastal Belt; the graywacke is recognized only in the southern Coastal Belt and is magnetic because it contains andesitic grains. The magnetic grains were not derived from the basalt, and thus require a separate source. The anomalies defi ne simple patterns that can be related to folding and faulting within the Coastal Belt. This apparent simplicity belies complex structure mapped at outcrop scale, which can be explained if the relatively simple tabular bodies are internally deformed, fault-bounded slabs. One mechanism that can explain the widespread lateral extent of the thin layers of basalt is peeling up of the uppermost part of the oceanic crust into the accretionary prism, controlled by porosity and permeability contrasts caused by alteration in the upper part of the subducting slab. It is not clear, however, how this mechanism might generate fault-bounded layers containing magnetic graywacke. We propose that structural domains defined by anomaly trend, wavelength, and source reflect imbrication and folding during the accretion process and local plate interactions as the Mendocino triple junction migrated north, a

  7. Interpretation of In-Situ Measurements of Iodine Monoxide in Coastal Regions Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furneaux, K. L.; Whalley, L. K.; Heard, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Iodine species are present in coastal and open ocean regions due to the release of I2 and iodocarbons from macro and micro algae. The photolysis of these molecules yields iodine atoms, which react with ozone to produce iodine monoxide (IO). IO is involved in ozone depletion cycles, the partitioning of HOx and NOx, and the formation and growth of new particles. A novel point source Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) instrument was deployed to measure IO in September 2006 at Roscoff, France as part of the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) programme (1 instrument uncertainty = 23%)1. The maximum IO mixing ratio was 30 ± 7.1 pptV (10 s integration period, limit of detection = 1.4 pptV) at this semi-polluted coastal site (NOx levels = 1 - 5 ppbV). The closest macroalgae beds known to strongly emit I2 (laminaria) were ~ 300 m from the LIF instrument. IO displayed a strong anti-correlation with tidal height which is consistent with previous studies. IO was also dependent on solar irradiation and meteorological conditions. The dominant source of IO at this site was the photolysis of I2. The measurements provided by this instrument aim to address the main uncertainties associated with iodine chemistry. Co-ordinated measurement of IO by point source (LIF) and spatially averaged (Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) instruments confirm the presence of IO hotspots due to non-uniform macroalgae distribution at this location (resulting in a spatially variable I2 source). The ratio of point source/spatially averaged IO is determined by meteorological conditions and distance of the instrument from macroalgae beds. Co-located point source I2 (Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy) and IO (LIF) measurements correlated on some days but cannot be explained by our current knowledge of iodine chemistry. The influence of NOx on IO has been investigated. The detection of IO by LIF at the Roscoff site shows that IO can survive in a high NOx

  8. Archive of digital Boomer seismic reflection data collected during USGS Cruise 94CCT02, south-central South Carolina coastal region, August 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calderon, Karynna; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2005-01-01

    In August of 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Coastal Carolina University, conducted marine geophysical surveys in numerous water bodies adjacent to the south-central South Carolina coastal region. Data were collected aboard the MS Coastal in the Ashley, North Edisto, Wadmalaw, Dawho, South Edisto, and Ashepoo Rivers; the Wappoo, North, Steamboat, Bohicket, and Toogoodoo Creeks; Charleston Harbor; Wadmalaw Sound; Fenwick Cut; and the Atlantic Ocean from offshore Isle of Palms to Kiawah Island. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, GIS information, observers' logbooks, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and FGDC metadata. Filtered and gained digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided.

  9. A regional classification of the effectiveness of depressional wetlands at mitigating nitrogen transport to surface waters in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; Sekellick, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen from nonpoint sources contributes to eutrophication, hypoxia, and related ecological degradation in Atlantic Coastal Plain streams and adjacent coastal estuaries such as Chesapeake Bay and Pamlico Sound. Although denitrification in depressional (non-riparian) wetlands common to the Coastal Plain can be a significant landscape sink for nitrogen, the effectiveness of individual wetlands at removing nitrogen varies substantially due to varying hydrogeologic, geochemical, and other landscape conditions, which are often poorly or inconsistently mapped over large areas. A geographic model describing the spatial variability in the likely effectiveness of depressional wetlands in watershed uplands at mitigating nitrogen transport from nonpoint sources to surface waters was constructed for the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP), from North Carolina through New Jersey. Geographic and statistical techniques were used to develop the model. Available medium-resolution (1:100,000-scale) stream hydrography was used to define 33,799 individual watershed catchments in the study area. Sixteen landscape metrics relevant to the occurrence of depressional wetlands and their effectiveness as nitrogen sinks were defined for each catchment, based primarily on available topographic and soils data. Cluster analysis was used to aggregate the 33,799 catchments into eight wetland landscape regions (WLRs) based on the value of three principal components computed for the 16 original landscape metrics. Significant differences in topography, soil, and land cover among the eight WLRs demonstrate the effectiveness of the clustering technique. Results were used to interpret the relative likelihood of depressional wetlands in each WLR and their likely effectiveness at mitigating nitrogen transport from upland source areas to surface waters. The potential effectiveness of depressional wetlands at mitigating nitrogen transport varies substantially over different parts of the NACP

  10. Linking a Large-Watershed Hydrogeochemical Model to a Wetland Community-Ecosystem Model to Estimate Plant Invasion Risk in the Coastal Great Lakes Region, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, W. S.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.; Elgersma, K. J.; French, N. H. F.; Goldberg, D. E.; Hart, S.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.; Martin, S. L.; Martina, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes region of the Upper Midwest, USA, agricultural and urban land uses together with high N deposition are contributing to elevated flows of N in rivers and groundwater to coastal wetlands. The functioning of coastal wetlands, which provide a vital link between land and water, are imperative to maintaining the health of the entire Great Lakes Basin. Elevated N inflows are believed to facilitate the spread of large-stature invasive plants (cattails and Phragmites) that reduce biodiversity and have complex effects on other ecosystem services including wetland N retention and C accretion. We enhanced the ILHM (Integrated Landscape Hydrology Model) to simulate the effects of land use on N flows in streams, rivers, and groundwater throughout the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. We used the hydroperiods and N loading rates simulated by ILHM as inputs to the Mondrian model of wetland community-ecosystem processes to estimate invasion risk and other ecosystem services in coastal wetlands around the Michigan coast. Our linked models produced threshold behavior in the success of invasive plants in response to N loading, with the threshold ranging from ca. 8 to 12 g N/m2 y, depending on hydroperiod. Plant invasions increased wetland productivity 3-fold over historically oligotrophic native communities, decreased biodiversity but slightly increased wetland N retention. Regardless of invasion, elevated N loading resulted in significantly enhanced rates of C accretion, providing an important region-wide mechanism of C storage. The linked models predicted a general pattern of greater invasion risk in the southern basins of lakes Michigan and Huron relative to northern areas. The basic mechanisms of invasion have been partially validated in our field mesocosms constructed for this project. The general regional patterns of increased invasion risk have been validated through our field campaigns and remote sensing conducted for this project.

  11. Identifying the effects of human pressure on groundwater quality to support water management strategies in coastal regions: a multi-tracer and statistical approach (Bou-Areg region, Morocco).

    PubMed

    Re, V; Sacchi, E; Mas-Pla, J; Menció, A; El Amrani, N

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pollution from anthropogenic sources is a serious concern affecting several coastal aquifers worldwide. Increasing groundwater exploitation, coupled with point and non-point pollution sources, are the main anthropogenic impacts on coastal environments and are responsible for severe health and food security issues. Adequate management strategies to protect groundwater from contamination and overexploitation are of paramount importance, especially in arid prone regions, where coastal aquifers often represent the main freshwater resource to sustain human needs. The Bou-Areg Aquifer (Morocco) is a perfect example of a coastal aquifer constantly exposed to all the negative externalities associated with groundwater use for agricultural purposes, which lead to a general increase in aquifer salinization. In this study data on 61 water samples, collected in June and November 2010, were used to: (i) track groundwater composition changes related to the use of irrigation water from different sources, (ii) highlight seasonal variations to assess aquifer vulnerability, and (iii) present a reproducible example of multi-tracer approach for groundwater management in rural coastal areas. Hydrogeochemical results show that Bou-Areg groundwater is characterized by - high salinity, associated with a remarkable increase in bicarbonate content in the crop growing season, due to more intense biological activity in irrigated soils. The coupled multi-tracer and statistical analysis confirms the strong dependency on irrigation activities as well as a clear identification of the processes governing the aquifer's hydrochemistry in the different seasons. Water Rock Interaction (WRI) dominates the composition of most of groundwater samples in the Low Irrigation season (L-IR) and Agricultural Return Flow (ARF) mainly affects groundwater salinization in the High Irrigation season (H-IR) in the same areas naturally affected by WRI. In the central part of the plain River Recharge (RR

  12. [Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong].

    PubMed

    Han, Lin; Xin, Ruosai; Sun, Jian; Hou, Feng; Li, Changgui; Hu, Xinlin; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yao; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Jia, Zhaotong

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong province. METHODS Seven SNPs within the susceptibility genes of T2DM, including rs10773971(G/C) and rs4766398(G/C) of WNT5B gene, rs10225163(G/C) of JAZF1 gene, rs2069590(T/A) of BDKRB2 gene, rs5745709(G/A) of HGF gene, rs1991914(C/A) of OTOP1 gene and rs2236479(G/A) of COL18A1 gene, were typed with a custom-made Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping assay in 480 male patients with gout and 480 male controls. Potential association was assessed with the chi-square test. RESULTS No significant difference was detected for the 7 selected SNPs in terms of genotypic and allelic frequencies (P > 0.05). When age and body mass index (BMI) were adjusted, the 7 genetic variants still showed no significant association with gout. CONCLUSION The genotypes of the 7 selected SNPs are not associated with gout in ethnic Han Chinese male patients from the coastal region of Shandong province. However, the results need to be replicated in larger sets of patients collected from other regions and populations. PMID:26418998

  13. Regional downscaling of temporal resolution in near-surface wind from statistically downscaled Global Climate Models (GCMs) for use in San Francisco Bay coastal flood modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, A.; Erikson, L. H.; Barnard, P.

    2013-12-01

    While Global Climate Models (GCMs) provide useful projections of near-surface wind vectors into the 21st century, resolution is not sufficient enough for use in regional wave modeling. Statistically downscaled GCM projections from Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogues (MACA) provide daily near-surface winds at an appropriate spatial resolution for wave modeling within San Francisco Bay. Using 30 years (1975-2004) of climatological data from four representative stations around San Francisco Bay, a library of example daily wind conditions for four corresponding over-water sub-regions is constructed. Empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDFs) of station conditions are compared to MACA GFDL hindcasts to create correction factors, which are then applied to 21st century MACA wind projections. For each projection day, a best match example is identified via least squares error among all stations from the library. The best match's daily variation in velocity components (u/v) is used as an analogue of representative wind variation and is applied at 3-hour increments about the corresponding sub-region's projected u/v values. High temporal resolution reconstructions using this methodology on hindcast MACA fields from 1975-2004 accurately recreate extreme wind values within the San Francisco Bay, and because these extremes in wind forcing are of key importance in wave and subsequent coastal flood modeling, this represents a valuable method of generating near-surface wind vectors for use in coastal flood modeling.

  14. Reconstruction of the Mesoscale Velocity Shear Seaward of Coastal Upwelling Regions from the Refraction of the Surface Wave Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flament, Pierre; Graber, Hans C.; Halpern, D.; Holt, B.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project is to study fronts that develop at the boundary between cold water recently upwelled to the surface through Ekman divergence, and warmer surrounding waters. This specific objective was suggested by studying the small scale structure of upwelling fronts (coastal, island, and equatorial) through shipboard surveys and infrared satellite images. Constraints on the shuttle equator crossing imposed by other land sites precluded a coverage of the area targeted in the initial SIR-C proposal, the California Current. The site was then relocated to the Equatorial Pacific upwelling tongue, that can be satisfactorily imaged for a wide range of longitudes of the equator crossing. Some limited data was nevertheless obtained over coastal upwelling off California in 1989, using the JPL AIRSAR in multifrequency mode, and over island upwelling off Hawaii in 1990, using the radar in along-track interferometric mode.

  15. Amino acid epimerization dating of Quaternary coastal deformation in SE Iberian Peninsula: The region between Aguas and Antas Rivers' mouths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Trinidad; Ortiz, José E.; Sánchez-Palencia, Yolanda

    2016-05-01

    The coastal area between the mouths of the Aguas and Antas Rivers presents a deformed system of raised marine deposits, some of which have been strongly affected by active tectonics. The use of amino acid epimerization dating of Glycymeris shells from raised coastal deposits allowed determining the age of these marine deposits, all of them linked to highstand sea levels in the Mediterranean realm, with ages between MIS 11 and MIS 1. These results allowed corroborating the age of some previously studied sites, and using new sampling sites, the general aminostratigraphy for the Quaternary raised marine deposits on the Mediterranean coast was confirmed. The main deformation event took place after MIS 11 and continued until MIS 5, and was linked to the activity of the Palomares Fault.

  16. Regional implications of Triassic or Jurassic age for basalt and sedimentary red beds in the South Carolina coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, G.S.; Gottfried, D.; Lanphere, M.A.; Higgins, B.B.

    1978-01-01

    Whole rock potassium-argon ages for samples of subsurface basalt recovered near Charleston, South Carolina, are interpreted to indicate a Triassic or Jurassic age for the basalt and underlying sedimentary red beds. This age is consistent with existing evidence indicating that an early Mesozoic basin is present in the subsurface of a large part of the coastal plain of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama.

  17. Portraits of our coastal waters. Supplement to the national water quality inventory. Report from the EPA regions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    Contents: pathogen contamination in great bay, new hampshire; water quality problems in the middle atlantic bight; red tide in the eastern Gulf of Mexico; oxygen depleted coastal and estuarine waters in Louisiana and Texas; sediment deficit and saltwater intrusion in Barataria Basin, Louisiana; toxic contamination in San Diego Bay, California; salmon mortality problems in Port Townsend Bay, Washington; multimedia pollutants effect Green Bay/Fox River, Wisconsin.

  18. Altimetry in the coastal ocean: regional sea level from CryoSat-2 and ALES-reprocessed Envisat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaro, Marcello; Benveniste, Jérôme; Cipollini, Paolo; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno; Quartly, Graham; Snaith, Helen

    2015-04-01

    Satellite altimetry has revolutionized our understanding of ocean dynamics thanks to finer spatial sampling and global coverage. Nevertheless, coastal data have been flagged as unreliable due to land and calm water interference in the altimeter and radiometer footprints and uncertainty about high frequency tidal and atmospheric forcing. Recent developments in processing and the availability of new instruments are now bringing new possibilities to sea level studies in the coastal zone. This contribution presents some of the improvements achievable with 1) enhanced processing ('retracking') of the waveforms from conventional ('pulse-limited') altimeters, and 2) the exploitation of the new generation of SAR altimeters. A dedicated retracking algorithm, ALES the Adaptive Leading Edge Subwaveform retracker, has been designed and validated with the aim of reaching the same precision in the estimate of geophysical parameters from pulse-limited altimetry both over open ocean and in the coastal zone. In this study we provide clear evidence that ALES reprocessing improves quality and quantity of Envisat sea level measurements, by comparing the data with the reference time series of Sea Level provided by the Sea Level Climate Change Initiative (SL_cci) and with in-situ data from tide gauges in the North Sea/Baltic Sea transition zone. In the western Arkona Basin (Baltic Sea) correlation between altimetry and tide gauges within 15 km of the coast almost doubles using ALES. In the eastern Arkona Basin, the annual sea level amplitude derived from ALES and tide gauges differ by ~10 mm, while SL_cci overestimates it by 4 cm. The new generation of altimeters ('SAR', or delay-doppler altimeters) is providing higher precision in the sea level measurements, thanks to their coherent processing of returns with a high Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) and the resultant reduced footprint. CryoSat-2 (CS-2) carries the first SAR altimeter in space. An experimental ocean product (SARvatore

  19. A modeling study of shelf circulation off northern California in the region of the Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment 2. Simulations and comparisons with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Jianping; Allen, J. S.

    2002-11-01

    This is the second part of a modeling study of wind-forced flow on the continental shelf off northern California in the region (37°-40°N) of the Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment (CODE). [2002] analyzed the shelf flow response to idealized wind stress forcing in a process-oriented study. The study here applies forcing from observed winds and heat flux for April-May 1982 and compares the model results with moored current and temperature measurements. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) is used in a three-dimensional limited area domain with a high-resolution curvilinear grid (approximately 1 km horizontal spacing, 60 vertical levels) and realistic coastline and bottom topography. The objectives of the study are to simulate the response of the shelf circulation field to time-varying observed wind stress and heat flux, to compare model results with oceanographic observations to establish confidence in the model, and to subsequently analyze the model fields and the model dynamical balances to help understand the behavior of the observed flow. The model variables show overall good agreement with corresponding observations. Similar to the conclusions by [2002], it is found that the alongshore variability of upwelling is mainly controlled by the interaction of the wind-forced shelf flow with the coastline and bottom topography. Different dynamical regimes in the regions north and south of the coastal capes formed by Pt. Reyes and Pt. Arena and in the more uniform region between these capes are identified and investigated. The results demonstrate that the coastal capes play a dominant role in causing alongshore variability of the upwelling flow, including the setup of an alongshore pressure gradient that forces northward currents during relaxation of southward upwelling favorable winds. An analysis of the balance of terms in the equation for potential temperature indicates that across-shore temperature advection is the major contributor to the cooling of coastal water during

  20. Climate services for the assessment of climate change impacts and risks in coastal areas at the regional scale: the North Adriatic case study (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentina, Gallina; Torresan, Silvia; Giannini, Valentina; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Gualdi, Silvio; Bellucci, Alessio; Giorgi, Filippo; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    At the international level, the interest for climate services is rising due to the social and economic benefits that different stakeholders can achieve to manage climate risks and take advantage of the opportunities associated with climate change impacts. However, there is a significant gap of tools aimed at providing information about risks and impacts induced by climate change and allowing non-expert stakeholders to use both climate-model and climate-impact data. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), the case study of the North Adriatic Sea is aimed at analysing the need of climate information and the effectiveness of climate services for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts in coastal zones of the North Adriatic Sea at the regional to local scale. A participative approach was developed and applied to identify relevant stakeholders which have a mandate for coastal zone management and to interact with them in order to elicit their climate information needs. Specifically, the participative approach was carried out by means of two local workshops and trough the administration of a questionnaire related to climate information and services. The results of the process allowed identifying three major themes of interest for local stakeholders (i.e. hydro-climatic regime, coastal and marine environment, agriculture) and their preferences concerning key climate variables (e.g. extreme events, sea-level, wave height), mid-term temporal projections (i.e. for the next 30-40 years) and medium-high spatial resolution (i.e. from 1 to 50 km). Furthermore, the workshops highlighted stakeholder concern about several climate-related impacts (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surge, droughts) and vulnerable receptors (e.g. beaches, wetlands, agricultural areas) to be considered in vulnerability and risk assessment studies for the North Adriatic coastal zones. This information was used by climate and environmental risk experts in order to develop targeted climate information and

  1. A holistic evaluation of risks in coastal regions under changing climatic, environmental and socioeconomic conditions: the Theseus Decision Support System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada, I. J.; Garcia Alonso, E.; Mendez, F. J.; Zanuttigh, B.; Nicholls, R. J.; Thompson, R.; Vanderlinden, J. P.; Fernandez, F.; Ondiviela, B.; Diaz-Simal, P.; Bagli, S.

    2012-04-01

    There is a general acceptance that global changes associated with natural hazards and socioeconomic processes are occurring at a faster pace than ever, with deep implications in terms of risk exposure and environmental impact. The capacity of coastal areas to adapt and react to these changes will be a key factor in the future preservation of life standards and represents a great challenge for politicians, scientists and professionals at any level. Within the large scope of Theseus Project (EU 7th Framework Program), one of the main objectives is to design a tool to help decision makers in defining optimal strategies to minimize risks within a certain city or coastal area in a three-fold sense: economic losses, human damages and environmental impacts. The resulting software, the Theseus-DSS, links the most relevant physical processes (waves, sea-levels, hard and soft structures, coastal erosion and inland flooding) with the potential impact zones (marine and inland), considering their functions (ecosystems) and uses (economic units), and the dependence of this functions and uses upon the prevailing physical conditions. The new software tries to fill a gap among the existing tools, based on the following pillars: • Seamless integration of disciplines: physics, engineering, ecology, social sciences and economy. • Intermediate spatial scales (1- 10 km) and medium-to- long time spans (1-10 years). • Decision-making based on a balance between deterministic models and expert, discussion-based assumptions. The user of the Theseus-DSS will be able either to check the consequences of predefined scenarios at a particular study site, or to create user-defined scenarios, run them and compare the results with other scenarios. The results are expressed, locally and at an aggregate level, in the three aforementioned dimensions: economic losses (€/year), mean annual expected live losses (persons/year) and impact on habitats (null, low, medium and high).

  2. Diversity of Somatic Coliphages in Coastal Regions with Different Levels of Anthropogenic Activity in São Paulo State, Brazil ▿

    PubMed Central

    Burbano-Rosero, E. M.; Ueda-Ito, M.; Kisielius, J. J.; Nagasse-Sugahara, T. K.; Almeida, B. C.; Souza, C. P.; Markman, C.; Martins, G. G.; Albertini, L.; Rivera, I. N. G.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriophages are the most abundant and genetically diverse viruses on Earth, with complex ecology in both quantitative and qualitative terms. Somatic coliphages (SC) have been reported to be good indicators of fecal pollution in seawater. This study focused on determining the concentration of SC and their diversity by electron microscopy of seawater, plankton, and bivalve samples collected at three coastal regions in São Paulo, Brazil. The SC counts varied from <1 to 3.4 × 103 PFU/100 ml in seawater (73 samples tested), from <1 to 4.7 × 102 PFU/g in plankton (46 samples tested), and from <1 to 2.2 × 101 PFU/g in bivalves (11 samples tested). In seawater samples, a relationship between the thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli and SC was observed at the three regions (P = 0.0001) according to the anthropogenic activities present at each region. However, SC were found in plankton samples from three regions: Baixada Santista (17/20), Canal de São Sebastião (6/14), and Ubatuba (3/12). In seawater samples collected from Baixada Santista, four morphotypes were observed: A1 (4.5%), B1 (50%), C1 (36.4%), and D1 (9.1%). One coliphage, Siphoviridae type T1, had the longest tail: between 939 and 995 nm. In plankton samples, Siphoviridae (65.8%), Podoviridae (15.8%), Microviridae (15.8%), and Myoviridae (2.6%) were found. In bivalves, only the morphotype B1 was observed. These SC were associated with enteric hosts: enterobacteria, E. coli, Proteus, Salmonella, and Yersinia. Baixada Santista is an area containing a high level of fecal pollution compared to those in the Canal de São Sebastião and Ubatuba. This is the first report of coliphage diversity in seawater, plankton, and bivalve samples collected from São Paulo coastal regions. A better characterization of SC diversity in coastal environments will help with the management and evaluation of the microbiological risks for recreation, seafood cultivation, and consumption. PMID:21531842

  3. Social indicators study of Alaskan Coastal Villages I. Key informant summaries. Volume 2. Schedule B regions (Bristol Bay, Kodiak, Bering Straits). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brelsford, T.; Fienup-Riordan, A.; Jorgensen, J.; McNabb, S.; Petrivelli, P.

    1992-08-01

    The focus of this report is on Alaska Natives--Inupiaq and Yupik Eskimos, Athabascans, and Aleuts--for two important reasons: (1) Alaska Natives are numerically dominant populations in rural areas closest to potential offshore oil development sites and (2) their economic adjustments are most vulnerable to potential impacts from such development. This report is divided into Schedules A, B, and C. Comprising Schedules A and B are the study areas originally identified by Minerals Management Service for this study (North Slope, NANA, Bering Straits, Calista, Bristol Bay, Aleutian-Pribilof Islands, and Kodiak regions). Schedule C is comprised of communities that were added subsequent to the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989 in the Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet regions. One aim of this study was to document the attitudes and belief systems or ideologies about quality of life and well-being in the coastal, rural portions of Alaska.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Variability in Accretion and Erosion of Coastal Foredunes in the Netherlands: Regional Climate and Local Topography

    PubMed Central

    Keijsers, Joep G. S.; Poortinga, Ate; Riksen, Michel J. P. M.; Maroulis, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the amount of aeolian sediment input and dune erosion, dune size and morphology change over time. Since coastal foredunes play an important role in the Dutch coastal defence, it is important to have good insight in the main factors that control these changes. In this paper the temporal variations in foredune erosion and accretion were studied in relation to proxies for aeolian transport potential and storminess using yearly elevation measurements from 1965 to 2012 for six sections of the Dutch coast. Longshore differences in the relative impacts of erosion and accretion were examined in relation to local beach width. The results show that temporal variability in foredune accretion and erosion is highest in narrow beach sections. Here, dune erosion alternates with accretion, with variability displaying strong correlations with yearly values of storminess (maximum sea levels). In wider beach sections, dune erosion is less frequent, with lower temporal variability and stronger correlations with time series of transport potential. In erosion dominated years, eroded volumes decrease from narrow to wider beaches. When accretion dominates, dune-volume changes are relatively constant alongshore. Dune erosion is therefore suggested to control spatial variability in dune-volume changes. On a scale of decades, the volume of foredunes tends to increase more on wider beaches. However, where widths exceed 200 to 300 m, this trend is no longer observed. PMID:24603812

  5. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419gCkg(-1). Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0-10cm than 10-20cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. PMID:27317133

  6. Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and stable isotopes in modern and Holocene Protothaca staminea shells from a northern California coastal upwelling region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takesue, R.K.; VanGeen, A.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the potential of intertidal Protothaca staminea shells as high-resolution geochemical archives of environmental change in a coastal upwelling region. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were analyzed by excimer laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) at sub-weekly temporal resolution in shells growing ???1 mm per month. Growth patterns of a modern P. staminea shell from Humboldt Bay, California, collected in December 1999 made it possible to infer a lifespan from 1993 to 1998. Growth hiatuses in the shell may have excluded records of extreme events. Mg/Ca ratios appeared to be partly controlled by water temperature; the correlation coefficient between temperature and Mg/Ca was r = 0.71 in one of four growth increments. Significant year-to-year differences in the sensitivity of Mg/Ca to temperature in P. staminea could not be explained, however. Sr/Ca ratios appeared to be more closely related to shell growth rate. Oxygen isotopes, measured at 2-week temporal resolution in the same shell, did not show a clear relation to local temperature in summer, possibly because temperatures were higher and less variable at the King Salmon mudflat, where the shell was collected, than in the main channel of Humboldt Bay, where water properties were monitored. Negative shell ??13C values (<-0.5???) marked spring and summer coastal upwelling events. The Mg contents of P. staminea midden shells dated to ???3 ka and ???9 ka were significantly lower than in the modern shell. This may have resulted from degradation of a Mg-rich shell organic matrix and precluded quantitative interpretation of the older high-resolution records. Elevated ??13C values in the ???3 ka shell suggested that the individual grew in highly productive or stratified environment, such as a shallow coastal embayment or lagoon. Copyright ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Coastal ocean variability in the US Pacific Northwest region: seasonal patterns, winter circulation, and the influence of the 2009-2010 El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durski, Scott M.; Kurapov, Alexander L.; Allen, John S.; Kosro, P. Michael; Egbert, Gary D.; Shearman, R. Kipp; Barth, John A.

    2015-12-01

    A 2-km horizontal resolution ocean circulation model is developed for a large coastal region along the US Pacific Northwest (34-50N) to study how continental shelf, slope, and interior ocean variability influence each other. The model has been run for the time period September 2008-May 2011, driven by realistic surface momentum and heat fluxes obtained from an atmospheric model and lateral boundary conditions obtained from nesting in a global ocean model. The solution compares favorably to satellite measurements of sea surface temperature and sea surface height, observations of surface currents by high-frequency radars, mooring temperature time series, and glider temperature and salinity sections. The analysis is focused on the seasonal response of the coastal ocean with particular emphasis on the winter circulation patterns which have previously garnered relatively little attention. Interannual variability is examined through a comparison of the 2009-2010 winter influenced by El Niño and the winters in the preceding and following years. Strong northward winds combined with reduced surface cooling along the coast north of Cape Mendocino (40.4N) in winter 2009-2010, resulting in a vigorous downwelling season, characterized by relatively energetic northward currents and warmer ocean temperatures over the continental shelf and upper slope. An analysis of the time variability of the volume-averaged temperature and salinity in a coastal control volume (CV), that extends from 41 to 47N and offshore from the coast to the 200-m isobath, clearly shows relevant integrated characteristics of the annual cycle and the transitions between winter shelf circulation forced by northward winds and the summer circulation driven primarily by southward, upwelling-favorable winds. The analysis also reveals interesting interannual differences in these characteristics. In particular, the CV volume-average temperature remains notably warmer during January-March 2010 of the El Niño winter.

  8. Assessing the Fate of Terrigenous Dissolved Organic Carbon in River-influenced Ocean Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichot, C. G.; Benner, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    The mineralization of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon (tDOC) discharged by rivers can impact nutrient and trace metal cycling, biological productivity, net ecosystem metabolism, and air-sea CO2 exchange in ocean margins. The extreme heterogeneity of river-influenced ocean margins represents a major challenge for quantitative assessments of tDOC transformations and thereby obscures the role of tDOC in biogeochemical cycles. Here, we demonstrate how a lignin-based optical proxy for tDOC and a shelf-wide mass balance approach can be used to quantitatively assess the fate of tDOC discharged on a river-influenced ocean margin. Such a mass balance was carried out in the northern Gulf of Mexico and revealed that ~40% of the tDOC discharged by Mississippi-Atchafalaya River System between March 2009 and March 2010 was mineralized to CO2 on the Louisiana shelf, with two thirds of the mineralization taking place in the mixed layer. A strong seasonality in tDOC mineralization was observed, with mineralization rates severalfold higher during summer than during winter. Independent assessments of specific mineralization processes indicated biomineralization accounted for ~94% of the tDOC mineralization on an annual basis, and suggested that photochemical transformations of tDOC enhanced biomineralization by ~50% in the mixed layer. Direct photomineralization accounted for a relatively small fraction (~6%) of the tDOC mineralization on an annual basis. This quantitative assessment provides direct evidence confirming ocean margins are major sinks of the tDOC discharged by rivers, and indicates that tDOC mineralization rates in the shelf mixed layer are sufficiently large to influence whether the Louisiana shelf is a net sink or source of atmospheric CO2. In this presentation, we also demonstrate how the remote sensing of ocean color can be used to trace tDOC and its cross-shelf export and further advance our understanding of the fate of tDOC in ocean margins.

  9. Nutrient Inputs to Estuaries from Nine Scottish East Coast Rivers; Influence of Estuarine Processes on Inputs to the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balls, Philip W.

    1994-10-01

    Nutrient distributions (nitrate, ammonia, phosphate and silicate) have been determined in the surface waters of nine North Sea estuaries: Tweed, Forth, Tay, Dee, Don, Ythan, Beauly/Inverness Firth, Cromarty Firth and Dornoch Firth. Seasonal variability has been examined by conducting surveys in April, July and September 1991 and February 1992. On each occasion, surveys of all nine estuaries were normally completed in 3-5 days of each other, around high water on spring tides. This intensive and strictly controlled sampling regime ensures a realistic comparison between nutrient concentrations in individual estuaries. Nutrient concentrations in individual rivers and estuaries are demonstrated to be related to land use. River catchments with intensive agriculture and low freshwater input, such as the Don and Ythan, have enhanced nitrate (up to 600 μM) and phosphate (up to 5 μM) concentrations in their estuaries. By contrast, Highland river catchments with mineral-poor soils, low populations and low agricultural intensity (Inverness, Cromarty and Dornoch Firths) generally lead to nutrient concentrations being lower in river water than in coastal seawater. Conservative mixing of dissolved nutrients is demonstrated to be a function of estuarine flushing time which controls the extent to which internal processes (biological and abiological) can modify nutrient inputs. Nutrients tend to behave conservatively in short rapidly flushed estuaries such as the Tweed, Don and Ythan. In contrast, internal processes are shown to be important when estimating riverine nutrient fluxes to the coastal zone from large slowly flushed estuaries such as the Forth, Tay and Dornoch Firth. For these systems, estimates of riverine inputs to the estuary do not provide a good estimate of the load entering the coastal zone. This is primarily due to the cycling of nutrient elements between dissolved and particulate (including sediment) phases. On a regional basis, gross nutrient inputs are

  10. Impacts of an unknown daytime HONO source on the mixing ratio and budget of HONO, and hydroxyl, hydroperoxyl, and organic peroxy radicals, in the coastal regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; An, J.; Wang, F.; Li, Y.; Qu, Y.; Chen, Y.; Lin, J.

    2015-08-01

    Many field experiments have found high nitrous acid (HONO) mixing ratios in both urban and rural areas during daytime, but these high daytime HONO mixing ratios cannot be explained well by gas-phase production, HONO emissions, and nighttime hydrolysis conversion of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on aerosols, suggesting that an unknown daytime HONO source (Punknown) could exist. The formula Punknown ≈ 19.60[NO2] · J(NO2) was obtained using observed data from 13 field experiments across the globe. The three additional HONO sources (i.e., the Punknown, nighttime hydrolysis conversion of NO2 on aerosols, and HONO emissions) were coupled into the WRF-Chem model (Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry) to assess the Punknown impacts on the concentrations and budgets of HONO and peroxy (hydroxyl, hydroperoxyl, and organic peroxy) radicals (ROx) (= OH + HO2 + RO2) in the coastal regions of China. Results indicated that the additional HONO sources produced a significant improvement in HONO and OH simulations, particularly in the daytime. High daytime average Punknown values were found in the coastal regions of China, with a maximum of 2.5 ppb h-1 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The Punknown produced a 60-250 % increase of OH, HO2, and RO2 near the ground in the major cities of the coastal regions of China, and a 5-48 % increase of OH, HO2, and RO2 in the daytime meridional-mean mixing ratios within 1000 m above the ground. When the three additional HONO sources were included, the photolysis of HONO was the second most important source in the OH production rate in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou before 10:00 LST with a maximum of 3.72 ppb h-1 and a corresponding Punknown contribution of 3.06 ppb h-1 in Beijing, whereas the reaction of HO2 + NO (nitric oxide) was dominant after 10:00 LST with a maximum of 9.38 ppb h-1 and a corresponding Punknown contribution of 7.23 ppb h-1 in Beijing. The whole ROx cycle was accelerated by the three additional HONO

  11. A Tree-Ring Derived Reconstruction of Regionalized Low-Flow Season Streamflow for Susceptible Watersheds in South Coastal British Columbia, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulthard, B. L.; Smith, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Rising winter air temperatures, snowpack declines, and warmer and drier summers have resulted in an increase in the frequency and severity of late-summer low-flow events across south coastal British Columbia. Negative impacts, particularly those associated with deteriorating water quality, decreased water supply for hydroelectric power generation, and the survivorship of migrating Pacific salmon, have been observed and are expected to intensify. It is not known whether these earlier, longer, and/or lower low-flows are anomalous relative to historical streamflow patterns since available gauged flow data is restricted to the last five decades. We used networks of high-elevation tree-ring data to model historical low-flow (late-summer) season streamflow regionalized across a group of hydrologically similar watersheds that were identified as susceptible to low-flow events. Our approach contrasts with typical dendrohydrological approaches in that the study watersheds are relatively small in size, and we have not employed moisture-limited tree-ring records as model predictors. In these rainfall-dominated streamflow regimes, late-summer discharge is driven by a combination of persisting snowmelt-derived inputs and variations in summer temperature. We used correlation analysis to prescreen a large pool of tree-ring chronologies as candidate model predictors, retaining those whose annual radial growth is limited by variability in those climate variables driving low-flow season discharge. We conducted principal components analysis on the retained chronologies to derive a set of tree-ring based predictors, which were entered into a stepwise multiple linear regression model to estimate historical regionalized low-flow season flows. Our model explains approximately 60% of streamflow variance, elucidates the frequencies and magnitudes of past low-flow episodes not represented within the instrumental record, and provides a historical context for contemporary shifts in the

  12. Estimating the Regional Flux of Nitrate and Agricultural Herbicide Compounds from Groundwater to Headwater Streams of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ator, S.; Denver, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture is common in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP, including New Jersey through North Carolina), and groundwater discharge provides nitrogen (primarily in the form of nitrate) and herbicide compounds from agricultural sources along with the majority of flow to NACP streams. Poor water quality has contributed to ecological degradation of tidal streams and estuaries along much of the adjacent mid-Atlantic coast. Although statistical models have provided estimates of total instream nutrient flux in the Coastal Plain, the regional flux of nitrogen and herbicides during base flow is less well understood. We estimated the regional flux of nitrate and selected commonly used herbicide compounds from groundwater to non-tidal headwater streams of the NACP on the basis of late-winter or spring base-flow samples from 174 such streams. Sampled streams were selected using an unequal-probability random approach, and flux estimates are based on resulting population estimates rather than empirical models, which are commonly used for such estimates. Base-flow flux in the estimated 8,834 NACP non-tidal headwater streams are an estimated 21,200 kilograms per day of nitrate (as N) and 5.83, 0.565, and 20.7 kilograms per day of alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor (including selected degradates), respectively. Base-flow flux of alachlor and metolachlor is dominated by degradates; flux of parent compounds is less than 3 percent of the total flux of parent plus degradates. Base-flow flux of nitrate and herbicides as a percentage of applications generally varies predictably with regional variations in hydrogeology. Abundant nonpoint (primarily agricultural) sources and hydrogeologic conditions, for example, contribute to particularly large base-flow flux from the Delmarva Peninsula to Chesapeake Bay. In the Delmarva Peninsula part of the Chesapeake Watershed, more than 10 percent of total nonpoint nitrogen applications is transported through groundwater to stream base flow

  13. An extended velocity projection method for estimating the subsurface current and density structure for coastal plume regions: An application to the Chesapeake Bay outflow plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Avijit; Shen, Colin Y.; Marmorino, George O.; Mied, Richard P.; Lindemann, Gloria J.

    2005-07-01

    We describe a method for estimating subsurface current and density structure in a coastal region dominated by a plume from a set of surface observations of velocity and density. A detailed application of the method is shown via a case study of the Chesapeake Bay in November 1997. The proposed technique relies on developing a 'plume feature model' from theoretical models and past synoptic observational data sets, and incorporating the feature model into the previously developed velocity projection method [J. Geophys. Res. 106 (2001) 6973] to obtain subsurface current structure within the Ekman layer depth. The primary feature model parameters include the location and extent of the frontal boundary, a simplified gravity current structure, and the spatial gradient of salinity across the frontal head of the plume, which are inferred from remote sensing or minimal strategic in situ observations. For the Chesapeake Bay case study, we show how the proposed method, referred to as 'extended velocity projection', can produce estimates of plume current structure consistent with available ADCP profiles. We assess the sensitivity of the results to feature model parameters, and identify the resolution of spatial salinity gradient as being particularly important. The difference between the density-stratified estimate and the ADCP data can be used to calibrate and improve the zero-order dynamic feature model parameters. This synergistic approach with the extended velocity projection method should be applicable to other coastal plumes and possibly other shallow water features.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Carbon Dioxide Fluxes at Three Coastal Marshes Along a Salinity Gradient in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: how Susceptible are Coastal Marshes in the Region to Future Wariming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, B.; Wilson, B.; Kiene, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon gas fluxes in tidal marshes vary spatially and temporally because of vegetation cover, subsurface biogeochemical processes, and environmental forcing and predicting the impact of climate change on greenhouse gas fluxes from wetlands remains challenging. We examined how ecosystem carbon gas exchange varies along a salinity gradient (0-32 ppt) in three marshes along an estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA. Midday net ecosystem exchange (where a negative rate indicates net carbon assimilated through photosynthesis) was greatest at the most freshwater site (4.8 ± 0.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), followed by the saline (2.8 ± 1.0 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) and brackish (1.4 ± 0.6 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) sites. However, net ecosystem exchange integrated diurnally revealed each marsh to be a net CO2 source to the atmosphere as a result of high ecosystem respiration with no significant difference across the fresh (105.5 ± 28.9 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1), brackish (100.1 ± 36.5 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1), and salt marsh (78.3 ± 28.6 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1) sites. The large loss of carbon from these ecosystems is suggested to be a contributing factor to the disappearances of marshes in the region. Fifty percent of coastal Alabama wetlands, for examples, have disappeared from 1780 to 1980, and between 1955 and 1979 the percent loss (29%) in the region has exceeded the national average by a factor of three. While future warming is not expected to impact carbon assimilation significantly, our warming simulations suggest that carbon loss in these ecosystems can be enhanced by 12 to 26%, potentially exasperating the loss of marshes in the region.

  15. Dependence of waterbirds and shorebirds on shallow-water habitats in the Mid-Atlantic coastal region: An ecological profile and management recommendations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Waterbirds (waterfowl, colonially nesting wading and seabirds, ospreys [Pandion haliaetus], and bald eagles [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]) and shorebirds (sandpipers, plovers, and relatives) may constitute a large fraction of the top level carnivore trophic component in many shallow-water areas of the mid-Atlantic region. The large biomass of many species (>1 kg body mass for the two raptors and some waterfowl) and enormous populations (e.g., >1 million shorebirds in late May in parts of Delaware Bay) reveal the importance of waterbirds as consumers and as linkages in nutrient flux in many shallow-water habitats. Salt and brackish marsh shallow-water habitats, including marsh pannes and tidal pools and creeks as well as constructed impoundments, are used intensively during most months of the year; in fall and winter, mostly by dabbling ducks, in spring and summer by migrant shorebirds and breeding colonial wading birds and seabirds. In adjacent estuaries, the intertidal flats and littoral zones of shallow embayments are heavily used by shorebirds, raptors, and colonial waterbirds in the May to September periods, with use by duck and geese heaviest from October to March. With the regional degradation of estuarine habitats and population declines of many species of waterbirds in the past 20 yr, some management recommendations relevant to shallow waters include: better protection, enhancement, and creation of small bay islands (small and isolated to preclude most mammalian predators) for nesting and brooding birds, especially colonial species; establishment of sanctuaries from human disturbance (e.g., boating, hunting) both in open water (waterfowl) and on land, better allocation of sandy dredged materials to augment islands or stabilize eroding islands; improvement in water management of existing impoundments to ensure good feeding, resting, and nesting opportunities for all the waterbirds, support for policies to preclude point and nonpoint source runoff of chemicals

  16. The transforming perception of a regional geohazard between coastal defence and mediated discourse on global warming: Storm surges in Hamburg, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neverla, I.; Lüthje, C.

    2010-03-01

    The term regional geohazard is used for a major geophysical risk which can lead to a natural disaster. The effects will be strictly located to a specific region. It is expected but still not proven that global warming will intensify weather extremes and thus the number of regional geohazards will increase. Regional geohazards are not dangerous per se, but from the perspective of human being certain weather and nature extremes are considered dangerous as they impose damage on human beings and their belongings. Therefore the media often call them ‘natural disaster’ and as a matter of fact it seems to be a ‘must’ - according to theory and practice of news selections - that media report on any natural disaster that occur in their region. Moreover, media even report on geohazards in any other region as soon as these events seem to have any general impact. The major geophysical risk along the coast of the North Sea is storm surges. A long list of historical disasters has deeply engraved the ubiquity of this hazard into the collective memory and habitus of the local population. Not only coastal region is concerned by this danger but also the megacity of Hamburg. Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany and the sixth-largest city in the European Union. The Hamburg Metropolitan Region has more than 4.3 million inhabitants. The estuary of the river Elbe extends from Cuxhaven (coast) to Hamburg a distance of about 130 km. Hamburg has often been subject to storm surges with significant damages. But after the storm flood in 1855 for more than 100 years until 1962 no severe storm surge happened. The Big Flood in the night from February 16 to February 17 1962 destroyed the homes of about 60.000 people. The death toll amounted to 315 in the city of Hamburg, where the storm surge had a traumatic impact and was followed by political decisions driven by the believe in technological solutions. After 1962 massive investments into the coastal defence were made and dikes

  17. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of EPA's National Coastal Assessment (NCA) program is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's coastal resources on state, regional and national scales. During 1999-2003, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters were representatively sampled at ...

  18. Assessment of trace metal contamination level and toxicity in sediments from coastal regions of West Bengal, eastern part of India.

    PubMed

    Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca; Mondal, Priyanka; Mitra, Soumita; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar

    2015-12-30

    The work investigated concentration of trace metals in surface sediments (0-10 cm; < 63 μm grain size) from 15 sampling sites of diverse environmental stresses covering Hugli River Estuary (HRE) and Sundarban Mangrove Wetland (SMW), eastern coastal part of India. The trace metal concentrations in sediments exhibited an overall decreasing trend as follows: Cr (21.2-60.9)>Cu (11.60-102.47)>Ni (19.10-52.60)>Pb (7.09-183.88)>As (4.41-11.46)>Cd (0.02-4.4)>Ag (0.02-0.87). Both the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and contamination factor (CF) values revealed significant pollution by Ag, Cd and Pb at Nurpur of HRE. Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) (61.21 ± 112.40) showed wide range of variations from low (19.76) to serious (463.20) ecological risk. A positive significant correlation was found between metals and organic carbon in sediments. The ecological risk associated with the trace metals in sediment was considered on the consensus based Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). The work suggests that the trace metals present in sediments posed adverse effects on the sediment-dwelling organisms. PMID:26581818

  19. Regional and local contributions to ambient non-methane volatile organic compounds at a polluted rural/coastal site in Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Wang, T.; Blake, D. R.; Simpson, I. J.; Kwok, Y. H.; Li, Y. S.

    Identification of major sources of airborne pollutants and their contribution to pollutant loadings are critical in developing effective pollution control and mitigation strategies. In this study, a comprehensive dataset of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) collected from August 2001 to December 2002 at a polluted rural/coastal site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is analyzed to assess the relative contributions of major pollution sources to ambient NMVOC mixing ratios. A unique approach based on emission ratios of individual chemical species was used to classify the bulk air samples in order to apportion regional and local source contributions to the measured mixing ratios. The collected air samples fell into four major groups, including air masses from the inner PRD region and Hong Kong (HK) urban area. To estimate the source apportionment of NMVOCs, a principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores receptor model was applied to the classified data points. The results indicate that the regional and local source contributions to ambient NMVOC levels at the site were significantly different due to the differences in local versus regional energy use and industrial activities. For air masses originating from HK, vehicular emissions accounted for approximately 39% of the total NMVOC levels, followed by industrial emissions (35%), gasoline evaporation (14%) and commercial/domestic liquefied petroleum gas/natural gas use (12%). By contrast, for air masses originating from the PRD the industrial emissions accounted for 43% of the total NMVOC burden, followed by vehicular emissions (32%) and biomass burning (25%). In particular, the higher regional contribution of biomass burning found in this study as compared to existing emission inventories suggests that further efforts are necessary to refine the emission inventories of NMVOCs in the PRD region.

  20. Tide and river influences on distributary channels of the Mekong River delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Nguyen, V. L.; Ta, T. K. O.; Tamura, T.; Kanai, Y.; Nakashima, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Mekong River delta, one of the world's largest deltas, has extended from Phnom Penh in Cambodia (apex) to the coast from the Saigon River mouth to Cape Camau in Vietnam with a triangular-shape area of more than 60,000 km2. The delta has prograded more than 200 km over at least the last 6-7 ka. The river-mouth area of the delta is meso-tidal with the mean tidal range of 2.5 ± 0.1 m and the maximum tidal range is 3.2-3.8 m. The mean wave height is 0.9 m. Its water discharge is 470 km3/y and its sediment discharge is 160 million t/y, or tenth and ninth largest in the world, respectively. The water discharge varies by season because most of the drainage area is under a monsoonal tropical regime. The flow at Phnom Penh, Cambodia, reaches a maximum in October (typically 39,000 m3/s) and a minimum in May (about 1700 m3/s). Tidal water-level changes are observed in Cambodia, more than 200 km upstream from the river mouth. To understand the combined influenced of river and tide on river bottom sediments, we have collected ~210 surface samples from river bottoms of the whole Mekong River delta in Vietnam, covering five distributaries during dry season from January to May 2015. Sediment characteristics show clearly tide- and river-influenced areas, which are closely linked with river morphology.

  1. Pre-Columbian population dynamics in coastal southern Peru: A diachronic investigation of mtDNA patterns in the Palpa region by ancient DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Reindel, Markus; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Hummel, Susanne; Herrmann, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    Alternative models have been proposed to explain the formation and decline of the south Peruvian Nasca culture, ranging from migration or invasion to autochthonous development and ecological crisis. To reveal to what extent population dynamic processes accounted for cultural development in the Nasca mainland, or were influenced by them, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA of 218 individuals, originating from chronologically successive archaeological sites in the Palpa region, the Paracas Peninsula, and the Andean highlands in southern Peru. The sampling strategy allowed a diachronic analysis in a time frame from approximately 800 BC to 800 AD. Mitochondrial coding region polymorphisms were successfully analyzed and replicated for 130 individuals and control region sequences (np 16021-16408) for 104 individuals to determine Native American mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and haplotypes. The results were compared with ancient and contemporary Peruvian populations to reveal genetic relations of the archaeological samples. Frequency data and statistics show clear proximity of the Nasca populations to the populations of the preceding Paracas culture from Palpa and the Peninsula, and suggest, along with archaeological data, that the Nasca culture developed autochthonously in the Rio Grande drainage. Furthermore, the influence of changes in socioeconomic complexity in the Palpa area on the genetic diversity of the local population could be observed. In all, a strong genetic affinity between pre-Columbian coastal populations from southern Peru could be determined, together with a significant differentiation from ancient highland and all present-day Peruvian reference populations, best shown in the differential distribution of mitochondrial haplogroups. PMID:19639639

  2. Chlorine isotopic compositions of deep saline fluids in Ibusuki coastal geothermal region, Japan: using B-Cl isotopes to interpret fluid sources.

    PubMed

    Musashi, Masaaki; Oi, Takao; Kreulen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We report chlorine stable isotopic compositions (δ(37)Cl, expressed in ‰ relative to the standard mean ocean chloride) as well as δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of deep saline fluids taken at eight drill-holes reaching from 73 to 780 m below sea level in the Ibusuki coastal geothermal region, Japan. Analytical results show that the δ(37)Cl values narrowly range between -0.26 and +0.21 ‰ with an analytical precision of ±0.06 ‰. Except for one sample, the samples examined are negative in δ(37)Cl value with varying Cl/B molar ratios from 117 to 1265. A correlation study between the Cl/B molar ratio and the δ(37)Cl/δ(11)B ratio indicates a hyperbola-type mixing of at least two Cl sources in the Ibusuki region. One of them depletes in (37)Cl with a higher value of Cl/B molar ratio; and the other one enriches in (37)Cl with a lower Cl/B molar ratio. The former is chemically identical to that of the deep brine, which is altered seawater through the seawater-hot rock interaction. The latter is chemically similar to gas condensate derived from the high-temperature (890 °C) vent of an island-arc volcano near the Ibusuki region. PMID:25564103

  3. Coupling atmospheric mercury isotope ratios and meteorology to identify sources of mercury impacting a coastal urban-industrial region near Pensacola, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Jason D.; Sherman, Laura S.; Blum, Joel D.; Marsik, Frank J.; Dvonch, J. Timothy

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the anthropogenic and natural sources of mercury (Hg) emissions contributing to atmospheric mercury on local, regional, and global scales continues to be a grand challenge. The relative importance of various direct anthropogenic emissions of mercury, in addition to natural geologic sources and reemission of previously released and deposited mercury, differs regionally and temporally. In this study, we used local-scale, mesoscale, and synoptic-scale meteorological analysis to couple the isotopic composition of ambient atmospheric mercury with potential sources of mercury contributing to a coastal urban-industrial setting near a coal-fired power plant in Pensacola, Florida, USA. We were able to broadly discern four influences on the isotopic composition of ambient atmospheric mercury impacting this coastal urban-industrial region: (1) local to regional urban-industrial anthropogenic emissions (mean δ202Hg = 0.44 ± 0.05‰, 1SD, n = 3), (2) marine-influenced sources derived from the Gulf of Mexico (mean δ202Hg = 0.77 ± 0.15‰, 1SD, n = 4), (3) continental sources associated with north-northwesterly flows from within the planetary boundary layer (mean δ202Hg = 0.65 ± 0.04‰, 1SD, n = 3), and (4) continental sources associated with north-northeasterly flows at higher altitudes (i.e., 2000 m above ground level; mean δ202Hg = 1.10 ± 0.21‰, 1SD, n = 8). Overall, these data, in conjunction with previous studies, suggest that the background global atmospheric mercury pool is characterized by moderately positive δ202Hg values; that urban-industrial emissions drive the isotopic composition of ambient atmospheric mercury toward lower δ202Hg values; and that air-surface exchange dynamics across vegetation and soils of terrestrial ecosystems drive the isotopic composition of ambient atmospheric mercury toward higher positive δ202Hg values. The data further suggest that mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of both even-mass- and odd-mass-number isotopes

  4. Integrating wastewater reuse in water resources management for hotels in arid coastal regions - Case Study of Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Lamei, A; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water (using reverse osmosis) for their domestic water supply, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their potable and non-potable water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum amount of water that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). Hotels have to carefully analyse their water requirements in order to determine which percentage of the hotel's peak water demand should be used in the contract in order to reduce water costs and avoid the risk of water shortage. This paper describes a model to optimise the contracted-for irrigation water supply with the objective function to minimise total water cost to hotels. It analyses what the contracted-for irrigation water supply of a given hotel should be, based on the size of the green irrigated area on one hand and the unit prices of the different types of water on the other hand. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh (Sharm), Egypt. This paper presents costs of wastewater treatment using waste stabilisation ponds, which is the prevailing treatment mechanism in the case study area for centralised plants, as well as aerobic/anaerobic treatment used for decentralised wastewater treatment plants in the case study area. There is only one centralised wastewater treatment plant available in the city exerting monopoly and selling treated wastewater to hotels at a much higher price than the actual cost that a hotel would bear if it treated its own wastewater. Contracting for full peak irrigation demand is the highest total cost option. Contracting for a portion of the peak irrigation demand and complementing the rest from desalination water is a cheaper option. A better option still is to complement the excess irrigation demand

  5. Annual and seasonal trends of cooling, heating, and industrial degree-days in coastal regions of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Shafiqur; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Khan, Shamsuddin

    2011-06-01

    The present study utilizes daily maximum and minimum values of temperature for a period of 37 years from 1970-2006 in five coastal cities for the estimation of monthly and annual totals of cooling, heating, and industrial degree-days at base temperatures of 18°C and 24°C, 18°C and 20°C, 7°C, and 13°C, respectively. Increasing trends were observed in case of annual total cooling degree-days (CDD) and industrial degree-days over the period of study at all base temperatures. Furthermore, well-defined seasonal trends were seen with increasing values from January to July and then decreasing towards the end of the year. The heating degree-days (HDD) analysis indicated slight heating during January to March and in December. The annual total HDD showed decreasing trends at both base temperatures. It is worth mentioning that the rate of increase of annual CDD was found to be decreasing with decreasing latitude on the Red Sea coast from Al-Wejh to Gizan with an exception at Yanbo, where it was higher than at Al-Wejh. On the other hand, the rate of decrease of annual HDD was found to be decreasing with decreasing latitude on the Red Sea coast from Al-Wejh to Gizan. The seasonal and annual values of cooling degree-days were found to be comparable with corresponding values for stations like international airports in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Musqat, and Cairo with similar types of climatic conditions.

  6. Effects of prenatal exposure to organochlorines on thyroid hormone status in newborns from two remote coastal regions in Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Dallaire, Renee; Dewailly, Eric Ayotte, Pierre; Muckle, Gina; Laliberte, Claire; Bruneau, Suzanne

    2008-11-15

    Background: Several prospective studies have revealed that prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other organochlorine compounds (OCs) affect neurodevelopment during infancy. One of the mechanisms by which PCBs might interfere with neurodevelopment is a deficit in thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations. Objectives: We investigated the potential impact of transplacental exposure to PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on TH concentrations in neonates from two remote coastal populations exposed to OCs through the consumption of seafood products. Methods: Blood samples were collected at birth from the umbilical cord of neonates from Nunavik (n=410) and the Lower North Shore of the St. Lawrence River (n=260) (Quebec, Canada) for thyroid parameters [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free T{sub 4} (fT{sub 4}), total T{sub 3} (tT{sub 3}), and thyroxine-binding globuline (TBG)] and contaminants analyses. Results: In multivariate models, umbilical cord plasma concentrations of PCB 153, the predominant PCB congener, were not associated with TH and TSH levels in both populations. Prenatal exposure to HCB was positively associated with fT{sub 4} levels at birth in both populations (Nunavik, {beta}=0.12, p=0.04; St. Lawrence, {beta}=0.19, p<0.01), whereas TBG concentrations were negatively associated with PCB 153 concentrations ({beta}=-0.13, p=0.05) in the St. Lawrence cohort. Conclusion: OCs levels were not associated to a reduction in THs in neonates from our two populations. Essential nutrients derived from seafood such as iodine may have prevented the negative effects of OCs on the thyroid economy during fetal development.

  7. Modeling land use and land cover changes in a vulnerable coastal region using artificial neural networks and cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Yi; Lam, Nina S N

    2015-03-01

    As one of the most vulnerable coasts in the continental USA, the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) region has endured numerous hazards over the past decades. The sustainability of this region has drawn great attention from the international, national, and local communities, wanting to understand how the region as a system develops under intense interplay between the natural and human factors. A major problem in this deltaic region is significant land loss over the years due to a combination of natural and human factors. The main scientific and management questions are what factors contribute to the land use land cover (LULC) changes in this region, can we model the changes, and how would the LULC look like in the future given the current factors? This study analyzed the LULC changes of the region between 1996 and 2006 by utilizing an artificial neural network (ANN) to derive the LULC change rules from 15 human and natural variables. The rules were then used to simulate future scenarios in a cellular automation model. A stochastic element was added in the model to represent factors that were not included in the current model. The analysis was conducted for two sub-regions in the study area for comparison. The results show that the derived ANN models could simulate the LULC changes with a high degree of accuracy (above 92 % on average). A total loss of 263 km(2) in wetlands from 2006 to 2016 was projected, whereas the trend of forest loss will cease. These scenarios provide useful information to decision makers for better planning and management of the region. PMID:25647797

  8. Application of Unstructured Grid Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model to Louisiana Coast: Simulation of River Water Plumes into the Hypoxia Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Rabalais, N. N.; Chen, C.; Twilley, R. R.; Lin, H.; Turner, E. R.

    2008-12-01

    We have applied the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM), developed at the University of Massachusetts, to the entire Gulf of Mexico, with a particular focus on the northern Gulf of Mexico including the Regions of Freshwater Influence. This area covers one of the largest hypoxia zones in coastal oceans where freshwater and nutrient inputs are significant from land drainage. Among the rivers included in the model are the Mississippi River and the Atchafalaya River that run into the continental shelf along the Louisiana coast. The complexity of the LA coastline and bays, low-lying marsh areas are among the challenges for an accurate simulation of transport of water and associated dynamics. The FVCOM is selected to address this complexity. The model is implemented by using irregular triangles with the smallest ones having scales of ~50 m. This allows accurate representation of fluxes through the multiple inlets connecting the shelf and a series of semi-enclosed bays. A total of more than 263,000 triangles are used to cover the domain, with more than 90% concentrated over the Louisiana shelf and coast areas. The astronomical tides, river discharges, and wind are provided as the forcing for the model. The preliminary simulations yielded detailed flow structure including the river plumes that mimics the high resolution images observed from satellites. These plumes respond to wind forcing and river discharges as well as the numerical model parameters related to turbulence and bottom friction. The accuracy of coastlines and bathymetry also has influence to the results. The model results show multiple eddies in the bays, at the inlets, near the river mouth and deltas, and on the shelf. This preliminary study provides a new tool to study the dynamics of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Multi-hazard Non-regulatory Risk Maps for Resilient Coastal Communities of Washington State in Pacific Northwest Region of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Zou, Y.; Gufler, T.; Norman, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Washington Department of Natural Resources - Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WADNR-DGER) partnered with FEMA through the FEMA Cooperating Technical Partners (CTP) program to assess annualized losses from flood and other hazards and prepare supportive risk related data for FEMA's coastal RiskMAP projects. We used HAZUS-MH analysis to assess losses from earthquake, flood and other potential hazards such as landslide and tsunami in the project areas; on shorelines of the Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound of Washington Grays Harbor, Pacific, Skagit, Whatcom, Island, Mason, Clallam, Jefferson and San Juan counties. The FEMA's Hazus-MH tool was applied to estimate losses and damages for each building due to floods and earthquakes. User-defined facilities (UDF) inventory data were prepared and used for individual building damage estimations and updating general building stocks. Flood depth grids were used to determine which properties are most impacted by flooding. For example, the HAZUS-MH (flood model) run based on the 1% annual chance event (or 100 year flood) for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 161 million in losses to buildings including residential, commercial properties, and other building and occupancy types. A likely M9 megathrust Cascadia earthquake scenario USGS-ShakeMap was used for the HAZUS-MH earthquake model. For example, the HAZUS-MH (earthquake model) run based on the Cascadia M9 earthquake for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 1.15 billion in losses to building inventory. We produced GIS-based overlay maps of properties exposed to tsunami, landslide, and liquefaction hazards within the communities. This multi-hazard approach is an essential component to produce non-regulatory maps for FEMA's RiskMAP project, and they help further improve local and regional mitigation efforts and emergency response plans, and overall resiliency plan of the communities in and around the coastal communities in western Washington.

  10. Fog Prediction for Road Traffic Safety in a Coastal Desert Region: Improvement of Nowcasting Skills by the Machine-Learning Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoková, Ivana; Bott, Andreas; Bartok, Juraj; Gera, Martin

    2015-12-01

    A new model for nowcasting fog events in the coastal desert area of Dubai is presented, based on a machine-learning algorithm—decision-tree induction. In the investigated region high frequency observations from automatic weather stations were utilized as a database for the analysis of useful patterns. The induced decision trees yield for the first six forecasting hours increased prediction skill when compared to the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the PAFOG fog model (Bartok et al., Boundary-Layer Meteorol 145:485-506, 2012). The decision tree results were further improved by integrating the output of the coupled numerical fog forecasting models in the training database of the decision tree. With this treatment, the statistical quality measures, i.e. the probability of detection, the false alarm ratio, and the Gilbert's skill score, achieved values of 0.88, 0.19, and 0.69, respectively. From these results we conclude that the best fog forecast in the Dubai region is obtained by applying for the first six forecast hours the newly-developed machine-learning algorithm, while for forecast times exceeding 6 h the coupled numerical models are the best choice.

  11. Shallow landslide prediction and analysis with risk assessment using a spatial model in the coastal region in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarinha, P. I. M.; Canavesi, V.; Alvalá, R. C. S.

    2013-10-01

    In Brazil, most of the disasters involving landslide occur in coastal regions, with population density concentrated on steep slopes. Thus, different approaches have been used to evaluate the landslide risk, although the greatest difficulty is related to the scarcity of spatial data with good quality. In this context, four cities located on the southeast coast of Brazil - Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba - in a region with the rough reliefs of the Serra do Mar and with a history of natural disasters were evaluated. Spatial prediction by fuzzy gamma technique was used for the landslide susceptibility mapping, considering environmental variables from data and software in the public domain. To validate the susceptibility mapping results, it was overlapped with risk sectors provided by the Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM). A positive correlation was observed between the classes most susceptible and the location of these sectors. The results were also analyzed from the categorization of risk levels provided by CPRM. To compare the approach with other studies using landslide-scar maps, correlated indexes were evaluated, which also showed satisfactory results, thus indicating that the methodology presented is appropriate for risk assessment in urban areas and can be replicated to municipalities that do not have risk areas mapped.

  12. Identifying Temporal Patterns in Light use Efficiency for two Loblolly Pine Plantations in a Drained Lower Coastal Plain Region of North Carolina, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirino, V. F.; Wynne, R. H.; Noormets, A.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.

    2007-12-01

    Light Use Efficiency (LUE) is a variable present in most ecosystem models driven by remote sensing. Among other factors, LUE varies with time. In this study we evaluate the temporal variation of LUE over a one year period for two loblolly pine plantations - one mid-rotation and one recently harvested. Specifically, we determine the most reasonable measurement time periods for LUE, and if these periods vary with stand age. The underlying hypothesis is that short term temporal changes in LUE cancel out over a certain amount of time, and therefore, to estimate forest productivity at landscape to regional scales using moderate resolution satellite data these intensive measurements are unnecessary. To test this hypothesis we use data collected in two micrometeorological tower sites that are a part of the Ameriflux network. They are located in the coastal plain region of North Carolina, U.S.A and are less than five kilometers apart. For this study eddy covariance measurements and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) sensors are used to obtain gross primary production (GPP) and the fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the canopy (APAR). LUE is calculated as GPP divided by fAPAR. The analysis of the data consists of first calculating daily LUE averages for the entire study period. Changes in both the trend and variance of LUE are being assessed using autoregressive conditional techniques for time series analysis.

  13. Spatial distribution and sources identification of elements in PM2.5 among the coastal city group in the Western Taiwan Strait region, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingling; Yu, Yanke; Yu, Jianshuan; Chen, Jinsheng; Niu, Zhenchuan; Yin, Liqian; Zhang, Fuwang; Liao, Xu; Chen, Yanting

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the spatial variations of 20 elements (Al, Si, Ti, Ca, Fe, Mg, Cr, Mn, Ni, P, S, K, Cu, Cl, V, Se, Br, As, Zn, and Pb) in PM(2.5) (particle matters ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) in the coastal city group in the Western Taiwan Strait (WTS) region, China during spring 2011. The average PM(2.5) mass concentration at 13 sites was 77.0 μg/m(3) and the elemental fraction accounted for about 10-20%. Multivariate analyses (principal component analysis and cluster analysis) and a correlation matrix were used to identify the sources of elements in PM(2.5). The results revealed that the elements originated mainly from traffic emissions, coal combustion, pyrometallurgical processes, and crustal sources. Spatially, the concentrations of elements were generally higher in several rapidly growing locations, and the enrichment factors (EFs) for most elements were much higher at the northern sites than those at the southern sites, suggesting that the air quality in the northern part of the study area was strongly affected by anthropogenic activity. Backward wind trajectory analysis during the sampling period indicated that the concentrations of elements in PM(2.5) in the WTS region were greatly impacted by dust particles transported from Northern China in spring. PMID:23178767

  14. The Technological Impact of the E-Rate Program on a School District of the Texas Coastal Bend Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez-Cruz, Juan Diego

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of the E-Rate program on students, teachers, administrators, and the technology environment of a public school district in the Texas Gulf Coast Region. The study was conducted through a mixed methods design, utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data collection; the research design was a…

  15. Application of ERTS-1 satellite imagery for land use mapping and resource inventories in the central coastal region of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Thaman, R. R.; Senger, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 satellite imagery has proved a valuable data source for land use as well as natural and cultural resource studies on a regional basis. ERTS-1 data also provide an excellent base for mapping resource related features and phenomena. These investigations are focused on a number of potential applications which are already showing promise of having operational utility.

  16. Bankfull Regional Curves for Streams in the Non-Urban, Non-Tidal Coastal Plain Physiographic Province, Virginia and Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Chaplin, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Natural-channel design involves constructing a stream channel with the dimensions, slope, and plan-view pattern that would be expected to transport water and sediment and yet maintain habitat and aesthetics consistent with unimpaired reaches. The adequate description of channel geometry in unimpaired reaches often is an important component of natural-channel design projects and can be facilitated through empirical regression relations, or regional curves, relating bankfull geometry to drainage area. One-variable, ordinary least-squares regressions relating bankfull discharge, bankfull cross-sectional area, bankfull width, and bankfull mean depth to drainage area were developed based on data collected at 20 streamflow-gaging stations in Virginia and Maryland. These regional curves can be used to estimate the bankfull discharge and bankfull channel geometry when the drainage area of a watershed is known. Field data collected at the site for each streamflow-gaging station included one longitudinal profile of bankfull features and channel-bed slope, two riffle cross-section surveys of channel geometry, cross-section pebble counts, and one site sketch with photographs of the channel and bankfull features. The top of the bank was the bankfull feature most indicative of bankfull geometry. Field data were analyzed to determine bankfull cross-sectional area, bankfull width, bankfull mean depth, and D50- and D84-particle sizes for the two riffles at each site. The bankfull geometry from the 8 sites surveyed during this study represents the average of two riffle cross sections for each site, and the bankfull geometry from the 12 Maryland sites represents one cross section for each site. Regional curves developed for the 20 sites had coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.945, 0.890, 0.871, and 0.793 for bankfull cross-sectional area, width, mean depth, and discharge, respectively. The regional curves represent conditions for streams with defined channels and bankfull

  17. Coastal applications of the ERTS-1 satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magoon, O. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Samples are given of the possible applications of ERTS-1 imagery to coastal and nearshore studies. Briefly discussed are: (1) obtaining regional views of extended coastal areas; (2) distribution of sediments; (3) coastal configurations and changes; (4) barrier islands; (5) underwater penetration, and (6) coastal waves.

  18. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  19. Seasonal changes of spatial variation of some groundwater quality variables in a large irrigated coastal Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kurunc, Ahmet; Ersahin, Sabit; Sonmez, Namik K; Kaman, Harun; Uz, Ilker; Uz, Buket Y; Aslan, Gulcin E

    2016-06-01

    Soil and groundwater degradations have taken considerable attention, recently. We studied spatial and temporal variations of groundwater table depth and contours, and groundwater pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and nitrate (NO3) content in a large irrigated area in Western Mediterranean region of Turkey. These variables were monitored during 2009 and 2010 in previously constructed 220 monitoring wells. We analyzed the data by geostatistical techniques and GIS. Spatial variation of groundwater table depth (GTD) and groundwater table contours (GTC) remained similar across the four sampling campaigns. The values for groundwater NO3 content, EC, and pH values ranged from 0.01 to 454.1gL(-1), 0.06 to 46.0dSm(-1) and 6.53-9.91, respectively. Greatest geostatistical range (16,964m) occurred for GTC and minimum (960m) for groundwater EC. Groundwater NO3 concentrations varied both spatially and temporally. Temporal changes in spatial pattern of NO3 indicated that land use and farming practices influenced spatial and temporal variation of groundwater NO3. Several hot spots occurred for groundwater NO3 content and EC. These localities should be monitored more frequently and land management practices should be adjusted to avoid soil and groundwater degradation. The results may have important implications for areas with similar soil, land use, and climate conditions across the Mediterranean region. PMID:26950619

  20. Sustainability and Local People's Participation in Coastal Aquaculture: Regional Differences and Historical Experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergquist, Daniel A.

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn ( Penneaus monodon) and milkfish ( Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab ( Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating ≤10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.

  1. Sustainability and local people's participation in coastal aquaculture: regional differences and historical experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bergquist, Daniel A

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn (Penneaus monodon) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab (Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating < or =10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically. PMID:17929084

  2. Hydrocarbons in Washington coastal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl, Fredrick G.; Carpenter, Roy

    1984-06-01

    The sources and distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbons are characterized in seventeen sediments from a highly river-influenced sedimentary environment off the southwestern coast of Washington. The major hydrocarbons are land-derived, introduced as preformed compounds and display long-term stability in sediment cores. A series of PAH of anthropogenic origin and two naturally derived compounds, retene and perylene, dominate the PAH composition in these sediments. Plantwax n-alkanes are the major aliphatic hydrocarbon constituents. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of marine origin, pristane and a series of four acyclic, multibranched C 25 polyolefins, are also observed in many sediments. The concentrations of these marine-derived hydrocarbons decrease to negligible levels rapidly with sediment depth from the sea-sediment interface, suggesting degradation. In general, the major land-derived hydrocarbons are concentrated in the midshelf silt deposit which extends northwestward along the continental shelf from the Columbia River mouth. A quantitatively more minor, natural series of phenanthrene homologs, also of terrestrial origin, is preferentially advected further offshore and deposited in continental slope sediments. These distributions are consistent with recognized particle associations for these compounds and sediment dispersal processes in this coastal environment. Sediment core records suggest the present pattern of dispersal has persisted for at least the past century and possibly since the Late Pleistocene.

  3. The beach as a setting for families' health promotion: a qualitative study with parents and children living in coastal regions in Southwest England.

    PubMed

    Ashbullby, Katherine J; Pahl, Sabine; Webley, Paul; White, Mathew P

    2013-09-01

    This study explores the neglected issue of how families engage with beach environments in their local areas and use them in health promoting ways. Fifteen families with children aged 8-11 years living in coastal regions in Southwest England participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The findings indicate that beaches encouraged families to be physically active. Although families valued the opportunities for physical activity and active play afforded by beaches, the key health benefits emphasised were psychological, including experiencing fun, stress relief and engagement with nature. Increased social and family interaction was also highlighted as benefits. Despite perceiving health benefits, not all families regularly visited the beach. Barriers to visits included parents having limited time, cost of parking, lack of car access and cold weather. Parents played a key role in enabling visits by choosing to share these environments with their children. The social dimension of visits also encouraged families to make regular trips. The findings support the use of beach environments to promote families' health and wellbeing and positive relationships with nature. PMID:23906586

  4. Characterization and sources of regional-scale transported carbonaceous and dust aerosols from different pathways in coastal and sandy land areas of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, D.; Gong, S. L.; Arimoto, R.; Mao, L. J.; Li, J.

    2005-08-01

    Concentrations of 12-hour averaged organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and other trace elements were determined from bulk aerosol samples at a coastal city of Lian Yun Gang (LYG) in east China from June to December 2003 and a sandy land site of Tong Liao in northeast China from June to August 2003. Regional transports from four main source areas accounted for ˜35-49% of the Asian dust and 16-18% of the carbonaceous particles for both sites. The regional mean concentrations of various species, especially EC, were comparable to or lower than those in urban areas of inland China, Korea, and Japan but tended to be higher than those in Hong Kong or rural sites in east Asia. At LYG, OC showed a clear seasonal pattern with a peak loading in winter (24 μg m-3) and a low in summer (10 μg m-3). Seasonality of EC was more pronounced than that of OC with a difference of approximately threefold (3.8 to 11 μg m-3). Three types of air masses with high particulate loadings were found to be responsible for the peak EC and low OC/EC ratios in winter. Clean air masses with more than 50% secondary organic carbon contents were largely of marine origins. Elemental concentrations (Ca, Fe, K, Mn, and Ti) were mainly associated with Asian dust aerosols with a certain fraction of K from biomass burning in mainland China characterized with a ratio of 1.3 for OC/K.

  5. An Investigation on the role of Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterization scheme on the performance of a hydrostatic atmospheric model over a Coastal Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anurose, J. T.; Subrahamanyam, Bala D.

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ocean/land-atmosphere interaction, more than half of the total kinetic energy is lost within the lowest part of atmosphere, often referred to as the planetary boundary layer (PBL). A comprehensive understanding of the energetics of this layer and turbulent processes responsible for dissipation of kinetic energy within the PBL require accurate estimation of sensible and latent heat flux and momentum flux. In numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, these quantities are estimated through different surface-layer and PBL parameterization schemes. This research article investigates different factors influencing the accuracy of a surface-layer parameterization scheme used in a hydrostatic high-resolution regional model (HRM) in the estimation of surface-layer turbulent fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum over the coastal regions of the Indian sub-continent. Results obtained from this sensitivity study of a parameterization scheme in HRM revealed the role of surface roughness length (z_{0}) in conjunction with the temperature difference between the underlying ground surface and atmosphere above (ΔT = T_{G} - T_{A}) in the estimated values of fluxes. For grid points over the land surface where z_{0} is treated as a constant throughout the model integration time, ΔT showed relative dominance in the estimation of sensible heat flux. In contrast to this, estimation of sensible and latent heat flux over ocean were found to be equally sensitive on the method adopted for assigning the values of z_{0} and also on the magnitudes of ΔT.

  6. Dimethylamine as a major alkyl amine species in particles and cloud water: Observations in semi-arid and coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, J.-S.; Crosbie, E.; Maudlin, L. C.; Wang, Z.; Sorooshian, A.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol and cloud water measurements of dimethylamine (DMA), the most abundant amine in this study, were conducted in semi-arid (Tucson, Arizona) and marine (Nucleation in California Experiment, NiCE; central coast of California) areas. In both regions, DMA exhibits a unimodal aerosol mass size distribution with a dominant peak between 0.18 and 0.56 μm. Particulate DMA concentrations increase as a function of marine biogenic emissions, sulfate, BVOC emissions, and aerosol-phase water. Such data supports biogenic sources of DMA, aminium salt formation, and partitioning of DMA to condensed phases. DMA concentrations exhibit positive correlations with various trace elements and most especially vanadium, which warrants additional investigation. Cloud water DMA levels are enhanced significantly during wildfire periods unlike particulate DMA levels, including in droplet residual particles, due to effective dissolution of DMA into cloud water and probably DMA volatilization after drop evaporation. DMA:NH4+ molar ratios peak between 0.18 and 1.0 μm depending on the site and time of year, suggesting that DMA competes better with NH3 in those sizes in terms of reactive uptake by particles.

  7. Altitude of the freshwater-saltwater interface in a regionally extensive coastal plain aquifer of Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strickland, Donald J.; Mahon, Gary L.

    1986-01-01

    Geophysical well logs from over 150 oil test and water wells in Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia were examined and calculations of the dissolved solids concentration in ground water were made using the spontaneous potential deflection as a measure of ionic activity. The values derived from these calculations were used to prepare a map showing the altitude relative to sea level at which the concentration of dissolved solids in the groundwater reached 10,000 mg/L within a regionally extensive aquifer in Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. A dissolved solids concentration of 10,000 mg/L is used to delineate the interface between moderately saline and saline water; 10,000 mg/L dissolved solids was designated to delineate the freshwater-saltwater interface. For a finite difference computer flow model being used this interface represents the location where horizontal flow of freshwater is greatly diminished. 10 ,000 mg/L also is the lower limit for dissolved solids concentrations for water in target zones for injection wells. This 10,000 mg/L dissolved solids line is of value as a water quality indicator; although water containing 3,000 to 10,000 mg/L or more of dissolved solids is too saline for agricultural use (upper limit approximately 3,000 mg/L), it may be useful for some industrial purposes. Waters containing dissolved solids concentrations > 10,000 mg/L have little potential for any use involving human activities. (Lantz-PTT)

  8. Dimethylamine as a major alkyl amine species in particles and cloud water: Observations in semi-arid and coastal regions

    PubMed Central

    Youn, J.-S.; Crosbie, E.; Maudlin, L.C.; Wang, Z.; Sorooshian, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol and cloud water measurements of dimethylamine (DMA), the most abundant amine in this study, were conducted in semi-arid (Tucson, Arizona) and marine (Nucleation in California Experiment, NiCE; central coast of California) areas. In both regions, DMA exhibits a unimodal aerosol mass size distribution with a dominant peak between 0.18 and 0.56 μm. Particulate DMA concentrations increase as a function of marine biogenic emissions, sulfate, BVOC emissions, and aerosol-phase water. Such data supports biogenic sources of DMA, aminium salt formation, and partitioning of DMA to condensed phases. DMA concentrations exhibit positive correlations with various trace elements and most especially vanadium, which warrants additional investigation. Cloud water DMA levels are enhanced significantly during wildfire periods unlike particulate DMA levels, including in droplet residual particles, due to effective dissolution of DMA into cloud water and probably DMA volatilization after drop evaporation. DMA:NH+4 molar ratios peak between 0.18 and 1.0 μm depending on the site and time of year, suggesting that DMA competes better with NH3 in those sizes in terms of reactive uptake by particles. PMID:26807039

  9. Impact of Sea Level Rise on Mangrove Ecosystem and its Dependent Fishing Communities in the Coastal Regions of Cauvery Delta: A Message for Policy Planners to Frame Suitable Antcipatory Adaptation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsad Ibrahim Khan, S. K.; Ramachandran, A.; Kandasamy, P.; Selvam, V.; Shanmugam, P.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal adaptation to sea-level rise (SLR) in the deltaic region is a multidimensional and complex process requiring informed decisions based on predicted impact and vulnerability assessment of SLR. Elevation plays a key role in determining the impact and vulnerability of coastal land areas to inundation from SLR. Highly accurate mapping of the elevation of the landscape is essential to identify low-lying coastal deltaic regions with valuable ecosystem like mangroves and its dependent human communities that are potentially at risk of inundation. It is difficult for policy planners and decision makers to identify suitable adaptation strategies without having information on the predicted impact and degree of vulnerability of coastal systems to SLR. Importantly, modeling and mapping will provide valuable input to climate change adaptation planning (NOAA 2010). Unfortunately, the comprehensive range of information that is typically required is seldom available and rarely in the possession of decision makers responsible for management of the deltaic and coastal zone (O'Regan, 1996). The present study seeks to provide insights on predicted impact of climate change induced SLR on mangrove ecosystem and its dependent human communities of Pichavaram mangroves, located at the Vellar-Coleroon estuarine region on the banks of Cauvery delta, Tamil Nadu, India. Based on real-time on-ground elevation measurement by DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) survey and by using GIS portals, the study has identified about 597 ha of mangroves (one third of total mangrove regions) and about 9 fishing hamlets with 12,000 and more of human population that directly depends on this mangrove ecosystem for their livelihood are under threat of inundation to the predicted impact of 0.5m SLR. The present study is intended to showcase a method by providing reliable scientific information on predicted impact of SLR on mangroves and its dependent human communities to policy planner for

  10. A spatial analysis of cultural ecosystem service valuation by regional stakeholders in Florida: a coastal application of the social values for ecosystem services (SolVES) tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffin, Alisa W.; Swett, Robert A.; Cole, Zachary D.

    2012-01-01

    Livelihoods and lifestyles of people throughout the world depend on essential goods and services provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. However, as societal demand increases and available ocean and coastal space diminish, better methods are needed to spatially and temporally allocate ocean and coastal activities such as shipping, energy production, tourism, and fishing. While economic valuation is an important mechanism for doing so, cultural ecosystem services often do not lend themselves to this method. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey are working collaboratively with the Florida Sea Grant College Program to map nonmonetary values of cultural ecosystem services for a pilot area (Sarasota Bay) in the Gulf of Mexico. The research seeks to close knowledge gaps about the attitudes and perceptions, or nonmonetary values, held by coastal residents toward cultural ecosystem services, and to adapt related, terrestrial-based research methods to a coastal setting. A critical goal is to integrate research results with coastal and marine spatial planning applications, thus making them relevant to coastal planners and managers in their daily efforts to sustainably manage coastal resources. Using information about the attitudes and preferences of people toward places and uses in the landscape, collected from value and preference surveys, the USGS SolVES 2.0 tool will provide quantitative models to relate social values, or perceived nonmonetary values, assigned to locations by survey respondents with the underlying environmental characteristics of those same locations. Project results will increase scientific and geographic knowledge of how Sarasota Bay residents value their area’s cultural ecosystem services.

  11. Coastal Upwelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Features a three-part activity designed to teach students about coastal upwelling, the upward movement of cooler, more nutrient-rich water along a coast. Activity includes a mapping exercise, a graphing exercise, and questions for analyzing the map and graph. (Author/WRM)

  12. COASTAL GUIDELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Developed to support effluent guidelines for the coastal subcategory of the oil and gas extraction industry. Data were used to develop environmental impacts, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation.
    Legislation/Enabling Authority:...

  13. Use Of Radar-Rainfall Data for the Southwest Coastal Louisiana Feasibility Study: Regional Scale Hydrologic and Salinity Modeling and Management Scenario Analysis for Chenier Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meselhe, E. A.; Michot, B.; Chen, C.; Habib, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Chenier Plain, in Southwest Louisiana, extends from Vermilion Bay to Sabine Lake in southeast Texas. It has great economic, industrial, recreational, and ecological value. Over the years, human activities such as dredging ship channels and access canals, building roads, levees, and hydraulic structures have altered the hydrology of the Chenier Plain. These alterations have affected the fragile equilibrium of the marsh ecology. If no action is taken to restore the Chenier Plain, land loss through conversion of marsh to open water would continue. The Southwest Coastal Louisiana Feasibility Study aims at evaluating proposed protection and restoration measures and ultimately submitting a comprehensive plan to protect and preserve the Chenier Plain at the regional scale. The proposed alternatives include marsh creation, terracing, shoreline protection, and freshwater introduction and salinity control structures. A regional scale hydrodynamic and salinity transport model was developed to screen and assess the proposed restoration measures. A critical component of this modeling effort is local rainfall. The strong spatial variability and limited availability of ground-level precipitation measurements limited our ability to capture local rainfall. Thus, a radar-based rainfall product was used as a viable alternative to the rain gauges. These estimates are based on the National Weather Service from the Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) algorithm. Since the model was used to perform long-term (yearly) simulations, the 4x4 km2 MPE estimates were represented as daily accumulations. The use of the radar-rainfall product data improved the model performance especially on our ability to capture the spatial and temporal variations of salinity. Overall, the model is improving our understanding of the circulation patterns and salinity regimes of the region. The circulation model used here is the MIKE FLOOD software (Danish Hydraulic Institute, DHI 2008) which dynamically

  14. Mercury in waters, soils, and sediments of the New Jersey Coastal Plain: A comparison of regional distribution and mobility with the mercury contamination at the William J. Hughes Technical Center, Atlantic County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Julia L.; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury in soils, surface water, and groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center , Atlantic County, New Jersey, has been found at levels that exceed established background concentrations in Coastal Plain waters, and, in some cases, New Jersey State standards for mercury in various media. As of 2012, it is not known whether this mercury is part of regional mercury contamination or whether it is related to former military activities. Regionally, groundwater supplying about 700 domestic wells in the New Jersey Coastal Plain is contaminated with mercury that appears to be derived from anthropogenic inputs, such as agricultural pesticide use and atmospheric deposition. High levels of mercury occasionally are found in Coastal Plain soils, but disturbance during residential development on former agricultural land is thought to have mobilized any mercury applied during farming, a hypothesis borne out by experiments leaching mercury from soils. In the unsewered residential areas with mercury-contaminated groundwater, septic-system effluent is believed to create reducing conditions in which mercury sorbed to subsoils is mobilized to groundwater. In comparing the levels of mercury found in soils, sediments, streamwater, and groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site with those found regionally, mercury concentrations in groundwater in the region are, in some cases, substantially higher than those found in groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site. Nevertheless, concentrations of mercury in streamwater at the site are, in some instances, higher than most found regionally. The mercury contents in soils and sediment at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site are substantially higher than those found to date (2012) in the region, indicating that a source other than regional sources may be present at the site.

  15. Active upper plate thrust faulting in regions of low plate interface coupling, repeated slow slip events, and coastal uplift: Example from the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountjoy, Joshu J.; Barnes, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Contractional fore-arc faulting and deformation is a characteristic feature of many subduction systems. Definition of the three-dimensional geometry and displacement rates of active, upper plate, out-of-sequence thrust faults along ˜250 km of the upper Hikurangi Margin enables us to examine the relationship between fore-arc deformation and the subduction interface in light of interseismic coupling estimates and distribution of slow slip events, both modeled from GPS measurements. These mid-fore-arc structures include the seaward vergent, outer shelf Lachlan and Ariel faults, with vertical separation rates up to 5 mm/yr, and several other major inner shelf faults with rates that are up to 3.8 mm/yr and comparable with Holocene coastal uplift rates. Seismic reflection imaging and geometric projection of these faults at depth indicate that they splay from the region of the plate interface where geodetic inversions for interseismic coupling and slow slip events suggest that the plate boundary undergoes aseismic slip. This observation may indicate either (1) that frictional properties and interseismic coupling on the plate interface are independent and unrelated to the active splay fault deformation in the inner-middle fore arc or (2) that the active splay faulting reflects long-term mechanical coupling related to higher shear stress, or the relative yield strength of the plate interface to the overriding plate, and that the current pattern of interseismic coupling may not be persistent over geological time scales of 20 ka. We compare structure and processes on the northern Hikurangi and Costa Rican margins and find similarities and significant differences astride these subduction systems.

  16. Influence of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in water and sediments on edible seafoods within Ondo oil-polluted coastal region, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ololade, Isaac A; Lajide, Labunmi; Olumekun, Victor O; Ololade, Olusola O; Ejelonu, Benjamin C

    2011-01-01

    The bioconcentration levels of 3 non-essential elements (Pb, Cd and Ni) have been investigated in three different seafoods; Fish (Tilapia zilli), Crab (Callinectes sapidus) and periwinkle (Littorina littorea), to investigate the ecosystem health status in Ondo oil-polluted coastal region, Nigeria. The seafood samples were chosen based on their popularity as a food source and the potential of the species to contain high levels of metals based on past research results. Metal concentrations in the biota showed marked interspecific differences with C. sapidus recording the highest concentrations of all the metals. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) showed that C. sapidus and T. zilli have the greatest potential to concentrate Cd (BCF = 3-10) and Pb (BCF = 11-84) respectively. Lead uptake from both water and sediment (BCF ≈ BSAF: 0.003-0.018) were abysmally low in L. littorea as compared with other organisms. The high concentrations of Pb in fish species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd in species of crab and periwinkles, as well as very high BSAF of Ni found in species of crab indicated a strong influence from anthropogenic pollutant source on the biotic community. Oil pollution appears to be a major source of bioavailable metal contaminants for the selected biota. The study shows that C. sapidus and L. littorea can effectively compartmentalize potentially toxic metals such as Cd, Pb and Ni within their tissues. In terms of toxicity, C. sapidus had Cd concentrations greater than the 3,000 ng/g limit set by the Commission of the European Communities while Pb concentration exceeded their limits in both C. sapidus and T. zilli. All levels of Ni were below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action levels for these metals in fish, crustaceans and shellfish. The study revealed anthropogenic enrichment of the metals studied which can possibly pose potential threats to the ecology of the area. PMID:21714630

  17. Seasonal variation of a coastal jet in the Long Island Sound outflow region based on HF radar and Doppler current observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, D. S.; Codiga, D. L.

    2004-07-01

    Surface current (HF radar) and velocity profile observations, obtained as part of the Front-Resolving Observational Network with Telemetry (FRONT) project over an approximately 2-year period, are used to describe the seasonal variability of a coastal jet in the Long Island Sound outflow region. The jet is observed in an area of the continental shelf where surface thermal fronts are frequently detected during both summer and winter. The current jet is coincident with a band of high summer frontal probability, and apparently arises from the interaction between Long Island Sound outflow and larger-scale alongshore currents on the shelf. The jet reaches peak strength in summer (transport of ˜0.07 Sv) and is weak or non-existent in winter. Flow is strongest near the surface and weakens with depth, with only moderate seasonal variations in the vertical shear. The relatively long data set of currents combined with historical hydrographic measurements and buoy wind observations is analyzed to examine the seasonal variability of the terms in the depth-averaged momentum balance. The depth-averaged pressure gradient is partitioned into a steric component, evaluated from the hydrography, and a non-steric component that is estimated as the residual of the computed terms in the momentum equation. The depth-averaged momentum balance is found to be approximately geostrophic in the across-shore direction. The seasonal variability in the jet arises due to the shifting balance between buoyancy-driven flow that is always downshelf but intensifies somewhat in summer and wind-driven flow which dominates in winter when wind stress becomes strongly upwelling favorable.

  18. Distribution and Risk Factors for Plasmodium and Helminth Co-infections: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Children in Bagamoyo District, Coastal Region of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Nahya; Knopp, Stefanie; Lweno, Omar; Abdul, Ummi; Mohamed, Ali; Schindler, Tobias; Rothen, Julian; Masimba, John; Kwaba, Denis; Mohammed, Alisa S.; Althaus, Fabrice; Abdulla, Salim; Tanner, Marcel; Daubenberger, Claudia; Genton, Blaise

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasmodium and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are a major public health problem, particularly among children. There are conflicting findings on potential association between these two parasites. This study investigated the Plasmodium and helminth co-infections among children aged 2 months to 9 years living in Bagamoyo district, coastal region of Tanzania. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1033 children. Stool, urine and blood samples were examined using a broad set of quality controlled diagnostic methods for common STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichura), schistosoma species and Wuchereria bancrofti. Blood slides and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) were utilized for Plasmodium diagnosis. Results Out of 992 children analyzed, the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 13% (130/992), helminth 28.5% (283/992); 5% (50/992) had co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth. The prevalence rate of Plasmodium, specific STH and co-infections increased significantly with age (p < 0.001), with older children mostly affected except for S. stercoralis monoinfection and co-infections. Spatial variations of co-infection prevalence were observed between and within villages. There was a trend for STH infections to be associated with Plasmodium infection [OR adjusted for age group 1.4, 95% CI (1.0–2.1)], which was more marked for S. stercoralis (OR = 2.2, 95% CI (1.1–4.3). Age and not schooling were risk factors for Plasmodium and STH co-infection. Conclusion The findings suggest that STH and Plasmodium infections tend to occur in the same children, with increasing prevalence of co-infection with age. This calls for an integrated approach such as using mass chemotherapy with dual effect (e.g., ivermectin) coupled with improved housing, sanitation and hygiene for the control of both parasitic infections. PMID:25837022

  19. Optical Properties of Boreal Region Biomass Burning Aerosols in Central Alaska and Seasonal Variation of Aerosol Optical Depth at an Arctic Coastal Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Sinyuk, A.; Hyer, E. J.; O'Neill, N. T.; Shaw, G. E.; VandeCastle, J. R.; Chapin, F. S.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Vermote, E.; Schafer, J. S.; Giles, D.; Slutsker, I.; Sorokine, M.; Newcomb, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of aerosol optical properties at a boreal forest AERONET site in interior Alaska was performed from 1994 through 2008 (excluding winter). Large interannual variability was observed, with some years showing near background aerosol optical depth (AOD) levels (<0.1 at 500 nm) while 2004 and 2005 had August monthly means similar in magnitude to peak months at major tropical biomass burning regions. Single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0); 440 nm) at the boreal forest site ranged from approximately 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of approximately 0.96 for observations in 2004 and 2005. This suggests a significant amount of smoldering combustion of woody fuels and peat/soil layers that would result in relatively low black carbon mass fractions for smoke particles. The fine mode particle volume median radius during the heavy burning years was quite large, averaging approximately 0.17 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 0.1 and increasing to approximately 0.25 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 3.0. This large particle size for biomass burning aerosols results in a greater relative scattering component of extinction and, therefore, also contributes to higher omega (sub 0). Additionally, monitoring at an Arctic Ocean coastal site (Barrow, Alaska) suggested transport of smoke to the Arctic in summer resulting in individual events with much higher AOD than that occurring during typical spring Arctic haze. However, the springtime mean AOD(500 nm) is higher during late March through late May (approximately 0.150) than during summer months (approximately 0.085) at Barrow partly due to very few days with low background AOD levels in spring compared with many days with clean background conditions in summer.

  20. Visibility Trends for Coastal Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.H.

    2003-11-24

    Increased biomass burning (e.g., forest fires, controlled burns, etc.) and anthropogenic emissions into the earth's atmosphere in the past century have led to much debate with regard to greenhouse gases, atmospheric carbon buildup, aerosol increases, and global warming. Atmospheric aerosols are linked to reduced air quality and visibility (V) in many parts of the world. In south-central South Carolina visibility reduction has been responsible for traffic fatalities on public highways, with resulting lawsuits against governmental entities. Congress passed the Clean Air Act in 1963, with amendments in 1970, 1977, and 1990 to improve air quality. The actual implementation of the Clean Air Act has been an intermittent process because of litigation over some provisions of the Act. However, it is reasonable to assume that visibility has improved in the U.S. over the past decades due to implementation of the Clean Air Act's provisions. In this study visibility data have been acquired for seven weather stations along or near the U.S. East Coast to study how conditions have changed from the 1980s to the 1990s.

  1. Dispersion coefficients for coastal regions

    SciTech Connect

    MacRae, B.L.; Kaleel, R.J.; Shearer, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has undertaken an extensive atmospheric dispersion research and measurement program from which it is intended will emerge improved predictive techniques for employment in licensing decisions and for emergency planning and response. Through this program the NRC has conducted field measurement programs over a wide range of geographic and topographic locations, and are using the acquired tracer and meteorological measurements to evaluate existing dispersion models and prediction techniques, and to develop new techniques when necessary.

  2. Nitrous oxide in coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bange, H.W.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Andreae, M.O.

    1996-03-01

    Measurements of dissolved and atmospheric nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) are presented for three coastal environments: (1) the central North Sea, (2) the German Bight, and (3) the Gironde estuary. The contribution of coastal regions to the oceanic emissions of atmospheric N{sub 2}O were also determined. N{sub 2}O was measured with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector and analyzed. The surface waters of the central North Sea and the German bight were found to be near equilibrium with the overlying atmosphere, while the mean saturation in the Gironde estuary was 132%. Mean saturations in coastal regions without estuaries or upwelling phenomena were only slightly higher than in the open ocean. When estuaries and regions with upwelling are included, however, approximately 60% of the oceanic N{sub 2}O flux is attributable to coastal regions. A review of published data indicated that previous studies have seriously underestimated N{sub 2}O sea-to-air flux from coastal regions. 69 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Reducing Light Pollution in U.S. Coastal Regions Using the High Sensitivity Cameras on the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Jane C.; Knowlton, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Light pollution has significant adverse biological effects on humans, animals, and plants and has resulted in the loss of our ability to view the stars and planets of the universe. Over half of the U.S. population resides in coastal regions where it is no longer possible to see the stars and planets in the night sky. Forty percent of the entire U.S. population is never exposed to conditions dark enough for their eyes to convert to night vision capabilities. In coastal regions, urban lights shine far out to sea where they are augmented by the output from fishing boat, cruise ship and oil platform floodlights. The proposed candidate solution suggests using HSCs (high sensitivity cameras) onboard the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D satellites to quantitatively evaluate light pollution at high spatial resolution. New products modeled after pre-existing, radiance-calibrated, global nighttime lights products would be integrated into a modified Garstang model where elevation, mountain screening, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering by aerosols, and atmospheric extinction along light paths and curvature of the Earth would be taken into account. Because the spatial resolution of the HSCs on SAC-C and the future Aquarius/SAC-D missions is greater than that provided by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) OLS (Operational Linescan System) or VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite), it may be possible to obtain more precise light intensity data for analytical DSSs and the subsequent reduction in coastal light pollution.

  4. Resolving coastal conflicts using marine spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Arthur O; Stevens, Tim F; Rodwell, Lynda D

    2014-01-15

    We applied marine spatial planning (MSP) to manage conflicts in a multi-use coastal area of Kenya. MSP involves several steps which were supported by using geographical information systems (GISs), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and optimization. GIS was used in identifying overlapping coastal uses and mapping conflict hotspots. MCDA was used to incorporate the preferences of user groups and managers into a formal decision analysis procedure. Optimization was applied in generating optimal allocation alternatives to competing uses. Through this analysis three important objectives that build a foundation for future planning of Kenya's coastal waters were achieved: 1) engaging competing stakeholders; 2) illustrating how MSP can be adapted to aid decision-making in multi-use coastal regions; and 3) developing a draft coastal use allocation plan. The successful application of MSP to resolve conflicts in coastal regions depends on the level of stakeholder involvement, data availability and the existing knowledge base. PMID:24361729

  5. Effects of a Reservoir Water on the GW Quality in a Coastal Aquifer of Semi-arid Region, North-east of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, C.; Kawachi, A.; Tsujimura, M.; Tarhouni, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated effects of a reservoir water in a salinized shallow aquifer based on spatial distribution of geochemical properties in groundwater (GW). In many coastal shallow aquifers of arid and semi-arid regions, groundwater table (GWT) depression and salinization have occurred due to GW overexploitation. In Korba aquifer, north-east of Tunisia, after a dam reservoir has been constructed in order to assure a water resource for irrigation, improvement of GW level and quality have been observed in the downstream area of the dam (area-A), while the GW in the other area (area-B) still has high salinity. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the effects of the reservoir water on the GW quality. In June 2013, water quality survey and sampling were carried out at 60 wells (GW), a dam reservoir, river and the sea. Major ions, boron, bromide, and oxygen-18 and deuterium in collected samples were analyzed. From the results, in the area-B, the GWT was lower than the sea level and the high salinity were observed. The Br- concentration of the GW was correlated with the Cl- concentration, and the values of B/Cl- and Br-/Cl- of the GW were similar to the seawater. Since the GWT depression allowed the seawater to intrude into the aquifer, the GW salinization occurred in this area. On the other hand, in the area-A, GWT was higher than the seawater level, and the Na+ and Cl- concentrations were lower than the area-B. Especially, in the irrigated areas by using the reservoir water, the isotopic values, B/Cl- and Br-/Cl- of the GW were relatively higher than the others. The reservoir water has high isotopic values due to evaporation effect, and the B/Cl- and Br-/Cl- values become higher due to organic matters in sediment of the reservoir or soil in the filtration process. Thus, in addition to the direct infiltration from the reservoir into the aquifer, irrigation using a reservoir water probably has a positive impact on the GW quality in this area.

  6. The relevance of defining trace metal baselines in coastal waters at a regional scale: the case of the Portuguese coast (SW Europe).

    PubMed

    Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Caetano, Miguel; Brito, Pedro; Canario, Joao; Vale, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    The Water Framework Directives aims a reduction in concentration of hazardous substances in the marine environment. Consequently, there is a need to distinguish between anthropogenically influenced metal concentrations from natural background levels. To better achieve this goal in the Portuguese coast, dissolved and particulate trace metal (TM) concentrations along the Portuguese coast were determined in 46 sites distance 1-3 km from the shoreline. Dissolved values ranged within the following intervals: 0.01-0.89 nM for Cd, 0.01-3.37 nM for Co, 0.90-45.4 nM for Cu, 3.30-140 pM for Hg, 1.88-15.1 nM for Ni, 0.01-0.15 nM for Pb and 1.40-62.0 nM for Zn. Whereas Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn were enhanced in the southern coast, while Pb values were higher in the central part of the western coast. Mercury concentrations showed punctual increases all along the coast. Values of trace metals in suspended particulate matter varied in a broad range: 36-2902 μmol g(-1) for Al, 0.10-15.1 nmol g(-1) for Cd, 1.50-165 nmol g(-1) for Co, 50.0-990 nmol g(-1) for Cu, 2.80-76.4 nmol g(-1) for Hg, 22-1471 nmol g(-1) for Ni, 10.0-347 nmol g(-1) for Pb and 416-10,981 nmol g(-1) for Zn. Higher values for Al, Ni and Co were found in the central part of the western coast. However, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn increased their levels from the north coast towards the central and south areas. The variability of both dissolved and particulate metals appears to be mainly associated with oceanographic conditions and continental inputs at North and central areas of the coast, and in the south coast to geological features rather than to anthropogenic pressures. On the basis of these results, regional baseline concentrations are proposed for the three typologies in Portuguese coastal waters defined under the Water Framework Directive. PMID:22727430

  7. Assessment of climate change downscaling and non-stationarity on the spatial pattern of a mangrove ecosystem in an arid coastal region of southern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemadi, Halimeh; Samadi, S. Zahra; Sharifikia, Mohammad; Smoak, Joseph M.

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove wetlands exist in the transition zone between terrestrial and marine environments and have remarkable ecological and socio-economic value. This study uses climate change downscaling to address the question of non-stationarity influences on mangrove variations (expansion and contraction) within an arid coastal region. Our two-step approach includes downscaling models and uncertainty assessment, followed by a non-stationary and trend procedure using the Extreme Value Analysis (extRemes code). The Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG) model along with two different general circulation model (GCMs) (MIRH and HadCM3) were used to downscale climatic variables during current (1968-2011) and future (2011-2030, 2045-2065, and 2080-2099) periods. Parametric and non-parametric bootstrapping uncertainty tests demonstrated that the LARS-WGS model skillfully downscaled climatic variables at the 95 % significance level. Downscaling results using MIHR model show that minimum and maximum temperatures will increase in the future (2011-2030, 2045-2065, and 2080-2099) during winter and summer in a range of +4.21 and +4.7 °C, and +3.62 and +3.55 °C, respectively. HadCM3 analysis also revealed an increase in minimum (˜+3.03 °C) and maximum (˜+3.3 °C) temperatures during wet and dry seasons. In addition, we examined how much mangrove area has changed during the past decades and, thus, if climate change non-stationarity impacts mangrove ecosystems. Our results using remote sensing techniques and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney two-sample test indicated a sharp decline in mangrove area during 1972,1987, and 1997 periods (p value = 0.002). Non-stationary assessment using the generalized extreme value (GEV) distributions by including mangrove area as a covariate further indicated that the null hypothesis of the stationary climate (no trend) should be rejected due to the very low p values for precipitation (p value = 0.0027), minimum (p value = 0

  8. MEASURING BASE-FLOW CHEMISTRY AS AN INDICATOR OF REGIONAL GROUND-WATER QUALITY IN THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in headwater (first-order) streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain during base flow in the winter and spring is related to land use, hydrogeology, and other natural and human influences. A random survey of water quality in 174 headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic...

  9. Assessment and comparison of extreme sea levels and waves during the 2013/14 storm season in two UK coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadey, M. P.; Brown, J. M.; Haigh, I. D.; Dolphin, T.; Wisse, P.

    2015-10-01

    The extreme sea levels and waves experienced around the UK's coast during the 2013/14 winter caused extensive coastal flooding and damage. Coastal managers seek to place such extremes in relation to the anticipated standards of flood protection, and the long-term recovery of the natural system. In this context, return periods are often used as a form of guidance. This paper provides these levels for the winter storms, and discusses their application to the given data sets for two UK case study sites: Sefton, northwest England, and Suffolk, east England. Tide gauge records and wave buoy data were used to compare the 2013/14 storms with return periods from a national data set, and also joint probabilities of sea level and wave heights were generated, incorporating the recent events. The 2013/14 high waters and waves were extreme due to the number of events, as well as the extremity of the 5 December 2013 "Xaver" storm, which had a high return period at both case study sites. The national-scale impact of this event was due to its coincidence with spring high tide at multiple locations. Given that this event is such an outlier in the joint probability analyses of these observed data sets, and that the season saw several events in close succession, coastal defences appear to have provided a good level of protection. This type of assessment could in the future be recorded alongside defence performance and upgrade. Ideally other variables (e.g. river levels at estuarine locations) would also be included, and with appropriate offsetting for local trends (e.g. mean sea-level rise) so that the storm-driven component of coastal flood events can be determined. This could allow long-term comparison of storm severity, and an assessment of how sea-level rise influences return levels over time, which is important for consideration of coastal resilience in strategic management plans.

  10. Modelling the global coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jason; Harle, James; Proctor, Roger; Michel, Sylvain; Ashworth, Mike; Batstone, Crispian; Allen, Icarus; Holmes, Robert; Smyth, Tim; Haines, Keith; Bretherton, Dan; Smith, Gregory

    2009-03-13

    Shelf and coastal seas are regions of exceptionally high biological productivity, high rates of biogeochemical cycling and immense socio-economic importance. They are, however, poorly represented by the present generation of Earth system models, both in terms of resolution and process representation. Hence, these models cannot be used to elucidate the role of the coastal ocean in global biogeochemical cycles and the effects global change (both direct anthropogenic and climatic) are having on them. Here, we present a system for simulating all the coastal regions around the world (the Global Coastal Ocean Modelling System) in a systematic and practical fashion. It is based on automatically generating multiple nested model domains, using the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modelling System coupled to the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model. Preliminary results from the system are presented. These demonstrate the viability of the concept, and we discuss the prospects for using the system to explore key areas of global change in shelf seas, such as their role in the carbon cycle and climate change effects on fisheries. PMID:19087928

  11. Megacities in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Jickells, T.; Baklanov, A.; Carmichael, G. R.; Church, T. M.; Gallardo, L.; Hughes, C.; Kanakidou, M.; Liss, P. S.; Mee, L.; Raine, R.; Ramachandran, P.; Ramesh, R.; Sundseth, K.; Tsunogai, U.; Uematsu, M.; Zhu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Megacities have long been recognised as important drivers for socioeconomic development but also as sources of environmental challenges. A large number of megacities are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere and ocean meet, posing additional challenges for our understanding of the interactions. The atmospheric flow is complicated not only by urban heat island effects but also topographic flows and sea breezes which also lead to profound changes in clouds and precipitation. Inflow of oceanic air (rich in sea salt) into the polluted city's atmosphere and outflow of polluted air onto a much cleaner ocean lead to very specific interactions, the net effects of which are not well understood. The addition of contaminants to the coastal waters both by atmospheric deposition and fluvial inputs can affect the coastal ecosystems dramatically, limiting their ability to function and provide ecosystem services, e.g. fisheries and aquaculture. Changes to coastal ecosystems also affect fluxes of gases and particles to the atmosphere and can lead to harmful algal blooms. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is at least hundreds if not thousands of kilometres in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometres in the ocean, the latter strongly dependent on the hydrographic setting. Coastal megacities are at risk by sea level rise, floods and storms; they are at the forefront of change and scientifically well informed planning can improve livelihoods and ecosystem health but only if we take a holistic approach to study and monitor these regions.

  12. Effects of urbanization on local winds and thermal environment in Nohbi Plain, coastal region of Central Japan - a numerical analysis by meso-scale meteorological model with k-{epsilon} turbulence model

    SciTech Connect

    Kitada, Toshihiro; Okamura, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Setsu

    1996-12-31

    Japanese large cities, mostly located in coastal region, have rapidly expanded in the last three decades. People in the region now experience warmer and unpleasant thermal environment in summer season, supposedly because of the extensive urbanization. Especially, under fine weather with light synoptic-scale gradient wind, the highest temperature often appears in rather inland area. An explanation to this phenomenon is horizontal transport of heat by the sea breeze which is strongly heated during its passage over the coastal urban area. This study investigated how and how much urbanization in Nohbi Plain of central Japan influences local wind and temperature distribution over the plain and its surrounding region, Nohbi Plain which faces to the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Japanese Alps, and thus is in a typical topographic situation in Japan. For the study we performed numerical simulations using our meso-scale meteorological model which includes k-c model for turbulence. One of the major results obtained is to have clarified a hierarchy in natural and artificial topography of various scales on their contributions to formation of characteristic diurnal pattern of wind and temperature distributions in the plain area. The Japanese Alps, the largest topographic feature in central Japan and often called the roof of Japan, gave the most important influence on the wind, although the mountains are located quite far, around 200 km, from Nohbi Plain. The way for the influence of the high mountains was to warm air mass in upper layer but below 2 km in altitude, over the Nohbi Plain through heat transport due to a large scale circulation consisting of the {open_quotes}flows from plain to plateau in lower layer and plateau to plain in upper layer{close_quotes}. Urbanization in the coastal Nohbi Plain showed little effect on the flow pattern, but caused large temperature rises at surface level in the inland area because of horizontal heat transfer by the sea breeze.

  13. Assessment and comparison of extreme sea levels and waves during the 2013/2014 storm season in two UK coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadey, M. P.; Brown, J. M.; Haigh, I. D.; Dolphin, T.; Wisse, P.

    2015-04-01

    The extreme sea levels and waves experienced around the UK's coast during the 2013/2014 winter caused extensive coastal flooding and damage. In such circumstances, coastal managers seek to place such extremes in relation to the anticipated standards of flood protection, and the long-term recovery of the natural system. In this context, return periods are often used as a form of guidance. We therefore provide these levels for the winter storms, as well as discussing their application to the given data sets and case studies (two UK case study sites: Sefton, northwest England; and Suffolk, east England). We use tide gauge records and wave buoy data to compare the 2013/2014 storms with return periods from a national dataset, and also generate joint probabilities of sea level and waves, incorporating the recent events. The UK was hit at a national scale by the 2013/2014 storms, although the return periods differ with location. We also note that the 2013/2014 high water and waves were extreme due to the number of events, as well as the extremity of the 5 December 2013 "Xaver" storm, which had a very high return period at both case study sites. Our return period analysis shows that the national scale impact of this event is due to its coincidence with spring high tide at multiple locations as the tide and storm propagated across the continental shelf. Given that this event is such an outlier in the joint probability analyses of these observed data sets, and that the season saw several events in close succession, coastal defences appear to have provided a good level of protection. This type of assessment should be recorded alongside details of defence performance and upgrade, with other variables (e.g. river levels at estuarine locations) included and appropriate offsetting for linear trends (e.g. mean sea level rise) so that the storm-driven component of coastal flood events can be determined. Local offsetting of the mean trends in sea level allows long-term comparison of

  14. Ocean biogeochemistry: Carbon at the coastal interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which coastal-ocean regions act as a sink for carbon dioxide has been enigmatic. An estimate based on more than 3 million observations suggests a smaller sink than was thought, concentrated at high latitudes.

  15. Status of coastal zone management techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    Remote panchromatic imagery was applied to develop a coastal zone management atlas that provides for land cover or vegetation surveys as well as land use stereographic mapping for regional planning purposes.

  16. New Aerosol Models for the Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Thickness and Normalized Water-Leaving Radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS Sensors Over Coastal Regions and Open Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Ziauddin; Franz, Bryan A.; McClain, Charles R.; Kwiatkowska, Ewa J.; Werdell, Jeremy; Shettle, Eric P.; Holben, Brent N.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the development of a new suite of aerosol models for the retrieval of atmospheric and oceanic optical properties from the SeaWiFs and MODIS sensors, including aerosol optical thickness (tau), angstrom coefficient (alpha), and water-leaving radiance (L(sub w)). The new aerosol models are derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations and have bimodal lognormal distributions that are narrower than previous models used by the Ocean Biology Processing Group. We analyzed AERONET data over open ocean and coastal regions and found that the seasonal variability in the modal radii, particularly in the coastal region, was related to the relative humidity, These findings were incorporated into the models by making the modal radii, as well as the refractive indices, explicitly dependent on relative humidity, From those findings, we constructed a new suite of aerosol models. We considered eight relative humidity values (30%, 50%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%. and 95%) and, for each relative humidity value, we constructed ten distributions by varying the fine-mode fraction from zero to 1. In all. 80 distributions (8Rh x 10 fine-mode fractions) were created to process the satellite data. We. also assumed that the coarse-mode particles were nonabsorbing (sea salt) and that all observed absorptions were entirely due to fine-mode particles. The composition of fine mode was varied to ensure that the new models exhibited the same spectral dependence of single scattering albedo as observed in the AERONET data,

  17. Nutrient-cycling microbes in coastal Douglas-fir forests: regional-scale correlation between communities, in situ climate, and other factors

    PubMed Central

    Shay, Philip-Edouard; Winder, Richard S.; Trofymow, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Microbes such as fungi and bacteria play fundamental roles in litter-decay and nutrient-cycling; however, their communities may respond differently than plants to climate change. The structure (diversity, richness, and evenness) and composition of microbial communities in climate transects of mature Douglas-fir stands of coastal British Columbia rainshadow forests was analyzed, in order to assess in situ variability due to different temperature and moisture regimes. We compared denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of fungi (18S-FF390/FR1), nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NifH-universal) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AmoA) polymerase chain reaction amplicons in forest floor and mineral soil samples from three transects located at different latitudes, each transect spanning the Coastal Western Hemlock and Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zones. Composition of microbial communities in both soil layers was related to degree days above 0°C (2725–3489), while pH (3.8–5.5) best explained shifts in community structure. At this spatial scale, climatic conditions were likely to directly or indirectly select for different microbial species while local site heterogeneity influenced community structure. Significant changes in microbial community composition and structure were related to differences as small as 2.47% and 2.55°C in mean annual moisture and temperature variables, respectively. The climatic variables best describing microbial composition changed from one functional group to the next; in general they did not alter community structure. Spatial distance, especially associated with latitude, was also important in accounting for community variability (4–23%); but to a lesser extent than the combined influence of climate and soil characteristics (14–25%). Results suggest that in situ climate can independently account for some patterns of microbial biogeography in coastal Douglas-fir forests. The distribution of up to 43% of nutrient-cycling microorganisms

  18. Electrical methods (VES and ERT) for identifying, mapping and monitoring different saline domains in a coastal plain region (Alt Empordà, Northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarroca, Mario; Bach, Joan; Linares, Rogelio; Pellicer, Xavier M.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryThe spatial variability through time of the degree of salinity of soils and groundwater is a major issue concerning the sustainable management of water resources. The problem is accentuated in coastal plain areas where saline bodies of different origin coexist. We present an extensive geoelectrical resistivity dataset collected in the Alt Empordà clastic coastal aquifer system (NE Spain) integrating the results of field campaigns undertaken within a period of more than two decades. The dataset is unique in the literature and comprises highly valuable information for the investigation of saline domains. The joint application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) methods allowed the identification of saline domains and monitoring their evolution through time. Geophysical data gathered during field campaigns in 1982, 2002 and 2010 were calibrated and interpreted on the basis of soil and groundwater physico-chemical analyses and hydrogeological, stratigraphic and geomorphological data. The results illustrate the potential of electrical resistivity methods at differentiating saline domains in coastal aquifer areas and at modelling their configuration and evolution. Although the VES data processing allows solving the one-dimensional resistivity structure of the subsurface, the inversion imposes a 1D layered model, thus interpretation of two-dimensional structures is subject to the interpolation between discrete measures. In contrast, ERT data offer a continuous 2D-image of the resistivity distribution, both laterally and in depth. Given that the bulk resistivity of the medium is extremely sensitive to salt content, the ERT profiles permitted identifying and determining the geometry of hyper-saline areas (characterized by resistivities of less than 5 Ω m). The study demonstrates the efficiency of the electrical methods to map subsurface conductive zones and illustrates how the accurate knowledge of the hydrogeological

  19. [Content of natural uranium in the lichens and distribution of forms in the soil at the coastal area of Lakes Itkul and Sinara of Chelyabinsk region].

    PubMed

    Polyudina, A L; Deryagin, V V; Levina, S G

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of natural uranium in soils superaquatic and transeluvial positions of the coastal landscape of lakes Itkul and Sinara, and liches on this site.The necessity of analysis of the content item in accordance with its form of occurrence in the natural environment. The peculiarities of the migration, accumulation and distribution of uranium in soils of the mountain areas of the watersheds of lakes Itkul and Sinara are found. Identified of specificity species lichens on the content of uranium in the substrate. PMID:25980290

  20. Social indicators study of Alaskan Coastal Villages I. Key informant summaries. Volume 1. Schedule a regions (North Slope, Nana, Calista, Aleutian-Pribilof). Social and economic studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brelsford, T.; Fienup-Riordan, A.; Jorgensen, J.; McNabb, S.; Petrivelli, P.

    1992-08-01

    The focus of this report is on Alaska Natives--Inupiaq and Yupik Eskimos, Athabascans, and Aleuts--for two important reasons: (1) Alaska Natives are numerically dominant populations in rural areas closest to potential offshore oil development sites and (2) their economic adjustments are most vulnerable to potential impacts from such development. This report is divided into Schedules A, B, and C. Comprising Schedules A and B are the study areas originally identified by Minerals Management Service for this study (North Slope, NANA, Bering Straits, Calista, Bristol Bay, Aleutian-Pribilof Islands, and Kodiak regions). Schedule C is comprised of communities that were added subsequent to the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989 in the Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet regions. One aim of this study was to document the attitudes and belief systems or ideologies about quality of life and well-being in the coastal, rural portions of Alaska.

  1. (abstract) Seasonal Variability in Coastal Upwelling: A Comparison of Four Coastal Upwelling Sites from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Mary-Elena

    1996-01-01

    Coastal upwelling of subsurface nutrient-rich water occurs along the eastern boundary of the ocean basins and leads to high primary production and fish catches. In this study satellite observations are used to compare the seasonal cycle in wind forcing and in the oceanic and biological response of the major coastal upwelling regions associated with the Canary, Benguela, California, and Humboldt Currents.

  2. The Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our coastal ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, H.F.; Mooers, C.N.K.

    1990-06-01

    The goal of COPS is to couple a program of regular observations to numerical models, through techniques of data assimilation, in order to provide a predictive capability for the US coastal ocean including the Great Lakes, estuaries, and the entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The objectives of the program include: determining the predictability of the coastal ocean and the processes that govern the predictability; developing efficient prediction systems for the coastal ocean based on the assimilation of real-time observations into numerical models; and coupling the predictive systems for the physical behavior of the coastal ocean to predictive systems for biological, chemical, and geological processes to achieve an interdisciplinary capability. COPS will provide the basis for effective monitoring and prediction of coastal ocean conditions by optimizing the use of increased scientific understanding, improved observations, advanced computer models, and computer graphics to make the best possible estimates of sea level, currents, temperatures, salinities, and other properties of entire coastal regions.

  3. Impacts of an unknown daytime nitrous acid source on its daytime concentration and budget, as well as those of hydroxyl, hydroperoxyl, and organic peroxy radicals, in the coastal regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; An, J.; Wang, F.; Li, Y.; Qu, Y.; Chen, Y.; Lin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Many field experiments have found high nitrous acid (HONO) mixing ratios in both urban and rural areas during daytime, but these high daytime HONO mixing ratios cannot be explained well by gas-phase production, suggesting that an unknown daytime HONO source (Punknown) could exist. The formula Punknown ≈ 19.60 × NO2 × J(NO2) was obtained using observed data from 13 field experiments across the globe. The additional HONO sources (i.e. the Punknown, HONO emissions, and nighttime hydrolysis conversion of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on aerosols) were coupled into the WRF-Chem model (Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry) to assess the Punknown impacts on the concentrations and budgets of HONO and peroxy (hydroxyl, hydroperoxyl, and organic peroxy) radicals (ROx) (= OH + HO2 + RO2) in the coastal regions of China. Results indicated that the additional HONO sources produced a significant improvement in HONO and OH simulations, particularly in the daytime. Elevated daytime-mean Punknown values were found in the coastal regions of China, with a maximum of 2.5 ppb h-1 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The Punknown produced a 60-250% increase of OH, HO2 and RO2 near the ground in the major cities of the coastal regions of China, and a 5-48% increase of OH, HO2 and RO2 in the daytime meridional-mean mixing ratios within 1000 m above the ground. When the additional HONO sources were included, the photolysis of HONO was dominated in the OH production rate in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou before 10:00 LST with a maximum of 10.01 [7.26 due to the Punknown] ppb h-1 in Beijing, whereas the reaction of HO2 + NO (nitric oxide) was dominated after 10:00 LST with a maximum of 9.38 [7.23] ppb h-1 in Beijing. The whole ROx cycle was accelerated by the additional HONO sources, especially the Punknown. The OH production rate was enhanced by 0.67 [0.64] to 4.32 [3.86] ppb h-1 via the reaction of HO2 + NO, and by 0.85 [0.69] to 4.11 [3.61] ppb h-1 via the

  4. Portable coastal observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frye, Daniel; Butman, Bradford; Johnson, Mark; von der Heydt, Keith; Lerner, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Ocean observational science is in the midst of a paradigm shift from an expeditionary science centered on short research cruises and deployments of internally recording instruments to a sustained observational science where the ocean is monitored on a regular basis, much the way the atmosphere is monitored. While satellite remote sensing is one key way of meeting the challenge of real-time monitoring of large ocean regions, new technologies are required for in situ observations to measure conditions below the ocean surface and to measure ocean characteristics not observable from space. One method of making sustained observations in the coastal ocean is to install a fiber optic cable from shore to the area of interest. This approach has the advantage of providing power to offshore instruments and essentially unlimited bandwidth for data. The LEO-15 observatory offshore of New Jersey (yon Alt et al., 1997) and the planned Katama observatory offshore of Martha's Vineyard (Edson et al., 2000) use this approach. These sites, along with other cabled sites, will play an important role in coastal ocean science in the next decade. Cabled observatories, however, have two drawbacks that limit the number of sites that are likely to be installed. First, the cable and the cable installation are expensive and the shore station needed at the cable terminus is often in an environmentally sensitive area where competing interests must be resolved. Second, cabled sites are inherently limited geographically to sites within reach of the cable, so it is difficult to cover large areas of the coastal ocean.

  5. Exploring the influence of surface waves in the carbon dioxide transfer velocity between the ocean and atmosphere in the coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo-Torres, Francisco Javier; Francisco Herrera, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Loza, Lucía; Osuna, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Field measurements have been carried out in order to better understand the possible influence of ocean surface waves in the transfer of carbon dioxide between the ocean and atmosphere in the coastal zone. The CO2 fluxes are being analysed and results are shown in a contribution by Gutiérrez-Loza et al., in this session. Here we try to highlight the findings regarding the transfer velocity (kCO2) once we have incorporated direct measurements of carbon dioxide concentration in the water side. In this study direct measurements of CO2 fluxes were obtained with an eddy covariance tower located in the shoreline equipped with an infrared open-path gas analyzer (LI-7500, LI-COR) and a sonic anemometer (R3-100 Professional Anemometer, Gill Instruments), both at about 13 m above the mean sea level, and sampling at 20 Hz. For some period of time simultaneous information of waves was recorded with a sampling rate of 2 Hz using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (Workhorse Sentinel, Teledyne RD Instruments) at 10 m depth and 350 m away from the tower. Besides, recently the concentration of CO2 in water has also been recorded making use of a SAMI-CO2 instrument. A subtle effect of the wave field is detected in the estimated kCO2. Looking into details of the surface currents being detected very near the air-sea interface through an ADPC, a certain association can be found with the gas transfer velocity. Furthermore, some of the possible effects of breaking wave induced turbulence in the coastal zone is to be addressed. This work represents a RugDiSMar Project (CONACYT 155793) contribution. The support from CB-2011-01-168173 CONACYT project is greatly acknowledged.

  6. Distribution and origin of organic matter in surface sediment of western coastal region of Korean Peninsula (Gyeonggi Bay, Taean Bay and Gun- San): stable isotope and n-alkane compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badejo, A. O.; Yoon, S.; Shin, K.

    2011-12-01

    Organic carbon and total nitrogen stable isotope ratios are determined to understand the source of organic matter from the surface sediment in western coastal region (Gyeonggi Bay, Taean Bay and Gun san) of Korean Peninsula. The TOC and TN content of sediments from the study area varied from 0.04% to 1.43% and 0.01% to 0.16% (averages of 0.4% and 0.1%, n=175) for TOC and TN respectively. C/N ratios range for Taean Bay were 4 to 16 (average 7) while for Gun san were 2 to 8 (average 4). Significant positive interception from the linear correlation between TOC and TN and weak correlation between C/N ratio, δ13C and δ15N indicates the presence of inorganic nitrogen in the surface sediment samples. δ13C ranged from -6% to -31.7% (average of -20.5%, n=175) and δ15N from Taean Bay and Gun san ranged from 1.1 to 9.5% (average of 5.6% n =175). The carbon isotope suggests that most of the organic matter originates from marine organic matter which could be attributed to high biological productivity in the coastal region. n-alkane composition showed a mixture of terrestrial and marine source with a predominance of marine organic matter showing two maximum peaks at C12 and C 14. Cross plot of carbon preference index (CPI) and the ratio of terrigenous to aquatic (TAR) indicates that n-alkanes are mainly inherited from recycled of organic matter, marine biogenic, vascular plants and mixture of both marine biogenic and vascular plant.

  7. Monitoring and Modelling Lakes and Coastal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odada, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring and modeling of lakes and coastal environments is becoming ever more important, particularly because these environments bear heavy loads in terms of human population, and their resources are critical to the livelihoods and well-being of coastal inhabitants and ecosystems. Monitoring and Modelling Lakes and Coastal Environments is a collection of 18 papers arising from the Lake 2004 International Conference on Conservation, Restoration and Management of Lakes and Coastal Wetlands, held in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India, 9-13 December 2004. Consequently, 15 of the papers are concerned with studies on the Indian subcontinent, and many of the papers focus on India's Lake Chilika, the site of a special session during the conference. Two papers concern Japan, and one focuses on North America's Great Lakes region. Although the book has a regional bias, the replication of best practices that can be drawn from these studies may be useful for an international audience.

  8. Role of synoptic- and meso-scales on the evolution of the boundary-layer wind profile over a coastal region: the near-coast diurnal acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Pedro A.; de Arellano, Jordi Vilà-Guerau; Dudhia, Jimy; Bosveld, Fred C.

    2016-02-01

    The contributions of synoptic- and meso-scales to the boundary layer wind profile evolution in a coastal environment are examined. The analysis is based on observations of the wind profile within the first 200 m of the atmosphere continuously recorded during a 10 year period (2001-2010) at the 213-m meteorological tower at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR, The Netherlands). The analysis is supported by a numerical experiment based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model performed at high horizontal resolution of 2 km and spanning the complete observational period (10 years). Results indicate that WRF is able to reproduce the inter-annual wind variability but with a tendency to be too geostrophic. At seasonal scales, we find a differentiated behavior between Winter and Summer seasons with the Spring and Autumn transition periods more similar to the Summer and Winter modes, respectively. The winter momentum budget shows a weak intradiurnal variability. The synoptic scale controls the shape of the near surface wind profile that is characterized by weaker and more ageostrophic winds near the surface than at higher altitudes within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) as a result of the frictional turning. In turn, during summer, mesoscale circulations associated with the differential heating of land and sea become important. As a result, the PBL winds show a stronger intradiurnal component that is characterized by an oscillation of the near surface winds around the geostrophic direction with the maximum departure in the afternoon. Although also driven by thermal land-sea differences, this mesoscale component is not associated with the classical concept of a sea-breeze front. It originates from the thermal expansion of the boundary layer over land and primarily differs from the sea-breeze in its propagation speed resulting in a wind rotation far ahead of any coastal front. We refer to it as the near-coast diurnal acceleration (NCDA

  9. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  10. Extended Shared Socioeconomic Pathways for Coastal Impact Assessment: Spatial Coastal Population Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkens, Jan-Ludolf; Reimann, Lena; Hinkel, Jochen; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.

    2016-04-01

    This work extends the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) by developing spatial projections of global coastal population distribution for the five basic SSPs. Based on a series of coastal migration drivers, which were identified from existing literature, we develop coastal narratives for the five basic SSPs (SSP1-5). These narratives account for differences in coastal versus inland population development in urban and rural areas. To spatially distribute population we use the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) national population and urbanisation projections and employ country-specific growth rates which differ for coastal and inland as well as for urban and rural regions. These rates are derived from spatial analysis of historical population data. We then adjust these rates for each SSP based on the coastal narratives. The resulting global population grids depict the projected distribution of coastal population for each SSP, until the end of the 21st century, at a spatial resolution of 30 arc seconds. These grids exhibit a three- to four-fold increase in coastal population compared to the basic SSPs. Across all SSPs, except for SSP3, coastal population peaks by the middle of the 21st century and declines afterwards. In SSP3 the coastal population grows continuously until 2100. Compared to the base year 2000 the coastal population increases considerably in all SSPs. The extended SSPs are intended to be utilised in Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability (IAV) assessments as they allow for improved analysis of exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding under different physical and socioeconomic scenarios.

  11. Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) Dynamics in Relation to Meteorological Data in a Cattle Farm Located in the Coastal Region of French Guiana: Advantage of Mosquito Magnet Trap.

    PubMed

    Vezenegho, Samuel B; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Issaly, Jean; Dusfour, Isabelle; Briolant, Sebastien; Girod, Romain

    2015-06-01

    Information on dynamics of anopheline mosquitoes is limited in the coastal zone of French Guiana compared with inland endemic areas. Importantly, improvement of surveillance techniques for assessing malaria transmission indicators and comprehension of impact of meteorological factors on Anopheles darlingi Root, the main malaria vector, are necessary. Anopheline mosquitoes were collected continuously during 2012 and 2013 using Mosquito Magnet traps baited with octenol and human landing catches. The two methods were compared based on trends in abundance and parity rate of An. darlingi. Impact of meteorological factors on An. darlingi density estimates was investigated using Spearman's correlation and by binomial negative regression analysis. In all, 11,928 anopheline mosquitoes were collected, and 90.7% (n = 10,815) were identified consisting of four species, with An. darlingi making up 94.9% (n = 10,264). An. darlingi specimens collected by the two methods were significantly correlated, and no difference in parity rate was observed. The abundance of this species peaked in September (dry season) and variations along the years were influenced by relative humidity, temperature, rainfall, and wind speed. Number of mosquitoes collected during peak aggression period was influenced by wind speed and rainfall. Data gathered in this study provide fundamental information about An. darlingi, which can facilitate the design of vector control strategies and construction of models for predicting malaria risk. PMID:26313950

  12. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediments from the Porto region (Portugal) by microwave-assisted extraction, followed by SPME and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Maria João; Rocha, Eduardo; Cruzeiro, Catarina; Ferreira, Paula C; Reis, Pedro A

    2011-10-01

    A simple low-cost, analytical method based on microwave-assisted extraction of sediments, followed by solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry, was developed and validated for the quantification of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine and estuarine sediment samples. The PAHs were those included in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority list. Method detection limits were between 0.07 and 0.76 µg/kg dry weight (dw), which makes the current method suitable for environmental analysis. Sediments screened for PAHs from the Douro River estuary and the Porto seacoast exhibit total concentrations that ranged from 58.98 to 156.45 µg/kg dw, and from 51.98 to 54.79 µg/kg dw, respectively. The presence of almost all human carcinogenic PAHs in the analyzed areas indicate that these sediments can be considered polluted, suggesting that future monitoring programs together with an effective coastal management program must be implemented to guarantee the safe usage of the current areas for fishing and bathing. PMID:22586246

  13. Fracturing in upper Cretaceous Selma group Chalky marls, inner coastal plain of Alabama: stratigraphic (facies) control of joint development and regional joint-strike orientations

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, E.; King, D.T. Jr.; Holston, I.

    1988-09-01

    In the inner coastal plain of Alabama, chalky marl is a distinctive sedimentary facies that contains more original biogenic calcareous-nannofossil components than the adjacent marls. The chalky marl is one facies in the cyclically arranged genetic packages that comprise the Mooreville and Demopolis Chalks of the lower part of the Upper Cretaceous Selma Group. Analysis of genetic-package stratigraphy shows that the chalky marls were deposited during relative sea level highstands. The chalky marls are selectively cemented by calcium carbonate, thus making a relatively well-indurated brittle rock. The chalky marls, in three sections over 15 m thick, host most of the systematic joints in the Mooreville and Demopolis. As a result, fracture-density mapping clearly delineates the outcrop belts of the thick fracture-prone chalky marls. Joint systems in the marls and chalky marls have two main strike trends (N30/degrees/E to N70/degrees/E and N20/degrees/W to N50/degrees/W) and two secondary strike trends (north to N10/degrees/E and east-west), which are nearly parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to crystalline bedrock structural trends and fracture zones. Thus, bedrock structural trends and fracture patterns appear to have propagated through the overlying Mesozoic rocks, dictating the orientation of joints in the chalky marls.

  14. Coastal-ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, Timothée; Orr, James C.; Resplandy, Laure; Terhaar, Jens; Ethé, Christian; Gehlen, Marion; Bopp, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic changes in atmosphere-ocean and atmosphere-land CO2 fluxes have been quantified extensively, but few studies have addressed the connection between land and ocean. In this transition zone, the coastal ocean, spatial and temporal data coverage is inadequate to assess its global budget. Thus we use a global ocean biogeochemical model to assess the coastal ocean's global inventory of anthropogenic CO2 and its spatial variability. We used an intermediate resolution, eddying version of the NEMO-PISCES model (ORCA05), varying from 20 to 50 km horizontally, i.e. coarse enough to allow multiple century-scale simulations but finer than coarse-resolution models (˜ 200 km) to better resolve coastal bathymetry and complex coastal currents. Here we define the coastal zone as the continental shelf area, excluding the proximal zone. Evaluation of the simulated air-sea fluxes of total CO2 for 45 coastal regions gave a correlation coefficient R of 0.8 when compared to observation-based estimates. Simulated global uptake of anthropogenic carbon results averaged 2.3 Pg C yr-1 during the years 1993-2012, consistent with previous estimates. Yet only 0.1 Pg C yr-1 of that is absorbed by the global coastal ocean. That represents 4.5 % of the anthropogenic carbon uptake of the global ocean, less than the 7.5 % proportion of coastal-to-global-ocean surface areas. Coastal uptake is weakened due to a bottleneck in offshore transport, which is inadequate to reduce the mean anthropogenic carbon concentration of coastal waters to the mean level found in the open-ocean mixed layer.

  15. Coastal erosion problem, modelling and protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Nihal; Balas, Lale; İnan, Asu

    2015-09-01

    Göksu Delta, located in the south of Silifke County of Mersin on the coastal plain formed by Göksu River, is one of the Specially Protected Areas in Turkey. Along the coastal area of the Delta, coastline changes at significant rates are observed, concentrating especially at four regions; headland of İncekum, coast of Paradeniz Lagoon, river mouth of Göksu and coast of Altınkum. The coast of Paradeniz Lagoon is suffering significantly from erosion and the consequent coastal retreating problem. Therefore, the narrow barrier beach which separates Paradeniz Lagoon from the Mediterranean Sea is getting narrower, creating a risk of uniting with the sea, thus causing the disappearance of the Lagoon. The aim of this study was to understand the coastal transport processes along the coastal area of Göksu Delta to determine the coastal sediment transport rates, and accordingly, to propose solutions to prevent the loss of coastal lands in the Delta. To this end, field measurements of currents and sediment grain sizes were carried out, and wind climate, wave climate, circulation patterns and longshore sediment transport rates were numerically modeled by HYDROTAM-3D, which is a three dimensional hydrodynamic transport model. Finally, considering its special importance as an environmentally protected region, some coastal structures of gabions were proposed as solutions against the coastal erosion problems of the Delta. The effects of proposed structures on future coastline changes were also modeled, and the coastlines predicted for the year 2017 are presented and discussed in the paper.

  16. Optical classification of contrasted coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantrepotte, V.; Loisel, H.; Dessailly, D.; Mériaux, X.

    2012-04-01

    The high optical complexity of the coastal ocean prevents the development of general open ocean-like inversion algorithms needed to derive in-water bio-optical and biogeochemical parameters from satellite information. To overcome this issue, regional algorithms are generally used in order to focus on the range of optical variability specific to a defined coastal region. This regional approach presents however various limitations including its high dependency on the data set used for its development as well as its limited applicability for large scale applications. Another and more universal approach consists in classifying coastal waters according to their optical properties (independently of their location) and then in applying a class-specific algorithm (empirical or semi-analytical). The framework associated with the development of such classification-based approach is detailed from an in situ data set collected in contrasted coastal waters of the eastern English Channel, north Sea and French Guyana. The advantages of defining an optical typology of the coastal domain for monitoring coastal water masses optical quality and improving the performance of the inversion procedure is emphasized. Further, the representativeness of optical classes defined in the latter training areas for global scale applications is also illustrated.

  17. Vulnerability to coastal cholera ecology.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew E

    2003-10-01

    The battle to completely control cholera continues. Multiple strains, high levels of morbidity in some regions of the world, and a complex of influences on its distribution in people and the environment are accompanied by only rough resolution prediction of outbreaks. Uncertainty as to the most effective array of interventions for one of the most researched infectious diseases thwarts further progress in providing cost-effective solutions. Progress on the research front consistently points towards the importance of disease ecology, coastal environments, and the sea. However, evaluation of the link between cholera in people and environment can only be effective with analysis of human vulnerability to variable coastal cholera ecologies. As there are some clear links between the organism, cholera incidence and the sea, it is appropriate that cholera research should examine the nature of coastal population vulnerability to the disease. The paper reviews the cholera risks of human-environment interactions in coastal areas as one component of the evaluation of cholera management. This points to effective intervention through integrative knowledge of changing human and environmental ecologies, requiring improved detection, but also an acceptance of complex causality. The challenge is to identify indicators and interventions for case specific ecologies in variable locales of human vulnerability and disease hazard. Further work will therefore aim to explore improved surveillance and intervention across the socio-behavioural and ecological spectrum. Furthermore, the story of cholera continues to inform us about how we should more effectively view emergent and resurgent infectious disease hazards more generally. PMID:12927470

  18. Retrieval of Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay over Coastal and Inland Water Regions using Wide-band Millimeter-Wave Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Gilliam, Kyle L.; Reising, Steven C.; Tanner, Alan B.; Brown, Shannon T.; Kangaslahti, Pekka

    2013-04-01

    Currently, wet-tropospheric path delay measurements over inland water and coastal areas are extremely sparse. They are generally limited to twice-per-day radiosonde launches and a small number of ground-based GPS or radiometer path delay measurements, as well as radar measurements of phase delay to a small number of fixed targets on the ground. Knowledge of the wet-tropospheric path delay is necessary for next-generation high-resolution altimeters, such as the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, in formulation and planned for launch in 2020. SWOT has two major science objectives. First, the oceanographic objective is to characterize ocean mesoscale and sub-mesoscale circulation with horizontal resolution of 10 km and order of 1 cm height precision. Second, the hydrological objective is to provide global height measurements of inland surface water bodies with area of greater than 250 square meters and flow rate of rivers with width greater than 100 m. Wet-tropospheric path delay retrieval over coastal and inland-water areas is needed to achieve both of these objectives with sufficient height accuracy. In addition, information on total precipitable water vapor under nearly all weather conditions is needed to improve initialization of numerical weather prediction models. Currently, 18-34 GHz microwave radiometers provide wet-path delay corrections for the Jason series of nadir-viewing altimeters. However, these retrievals are limited to open ocean, and land incursion is unacceptable within 40 km of coastlines. The addition of millimeter-wave radiometers (70-170 GHz) is needed to address this problem by providing smaller surface footprint dimensions proportional to wavelength. In this work, we present a prototype algorithm to demonstrate the potential to retrieve wet-tropospheric path delay from brightness temperatures measured by millimeter-wave radiometers using the Brightness Temperature Deflection Ratio (BTDR) method. The BTDR algorithm retrieves wet

  19. Residues and chiral signatures of organochlorine pesticides in mollusks from the coastal regions of the Yangtze River Delta: source and health risk implication.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shanshan; Tang, Qiaozhi; Jin, Meiqing; Liu, Weiping; Niu, Lili; Ye, Hui

    2014-11-01

    The residues and enantiomeric fractions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in 11 mollusk species collected from the coastal areas along the Yangtze River Delta to evaluate the status, potential sources, and health risks of pollution in these areas. The concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes ranged from 6.22 to 398.19, 0.66-7.11, and 0.14-4.08 ng g(-1) based on wet weight, respectively; DDTs and HCHs have the highest values, globally. The DDTs increased and the HCHs decreased compared to historical data. Both the box-and-whisker plots and the one-way ANOVA tests indicated that the OCP levels varied little between sampling locations and organism species. The compositions of the DDTs and HCHs suggested a cocktail input pattern of fresh and weathered technical products. The comparative EF values for the α-HCH between the sediments and mollusks, as well as the lack of any discernible difference in the relative proportions of HCH isomers among different species from the same sampling site implied that the HCH residues in the mollusks came directly from the surrounding environment. However, the biotransformation of DDTs in mollusks cannot be precluded. The assessments performed based on several available guidelines suggested that although no significant human health risks were associated with the dietary intake of OCPs, the concentrations of DDTs exceeded the maximum residual limits of China and many developed nations. Moreover, an increased lifetime cancer risk from dietary exposure to either DDTs or HCHs remains a possibility. Because non-racemic OCP residues are common in the mollusk samples, our results suggest a need to further explore the levels and toxicity of the chiral contaminants in mollusks and other foodstuff to develop the human risk assessment framework based on chiral signatures. PMID:25113182

  20. Anatomy of the recurrent coastal sediment plume in Lake Michigan and its impacts on light climate, nutrients, and plankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderploeg, H. A.; Johengen, T. H.; Lavrentyev, P. J.; Chen, C.; Lang, G. A.; Agy, M. A.; Bundy, M. H.; Cavaletto, J. F.; Eadie, B. J.; Liebig, J. R.; Miller, G. S.; Ruberg, S. A.; McCormick, M. J.

    2007-03-01

    As part of the Episodic Events Great Lakes Experiment, we sampled total suspended matter (TSM), light climate, nutrients, and plankton along cross-margin transects in southern Lake Michigan during February, March, and April 1998-2000 to capture conditions before, during, and after the occurrence of storm-driven recurrent coastal sediment plumes to define the anatomy of the resuspension events and get insights into their interactions with nutrients and plankton. Variability in timing and strength of winter storms among years led to different timing, intensity, and extent of plumes among years. TSM concentrations in the core of plumes varied between 15 and 30 mg L-1, and photic depth was reduced to ˜1 to 2 m, thus potentially seriously limiting phytoplankton growth in plume areas. Total P concentration was highly correlated with TSM and river influence. Chlorophyll concentrations were lower in plume regions than in adjacent areas, in contrast to the relatively constant chlorophyll concentration across the plume predicted by a coupled hydrodynamic and nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton model. Contrary to expectation, protozoan microzooplankton (MZ) biomass was not more abundant in the plume than adjacent waters, but was highest in nearshore areas receiving river inflow. Storms affected horizontal distribution of zooplankton. Because of the lower concentrations of phytoplankton in the plume, the plume over the short term had a negative impact on zooplankton during this food-limiting season. Our results combined with those of other EEGLE studies lead us to conclude that storms and storm-driven plumes had a negative effect on the planktonic food web.

  1. The WMO Coastal Inundation Forecasting Demonstration Project (CIFDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Boram; Resio, Don; Swail, Val; Fakhruddin, Shm; Horsburgh, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Coastal inundations are an increasing threat to the lives and livelihoods of people living in low-lying, highly-populated coastal areas. According to the World Bank Report 2005, at least 2.6 million people have drowned in coastal inundation, particularly caused by storm surges, over the last 200 years. The purpose of the WMO Coastal Inundation Forecasting Demonstration Project (CIFDP) is to meet the challenges of coastal communities' safety and to support sustainable development through enhancing coastal inundation forecasting and warning systems at the regional scale. Upon completion of national sub-projects of CIFDP, countries will implement an operational system for integrated coastal inundation forecasting and warning, providing an objective basis for coastal disaster (flooding) management; contributing to saving lives, reducing loss of livelihood and property, and enhancing resilience and sustainability in coastal communities. Operation and maintenance of the CIF system would be the responsibility of national operational agencies with a mandate for coastal inundation warnings. The main focus of the CIFDP will be to facilitate the development of efficient forecasting and warning systems for coastal inundation based on robust science and observations: The presentation will describe the scope and the technical framework for CIFDP and describe its implementation in the various sub-projects presently underway.

  2. Integration of In Situ Radon Modeling with High Resolution Aerial Remote Sensing for Mapping and Quantifying Local to Regional Flow and Transport of Submarine Groundwater Discharge from Coastal Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, C. R.; Kennedy, J. J.; Dulaiova, H.; Kelly, J. L.; Lucey, P. G.; Lee, E.; Fackrell, J.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a principal conduit for huge volumes of fresh groundwater loss and is a key transport mechanism for nutrient and contaminant pollution to coastal zones worldwide. However, the volumes and spatially and temporally variable nature of SGD is poorly known and requires rapid and high-resolution data acquisition at the scales in which it is commonly observed. Airborne thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing, using high-altitude manned aircraft and low-altitude remote-controlled unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or "Drones") are uniquely qualified for this task, and applicable wherever 0.1°C temperature contrasts exist between discharging and receiving waters. We report on the use of these technologies in combination with in situ radon model studies of SGD volume and nutrient flux from three of the largest Hawaiian Islands. High altitude manned aircraft results produce regional (~300m wide x 100s km coastline) 0.5 to 3.2 m-resolution sea-surface temperature maps accurate to 0.7°C that show point-source and diffuse flow in exquisite detail. Using UAVs offers cost-effective advantages of higher spatial and temporal resolution and instantaneous deployments that can be coordinated simultaneously with any ground-based effort. We demonstrate how TIR-mapped groundwater discharge plume areas may be linearly and highly correlated to in situ groundwater fluxes. We also illustrate how in situ nutrient data may be incorporated into infrared imagery to produce nutrient distribution maps of regional worth. These results illustrate the potential for volumetric quantification and up-scaling of small- to regional-scale SGD. These methodologies provide a tremendous advantage for identifying and differentiating spring-fed, point-sourced, and/or diffuse groundwater discharge into oceans, estuaries, and streams. The integrative techniques are also important precursors for developing best-use and cost-effective strategies for otherwise time-consuming in

  3. Calibration of amino acid racemization (AAR) kinetics in United States mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain Quaternary mollusks using 87Sr/ 86Sr analyses: Evaluation of kinetic models and estimation of regional Late Pleistocene temperature history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wehmiller, J. F.; Harris, W.B.; Boutin, B.S.; Farrell, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of amino acid racemization (AAR) for estimating ages of Quaternary fossils usually requires a combination of kinetic and effective temperature modeling or independent age calibration of analyzed samples. Because of limited availability of calibration samples, age estimates are often based on model extrapolations from single calibration points over wide ranges of D/L values. Here we present paired AAR and 87Sr/ 86Sr results for Pleistocene mollusks from the North Carolina Coastal Plain, USA. 87Sr/ 86Sr age estimates, derived from the lookup table of McArthur et al. [McArthur, J.M., Howarth, R.J., Bailey, T.R., 2001. Strontium isotopic stratigraphy: LOWESS version 3: best fit to the marine Sr-isotopic curve for 0-509 Ma and accompanying Look-up table for deriving numerical age. Journal of Geology 109, 155-169], provide independent age calibration over the full range of amino acid D/L values, thereby allowing comparisons of alternative kinetic models for seven amino acids. The often-used parabolic kinetic model is found to be insufficient to explain the pattern of racemization, although the kinetic pathways for valine racemization and isoleucine epimerization can be closely approximated with this function. Logarithmic and power law regressions more accurately represent the racemization pathways for all amino acids. The reliability of a non-linear model for leucine racemization, developed and refined over the past 20 years, is confirmed by the 87Sr/ 86Sr age results. This age model indicates that the subsurface record (up to 80m thick) of the North Carolina Coastal Plain spans the entire Quaternary, back to ???2.5Ma. The calibrated kinetics derived from this age model yield an estimate of the effective temperature for the study region of 11??2??C., from which we estimate full glacial (Last Glacial Maximum - LGM) temperatures for the region on the order of 7-10??C cooler than present. These temperatures compare favorably with independent paleoclimate information

  4. Horticultural therapy as a measure for recovery support of regional community in the disaster area: a preliminary experiment for forty five women who living certain region in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Kotozaki, Yuka

    2014-01-01

    Three years have passed since the earthquake, in the coastal areas in the disaster area, by population transfer or the like from the temporary housing, the importance of the regeneration and revitalization of the local community has been pointed out. This study performed a preliminary study to aim at the psychological inspection about an effect of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction support of the disaster area. Forty five women who are living in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture participated in this study. They experienced the Great East Japan earthquake in 2011 and suffered some kind of damage caused by the earthquake. The participants were assigned to two groups, the intervention group and the control group, via a random draw using a computer. The HI group attended the horticultural therapy intervention (HT intervention) sessions for 16 weeks. The HT intervention was designed in collaboration with a horticultural therapist and clinical psychologists. This intervention comprised a total of 16 weekly sessions (120 min each) at the community center and 15 minutes per day at participants' homes. We used five psychological measures for an intervention evaluation. The HI group showed a significant increase in post- intervention SCI-2 total scores, post- intervention SCI-2 membership scores, post-intervention SCI-2 influence scores, post- intervention SCI-2 meeting needs scores, post- intervention SCI-2 shared emotional connection scores, and post- intervention RSES score. We believe that these results suggest the effectiveness of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction. PMID:25585479

  5. Coastal dynamics in western Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Agate, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The study of the evolution of the beaches plays a fundamental role in every territorial politics regarding the coastal band. More than half the world population lives in coastal regions which support a florid touristic activity in many countries. The beach constitutes, in terms of economic value, the most important element of the coastal system, but also the more fragile and morphologically variable. Thus, studying its evolutions is fundamental in order to adopt the best management of this complex, densely populated and economically interesting zone. In this regard, the western coast of Sicily (Italy) is an effective example. It took its origin from variation of the sea middle level (Quaternary), with the consequent formation of marine terraces. Morphologically, the shore is made up by low and rock coast alternating beaches. The historical evolution of the coast has been performed through the use of aerial images identifying, despite several uncertainties, the position of the shoreline. Indeed the shoreline position extracted from an aerial image is a wet/dry line that describes the instantaneous land-water boundary at the time of imaging rather than a "normal" or "average" condition. Each wave instantaneously influences the shoreline position and hence, to take into account shoreline oscillations due to wave motion. Even if from a conceptual point of view the shore line is defined as a border between the emerged earth and the sea, its perennial variability makes it difficult to determine. In order to start a correct management, a cognitive geomorphological study has been carried on, as well as a study of high strategic value and environmental sustainability. It was based on a continuous decisional process based on objectives defined by the UE, in order to classify the beaches and to define the characteristic which are necessary for a correct coastal management. This study has been fundamental to start a monitoring of the coast; moreover, it has shown

  6. Burden of disease in adults admitted to hospital in a rural region of coastal Kenya: an analysis of data from linked clinical and demographic surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Etyang, Anthony O; Munge, Kenneth; Bunyasi, Erick W; Matata, Lena; Ndila, Carolyne; Kapesa, Sailoki; Owiti, Maureen; Khandwalla, Iqbal; Brent, Andrew J; Tsofa, Benjamin; Kabibu, Pamela; Morpeth, Susan; Bauni, Evasius; Otiende, Mark; Ojal, John; Ayieko, Philip; Knoll, Maria D; Smeeth, Liam; Williams, Thomas N; Griffiths, Ulla K; Scott, J Anthony G

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Estimates of the burden of disease in adults in sub-Saharan Africa largely rely on models of sparse data. We aimed to measure the burden of disease in adults living in a rural area of coastal Kenya with use of linked clinical and demographic surveillance data. Methods We used data from 18 712 adults admitted to Kilifi District Hospital (Kilifi, Kenya) between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2012, linked to 790 635 person-years of observation within the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System, to establish the rates and major causes of admission to hospital. These data were also used to model disease-specific disability-adjusted life-years lost in the population. We used geographical mapping software to calculate admission rates stratified by distance from the hospital. Findings The main causes of admission to hospital in women living within 5 km of the hospital were infectious and parasitic diseases (303 per 100 000 person-years of observation), pregnancy-related disorders (239 per 100 000 person-years of observation), and circulatory illnesses (105 per 100 000 person-years of observation). Leading causes of hospital admission in men living within 5 km of the hospital were infectious and parasitic diseases (169 per 100 000 person-years of observation), injuries (135 per 100 000 person-years of observation), and digestive system disorders (112 per 100 000 person-years of observation). HIV-related diseases were the leading cause of disability-adjusted life-years lost (2050 per 100 000 person-years of observation), followed by non-communicable diseases (741 per 100 000 person-years of observation). For every 5 km increase in distance from the hospital, all-cause admission rates decreased by 11% (95% CI 7–14) in men and 20% (17–23) in women. The magnitude of this decline was highest for endocrine disorders in women (35%; 95% CI 22–46) and neoplasms in men (30%; 9–45). Interpretation Adults in rural Kenya face a combined

  7. A study of changes in rainfall and temperature patterns at four cities and corresponding meteorological subdivisions over coastal regions of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, S. K.; Saraswat, Vaishali; Panda, S. K.; Sharma, Neha

    2013-09-01

    Changes in the surface air temperature and rainfall, extreme events and their future projections at four Indian cities and corresponding meteorological subdivisions and homogeneous zones have been analyzed in this study based on observed gridded datasets from the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and climate projections from nine IPCC models. The cities include Howrah, Vishakhapatnam, Madurai and Kochi. Their corresponding meteorological subdivisions are Gangetic West Bengal, Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu & Pondicherry and Kerala. When one considers the larger spatial scale, these cities and meteorological subdivisions are situated in the temperature homogeneous zones of North East, East Coast and West Coast. Similarly, North East and Peninsular India are the rainfall homogeneous zones where these four cities are situated. In this study, indication of change in any climate parameter is assumed to be strong if the same is found in a city and also in its meteorological subdivision and homogeneous zone. When the indications are of the same nature in a city and either in its meteorological subdivision or homogeneous zone, it is termed as weak. Comparison shows that the values of annual mean temperature and summer monsoon precipitation simulated by MIROC 3.2 (medres) and NCAR_CCSM3 models are close to the corresponding observed values at each of the four cities. Analysis shows similar trends in the annual mean observed temperature and monsoon precipitation in the selected four cities and their corresponding meteorological subdivisions and homogeneous zones. Based on IMD gridded datasets, the rise in annual mean temperature at 1% significant level during 1969-2005 in Kochi and its subdivision and homogeneous zone is a strong indication of warming. At Madurai such warming is weak. Whereas, at Howrah and Vishakhapatnam, there are no strong indications of warming based on the available IMD gridded data. So far as the future is concerned, the results show that in

  8. Frequency and origin of haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster in individuals with trait and sickle cell anemia in the Atlantic and Pacific coastal regions of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Fong, Cristian; Lizarralde-Iragorri, María Alejandra; Rojas-Gallardo, Diana; Barreto, Guillermo

    2013-12-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease with high prevalence in people of African descent. There are five typical haplotypes associated with this disease and the haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster have been used to establish the origin of African-descendant people in America. In this work, we determined the frequency and the origin of haplotypes associated with hemoglobin S in a sample of individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) and sickle cell hemoglobin trait (HbAS) in coastal regions of Colombia. Blood samples from 71 HbAS and 79 HbSS individuals were obtained. Haplotypes were determined based on the presence of variable restriction sites within the β-globin gene cluster. On the Pacific coast of Colombia the most frequent haplotype was Benin, while on the Atlantic coast Bantu was marginally higher than Benin. Eight atypical haplotypes were observed on both coasts, being more diverse in the Atlantic than in the Pacific region. These results suggest a differential settlement of the coasts, dependent on where slaves were brought from, either from the Gulf of Guinea or from Angola, where the haplotype distributions are similar. Atypical haplotypes probably originated from point mutations that lost or gained a restriction site and/or by recombination events. PMID:24385850

  9. Scenario Planning for Coastal Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, A.; Obeysekera, J.; Knuuti, K.; Moss, R. H.; Horton, R. M.; Weiss, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is a persistent environmental change observed globally for more than a century, and its expected continuation poses significant challenges to the United States (US). We summarize a process associated with the United States National Climate Assessment for identifying four scenarios of global mean sea level rise (SLR). The main finding is that global mean sea level is expected to rise no less than 0.2 meters and no more than 2.0 meters by the end of the century. Recent publications suggest that a 4 C world would result in global mean SLR towards the upper end of that range. Aside from this process, there is currently no coordinated, interagency effort in the US to identify agreed upon global mean sea level rise projections for the purpose of coastal planning, policy, and management. This is an important gap because identifying global mean SLR estimates is a critical step in assessing coastal impacts and vulnerabilities. At present, coastal managers are left to identify global SLR estimates through their own interpretation of the scientific literature or the advice of experts on an ad-hoc basis. Yet, relative SLR at over one hundred tide gages (~80%) along the US coast reflect the global trend (1.7 - 3.2 mm/yr). No widely accepted method is currently available for producing probabilistic projections of SLR at actionable scales (i.e., regional to local). The desire to have a most probable or likely outcome can lead to paralysis or inaction for coastal decision-making. Given the range of uncertainty in future global SLR, scenario planning offers an opportunity to overcome decision-making paralysis and initiate actions now that may reduce future impacts and vulnerabilities. Scenarios do not predict future changes, but describe future potential conditions in a manner that supports decision-making under uncertainty. Using multiple scenarios, none more likely than the other, encourages experts and decision makers to rehearse multiple, plausible futures

  10. Coastal erosion and accretion rates in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Papadopoulos, Costas; Koutsogiannaki, Irini; Synolakis, Costas

    2010-05-01

    Erosion threatens many coastal regions of Greece. Anthropogenic changes of landforms such as coastal roads built on even narrow beaches, sand mining for construction, poor design of coastal structures that interfere with sediment, and dams without sediment bypasses have significantly reduced beach widths. We present erosion rates for different beaches, some of which are in sensitive ecosystems, otherwise "protected" by local and EU ordinances. By comparing inferences of beach widths in varying intervals from 1933 to 2006, we infer that the construction of dams in Acheloos river in western Greece, built in a faraonic attempt to partially divert its flows to eastern Greece, this is responsible for up to 20m/year erosion rates observed in certain locales in the Acheloos delta. More characteristic erosion rates in the region are ~ 2m/year. By contrast, there appears rapid accretion of up to 4m/year in the beaches around the Nestos delta in northern Greece (Papadopoulos, 2009). In beaches that are not near large river deltas, erosion rates range from 0.5m/year to 1m/year. While we have not done comprehensive comparisons among coastlines with different levels of coastal development, it does appear that rapid coastal development correlates well with erosion rates. The underlying problem is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management in Greece and substandard design of coastal structures, which are often sited without any measurements of waves and currents offshore (Synolakis et al, 2008). Beach maintenance remains an exotic concept for most local authorities, who invariably prefer to build hard coastal structures to "protect" versus nourish, siting lack of experience with nourishment and "environmental" concerns. In certain cases, choices are dictated by costs, the larger the cost the easier the project gets approved by regulatory authorities, hence the preference for concrete or rubble structures. We conclude that, unless urgent salvage measures are

  11. The Regional Marine Science Project of the Carteret County, North Carolina, Public Schools. Experiments in the Use of Field Ecology as an Approach to Understanding Coastal Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hon, Will

    The development of the Regional Marine Science Project in Carteret County, North Carolina, is portrayed in this booklet. Established with Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title III funds in 1966, the project has evolved from one high school course in marine ecology to numerous courses and activities at all levels, primary through…

  12. Putting oxygen and temperature thresholds of marine animals in context of environmental change in coastal seas: a regional perspective for the Scotian Shelf and Gulf of St. Lawrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Catherine E.; Blanchard, Hannah; Fennel, Katja

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed the literature in order to compile reported oxygen, temperature, salinity and depth preferences and thresholds of important marine species found in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Scotian Shelf regions of the northwest North Atlantic. We determined species importance based on the existence of a commercial fishery, a threatened or at risk status, or by meeting the following criteria: bycatch, baitfish, invasive, vagrant, important for ecosystem energy transfer, and predators and prey of the above species. Using the dataset compiled for the 53 regional fishes and macroinvertebrates, we rank species (including for different lifestages) by their maximum thermal limit, as well as by the lowest oxygen concentration tolerated before negative impacts (e.g. physiological stress), 50% mortality or 100% mortality are experienced. Additionally, we compare these thresholds to observed marine deoxygenation trends at multiple sites, and observed surface warming trends. This results in an assessment of which regional species are most vulnerable to future warming and oxygen depletion, and a first-order estimate of the consequences of thermal and oxygen stress on a highly productive marine shelf. If regional multi-decadal oxygen and temperature trends continue through the 21st century, many species will lose favorable oxygen conditions, experience oxygen-stress, or disappear due to insufficient oxygen. Future warming can additionally displace vulnerable species, though we note that large natural variability in environmental conditions may amplify or dampen the effects of anthropogenic surface warming trends. This dataset may be combined with regional ocean model predictions to map future species distributions.

  13. Isotopic evidence for dead fish maintenance of Florida red tides, with implications for coastal fisheries over both source regions of the West Florida shelf and within downstream waters of the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. J.; Weisberg, R. H.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Dieterle, D. A.; Zheng, L.; Carder, K. L.; Vargo, G. A.; Havens, J. A.; Peebles, E.; Hollander, D. J.; He, R.; Heil, C. A.; Mahmoudi, B.; Landsberg, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Toxic Florida red tides of the dinoflagellate Kareniabrevis have downstream consequences of 500-1000 km spatial extent. Fish stocks, shellfish beds, and harmful algal blooms of similar species occupy the same continental shelf waters of the southeastern United States, amounting to economic losses of more than 25 million dollars in some years. Under the aegis of the Center for Prediction of Red tides, we are now developing coupled biophysical models of the conditions that lead to red tides and impacted coastal fisheries, from the Florida Panhandle to Cape Hatteras. Here, a nitrogen isotope budget of the coastal food web of the West Florida shelf (WFS) and the downstream South Atlantic Bight (SAB) reaffirms that diazotrophs are the initial nutrient source for onset of red tides and now identifies clupeid fish as the major recycled nutrient source for their maintenance. The recent isotope budget of WFS and SAB coastal waters during 1998-2001 indicates that since prehistoric times of Timacua Indian settlements along the Georgia coast during 1075, ∼50% of the nutrients required for large red tides of >1 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis have been derived from nitrogen-fixers, with the other half from decomposing dead sardines and herrings. During 2001, >90% of the harvest of WFS clupeids was by large ichthyotoxic red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis, rather than by fishermen. After onset of the usual red tides in summer of 2006 and 2007, the simulated subsequent fall exports of Florida red tides in September 2007 to North Carolina shelf waters replicate observations of just ∼1 μg chl l -1 on the WFS that year. In contrast, the earlier red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 left behind off West Florida during 2006, with less physical export, are instead 10-fold larger than those of 2007. Earlier, 55 fish kills were associated with these coastal red tides during September 2006, between Tampa and Naples. Yet, only six fish kills were reported there in September 2007. With little

  14. Geodetic subsidence rate in coastal Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahzadeh, M.; Dixon, T. H.; Malservisi, R.

    2013-12-01

    Southern coastal Louisiana is experiencing significant subsidence, leading to land loss and increasing the risk of storm-related flooding. Several processes contribute to this subsidence, with differing spatial and temporal variations. Here we report on regional subsidence as measured by a network of continuously recording, high precision GPS stations, and attempt to characterize it. Our results show that the short-term subsidence rate of parts of the Mississippi delta is considerably higher than surrounding coastal areas. Sediment compaction, low-angle faulting and regional subsidence associated with mass loading appear to be the major factors controlling subsidence in the delta. The coastal regions outside of the delta undergo slower subsidence, probably related to factors such as fluid withdrawal (ground water, petroleum and natural gas extraction).

  15. δD and δ18O evidence for inputs to groundwater at a wetland coastal boundary in the southern Great Lakes region of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddart, P. A.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Crowe, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    The stable isotope compositions ( δ18O and δD) of water have been used to determine the relative contributions of different water sources to the groundwater in a barrier sand-bar that separates a coastal freshwater marsh from Lake Erie, Canada. An extensive groundwater study was initiated by Environment Canada at Point Pelee National Park after elevated nutrient concentrations were measured in the park's marsh, located on a spit of land that extends 15 km south into Lake Erie. As part of this larger study, which includes groundwater and nutrient modelling, the stable isotope compositions ( δ18O and δD) of water have been used to independently determine the nature and extent of groundwater flow within sand deposits that separate the marsh from Lake Erie. One of the two study sites chosen for this investigation is located near a large septic-system tile-bed that receives human waste from a public toilet facility within the park, and could potentially release nutrients to the marsh via the groundwater. Both transects studied are well suited to isotopic investigation because they are located between two potentially recharging surface water bodies with temporally variable isotopic compositions, and because the transects are subject to recharge by local precipitation, which exhibits large seasonal isotopic variations. These differing isotopic compositions, when considered spatially and temporally, make it possible to establish the source and movement of groundwater within the transects. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of surface waters from the Point Pelee marsh and Lake Erie lie on an evaporation line with a slope of 5.7. The isotopic composition of Lake Erie remained relatively stable for over 21 months ( δ18O=-7.5‰ to -6.7‰) whereas the marsh exhibited considerable spatial and temporal variability ( δ18O=-8.4‰ to -0.1‰). The δD and δ18O values of precipitation samples vary seasonally with local surface temperatures, and constitute a local

  16. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT III

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal waers in the US include estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, ,mangrove and kelp forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical coastal habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. The n...

  17. Modeled Global vs. Coastal Impacts on 1970 and 2005 Summer Daytime Temperature Trends in Coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtezion, B. L.; Gonzalez, J.; Bornstein, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    California summertime July to August (JJA) mean monthly air temperatures (1970-2005) were analyzed for two California air basins: South Coast (SoCAB) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), which extended into the Central Valley (CV). Daily Tmin and Tmax values were used to produce average monthly values and spatial distributions of and Tmax values trends for each air basin. Results showed concurrent cooling in coastal areas and warming at further inland areas. This pattern suggests that the regional-warming of inland areas resulted in increased coastal sea breeze activity. Further investigations by use of mesoscale model simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) meso-met model with a horizontal grid resolution of 4 km on an inner grid over SoCAB were undertaken to investigate the effects of long-term changes due to green house gas (GHG) warming and land-use land-cover changes on coastal flows. Comparison of simulated present (2000-4) and past climate (1970-4) conditions showed significant increases in sea breeze activity and thus coastal cooling, which supports the observational analysis results that coastal cooling is an indirect “reverse reaction” of GHG warming. The magnitude and location of the simulated and observed coastal-cooling region were in good agreement. Urbanization effects on coastal environment were twofold: increased urban mechanical surface roughness retards sea breeze flows, while urban heat islands (UHIs) enhance them. Significant beneficial societal impacts will result from this observed reverse-reaction to global-warming, especially during UHI-growth periods, include decreased maximum: agricultural production, O3 levels, per-capita energy requirements for cooling, and human thermal-stress levels. Similar “reverse-reaction” effects should be found in other mid-latitude western coastal-regions.

  18. Hydrogeology, simulation of regional ground-water flow, and saltwater intrusion, Potomac-Raritan-Magothy Aquifer System, Northern Coastal Plain of New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pucci, Amleto A., Jr.; Pope, Daryll A.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.

    1994-01-01

    Chloride concentrations in well-water samples from the middle aquifer were as high as 6,000 mg/L in Sayreville Borough in 1987; concentrations in samples from drive-point wells from the same aquifer near the Washington Canal, the main source of saltwater, were as high as 7,100 mg/L. The migration of the saltwater front at about 470 feet per year to the southeast is influenced mainly by a thinning of the middle aquifer, which constrains flow, and by the locations of regional cones of depression caused by groundwater withdrawals.

  19. Comparison of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in plants from disturbed and adjacent undisturbed regions of a coastal salt marsh in Clinton, Connecticut, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, John C.; Lefor, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of salt marsh plant species Spartina alterniflora, S. patens, Distichlis spicata, and others were examined for the presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Samples were taken from introduced planted material in a salt marsh restoration project and from native material in adjacent marsh areas along the Indian River, Clinton, Connecticut, USA. After ten years the replanted area still has sites devoid of vegetation. The salt marsh plants introduced there were devoid of VAM fungi, while high marsh species from the adjacent undisturbed region showed consistent infection, leading the authors to suggest that VAM fungal infection of planting stocks may be a factor in the success of marsh restoration.

  20. TRANSFERRING TECHNOLOGIES, TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES: THE NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's coastal resources on a state, regional and national basis. Based on NCA monitoring from 1999-2001, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters (at over 2500 locati...

  1. POLLUTION AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH - ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summers, Kevin. 2004. Pollution and Ecosystem Health - Assessing Ecological Condition of Coastal Ecosystems. Presented at the White Water to Blue Water (WW2BW) Miami Conference, 21-26 March 2004, Miami, FL. 1 p. (ERL,GB R973).

    Throughout the coastal regions and Large Mari...

  2. Prospects of solar energy in the coastal areas of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emetere, Moses E.; Akinyemi, Marvel L.

    2016-02-01

    The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. The experiment performed in this study entails a day-to-day solar radiation pattern in coastal areas. The results show that the solar radiation pattern in coastal region portends danger to the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) module and its lifecycle. The efficiency of the PV module was tested in the harmattan where dust is a major hindrance. The results were related to meteorological parameters which influences the solar radiation over an area. The solar radiation pattern in coastal areas was traced to the solar sectional shading theory which was summarized and explained.

  3. Resilience from coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. PMID:26392613

  4. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition report compiles several available data sets from different agencies and areas of the country and summarizes them to present a broad baseline picture of the condition of coastal waters. Although data sets presented in this report do not cover all coa...

  5. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  6. Population dynamics of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and its impact on the zooplankton in the coastal regions of the Black Sea of the Crimean coast in 2004-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finenko, G. A.; Abolmasova, G. I.; Romanova, Z. A.; Datsyk, N. A.; Anninskii, B. E.

    2013-02-01

    The abundance, biomasses, and population structure of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were monitored in the coastal waters of the northern part of the Black Sea (Sevastopol Bay and the adjacent continental shelf regions) in 2004-2008. The abundance and species composition of the comb jelly's food in the sea were obtained along with experimental data on the digestion time. Based upon these data, the feeding intensity of the ctenophore in situ was estimated. This information was used to calculate the predatory impact of the comb jelly population on certain groups of forage organisms and the forage zooplankton community as a whole. The predatory impact of the M. leidyi population on the bivalve veligers was the highest (up to 90% of the abundance a day) compared to the Copepoda and Cladocera (30% and 40%, respectively). In the summers of 2004-2008, the daily consumption rates of the zooplankton by the ctenophore population in the shelf zone and in the bay were similar to each other: up to 15% and 12% of the abundance a day, respectively. The highest pressure of the ctenophore upon the zooplankton was observed in 2004 and 2008, when M. leidyi was especially abundant in the plankton for a long time.

  7. A Collaborative, Multidisciplinary Environment for Coastal Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, S. J.; Harper, S.; Maskey, M.; Twilley, R.; McAnally, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Northern Gulf Coastal Hazards Collaboratory (NG-CHC); a collaborative environment for the coastal hazards research community in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama; is being developed to advance the science and engineering of coastal hazards across the tri-state region and address problems of major national importance, including engineering design, coastal system response, and risk management of coastal hazards. NG-CHC aims to accelerate the research process by providing cyberinfrastructure for simulating coastal hazards in a multidisciplinary environment, enhancing the linkages between modeling and observations and allowing researchers to find and share data and information. In addition to serving as a community portal, the extensible environment allows researchers to organize, discover, share and reuse information about data, models, tools and other resources; manage project activities; discuss results with collaborators; view publications, presentations and other documents; and track the history of project activities. The environment also provides an education and outreach area for increasing public knowledge and understanding, with project information, educational tools, and learning modules. Since communication is at the heart of science, these technologies provide researchers with easy mechanisms to share ideas, data, and findings. By enabling the close interaction among scientists and enhancing productivity with tools and services, the collaboration environment frees the researcher from the complexities of sharing and using information, allowing him to concentrate on science. This cyberinfrastructure can be applied in many domains to stimulate knowledge discovery and breakthroughs in a range of fields.

  8. Population Connectivity and Phylogeography of a Coastal Fish, Atractoscion aequidens (Sciaenidae), across the Benguela Current Region: Evidence of an Ancient Vicariant Event

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Romina; Potts, Warren M.; Santos, Carmen V.; Sauer, Warwick H. H.; Shaw, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary patterns of genetic diversity and population connectivity within species can be influenced by both historical and contemporary barriers to gene flow. In the marine environment, present day oceanographic features such as currents, fronts and upwelling systems can influence dispersal of eggs/larvae and/juveniles/adults, shaping population substructuring. The Benguela Current system in the southeastern Atlantic is one of the oldest upwelling systems in the world, and provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relative influence of contemporary and historical mechanisms shaping the evolutionary history of warm-temperate fish species. Using the genetic variation in the mitochondrial DNA Control Region and eight nuclear microsatellite DNA loci, we identified the presence of two highly divergent populations in a vagile and warm-temperate fish species, Atractoscion aequidens, across the Benguela region. The geographical distributions of the two populations, on either side of the perennial upwelling cell, suggest a strong correlation between the oceanographic features of the system and the breakdown of gene flow within this species. Genetic divergence (mtDNA φST = 0.902, microsatellite FST = 0.055: probability of genetic homogeneity for either marker = p<0.001), absence of migrants (less than 1% per generation) between populations and coalescent estimates of time since most recent common ancestor suggest that the establishment of the main oceanographic features of the system (2 million years ago), particularly the strengthening and position of the perennial upwelling cell, is the most likely mechanism behind the observed isolation. Concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers indicates that isolation and divergence of the northern and southern Benguela populations of A. aequidens occurred deep in the past and has continued to the present day. These findings suggest that the Benguela Current system may constitute an ancient

  9. Drivers, trends, and potential impacts of long-term coastal reclamation in China from 1985 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Bo; Wu, Wenting; Yang, Zhaoqing; Zhou, Yunxuan

    2016-03-01

    The reclamation of coastal land for agricultural, industrial, and urban land use-a common worldwide practice-has occurred extensively in the coastal region of China. In recent decades, all coastal provinces and metropolises in China have experienced severe coastal reclamation related to land scarcity caused by rapid economic growth and urbanization. However, the value of coastal wetlands and ecosystems has not been well understood and appreciated until recent development of advantageous methods of restoring reclaimed land to coastal wetlands in many developed countries. The overall objective of this study is to provide detailed spatial and temporal distributions of coastal reclamation; analyze drivers such as coastal economy, population growth, and urbanization; and understand the relationships among the drivers and land reclamation. We used long-term Landsat image time series from 1985 to 2010 in 5-year intervals, in combination with remotely sensed image interpretation and spatial analysis, to map the reclamation status and changes across the coastal region of China. The Landsat images time-series analysis was also conducted to evaluate the effects of the economy, population, and urbanization drivers on coastal reclamation. The analysis results indicated that 754,697 ha of coastal wetlands have been reclaimed across all coastal provinces and metropolises from 1985 to 2010, and the trend increased sharply after 2005. High-intensity coastal reclamation was mainly driven by the booming economy, especially after 2000, associated with urbanization and industrial development in China's coastal region; this was closely correlated with the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. The continuous large-scale coastal reclamation of its coastal region now means China is facing a great challenge, including the enormous loss of vegetated coastal wetlands, negative environmental effects, and potential disaster risks related to coastal flooding under future change climate

  10. A 100-year Reconstruction of Regional Sea Ice Extent in the Ross and Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas as Derived from the RICE Ice Core, Coastal West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuelsson, D. B.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Baisden, W. T.; Keller, E. D.

    2014-12-01

    Antarctic sea ice increased over the past decades. This increase is the result of an increase in the Ross Sea (RS) and along the coast of East Antarctica, whereas the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas (ABS) and the Antarctic Peninsula has seen a general decline. Several mechanisms have been suggested as drivers for the regional, complex sea ice pattern, which include changes in ocean currents, wind pattern, as well as ocean and atmospheric temperature. As part of the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project, a 763 m deep ice core was retrieved from Roosevelt Island (RI; W161° 21', S79°41', 560 m a.s.l.), West Antarctica. The new record provides a unique opportunity to investigate mechanism driving sea ice variability in the RS and ABS sectors. Here we present the water stable isotope record (δD) from the upper part of the RICE core 0-40 m, spanning the time period from 1894 to 2011 (Fig. 1a). Annual δD are correlated with Sea Ice Concentration (SIC). A significant negative (r= -0.45, p≤ 0.05) correlation was found between annual δD and SIC in the eastern RS sector (boxed region in Fig. 1b) for the following months NDJFMA (austral summer and fall). During NDJFMA, RI receives local moisture input from the RS, while during the rest of the year a large extent of this local moisture source area will be covered with sea ice with the exception of the RS Polynya. Concurrently, we observe positive δD and SIC correlations in the ABS, showing a dipole pattern with the eastern RS. For this reason, we suggest that the RICE δD might be used as a proxy for past SIC for the RS and ABS region. There is no overall trend in δD over 100 years (r= -0.08 ‰ dec-1, p= 0.81, 1894-2011). However, we observe a strong increase from 2000-2011 of 17.7 ‰ dec-1(p≤ 0.1), yet the recent δD values and trend of the last decade are not unprecedented (Fig. 1a). We investigate changes in sea surface temperature, atmospheric temperature, inferred surface ocean currents and

  11. Decision-making in Coastal Management and a Collaborative Governance Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over half of the US population lives in coastal watersheds, creating a regional pressure for coastal ecosystems to provide a broad spectrum of services while continuing to support healthy communities and economies. The National Ocean Policy, issued in 2010, and Coastal and Marin...

  12. Partitioning, sources and variability of regional and local oxidant (OX = O3 + NO 2) in a coastal rural area in the southwest of Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Notario, Alberto; Bravo, Iván; Adame, José Antonio; Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the behaviour and variability of oxidant levels (OX = NO2 + O3), for the first time, in a rural coastal area in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, affected by several air masses types. Detailed database (built-up over the years 2008 to 2011, and containing around 500,000 data) from the Atmospheric Sounding Station "El Arenosillo" was used. The observed daily cycles of NO x and OX were influenced by air masses coming from industrial and urban area. It can be seen that the concentration of OX is made up of a NO x -independent 'regional' contribution (i.e. the O3 background), and a linearly NO x -dependent 'local' contribution from primary emissions, such as traffic. The local emission is very low in this area. Also, the regional contribution is similar to unpolluted sites and presents seasonal variation, being higher in May. However, our measurements showed that the proportion of OX in the form of NO2 increases with the increase in NO x concentration during the day. The higher proportion of NO2 observed at night must be due to the conversion of NO to NO2 by the NO + O3 reaction. With regards to the source of the local NO x -dependent contribution, it may be attributed to industrial emission, or the termolecular reaction 2NO + O2 = 2NO2, at high-NO x levels and stagnant air during several days. Finally, we estimated the photolysis rate of NO2, J NO2, an important key atmospheric reaction coupled with ozone. We also present surface plots of annual variation of the daily mean NO x and OX levels, which indicate that oxidants come from transport processes instead of local emissions associated as local photochemistry. PMID:23529402

  13. The Australian REEFREP System: A Coastal Vessel Traffic Information Service and Ship Reporting System for the Torres Strait Region and the Inner Route of the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, John C.

    The new Australian ship reporting system, identifier , will be the core component of a Vessel Traffic Information Service (VTIS) covering the Torres Strait region and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). It is the first such system to be considered by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) under the terms of the new SOLAS 74 regulation v/8-1, which entered into force on 1 January 1996 and allows for ship reporting systems adopted by the Organization to be made mandatory for all, or certain categories of vessels.The REEFREP system, planned for implementation on 1 January 1997, extends for some 900 n.m. or about 1500 km along the Queensland coastline. It will be a VHF radio-based system with radars covering three selected focal points in the Torres Strait, off Cairns and in the southern approaches to the inner route. The system will provide a capability for a single Ship Reporting Centre to interact with shipping, enabling the provision of improved information on the presence, movements and patterns of shipping in the area and the ability to respond more quickly to an incident or pollution should this occur.An interesting feature and a major factor in the system design is the remoteness of most equipment sites and the limited infrastructure available to support communications and data transmission requiring the application of advanced technology and video transmission, solar power generation and software engineering skills of a high order.

  14. Detection of the Hebei Spirit oil spill on SAR imagery and its temporal evolution in a coastal region of the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Sung; Park, Kyung-Ae; Li, Xiaofeng; Lee, Moonjin; Hong, Sungwook; Lyu, Sang Jin; Nam, Sooyong

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the evolution of a disastrous oil spill from a vessel collision, known as the Hebei Spirit accident, off the coast of Korea in the Yellow Sea on 6 December 2007, oil slicks were identified from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images using a neural network (NN) and an adaptive threshold method. The results from the two objective methods showed good agreement, enough for the estimation of the extent of oil patches and their trajectories, with the exception of negligible errors at the boundaries. Quantitative analyses showed that the detected oil slicks moved southward, corresponding to the prevailing wind and tidal currents, and gradually dissipated during the spill, except for an extraordinary rapid decrease in onshore regions at the initial stage. The initial dissipation of the spilt oil was induced by tidal mixing in the tidal front zone. The spatial and temporal variations of the oil slicks confirmed the influence of atmospheric and oceanic environmental factors. The overall horizontal migration of the oil spills detected from consecutive SAR images was mainly driven by Ekman drift during the winter monsoon rather than the tidal residual current.

  15. Effects of Urbanization Expansion on Landscape Pattern and Region Ecological Risk in Chinese Coastal City: A Case Study of Yantai City

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Di; Shi, Ping; Wu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    Applied with remote sensing, GIS, and mathematical statistics, the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of urbanization expansion of Yantai city from 1974 to 2009 was studied. Based on landscape pattern metrics and ecological risk index, the landscape ecological risk from the landscape pattern dynamics was evaluated. The results showed that the area of urban land increased by 189.77 km2 with average expansion area of 5.42 km2 y−1 from 1974 to 2009. The urbanization intensity index during 2004–2009 was 3.92 times of that during 1974–1990. The land use types of urban land and farmland changed greatly. The changes of landscape pattern metrics for land use patterns indicated that the intensity of human activities had strengthened gradually in study period. The landscape ecological risk pattern of Yantai city shaped half-round rings along the coastline. The ecological risk index decreased with increase of the distance to the coastline. The ratio of high ecological risk to subhigh ecological risk zones in 2009 was 2.23 times of that in 1990. The significant linear relationship of urbanization intensity index and regional ecological risk indicated that the anthropological economic activities were decisive factors for sustainable development of costal ecological environment. PMID:24983003

  16. Shallow landslide prediction and analysis with risk assessment using a spatial model in a coastal region in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarinha, P. I. M.; Canavesi, V.; Alvalá, R. C. S.

    2014-09-01

    This study presents a methodology for susceptibility mapping of shallow landslides just from data and software from the public domain. The study was conducted in a mountainous region located on the southeastern Brazilian coast, in the state of São Paulo. The proposal is that the methodology can be replicated in a practical and reliable way in several other municipalities that do not have such mappings and that often suffer from landslide-related disasters. The susceptibility mapping was generated based on the following maps: geological, soils, slope, horizontal and vertical curvatures, and land use. The thematic classes of these maps were weighted according to technical and scientific criteria related to the triggering of landslides, and were crossed by the fuzzy gamma technique. The mapping was compared with the risk sector survey made by the Brazilian Geological Survey (CPRM), which is the official database used by municipalities and civil defense in risk management. The results showed positive correlations, so that the critical risk sectors had higher proportions for the more susceptible classes. To compare the approach with other studies using landslide-scar maps, correlated indices were evaluated, which also showed satisfactory results, thus indicating that the methodology presented is appropriate for risk assessment in urban areas.

  17. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma in a coastal region of Haiti: multiplex bead assay detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies that recognize the SAG2A antigen.

    PubMed

    Priest, J W; Moss, D M; Arnold, B F; Hamlin, K; Jones, C C; Lammie, P J

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasitic protozoan that infects most warm-blooded animals. We incorporated a bead coupled with recombinant SAG2A protein into our Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) multiplex bead assay (MBA) panel and used it to determine Toxoplasma infection rates in two studies in Haiti. In a longitudinal cohort study of children aged 0-11 years, the infection rate varied with age reaching a maximum of 0·131 infections/year in children aged 3 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·065-0·204]. The median time to seroconversion was estimated to be 9·7 years (95% CI 7·6-∞). In a cross-sectional, community-wide survey of residents of all ages, we determined an overall seroprevalence of 28·2%. The seroprevalence age curve from the cross-sectional study also suggested that the force of infection varied with age and peaked at 0·057 infections/year (95% CI 0·033-0·080) at age 2·6 years. Integration of the Toxoplasma MBA into NTD surveys may allow for better estimates of the potential burden of congenital toxoplasmosis in underserved regions. PMID:25600668

  18. Estimation of coastal density gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, M. J.; Palmer, M. R.; Polton, J. A.; O'Neill, C. K.

    2012-04-01

    Density gradients in coastal regions with significant freshwater input are large and variable and are a major control of nearshore circulation. However their measurement is difficult, especially where the gradients are largest close to the coast, with significant uncertainties because of a variety of factors - spatial and time scales are small, tidal currents are strong and water depths shallow. Whilst temperature measurements are relatively straightforward, measurements of salinity (the dominant control of spatial variability) can be less reliable in turbid coastal waters. Liverpool Bay has strong tidal mixing and receives fresh water principally from the Dee, Mersey, Ribble and Conwy estuaries, each with different catchment influences. Horizontal and vertical density gradients are variable both in space and time. The water column stratifies intermittently. A Coastal Observatory has been operational since 2002 with regular (quasi monthly) CTD surveys on a 9 km grid, an situ station, an instrumented ferry travelling between Birkenhead and Dublin and a shore-based HF radar system measuring surface currents and waves. These measurements are complementary, each having different space-time characteristics. For coastal gradients the ferry is particularly useful since measurements are made right from the mouth of Mersey. From measurements at the in situ site alone density gradients can only be estimated from the tidal excursion. A suite of coupled physical, wave and ecological models are run in association with these measurements. The models, here on a 1.8 km grid, enable detailed estimation of nearshore density gradients, provided appropriate river run-off data are available. Examples are presented of the density gradients estimated from the different measurements and models, together with accuracies and uncertainties, showing that systematic time series measurements within a few kilometres of the coast are a high priority. (Here gliders are an exciting prospect for

  19. Coastal Hazards: Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Coastal Erosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Details an ocean-based lesson and provides background information on the designation of 1998 as the "Year of the Ocean" by the United Nations. Contains activities on the poster insert that can help raise student awareness of coastal-zone hazards. (DDR)

  20. Ctenophores-invaders and their role in the trophic dynamics of the planktonic community in the coastal regions off the Crimean coasts of the Black Sea (Sevastopol Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finenko, G. A.; Romanova, Z. A.; Abolmasova, G. I.; Anninsky, B. E.; Pavlovskaya, T. V.; Bat, L.; Kideys, A.

    2006-07-01

    The abundances, biomasses, and population structures of two introduced ctenophore species— Mnemiopsis leidyi and Beroe ovata—were monitored along with mesoplankton in the near-shore waters of the northern Black Sea (Sevastopol Bay and adjacent regions) over a period of four years (2000-2003), after the B. ovata invasion. The annual dynamics of the M. leidyi population were similar in these years: very low abundances and biomass values were observed during the major part of the year (unlike previous years) with a shortterm peak in the summer-early autumn. B. ovata development during the growth in the M. leidyi biomass resulted in a sharp fall in the M. leidyi biomass down to extremely low values. The interannual differences in the populations of both ctenophore species were reflected by their quantitative parameters: the maximum biomass of M. leidyi varied from 790 g/m2 in 2001 to 211-266 g/m2 in other years. The maximum biomass values of B. ovata (38.9 and 32.5 g/m2) were observed in 2001 and 2003, respectively. In 2000-2003, from July to September, during the peak in mnemiopsis development, the population consumed from 1.9 ± 0.4 to 13.4 ± 5.7% of the mesoplankton biomass per day, while in the years of B. ovata absence, these values were as high as 30-40%. For the first time, the grazing rate of microzooplankton by M. leidi larvae was estimated. In August 2003, the maximum daily consumption rate was as great as 23-25% of the microzooplankton biomass. The daily rations of the mnemiopsis larvae on microzooplankton were close or even higher than those on mesoplankton.

  1. Silicon isotopic chemistry in the Changjiang Estuary and coastal regions: Impacts of physical and biogeochemical processes on the transport of riverine dissolved silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A. Y.; Zhang, J.; Hu, J.; Zhang, R. F.; Zhang, G. S.

    2015-10-01

    The dissolved silica (DSi) concentration and silicon isotopic composition (δ30Si) of surface water samples from the Changjiang Estuary was measured in summer and winter to study the behavior of DSi fluvial inputs into the estuary. The DSi concentration decreased away from the estuary and had a linear relationship with salinity, suggesting that mixing between river water and seawater is the dominant effect on DSi levels in the study area. Measured δ30Si in the Changjiang Estuary ranged from +1.48‰ to +2.35‰ in summer, and from +1.54‰ to +1.95‰ in winter. As a result of low light levels and abundant DSi riverine inputs, DSi remains relatively unaffected by biological utilization and fractionation in the near-shore region, and the isotopic imprint of water from the Changjiang can still be detected up to a salinity level of 20 in summer. An obvious increase in δ30Si was observed beyond this salinity level, indicating a significant increase in biological utilization and fractionation of DSi in high salinity waters. Lower water temperatures and light levels that prevail over the winter lead to the reduced fractionation of DSi compared with that in summer. The fractionation factor (30ɛ) was estimated using a steady state model to the high salinity waters, yielding a value of -0.95‰, which is in agreement with previous results obtained for Skeletonema costatum in cultivation experiments. The results of this study suggest that silicon isotopes can be used to identify the impact of biological utilization on the behavior of DSi in highly dynamic estuarine environments.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of a multilayer, finite-difference model of the Southeastern Coastal Plain regional aquifer system; Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pernik, Meribeth

    1987-01-01

    The sensitivity of a multilayer finite-difference regional flow model was tested by changing the calibrated values for five parameters in the steady-state model and one in the transient-state model. The parameters that changed under the steady-state condition were those that had been routinely adjusted during the calibration process as part of the effort to match pre-development potentiometric surfaces, and elements of the water budget. The tested steady-state parameters include: recharge, riverbed conductance, transmissivity, confining unit leakance, and boundary location. In the transient-state model, the storage coefficient was adjusted. The sensitivity of the model to changes in the calibrated values of these parameters was evaluated with respect to the simulated response of net base flow to the rivers, and the mean value of the absolute head residual. To provide a standard measurement of sensitivity from one parameter to another, the standard deviation of the absolute head residual was calculated. The steady-state model was shown to be most sensitive to changes in rates of recharge. When the recharge rate was held constant, the model was more sensitive to variations in transmissivity. Near the rivers, the riverbed conductance becomes the dominant parameter in controlling the heads. Changes in confining unit leakance had little effect on simulated base flow, but greatly affected head residuals. The model was relatively insensitive to changes in the location of no-flow boundaries and to moderate changes in the altitude of constant head boundaries. The storage coefficient was adjusted under transient conditions to illustrate the model 's sensitivity to changes in storativity. The model is less sensitive to an increase in storage coefficient than it is to a decrease in storage coefficient. As the storage coefficient decreased, the aquifer drawdown increases, the base flow decreased. The opposite response occurred when the storage coefficient was increased. (Author

  3. Coastal Rainfall Estimation using AMSR-E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, J.; Ferraro, R.

    2003-12-01

    The vast majority of microwave rainfall estimation research has been for either ocean-filled or land-filled fields of view, as the physics for both surface types are quite different. However, neither ocean-based nor land-based methods may be used for coastal pixels that contain a mixture of water and land. Current algorithms for coastal regions perform relatively poorly. We have built upon previous coastal rainfall algorithms developed for the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). Using principal component analysis, we found multi-frequency brightness temperature responses to rainfall over coastal regions, enabling us to do a more accurate rain/no-rain classification. The TMI has similar frequencies and resolutions as AMSR-E, so we could use the co-located TMI and Precipitation Radar (PR) data to determine the principal components related to rainfall. These principal components are effective in distinguishing rain from no-rain AMSR-E pixels, as we show with AMSR-E data. We include global results as well as those from the Eureka, CA, coastal radar AMSR-E validation site.

  4. Coastal mapping handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Ellis, Melvin Y., (Edited By)

    1978-01-01

    Passage of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 focused attention on the Nation's coastal land and water areas. As plans for more effective management of the coastal zone evolved, it soon became apparent that improved maps and charts of these areas were needed. This handbook was prepared with the requirements of the entire coastal community in mind, giving greatest attention to the needs of coastal zone managers and planners at the State and local levels. Its principal objective is to provide general information and guidance; it is neither a textbook nor a technical manual, but rather a primer on coastal mapping. This handbook should help planners and managers of coastal programs to determine their mapping requirements, select the best maps and charts for their particular needs, and to deal effectively with personnel who gather data and prepare maps. The sections on "Sources of Assistance and Advice" and "Product and Data Sources" should be especially useful to all involved in mapping the coastal zone. Brief summaries of the mapping efforts of several State coastal zone management programs are included. "Future outlook" discusses anticipated progress and changes in mapping procedures and techniques. Illustrations are inserted, where appropriate, to illustrate the products and equipment discussed. Because of printing restrictions, the colors in map illustrations may vary from those in the original publication. The appendixes include substantial material which also should be of interest. In addition a glossary and an index are included to provide easy and quick access to the terms and concepts used in the text. For those interested in more technical detail than is provided in this handbook, the "Selected references" will be useful. Also, the publications of the professional societies listed in appendix 4 will provide technical information in detail.

  5. Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch: Research Overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch, Newport, Oregon is part of the Western Ecology Division of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. EPA. The Branch conducts research and provides scientific technical support to Headquarters and Regional O...

  6. Monitoring Coastal Embankment Subsidence and Relative Sea Level Rise in Coastal Bangladesh Using Satellite Geodetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q.; Shum, C. K.; Jia, Y.; Yi, Y.; Zhu, K.; Kuo, C. Y.; Liibusk, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Bangladesh Delta is located at the confluence of the mega Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghan Rivers in the Bay of Bengal. It is home to over 160 million people and is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is prone to seasonal transboundary monsoonal flooding, potentially aggravated by more frequent and intensified cyclones resulting from anthropogenic climate change. Sea level rise, along with tectonic, sediment compaction/load and groundwater extraction induced land uplift/subsidence, have significantly exacerbated these risks and Bangladesh's coastal vulnerability. Bangladesh has built 123 coastal embankments or polders since the 1960's, to protect the coastal regions from cyclone/tidal flooding and to reduce salinity incursions. Since then, many coastal polders have suffered severe erosion and anthropogenic damage, and require repairs or rebuilding. However, the physical and anthropogenic processes governing the historic relative sea level rise and its future projection towards its quantification remain poorly understood or known, and at present not accurate enough or with an adequately fine local spatial scale for practical mitigation of coastal vulnerability or coastal resilience studies. This study reports on our work in progress to use satellite geodetic and remote sensing observations, including satellite radar altimetry/backscatter measurements over land and in coastal oceans, optical/infrared imageries, and SAR backscatter/InSAR data, to study the feasibility of coastal embankment/polder erosion monitoring, quantify seasonal polder water intrusions, observing polder subsidence, and finally, towards the goal of improving the relative sea level rise hazards assessment at the local scale in coastal Bangladesh.

  7. Coastal and Marine Geology Program video and photograph portal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golden, Nadine E.; Ackerman, Seth D.

    2015-01-01

    Search all Coastal and Marine Geology Program imagery by selecting "Explore Data Layers." Or select Pacific, Atlantic, or Gulf Coast to enter the portal by region. Or start with the tutorial then dive in!

  8. New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ziauddin; Franz, Bryan A; McClain, Charles R; Kwiatkowska, Ewa J; Werdell, Jeremy; Shettle, Eric P; Holben, Brent N

    2010-10-10

    We describe the development of a new suite of aerosol models for the retrieval of atmospheric and oceanic optical properties from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors, including aerosol optical thickness (τ), angstrom coefficient (α), and water-leaving radiance (L(w)). The new aerosol models are derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations and have bimodal lognormal distributions that are narrower than previous models used by the Ocean Biology Processing Group. We analyzed AERONET data over open ocean and coastal regions and found that the seasonal variability in the modal radii, particularly in the coastal region, was related to the relative humidity. These findings were incorporated into the models by making the modal radii, as well as the refractive indices, explicitly dependent on relative humidity. From these findings, we constructed a new suite of aerosol models. We considered eight relative humidity values (30%, 50%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, and 95%) and, for each relative humidity value, we constructed ten distributions by varying the fine-mode fraction from zero to 1. In all, 80 distributions (8 Rh×10 fine-mode fractions) were created to process the satellite data. We also assumed that the coarse-mode particles were nonabsorbing (sea salt) and that all observed absorptions were entirely due to fine-mode particles. The composition of the fine mode was varied to ensure that the new models exhibited the same spectral dependence of single scattering albedo as observed in the AERONET data. The reprocessing of the SeaWiFS data show that, over deep ocean, the average τ(865) values retrieved from the new aerosol models was 0.100±0.004, which was closer to the average AERONET value of 0.086±0.066 for τ(870) for the eight open-ocean sites used in this study. The average τ(865) value from the old models was 0.131±0.005. The comparison of monthly mean aerosol optical thickness retrieved from the SeaWiFS sensor with AERONET data over Bermuda and

  9. Review of coastal-area aquifers in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyl, G.; Dennis, I.

    2010-02-01

    The coastal aquifer systems of Africa are comprised of various geological formations. These aquifer systems consist of either folded, continental or alluvial deposits. Groundwater resource availability along the coastal areas of Africa is briefly reported and the current state of seawater intrusion has been summarized. A select number of notable examples are given to highlight the effect of saline intrusion on coastal development of cities and regional aquifers. The role of conflict resolution is briefly discussed, as well as management approaches, which include monitoring of contamination and governmental accountability. Regional cooperation is presented as a method of ensuring a sustainable water resource in an area, as well as strengthening social and political alliances.

  10. Arctic Coastal Dynamics (ACD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachold, V.; Boike, J.

    2003-04-01

    Coastal dynamics directly reflecting the complicated land-ocean interactions play an important role in the balance of sediments, organic carbon and nutrients in the Arctic basin. Recent studies indicate that sediment input to the Arctic shelves resulting from erosion of ice-rich, permafrost-dominated coasts may be equal to or greater than input from river discharge. Thus, the understanding and quantification of coastal processes is critical for interpreting the geological history of the Arctic shelves. The predictions of future behavior of these coasts in response to climatic and sea level changes is an important issue because most of the human activity that occurs at high latitudes concentrates on the Arctic coastlines. As an initiative of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) the multi-disciplinary, multi-national forum Arctic Coastal Dynamics (ACD), which was recently accepted as a project of the International Arctic Sciences Committee (IASC), had been developed. The overall objective of ACD is to improve our understanding of circum-Arctic coastal dynamics as a function of environmental forcing, coastal geology and cryology and morphodynamic behavior. In particular, the project aims to: - establish the rates and magnitudes of erosion and accumulation of Arctic coasts; - develop a network of long-term monitoring sites including local community-based observational sites; - identify and undertake focused research on critical processes; - estimate the amount of sediments and organic carbon derived from coastal erosion; - refine and apply an Arctic coastal classification (includes ground-ice, permafrost, geology etc.) in digital form (GIS format); - extract and utilize existing information on relevant environmental forcing parameters (e.g. wind speed, sea level, fetch, sea ice etc.); - produce a series of thematic and derived maps (e.g. coastal classification, ground-ice, sensitivity etc.); - develop empirical models to assess the sensitivity of Arctic

  11. Broad-spectrum monitoring strategies for predicting occult precipitation contribution to water balance in a coastal watershed in California: Ground-truthing, areal monitoring and isotopic analysis of fog in the San Francisco Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohafkan, M.; Thompson, S. E.; Leonardson, R.; Dufour, A.

    2013-12-01

    We showcase a fog monitoring study designed to quantitatively estimate the contribution of summer fog events to the water balance of a coastal watershed managed by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission. Two decades of research now clearly show that fog and occult precipitation can be major contributors to the water balance of watersheds worldwide. Monitoring, understanding and predicting occult precipitation is therefore as hydrologically compelling as forecasting precipitation or evaporation, particularly in the face of climate variability. We combine ground-based monitoring and collection strategies with remote sensing technologies, time-lapse imagery, and isotope analysis to trace the ';signature' of fog in physical and ecological processes. Spatial coverage and duration of fog events in the watershed is monitored using time-lapse cameras and leaf wetness sensors strategically positioned to provide estimates of the fog bank extent and cloud base elevation, and this fine-scale data is used to estimate transpiration suppression by fog and is examined in the context of regional climate through the use of satellite imagery. Soil moisture sensors, throughfall collectors and advective fog collectors deployed throughout the watershed provide quantitative estimates of fog drip contribution to soil moisture and plants. Fog incidence records and streamflow monitoring provide daily estimates of fog contribution to streamflow. Isotope analysis of soil water, fog drip, stream water and vegetation samples are used to probe for evidence of direct root and leaf uptake of fog drip by plants. Using this diversity of fog monitoring methods, we develop an empirical framework for the inclusion of fog processes in water balance models.

  12. Biogeochemical controls on carbonate saturation and pH in coastal oceans influenced by large rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Hu, X.; Cai, W.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that river influenced coastal oceans may be more sensitive to further acidification caused by both atmospheric CO2 and acidification of the rivers themselves, the later mostly caused by anthropogenic activities. Here we present a study that focuses on examining biogeochemical controls on the carbonate system in the coastal waters that are dominated by large rivers in tropical and subtropical areas across the globe. Geochemical compositions of these rivers vary from high alkalinity/pH to low alkalinity/pH. Our findings indicate that low carbonate saturation states and low pH do not occur ubiquitously in these large river-dominated coastal oceans. Instead, both the characteristics of river water and biological influences, i.e., primary production using river exported nutrients, control the carbonate system parameters. Under current trend of nutrient export at projected river discharge, the present condition is not going to alter in a significant way as what the open ocean responds to atmospheric CO2 intrusion.

  13. Coastal geomorphology of arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter W.; Rawlinson, Stuart E.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1988-01-01

    The treeless, tundra-plain of northern Alaska merges with the Arctic Ocean along a coastal area characterized by low tundra bluffs, and sparse coastal and delta dunes. Coastal engineering projects that aggrade or degrade permafrost will alter the geomorphology and rates of coastal processes by changing coastal stability. Similarly, projects that modify the ice environment (artificial islands) or the coastal configuration (causeways) will cause nature to readjust to the new process regime, resulting in modification of the coast. In this paper the authors describe the coastal geomorphology from Barrow to the Canadian border. In addition, they provide a general outline and extensive references of the major coastal processes operating in this environment that will be useful on coastal environments elsewhere in the Arctic.

  14. Implementation and validation of a coastal forecasting system for wind waves in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inghilesi, R.; Catini, F.; Bellotti, G.; Franco, L.; Orasi, A.; Corsini, S.

    2012-02-01

    A coastal forecasting system was implemented to provide wind wave forecasts over the whole Mediterranean Sea area, and with the added capability to focus on selected coastal areas. The goal of the system was to achieve a representation of the small-scale coastal processes influencing the propagation of waves towards the coasts. The system was based on a chain of nested wave models and adopted the WAve Model (WAM) to analyse the large-scale, deep-sea propagation of waves; and the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) to simulate waves in key coastal areas. Regional intermediate-scale WAM grids were introduced to bridge the gap between the large-scale and each coastal area. Even applying two consecutive nestings (Mediterranean grid → regional grid → coastal grid), a very high resolution was still required for the large scale WAM implementation in order to get a final resolution of about 400 m on the shores. In this study three regional areas in the Tyrrhenian Sea were selected, with a single coastal area embedded in each of them. The number of regional and coastal grids in the system could easily be modified without significantly affecting the efficiency of the system. The coastal system was tested in three Italian coastal regions in order to optimize the numerical parameters and to check the results in orographically complex zones for which wave records were available. Fifteen storm events in the period 2004-2009 were considered.

  15. Global patterns of phytoplankton dynamics in coastal ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paerl, H.; Yin, Kedong; Cloern, J.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific Committee on Ocean Research Working Group 137 Meeting; Hangzhou, China, 17-21 October 2010; Phytoplankton biomass and community structure have undergone dramatic changes in coastal ecosystems over the past several decades in response to climate variability and human disturbance. These changes have short- and long-term impacts on global carbon and nutrient cycling, food web structure and productivity, and coastal ecosystem services. There is a need to identify the underlying processes and measure the rates at which they alter coastal ecosystems on a global scale. Hence, the Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR) formed Working Group 137 (WG 137), "Global Patterns of Phytoplankton Dynamics in Coastal Ecosystems: A Comparative Analysis of Time Series Observations" (http://wg137.net/). This group evolved from a 2007 AGU-sponsored Chapman Conference entitled "Long Time-Series Observations in Coastal Ecosystems: Comparative Analyses of Phytoplankton Dynamics on Regional to Global Scales.".

  16. Hurricane Ike: Observations and Analysis of Coastal Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara S.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Serafin, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with the storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical processes of interest are the wind field, storm surge, and wave climate. Not only does wind cause direct damage to structures along the coast, but it is ultimately responsible for much of the energy that is transferred to the ocean and expressed as storm surge, mean currents, and large waves. Waves and currents are the processes most responsible for moving sediments in the coastal zone during extreme storm events. Storm surge, the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to attack parts of the coast not normally exposed to those processes. Coastal geomorphology, including shapes of the shoreline, beaches, and dunes, is equally important to the coastal change observed during extreme storm events. Relevant geomorphic variables include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes), strives to provide hazard information to those interested in the Nation's coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. As part of the National Assessment, observations were collected to measure coastal changes associated with Hurricane Ike, which made landfall near Galveston, Texas, on September 13, 2008. Methods of observation included aerial photography and airborne topographic surveys. This report documents these data-collection efforts and presents qualitative and quantitative descriptions of hurricane-induced changes to the shoreline

  17. California coastal processes study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary findings are presented and applications derived from ERTS-1 satellite imagery of the nearshore coastal processes of the California coast. The objectives were to analyze nearshore currents, sediment transport, and estuarine and river discharges along the California coast through the use of synoptic and repetitive imagery from ERTS as well as aircraft underflights and surface data. The major conclusions are: (1) Distinct seasonal patterns for sediment transport as a function of the oceanic current systems and coastal morphology have been identified. (2) Large scale sediment plumes from intermittent streams and rivers extend offshore to previously unanticipated ranges. (3) Computer generated contouring of radiance levels from computer-compatible tapes result in charts that can be used for determination of surface and nearsurface suspended sediment distribution. (4) Flying spot scanner enhancements result in details of nearshore features. (5) Data is providing significant information for coastal planning and construction projects.

  18. Inland and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouw, Colleen; Greb, Steven

    2012-09-01

    Workshop for Remote Sensing of Coastal and Inland Waters;Madison, Wisconsin, 20-22 June 2012 Coastal and inland water bodies, which have great value for recreation, food supply, commerce, transportation, and human health, have been experiencing external pressure from direct human activities and climate change. Given their societal and economic value, understanding issues of water quality, water quantity, and the impact of environmental change on the ecological and biogeochemical functioning of these water bodies is of interest to a broad range of communities. Remote sensing offers one of the most spatially and temporally comprehensive tools for observing these waters. While there has been some success with remotely observing these water bodies, many challenges still remain, including algorithm performance, atmospheric correction, the relationships between optical properties and biogeochemical parameters, sufficient spatial and spectral resolution, and a lack of uncertainty estimates over the wide range of environmental conditions encountered across these coastal and inland water bodies.

  19. Arctic Coastal Erosion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravens, T. M.; Jones, B.; Zhang, J.; Tweedie, C. E.; Erikson, L. H.; Gibbs, A.; Richmond, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    A process-based coastal erosion/shoreline change model has been developed for Arctic coastal bluffs subject to niche erosion/block collapse. The model explicitly accounts for many environmental/geographic variables including: water temperature, water level, wave height, and bluff height. The model was originally developed for a small coastal segment near Drew Point, Beaufort Sea, Alaska. This coastal setting has experienced a dramatic increase in erosion since the early 2000's. The bluffs at this site are 3-4 m tall and consist of ice-wedge bounded blocks of fine-grained sediments cemented by ice-rich permafrost and capped with a thin organic layer. The bluffs are typically fronted by a narrow (~ 5 m wide) beach or none at all. During a storm surge, the sea contacts the base of the bluff and a niche is formed through thermal and mechanical erosion. The niche grows both vertically and laterally and eventually undermines the bluff, leading to block failure or collapse. The fallen block is then eroded both thermally and mechanically by waves and currents, which must occur before a new niche forming episode may begin. The model has been calibrated based on shoreline change data at Drew Point for two time periods: 1979-2002 and 2002-2007. Measured and modeled shoreline change rates were about 8 m/yr and 16 m/yr, for the earlier and later periods, respectively. In this paper, this work is extended to include modeling and measurement of coastal erosion at Drew Point on an annual basis for the period 2007-2010. In addition, the model is applied at three other Arctic coastal locations - Elson Lagoon, Cape Halkett, and Barter Island - where niche erosion/block collapse prevails.

  20. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal waters in the US include estuaries, coastalwetlands, coral reefs, mangrove and kep forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical coastal habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. the nat...

  1. COASTAL BEND BAYS PLAN TO CONSERVE AND MANAGE THE COASTAL BEND BAYS OF SOUTH TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enormous physical and geological forces that sculpt their shores define coastal regions. Wind and waves, the flow of freshwater from the land, evaporation, and the ebb and flow of tides place these areas at the center of a huge energy transfer. The result is tremendous biolog...

  2. Coastal laws strike a balance

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, M.S.

    1993-04-01

    Although the coastal zone comprises less than 10% of the nation`s land mass, more than 75% of the population lives within 50 miles of coastal areas. Commercial enterprises, including manufacturing facilities, industrial plants, resort hotels and marinas, are built in coastal areas along with the usual beachfront homes condominiums. These enterprises can adversely impact coastal environment through pollution-generation activities. Government regulators have sought to curtail activities that give rise to pollution.

  3. Protecting tourists from death and injury in coastal storms.

    PubMed

    Burby, R J; Wagner, F

    1996-03-01

    Hurricanes, typhoons, tsunamis and other storms force thousands to flee coastal regions every year. In many cases, resort areas have been severely da