Science.gov

Sample records for rivets

  1. Rivet Graphene.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinlu; Sha, Junwei; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Li, Yilun; Ji, Yongsung; Zhao, Yujie; Tour, James M

    2016-08-23

    Large-area graphene has emerged as a promising material for use in flexible and transparent electronics due to its flexibility and optical and electronic properties. The anchoring of transition metal nanoparticles on large-area single-layer graphene is still a challenge. Here, we report an in situ preparation of carbon nano-onion-encapsulated Fe nanoparticles on rebar graphene, which we term rivet graphene. The hybrid film, which allows for polymer-free transfer and is strong enough to float on water with no added supports, exhibits high optical transparency, excellent electric conductivity, and good hole/electron mobility under certain tensile/compressive strains. The results of contact resistance and transfer length indicate that the current in the rivet graphene transistor does not just flow at the contact edge. Carbon nano-onions encapsulating Fe nanoparticles on the surface enhance the injection of charge between rivet graphene and the metal electrode. The anchoring of Fe nanoparticles encapsulated by carbon nano-onions on rebar graphene will provide additional avenues for applications of nanocarbon-based films in transparent and flexible electronics. PMID:27351673

  2. Riveting in metal airplane construction. Part II : riveting methods and equipment (concluded)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pleines, Wilhelm

    1930-01-01

    This report includes descriptive material on rivet inspection, types of rivets and sizes. Tabular data on shearing strength of rivets at failure, ultimate shear of various rivets, tensile tests of rivet plate, and tensile strength values of riveted joints.

  3. Rivet user manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Andy; Butterworth, Jonathan; Grellscheid, David; Hoeth, Hendrik; Lönnblad, Leif; Monk, James; Schulz, Holger; Siegert, Frank

    2013-12-01

    This is the manual and user guide for the Rivet system for the validation and tuning of Monte Carlo event generators. As well as the core Rivet library, this manual describes the usage of the rivet program and the AGILe generator interface library. The depth and level of description is chosen for users of the system, starting with the basics of using validation code written by others, and then covering sufficient details to write new Rivet analyses and calculational components. Catalogue identifier: AEPS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEPS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571126 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4717522 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Python. Computer: PC running Linux, Mac. Operating system: Linux, Mac OS. RAM: 20 MB Classification: 11.9, 11.2. External routines: HepMC (https://savannah.cern.ch/projects/hepmc/), GSL (http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/manual/gsl-ref.html), FastJet (http://fastjet.fr/), Python (http://www.python.org/), Swig (http://www.swig.org/), Boost (http://www.boostsoftware.com/), YAML (http://www.yaml.org/spec/1.2/spec.html) Nature of problem: Experimental measurements from high-energy particle colliders should be defined and stored in a general framework such that it is simple to compare theory predictions to them. Rivet is such a framework, and contains at the same time a large collection of existing measurements. Solution method: Rivet is based on HepMC events, a standardised output format provided by many theory simulation tools. Events are processed by Rivet to generate histograms for the requested list of analyses, incorporating all experimental phase space cuts and histogram definitions. Restrictions: Cannot calculate

  4. Riveting in metal airplane construction. Part IV : strength of riveted joints in duralumin (concluded)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pleines, Wilhelm

    1930-01-01

    Tests were made to determine the crushing strength of a riveted joint, in order to define the difference in crushing stregth between a strictly bolted joint and a riveted joint. The object was to tabulate the crushing strength by failure on various plate thicknesses for a one-rivet double-shear riveted joint.

  5. Performance Optimization of Self-Piercing Rivets through Analytical Rivet Strength Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents the authors' work on strength optimization and failure mode prediction of self-piercing rivets (SPR) for automotive applications. The limit load-based strength estimator is used to estimate the static strength of an SPR under cross tension loading configuration. Failure modes associated with the estimated failure strength are also predicted. Experimental strength and failure mode observations are used to validate the model. It is shown that the strength of an SPR joint depends on the material and gage combinations, rivet design, die design and riveting direction. The rivet strength estimator is then used to optimize the rivet strength by comparing the measured rivet strength and failure mode with the predicted ones. Two illustrative examples are used in which rivet strength is optimized by changing rivet design and riveting direction from the original manufacturing parameters.

  6. Caring for Rosie the Riveter's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Bill

    2011-01-01

    During the Second World War, women in the United States who worked in the war industries in such jobs as welders, riveters, heavy machinery operators, and parachute riggers were heralded in the media as "Rosie the Riveter." From 1943 to 1945 a fortunate few of these workplace pioneers participated in a memorable experiment in child care at Kaiser…

  7. Oxidation-Strengthened High-Temperature Rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclemore, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Shear strength of titanium-niobium rivets improves with oxidation. Ti-Nb rivets developed for fastening parts of Space Shuttle thrustors may be suitable also for other high-temperature applications in oxidizing environments--for example, in burner cans of commercial jet engines and boilers and retorts for coal gasification systems.

  8. 49 CFR 230.28 - Higher shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.28 Higher shearing strength of rivets. A higher shearing strength may be used for rivets when it can be shown through testing that the rivet material used is of such... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Higher shearing strength of rivets. 230.28...

  9. 49 CFR 230.28 - Higher shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.28 Higher shearing strength of rivets. A higher shearing strength may be used for rivets when it can be shown through testing that the rivet material used is of such... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Higher shearing strength of rivets. 230.28...

  10. 49 CFR 230.28 - Higher shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.28 Higher shearing strength of rivets. A higher shearing strength may be used for rivets when it can be shown through testing that the rivet material used is of such... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Higher shearing strength of rivets. 230.28...

  11. 49 CFR 230.28 - Higher shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.28 Higher shearing strength of rivets. A higher shearing strength may be used for rivets when it can be shown through testing that the rivet material used is of such... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Higher shearing strength of rivets. 230.28...

  12. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  13. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  14. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  15. Mechanical Properties of Flush-Riveted Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueggeman, W C; Roop, Frederick C

    1940-01-01

    The strength of representative types of flush-riveted joints has been determined by testing 865 single-shearing, double-shearing, and tensile specimens representing 7 types of rivet and 18 types of joint. The results, presented in graphic form, show the stress at failure, type of failure, and d/t ratio. In general, dimpled joints were appreciably stronger than countersunk or protruding-head joints, but their strength was greatly influenced by constructional details. The optimum d/t ratios have been determined for the several kinds of joints. Photomicrographs of each type show constructional details and, in several instances, cracks in the sheet.

  16. Mechanical Properties of Flush-Riveted Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruggeman, Wm. C.; Roop, Frederick C.

    1940-01-01

    The strength of representative types of flush-riveted joints has been determined by testing 865 single-shearing, double-shearing, and tensile specimens representing 7 types of rivet and 18 types of joint. The results, presented in graphic form, show the stress at failure, type of failure, and d/t ratio. In general, 'dimpled' joints were appreciably stronger than countersunk or protruding-head joints, but their strength was greatly influenced by constructional details. The optimum d/t ratios have been determined for the several kinds of joints. Photomacrographs of each type show constructional details and, in several instances, cracks in the sheet.

  17. The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. I. Rivets and Spot Welds. 1; Rivets and Spot Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Manley J.

    1938-01-01

    Tests have been conducted in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel to determine the effect of exposed rivet heads and spot welds on wing drag. Most of the tests were made with an airfoil of 5-foot chord. The air speed was varied from 80 to 500 miles per hour and the lift coefficient from 0 to 0.30. The increases in the drag of the 5-foot airfoil varied from 6%, due to countersunk rivets, to 27%, due to 3/32-inch brazier-head rivets, with the rivets in a representative arrangement. The drag increases caused by protruding rivet heads were roughly proportional to the height of the heads. With the front row of rivets well forward, changes in spanwise pitch had negligible effects on drag unless the pitch was more than 2.5% of the chord. Data are presented for evaluating the drag reduction attained by removing rivets from the forward part of the wing surface; for example, it is shown that over 70% of the rivet drag is caused by the rivets on the forward 30% of the airfoil in a typical case.

  18. A multi-inspection non-destructive testing method for quality evaluation of composite riveted structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weihan; He, Jingjing; Yang, Jingsong; Liu, Shengwang; Zhang, Weifang

    2015-03-01

    Carbon fiber composites have excellent mechanical properties, which are widely used in aerospace industry. However, 60% to 80% damages in composite occur in riveted structures. This research focuses on the quality evaluation of three major riveted structures used in mechanical connection: pressure riveted connection, hammer riveted connection and pull riveted connection. The non-destructive testing results show that the pull riveting technology introduces minimal damage to the composite, but the hammer riveted structure can be seriously damaged by the riveting technology. The pull riveted structure is an interference fit, which makes the composite plate firmly fixed. However, the fix is weak in the pressure riveted structure and the hammer riveted structure, due to the small gap between the rivets and plate. The results show that the pull riveted structure has a higher tensile strength compared with the pressure riveted structure and hammer riveted structure. The hammer riveted structure has a large dispersion in mechanical properties caused by the impact loading used in the hammer riveting technology.

  19. 46 CFR 109.573 - Riveting, welding, and burning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Riveting, welding, and burning operations. 109.573... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.573 Riveting, welding, and burning operations. Except as..., welding, or burning— (1) In a fuel tank; (2) On the boundary of a fuel tank; (3) On pipelines,...

  20. 46 CFR 109.573 - Riveting, welding, and burning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Riveting, welding, and burning operations. 109.573... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.573 Riveting, welding, and burning operations. Except as..., welding, or burning— (1) In a fuel tank; (2) On the boundary of a fuel tank; (3) On pipelines,...

  1. 46 CFR 109.573 - Riveting, welding, and burning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Riveting, welding, and burning operations. 109.573... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.573 Riveting, welding, and burning operations. Except as..., welding, or burning— (1) In a fuel tank; (2) On the boundary of a fuel tank; (3) On pipelines,...

  2. 46 CFR 109.573 - Riveting, welding, and burning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Riveting, welding, and burning operations. 109.573... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.573 Riveting, welding, and burning operations. Except as..., welding, or burning— (1) In a fuel tank; (2) On the boundary of a fuel tank; (3) On pipelines,...

  3. 46 CFR 109.573 - Riveting, welding, and burning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Riveting, welding, and burning operations. 109.573... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.573 Riveting, welding, and burning operations. Except as..., welding, or burning— (1) In a fuel tank; (2) On the boundary of a fuel tank; (3) On pipelines,...

  4. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....

  5. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....

  6. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....

  7. 49 CFR 230.28 - Higher shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Higher shearing strength of rivets. 230.28 Section... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.28 Higher shearing strength of rivets. A higher shearing strength may... quality as to justify a higher allowable shearing strength. Inspection and Repair...

  8. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing...

  9. Revolving Eddy-Current Probe Detects Cracks Near Rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, Min; Wincheski, Buzz; Fulton, James P.; Nath, Shridhar; Simpson, John

    1995-01-01

    Scanning eddy-current probe in circular pattern increases sensitivity with which probe indicates fatigue cracks and other defects in metal surfaces in vicinity of rivets. Technique devised to facilitate inspection of riveted joints in aircraft. Eddy-current probe in question described in "Electro-magnetic Flaw Detector Is Easier To Use" (LAR-15046).

  10. 22. SHIPYARD NO. 2, ROSIE THE RIVETER MEMORIAL (SEE ALSO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SHIPYARD NO. 2, ROSIE THE RIVETER MEMORIAL (SEE ALSO HAER No. CA-326-D), FORD ASSEMBLY PLANT (SEE ALSO HAER No. CA-326-H), AND RICHMOND SHIPYARD NO. 3, SW. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, 1401 Marina Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  11. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....

  12. Tensile Tests of NACA and Conventional Machine-countersunk Flush Rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartone, Leonard M.; Mandel, Merven W.

    1944-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine and compare the tensile strength of NACA and conventional machine-countersunk flush rivets of several rivet-head angles and varying countersunk depth. The results of the investigation are presented in the form of curves that show the variation of the tensile strength of the rivet with the ratio of the sheet thickness to the rivet diameter. For the same rivet-head angle and for a given angle of c/d, the NACA rivets developed higher tensile strength than the conventional rivets.

  13. Residual Strength Analyses of Riveted Lap-Splice Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshadri, B. R.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to analyze the crack-linkup behavior in riveted-stiffened lap-splice joint panels with small multiple-site damage (MSD) cracks at several adjacent rivet holes. Analyses are based on the STAGS (STructural Analysis of General Shells) code with the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. To account for high constraint around a crack front, the "plane strain core" option in STAGS was used. The importance of modeling rivet flexibility with fastener elements that accurately model load transfer across the joint is discussed. Fastener holes are not modeled but rivet connectivity is accounted for by attaching rivets to the sheet on one side of the cracks that simulated both the rivet diameter and MSD cracks. Residual strength analyses made on 2024-T3 alloy (1.6-mm thick) riveted-lap-splice joints with a lead crack and various size MSD cracks were compared with test data from Boeing Airplane Company. Analyses were conducted for both restrained and unrestrained buckling conditions. Comparison of results from these analyses and results from lap-splice-joint test panels, which were partially restrained against buckling indicate that the test results were bounded by the failure loads predicted by the analyses with restrained and unrestrained conditions.

  14. 8. SOUTH VIEW, RIVETED CONNECTION POINT OF TOP CHORD, DIAGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH VIEW, RIVETED CONNECTION POINT OF TOP CHORD, DIAGONAL TENSION MEMBER, INCLINED END POST AND VERTICAL MEMBER - Jordan Narrows Bridge, Crossing Jordan River at 9600 North, Lehi, Utah County, UT

  15. 12. Detail view (looking east) of riveted cconnection of top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail view (looking east) of riveted cconnection of top chord and vertical members at the second panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  16. 12. VIEW OF FLOOR BEAMS, GUSSET PLATES, RIVET CONNECTIONS, LACED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF FLOOR BEAMS, GUSSET PLATES, RIVET CONNECTIONS, LACED VERTICALS AND LATTICE RAILING, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Attica Bridge, Spanning Deer Creek on County Road 500 East, Young America, Cass County, IN

  17. Detail view of riveted gusset plate connections and latticed upper ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of riveted gusset plate connections and latticed upper chords of the double intersection warren through truss span - Crooked River Bridge, Spanning Crooked River on Elliot Lane (County Road 124) at Milepoint 1.38, Prineville, Crook County, OR

  18. 42. Detail, subdeck viaduct showing riveted brackets supporting pedestrian walkway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Detail, sub-deck viaduct showing riveted brackets supporting pedestrian walkway and heavily reinforced concrete of traffic roadway: note granite blocks atop pier. - Broadway Bridge, Spanning Foundry Street, MBTA Yard, Fort Point Channel, & Lehigh Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. 23. NORTHEAST TO CIRCA 1875 POWER SHEAR, PUNCH, AND RIVETING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. NORTHEAST TO CIRCA 1875 POWER SHEAR, PUNCH, AND RIVETING MACHINE SET UP TO DEMONSTRATE USE IN RIVETING COMPONENTS OF WHEEL ARMS FOR ELI WINDMILLS. HISTORIC DEBRIS FROM PUNCHING WORK IS VISIBLE BENEATH THE MACHINE IN THE OPERATOR'S PIT.' ON THE LEFT IS A U-SHAPED LOVEJOY FIELD PUNCH FOR USE IN INSTALLING STEEL WINDMILL/TOWER COMPONENTS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  20. Strength Estimation of Self-Piercing Rivets using Lower Bound Limit Load Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2005-08-01

    This paper summarizes the authors' work on strength and failure mode estimation of self-piercing rivets (SPR) for automotive applications. First, the static cross tension strength of an SPR joint is estimated using a lower bound limit load based strength estimator. Failure mode associated with the predicted failure strength can also be identified. It is shown that the cross tension strength of an SPR joint depends on the material and gage combinations, rivet design, die design and riveting direction. The analytical rivet strength estimator is then validated by experimental rivet strength measurements and failure mode observations from nine SPR joint populations with various material and gage combinations. Next, the estimator is used to optimize rivet strength. Two illustrative examples are presented in which rivet strength is improved by changing rivet length and riveting direction from the original manufacturing parameters.

  1. Tensile Tests of Round-head, Flat-head, and Brazier-head Rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuette, Evan H; Bartone, Leonard M; Mandel, Merven W

    1944-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the tensile strength of round-head (AN43C), flat-head(AN442), and brazier-head (AN4556) aluminum-alloy rivets because of the scarcity of information on the tensile strength of rivets. The results of the investigation are presented as curves that show the variation of the ratio of the tensile strength of the rivet to the tensile strength of the rivet crank with the ratio of the sheet thickness to the rivet diameter for the different types of rivet.

  2. Laboratory and workplace assessments of rivet bucking bar vibration emissions.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Thomas W; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S; Welcome, Daniel E; Dong, Ren G

    2015-04-01

    Sheet metal workers operating rivet bucking bars are at risk of developing hand and wrist musculoskeletal disorders associated with exposures to hand-transmitted vibrations and forceful exertions required to operate these hand tools. New bucking bar technologies have been introduced in efforts to reduce workplace vibration exposures to these workers. However, the efficacy of these new bucking bar designs has not been well documented. While there are standardized laboratory-based methodologies for assessing the vibration emissions of many types of powered hand tools, no such standard exists for rivet bucking bars. Therefore, this study included the development of a laboratory-based method for assessing bucking bar vibrations which utilizes a simulated riveting task. With this method, this study evaluated three traditional steel bucking bars, three similarly shaped tungsten alloy bars, and three bars featuring spring-dampeners. For comparison the bucking bar vibrations were also assessed during three typical riveting tasks at a large aircraft maintenance facility. The bucking bars were rank-ordered in terms of unweighted and frequency-weighted acceleration measured at the hand-tool interface. The results suggest that the developed laboratory method is a reasonable technique for ranking bucking bar vibration emissions; the lab-based riveting simulations produced similar rankings to the workplace rankings. However, the laboratory-based acceleration averages were considerably lower than the workplace measurements. These observations suggest that the laboratory test results are acceptable for comparing and screening bucking bars, but the laboratory measurements should not be directly used for assessing the risk of workplace bucking bar vibration exposures. The newer bucking bar technologies exhibited significantly reduced vibrations compared to the traditional steel bars. The results of this study, together with other information such as rivet quality, productivity, tool

  3. Laboratory and Workplace Assessments of Rivet Bucking Bar Vibration Emissions

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Thomas W.; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.

    2016-01-01

    Sheet metal workers operating rivet bucking bars are at risk of developing hand and wrist musculoskeletal disorders associated with exposures to hand-transmitted vibrations and forceful exertions required to operate these hand tools. New bucking bar technologies have been introduced in efforts to reduce workplace vibration exposures to these workers. However, the efficacy of these new bucking bar designs has not been well documented. While there are standardized laboratory-based methodologies for assessing the vibration emissions of many types of powered hand tools, no such standard exists for rivet bucking bars. Therefore, this study included the development of a laboratory-based method for assessing bucking bar vibrations which utilizes a simulated riveting task. With this method, this study evaluated three traditional steel bucking bars, three similarly shaped tungsten alloy bars, and three bars featuring spring-dampeners. For comparison the bucking bar vibrations were also assessed during three typical riveting tasks at a large aircraft maintenance facility. The bucking bars were rank-ordered in terms of unweighted and frequency-weighted acceleration measured at the hand-tool interface. The results suggest that the developed laboratory method is a reasonable technique for ranking bucking bar vibration emissions; the lab-based riveting simulations produced similar rankings to the workplace rankings. However, the laboratory-based acceleration averages were considerably lower than the workplace measurements. These observations suggest that the laboratory test results are acceptable for comparing and screening bucking bars, but the laboratory measurements should not be directly used for assessing the risk of workplace bucking bar vibration exposures. The newer bucking bar technologies exhibited significantly reduced vibrations compared to the traditional steel bars. The results of this study, together with other information such as rivet quality, productivity, tool

  4. The fatigue strength of riveted joints and lugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schijve, J

    1956-01-01

    This report deals with a number of tests on riveted joints and lugs for the primary purpose of comparing the several types of riveted joints and to study the effect of various factors on the fatigue strength of lugs. A check was made to ascertain whether or not an estimate of the fatigue life at a certain loading could be made from the dimensions of the joint and the fatigue data of the unnotched materials. Recommendations are made on the proportioning of joints to obtain better fatigue behavior.

  5. Self-Pierce Riveting of Three Aluminium Alloy and Mild Steel Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, K.; Abe, Y.; Sakai, S.; Kato, T.

    2010-06-15

    Three aluminium alloy and steel sheets were joined with a self-piercing rivet. Self-pierce riveting has the function of joining steel and aluminium alloys having very different melting points due to plastic joining. The requisites for joining the three sheets are the driving of the rivet leg through the middle sheet, the flaring of the rivet leg in the lower sheet and the prevention of the fracture of the lower sheet. The joinability for various combinations of the three sheets was determined. When the rivet leg is small, no driving through the middle sheet occurs, the lower sheet ruptures for a large rivet leg. In addition, 980 MPa high strength steel, mild steel and aluminium alloy sheets were joined by the self-pierce riveting.

  6. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rivets and staybolts. 59.10-15 Section 59.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING REPAIRS TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15...

  7. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rivets and staybolts. 59.10-15 Section 59.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING REPAIRS TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15...

  8. Retention of riveted aluminum leg bands by wild turkeys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Vreeland, Wendy C.; Casalena, Mary Jo; Schiavone, Michael V.

    2016-01-01

    In order for mark–recapture models to provide unbiased estimates of population parameters, it is critical that uniquely identifying tags or marks are not lost. We double-banded male and female wild turkeys with aluminum rivet bands and estimated the probability that a bird would be recovered with both bands <1–225 wk since banding (mean = 51.2 wk, SD = 44.0). We found that 100% of females (n = 37) were recovered with both bands. For males, we recovered 6 of 188 turkeys missing a rivet band for a retention probability of 0.984 (95% CI = 0.96–0.99). If male turkeys are double-banded with rivet bands the probability of recovering a turkey without any marks is <0.001. We failed to detect a change in band retention over time or differences between adults and juveniles. Given the low cost and high retention rates of rivet aluminum bands, we believe they are an effective marking technique for wild turkeys and, for most studies, will minimize any concern about the assumption that marks are not lost.

  9. 5. STANDPIPE STRUCTURE DETAIL SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO PENSTOCKS, RIVETED SECTIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. STANDPIPE STRUCTURE DETAIL SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO PENSTOCKS, RIVETED SECTIONAL CONSTRUCTION OF TWO OF THE THREE ORIGINAL STANDPIPES (PHOTO RIGHT), WELDED SECTIONAL CONSTRUCTION OF FOURTH STANDPIPE, AND MODERN VENTILATION VALVES ON FIFTH PENSTOCK AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER BETWEEN FOURTH STANDPIPE AND ORIGINAL TWO. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  10. View of riveted joint on tower support superstructure of Tensaw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of riveted joint on tower support superstructure of Tensaw River Bridge truss No. 2, looking southwest, showing deflector sheaves, roller and complex joint construction - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  11. View of riveted joint on tower support superstructure of Tensaw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of riveted joint on tower support superstructure of Tensaw River Bridge truss No. 2, looking northeast, showing deflector sheaves, roller and complex joint construction - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  12. Detail of south granite pier revealing riveted truss ends and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of south granite pier revealing riveted truss ends and iron footing plates on top of granite cap stones. View north - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. CLOSEUP OF TYPICAL BUILTUP, RIVETED AND PIN CONNECTED DECK TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP OF TYPICAL BUILT-UP, RIVETED AND PIN CONNECTED DECK TRUSS LOOKING UP AND NORTHEAST. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  14. UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE ON RIVETED METAL PIERS, SHOWING HOWE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE ON RIVETED METAL PIERS, SHOWING HOWE PIPE TRUSS RAILING AND TRUSSED DECK BEAMS TYPICAL TO BRIDGES BUILT BY FLINN-MOYER COMPANY. TRIPODAL PIPE TOWERS RESEMBLE CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE’S TOWERS PRIOR TO ENCASEMENT IN CONCRETE. NOTE COLLAPSED TRUSS IN RIVER. ELEVATION VIEW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

  15. The Alcoa ram fastener: A reusable blind rivet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewalt, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Results of tensile, shear, fatigue and accelerated weathering tests are presented for the ram fastener, a reusable, single unit blind rivet. The effects of variations in hole size, grip length and sheet thickness on strength properties of the fastener were determined. The test results show these fasteners to have strength characteristics suitable for light structural applications. Exposure to accelerated weathering did not impair their performance.

  16. Effect of aging on mechanical properties of aluminum-alloy rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roop, Frederick C

    1941-01-01

    Curves and tabular data present the results of strength tests made during and after 2 1/2 years of aging on rivets and rivet wire of 3/16-inch nominal diameter. The specimens were of aluminum alloy: 24s, 17s, and a17s of the duralumin type and 53s of the magnesium-silicide type.

  17. Exposure conditions and Raynaud's phenomenon among riveters in the aircraft industry.

    PubMed

    Engström, K; Dandanell, R

    1986-08-01

    Riveters in the aircraft industry work daily with such vibrating tools as riveting hammers, bucking bars, drills, and rivet shavers. The main contribution of the vibration exposure comes from the riveting tools. Three hundred and forty riveters working at the Aircraft Division of Saab-Scania were investigated in respect to vibration exposure and symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon. The employment time of this group varied from 1 to 44 years. Within the group, 86 riveters showed symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon. The latency until first sign of injury ranged from 0 to 27 years with a median of almost 11 years. Although the exposure time for the riveting hammer was 1 min and the total tool time was 40 min per day, more than 50% of the riveters had symptoms of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) after more than 10 years of work. The guidelines of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/DIS 5349) suggest a lesser risk, and they should therefore be complemented with additional criteria to be valid for percussion tools. PMID:3775314

  18. Effect of aging on mechanical properties of aluminum-alloy rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roop, Frederick C

    1941-01-01

    Curves and tabular data present the results of strength tests made during and after 2 1/2 years of aging on rivets and rivet wire of 3/16-inch nominal diameter. The specimens were of aluminum alloy: 24S, 17S, and A17S of the duralumin type and 53S of the magnesium-silicide type.

  19. Laboratory and field measurements and evaluations of vibration at the handles of riveting hammers

    PubMed Central

    McDOWELL, THOMAS W.; WARREN, CHRISTOPHER; WELCOME, DANIEL E.; DONG, REN G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of riveting hammers can expose workers to harmful levels of hand-transmitted vibration (HTV). As a part of efforts to reduce HTV exposures through tool selection, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a standardized laboratory-based riveting hammer assessment protocol for screening riveting hammers. The second objective was to characterize the vibration emissions of reduced vibration riveting hammers and to make approximations of the HTV exposures of workers operating these tools in actual work tasks. Eight pneumatic riveting hammers were selected for the study. They were first assessed in a laboratory using the standardized method for measuring vibration emissions at the tool handle. The tools were then further assessed under actual working conditions during three aircraft sheet metal riveting tasks. Although the average vibration magnitudes of the riveting hammers measured in the laboratory test were considerably different from those measured in the field study, the rank orders of the tools determined via these tests were fairly consistent, especially for the lower vibration tools. This study identified four tools that consistently exhibited lower frequency-weighted and unweighted accelerations in both the laboratory and workplace evaluations. These observations suggest that the standardized riveting hammer test is acceptable for identifying tools that could be expected to exhibit lower vibrations in workplace environments. However, the large differences between the accelerations measured in the laboratory and field suggest that the standardized laboratory-based tool assessment is not suitable for estimating workplace riveting hammer HTV exposures. Based on the frequency-weighted accelerations measured at the tool handles during the three work tasks, the sheet metal mechanics assigned to these tasks at the studied workplace are unlikely to exceed the daily vibration exposure action value (2.5 m s−2) using any of the

  20. Effects of process parameters on friction self-piercing riveting of dissimilar materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Xun; Lim, Yong Chae; Li, Yongbing; Tang, Wei; Ma, Yunwu; Feng, Zhili; Ni, Jun

    2016-05-24

    In the present work, a recently developed solid state joining technique, Friction self-piercing riveting (F-SPR), has been applied for joining high strength aluminum alloy AA7075-T6 to magnesium alloy AZ31B. The process was performed on a specially designed machine where the spindle can achieve the motion of sudden stop. Effects of rivet rotating rate and punch speed on axial plunge force, torque, joint microstructure and quality have been analyzed systematically. During F-SPR, higher rotating rate and slower punch speed can reduce axial force and torque, which correspondingly results in a slightly smaller interlock between rivet leg and joined materials. Improved localmore » flowability of both aluminum and magnesium alloys under a higher rotating speed results in a thicker aluminum layer surrounding the rivet leg, where formation of Al-Mg intermetallics was observed. Equivalent joint strength obtained in this study are higher than the yield strength of the AZ31 Mg alloy. One of the tensile failure modes is the rivet fracture, which is due to local softening of rivet leg from frictional heat. Lastly, other two failure modes include rivet pullout and shear through of bottom sheet.« less

  1. A robust multi-frequency mixing algorithm for suppression of rivet signal in GMR inspection of riveted structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdernejad, Morteza S.; Karpenko, Oleksii; Ye, Chaofeng; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish

    2016-02-01

    The advent of Giant Magneto-Resistive (GMR) technology permits development of novel highly sensitive array probes for Eddy Current (EC) inspection of multi-layer riveted structures. Multi-frequency GMR measurements with different EC pene-tration depths show promise for detection of bottom layer notches at fastener sites. However, the distortion of the induced magnetic field due to flaws is dominated by the strong fastener signal, which makes defect detection and classification a challenging prob-lem. This issue is more pronounced for ferromagnetic fasteners that concentrate most of the magnetic flux. In the present work, a novel multi-frequency mixing algorithm is proposed to suppress rivet signal response and enhance defect detection capability of the GMR array probe. The algorithm is baseline-free and does not require any assumptions about the sample geometry being inspected. Fastener signal suppression is based upon the random sample consensus (RANSAC) method, which iteratively estimates parameters of a mathematical model from a set of observed data with outliers. Bottom layer defects at fastener site are simulated as EDM notches of different length. Performance of the proposed multi-frequency mixing approach is evaluated on finite element data and experimental GMR measurements obtained with unidirectional planar current excitation. Initial results are promising demonstrating the feasibility of the approach.

  2. Self-Pierce Riveting Through 3 Sheet Metal Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Roger; Jonason, Paul; Pettersson, Tommy

    2011-05-01

    One way to reduce the CO2 emissions in automotives is to reduce the weight of the Body-In-White. One easy to achieve the weight reduction is to replace steel sheet materials with Al alloys, which is 3 times lighter. One issue is the joining process, especially with combinations between steel grades and AL alloys. Example of combination of mixed material combinations (Al-steel) might be found in the door structure. The reason is because of the AL alloys worthier crash performance so the automotive manufacturer might want to use crash impact beams made by high strength steels in a AL intensive door structure. The joining process between aluminum and steel are problematic due it's not possible to use traditional spot-welding technologies due to the materials total difference in microstructure characteristics as well thermal properties. To overcome this issue then mechanical as well adhesion joining are frequently used. This paper describes a development process and subsequently analysis of a self-pierce rivet (SPR) process between 3 sheet metal combinations. The multi-material combinations in this study were a combination of ultra high strength steels sheets (DP1000) and a Al-alloy (AA 6014). The analysis of the SPR process, in sense of mechanical strengths, has been done by peel- and shear tests. To reduce the amount of future physical tests a virtual FE-model has been developed for the process. This FE model of the process has been subsequently used to analyze the mechanical strength during plastic deformation. By using inverse analysis a correct contact algorithm has been evaluated that would predict the binding force between the rivet and sheet under a deformation process. With this new virtual model it will not only possible to analyze and develop the SPR process but also to achieve the final strength of the joint.

  3. Self-Pierce Riveting Through 3 Sheet Metal Combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Roger; Jonason, Paul; Pettersson, Tommy

    2011-05-04

    One way to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions in automotives is to reduce the weight of the Body-In-White. One easy to achieve the weight reduction is to replace steel sheet materials with Al alloys, which is 3 times lighter. One issue is the joining process, especially with combinations between steel grades and AL alloys. Example of combination of mixed material combinations (Al-steel) might be found in the door structure. The reason is because of the AL alloys worthier crash performance so the automotive manufacturer might want to use crash impact beams made by high strength steels in a AL intensive door structure. The joining process between aluminum and steel are problematic due it's not possible to use traditional spot-welding technologies due to the materials total difference in microstructure characteristics as well thermal properties. To overcome this issue then mechanical as well adhesion joining are frequently used. This paper describes a development process and subsequently analysis of a self-pierce rivet (SPR) process between 3 sheet metal combinations. The multi-material combinations in this study were a combination of ultra high strength steels sheets (DP1000) and a Al-alloy (AA 6014). The analysis of the SPR process, in sense of mechanical strengths, has been done by peel- and shear tests. To reduce the amount of future physical tests a virtual FE-model has been developed for the process. This FE model of the process has been subsequently used to analyze the mechanical strength during plastic deformation. By using inverse analysis a correct contact algorithm has been evaluated that would predict the binding force between the rivet and sheet under a deformation process. With this new virtual model it will not only possible to analyze and develop the SPR process but also to achieve the final strength of the joint.

  4. Mechanical joining with self piercing solid-rivets at elevated tool velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Neugebauer, R.; Jesche, F.; Kraus, C.; Hensel, S.

    2011-05-04

    In the present paper the influence of a higher setting velocity in the joining process of self piercing solid-rivets is shown. In the conventional process tool velocities well below 1 m/s are common. The present research results show the potential of increasing them in the range of about 5 m/s. The results are especially relevant for joining high-strength steels. These steel sheets often cause problems in the process of riveting mixed materials, e. g. aluminium-steel compound. The high strength of the steel sometimes leads to undesirable material flow in the joining process or unwanted burr development. These effects, which are described in detail in the article, can be reduced significantly for the investigated cases by the use of higher tool velocities. Using a high speed camera and a load cell, a test setup based on a drop tower was realized. It was used to time the force signals and the motion profile of the high speed riveting process. The results of the force analysis show an oscillating force progression. Within a numerical research the principal effects influencing the results of the riveting process can be shown. It was found that the pulse-like force transmission between riveting machine and punch, results in various vibrations especially of long and thin tool parts. Hence the rivet penetrates the sheet metal with non-uniform velocities. As a result the early indentation of die into the lower sheet metal at the beginning of the process is reduced, so that the final process step provides a sufficient material flow into the circular rivet groove. A strain-rate dependent process model with elastic tool properties and consideration of inertia effects is presented.

  5. Life determination of riveted aircraft structure by holographic NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, John P.; Heslehurst, Rikard B.; Williamson, Hugh M.; Clark, Robert K.; Hollamby, Derek

    1996-11-01

    In a project funded by the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Aging Aircraft Program, a Portable Holographic Inspection System (PHITS) has been further developed. The technique involves taking a double exposure white light reflection hologram of aircraft structures. Each exposure is taken at a slightly different load state, and the resulting interferogram shows the deformations that occur between the two load states. Results showed that the rivets in a simple lap joint, designed to simulate the longitudinal lap splice on a Boeing 737, behaved in two distinct and easily recognizable modes. The first mode occurred at low loads and was an indication that friction forces between the two sheets of the lap joint dominated the load transfer mechanism. Indications were that the second mode related to higher loads for which the friction forces played a much lesser role. The load at which the changeover begins to occur has been called the critical load. Preliminary experiments showed that structures with a high value of critical load had a fatigue life of order ten times that of a normally fastened splice. Critical load can be readily determined in the field using the PHITS system. Research designed to establish the relationship between fatigue life and critical load is continuing. An understanding of that relationship could lead to a technique capable of fatigue life determination in typical aircraft structures.

  6. Detection of cracks at rivet holes using guided waves.

    PubMed

    Fromme, Paul; Sayir, Mahir B

    2002-05-01

    Guided Lamb waves can be used for a fast inspection of large areas, e.g. the detection of cracks at rivet holes in the fuselage of airplanes. When the guided wave hits a discontinuity like a hole, a typical scattered displacement field is obtained. A change of the scattered field indicates the development of a crack. In the experiments, the first anti-symmetric mode A0 of Lamb waves in plates is excited selectively by means of a piezoelectric transducer. The used frequency range is below the cut-off frequencies of higher wave modes. The scattered field around undamaged and damaged holes is measured on a grid around the hole with a heterodyne laser interferometer. Two types of damage are introduced: a notch cut with a very fine saw blade, and a fatigue grown crack. A significant change in the scattered field due to the defect is seen. Good agreement of the experimental results with theoretical calculations is obtained. The wave propagation is studied using Mindlin's theory of plates. The scattered field is calculated analytically and using finite difference methods (FDMs). PMID:12159932

  7. The Distribution of Loads on Rivets Connecting a Plate to a Beam under Transverse Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, F.

    1947-01-01

    This report gives theoretical discussion of the distribution of leads on rivets connecting a plate to a beam under transverse leads. Two methods of solution are given which are applicable to loads up to the limit of proportionality; in the first the rivets are treated as discrete members, and in the second they are replaced by a continuous system of jointing. A method of solution is also given which is applicable to the case when nonlinear deformations occur in the rivets and the plate, but not in the beam. The methods are illustrated by numerical examples, and these show that the loads carried by the rivets and the plate are less than the values given by classical theory, which does not take into account the slip of the rivets, even below the limit of proportionality. The difference is considerably accentuated when nonlinear deformations occur in the restructure and the beam then carries the greater portion of the bending moment. If the material of the beam has a higher proportional limit and a higher ultimate strength than the material of the plate, there is thus a transfer of load from weaker to stronger material, and this is to the advantage of the structure. The methods given are of simple application and are recommended for use in the design of light-alloy structures when the design lead is likely to be above the proportional limit.

  8. The Increase in Frictional Resistance Caused by Various Types of Rivet Heads as Determined by Tests of Planing Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscott, Starr; Parkinson, J B

    1938-01-01

    The increase in the frictional resistance of a surface caused by the presence of rivet heads was determined by towing four planing surfaces of the same dimensions. One surface was smooth and represented a surface without rivet heads or one with perfectly flush countersunk rivets. The other three surfaces were each fitted with the same number of full-size rivet heads but of a different type arranged in the same pattern on each surface. The surfaces were towed at speeds representative of the high water speeds encountered by seaplanes during take-off and the range of Reynolds Number covered by the test was from 4 x 10(exp 6) to 18 x 10(exp 6). The rivet heads investigated were oval countersunk, brazier, and round for rivets having shanks 5/32 inch in diameter. The oval countersunk heads were sunk below the surface by dimpling the plating around them. The results of the tests showed that, for the rivet heads investigated, the increase in the friction coefficient of the surface is directly proportional to the height of the rivet head. The order of merit in regard to low resistance is flush countersunk, oval countersunk (whether sunk below the surface or not), brazier, and round.

  9. 46 CFR 126.160 - Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... during riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work. 126.160 Section 126.160 Shipping COAST GUARD... other hot work. (a) NFPA 306 must be used as a guide in conducting the examinations and issuances of... riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work may commence. (c) Each examination must be conducted...

  10. 46 CFR 126.160 - Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... during riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work. 126.160 Section 126.160 Shipping COAST GUARD... other hot work. (a) NFPA 306 must be used as a guide in conducting the examinations and issuances of... riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work may commence. (c) Each examination must be conducted...

  11. 46 CFR 126.160 - Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... during riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work. 126.160 Section 126.160 Shipping COAST GUARD... other hot work. (a) NFPA 306 must be used as a guide in conducting the examinations and issuances of... riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work may commence. (c) Each examination must be conducted...

  12. 46 CFR 126.160 - Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... during riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work. 126.160 Section 126.160 Shipping COAST GUARD... other hot work. (a) NFPA 306 must be used as a guide in conducting the examinations and issuances of... riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work may commence. (c) Each examination must be conducted...

  13. 46 CFR 126.160 - Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... during riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work. 126.160 Section 126.160 Shipping COAST GUARD... other hot work. (a) NFPA 306 must be used as a guide in conducting the examinations and issuances of... riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work may commence. (c) Each examination must be conducted...

  14. Numerical analysis of self-pierce riveting of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S. L.; Wu, Y. W.; Zeng, Q. L.; Gao, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Magnesium alloy sheet has a broad development prospect for lightweight metal in automotive industry. Selfpierce Riveting (SPR) process is a suitable joining technology to fasten materials of different nature. This paper is concerned with the development of numerical models of the SPR process of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet. Based on DEFORM-2D finite element software, a two-dimensional axisymmetric model has been built for the SPR process. Then the distribution of stress and strain, and the stroke-load curve are analyzed in the forming process of the riveting. After a 2D simulation of SPR process, the quality of riveted joint is evaluated in terms of joint cross-sectional shape. The results show a better understanding of mechanical properties of SPR joints of magnesium alloy sheets. As a sufficient interlock and bottom thickness leading to a reasonably good joint, the numerical simulation method plays a significant role to predict the final strength of the joint.

  15. The mechanics and tribology of fretting fatigue with application to riveted lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolwinski, Matthew Paul

    Fretting is the synergistic combination of wear, corrosion, and fatigue damage mechanisms driven by the partial slip of contacting surfaces. The surface microslip and near-surface contact stresses associated with fretting can lead to severe reduction in service lifetimes of contacting components as diversified as bearings, turbine blades and mechanically-fastened joints, both structural and biological. This tribologically induced degradation has come under close scrutiny by those responsible for maintaining aging fleets of both commercial and military aircraft. Thus a critical need exists for predicting fretting crack nucleation in riveted aluminum. aircraft joints. Fulfilling this need requires characterizing both the near-surface mechanics and intimately-related tribology of fretting. To this end, a well characterized experimental setup has been developed to generate carefully controlled and monitored fretting contacts to investigate the nature of the near-surface conditions. Included in this investigation were in-situ observations of the fretting contact stress field via a non-invasive thermal imaging technique and a characterization of the evolution of friction under partial slip conditions. With specific qualitative and quantitative understanding of these near-surface conditions, a series of fretting fatigue experiments have been conducted to validate a mechanics-based model for predicting fretting fatigue crack nucleation. Finally, efforts have been directed toward extending this understanding of fretting crack nucleation to riveted aircraft structure through modeling of the riveting process and a related experimental program designed to link riveting process parameters and fretting damage in single-lap joint structures. This work focuses specifically on determination of the residual stresses induced during rivet installation and the morphological characterization of fretting fatigue damage in the riveted test specimens manufactured under controlled

  16. 14. DETAIL, U3 JOINT, FROM BELOW AND SOUTH, SHOWING RIVETED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL, U3 JOINT, FROM BELOW AND SOUTH, SHOWING RIVETED CONNECTION, AND INTERSECTION OF TOP CHORD, VERTICAL U3-L3, DIAGONALS, AND LATERAL BRACING INCLUDING DOUBLE ANGLES WITH LACING BARS - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  17. 16. DETAIL, L1 JOINT, FROM BELOW AND SOUTH, SHOWING RIVETED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL, L1 JOINT, FROM BELOW AND SOUTH, SHOWING RIVETED CONNECTION, AND CONFIGURATION OF VERTICAL U1-I1, LOWER CHORD AND FLOOR SYSTEM - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  18. 13. DETAIL, U1 JOINT, FROM BELOW AND SOUTH, SHOWING RIVETED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL, U1 JOINT, FROM BELOW AND SOUTH, SHOWING RIVETED CONNECTION, AND INTERSECTION OF END POST, VERTICAL, DIAGONAL AND UPPER CHORD MEMBERS AND LATERAL BRACING - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  19. 7. TYPICAL INTERIOR AND BOTTOM OF EMPTY 14.5FOOTDIAMETER RIVETED STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. TYPICAL INTERIOR AND BOTTOM OF EMPTY 14.5-FOOT-DIAMETER RIVETED STEEL SOAP KETTLE, WITH STEAM COILS; VIEW DOWN FROM KETTLE TOP, FIFTH FLOOR, EAST BAY, THIRD KETTLE FROM SOUTH - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-13, 48-50 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  20. Tensile and fatigue behaviour of self-piercing rivets of CFRP to aluminium for automotive application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.; Rao, H.; Zhang, R.; Avery, K.; Su, X.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the tensile and fatigue behaviour of self-piercing rivets (SPRs) in carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) to aluminium 6111 T82 alloys were evaluated. An average maximum lap-shear tensile load capacity of 3858 N was achieved, which is comparable to metal-to-metal SPR lap-shear joints. The CFRP-Al SPRs failed in lap-shear tension due to pull-out of the rivet head from the CFRP upper sheet. The CFRP-Al SPR lap- shear specimens exhibited superior fatigue life compared to previously studied aluminium-to- aluminium SPR lap-shear joints. The SPR lap-shear joints under fatigue loads failed predominantly due to kinked crack growth along the width of the bottom aluminium sheet. The fatigue cracks initiated in the plastically deformed region of the aluminium sheet close to the rivet shank in the rivet-sheet interlock region. Scatter in fatigue life and failure modes was observed in SPR lap-shear specimens tested close to maximum tensile load.

  1. Numerical analysis of static performance comparison of friction stir welded versus riveted 2024-T3 aluminum alloy stiffened panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qing; He, Yuting; Zhang, Teng; Wu, Liming

    2014-07-01

    Most researches on the static performance of stiffened panel joined by friction stir welding(FSW) mainly focus on the compression stability rather than shear stability. To evaluate the potential of FSW as a replacement for traditional rivet fastening for stiffened panel assembly in aviation application, finite element method(FEM) is applied to compare compression and shear stability performances of FSW stiffened panels with stability performances of riveted stiffened panels. FEMs of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy FSW and riveted stiffened panels are developed and nonlinear static analysis method is applied to obtain buckling pattern, buckling load and load carrying capability of each panel model. The accuracy of each FEM of FSW stiffened panel is evaluated by stability experiment of FSW stiffened panel specimens with identical geometry and boundary condition and the accuracy of each FEM of riveted stiffened panel is evaluated by semi-empirical calculation formulas. It is found that FEMs without considering weld-induced initial imperfections notably overestimate the static strengths of FSW stiffened panels. FEM results show that, buckling patterns of both FSW and riveted compression stiffened panels represent local buckling of plate between stiffeners. The initial buckling waves of FSW stiffened panel emerge uniformly in each plate between stiffeners while those of riveted panel mainly emerge in the mid-plate. Buckling patterns of both FSW and riveted shear stiffened panels represent local buckling of plate close to the loading corner. FEM results indicate that, shear buckling of FSW stiffened panel is less sensitive to the initial imperfections than compression buckling. Load carrying capability of FSW stiffened panel is less sensitive to the initial imperfections than initial buckling. It can be concluded that buckling loads of FSW panels are a bit lower than those of riveted panels whereas carrying capabilities of FSW panels are almost equivalent to those of riveted

  2. A Practical Engineering Approach to Predicting Fatigue Crack Growth in Riveted Lap Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. E.; Piascik, R. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive experimental database has been assembled from very detailed teardown examinations of fatigue cracks found in rivet holes of fuselage structural components. Based on this experimental database, a comprehensive analysis methodology was developed to predict the onset of widespread fatigue damage in lap joints of fuselage structure. Several computer codes were developed with specialized capabilities to conduct the various analyses that make up the comprehensive methodology. Over the past several years, the authors have interrogated various aspects of the analysis methods to determine the degree of computational rigor required to produce numerical predictions with acceptable engineering accuracy. This study led to the formulation of a practical engineering approach to predicting fatigue crack growth in riveted lap joints. This paper describes the practical engineering approach and compares predictions with the results from several experimental studies.

  3. A Practical Engineering Approach to Predicting Fatigue Crack Growth in Riveted Lap Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Piascik, Robert S.; Newman, James C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    An extensive experimental database has been assembled from very detailed teardown examinations of fatigue cracks found in rivet holes of fuselage structural components. Based on this experimental database, a comprehensive analysis methodology was developed to predict the onset of widespread fatigue damage in lap joints of fuselage structure. Several computer codes were developed with specialized capabilities to conduct the various analyses that make up the comprehensive methodology. Over the past several years, the authors have interrogated various aspects of the analysis methods to determine the degree of computational rigor required to produce numerical predictions with acceptable engineering accuracy. This study led to the formulation of a practical engineering approach to predicting fatigue crack growth in riveted lap joints. This paper describes the practical engineering approach and compares predictions with the results from several experimental studies.

  4. Two-sided friction stir riveting by extrusion: A process for joining dissimilar materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Evans, William T.; Cox, Chase D.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Cook, George E.; Gibson, Brian T.

    2016-06-25

    Two-sided friction stir riveting (FSR) by extrusion is an innovative process developed to rapidly, efficiently, and securely join dissimilar materials. This process extends a previously developed one sided friction stir extrusion process to create a strong and robust joint by producing a continuous, rivet-like structure through a preformed hole in one of the materials with a simultaneous, two-sided friction stir spot weld. The two-sided FSR by extrusion process securely joins the dissimilar materials together and effectively locks them in place without the use of any separate materials or fasteners. Lastly, in this paper we demonstrate the process by joining aluminummore » to steel and illustrate its potential application to automotive and aerospace manufacturing processes.« less

  5. Torsional moment to failure for carbon fibre polysulphone expandable rivets as compared with stainless steel screws for carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy fracture plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Sell, P J; Prakash, R; Hastings, G W

    1989-04-01

    A method of securing carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy bone plates with carbon fibre polysulphone expanding rivets was investigated. Six carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy bone plates were secured to rods with carbon fibre polysulphone rivets and six were secured with standard cortical stainless steel screws. These constructions were then subjected to pure torsional load to failure. The carbon fibre expandable rivets failed at a greater torsional moment. PMID:2720038

  6. An Analysis of the Stability and Ultimate Compressive Strength of Short Sheet-Stringer Panels with Special Reference to the Influence of Riveted Connection Between Sheet and Stringer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semonian, Joseph W; Peterson, James P

    1955-01-01

    A method of strength analysis of short sheet-stringer panels subjected to compression is presented which takes into account the effect that the riveted attachments between the plate and the stiffeners have on the strength of the panels. An analysis of experimental data shows that panel strength is highly influenced by rivet pitch, diameter, and location and that the degree of influence for a given riveting depends on the panel configuration and panel material. (author)

  7. Detection of Fatigue Cracks at Rivets with Self-Nulling Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Fulton, Jim; Nath, Shridhar; Namkung, Min

    1994-01-01

    A new eddy current probe developed at NASA Langley Research Center has been used to detect small cracks at rivets in aircraft lap splices [1]. The device has earlier been used to detect isolated fatigue cracks with a minimum detectable flaw size of roughly 1/2 to 1/3 the diameter of the probe [2]. The present work shows that the detectable flaw size for cracks originating at rivets can be greatly improved upon from that of isolated flaws. The use of a rotating probe method combined with spatial filtering has been used to detect 0.18 cm EDM notches, as measured from the rivet shank, with a 1.27 cm diameter probe and to detect flaws buried under the rivet head, down to a length of 0.076 cm, using a 0.32 cm diameter probe. The Self-Nulling Electromagnetic Flaw Detector induces a high density eddy current ring in the sample under test. A ferromagnetic flux focusing lens is incorporated such that in the absence of any inhomogeneities in the material under test only a minimal magnetic field will reach the interior of the probe. A magnetometer (pickup coil) located in the center of the probe therefore registers a null voltage in the absence of material defects. When a fatigue crack or other discontinuity is present in the test article the path of the eddy currents in the material is changed. The magnetic field associated with these eddy currents then enter into the interior of the probe, producing a large output voltage across the pickup coil leads. Further

  8. Experimental Analysis of Stiffness of the Riveted Steel Railway Bridge Deck Members' Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocál, Jozef; Hlinka, Richard; Jošt, Jozef; Bahleda, František

    2014-12-01

    The paper deals with the real behaviour of the riveted steel railway bridge deck members' connections with respect to their bending stiffness. Attention is paid to the stringer-to-cross beam connection as well as the cross beam-to-main girder connection. The stiffness of the two connections is investigated on the basis of evaluation of the experimentally determined stress response of the observed structural members to the actual traffic load on an existing railway bridge.

  9. The Load Distribution in Bolted or Riveted Joints in Light-Alloy Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, F.

    1947-01-01

    This report contains a theoretical discussion of the load distribution in bolted or riveted joints in light-alloy structures which is applicable not only for loads below the limit of proportionality but also for loads above this limit. The theory is developed for double and single shear joints. The methods given are illustrated by numerical examples and the values assumed for the bolt (or rivet) stiffnesses are based partly on theory and partly on known experimental values. It is shown that the load distribution does not vary greatly with the bolt (or rivet) stiffnesses and that for design purposes it is usually sufficient to know their order of magnitude. The theory may also be directly used for spot-welded structures and, with small modifications, for seam-welded structures, The computational work involved in the methods described is simple and may be completed in a reasonable time for most practical problems. A summary of earlier theoretical and experimental investigations on the subject is included in the report.

  10. Multifrequency Eddy Current Inspection of Corrosion in Clad Aluminum Riveted Lap Joints and Its Effect on Fatigue Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okafor, A. C.; Natarajan, S.

    2007-03-01

    Aging aircraft are prone to corrosion damage and fatigue cracks in riveted lap joints of fuselage skin panels. This can cause catastrophic failure if not detected and repaired. Hence detection of corrosion damage and monitoring its effect on structural integrity are essential. This paper presents multifrequency eddy current (EC) inspection of corrosion damage and machined material loss defect in clad A1 2024-T3 riveted lap joints and its effect on fatigue life. Results of eddy current inspection, corrosion product removal and fatigue testing are presented.

  11. Multifrequency Eddy Current Inspection of Corrosion in Clad Aluminum Riveted Lap Joints and Its Effect on Fatigue Life

    SciTech Connect

    Okafor, A. C.; Natarajan, S.

    2007-03-21

    Aging aircraft are prone to corrosion damage and fatigue cracks in riveted lap joints of fuselage skin panels. This can cause catastrophic failure if not detected and repaired. Hence detection of corrosion damage and monitoring its effect on structural integrity are essential. This paper presents multifrequency eddy current (EC) inspection of corrosion damage and machined material loss defect in clad A1 2024-T3 riveted lap joints and its effect on fatigue life. Results of eddy current inspection, corrosion product removal and fatigue testing are presented.

  12. Three-Dimensional Geometric Nonlinear Contact Stress Analysis of Riveted Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, Kunigal N.; Ramanujapuram, Vivek

    1998-01-01

    The problems associated with fatigue were brought into the forefront of research by the explosive decompression and structural failure of the Aloha Airlines Flight 243 in 1988. The structural failure of this airplane has been attributed to debonding and multiple cracking along the longitudinal lap splice riveted joint in the fuselage. This crash created what may be termed as a minor "Structural Integrity Revolution" in the commercial transport industry. Major steps have been taken by the manufacturers, operators and authorities to improve the structural airworthiness of the aging fleet of airplanes. Notwithstanding, this considerable effort there are still outstanding issues and concerns related to the formulation of Widespread Fatigue Damage which is believed to have been a contributing factor in the probable cause of the Aloha accident. The lesson from this accident was that Multiple-Site Damage (MSD) in "aging" aircraft can lead to extensive aircraft damage. A strong candidate in which MSD is highly probable to occur is the riveted lap joint.

  13. The RIVET: a novel technique involving absorbable fixation for hydroxyapatite osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Shido, Hirokazu; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Miwa, Tomoru; Ohira, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kishi, Kazuo

    2013-05-01

    Cranioplasty using custom-made hydroxyapatite (HAP) ceramic implants is a common procedure for the repair of skull defects. The advantages of using HAP are that it is nonmetallic, unlike titanium; biocompatible; and osteoconductive. Furthermore, it can be molded to any complex shape that may be needed. A disadvantage is that titanium screws and plates are in development for its fixation. We developed a technique for implant fixation using bioabsorbable screws and plates, and named this technique RIVET: resorbable immobilization for vacuolar en bloc technique.Before each operation, the implant was customized for the patient in question on the basis of models prepared using computed tomography data. The bioabsorbable plates were attached to the implant by drilling, tapping, and screwing, as shown in the video (http://links.lww.com/SCS/A43). The interior portion of the screw was then melted to flatten it against the internal surface of the implant, forming a rivet to join the plate and HAP implant.We used this technique for cranial reconstruction in 2 patients, with satisfying and functional results. We did not encounter any complications.In conclusion, the technique described here allows surgeons to fix implants and plates together more rigidly, giving a better result than possible with previous methods. PMID:23714917

  14. Evaluation of the Mechanical Performance of Self-Piercing Rivets in Friction Stir Welded Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Grant, Glenn J.; Davies, Richard W.; Wazny, Scott; Kaunitz, Leon; Fulbright, Brian; Waldron, D.

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents the coupon performance data of friction stir welded tailor welded blanks (TWBs) joined to a monolithic aluminum sheet by self-piercing rivets (SPRs). Uniaxial tensile tests were performed to characterize the joint strength and the total energy absorption capability of the TWB/monolithic joint assemblies. Cyclic fatigue tests were also conducted to characterize the fatigue behavior and failure mechanisms of the jointed assemblies. It was found that the static and fatigue strength of the TWB/monolithic assembly was approximately 30 percent less in all loading configurations tested in comparison to a common monolithic sheet SPR assembly. The total energy absorbed by the TWB/monolithic sheet assemblies was also found to be 30 percent less than the monolithic sheet assemblies in cross tension loading. In lap shear loading, the total energy absorbed was comparable.

  15. The Characteristics of Fatigue Damage in the Fuselage Riveted Lap Splice Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    An extensive data base has been developed to form the physical basis for new analytical methodology to predict the onset of widespread fatigue damage in the fuselage lap splice joint. The results of detailed destructive examinations have been cataloged to describe the physical nature of MSD in the lap splice joint. ne catalog includes a detailed description, e.g., crack initiation, growth rates, size, location, and fracture morphology, of fatigue damage in the fuselage lap splice joint structure. Detailed examinations were conducted on a lap splice joint panel removed from a full scale fuselage test article after completing a 60,000 cycle pressure test. The panel contained a four bay region that exhibited visible outer skin cracks and regions of crack link-up along the upper rivet row. Destructive examinations revealed undetected fatigue damage in the outer skin, inner skin, and tear strap regions. Outer skin fatigue cracks were found to initiate by fretting damage along the faying surface. The cracks grew along the faying surface to a length equivalent to two to three skin thicknesses before penetrating the outboard surface of the outer skin. Analysis of fracture surface marker bands produced during full scale testing revealed that all upper rivet row fatigue cracks contained in a dim bay region grow at similar rates; this important result suggests that fracture mechanics based methods can be used to predict the growth of outer skin fatigue cracks in lap splice structure. Results are presented showing the affects of MSD and out-of-plane pressure loads on outer skin crack link-up.

  16. An Analysis of the Stability and Ultimate Compressive Strength of Short Sheet-stringer Panels with Special Reference to the Influence of the Riveted Connection Between Sheet and Stringer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semonian, Joseph W; Peterson, James P

    1955-01-01

    A method of strength analysis of short sheet-stringer panels subjected to compression is presented which takes into account the effect that the riveted attachments between the plate and the stiffeners have on the strength of panels. An analysis of experimental data shows that panel strength is highly influenced by rivet pitch, diameter, and location and that the degree of influence for a given riveting depends on the panel configuration and panel material.

  17. In vivo degradation of a new concept of magnesium-based rivet-screws in the minipig mandibular bone.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Benoit; Saulacic, Nikola; Beck, Stefan; Imwinkelried, Thomas; Goh, Bee Tin; Nakahara, Ken; Hofstetter, Willy; Iizuka, Tateyuki

    2016-12-01

    Self-tapping of magnesium screws in hard bone may be a challenge due to the limited torsional strength of magnesium alloys in comparison with titanium. To avoid screw failure upon implantation, the new concept of a rivet-screw was applied to a WE43 magnesium alloy. Hollow cylinders with threads on the outside were expanded inside drill holes of minipig mandibles. During the expansion with a hexagonal mandrel, the threads engaged the surrounding bone and the inside of the screw transformed into a hexagonal screw drive to allow further screwing in or out of the implant. The in vivo degradation of the magnesium implants and the performance of the used coating were studied in a human standard-sized animal model. Four magnesium alloy rivet-screws were implanted in each mandible of 12 minipigs. Six animals received the plasmaelectrolytically coated magnesium alloy implants; another six received the uncoated magnesium alloy rivet-screws. Two further animals received one titanium rivet-screw each as control. In vivo radiologic examination was performed at one, four, and eight weeks. Euthanasia was performed for one group of seven animals (three animals with coated, three with uncoated magnesium alloy implants and one with titanium implant) at 12weeks and for the remaining seven animals at 24weeks. After euthanasia, micro-computed tomography and histological examination with histomorphometry were performed. Significantly less void formation as well as higher bone volume density (BV/TV) and bone-implant contact area (BIC) were measured around the coated implants compared to the uncoated ones. The surface coating was effective in delaying degradation despite plastic deformation. The results showed potential for further development of magnesium hollow coated screws for bone fixation. PMID:27612710

  18. Ultrasonic inspection of multiple-rivet-hole lap joint cracks using global analysis with local finite element approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, Yeasin; Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of multiple-rivet-hole lap joint cracks has been introduced using combined analytical and finite element approach (CAFA). Finite element analyses have been performed on local damage area in spite of the whole large structure and transfer function based analytical model is used to analyze the full structure. "Scattered cube" of complex valued wave damage interaction coefficient (WDIC) that involves scattering and mode conversion of Lamb waves around the damage is used as coupling between analytical and FEM simulation. WDIC is captured for multiple angles of incident Lamb mode (S0 and A0) over the frequency domain to analyze the cracks of multiple-rivet-hole lap joint. By analyzing the scattered cube of WDICs over the frequency domain and azimuthal angles the optimum parameters can be determined for each angle of incidence and the most sensitive signals are obtained using WaveformRevealer2D (WFR2D). These sensitive signals confirm the detection of the butterfly cracks in rivet holes through the installment of the transmitting and sensing PWASs in the proper locations and selecting the right frequency of excitation.

  19. Optical examination of load transfer in riveted lap joints using portable holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Krishnakumar; Baird, John P.; Clark, Robert K.; Williamson, Hugh M.

    1997-03-01

    In mechanically fastened single lap joints, such as those employed on aircraft fuselage skin splices, there are two distinct mechanisms of load transfer. At low values of load the transfer occurs primarily through friction between the component sheets while at higher loads the load is transferred by friction as well as through bearing at the fasteners. The load level at which the bearing mode of load transfer comes into action significantly affects the fatigue life of the joint, since the fasteners are stressed only at loads above this threshold load value. The portable holographic interferometry testing system (PHITS) is a robust, portable and sensitive non-destructive inspection system which produces contours of relative out of plane displacement by the method of superposition. PHITS is applied here to monitor the load transfer mechanism and identify the threshold at which the bearing mode comes into effect. In the friction mode there is no relative displacement between the fasteners and the skin panels. In the bearing mode the fasteners are loaded, causing a distinct tipping of the rivets, which is readily observable in the fringe pattern of deflection contours recorded by the holographic system.

  20. Statistical investigation of fatigue crack initiation and growth around chamfered rivet holes in Alclad 2024 T3 as affected by corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadragas, M. I.; Fine, M. E.; Moran, B.

    1994-01-01

    In panel specimens with rivet holes cracks initiate in the blunted knife edge of the chamfered rivet hole and propagate inward as well as along the hole. The fatigue lifetime to dominant crack information was defined as the number of cycles, N500 micrometer, to formation of a 500 micrometer long crack. Statistical data on N500 micrometer and on crack propagation after N500 micrometer were obtained for a large number of uncorroded specimens and specimens corroded in an ASTM B 117 salt spray. Considerable variation in N500 micrometer and crack propagation behavior was observed from specimen to specimen of the same nominal geometry with chamfered rivet holes increased the probability for both early formation and later formation of a propagating 500 micrometer fatigue crack. The growth of fatigue cracks after 500 micrometer size was little affected by prior salt spray.

  1. Quantitative comparison of airborne remote-sensed and in situ Rhodamine WT dye and temperature during RIVET & IB09

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenain, L.; Clark, D. B.; Guza, R. T.; Hally-Rosendahl, K.; Statom, N.; Feddersen, F.

    2012-12-01

    The transport and evolution of temperature, sediment, chlorophyll, fluorescent dye, and other tracers is of significant oceanographic interest, particularly in complex coastal environments such as the nearshore, river mouths, and tidal inlets. Remote sensing improves spatial coverage over in situ observations, and ground truthing remote sensed observations is critical for its use. Here, we present remotely sensed observations of Rhodamine WT dye and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) using the SIO Modular Aerial Sensing System (MASS) and compare them with in situ observations from the IB09 (0-300 m seaward of the surfzone, Imperial Beach, CA, October 2009) and RIVET (New River Inlet, NC, May 2012) field experiments. Dye concentrations are estimated from a unique multispectral camera system that measures the emission and absorption wavelengths of Rhodamine WT dye. During RIVET, dye is also characterized using a pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system (SPECIM AISAEagle VNIR 400-990 nm) while SST is estimated using a long-wave infrared camera (FLIR SC6000HS) coupled with an infrared pyrometer (Heitronics KT19.85II). Repeated flight passes over the dye plume were conducted approximately every 5 min for up to 4.5 hr in duration with a swath width ranging from 400 to 2000 m (altitude dependent), and provided a unique spatio-temporal depiction of the plume. A dye proxy is developed using the measured radiance at the emission and absorption wavelengths of the Rhodamine WT dye. During IB09 and RIVET, in situ dye and temperature were measured with two GPS-tracked jet skis, a small boat, and moored observations. The in situ observations are compared with the remotely sensed data in these two complex coastal environments. Funding was provided by the Office of Naval Research.

  2. Maintenance of Glare Structures and Glare as Riveted or Bonded Repair Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woerden, H. J. M.; Sinke, J.; Hooijmeijer, P. A.

    2003-07-01

    Aircraft structures constructed from new and advanced materials will become more common in the near future, starting with the use of the Fibre Metal Laminate Glare in large parts of the Airbus A-380 fuselage. These materials are primarily used because of their excellent damage tolerance properties. However, questions about maintenance and repair of such structures need to be answered before such new materials can be used. These questions include whether new and advanced materials can be repaired in a conventional way, which would not only be preferable from the operator's point of view (no change in tools, maintenance procedures, and personnel training), but also from the manufacturer's point of view (Structural Repair Manuals similar to aluminium structures). A Glare demonstrator panel has been designed and applied to an Airbus A-310 and research into the repairability of Glare has been performed to answer these questions. Apart from looking into the repairability of Glare structures, the material itself is also investigated as material for bonded repair patches. Bonded repair many times proves to be a more viable solution than conventional riveted repair due to its more efficient load transfer. Important aspects of bonded (Glare) repair are under investigation to show that bonded patch repair is not only working for the ageing aircraft of several Air Forces around the world, but is also a promising candidate for safe and cost-effective repairs to ageing and new (incidental damage) aircraft of commercial operators. This research is conducted cooperatively by Delft University of Technology and the United States Air Force Academy and has led to two real-life repairs on a C-5A ``Galaxy''.

  3. Overview of dye transport and mixing during RIVET at the New River Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guza, R. T.; Feddersen, F.; Hally-Rosendahl, K.; Lenain, L.; Terrill, E.; Rogowski, P.; Statom, N.

    2012-12-01

    Transport and mixing in a small tidal inlet (New River Inlet, NC, USA) was observed with fluorescent tracer dye during the ONR RIVET I experiment in May 2012. On each of 7 days, about 30 gallons of Rhodamine WT dye was released, either instantaneously or over several hours. Vertical dye concentration profiles were obtained with two wave-powered profilers, CTD+F casts, a boat-towed vertical fluorometer array, and an autonomous underwater vehicle. Dye concentrations were measured near the bottom with fixed instruments, and near the surface with two jet skis and airborne hyperspectral and multispectral imagers. Concurrent observations included waves, currents, turbidity, and water temperature and salinity. Ebb tidal currents were strong (1.5m/s) in two bathymetric channels (one newly dredged). Local wind and waves ranged from calm to moderate. Dye evolution depended on the dye release location, tide stage and wave and wind fields. Dye released continuously during ebb sometimes formed a surface plume that was visible several km downdrift from the mouth. Dye sometimes spread across the ebb shoal, where wave breaking was significant (the shoal was exposed at low tide). On the inner shelf, the thickness of the surface layer of bay water, slightly warmer and less saline than ocean water, varied from about 1m to 7m, depended on waves and wind. Dye behavior at New River will be compared with other tracers (e.g. CDOM, turbidity, temperature), and contrasted with previous observations of surfzone dye mixing and transport on an open coast with weak tidal currents. Funding was provided by the Office of Naval Research. .

  4. The effect of {+-}45{degree} fraction volume to the strength and the failure mode of riveted joints in aramid/epoxy composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tarigan, P.; Wirawan, B.

    1993-12-31

    The strength of riveted joint on aramid fiber reinforced plastic were investigated experimentally. Ten layers of four laminates which is different percentages of {+-}45{degree} [40%, 60%, 60% (different stacking sequence) and 80%] were prepared. The influence of width to diameter ratio [W/D] to the strength and the failure mode of the joints also observed, W/D: 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 was used and the edge distance to diameter ratio [E/D] were remain constant. Aramid Fiber Reinforced Plastic prepreg, style 285 (BMS-8-219D) and Hilock rivet with 4.8 mm diameter was used.

  5. Tank Tests of the Effect of Rivet Heads, etc., on the Water Performance of a Seaplane Float, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, J. B.; Robertson, J. B., Jr.

    1936-01-01

    A 1/3.5 full-size model of the Mark V float of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, was tested in the NACA tank both with smooth painted bottom surfaces and with roundhead rivets, plate laps, and keel plates fitted to simulate the actual bottom of a metal float. The augmentation in water resistance due to the added roughness was found to be from 10-12% at the hum speed and from 12-14% at high speeds. The effect of the roughness of the afterbody was found to be negligible except at high trims. The model data were extrapolated to full size by the usual method which assumes the forces to vary according to Froude's law, and in the case of the smooth model by a method of separation that takes into account the effect of scale on the frictional resistance. It was concluded that the effect of rivet heads on the takeoff performance of a relatively high-powered float seaplane is of little consequence but that it may be of greater importance in the case of more moderately powered flying boats.

  6. Tank Tests to Show the Effect Rivet Heads on the Water Performance of a Seaplane-Float

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, J B

    1938-01-01

    A 1/3.5 full-sized model of a seaplane float constructed from lines supplied by the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, was tested first with smooth painted bottom surfaces and then with round-head rivets, plate laps, and keel plates fitted to simulate the actual bottom of a metal float. A percentage increase in water resistance caused by the added roughness was found to be from 5 to 20 percent at the hump speed and from 15 to 40 percent at high speeds. The effect of the roughness of the afterbody was found to be negligible except at high trims. The model data were extrapolated to full size by the usual method that assumes the forces to vary according to Froude's law and, in the case of the smooth model, by a method of separation that takes into account the effect of scale on the frictional resistance. It was concluded that the effect of rivet heads on the take-off performance of a relatively high-powered float seaplane is of little consequence, but it may be of greater importance in the case of more moderately powered flying boats.

  7. Revisiting (Some of) the Lasting Impacts of the Liberty Ships via a Metallurgical Analysis of Rivets from the SS "John W. Brown"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, M. D.; Grogg, W. J.; Akoma, A.; Hayes, B. J.; Reidy, R. F.; Imhoff, E. F.; Collins, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    During World War II, 2710 Liberty ships were built in the United States across 18 ship yards. The rate of production of these ships was at a scale not previously witnessed, reflecting a strategic marshaling of national assets critical to the war effort. For the metallurgist, metallurgical engineer, or materials scientist, these ships also struck commanding images regarding their catastrophic failures. The study of these failures led to increased understanding of brittle fracture, fracture mechanics, and ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures. The post-mortem studies of Liberty ships highlighted the importance of composition and microstructure in controlling the properties of steel in fracture-critical applications. This study examines a rivet from the SS "John W. Brown", which was assembled in Baltimore, Maryland, and launched in September 1942, The "John W. Brown" was restored between 1988 and 1991. Classical metallurgical analysis of a rivet from the original 1942 vessel is compared with modern rivets used during its restoration. The rivets provide an analogue to the plate material used in these ships. A comparison of these materials is presented along with a discussion of the importance of composition-microstructure-property relationships that concomitantly evolved.

  8. Carbon-riveted Pt catalyst supported on nanocapsule MWCNTs-Al2O3 with ultrahigh stability for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zheng-Zhi; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Qu, Wei-Li; Rivera, Harry; Gu, Da-Ming; Yin, Ge-Ping

    2012-11-01

    Pt catalyst supported on nanocapsule MWCNTs-Al2O3 (multi-walled carbon nanotubes, MWCNTs) catalyst has been prepared by microwave-assisted polyol process (MAPP). The results of electrochemical measurements show that the nanocapsule Pt/MWCNTs-Al2O3 catalyst has higher activity due to more uniform dispersion and smaller size of Pt nanoparticles, and higher stability ascribed to the stronger metal-support interaction (SMSI) between Pt nanoparticles and nanocapsule support than in Pt/MWCNTs. Furthermore, the carbon-riveted nanocapsule Pt/MWCNTs-Al2O3 catalyst has been designed and synthesized on the basis of in situ carbonization of glucose. The physical characteristics such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have indicated that α-Al2O3 indeed entered into the inside of the MWCNTs and formed a nanocapsule support of MWCNTs with α-Al2O3 as stuffing. The accelerated potential cycling tests (APCT) show that carbon-riveted nanocapsule Pt/MWCNTs-Al2O3 possesses 10 times the stability of Pt/C and has 4.5 times the life-span of carbon-riveted Pt/TiO2-C reported in our previous work. The significantly enhanced stability for carbon-riveted nanocapsule Pt/MWCNTs-Al2O3 catalyst is attributed to the reasons as follows: the inherently excellent mechanical resistance and stability of α-Al2O3 and MWCNTs in acidic and oxidative environments; SMSI between Pt nanoparticles and the nanocapsule support; the anchoring effect of the carbon layers formed during the carbon-riveting process (CRP); the increase of Pt(0) composition during CRP.

  9. A record of all marker bands found in the upper rivet rows of 2 adjacent bays from a fuselage lap splice joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willard, Scott A.

    1995-01-01

    A full scale fuselage test article was subjected to 60,000 load cycles (pressurizations) to study the effect of widespread fatigue damage in fuselage structures. Every 10,000 cycles coded marker block loading sequences were used to mark the fracture surfaces of the fatigue cracks propagating within the panel. The loading sequences consisted of series of underloads combined with a series of full pressurizations. The combination of loads and underloads marked the fracture surfaces with marker bands that could later be used to reconstruct the fatigue crack growth history of selected regions within the test article. Thirty rivet holes comprising the upper rivet rows from two adjacent bays (bays #3 and #4) from a fuselage lap splice joint were examined for the purpose of this study. Optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to locate the marker bands.

  10. Compression Buckling Behavior of Large-Scale Friction Stir Welded and Riveted 2090-T83 Al-Li Alloy Skin-Stiffener Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Hafley, Robert A.; Wagner, John A.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Pecquet, Robert W.; Blum, Celia M.; Arbegast, William J.

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of friction stir welding (FSW) as a replacement for traditional rivet fastening for launch vehicle dry bay construction, a large-scale friction stir welded 2090-T83 aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy skin-stiffener panel was designed and fabricated by Lockheed-Martin Space Systems Company - Michoud Operations (LMSS) as part of NASA Space Act Agreement (SAA) 446. The friction stir welded panel and a conventional riveted panel were tested to failure in compression at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The present paper describes the compression test results, stress analysis, and associated failure behavior of these panels. The test results provide useful data to support future optimization of FSW processes and structural design configurations for launch vehicle dry bay structures.

  11. Initiation and growth of multiple-site damage in the riveted lap joint of a curved stiffened fuselage panel: An experimental and analytical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Abubaker Ali

    As part of the structural integrity research of the National Aging Aircraft Research Program, a comprehensive study on multiple-site damage (MSD) initiation and growth in a pristine lap-joint fuselage panel has been conducted. The curved stiffened fuselage panel was tested at the Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility located at the Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center. A strain survey test was conducted to verify proper load application. The panel was then subjected to a fatigue test with constant-amplitude cyclic loading. The applied loading spectrum included underload marker cycles so that crack growth history could be reconstructed from post-test fractographic examinations. Crack formation and growth were monitored via nondestructive and high-magnification visual inspections. Strain gage measurements recorded during the strain survey tests indicated that the inner surface of the skin along the upper rivet row of the lap joint experienced high tensile stresses due to local bending. During the fatigue loading, cracks were detected by eddy-current inspections at multiple rivet holes along the upper rivet row. Through-thickness cracks were detected visually after about 80% of the fatigue life. Once MSD cracks from two adjacent rivet holes linked up, there was a quick deterioration in the structural integrity of the lap joint. The linkup resulted in a 2.87" (72.9-mm) lead fatigue crack that rapidly propagated across 12 rivet holes and crossed over into the next skin bay, at which stage the fatigue test was terminated. A post-fatigue residual strength test was then conducted by loading the panel quasi-statically up to final failure. The panel failed catastrophically when the crack extended instantaneously across three additional bays. Post-test fractographic examinations of the fracture surfaces in the lap joint of the fuselage panel were conducted to characterize subsurface crack initiation and

  12. Detection and monitoring of hidden fatigue crack growth using a built-in piezoelectric sensor/actuator network: II. Validation using riveted joints and repair patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihn, Jeong-Beom; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2004-06-01

    A built-in diagnostic technique for monitoring hidden fatigue crack growth in aircraft structures has been developed in part I of the study. The technique uses diagnostics signals, generated from nearby piezoelectric actuators built into the structures, to detect crack growth. In this second part of the study, the proposed diagnostic technique was applied to monitor fatigue crack growth in riveted fuselage joints and a cracked metallic plate repaired with a bonded composite patch. A complete built-in diagnostic system for the tests was developed, including a sensor network, hardware and the diagnostic software. Predictions were correlated quite well with measurements from the eddy current test and the ultrasonic scan methods as well as visual inspection. The damage index successfully detected both crack growth and debond damage for the structures considered.

  13. Asbestos fibres in the lungs of an American mechanic who drilled, riveted, and ground brake linings: a case report and discussion.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Murray M

    2015-05-01

    In North America and Europe, the use of asbestos in friction products was discontinued before the end of the 20th century. In the developing world, the use of asbestos-containing friction products continues. In 2010, Cely-Garcia and colleagues (Cely-Garcia et al., 2012) sampled three brake repair shops located in Bogota, Colombia. Both asbestos and non-asbestos containing brake linings were sold separately or attached to a shoe. When brake linings are sold separated from the shoe, they must be manipulated to attach them to the shoe before installation. The process starts with the removal of the old brake shoe from the vehicle's brake drum. If the existing brake shoe is to be reused, the old lining needs to be removed and the old shoe must be ground to prepare it for a new lining. Riveting requires drilling holes in the linings and shoes and before installing rivets, the lining must be countersunk. The borders of the lining are bevelled. On some occasions, the entire exposed surface of the lining is ground to make it thinner. Once attached to the shoe, the edges of brake linings may extend beyond the shoe. In this case, it is necessary to cut or grind the edges to match the lining to the shoe before bevelling or grinding. The authors reported that 'the sampling results indicate that the brake mechanics sampled are exposed to extremely high asbestos concentrations (i.e. based on transmission electron microscopy counts), suggesting that this occupational group could be at excess risk of asbestos-related diseases'. PMID:25842376

  14. Correction: Cecotti, H. and Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355

    PubMed Central

    Cecotti, Hubert; Rivet, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper (Cecotti, H.; Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355): Due to an internal error, the reference numbers in the original published paper were not shown, and the error was not due to the authors. The former main text should be replaced as below. PMID:25243772

  15. Fatigue Strength and Related Characteristics of Aircraft Joints I : Comparison of Spot-Weld and Rivet Patterns in 24s-t Alclad and 75s-t Alclad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, H W; Jackson, L R; Grover, H J; Beaver, W W

    1944-01-01

    Report contains detailed results of a number of fatigue tests on spot-welded joints in aluminum alloys. The tests described include: (1) fatigue tests on spot-welded lap joints in sheets of unequal thickness of alclad 24s-t. These tests indicate that the fatigue strength of a spot-welded joint in sheets of two different gages is slightly higher than that of a similar joint in two sheets of the thinner gage but definitely lower than that of a similar joint in two sheets of the thicker gage. (2) Fatigue tests on spot-welded alclad 75s-t spot-welded lap-joint specimens of alclad 75s-t were not any stronger in fatigue than similar specimens of alclad 24s-t. (3) Fatigue tests on lap-joint specimens spot -welded after various surface preparations--these included ac welding wire-brushed surfaces, dc welding wire-brushed surfaces, and dc welding chemically cleaned surfaces. While the ac welds were strongest statically, the dc welds on wire-brushed surfaces were strongest in fatigue. Specimens prepared in this way were very nearly as strong as the best riveted specimens tested for comparison. (4) Fatigue tests on specimens spot-welded with varying voltage so as to include a wide range of static spot-weld strengths. The fatigue strengths were in the same order as the static strengths but showed less range. (author)

  16. Whatever Happened to Rosie the Riveter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Nancy A.

    1993-01-01

    Being judged both as women and managers, women managers risk being perceived as ineffective managers or "unwomanly" women. The key to changing perceptions of women in organizations is a critical mass of women at senior levels, redefining management along less gender-specific lines. (SK)

  17. The New Workforce: Not Just Rosie the Riveter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Leila Gonzalez

    American women have always been an integral part of the work force, first on the family farm and later as industrial laborers. In World War II, millions of women went to work only to be sent back home when the men returned. Today, women are in a very different situation. Between 1985 and 2000, 80% of new entrants into the work force are expected…

  18. Close Encounters with Deadly Dangers: Riveting Reads and Classroom Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Kendall

    This book presents 15 tales that bring the animal world into the classroom. The stories in this book are divided into two sections: stories from aquatic ecosystems (both fresh- and saltwater systems), and from terrestrial systems, including desert, meadow, woodland, mountain, Arctic tundra, savanna, pine forest, and jungle ecosystems. All predator…

  19. Multiplexed HTS rf SQUID magnetometer array for eddy current testing of aircraft rivet joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gärtner, S.; Krause, H.-J.; Wolters, N.; Lomparski, D.; Wolf, W.; Schubert, J.; Kreutzbruck, M. v.; Allweins, K.

    2002-05-01

    Using three rf SQUID magnetometers, a multiplexed SQUID array was implemented. The SQUIDs are positioned in line with 7 mm spacing and operated using one feedback electronics with sequential read out demodulation at different radio frequencies (rf). The cross-talk between SQUID channels was determined to be negligible. To show the performance of the SQUID array, eddy current (EC) measurements of aluminum aircraft samples in conjunction with a differential (double-D) EC excitation and lock-in readout were carried out. With computer-controlled continuous switching of the SQUIDs during the scan, three EC signal traces of the sample are obtained simultaneously. We performed measurements with an EC excitation frequency of 135 Hz to localize an artificial crack (sawcut flaw) of 20 mm length in an aluminum sheet with 0.6 mm thickness. The flaw was still detected when covered with aluminum of up to 10 mm thickness. In addition, measurements with varying angles between scanning direction and flaw orientation are presented.

  20. Investigation of pulsed eddy current probes for detection of defects in riveted structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Binfeng; Zhang, Hui; Kang, Zhibin; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2013-09-01

    The fatigue crack is the threat to integrity and safety of fuselage lap-joints. Quantification of fatigue cracks by designing and utilisation of an optimised electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation probe can insure the flight safety of aircrafts. In this paper, pulsed eddy current (PEC) for detection and characterisation of fatigue cracks is investigated. The principle of PEC is analysed first, from which four different models of PEC probes are simulated in ANSYS. The signal features, namely zero-crossing time, zero-crossing frequency and peak value are extracted from the time and frequency domains in an effort to qualitatively compare the crack detectability of the four models. The sensitivities of the different probes to cracks are analysed quantitatively. The difference in detectability among the probes is investigated based on the working principle. Simulation results show that the probe consisting of two horizontal detecting coils along with a magnetic field shield focusing the flux has the highest detectability. The conclusions derived from the simulation study are also validated by experiments.

  1. Aircraft Assembly, Riveting and Surface Repair 1; Sheet Metal Work 2: 9855.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline will serve as a guide to the 11th grade student interested in sheet metal occupations. The course, 135 hours in length, covers the basic techniques of cutting and trimming, drilling and hole preparation of metals. Lecture and demonstration techniques are to be utilized, with emphasis on the use of visual aids, mock-ups,…

  2. RIVETS: a mechanical system for in vivo and in vitro electrophysiology and imaging.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Jason E; Dudman, Joshua T

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have provided compelling demonstrations that both mice and rats can be trained to perform a variety of behavioral tasks while restrained by mechanical elements mounted to the skull. The independent development of this technique by a number of laboratories has led to diverse solutions. We found that these solutions often used expensive materials and impeded future development and modification in the absence of engineering support. In order to address these issues, here we report on the development of a flexible single hardware design for electrophysiology and imaging both in brain tissue in vitro. Our hardware facilitates the rapid conversion of a single preparation between physiology and imaging system and the conversion of a given system between preparations. In addition, our use of rapid prototyping machines ("3D printers") allows for the deployment of new designs within a day. Here, we present specifications for design and manufacturing as well as some data from our lab demonstrating the suitability of the design for physiology in behaving animals and imaging in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24551206

  3. Riveting for Victory: Women in Magazine Ads in World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nancy L.

    An examination of the portrayal of women in popular magazine advertising from 1942 to 1945 suggests that the mass media played a major role in calling women out of the home and into the factory and machine shop to assist in the war effort. Discouraged from working during the Depression years when jobs were scarce, in the 1940s women were eagerly…

  4. Teaching about Rosie the Riveter: The Role of Women during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Karen

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a neglected area of U.S. history: the impact of World War II on the role and status of women. Shows how women's work in the home and in the community assisted the national defense effort, and examined the way that changes in employment opportunities affected traditional ideas about women's roles and fostered the modern women's movement.…

  5. EC-GMR array with rotating current excitation for multilayered riveted structures inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dib, Gerges; Yang, Guang; Ye, Chaofeng; Tamburrino, Antonello; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish S.

    2015-03-01

    The challenge in detecting crack under fastener heads (CUF) in a multi-layered aircraft structure poses the need for advanced NDE technology. Our previous work has presented the feasibility of eddy current (EC) technology using giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors in detecting 2nd layer hidden cracks in layered aircraft components. An EC-GMR inspection system has been developed to directly measure the normal component of magnetic flux density associated with eddy currents induced inside the specimen. However, a major limitation of current sensor system is in detecting cracks that are parallel to the direction of induced currents. This paper presents a new design using orthogonal excitation coils for generating a rotating uniform current, which provides uniform sensitivity to cracks emanating in all orientations around fastener sites. The design and inspection using the orthogonal coil probe and GMR sensor is presented using a simulation model. Several candidate designs for the orthogonal coil configuration will be presented using the simulation model. The detection of cracks in all radial directions around aluminum and steel fasteners are validated numerically and experimentally.

  6. Classification of Magneto-Optic Images using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nath, Shridhar; Wincheski, Buzz; Fulton, Jim; Namkung, Min

    1994-01-01

    A real time imaging system with a neural network classifier has been incorporated on a Macintosh computer in conjunction with an MOI system. This system images rivets on aircraft aluminium structures using eddy currents and magnetic imaging. Moment invariant functions from the image of a rivet is used to train a multilayer perceptron neural network to classify the rivets as good or bad (rivets with cracks).

  7. 46 CFR 35.01-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions-TB... making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire... with safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning,...

  8. 46 CFR 35.01-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions-TB... making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire... with safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning,...

  9. 46 CFR 91.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions. 91... testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding..., welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions shall be made: (1) Within or on the boundaries of...

  10. 49 CFR 231.15 - Steam locomotives used in road service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in road service. (a) Tender till-steps—(1) Number. Four on tender. (2) Dimensions. (i) Bottom tread... rivets. (b) Pilot sill-steps—(1) Number. Two. (2) Dimensions. Tread not less than 8 inches in width by 10... be securely fastened with bolts or rivets. (c) Pilot-beam handholds—(1) Number. Two. (2)...

  11. 76 FR 27617 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model DHC-8-400 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will.... Investigations revealed that loose rivets in the torque tube assemblies caused relative motion between the crank arms and torque tubes. Loose rivets could result in excessive wear and subsequent significant...

  12. Damage Tolerance of Integral Structure in Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott C.; Urban, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The rotorcraft industry has rapidly implemented integral structures into aircraft to benefit from the weight and cost advantages over traditionally riveted structure. The cost to manufacture an integral structure, where the entire component is machined from a single plate of material, is about one-fifth that of a riveted structure. Furthermore, the integral structure can weigh only one-half that of a riveted structure through optimal design of stiffening structure and part reduction. Finally, inspection and repair of damage in the field can be less costly than riveted structure. There are no rivet heads to inspect under, reducing inspection time, and damage can be removed or patched readily without altering the primary structure, reducing replacement or repair costs. In this paper, the authors will investigate the damage tolerance implications of fielding an integral structure manufactured from thick plate aluminum.

  13. 17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER (SEE ALSO HABS No. CA-2718), WITH RICHMOND SHIPYARD NO. 3. S. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, 1401 Marina Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  14. 77 FR 5994 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation... reported cracks and started to develop in the plane of the rivet head countersink on the right hand...

  15. 12. DETAIL OF CONNECTION BETWEEN SOUTHEAST END POST AND TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL OF CONNECTION BETWEEN SOUTHEAST END POST AND TOP CHORD, SHOWING BOLT, RIVETED PLATES, AND EYE BAR; VIEW FROM WEST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  16. 29 CFR 1910.181 - Derricks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Structural members for deformations, cracks, and corrosion. (b) Bolts or rivets for tightness. (c) Parts such... person who has determined that the various structural components will not be overstressed. (v)...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.181 - Derricks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Structural members for deformations, cracks, and corrosion. (b) Bolts or rivets for tightness. (c) Parts such... person who has determined that the various structural components will not be overstressed. (v)...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.181 - Derricks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Structural members for deformations, cracks, and corrosion. (b) Bolts or rivets for tightness. (c) Parts such... person who has determined that the various structural components will not be overstressed. (v)...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.181 - Derricks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Structural members for deformations, cracks, and corrosion. (b) Bolts or rivets for tightness. (c) Parts such... person who has determined that the various structural components will not be overstressed. (v)...

  20. 18. DETAIL OF SHAFT COLLAR AND CAGE GUIDES. VIEW LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF SHAFT COLLAR AND CAGE GUIDES. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH INCLUDES DETAIL OF RIVETED STEEL CONSTRUCTION OF HEADFRAME. - Butte Mineyards, Stewart Mine, Intersection of Main & Woolman Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  1. 6. NORTH END OF MACHINE SHOP. FORGE SHOP (HAER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NORTH END OF MACHINE SHOP. FORGE SHOP (HAER No. CA-326-K) ON LEFT, FORD PLANT IN DISTANCE, NE BY 60. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Machine Shop, 1311 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  2. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 115, 117, 119, 121, 123, 125, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 115, 117, 119, 121, 123, 125, 127, 129 COLLINS STREET. ATCHISON VILLAGE HOUSED WORKERS DURING WORLD WAR II - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Atchison Village, Collins Street, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  3. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF BOILER ROOM, LOOKING NORTH; CONTROL PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF BOILER ROOM, LOOKING NORTH; CONTROL PANEL AT CENTER; BOXLIKE, RIVETED HOUSING AT TOP CENTER CONTAINED AUGER FOR COAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM - Rath Packing Company, Boiler Room, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  4. PANORAMIC VIEW OF SHIPYARD NO. 3, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. FIRST AID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PANORAMIC VIEW OF SHIPYARD NO. 3, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. FIRST AID STATION AT CENTER LEFT AND FORGE SHOP AT RIGHT - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Richmond Shipyard No. 3, Point Potrero, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. An examination of faying surface fretting in single lap splices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adam

    While fretting damage in mechanically fastened joints is widely acknowledged as a common source of crack nucleation, little work is available in the open literature on the role that fretting damage plays in the fatigue life of a riveted joint. To expand on the limited knowledge available, a study was undertaken on fretting fatigue in thin-sheet riveted fuselage lap joints. In joints constructed out of 1 mm thick 2024-T3 aluminum sheet the rivet forming load was found to have a significant effect on the location of fretting damage and crack nucleation. This effect was observed for splices riveted with machine countersunk and with universal rivets. The shift in the location of peak fretting damage and crack nucleation with changing rivet forming loads was investigated through numerical and experimental methods. A predictive model based on the critical plane Smith-Watson-Topper strain life equation was applied to the complex geometry of the single lap splice and was shown to be effective in predicting the fretting fatigue life as well as the location of fretting-induced crack nucleation. Basing this model on an explicit finite element simulation allowed for the inclusion of compressive residual stresses generated during rivet forming. Key to the proper functionality of the predictive model was to have a validated finite element model from which results for the stress and strain field in the loaded component could be obtained. In addition to the predictive model, a series of splice coupon and simplified geometry fretting fatigue tests were performed. The tests showed that, at higher rivet forming loads, crack nucleation is on the faying surface away from the hole edge and that the type of surface condition is important to the fretting fatigue life of the splice. The discovery of this variation with surface treatment at high rivet forming loads is important as more research is showing the benefit of using load-controlled rivet forming and higher rivet forming loads in

  6. Fastener for thin fragile materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokol, S.

    1979-01-01

    Two-piece fastener is ideal for securing thin delicate parts that might be damaged by conventional fasteners, such as rivets or upset collars. Strength of new fastener approaches that of riveted connection. Easily fabricated, fastener consists of plastic button and spring-steel collar. Parts have large contact area to distribute loads on delicate assemblies and low profile so that they fit into narrow spaces. Fastener is suitable for materials ranging in density from sheet metal to fabric sandwiches.

  7. Evaluation of the fuselage lap joint fatigue and terminating action repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samavedam, Gopal; Thomson, Douglas; Jeong, David Y.

    1994-01-01

    Terminating action is a remedial repair which entails the replacement of shear head countersunk rivets with universal head rivets which have a larger shank diameter. The procedure was developed to eliminate the risk of widespread fatigue damage (WFD) in the upper rivet row of a fuselage lap joint. A test and evaluation program has been conducted by Foster-Miller, Inc. (FMI) to evaluate the terminating action repair of the upper rivet row of a commercial aircraft fuselage lap splice. Two full scale fatigue tests were conducted on fuselage panels using the growth of fatigue cracks in the lap joint. The second test was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the terminating action repair. In both tests, cyclic pressurization loading was applied to the panels while crack propagation was recorded at all rivet locations at regular intervals to generate detailed data on conditions of fatigue crack initiation, ligament link-up, and fuselage fracture. This program demonstrated that the terminating action repair substantially increases the fatigue life of a fuselage panel structure and effectively eliminates the occurrence of cracking in the upper rivet row of the lap joint. While high cycle crack growth was recorded in the middle rivet row during the second test, failure was not imminent when the test was terminated after cycling to well beyond the service life. The program also demonstrated that the initiation, propagation, and linkup of WFD in full-scale fuselage structures can be simulated and quantitatively studied in the laboratory. This paper presents an overview of the testing program and provides a detailed discussion of the data analysis and results. Crack distribution and propagation rates and directions as well as frequency of cracking are presented for both tests. The progression of damage to linkup of adjacent cracks and to eventual overall panel failure is discussed. In addition, an assessment of the effectiveness of the terminating action repair and the

  8. Fatigue life until small cracks in aircraft structures: Durability and damage tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schijve, J.

    1994-01-01

    Crack initiation in notched elements occurs very early in the fatigue life. This is also true for riveted lap joints, an important fatigue critical element of a pressurized fuselage structure. Crack nucleation in a riveted lap joint can occur at different locations, depending on the riveting operation. It can occur at the edge of the rivet hole, at a small distance away from the hole, but still with subsequent crack growth through the hole, and ahead of the hole with a crack no longer passing through the hole. Moreover, crack nucleation can occur in the top row at the countersunk holes (outer sheet) or in the bottom row at the non-countersunk holes. Fractographic evidence is shown. The initial growth of the small cracks occurs as an (invisible) part through crack. As a consequence, predictions on the crack initiation life are problematic. After a though crack is present, the major part of the fatigue life has been consumed. There is still an apparent lack of empirical data on crack growth and residual strength of riveted lap joints, five years after the Aloha accident. Such data are very much necessary for further developments of prediction models. Some test results are presented.

  9. Automatic Fastening Large Structures: a New Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumley, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The external tank (ET) intertank structure for the space shuttle, a 27.5 ft diameter 22.5 ft long externally stiffened mechanically fastened skin-stringer-frame structure, was a labor intensitive manual structure built on a modified Saturn tooling position. A new approach was developed based on half-section subassemblies. The heart of this manufacturing approach will be 33 ft high vertical automatic riveting system with a 28 ft rotary positioner coming on-line in mid 1985. The Automatic Riveting System incorporates many of the latest automatic riveting technologies. Key features include: vertical columns with two sets of independently operating CNC drill-riveting heads; capability of drill, insert and upset any one piece fastener up to 3/8 inch diameter including slugs without displacing the workpiece offset bucking ram with programmable rotation and deep retraction; vision system for automatic parts program re-synchronization and part edge margin control; and an automatic rivet selection/handling system.

  10. Toward a Hybrid-Trefftz element with a hole for elasto-plasticity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, Nicolas; Langrand, Bertrand; Markiewicz, Eric

    2008-08-01

    The paper deals with the modelling of riveted assemblies for full-scale complete aircraft crashworthiness. Many comparisons between experiments and FE computations of bird impacts onto aluminium riveted panels have shown that macroscopic plastic strains were not sufficiently developed (and localised) in the riveted shell FE in the impact area. Consequently, FE models never succeed in initialising and propagating the rupture in the sheet metal plates and along rivet rows as shown by experiments, without calibrating the input data (especially the damage and failure properties of the riveted shell FE). To model the assembly correctly, it appears necessary to investigate on FE techniques such as Hybrid-Trefftz finite element method (H-T FEM). Indeed, perforated FE plates developed for elastic problems, based on a Hybrid-Trefftz formulation, have been found in the open literature. Our purpose is to find a way to extend this formulation so that the super-element can be used for crashworthiness. To reach this aim, the main features of an elastic Hybrid-Trefftz plate are presented and are then followed by a discussion on the possible extensions. Finally, the interpolation functions of the element are evaluated numerically.

  11. Rotating flux-focusing eddy current probe for flaw detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks about circular fasteners and other circular inhomogeneities in high conductivity material. The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil, The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. By rotating the probe in a path around a circular fastener such as a rivet while maintaining a constant distance between the probe and the center of a rivet, the signal due to current flow about the rivet can be held constant. Any further changes in the current distribution, such as due to a fatigue crack at the rivet joint, can be detected as an increase in the output voltage above that due to the flow about the rivet head.

  12. Fatigue strength of a single lap joint SPR-bonded

    SciTech Connect

    Di Franco, G.; Fratini, L.; Pasta, A.

    2011-05-04

    In the last years, hybrid joints, meaning with this the joints which consist in combining a traditional mechanical joint to a layer of adhesive, are gradually attracting the attention of various sectors of the construction of vehicles and transportation industries, for their better performance compared to just mechanical joints (self-piercing riveting SPR, riveting, and so on) or just to bonded joints.The paper investigates the fatigue behavior of a single lap joint self-piercing riveted (SPR) and bonded throughout fatigue tests. The considered geometric configuration allowed the use of two rivets placed longitudinally; an epoxy resin was used as adhesive. In the first part of the work static characterization of the joints was carried out through tensile tests. Then fatigue tests were made with the application of different levels of load. The fatigue curves were also obtained at the varying the distance between the two rivets in order to better assess the joint strength for a given length of overlap.

  13. Rotating concave eddy current probe

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Dennis P.; Walkington, Phil; Rackow, Kirk A.; Hohman, Ed

    2008-04-01

    A rotating concave eddy current probe for detecting fatigue cracks hidden from view underneath the head of a raised head fastener, such as a buttonhead-type rivet, used to join together structural skins, such as aluminum aircraft skins. The probe has a recessed concave dimple in its bottom surface that closely conforms to the shape of the raised head. The concave dimple holds the probe in good alignment on top of the rivet while the probe is rotated around the rivet's centerline. One or more magnetic coils are rigidly embedded within the probe's cylindrical body, which is made of a non-conducting material. This design overcomes the inspection impediment associated with widely varying conductivity in fastened joints.

  14. Development of shearography for nondestructive testing of highway structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Y. Y.; Hovanesian, J. D.

    1984-06-01

    Testing methodologies which may lead to early detection of impending structural failures are developed. The research is aimed at a laboratory feasibility study of an optical technique known as SHEAROGRAPHY for nondestructive testing of highway structural members. Laboratory samples representing typical highway structural members with programmed defects are tested with shearography. These samples include tubular member with an internal crack, butt weld joint with an imperfection in the weld, riveted joint with a loosened rivet, steel reinforced concrete slab with a broken internal reinforcement rod, and cord reinforced composite plate with the delaminations. All the programmed defects are detectable by shearography.

  15. 15. Detail along the northwest side of the inside of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail along the northwest side of the inside of the bridge, showing the latticed vertical post that separates the second from the third panel point on the southwest end; the latticed top strut is rivet-connected to the vertical post and the top strut. - Post Road Bridge, State Route 7-A, Havre de Grace, Harford County, MD

  16. 11. INTERIOR VIEW TO WEST ALONG SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW TO WEST ALONG SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING WITH NORTHWEST END OF BUILDING IN BACKGROUND. NOTE WORK AREAS IN LEAN-TO BAYS ALONG SIDE OF BUILDING. ALSO NOTE TRAVELING BRIDGE CRANES OVERHEAD AND SWINGING BOOM CRANES ATTACHED TO COLUMNS. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  17. 6. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST ALONG CENTRAL BAY. NOTE TRUSSED SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST ALONG CENTRAL BAY. NOTE TRUSSED SUPPORT FOR CRANEWAY TRACKS WITH OVERHEAD BRIDGE CRANES IN BACKGROUND. NOTE ALSO SWINGING BOOM CRANES ATTACHED TO COLUMNS. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. Standard specification for carbon and alloy steel nuts. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F-16 on Fasteners and is the responsibility of Subcommittee F16.02 on Steel Bolts, Nuts, Rivets, and Washers. Current edition approved Dec. 10, 1997. Published July 1998. Originally published as A 563-66. Last previous edition A 563-96.

  19. 5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO EAST SHOWING NORTHWEST END AND SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO EAST SHOWING NORTHWEST END AND SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING. (NOTE THAT RIGHT PORTION OF PHOTOGRAPH WAS FOGGED DUE TO BELLOWS LEAK). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  20. 6. VIEW OF THE EASTERN BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING CENTRAL PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF THE EASTERN BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING CENTRAL PIER AND ASSOCIATED SUPERSTRUCTURE, AND CANTILEVERED NORTHERN TRUSS SECTION. NOTE THE JOIN BETWEEN EYE-BAR (LEFT) AND RIVETED CHANNEL (RIGHT) LOWER BRIDGE CHORDS AT CENTER LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. FACING NORTH. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  1. Detail, typical vertical member UL of south span, east truss, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, typical vertical member U-L of south span, east truss, showing riveted lacing bars and channels, and "Cambria" imprint, indicating Cambria Iron Company fabrication of member - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  2. Civil Rights Milestones Offer Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2004-01-01

    The landmark legal decision, Brown v. Board of Education, was rendered on May 17, 1954. Fifty years later, campuses and communities are commemorating the decision and its impact on contemporary life. The Harvard legal scholar, Charles Ogletree, has published a riveting book of his reflections, a government commission is staging a variety of…

  3. 77 FR 63270 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... aluminum rivet, Part Number (P/N) ASNA2050DXJ040, is to connect the FR 24 to the FR 24 Tee. The hole where... of an A320 family aeroplane, it was discovered that a fastener was missing at FR 24 between stringer... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in...

  4. 78 FR 52414 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... aluminum rivet, Part Number (P/N) ASNA2050DXJ040, is to connect the FR 24 to the FR 24 Tee. The hole where... NPRM was published in the Federal Register on October 16, 2012 (77 FR 63270). The NPRM proposed to... of an A320 family aeroplane, it was discovered that a fastener was missing at FR 24 between...

  5. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  6. 40 CFR 86.094-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... valve action parameter(s) on carbureted, Otto-cycle vehicles (or engines); or any parameter on any... for $20 (1978 dollars) or less; (B) In the case of a choke bimetal spring, the plate covering the bimetal spring is riveted or welded in place, or held in place with nonreversible screws; (C) In the...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1833-01 - Adjustable parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... idle fuel-air mixture parameter on Otto-cycle vehicles; the choke valve action parameter(s) on... bimetal spring, the plate covering the bimetal spring is riveted or welded in place, or held in place with... return to its original shape after the force is removed (plastic or spring steel materials); (D) In...

  8. 40 CFR 86.094-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... valve action parameter(s) on carbureted, Otto-cycle vehicles (or engines); or any parameter on any... for $20 (1978 dollars) or less; (B) In the case of a choke bimetal spring, the plate covering the bimetal spring is riveted or welded in place, or held in place with nonreversible screws; (C) In the...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1833-01 - Adjustable parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... idle fuel-air mixture parameter on Otto-cycle vehicles; the choke valve action parameter(s) on... bimetal spring, the plate covering the bimetal spring is riveted or welded in place, or held in place with... return to its original shape after the force is removed (plastic or spring steel materials); (D) In...

  10. 49 CFR 179.200-19 - Reinforcements, when used, and appurtenances not otherwise specified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provisions. The ultimate shear strength of the bracket to reinforcing pad weld must not exceed 85 percent of the ultimate shear strength of the reinforcing pad to tank weld. ... attachments to tank and dome shall be applied by approved means. Rivets if used shall be caulked inside...

  11. 49 CFR 179.200-19 - Reinforcements, when used, and appurtenances not otherwise specified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provisions. The ultimate shear strength of the bracket to reinforcing pad weld must not exceed 85 percent of the ultimate shear strength of the reinforcing pad to tank weld. ... attachments to tank and dome shall be applied by approved means. Rivets if used shall be caulked inside...

  12. 49 CFR 179.200-19 - Reinforcements, when used, and appurtenances not otherwise specified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provisions. The ultimate shear strength of the bracket to reinforcing pad weld must not exceed 85 percent of the ultimate shear strength of the reinforcing pad to tank weld. ... attachments to tank and dome shall be applied by approved means. Rivets if used shall be caulked inside...

  13. 49 CFR 179.200-19 - Reinforcements, when used, and appurtenances not otherwise specified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provisions. The ultimate shear strength of the bracket to reinforcing pad weld must not exceed 85 percent of the ultimate shear strength of the reinforcing pad to tank weld. ... attachments to tank and dome shall be applied by approved means. Rivets if used shall be caulked inside...

  14. 49 CFR 179.200-19 - Reinforcements, when used, and appurtenances not otherwise specified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for venting provisions. The ultimate shear strength of the bracket to reinforcing pad weld must not exceed 85 percent of the ultimate shear strength of the reinforcing pad to tank weld. .... (a) All attachments to tank and dome shall be applied by approved means. Rivets if used shall...

  15. 77 FR 59146 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will... contacting the commutator causing sparks and consequent fire and/or smoke in the tailcone with no means to... their limits, which could result in the rivet in the brush contacting the commutator causing sparks...

  16. On the Strength of Box Type Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathar, J

    1929-01-01

    The present investigation relates to a box-type fuselage with sides consisting of thin smooth sheet metal, stiffened by longitudinal members riveted to the flanged channel-section bulkheads or transverse frames and to the semicircular corrugated corner stiffenings. The results obtained in this particular case can be applied to a great number of similar structures.

  17. 49 CFR 180.511 - Acceptable results of inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... all product piping, fittings and closures show no indication of leakage. (g) Hydrostatic test. A Class 107 tank car or a riveted tank car successfully passes the hydrostatic test when it shows no leakage... before the next inspection and test interval. (b) Structural integrity inspection and test. A tank...

  18. Lautal as a material for airplane construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Paul

    1929-01-01

    Lautal is a refinable aluminum alloy which, unlike duralumin, contains no magnesium. According to the statements of the Lauta Works, lautal contains: aluminum, 94%; copper, 4%; silicon, 2%. The use of lautal as a construction material is discussed in relation to specific weight, production methods, and riveting tests.

  19. 20. VIEW TO WEST OF INTERIOR OF CRANEWAY WITH TOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW TO WEST OF INTERIOR OF CRANEWAY WITH TOW TRAVELING BRIDGE CRANES (ONE OVERHEAD IN FOREGROUND AND ONE OVERHEAD IN BACKGROUNDS). NOTE WOOD BLOCK PAVING ON THE FLOOR. FIRST FLOOR ASSEMBLY AREA IS THE SPACE IN THE BACKGROUND ON THE RIGHT. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  20. 49 CFR 231.16 - Steam locomotives used in switching service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Side handholds shall be securely fastened with bolts or rivets. (e) Uncoupling levers—(1) Number. Two double levers, operative from either side. (2) Dimensions. (i) Handles of front-end levers shall be not... minimum clearance of 2 inches around handle. (ii) Rear-end levers shall extend across end of tender...

  1. The Adult Learner: Some Things We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin J.; Pete, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the "warrior" who rises to the challenge of teaching the adult learner. The discussion is designed as a catalyst for dialogue about the adult learner and to uncover the complexities of teaching this rare and riveting species. This book is organized around three interlocking themes: some things we know about the adult learner;…

  2. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for External..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 29 Table 29 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels Seal type Welded vessels KS N Riveted vessels KS N Metallic shoe...

  3. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for External..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 29 Table 29 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels Seal type Welded vessels KS N Riveted vessels KS N Metallic shoe...

  4. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for External..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 29 Table 29 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels Seal type Welded vessels KS N Riveted vessels KS N Metallic shoe...

  5. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for External..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 29 Table 29 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels Seal type Welded vessels KS N Riveted vessels KS N Metallic shoe...

  6. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for External..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 29 Table 29 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels Seal type Welded vessels KS N Riveted vessels KS N Metallic shoe...

  7. Lessons: Katrina and Beginning Anew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirylo, James D.

    2005-01-01

    New Orleans, fondly known in better days for its spectacular cuisine, cool jazz, and good times, was the leading story on television news broadcasts the world over when a massive hurricane came. As Katrina took its destructive path, culminating in the devastating rupture of ill-prepared levee systems, the world was riveted by stories about the…

  8. Celebrating Excellence: Learning and Teaching in Adult Higher Education. National Conference on Alternative and External Degree Programs for Adults (15th, Columbus, Ohio, October 5-7, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance, an Association for Alternative Degree Programs.

    These 23 presentations are organized in five categories: diversity, assessment, distance education, learning, and teaching. Five papers on diversity include the following: "From Rosie the Riveter to Comparable Worth: The Infusion of Gender and Women's Issues into an Interdisciplinary Curriculum for Working Adults" (Linda L. Hulbert, Theodore A.…

  9. 9. VIEW TO SOUTH SHOWING ENTRANCES TO BUILDING AT NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW TO SOUTH SHOWING ENTRANCES TO BUILDING AT NORTHEAST CORNER. DOORS TO LEFT WERE FOR INTERIOR RAILROAD SPUR. ROLL-UP GARAGE DOOR TO RIGHT HAS REPLACED ORIGINAL PEDESTRIAN DOORS WHERE HOURLY SHIP WORKERS REPORTED TO WORK. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  10. 9. DETAIL OF ONE OF THE TWO CENTER PANELS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF ONE OF THE TWO CENTER PANELS IN THE WEST TRUSS, SEEN FROM THE WEST, SHOWING POSTS, RIVETED PLATES, LOWER CHORDS, DIAGONAL EYE BARS WITH TURNBUCKLES, AND ENDS OF FLOOR BEAMS SUSPENDED FROM POSTS. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  11. 49 CFR 195.205 - Repair, alteration and reconstruction of aboveground breakout tanks that have been in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approximately atmospheric pressure constructed of carbon and low alloy steel, welded or riveted, and non... service must be capable of withstanding the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be..., examination, and material requirements of those respective standards. (3) For high pressure tanks built to...

  12. 49 CFR 195.205 - Repair, alteration and reconstruction of aboveground breakout tanks that have been in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... approximately atmospheric pressure constructed of carbon and low alloy steel, welded or riveted, and non... service must be capable of withstanding the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be..., examination, and material requirements of those respective standards. (3) For high pressure tanks built to...

  13. 49 CFR 195.205 - Repair, alteration and reconstruction of aboveground breakout tanks that have been in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approximately atmospheric pressure constructed of carbon and low alloy steel, welded or riveted, and non... service must be capable of withstanding the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be..., examination, and material requirements of those respective standards. (3) For high pressure tanks built to...

  14. 49 CFR 195.205 - Repair, alteration and reconstruction of aboveground breakout tanks that have been in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approximately atmospheric pressure constructed of carbon and low alloy steel, welded or riveted, and non... service must be capable of withstanding the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be..., examination, and material requirements of those respective standards. (3) For high pressure tanks built to...

  15. 29 CFR 1918.24 - Fixed and portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... N) load without deformation. (2) Rungs shall be evenly spaced from nine to sixteen and one-half... supporting a 250-pound (1,112 N) load without deformation; and (3) Have a minimum width between side rails of...) Missing or loose bolts, rivets or fastenings; (iv) Defective ropes; or (v) Any other structural defect....

  16. 29 CFR 1918.24 - Fixed and portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... N) load without deformation. (2) Rungs shall be evenly spaced from nine to sixteen and one-half... supporting a 250-pound (1,112 N) load without deformation; and (3) Have a minimum width between side rails of...) Missing or loose bolts, rivets or fastenings; (iv) Defective ropes; or (v) Any other structural defect....

  17. 29 CFR 1918.24 - Fixed and portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... N) load without deformation. (2) Rungs shall be evenly spaced from nine to sixteen and one-half... supporting a 250-pound (1,112 N) load without deformation; and (3) Have a minimum width between side rails of...) Missing or loose bolts, rivets or fastenings; (iv) Defective ropes; or (v) Any other structural defect....

  18. 16. VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF SECONDFLOOR ASSEMBLY AREA FROM NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF SECOND-FLOOR ASSEMBLY AREA FROM NEAR SOUTHWEST WEST. NOTE DIFFERENCE IN ROOF STRUCTURE BETWEEN SAWTOOTH SKYLIGHTS OVER MOST OF THE SECOND FLOOR (RIGHT) AND THE PORTION OF THE ROOF RUNNING ALONG THE WEST EDGE OF THE BUILDING (LEFT). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  19. 33 CFR 148.5 - How are terms used in this subchapter defined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... is based on a subpart of 46 CFR chapter I, subchapter Q, the approval series corresponds to the... flexible hose of the floating or float/sink type that connects the tanker's manifold to the single point mooring. Hot work means work that produces heat or fire, such as riveting, welding, burning, or other...

  20. 33 CFR 148.5 - How are terms used in this subchapter defined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... is based on a subpart of 46 CFR chapter I, subchapter Q, the approval series corresponds to the... flexible hose of the floating or float/sink type that connects the tanker's manifold to the single point mooring. Hot work means work that produces heat or fire, such as riveting, welding, burning, or other...

  1. 33 CFR 148.5 - How are terms used in this subchapter defined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assigned by the Coast Guard to approved equipment. Where approval is based on a subpart of 46 CFR chapter I... floating or float/sink type that connects the tanker's manifold to the single point mooring. Hot work means work that produces heat or fire, such as riveting, welding, burning, or other fire-or...

  2. 33 CFR 148.5 - How are terms used in this subchapter defined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... assigned by the Coast Guard to approved equipment. Where approval is based on a subpart of 46 CFR chapter I... floating or float/sink type that connects the tanker's manifold to the single point mooring. Hot work means work that produces heat or fire, such as riveting, welding, burning, or other fire-or...

  3. 46 CFR 71.60-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions. 71... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Special Operating Requirements § 71.60-1 Inspection and...

  4. 46 CFR 189.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Special Operating Requirements § 189.50-1...

  5. 46 CFR 71.60-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions. 71.60-1 Section 71.60-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  6. 46 CFR 91.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... possessions the inspection shall be made by a marine chemist certificated by the National Fire Protection... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions....

  7. 46 CFR 71.60-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions. 71... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Special Operating Requirements § 71.60-1 Inspection and...

  8. 46 CFR 91.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... possessions the inspection shall be made by a marine chemist certificated by the National Fire Protection... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions....

  9. 46 CFR 189.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Special Operating Requirements § 189.50-1...

  10. 46 CFR 91.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... possessions the inspection shall be made by a marine chemist certificated by the National Fire Protection... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions....

  11. 46 CFR 189.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Special Operating Requirements § 189.50-1...

  12. 46 CFR 35.01-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and possessions, the inspection shall be made by a marine chemist certificated by the National Fire... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing...

  13. 46 CFR 35.01-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and possessions, the inspection shall be made by a marine chemist certificated by the National Fire... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing...

  14. 46 CFR 35.01-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions-TB... OPERATIONS General Provisions; Special Operating Requirements § 35.01-1 Inspection and testing required...

  15. 46 CFR 189.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Special Operating Requirements § 189.50-1...

  16. 46 CFR 91.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... possessions the inspection shall be made by a marine chemist certificated by the National Fire Protection... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions....

  17. 46 CFR 71.60-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions. 71... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Special Operating Requirements § 71.60-1 Inspection and...

  18. 46 CFR 71.60-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions. 71... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Special Operating Requirements § 71.60-1 Inspection and...

  19. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  20. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  1. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  2. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  3. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  4. Engineering Drawing II, 6-2. Military Curriculum Project for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Engineer School, Fort Belvoir, VA.

    This military-developed text consists of seven lessons to teach students with basic drafting skills more advanced techniques. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: auxiliary views; isometric drawing; screws, bolts, rivets, and welds; detail and assembly practices; intersections and developments; machine drawing; architectural…

  5. MARINA & MAINE STREETS FACING NW. DARKER COLORED HOME ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MARINA & MAINE STREETS FACING NW. DARKER COLORED HOME ON SE CORNER. NYSTROM VILLAGE, LIKE ATCHISON VILLAGE (HAER CA-326-N), HOUSED WORKERS DURING WORLD WAR II - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Nystrom Village, Marina & Maine Streets, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. Dear Mr. Kozol. . . . Four African American Women Scholars and the Re-Authoring of Savage Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer-Hinton, Raquel; Lewis, Joi D.; Patton, Lori D.; Rivers, Ishwanzya D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 1991, Savage Inequalities quickly became the most riveting assessment of the inequalities in U.S. public schools. When Kozol visited East St. Louis for his book, the authors of this paper lived and attended schools there. As Kozol's readers in their respective graduate and undergraduate classes, the authors found it difficult…

  7. 46 CFR 160.035-3 - Construction of steel oar-propelled lifeboats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... gunwale shall be 1/4-inch diameter for boats 28 feet and under and 5/16-inch diameter for boats over 28... inch in diameter and spaced not more than 3 inches on centers. (d) Welding. Welding may be substituted... be used. Table 160.035-3(e)(1) Length of lifeboat Brace size (inches) Bolts and rivets diameter...

  8. Sculpture, Metallic Formations II, Art Education: 6683.12b.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubocq, Edward R.

    An exploratory course in the creation of shapes using a variety of metals and techniques is described in this guide for quinmester elective course for grades 7-12. Students cut, form, weld, rivet, cast and finish such metals as steel, copper, aluminum, brass, pewter, and bronze. They develop a working knowledge of the various tools and processes,…

  9. Standard specification for anchor bolts, steel, 36, 55, and 105-ksi yield strength. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F-16 on Fasteners and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee F16.02 on Steel Bolts, Nuts, Rivets, and Washers. Current edition approved Dec. 10, 1997 and published July 1998. Originally published as F 1554-94. Last previous edition was F 1554-94.

  10. MACHINE SHOP AT SHIPYARD NO. 3, VIEW TO WESTSOUTHWEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MACHINE SHOP AT SHIPYARD NO. 3, VIEW TO WEST-SOUTHWEST OF THE EAST ELEVATION. LOOKING ACROSS THE RICHMOND INNER HARBOR FROM NEAR THE FORD ASSEMBLY BUILDING - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Machine Shop, 1311 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  11. MACHINE SHOP, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHNORTHEAST OF THE WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MACHINE SHOP, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST OF THE WEST SIDE AND SOUTH END. WEST (REAR) SIDE OF GENERAL WAREHOUSE IS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Machine Shop, 1311 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. 11. View showing detail of truss tower. The vertical, or ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View showing detail of truss tower. The vertical, or compression, members of the bridge are formed from two channel beams riveted together with lacing bars. The diagonal or tension members, are die-forged eyebars. - Center Street Swing Bridge, Southwest of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. 17. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING ONE OF THE OPENINGS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING ONE OF THE OPENINGS IN THE SECOND FLOOR EAST WALL THROUGH WHICH A CONVEYOR ONCE PASSED FOR MOVING BODY PANELS TO AND FROM THE SECOND FLOOR. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  14. 18. VIEW TO EAST, DETAIL OF OPENING THROUGH THE SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW TO EAST, DETAIL OF OPENING THROUGH THE SECOND FLOOR EAST WALL SHOWING CONVEYOR FOR MOVING MATERIAL TO THE SECOND FLOOR. (NOTE: THIS IS NOT AN ORIGINAL CONVEYOR FOR MOVING BODY PARTS). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  15. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Considering Its Place in Cold War History. Teacher's Resource Book [and Student Text]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century Education Project. 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukup, Nancy, Ed.

    Like no other region on the globe, the Caribbean Basin has served as a testing ground for U.S. foreign policy. Of all the countries in the region, Cuba has been the scene of many of the United States' most riveting foreign policy dramas. The teacher resource book and student text probe the complex, often troubled, relationship between the United…

  16. The Rosenberg Trial: Uncovering the Layers of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragsdale, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    The trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg on charges of conspiring to spy for the Soviet Union remains one of the defining moments of the Cold War era. The dramatic allegations of stolen atomic secrets and networks of Communist spies riveted the public's attention. The determination of government prosecutors reflected a widely shared belief…

  17. 78 FR 7308 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... rivet, or other damage. This proposed AD is prompted by a stress analysis of the tailboom skin that revealed high-stress-concentration areas are susceptible to skin cracking. This condition, if not...

  18. 49 CFR 230.20 - Alteration and repair report for steam locomotive boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... boilers. 230.20 Section 230.20 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... boilers. (a) Alterations. When an alteration is made to a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive... maintained for the life of the boiler. (See appendix B of this part.) (b) Welded and riveted repairs...

  19. 49 CFR 230.20 - Alteration and repair report for steam locomotive boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... boilers. 230.20 Section 230.20 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... boilers. (a) Alterations. When an alteration is made to a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive... maintained for the life of the boiler. (See appendix B of this part.) (b) Welded and riveted repairs...

  20. 49 CFR 230.20 - Alteration and repair report for steam locomotive boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... boilers. 230.20 Section 230.20 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... boilers. (a) Alterations. When an alteration is made to a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive... maintained for the life of the boiler. (See appendix B of this part.) (b) Welded and riveted repairs...

  1. 49 CFR 230.20 - Alteration and repair report for steam locomotive boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... boilers. 230.20 Section 230.20 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... boilers. (a) Alterations. When an alteration is made to a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive... maintained for the life of the boiler. (See appendix B of this part.) (b) Welded and riveted repairs...

  2. 49 CFR 230.20 - Alteration and repair report for steam locomotive boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... boilers. 230.20 Section 230.20 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... boilers. (a) Alterations. When an alteration is made to a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive... maintained for the life of the boiler. (See appendix B of this part.) (b) Welded and riveted repairs...

  3. Teen Cyberbullying Investigated: Where Do Your Rights End and Consequences Begin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Internet age has led to a different kind of teen bullying: cyberbullying. What is cyberbullying and what can teens do about it? In "Teen Cyberbullying Investigated," Judge Tom Jacobs presents a powerful collection of landmark court cases involving teens and charges of cyberbullying and cyberharassment. This riveting, informative guide will…

  4. View of north tower base panel and portion of concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north tower base panel and portion of concrete abutment. Note riveted construction and dual-wire rope connections from counterweight to lift span on both sides. Lift wire ropes have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  5. 18. DETAIL, L0 JOINT AND BEARING SEAT AT WEST ABUTMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL, L0 JOINT AND BEARING SEAT AT WEST ABUTMENT, FROM NORTH, SHOWING RIVETED CONNECTION OF BOTTOM CHORD AND END POST AT JOINT, AND FIXED SHOE - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  6. Robotics 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  7. Component assembly with shape memory polymer fastener for microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-Suk; Lee, Dae-Young; Koh, Je-Sung; Jung, Gwang-Pil; Cho, Kyu-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Adhesives are generally used for the assembly of microrobots, whereas bolts, screws, or rivets are used for larger robots. Although adhesives are easy to apply, lightweight, and small, they cannot be used for repeated assembly and disassembly of parts. In this paper, we present a novel microfastener composed of a polyurethane-based shape memory polymer (SMP) that is lightweight and small but that is easily detached for disassembly. This was achieved by using the shape recovery and modulus change of the SMP. A sheet of macromolded SMP was laser machined into an I-beam-shaped rivet, and notches were added to the structure to prevent stress concentration. Pull-off tests showed that, as the notch radius increased, the disengagement strength of the rivet fastener decreased and the reusability increased. Through the elastoplastic model, a single SMP rivet was calculated to have maximum disengagement strength of 150 N cm-2 in the elastic range, depending on the notch radius. The fasteners were applied to a jumping microrobot. The legs and body were assembled with ten fasteners, which showed no permanent deformation after impact during jumping movements. The legs were easily replaced with ones of different stiffness by heating the engaged sites to make the fasteners compliant and detachable. The proposed detachable SMP microfasteners are particularly useful for testing the isolated performance of microrobot components to determine the optimal designs for these components.

  8. 49 CFR 231.15 - Steam locomotives used in road service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... inches in length, metal. (May have wooden treads.) (3) Location. One on or near each end of buffer-beam... be securely fastened with bolts or rivets. (c) Pilot-beam handholds—(1) Number. Two. (2) Dimensions..., inches. Minimum clearance, 21/2 inches. (3) Location. One on each end of buffer-beam. If uncoupling...

  9. 77 FR 60655 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... observed on both sides of the keel beam around the rivets below the center wing box between frame (FR) 40...-13-06, Amendment 39-13688 (69 FR 38818, June 29, 2004). That AD required actions intended to address... (69 FR 38818, June 29, 2004), we have determined that the detailed inspection required by AD...

  10. 78 FR 40072 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect... rivets on the left-hand (LH) and right-hand (RH) Y350 longitudinal beams (longitudinal beams Y350). This... longitudinal beams Y350 and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. DATES: We must receive comments...