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Sample records for rna binding activity

  1. Ribonuclease activity and RNA binding of recombinant human Dicer

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Patrick; Dishart, David; Doucet, Johanne; Frendewey, David; Samuelsson, Bengt; Rådmark, Olof

    2002-01-01

    RNA silencing phenomena, known as post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants, quelling in fungi, and RNA interference (RNAi) in animals, are mediated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and mechanistically intersect at the ribonuclease Dicer. Here, we report cloning and expression of the 218 kDa human Dicer, and characterization of its ribonuclease activity and dsRNA-binding properties. The recombinant enzyme generated ∼21–23 nucleotide products from dsRNA. Processing of the microRNA let-7 precursor by Dicer produced an apparently mature let-7 RNA. Mg2+ was required for dsRNase activity, but not for dsRNA binding, thereby uncoupling these reaction steps. ATP was dispensable for dsRNase activity in vitro. The Dicer·dsRNA complex formed at high KCl concentrations was catalytically inactive, suggesting that ionic interactions are involved in dsRNA cleavage. The putative dsRNA-binding domain located at the C-terminus of Dicer was demonstrated to bind dsRNA in vitro. Human Dicer expressed in mammalian cells colocalized with calreticulin, a resident protein of the endoplasmic reticulum. Availability of the recombinant Dicer protein will help improve our understanding of RNA silencing and other Dicer-related processes. PMID:12411504

  2. Insights into activation and RNA binding of trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) through all-atom simulations.

    PubMed

    Murtola, Teemu; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Falck, Emma

    2008-06-01

    Tryptophan biosynthesis in Bacillus stearothermophilus is regulated by a trp RNA binding attenuation protein (TRAP). It is a ring-shaped 11-mer of identical 74 residue subunits. Tryptophan binding pockets are located between adjacent subunits, and tryptophan binding activates TRAP to bind RNA. Here, we report results from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the system, complementing existing extensive experimental studies. We focus on two questions. First, we look at the activation mechanism, of which relatively little is known experimentally. We find that the absence of tryptophan allows larger motions close to the tryptophan binding site, and we see indication of a conformational change in the BC loop. However, complete deactivation seems to occur on much longer time scales than the 40 ns studied here. Second, we study the TRAP-RNA interactions. We look at the relative flexibilities of the different bases in the complex and analyze the hydrogen bonds between the protein and RNA. We also study the role of Lys37, Lys56, and Arg58, which have been experimentally identified as essential for RNA binding. Hydrophobic stacking of Lys37 with the nearby RNA base is confirmed, but we do not see direct hydrogen bonding between RNA and the other two residues, in contrast to the crystal structure. Rather, these residues seem to stabilize the RNA-binding surface, and their positive charge may also play a role in RNA binding. Simulations also indicate that TRAP is able to attract RNA nonspecifically, and the interactions are quantified in more detail using binding energy calculations. The formation of the final binding complex is a very slow process: within the simulation time scale of 40 ns, only two guanine bases become bound (and no others), indicating that the binding initiates at these positions. In general, our results are in good agreement with experimental studies, and provide atomic-scale insights into the processes. PMID:18186477

  3. RNA-binding properties and RNA chaperone activity of human peroxiredoxin 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Lee, Hae Na; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ha, Bin; Ahn, Sung-Min; Jang, Ho Hee; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hPrx1 has RNA-binding properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hPrx1 exhibits helix-destabilizing activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cold stress increases hPrx1 level in the nuclear fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hPrx1 enhances the viability of cells exposed to cold stress. -- Abstract: Human peroxiredoxin 1 (hPrx1), a member of the peroxiredoxin family, detoxifies peroxide substrates and has been implicated in numerous biological processes, including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and redox signaling. To date, Prx1 has not been implicated in RNA metabolism. Here, we investigated the ability of hPrx1 to bind RNA and act as an RNA chaperone. In vitro, hPrx1 bound to RNA and DNA, and unwound nucleic acid duplexes. hPrx1 also acted as a transcription anti-terminator in an assay using an Escherichia coli strain containing a stem-loop structure upstream of the chloramphenicol resistance gene. The overall cellular level of hPrx1 expression was not increased at low temperatures, but the nuclear level of hPrx1 was increased. In addition, hPrx1 overexpression enhanced the survival of cells exposed to cold stress, whereas hPrx1 knockdown significantly reduced cell survival under the same conditions. These findings suggest that hPrx1 may perform biological functions as a RNA-binding protein, which are distinctive from known functions of hPrx1 as a reactive oxygen species scavenger.

  4. Promoter-distal RNA polymerase II binding discriminates active from inactive CCAAT/ enhancer-binding protein beta binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Savic, Daniel; Roberts, Brian S.; Carleton, Julia B.; Partridge, E. Christopher; White, Michael A.; Cohen, Barak A.; Cooper, Gregory M.; Gertz, Jason; Myers, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind to thousands of DNA sequences in mammalian genomes, but most of these binding events appear to have no direct effect on gene expression. It is unclear why only a subset of TF bound sites are actively involved in transcriptional regulation. Moreover, the key genomic features that accurately discriminate between active and inactive TF binding events remain ambiguous. Recent studies have identified promoter-distal RNA polymerase II (RNAP2) binding at enhancer elements, suggesting that these interactions may serve as a marker for active regulatory sequences. Despite these correlative analyses, a thorough functional validation of these genomic co-occupancies is still lacking. To characterize the gene regulatory activity of DNA sequences underlying promoter-distal TF binding events that co-occur with RNAP2 and TF sites devoid of RNAP2 occupancy using a functional reporter assay, we performed cis-regulatory element sequencing (CRE-seq). We tested more than 1000 promoter-distal CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (CEBPB)-bound sites in HepG2 and K562 cells, and found that CEBPB-bound sites co-occurring with RNAP2 were more likely to exhibit enhancer activity. CEBPB-bound sites further maintained substantial cell-type specificity, indicating that local DNA sequence can accurately convey cell-type–specific regulatory information. By comparing our CRE-seq results to a comprehensive set of genome annotations, we identified a variety of genomic features that are strong predictors of regulatory element activity and cell-type–specific activity. Collectively, our functional assay results indicate that RNAP2 occupancy can be used as a key genomic marker that can distinguish active from inactive TF bound sites. PMID:26486725

  5. The anti-trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (Anti-TRAP), AT, recognizes the tryptophan-activated RNA binding domain of the TRAP regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Valbuzzi, Angela; Gollnick, Paul; Babitzke, Paul; Yanofsky, Charles

    2002-03-22

    In Bacillus subtilis, the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) regulates expression of genes involved in tryptophan metabolism in response to the accumulation of l-tryptophan. Tryptophan-activated TRAP negatively regulates expression by binding to specific mRNA sequences and either promoting transcription termination or blocking translation initiation. Conversely, the accumulation of uncharged tRNA(Trp) induces synthesis of an anti-TRAP protein (AT), which forms a complex with TRAP and inhibits its activity. In this report, we investigate the structural features of TRAP required for AT recognition. A collection of TRAP mutant proteins was examined that were known to be partially or completely defective in tryptophan binding and/or RNA binding. Analyses of AT interactions with these proteins were performed using in vitro transcription termination assays and cross-linking experiments. We observed that TRAP mutant proteins that had lost the ability to bind RNA were no longer recognized by AT. Our findings suggest that AT acts by competing with messenger RNA for the RNA binding domain of TRAP. B. subtilis AT was also shown to interact with TRAP proteins from Bacillus halodurans and Bacillus stearothermophilus, implying that the structural elements required for AT recognition are conserved in the TRAP proteins of these species. Analyses of AT interaction with B. stearothermophilus TRAP at 60 degrees C demonstrated that AT is active at this elevated temperature. PMID:11786553

  6. An RNA chaperone activity of non-specific RNA binding proteins in hammerhead ribozyme catalysis.

    PubMed Central

    Herschlag, D; Khosla, M; Tsuchihashi, Z; Karpel, R L

    1994-01-01

    We have previously shown that a protein derived from the p7 nucleocapsid (NC) protein of HIV type-1 increases kcat/Km and kcat for cleavage of a cognate substrate by a hammerhead ribozyme. Here we show directly that the increase in kcat/Km arises from catalysis of the annealing of the RNA substrate to the ribozyme and the increase in kcat arises from catalysis of dissociation of the RNA products from the ribozyme. A peptide polymer derived from the consensus sequence of the C-terminal domain of the hnRNP A1 protein (A1 CTD) provides similar enhancements. Although these effects apparently arise from non-specific interactions, not all non-specific binding interactions led to these enhancements. NC and A1 CTD exert their effects by accelerating attainment of the thermodynamically most stable species throughout the ribozyme catalytic cycle. In addition, NC protein is shown to resolve a misfolded ribozyme-RNA complex that is otherwise long lived. These in vitro results suggest that non-specific RNA binding proteins such as NC and hnRNP proteins may have a biological role as RNA chaperones that prevent misfolding of RNAs and resolve RNAs that have misfolded, thereby ensuring that RNA is accessible for its biological functions. Images PMID:8026476

  7. Mutations that bypass tRNA binding activate the intrinsically defective kinase domain in GCN2

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hongfang; Hu, Cuihua; Dong, Jinsheng; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2002-01-01

    The protein kinase GCN2 is activated in amino acid-starved cells on binding of uncharged tRNA to a histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS)-related domain. We isolated two point mutations in the protein kinase (PK) domain, R794G and F842L, that permit strong kinase activity in the absence of tRNA binding. These mutations also bypass the requirement for ribosome binding, dimerization, and association with the GCN1/GCN20 regulatory complex, suggesting that all of these functions facilitate tRNA binding to wild-type GCN2. While the isolated wild-type PK domain was completely inert, the mutant PK was highly active in vivo and in vitro. These results identify an inhibitory structure intrinsic to the PK domain that must be overcome on tRNA binding by interactions with a regulatory region, most likely the N terminus of the HisRS segment. As Arg 794 and Phe 842 are predicted to lie close to one another and to the active site, they may participate directly in misaligning active site residues. Autophosphorylation of the activation loop was stimulated by R794G and F842L, and the autophosphorylation sites remained critical for GCN2 function in the presence of these mutations. Our results imply a two-step activation mechanism involving distinct conformational changes in the PK domain. PMID:12023305

  8. Identification of a Male-Specific RNA Binding Protein That Regulates Sex-Specific Splicing of Bmdsx by Increasing RNA Binding Activity of BmPSI▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masataka G.; Imanishi, Shigeo; Dohmae, Naoshi; Asanuma, Miwako; Matsumoto, Shogo

    2010-01-01

    Bmdsx is a sex-determining gene in the silkworm and is alternatively spliced in males and females. CE1 is a splicing silencer element responsible for the sex-specific splicing of Bmdsx. To identify sex-specific factors implicated in the sex-specific splicing of Bmdsx, we performed RNA affinity chromatography using CE1 RNA as a ligand. We have identified BmIMP, a Bombyx homolog of IGF-II mRNA binding protein (IMP), as a male-specific factor that specifically binds to CE1. The gene encoding BmIMP is localized on the Z chromosome and is male-specifically expressed in various tissues. Antisense inhibition of BmIMP expression increased female-specific splicing of Bmdsx pre-mRNA. Coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown analyses demonstrated that BmIMP physically interacts with BmPSI, which has been identified as a factor implicated in the sex-specific splicing of Bmdsx, through the KH domains of BmIMP. The functional consequence of this interaction was examined using RNA mobility shift analysis. BmIMP increased BmPSI-CE1 RNA binding activity by decreasing the rate of BmPSI dissociation from CE1 RNA. Truncation analysis of BmIMP suggested that the KH domains are responsible for enhancing BmPSI-CE1 RNA binding activity. These results suggest that BmIMP may enhance the male-specific splicing of Bmdsx pre-mRNA by increasing RNA binding activity of BmPSI. PMID:20956562

  9. Visualizing repetitive diffusion activity of double-strand RNA binding proteins by single molecule fluorescence assays.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hye Ran; Wang, Xinlei; Myong, Sua

    2016-08-01

    TRBP, one of double strand RNA binding proteins (dsRBPs), is an essential cofactor of Dicer in the RNA interference pathway. Previously we reported that TRBP exhibits repetitive diffusion activity on double strand (ds)RNA in an ATP independent manner. In the TRBP-Dicer complex, the diffusion mobility of TRBP facilitates Dicer-mediated RNA cleavage. Such repetitive diffusion of dsRBPs on a nucleic acid at the nanometer scale can be appropriately captured by several single molecule detection techniques. Here, we provide a step-by-step guide to four different single molecule fluorescence assays by which the diffusion activity of dsRBPs on dsRNA can be detected. One color assay, termed protein induced fluorescence enhancement enables detection of unlabeled protein binding and diffusion on a singly labeled RNA. Two-color Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) in which labeled dsRBPs is applied to labeled RNA, allows for probing the motion of protein along the RNA axis. Three color FRET reports on the diffusion movement of dsRBPs from one to the other end of RNA. The single molecule pull down assay provides an opportunity to collect dsRBPs from mammalian cells and examine the protein-RNA interaction at single molecule platform. PMID:27012177

  10. Mutations in RRM4 uncouple the splicing repression and RNA-binding activities of polypyrimidine tract binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiying; Zhang, Wenqing; Reed, Robyn B; Liu, Weiqun; Grabowski, Paula J

    2002-01-01

    The polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB, or hnRNP I) contains four RNA-binding domains of the ribonucleoprotein fold type (RRMs 1, 2, 3, and 4), and mediates the negative regulation of alternative splicing through sequence-specific binding to intronic splicing repressor elements. To assess the roles of individual RRM domains in splicing repression, a neural-specific splicing extract was used to screen for loss-of-function mutations that fail to switch splicing from the neural to nonneural pathway. These results show that three RRMs are sufficient for wild-type RNA binding and splicing repression activity, provided that RRM4 is intact. Surprisingly, the deletion of RRM4, or as few as 12 RRM4 residues, effectively uncouples these functions. Such an uncoupling phenotype is unique to RRM4, and suggests a possible regulatory role for this domain either in mediating specific RNA contacts, and/or contacts with putative splicing corepressors. Evidence of a role for RRM4 in anchoring PTB binding adjacent to the branch site is shown by mobility shift and RNA footprinting assays. PMID:11911361

  11. mRNA 5'-cap binding activity in purified influenza virus detected by simple, rapid assay.

    PubMed Central

    Kroath, H; Shatkin, A J

    1982-01-01

    Reovirus mRNA 5'-terminal caps were 3'-radiolabeled with pCp and as affinity probes for proteins with cap binding activity. A rapid, simple, and sensitive blot assay was devised that could detect cellular cap binding protein in a complex polypeptide mixture. By using this method, cap binding activity was found in detergent-treated influenza virus but not in reovirus or vaccinia virus. Preincubation of capped reovirus mRNA with purified cellular cap binding protein reduced its primer effect on influenza transcriptase, whereas priming by ApG was not affected. The results indicate that influenza transcriptase complexes include cap-recognizing proteins that are involved in the formation of chimeric mRNAs. Images PMID:7097854

  12. Mannan binding lectin attenuates double-stranded RNA-mediated TLR3 activation and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongzhi; Zhou, Jia; Ma, Di; Lu, Xiao; Ming, Siqi; Shan, Guiqiu; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Hou, Jinlin; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2014-03-18

    Mannan binding lectin (MBL) functions as a pattern recognition molecule (PRM) which is able to initiate complement activation. Here, we characterize a previously unrecognized attribute of MBL as a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein capable of modifying Toll like receptor 3 (TLR3) activation. MBL interacts with poly(I:C) and suppresses poly(I:C)-induced activation of TLR3 pathways and subsequent cytokine production. In addition, MBL binds to TLR3 directly. Surprisingly, disrupting the interaction between MBL and complement receptor 1 (CR1) or restraining the traffic of MBL to phagosome reversed the MBL limited TLR3 activation. We demonstrate the importance of MBL guided ligands intracellular localization, emphasizing the significance of understanding the dynamics of TLR agonists complexed with MBL or other PRMs inside the cell in immune defense. PMID:24530528

  13. Thermodynamics of tryptophan-mediated activation of the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Craig A; Manfredo, Amanda; Gollnick, Paul; Foster, Mark P

    2006-06-27

    The trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) functions in many bacilli to control the expression of the tryptophan biosynthesis genes. Transcription of the trp operon is controlled by TRAP through an attenuation mechanism, in which competition between two alternative secondary-structural elements in the 5' leader sequence of the nascent mRNA is influenced by tryptophan-dependent binding of TRAP to the RNA. Previously, NMR studies of the undecamer (11-mer) suggested that tryptophan-dependent control of RNA binding by TRAP is accomplished through ligand-induced changes in protein dynamics. We now present further insights into this ligand-coupled event from hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Scanning calorimetry showed tryptophan dissociation to be independent of global protein unfolding, while analysis of the temperature dependence of the binding enthalpy by ITC revealed a negative heat capacity change larger than expected from surface burial, a hallmark of binding-coupled processes. Analysis of this excess heat capacity change using parameters derived from protein folding studies corresponds to the ordering of 17-24 residues per monomer of TRAP upon tryptophan binding. This result is in agreement with qualitative analysis of residue-specific broadening observed in TROSY NMR spectra of the 91 kDa oligomer. Implications for the mechanism of ligand-mediated TRAP activation through a shift in a preexisting conformational equilibrium and an induced-fit conformational change are discussed. PMID:16784236

  14. Characterization of RNA binding and chaperoning activities of HIV-1 Vif protein

    PubMed Central

    Sleiman, Dona; Bernacchi, Serena; Xavier Guerrero, Santiago; Brachet, Franck; Larue, Valéry; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Tisné, Carine

    2014-01-01

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for the productive infection and dissemination of HIV-1 in non-permissive cells, containing the cellular anti-HIV defense cytosine deaminases APOBEC3 (A3G and A3F). Vif neutralizes the antiviral activities of the APOBEC3G/F by diverse mechanisms including their degradation through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and their translational inhibition. In addition, Vif appears to be an active partner of the late steps of viral replication by interacting with Pr55Gag, reverse transcriptase and genomic RNA. Here, we expressed and purified full-length and truncated Vif proteins, and analyzed their RNA binding and chaperone properties. First, we showed by CD and NMR spectroscopies that the N-terminal domain of Vif is highly structured in solution, whereas the C-terminal domain remains mainly unfolded. Both domains exhibited substantial RNA binding capacities with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range, whereas the basic unfolded C-terminal domain of Vif was responsible in part for its RNA chaperone activity. Second, we showed by NMR chemical shift mapping that Vif and NCp7 share the same binding sites on tRNALys3, the primer of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Finally, our results indicate that Vif has potent RNA chaperone activity and provide direct evidence for an important role of the unstructured C-terminal domain of Vif in this capacity. PMID:25144404

  15. An RNA aptamer that interferes with the DNA binding of the HSF transcription activator

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoching; Shi, Hua; Sevilimedu, Aarti; Liachko, Nicole; Nelson, Hillary C. M.; Lis, John T.

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock factor (HSF) is a conserved and highly potent transcription activator. It is involved in a wide variety of important biological processes including the stress response and specific steps in normal development. Reagents that interfere with HSF function would be useful for both basic studies and practical applications. We selected an RNA aptamer that binds to HSF with high specificity. Deletion analysis defined the minimal binding motif of this aptamer to be two stems and one stem–loop joined by a three-way junction. This RNA aptamer interferes with normal interaction of HSF with its DNA element, which is a key regulatory step for HSF function. The DNA-binding domain plus a flanking linker region on the HSF (DL) is essential for the RNA binding. Additionally, this aptamer inhibits HSF-induced transcription in vitro in the complex milieu of a whole cell extract. In contrast to the previously characterized NF-κB aptamer, the HSF aptamer does not simply mimic DNA binding, but rather binds to HSF in a manner distinct from DNA binding to HSF. PMID:16893958

  16. Small activating RNA binds to the genomic target site in a seed-region-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xing; Jiang, Qian; Chang, Nannan; Wang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Chujun; Xiong, Jingwei; Cao, Huiqing; Liang, Zicai

    2016-01-01

    RNA activation (RNAa) is the upregulation of gene expression by small activating RNAs (saRNAs). In order to investigate the mechanism by which saRNAs act in RNAa, we used the progesterone receptor (PR) gene as a model, established a panel of effective saRNAs and assessed the involvement of the sense and antisense strands of saRNA in RNAa. All active saRNAs had their antisense strand effectively incorporated into Ago2, whereas such consistency did not occur for the sense strand. Using a distal hotspot for saRNA targeting at 1.6-kb upstream from the PR transcription start site, we further established that gene activation mediated by saRNA depended on the complementarity of the 5′ region of the antisense strand, and that such activity was largely abolished by mutations in this region of the saRNA. We found markedly reduced RNAa effects when we created mutations in the genomic target site of saRNA PR-1611, thus providing evidence that RNAa depends on the integrity of the DNA target. We further demonstrated that this saRNA bound the target site on promoter DNA. These results demonstrated that saRNAs work via an on-site mechanism by binding to target genomic DNA in a seed-region-dependent manner, reminiscent of miRNA-like target recognition. PMID:26873922

  17. HIV-1 TAR RNA-binding proteins control TAT activation of translation in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Braddock, M; Powell, R; Blanchard, A D; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1993-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) gene expression is activated by the viral TAT protein that interacts with an RNA sequence, TAR, located at the 5' end of all viral mRNAs. TAT functions primarily as a transcriptional activator in mammalian cells. However, in Xenopus oocytes TAT functions primarily as a translational activator. TAR is an RNA structure comprising a partially base-paired stem, a tripyrimidine bulge in the upper stem, and an unpaired six-nucleotide loop. In vitro, TAT binds directly to the bulge with no requirement for the loop. In vivo, however, mutations in the loop abolish TAT activation of transcription and translation, implying a requirement for TAR-binding cellular factors. We now provide genetic evidence for the presence of two TAR-specific cellular factors in Xenopus oocytes. These factors display independent and mutually exclusive interactions with either the loop or the bulge region of TAR. Furthermore, by using in vivo RNA competition assays we show that the cellular factors regulate the accessibility of the TAT binding site. The fact that Xenopus oocytes contain factors that specifically interact with a human viral RNA sequence might indicate that the TAT/TAR interaction is subverting a conserved pathway in the cell. PMID:8422967

  18. Upregulation of RNase E activity by mutation of a site that uncompetitively interferes with RNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minho; Shin, Eunkyoung; Jeon, Che Ok; Cha, Chang-Jun; Han, Seung Hyun; Kim, Su-Jin; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Younghoon; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli RNase E contains a site that selectively binds to RNAs containing 5′-monophosphate termini, increasing the efficiency of endonucleolytic cleavage of these RNAs. Random mutagenesis of N-Rne, the N-terminal catalytic region of RNase E, identified a hyperactive variant that remains preferentially responsive to phosphorylation at 5′ termini. Biochemical analyses showed that the mutation (Q36R), which replaces glutamine with arginine at a position distant from the catalytic site, increases formation of stable RNA-protein complexes without detectably affecting the enzyme's secondary or tertiary structure. Studies of cleavage of fluorogenic substrate and EMSA experiments indicated that the Q36R mutation increases catalytic activity and RNA binding. however, UV crosslinking and mass spectrometry studies suggested that the mutant enzyme lacks an RNA binding site present in its wild-type counterpart. Two substrate-bound tryptic peptides, 65HGFLPLK71—which includes amino acids previously implicated in substrate binding and catalysis—and 24LYDLDIESPGHEQK37—which includes the Q36 locus—were identified in wild-type enzyme complexes, whereas only the shorter peptide was observed for complexes containing Q36R. Our results identify a novel RNase E locus that disparately affects the number of substrate binding sites and catalytic activity of the enzyme. We propose a model that may account for these surprising effects. PMID:22186084

  19. Glycyl-tRNA synthetase specifically binds to the poliovirus IRES to activate translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Andreev, Dmitri E.; Hirnet, Juliane; Terenin, Ilya M.; Dmitriev, Sergey E.; Niepmann, Michael; Shatsky, Ivan N.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to the host cell environment to efficiently take-over the host cell's machinery is crucial in particular for small RNA viruses like picornaviruses that come with only small RNA genomes and replicate exclusively in the cytosol. Their Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) elements are specific RNA structures that facilitate the 5′ end-independent internal initiation of translation both under normal conditions and when the cap-dependent host protein synthesis is shut-down in infected cells. A longstanding issue is which host factors play a major role in this internal initiation. Here, we show that the functionally most important domain V of the poliovirus IRES uses tRNAGly anticodon stem–loop mimicry to recruit glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS) to the apical part of domain V, adjacent to the binding site of the key initiation factor eIF4G. The binding of GARS promotes the accommodation of the initiation region of the IRES in the mRNA binding site of the ribosome, thereby greatly enhancing the activity of the IRES at the step of the 48S initiation complex formation. Moonlighting functions of GARS that may be additionally needed for other events of the virus–host cell interaction are discussed. PMID:22373920

  20. Evolution of RNA-Protein Interactions: Non-Specific Binding Led to RNA Splicing Activity of Fungal Mitochondrial Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Lamech, Lilian T.; Mallam, Anna L.; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The Neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (mtTyrRS; CYT-18 protein) evolved a new function as a group I intron splicing factor by acquiring the ability to bind group I intron RNAs and stabilize their catalytically active RNA structure. Previous studies showed: (i) CYT-18 binds group I introns by using both its N-terminal catalytic domain and flexibly attached C-terminal anticodon-binding domain (CTD); and (ii) the catalytic domain binds group I introns specifically via multiple structural adaptations that occurred during or after the divergence of Peziomycotina and Saccharomycotina. However, the function of the CTD and how it contributed to the evolution of splicing activity have been unclear. Here, small angle X-ray scattering analysis of CYT-18 shows that both CTDs of the homodimeric protein extend outward from the catalytic domain, but move inward to bind opposite ends of a group I intron RNA. Biochemical assays show that the isolated CTD of CYT-18 binds RNAs non-specifically, possibly contributing to its interaction with the structurally different ends of the intron RNA. Finally, we find that the yeast mtTyrRS, which diverged from Pezizomycotina fungal mtTyrRSs prior to the evolution of splicing activity, binds group I intron and other RNAs non-specifically via its CTD, but lacks further adaptations needed for group I intron splicing. Our results suggest a scenario of constructive neutral (i.e., pre-adaptive) evolution in which an initial non-specific interaction between the CTD of an ancestral fungal mtTyrRS and a self-splicing group I intron was “fixed” by an intron RNA mutation that resulted in protein-dependent splicing. Once fixed, this interaction could be elaborated by further adaptive mutations in both the catalytic domain and CTD that enabled specific binding of group I introns. Our results highlight a role for non-specific RNA binding in the evolution of RNA-binding proteins. PMID:25536042

  1. Identification of Biologically Active, HIV TAR RNA-Binding Small Molecules Using Small Molecule Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Identifying small molecules that selectively bind to structured RNA motifs remains an important challenge in developing potent and specific therapeutics. Most strategies to find RNA-binding molecules have identified highly charged compounds or aminoglycosides that commonly have modest selectivity. Here we demonstrate a strategy to screen a large unbiased library of druglike small molecules in a microarray format against an RNA target. This approach has enabled the identification of a novel chemotype that selectively targets the HIV transactivation response (TAR) RNA hairpin in a manner not dependent on cationic charge. Thienopyridine 4 binds to and stabilizes the TAR hairpin with a Kd of 2.4 μM. Structure–activity relationships demonstrate that this compound achieves activity through hydrophobic and aromatic substituents on a heterocyclic core, rather than cationic groups typically required. Selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) analysis was performed on a 365-nucleotide sequence derived from the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the HIV-1 genome to determine global structural changes in the presence of the molecule. Importantly, the interaction of compound 4 can be mapped to the TAR hairpin without broadly disrupting any other structured elements of the 5′ UTR. Cell-based anti-HIV assays indicated that 4 inhibits HIV-induced cytopathicity in T lymphocytes with an EC50 of 28 μM, while cytotoxicity was not observed at concentrations approaching 1 mM. PMID:24820959

  2. Autoantibodies define a family of proteins with conserved double-stranded RNA-binding domains as well as DNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Satoh, M; Shaheen, V M; Kao, P N; Okano, T; Shaw, M; Yoshida, H; Richards, H B; Reeves, W H

    1999-12-01

    Cellular responses to viral infection are signaled by double-stranded (ds) RNA, which is not found in substantial amounts in uninfected cells. Although cellular dsRNA-binding proteins have been described, their characterization is incomplete. We show that dsRNA-binding proteins are prominent autoantigens. Sera from B6 and B10.S mice with pristane-induced lupus and human autoimmune sera immunoprecipitated a novel set of 130-, 110-, 90-, 80-, and 45-kDa proteins. The proteins were all major cellular poly(IC)-binding factors. N-terminal amino acid sequences of p110 and p90 were identical and matched nuclear factor (NF) 90 and M phase phosphoprotein 4. p45 and p90 were identified as the NF45.NF90 complex, which binds the interleukin-2 promoter as well as certain highly structured viral RNAs. NF90.NF45 and M phase phosphoprotein 4 belong to a large group of proteins with conserved dsRNA-binding motifs. Besides binding dsRNA, NF90.NF45, p110, and p130 had single-stranded and dsDNA binding activity. Some sera contained autoantibodies whose binding was inhibited by poly(IC) but not single-stranded DNA or vice versa, suggesting that the DNA- and RNA-binding sites are different. These autoantibodies will be useful probes of the function of dsRNA-binding proteins. Their interaction with dsRNA, an immunological adjuvant, also could promote autoimmunity. PMID:10574923

  3. Rice LGD1 containing RNA binding activity affects growth and development through alternative promoters.

    PubMed

    Thangasamy, Saminathan; Chen, Pei-Wei; Lai, Ming-Hsing; Chen, Jychian; Jauh, Guang-Yuh

    2012-07-01

    Tiller initiation and panicle development are important agronomical traits for grain production in Oryza sativa L. (rice), but their regulatory mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, T-DNA mutant and RNAi transgenic approaches were used to functionally characterize a unique rice gene, LAGGING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 1 (LGD1). The lgd1 mutant showed slow growth, reduced tiller number and plant height, altered panicle architecture and reduced grain yield. The fewer unelongated internodes and cells in lgd1 led to respective reductions in tiller number and to semi-dwarfism. Several independent LGD1-RNAi lines exhibited defective phenotypes similar to those observed in lgd1. Interestingly, LGD1 encodes multiple transcripts with different transcription start sites (TSSs), which were validated by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' and 3' cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). Additionally, GUS assays and a luciferase promoter assay confirmed the promoter activities of LGD1.1 and LGD1.5. LGD1 encoding a von Willebrand factor type A (vWA) domain containing protein is a single gene in rice that is seemingly specific to grasses. GFP-tagged LGD1 isoforms were predominantly detected in the nucleus, and weakly in the cytoplasm. In vitro northwestern analysis showed the RNA-binding activity of the recombinant C-terminal LGD1 protein. Our results demonstrated that LGD1 pleiotropically regulated rice vegetative growth and development through both the distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns of its multiple transcripts and RNA binding activity. Hence, the study of LGD1 will strengthen our understanding of the molecular basis of the multiple transcripts, and their corresponding polypeptides with RNA binding activity, that regulate pleiotropic effects in rice. PMID:22409537

  4. Multiple activities of RNA-binding proteins S1 and Hfq.

    PubMed

    Hajnsdorf, Eliane; Boni, Irina V

    2012-07-01

    In all organisms, RNA-binding proteins participate in modulating all the steps in the life cycle of RNA, including transcription, folding, translation and turnover. In bacteria, RNA-binding proteins may be specific for a few RNA targets (e.g., several ribosomal proteins that recognize both rRNA during ribosome assembly and their own mRNAs when acting as highly specific autogenous repressors) or function as global regulators implicated in numerous regulatory networks. Some RNA-binding proteins combine all these features, and this particularly concerns the ribosomal protein S1 and the Sm-like protein Hfq. S1 is a key mRNA-binding protein in gram-negative bacteria; it recognizes mRNA leaders and provides binding of diverse mRNAs to the ribosome at the initiation step of translation. Moreover, S1 is a highly specific autogenous repressor that is able to distinguish its own mRNA from all the others. Hfq is recognized as a global regulator that facilitates small RNA-mRNA interactions in bacteria; it thereby controls the expression of many mRNAs either positively or negatively. In addition, these two proteins were reported to affect transcription, RNA degradation and other processes. Although they have no sequence specificity, Hfq and S1 preferentially bind A/U-rich single-stranded RNA regions; despite this, they nevertheless carry out very different tasks in the cell. This review is focused on the diversity of functions that can be performed by these abundant RNA-binding bacterial proteins. PMID:22370051

  5. The non-coding B2 RNA binds to the DNA cleft and active-site region of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Ponicsan, Steven L; Houel, Stephane; Old, William M; Ahn, Natalie G; Goodrich, James A; Kugel, Jennifer F

    2013-10-01

    The B2 family of short interspersed elements is transcribed into non-coding RNA by RNA polymerase III. The ~180-nt B2 RNA has been shown to potently repress mRNA transcription by binding tightly to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and assembling with it into complexes on promoter DNA, where it keeps the polymerase from properly engaging the promoter DNA. Mammalian Pol II is an ~500-kDa complex that contains 12 different protein subunits, providing many possible surfaces for interaction with B2 RNA. We found that the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest Pol II subunit was not required for B2 RNA to bind Pol II and repress transcription in vitro. To identify the surface on Pol II to which the minimal functional region of B2 RNA binds, we coupled multi-step affinity purification, reversible formaldehyde cross-linking, peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry, and analysis of peptide enrichment. The Pol II peptides most highly recovered after cross-linking to B2 RNA mapped to the DNA binding cleft and active-site region of Pol II. These studies determine the location of a defined nucleic acid binding site on a large, native, multi-subunit complex and provide insight into the mechanism of transcriptional repression by B2 RNA. PMID:23416138

  6. DNA/RNA binding and anticancer/antimicrobial activities of polymer-copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmipraba, Jagadeesan; Arunachalam, Sankaralingam; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Dhivya, Rajakumar; Vignesh, Sivanandham; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader; James, Rathinam Arthur

    2013-05-01

    Water soluble polymer-copper(II) complexes with various degrees of coordination in the polymer chain were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible and EPR spectra. The DNA/RNA binding behavior of these polymer-copper(II) complexes was examined by UV-visible absorption, emission and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods, and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The binding of the polymer-copper(II) complexes with DNA/RNA was mainly through intercalation but some amount of electrostatic interaction was also observed. This binding capacity increased with the degree of coordination of the complexes. The polymer-copper(II) complex having the highest degree of coordination was subjected to analysis of cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties. The cytotoxicity study indicated that the polymer-copper(II) complexes affected the viability of MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells, and the cells responded to the treatment with mostly through apoptosis although a few cells succumbed to necrosis. The antimicrobial screening showed activity against some human pathogens.

  7. Repressor activity of the RpoS/σS-dependent RNA polymerase requires DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Lévi-Meyrueis, Corinne; Monteil, Véronique; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Kolb, Annie; Monot, Marc; Dupuy, Bruno; Duarte, Sara Serradas; Jagla, Bernd; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Beraud, Mélanie; Norel, Françoise

    2015-02-18

    The RpoS/σ(S) sigma subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP) activates transcription of stationary phase genes in many Gram-negative bacteria and controls adaptive functions, including stress resistance, biofilm formation and virulence. In this study, we address an important but poorly understood aspect of σ(S)-dependent control, that of a repressor. Negative regulation by σ(S) has been proposed to result largely from competition between σ(S) and other σ factors for binding to a limited amount of core RNAP (E). To assess whether σ(S) binding to E alone results in significant downregulation of gene expression by other σ factors, we characterized an rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium producing a σ(S) protein proficient for Eσ(S) complex formation but deficient in promoter DNA binding. Genome expression profiling and physiological assays revealed that this mutant was defective for negative regulation, indicating that gene repression by σ(S) requires its binding to DNA. Although the mechanisms of repression by σ(S) are likely specific to individual genes and environmental conditions, the study of transcription downregulation of the succinate dehydrogenase operon suggests that σ competition at the promoter DNA level plays an important role in gene repression by Eσ(S). PMID:25578965

  8. Repressor activity of the RpoS/σS-dependent RNA polymerase requires DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Lévi-Meyrueis, Corinne; Monteil, Véronique; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Kolb, Annie; Monot, Marc; Dupuy, Bruno; Duarte, Sara Serradas; Jagla, Bernd; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Beraud, Mélanie; Norel, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The RpoS/σS sigma subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP) activates transcription of stationary phase genes in many Gram-negative bacteria and controls adaptive functions, including stress resistance, biofilm formation and virulence. In this study, we address an important but poorly understood aspect of σS-dependent control, that of a repressor. Negative regulation by σS has been proposed to result largely from competition between σS and other σ factors for binding to a limited amount of core RNAP (E). To assess whether σS binding to E alone results in significant downregulation of gene expression by other σ factors, we characterized an rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium producing a σS protein proficient for EσS complex formation but deficient in promoter DNA binding. Genome expression profiling and physiological assays revealed that this mutant was defective for negative regulation, indicating that gene repression by σS requires its binding to DNA. Although the mechanisms of repression by σS are likely specific to individual genes and environmental conditions, the study of transcription downregulation of the succinate dehydrogenase operon suggests that σ competition at the promoter DNA level plays an important role in gene repression by EσS. PMID:25578965

  9. Activities of the Sex-lethal protein in RNA binding and protein:protein interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, M; Deshpande, G; Schedl, P

    1998-01-01

    The Drosophila sex determination gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) controls its own expression, and the expression of downstream target genes such as transformer , by regulating pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. Sxl codes an RNA-binding protein that consists of an N-terminus of approximately 100 amino acids, two 90 amino acid RRM domains, R1 and R2, and an 80 amino acid C-terminus. In the studies reported here we have examined the functional properties of the different Sxl protein domains in RNA binding and in protein:protein interactions. The two RRM domains are responsible for RNA binding. Specificity in the recognition of target RNAs requires both RRM domains, and proteins which consist of the single domains or duplicated domains have anomalous RNA recognition properties. Moreover, the length of the linker between domains can affect RNA recognition properties. Our results indicate that the two RRM domains mediate Sxl:Sxl protein interactions, and that these interactions probably occur both in cis and trans. We speculate that cis interactions between R1 and R2 play a role in RNA recognition by the Sxl protein, while trans interactions stabilize complex formation on target RNAs that contain two or more closely spaced binding sites. Finally, we show that the interaction of Sxl with the snRNP protein Snf is mediated by the R1 RRM domain. PMID:9592147

  10. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein causes endothelial dysfunction via activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weng-Lang; Sharma, Archna; Wang, Zhimin; Li, Zhigang; Fan, Jie; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule which stimulates proinflammatory cytokine release in hemorrhage and sepsis. Under these medical conditions, disruption of endothelial homeostasis and barrier integrity, typically induced by proinflammatory cytokines, is an important factor contributing to morbidity and mortality. However, the role of CIRP in causing endothelial dysfunction has not been investigated. In this study, we show that intravenous injection of recombinant murine CIRP (rmCIRP) in C57BL/6 mice causes lung injury, evidenced by vascular leakage, edema, increased leukocyte infiltration and cytokine production in the lung tissue. The CIRP-induced lung damage is accompanied with endothelial cell (EC) activation marked by upregulation of cell-surface adhesion molecules E-selectin and ICAM-1. Using in vitro primary mouse lung vascular ECs (MLVECs), we demonstrate that rmCIRP treatment directly increases the ICAM-1 protein expression and activates NAD(P)H oxidase in MLVECs. Importantly, CIRP stimulates the assembly and activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome in MLVECs accompanied with caspase-1 activation, IL-1β release and induction of proinflammatory cell death pyroptosis. Finally, our study demonstrates CIRP-induced EC pyroptosis in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice for the first time. Taken together, the released CIRP in shock can directly activate ECs and induce EC pyroptosis to cause lung injury. PMID:27217302

  11. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein causes endothelial dysfunction via activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weng-Lang; Sharma, Archna; Wang, Zhimin; Li, Zhigang; Fan, Jie; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule which stimulates proinflammatory cytokine release in hemorrhage and sepsis. Under these medical conditions, disruption of endothelial homeostasis and barrier integrity, typically induced by proinflammatory cytokines, is an important factor contributing to morbidity and mortality. However, the role of CIRP in causing endothelial dysfunction has not been investigated. In this study, we show that intravenous injection of recombinant murine CIRP (rmCIRP) in C57BL/6 mice causes lung injury, evidenced by vascular leakage, edema, increased leukocyte infiltration and cytokine production in the lung tissue. The CIRP-induced lung damage is accompanied with endothelial cell (EC) activation marked by upregulation of cell-surface adhesion molecules E-selectin and ICAM-1. Using in vitro primary mouse lung vascular ECs (MLVECs), we demonstrate that rmCIRP treatment directly increases the ICAM-1 protein expression and activates NAD(P)H oxidase in MLVECs. Importantly, CIRP stimulates the assembly and activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome in MLVECs accompanied with caspase-1 activation, IL-1β release and induction of proinflammatory cell death pyroptosis. Finally, our study demonstrates CIRP-induced EC pyroptosis in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice for the first time. Taken together, the released CIRP in shock can directly activate ECs and induce EC pyroptosis to cause lung injury. PMID:27217302

  12. The tRNA-binding moiety in GCN2 contains a dimerization domain that interacts with the kinase domain and is required for tRNA binding and kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hongfang; Dong, Jinsheng; Hu, Cuihua; Francklyn, Christopher S.; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2001-01-01

    GCN2 stimulates translation of GCN4 mRNA in amino acid-starved cells by phosphorylating translation initiation factor 2. GCN2 is activated by binding of uncharged tRNA to a domain related to histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS). The HisRS-like region contains two dimerization domains (HisRS-N and HisRS-C) required for GCN2 function in vivo but dispensable for dimerization by full-length GCN2. Residues corresponding to amino acids at the dimer interface of Escherichia coli HisRS were required for dimerization of recombinant HisRS-N and for tRNA binding by full-length GCN2, suggesting that HisRS-N dimerization promotes tRNA binding and kinase activation. HisRS-N also interacted with the protein kinase (PK) domain, and a deletion impairing this interaction destroyed GCN2 function without reducing tRNA binding; thus, HisRS-N–PK interaction appears to stimulate PK function. The C-terminal domain of GCN2 (C-term) interacted with the PK domain in a manner disrupted by an activating PK mutation (E803V). These results suggest that the C-term is an autoinhibitory domain, counteracted by tRNA binding. We conclude that multiple domain interactions, positive and negative, mediate the activation of GCN2 by uncharged tRNA. PMID:11250908

  13. Characterization of RNA binding and chaperoning activities of HIV-1 Vif protein. Importance of the C-terminal unstructured tail.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Dona; Bernacchi, Serena; Xavier Guerrero, Santiago; Brachet, Franck; Larue, Valéry; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Tisne, Carine

    2014-01-01

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for the productive infection and dissemination of HIV-1 in non-permissive cells, containing the cellular anti-HIV defense cytosine deaminases APOBEC3 (A3G and A3F). Vif neutralizes the antiviral activities of the APOBEC3G/F by diverse mechanisms including their degradation through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and their translational inhibition. In addition, Vif appears to be an active partner of the late steps of viral replication by interacting with Pr55(Gag), reverse transcriptase and genomic RNA. Here, we expressed and purified full-length and truncated Vif proteins, and analyzed their RNA binding and chaperone properties. First, we showed by CD and NMR spectroscopies that the N-terminal domain of Vif is highly structured in solution, whereas the C-terminal domain remains mainly unfolded. Both domains exhibited substantial RNA binding capacities with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range, whereas the basic unfolded C-terminal domain of Vif was responsible in part for its RNA chaperone activity. Second, we showed by NMR chemical shift mapping that Vif and NCp7 share the same binding sites on tRNA(Lys) 3, the primer of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Finally, our results indicate that Vif has potent RNA chaperone activity and provide direct evidence for an important role of the unstructured C-terminal domain of Vif in this capacity. PMID:25144404

  14. Homotropic cooperativity from the activation pathway of the allosteric ligand-responsive regulatory trp RNA-binding attenuation protein.

    PubMed

    Kleckner, Ian R; McElroy, Craig A; Kuzmic, Petr; Gollnick, Paul; Foster, Mark P

    2013-12-10

    The trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) assembles into an 11-fold symmetric ring that regulates transcription and translation of trp-mRNA in bacilli via heterotropic allosteric activation by the amino acid tryptophan (Trp). Whereas nuclear magnetic resonance studies have revealed that Trp-induced activation coincides with both microsecond to millisecond rigidification and local structural changes in TRAP, the pathway of binding of the 11 Trp ligands to the TRAP ring remains unclear. Moreover, because each of 11 bound Trp molecules is completely surrounded by protein, its release requires flexibility of Trp-bound (holo) TRAP. Here, we used stopped-flow fluorescence to study the kinetics of Trp binding by Bacillus stearothermophilus TRAP over a range of temperatures and observed well-separated kinetic steps. These data were analyzed using nonlinear least-squares fitting of several two- and three-step models. We found that a model with two binding steps best describes the data, although the structural equivalence of the binding sites in TRAP implies a fundamental change in the time-dependent structure of the TRAP rings upon Trp binding. Application of the two-binding step model reveals that Trp binding is much slower than the diffusion limit, suggesting a gating mechanism that depends on the dynamics of apo TRAP. These data also reveal that dissociation of Trp from the second binding mode is much slower than after the first Trp binding mode, revealing insight into the mechanism for positive homotropic allostery, or cooperativity. Temperature-dependent analyses reveal that both binding modes imbue increases in bondedness and order toward a more compressed active state. These results provide insight into mechanisms of cooperative TRAP activation and underscore the importance of protein dynamics for ligand binding, ligand release, protein activation, and allostery. PMID:24224873

  15. Resveratrol post-transcriptionally regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression via regulation of KSRP RNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Bollmann, Franziska; Art, Julia; Henke, Jenny; Schrick, Katharina; Besche, Verena; Bros, Matthias; Li, Huige; Siuda, Daniel; Handler, Norbert; Bauer, Florian; Erker, Thomas; Behnke, Felix; Mönch, Bettina; Härdle, Lorena; Hoffmann, Markus; Chen, Ching-Yi; Förstermann, Ulrich; Dirsch, Verena M; Werz, Oliver; Kleinert, Hartmut; Pautz, Andrea

    2014-11-10

    Resveratrol shows beneficial effects in inflammation-based diseases like cancer, cardiovascular and chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory resveratrol effects deserve more attention. In human epithelial DLD-1 and monocytic Mono Mac 6 cells resveratrol decreased the expression of iNOS, IL-8 and TNF-α by reducing mRNA stability without inhibition of the promoter activity. Shown by pharmacological and siRNA-mediated inhibition, the observed effects are SIRT1-independent. Target-fishing and drug responsive target stability experiments showed selective binding of resveratrol to the RNA-binding protein KSRP, a central post-transcriptional regulator of pro-inflammatory gene expression. Knockdown of KSRP expression prevented resveratrol-induced mRNA destabilization in human and murine cells. Resveratrol did not change KSRP expression, but immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that resveratrol reduces the p38 MAPK-related inhibitory KSRP threonine phosphorylation, without blocking p38 MAPK activation or activity. Mutation of the p38 MAPK target site in KSRP blocked the resveratrol effect on pro-inflammatory gene expression. In addition, resveratrol incubation enhanced KSRP-exosome interaction, which is important for mRNA degradation. Finally, resveratrol incubation enhanced its intra-cellular binding to the IL-8, iNOS and TNF-α mRNA. Therefore, modulation of KSRP mRNA binding activity and, thereby, enhancement of mRNA degradation seems to be the common denominator of many anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol. PMID:25352548

  16. Novel RNA-binding activity of MYF5 enhances Ccnd1/Cyclin D1 mRNA translation during myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Amaresh C.; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Di Germanio, Clara; Yang, Xiaoling; Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Noh, Ji Heon; Zhang, Yongqing; Lehrmann, Elin; Dudekula, Dawood B.; De, Supriyo; Becker, Kevin G.; White, Elizabeth J.; Wilson, Gerald M.; de Cabo, Rafael; Gorospe, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contains long multinucleated and contractile structures known as muscle fibers, which arise from the fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes during myogenesis. The myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) MYF5 is the earliest to be expressed during myogenesis and functions as a transcription factor in muscle progenitor cells (satellite cells) and myocytes. In mouse C2C12 myocytes, MYF5 is implicated in the initial steps of myoblast differentiation into myotubes. Here, using ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation (RIP) analysis, we discovered a novel function for MYF5 as an RNA-binding protein which associated with a subset of myoblast mRNAs. One prominent MYF5 target was Ccnd1 mRNA, which encodes the key cell cycle regulator CCND1 (Cyclin D1). Biotin-RNA pulldown, UV-crosslinking and gel shift experiments indicated that MYF5 was capable of binding the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) and the coding region (CR) of Ccnd1 mRNA. Silencing MYF5 expression in proliferating myoblasts revealed that MYF5 promoted CCND1 translation and modestly increased transcription of Ccnd1 mRNA. Accordingly, overexpressing MYF5 in C2C12 cells upregulated CCND1 expression while silencing MYF5 reduced myoblast proliferation as well as differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. Moreover, MYF5 silencing reduced myogenesis, while ectopically restoring CCND1 abundance partially rescued the decrease in myogenesis seen after MYF5 silencing. We propose that MYF5 enhances early myogenesis in part by coordinately elevating Ccnd1 transcription and Ccnd1 mRNA translation. PMID:26819411

  17. The RNA-Binding Protein, Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein 1 (PTBP1) Is a Key Regulator of CD4 T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Valentín-Acevedo, Aníbal

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that the RNA binding protein, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTBP1) plays a critical role in regulating the expression of CD40L in activated CD4 T cells. This is achieved mechanistically through message stabilization at late times of activation as well as by altered distribution of CD40L mRNA within distinct cellular compartments. PTBP1 has been implicated in many different processes, however whether PTBP1 plays a broader role in CD4 T cell activation is not known. To examine this question, experiments were designed to introduce shRNA into primary human CD4 T cells to achieve decreased, but not complete ablation of PTBP1 expression. Analyses of shPTB-expressing CD4 T cells revealed multiple processes including cell proliferation, activation-induced cell death and expression of activation markers and cytokines that were regulated in part by PTBP1 expression. Although there was an overall decrease in the steady-state level of several activation genes, only IL-2 and CD40L appeared to be regulated by PTBP1 at the level of RNA decay suggesting that PTBP1 is critical at different regulatory steps of expression that is gene-specific. Importantly, even though the IL-2 protein levels were reduced in cells with lowered PTBP1, the steady-state level of IL-2 mRNA was significantly higher in these cells suggesting a block at the translational level. Evaluation of T cell activation in shPTB-expressing T cells revealed that PTBP1 was linked primarily to the activation of the PLCγ1/ERK1/2 and the NF-κB pathways. Overall, our results reveal the importance of this critical RNA binding protein in multiple steps of T cell activation. PMID:27513449

  18. Mediation of CTCF transcriptional insulation by DEAD-box RNA-binding protein p68 and steroid receptor RNA activator SRA

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hongjie; Brick, Kevin; Evrard, Yvonne; Xiao, Tiaojiang; Camerini-Otero, R. Daniel; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2010-01-01

    CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a DNA-binding protein that plays important roles in chromatin organization, although the mechanism by which CTCF carries out these functions is not fully understood. Recent studies show that CTCF recruits the cohesin complex to insulator sites and that cohesin is required for insulator activity. Here we showed that the DEAD-box RNA helicase p68 (DDX5) and its associated noncoding RNA, steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA), form a complex with CTCF that is essential for insulator function. p68 was detected at CTCF sites in the IGF2/H19 imprinted control region (ICR) as well as other genomic CTCF sites. In vivo depletion of SRA or p68 reduced CTCF-mediated insulator activity at the IGF2/H19 ICR, increased levels of IGF2 expression, and increased interactions between the endodermal enhancer and IGF2 promoter. p68/SRA also interacts with members of the cohesin complex. Depletion of either p68 or SRA does not affect CTCF binding to its genomic sites, but does reduce cohesin binding. The results suggest that p68/SRA stabilizes the interaction of cohesin with CTCF by binding to both, and is required for proper insulator function. PMID:20966046

  19. RNA-Binding Proteins in the Regulation of miRNA Activity: A Focus on Neuronal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Loffreda, Alessia; Rigamonti, Aurora; Barabino, Silvia M. L.; Lenzken, Silvia C.

    2015-01-01

    Posttranscriptional modifications of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are key processes in the fine-tuning of cellular homeostasis. Two major actors in this scenario are RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) that together play important roles in the biogenesis, turnover, translation and localization of mRNAs. This review will highlight recent advances in the understanding of the role of RBPs in the regulation of the maturation and the function of miRNAs. The interplay between miRNAs and RBPs is discussed specifically in the context of neuronal development and function. PMID:26437437

  20. [Use of three-hybrid system to detect RNA-binding activity of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, V G; Smirnova, S A; Mel'nichuk, M D

    2003-01-01

    We used yeast three-hybrid system, for studying interaction of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein AMVCP (AMVCP) with RNA4, which codes this protein. We have shown that AMVCP with high affinity is bound to plus-chain of RNA4 in vivo. The mutational analysis has shown, that the N-terminal part of AMVCP (aa 1 to 85) contains RNA-binding domain. C-terminal part of this protein (aa 86 to 221) does not participate in direct interaction with RNA4. However activity of the reporter-gene LacZ, which codes beta-galactosidase, in case of interaction only N-terminal part of AMVCP is five times lower, in comparison with full-length hybrid protein, that confirms that the tertiary structure of full-length AMVCP is more favourable for interaction with RNA4. PMID:14681978

  1. α-Enolase binds to RNA.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, Liliana; Depardón, Francisco; Fernández-Ramírez, Fernando; Sánchez-Trujillo, Alejandra; Bermúdez-Crúz, Rosa María; Dangott, Lawrence; Montañez, Cecilia

    2011-09-01

    To detect proteins binding to CUG triplet repeats, we performed magnetic bead affinity assays and North-Western analysis using a (CUG)(10) ssRNA probe and either nuclear or total extracts from rat L6 myoblasts. We report the isolation and identification by mass spectrometry and immunodetection of α-enolase, as a novel (CUG)n triplet repeat binding protein. To confirm our findings, rat recombinant α-enolase was cloned, expressed and purified; the RNA binding activity was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assays using radiolabeled RNA probes. Enolase may play other roles in addition to its well described function in glycolysis. PMID:21621582

  2. The red clover necrotic mosaic virus capsid protein N-terminal amino acids possess specific RNA binding activity and are required for stable virion assembly.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ho; Sit, Tim L; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Lommel, Steven A

    2013-09-01

    The red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) bipartite RNA genome is packaged into two virion populations containing either RNA-1 and RNA-2 or multiple copies of RNA-2 only. To understand this distinctive packaging scheme, we investigated the RNA-binding properties of the RCNMV capsid protein (CP). Maltose binding protein-CP fusions exhibited the highest binding affinities for RNA probes containing the RNA-2 trans-activator or the 3' non-coding region from RNA-1. Other viral and non-viral RNA probes displayed CP binding but to a much lower degree. Deletion of the highly basic N-terminal 50 residues abolished CP binding to viral RNA transcripts. In planta studies of select CP deletion mutants within this N-terminal region revealed that it was indispensable for stable virion formation and the region spanning CP residues 5-15 is required for systemic movement. Thus, the N-terminal region of the CP is involved in both producing two virion populations due to its RNA binding properties and virion stability. PMID:23747688

  3. Interaction between the tRNA-binding and C-terminal domains of Yeast Gcn2 regulates kinase activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lageix, Sebastien; Zhang, Jinwei; Rothenburg, Stefan; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2015-02-01

    The stress-activated protein kinase Gcn2 regulates protein synthesis by phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2α. Gcn2 is activated in amino acid-deprived cells by binding of uncharged tRNA to the regulatory domain related to histidyl-tRNA synthetase, but the molecular mechanism of activation is unclear. We used a genetic approach to identify a key regulatory surface in Gcn2 that is proximal to the predicted active site of the HisRS domain and likely remodeled by tRNA binding. Mutations leading to amino acid substitutions on this surface were identified that activate Gcn2 at low levels of tRNA binding (Gcd- phenotype), while other substitutions block kinase activation (Gcn- phenotype), in some cases without altering tRNA binding by Gcn2 in vitro. Remarkably, the Gcn- substitutions increase affinity of the HisRS domain for the C-terminal domain (CTD), previously implicated as a kinase autoinhibitory segment, in a manner dampened by HisRS domain Gcd- substitutions and by amino acid starvation in vivo. Moreover, tRNA specifically antagonizes HisRS/CTD association in vitro. These findings support a model wherein HisRS-CTD interaction facilitates the autoinhibitory function of the CTD in nonstarvation conditions, with tRNA binding eliciting kinase activation by weakening HisRS-CTD association with attendant disruption of the autoinhibitory KD-CTD interaction. PMID:25695491

  4. Interaction between the tRNA-Binding and C-Terminal Domains of Yeast Gcn2 Regulates Kinase Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lageix, Sebastien; Zhang, Jinwei; Rothenburg, Stefan; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    The stress-activated protein kinase Gcn2 regulates protein synthesis by phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2α. Gcn2 is activated in amino acid-deprived cells by binding of uncharged tRNA to the regulatory domain related to histidyl-tRNA synthetase, but the molecular mechanism of activation is unclear. We used a genetic approach to identify a key regulatory surface in Gcn2 that is proximal to the predicted active site of the HisRS domain and likely remodeled by tRNA binding. Mutations leading to amino acid substitutions on this surface were identified that activate Gcn2 at low levels of tRNA binding (Gcd- phenotype), while other substitutions block kinase activation (Gcn- phenotype), in some cases without altering tRNA binding by Gcn2 in vitro. Remarkably, the Gcn- substitutions increase affinity of the HisRS domain for the C-terminal domain (CTD), previously implicated as a kinase autoinhibitory segment, in a manner dampened by HisRS domain Gcd- substitutions and by amino acid starvation in vivo. Moreover, tRNA specifically antagonizes HisRS/CTD association in vitro. These findings support a model wherein HisRS-CTD interaction facilitates the autoinhibitory function of the CTD in nonstarvation conditions, with tRNA binding eliciting kinase activation by weakening HisRS-CTD association with attendant disruption of the autoinhibitory KD-CTD interaction. PMID:25695491

  5. Host Acyl Coenzyme A Binding Protein Regulates Replication Complex Assembly and Activity of a Positive-Strand RNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiantao; Diaz, Arturo; Mao, Lan; Ahlquist, Paul

    2012-01-01

    All positive-strand RNA viruses reorganize host intracellular membranes to assemble their replication complexes. Similarly, brome mosaic virus (BMV) induces two alternate forms of membrane-bound RNA replication complexes: vesicular spherules and stacks of appressed double-membrane layers. The mechanisms by which these membrane rearrangements are induced, however, remain unclear. We report here that host ACB1-encoded acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) binding protein (ACBP) is required for the assembly and activity of both BMV RNA replication complexes. ACBP is highly conserved among eukaryotes, specifically binds to long-chain fatty acyl-CoA, and promotes general lipid synthesis. Deleting ACB1 inhibited BMV RNA replication up to 30-fold and resulted in formation of spherules that were ∼50% smaller but ∼4-fold more abundant than those in wild-type (wt) cells, consistent with the idea that BMV 1a invaginates and maintains viral spherules by coating the inner spherule membrane. Furthermore, smaller and more frequent spherules were preferentially formed under conditions that induce layer formation in wt cells. Conversely, cellular karmella structures, which are arrays of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes formed upon overexpression of certain cellular ER membrane proteins, were formed normally, indicating a selective inhibition of 1a-induced membrane rearrangements. Restoring altered lipid composition largely complemented the BMV RNA replication defect, suggesting that ACBP was required for maintaining lipid homeostasis. Smaller and more frequent spherules are also induced by 1a mutants with specific substitutions in a membrane-anchoring amphipathic α-helix, implying that the 1a-lipid interactions play critical roles in viral replication complex assembly. PMID:22345450

  6. RNA binding protein Pub1p regulates glycerol production and stress tolerance by controlling Gpd1p activity during winemaking.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Helena; Sepúlveda, Ana; Picazo, Cecilia; Matallana, Emilia; Aranda, Agustín

    2016-06-01

    Glycerol is a key yeast metabolite in winemaking because it contributes to improve the organoleptic properties of wine. It is also a cellular protective molecule that enhances the tolerance of yeasts to osmotic stress and promotes longevity. Thus, its production increases by genetic manipulation, which is of biotechnological and basic interest. Glycerol is produced by diverting glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate through the action of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (coded by genes GPD1 and GPD2). Here, we demonstrate that RNA-binding protein Pub1p regulates glycerol production by controlling Gpd1p activity. Its deletion does not alter GPD1 mRNA levels, but protein levels and enzymatic activity increase, which explains the higher intracellular glycerol concentration and greater tolerance to osmotic stress of the pub1∆ mutant. PUB1 deletion also enhances the activity of nicotinamidase, a longevity-promoting enzyme. Both enzymatic activities are partially located in peroxisomes, and we detected peroxisome formation during wine fermentation. The role of Pub1p in life span control depends on nutrient conditions and is related with the TOR pathway, and a major connection between RNA metabolism and the nutrient signaling response is established. PMID:26846624

  7. Key importance of small RNA binding for the activity of a glycine-tryptophan (GW) motif-containing viral suppressor of RNA silencing.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cañamás, Miryam; Hernández, Carmen

    2015-01-30

    Viruses express viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to counteract RNA silencing-based host defenses. Although virtually all stages of the antiviral silencing pathway can be inhibited by VSRs, small RNAs (sRNAs) and Argonaute (AGO) proteins seem to be the most frequent targets. Recently, GW/WG motifs of some VSRs have been proposed to dictate their suppressor function by mediating interaction with AGO(s). Here we have studied the VSR encoded by Pelargonium line pattern virus (family Tombusviridae). The results show that p37, the viral coat protein, blocks RNA silencing. Site-directed mutagenesis of some p37 sequence traits, including a conserved GW motif, allowed generation of suppressor-competent and -incompetent molecules and uncoupling of the VSR and particle assembly capacities. The engineered mutants were used to assess the importance of p37 functions for viral infection and the relative contribution of diverse molecular interactions to suppressor activity. Two main conclusions can be drawn: (i) the silencing suppression and encapsidation functions of p37 are both required for systemic Pelargonium line pattern virus infection, and (ii) the suppressor activity of p37 relies on the ability to bind sRNAs rather than on interaction with AGOs. The data also caution against potential misinterpretations of results due to overlap of sequence signals related to distinct protein properties. This is well illustrated by mutation of the GW motif in p37 that concurrently affects nucleolar localization, efficient interaction with AGO1, and sRNA binding capability. These concomitant effects could have been overlooked in other GW motif-containing suppressors, as we exemplify with the orthologous p38 of turnip crinkle virus. PMID:25505185

  8. Key Importance of Small RNA Binding for the Activity of a Glycine-Tryptophan (GW) Motif-containing Viral Suppressor of RNA Silencing*

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cañamás, Miryam; Hernández, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Viruses express viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to counteract RNA silencing-based host defenses. Although virtually all stages of the antiviral silencing pathway can be inhibited by VSRs, small RNAs (sRNAs) and Argonaute (AGO) proteins seem to be the most frequent targets. Recently, GW/WG motifs of some VSRs have been proposed to dictate their suppressor function by mediating interaction with AGO(s). Here we have studied the VSR encoded by Pelargonium line pattern virus (family Tombusviridae). The results show that p37, the viral coat protein, blocks RNA silencing. Site-directed mutagenesis of some p37 sequence traits, including a conserved GW motif, allowed generation of suppressor-competent and -incompetent molecules and uncoupling of the VSR and particle assembly capacities. The engineered mutants were used to assess the importance of p37 functions for viral infection and the relative contribution of diverse molecular interactions to suppressor activity. Two main conclusions can be drawn: (i) the silencing suppression and encapsidation functions of p37 are both required for systemic Pelargonium line pattern virus infection, and (ii) the suppressor activity of p37 relies on the ability to bind sRNAs rather than on interaction with AGOs. The data also caution against potential misinterpretations of results due to overlap of sequence signals related to distinct protein properties. This is well illustrated by mutation of the GW motif in p37 that concurrently affects nucleolar localization, efficient interaction with AGO1, and sRNA binding capability. These concomitant effects could have been overlooked in other GW motif-containing suppressors, as we exemplify with the orthologous p38 of turnip crinkle virus. PMID:25505185

  9. Developmental regulation of collagenase-3 mRNA in normal, differentiating osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 and the runt domain binding sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, S. K.; Selvamurugan, N.; D'Alonzo, R. C.; Partridge, N. C.

    2000-01-01

    Collagenase-3 mRNA is initially detectable when osteoblasts cease proliferation, increasing during differentiation and mineralization. We showed that this developmental expression is due to an increase in collagenase-3 gene transcription. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site decreased collagenase-3 promoter activity, demonstrating that these sites are responsible for collagenase-3 gene transcription. The activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites bind members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor family of transcription factors, respectively. We identified core-binding factor a1 binding to the runt domain binding site and JunD in addition to a Fos-related antigen binding to the activator protein-1 site. Overexpression of both c-Fos and c-Jun in osteoblasts or core-binding factor a1 increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos, c-Jun, and core-binding factor a1 synergistically increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site resulted in the inability of c-Fos and c-Jun or core-binding factor a1 to increase collagenase-3 promoter activity, suggesting that there is cooperative interaction between the sites and the proteins. Overexpression of Fra-2 and JunD repressed core-binding factor a1-induced collagenase-3 promoter activity. Our results suggest that members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor families, binding to the activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites are responsible for the developmental regulation of collagenase-3 gene expression in osteoblasts.

  10. Structure-activity studies of oxazolidinone analogs as RNA-binding agents.

    PubMed

    Means, John; Katz, Steven; Nayek, Abhijit; Anupam, Rajaneesh; Hines, Jennifer V; Bergmeier, Stephen C

    2006-07-01

    We have synthesized and tested a series of novel 3,4,5-tri- and 4,5-disubstituted oxazolidinones for their ability to bind two structurally related T box antiterminator model RNAs. We have found that optimal binding selectivity is found in a small group of 4,5-disubstituted oxazolidinones. PMID:16603349

  11. Steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) modification by the human pseudouridine synthase 1 (hPus1p): RNA binding, activity, and atomic model.

    PubMed

    Huet, Tiphaine; Miannay, François-Alexandre; Patton, Jeffrey R; Thore, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The most abundant of the modified nucleosides, and once considered as the "fifth" nucleotide in RNA, is pseudouridine, which results from the action of pseudouridine synthases. Recently, the mammalian pseudouridine synthase 1 (hPus1p) has been reported to modulate class I and class II nuclear receptor responses through its ability to modify the Steroid receptor RNA Activator (SRA). These findings highlight a new level of regulation in nuclear receptor (NR)-mediated transcriptional responses. We have characterised the RNA association and activity of the human Pus1p enzyme with its unusual SRA substrate. We validate that the minimal RNA fragment within SRA, named H7, is necessary for both the association and modification by hPus1p. Furthermore, we have determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of hPus1p at 2.0 Å resolution, alone and in a complex with several molecules present during crystallisation. This model shows an extended C-terminal helix specifically found in the eukaryotic protein, which may prevent the enzyme from forming a homodimer, both in the crystal lattice and in solution. Our biochemical and structural data help to understand the hPus1p active site architecture, and detail its particular requirements with regard to one of its nuclear substrates, the non-coding RNA SRA. PMID:24722331

  12. CMT2D neuropathy is linked to the neomorphic binding activity of glycyl-tRNA synthetase

    PubMed Central

    He, Weiwei; Bai, Ge; Zhou, Huihao; Wei, Na; White, Nicholas M.; Lauer, Janelle; Liu, Huaqing; Shi, Yi; Dumitru, Calin Dan; Lettieri, Karen; Shubayev, Veronica; Jordanova, Albena; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Griffin, Patrick R.; Burgess, Robert W.; Pfaff, Samuel L.; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Summary Selective neuronal loss is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases, which counter-intuitively are often caused by mutations in widely-expressed genes1. Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) diseases are the most common hereditary peripheral neuropathies, for which there are no effective therapies2,3. A subtype of the diseases—CMT2D—is caused by dominant mutations in GARS, encoding the ubiquitously expressed enzyme glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS). Despite the broad requirement of GlyRS for protein biosynthesis in all cells, mutations in this gene cause a selective degeneration of peripheral axons leading to deficits in distal motor function4. How mutations in GlyRS (GlyRSCMT2D) are linked to motor neuron vulnerability has remained elusive. Here we report that GlyRSCMT2D acquires a neomorphic binding activity that directly antagonizes an essential signaling pathway for motor neuron survival. We find that CMT2D mutations alter the conformation of GlyRS, enabling GlyRSCMT2D to bind the Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) receptor. This aberrant interaction competitively interferes with the binding of the cognate ligand vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to Nrp1. Genetic reduction of Nrp1 in mice worsens CMT2D symptoms, whereas enhanced expression of VEGF improves motor function. These findings link the selective pathology of CMT2D to the neomorphic binding activity of GlyRSCMT2D that antagonizes the VEGF/Nrp1 interaction, and indicate the VEGF/Nrp1 signaling axis is an actionable target for treating CMT2D. PMID:26503042

  13. Expression of deletion mutants of the hepatitis B virus protein HBx in E. coli and characterization of their RNA binding activities.

    PubMed

    Rui, E; de Moura, P R; Kobarg, J

    2001-04-01

    The hepatitis B virus protein HBx has been implicated in the development of liver cancer. It has been shown that the HBx protein is able to bind to single-stranded DNA in a specific manner. This DNA binding activity might be relevant for HBx oncogene character. To study the HBx interaction with nucleic acids in more detail we expressed full-length HBx as well as several N- and C-terminally truncated HBx proteins as 6xHis and GST-fusions in E. coli. Using a gel shift assay, we were able to demonstrate that all of the truncated HBx proteins have the ability to bind to an AU-rich RNA. The affinity of GST-HBx #3 (residues 80-142) was an order of magnitude higher than that of GST-HBx #2 (residues 5-79), indicating that a high affinity RNA binding site is located in HBx C-terminal half. AUF1 is the protein ligand that binds to AU-rich RNA regions present in certain proto-oncogene mRNAs and causes their rapid degradation. By a competitive binding experiment of AUF1 and HBx to the AU-rich RNA oligonucleotide, we show that HBx is able to displace AUF1 from its binding site on the RNA oligonucleotide. This new aspect of HBx function is discussed in the context of cellular transformation. PMID:11226575

  14. RNA-binding protein nucleolin in disease.

    PubMed

    Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Gorospe, Myriam

    2012-06-01

    Nucleolin is a multifunctional protein localized primarily in the nucleolus, but also found in the nucleoplasm, cytoplasm and cell membrane. It is involved in several aspects of DNA metabolism, and participates extensively in RNA regulatory mechanisms, including transcription, ribosome assembly, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing. Nucleolin's implication in disease is linked to its ability to associate with target RNAs via its four RNA-binding domains and its arginine/glycin-rich domain. By modulating the post-transcriptional fate of target mRNAs, which typically bear AU-rich and/or G-rich elements, nucleolin has been linked to cellular events that influence disease, notably cell proliferation and protection against apoptotic death. Through its diverse RNA functions, nucleolin is increasingly implicated in pathological processes, particularly cancer and viral infection. Here, we review the RNA-binding activities of nucleolin, its influence on gene expression patterns, and its impact upon diseases. We also discuss the rising interest in targeting nucleolin therapeutically. PMID:22617883

  15. RNA-binding protein nucleolin in disease

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Gorospe, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Nucleolin is a multifunctional protein localized primarily in the nucleolus, but also found in the nucleoplasm, cytoplasm and cell membrane. It is involved in several aspects of DNA metabolism, and participates extensively in RNA regulatory mechanisms, including transcription, ribosome assembly, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing. Nucleolin’s implication in disease is linked to its ability to associate with target RNAs via its four RNA-binding domains and its arginine/glycin-rich domain. By modulating the post-transcriptional fate of target mRNAs, which typically bear AU-rich and/or G-rich elements, nucleolin has been linked to cellular events that influence disease, notably cell proliferation and protection against apoptotic death. Through its diverse RNA functions, nucleolin is increasingly implicated in pathological processes, particularly cancer and viral infection. Here, we review the RNA-binding activities of nucleolin, its influence on gene expression patterns, and its impact upon diseases. We also discuss the rising interest in targeting nucleolin therapeutically. PMID:22617883

  16. Regulation of RNA Polymerase I-Dependent Promoters by the Hepatitis B Virus X Protein via Activated Ras and TATA-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Horng-Dar; Trivedi, Alpa; Johnson, Deborah L.

    1998-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein is essential for viral infectivity, and evidence indicates that it is a strong contributor to HBV-mediated oncogenesis. X has been shown to transactivate a wide variety of RNA polymerase (Pol) II-dependent, as well as RNA Pol III-dependent, promoters. In this study, we have investigated the possibility that X modulates RNA Pol I-dependent rRNA transcription. In both human hepatoma Huh7 and Drosophila Schneider S2 cell lines, X expression stimulated rRNA promoter activity. Extracts prepared from X-expressing cells stably transfected with an X gene also exhibited an increased ability to transcribe the rRNA promoter. The mechanism for X transactivation was examined by determining whether this regulatory event was dependent on Ras activation and increased TATA-binding protein (TBP) levels. Our previous studies have demonstrated that X, and the activation of Ras, produces an increase in the cellular levels of TBP (H.-D. Wang, A. Trivedi, and D. L. Johnson, Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:6838–6846, 1997). Expression of a dominant negative form of Ras blocked the X-mediated induction of the rRNA promoters, whereas expression of a constitutively activated form of Ras mimicked the enhancing effect of X on rRNA promoter activity. When TBP was overexpressed in either Huh7 or S2 cells, a dose-dependent increase in rRNA promoter activity was observed. To analyze whether the increase in TBP was modulating rRNA promoter activity indirectly, by increasing activity of RNA Pol II-dependent promoters, a Drosophila TBP cDNA was constructed with a mutation that eliminated its ability to stimulate RNA Pol II-dependent promoters. Transient expression of wild-type TBP in S2 cells increased the activities of specific RNA Pol I- and Pol II-dependent promoters. Expression of the mutant TBP protein failed to enhance the activity of the RNA Pol II-dependent promoters, yet the protein completely retained its ability to stimulate the rRNA promoter. Furthermore, the

  17. Drosophila Nanos acts as a molecular clamp that modulates the RNA-binding and repression activities of Pumilio

    PubMed Central

    Weidmann, Chase A; Qiu, Chen; Arvola, René M; Lou, Tzu-Fang; Killingsworth, Jordan; Campbell, Zachary T; Tanaka Hall, Traci M; Goldstrohm, Aaron C

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration among the multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is ubiquitous, yet our understanding of these key regulatory complexes has been limited to single RBPs. We investigated combinatorial translational regulation by Drosophila Pumilio (Pum) and Nanos (Nos), which control development, fertility, and neuronal functions. Our results show how the specificity of one RBP (Pum) is modulated by cooperative RNA recognition with a second RBP (Nos) to synergistically repress mRNAs. Crystal structures of Nos-Pum-RNA complexes reveal that Nos embraces Pum and RNA, contributes sequence-specific contacts, and increases Pum RNA-binding affinity. Nos shifts the recognition sequence and promotes repression complex formation on mRNAs that are not stably bound by Pum alone, explaining the preponderance of sub-optimal Pum sites regulated in vivo. Our results illuminate the molecular mechanism of a regulatory switch controlling crucial gene expression programs, and provide a framework for understanding how the partnering of RBPs evokes changes in binding specificity that underlie regulatory network dynamics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17096.001 PMID:27482653

  18. GTPase Activating Protein (Sh3 Domain) Binding Protein 1 Regulates the Processing of MicroRNA-1 during Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    He, Minzhen; Yang, Zhi; Abdellatif, Maha; Sayed, Danish

    2015-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miR) are small, posttranscriptional regulators, expressed as part of a longer primary transcript, following which they undergo nuclear and cytoplasmic processing by Drosha and Dicer, respectively, to form the functional mature ~20mer that gets incorporated into the silencing complex. Others and we have shown that mature miR-1 levels decrease with pressure-induced cardiac hypertrophy, however, there is little or no change in the primary transcript encompassing miR-1 stem-loop, suggesting critical regulatory step in microRNA processing. The objective of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms regulating miR-1 expression in cardiomyocytes. Results Here we report that GTPase–activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 1 (G3bp1), an endoribonuclease regulates miR-1 processing in cardiomyocytes. G3bp1 is upregulated during cardiac hypertrophy and restricts miR-1 processing by binding to its consensus sequence in the pre-miR-1-2 stem-loop. In accordance, exogenous G3bp1 is sufficient to reduce miR-1 levels, along with derepression of miR-1 targets; General transcription factor IIB (Gtf2b), cyclin dependent factor 9 (Cdk9) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (Eif4e). While Cdk9 and Gtf2b are essential for transcription, Eif4e is required for translation. Thus, downregulation of miR-1 is necessary for increase in these molecules. Similar to miR-1 knockdown, G3bp1 overexpression is not sufficient for development of cardiac hypertrophy. Conversely, knockdown of G3bp1 in hypertrophying cardiomyocytes inhibited downregulation of miR-1 and upregulation of its targets along with restricted hypertrophy, suggesting that G3bp1 is necessary for development of cardiac hypertrophy. These results indicate that G3bp1-mediated inhibition of miR-1 processing with growth stimulation results in decrease in mature miR-1 and, thereby, an increase of its targets, which play fundamental roles in the development of hypertrophy. Conclusion G3bp1

  19. Cooperative Role of the RNA-Binding Proteins Hzf and HuR in p53 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Hideaki; Kawagishi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Maruyama, Mitsuo; Sugimoto, Masataka

    2011-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein Hzf (hematopoietic zinc finger) plays important roles in mRNA translation in cerebellar Purkinje cells and adipocytes. We along with others have reported that the expression of the Hzf gene is transcriptionally regulated by the p53 tumor suppressor protein. We show here that Hzf regulates p53 expression in cooperation with HuR. Hzf and HuR independently interact with the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of p53 mRNA, which facilitates the cytoplasmic localization of p53 mRNA in the presence of the ARF tumor suppressor protein. In the absence of Hzf and HuR, p53 induction by p19ARF is significantly attenuated, and the cells consequently acquire resistance to p19ARF. Thus, these findings demonstrate that in addition to Mdm2 inhibition, p19ARF increases the concentration of p53 through posttranscriptional control of p53 mRNA and suggest critical roles for the RNA-binding proteins Hzf and HuR in p53 induction. PMID:21402775

  20. Activation of D-tyrosine by Bacillus stearothermophilus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase: 2. Cooperative binding of ATP is limited to the initial turnover of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Anita; First, Eric A

    2008-05-01

    The activation of D-tyrosine by tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase has been investigated using single and multiple turnover kinetic methods. In the presence of saturating concentrations of D-tyrosine, the activation reaction displays sigmoidal kinetics with respect to ATP concentration under single turnover conditions. In contrast, when the kinetics for the activation reaction are monitored using a steady-state (multiple turnover) pyrophosphate exchange assay, Michaelis-Menten kinetics are observed. Previous investigations indicated that activation of l-tyrosine by the K233A variant of Bacillus stearothermophilus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase displays sigmoidal kinetics similar to those observed for activation of d-tyrosine by the wild-type enzyme. Kinetic analyses indicate that the sigmoidal behavior of the d-tyrosine activation reaction is not enhanced when Lys-233 is replaced by alanine. This supports the hypothesis that the mechanistic basis for the sigmoidal behavior is the same for both d-tyrosine activation by wild-type tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase and activation of l-tyrosine by the K233A variant. The observed sigmoidal behavior presents a paradox, as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase displays an extreme form of negative cooperativity, known as "half-of-the-sites reactivity," with respect to tyrosine binding and tyrosyl-adenylate formation. We propose that the binding of D-tyrosine weakens the affinity with which ATP binds to the functional subunit in tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. This allows ATP to bind initially to the nonfunctional subunit, inducing a conformational change in the enzyme that enhances the affinity of the functional subunit for ATP. The observation that sigmoidal kinetics are observed only under single turnover conditions suggests that this conformational change is stable over multiple rounds of catalysis. PMID:18319246

  1. An RNA motif that binds ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassanfar, M.; Szostak, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    RNAs that contain specific high-affinity binding sites for small molecule ligands immobilized on a solid support are present at a frequency of roughly one in 10(10)-10(11) in pools of random sequence RNA molecules. Here we describe a new in vitro selection procedure designed to ensure the isolation of RNAs that bind the ligand of interest in solution as well as on a solid support. We have used this method to isolate a remarkably small RNA motif that binds ATP, a substrate in numerous biological reactions and the universal biological high-energy intermediate. The selected ATP-binding RNAs contain a consensus sequence, embedded in a common secondary structure. The binding properties of ATP analogues and modified RNAs show that the binding interaction is characterized by a large number of close contacts between the ATP and RNA, and by a change in the conformation of the RNA.

  2. Mammalian synthetic circuits with RNA binding proteins delivered by RNA

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewska, Liliana; Kitada, Tasuku; Endo, Kei; Siciliano, Velia; Stillo, Breanna; Saito, Hirohide; Weiss, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic regulatory circuits encoded on RNA rather than DNA could provide a means to control cell behavior while avoiding potentially harmful genomic integration in therapeutic applications. We create post-transcriptional circuits using RNA-binding proteins, which can be wired in a plug-and-play fashion to create networks of higher complexity. We show that the circuits function in mammalian cells when encoded on modified mRNA or self-replicating RNA. PMID:26237515

  3. The Puf family of RNA-binding proteins in plants: phylogeny, structural modeling, activity and subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Puf proteins have important roles in controlling gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by promoting RNA decay and repressing translation. The Pumilio homology domain (PUM-HD) is a conserved region within Puf proteins that binds to RNA with sequence specificity. Although Puf proteins have been well characterized in animal and fungal systems, little is known about the structural and functional characteristics of Puf-like proteins in plants. Results The Arabidopsis and rice genomes code for 26 and 19 Puf-like proteins, respectively, each possessing eight or fewer Puf repeats in their PUM-HD. Key amino acids in the PUM-HD of several of these proteins are conserved with those of animal and fungal homologs, whereas other plant Puf proteins demonstrate extensive variability in these amino acids. Three-dimensional modeling revealed that the predicted structure of this domain in plant Puf proteins provides a suitable surface for binding RNA. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift experiments showed that the Arabidopsis AtPum2 PUM-HD binds with high affinity to BoxB of the Drosophila Nanos Response Element I (NRE1) RNA, whereas a point mutation in the core of the NRE1 resulted in a significant reduction in binding affinity. Transient expression of several of the Arabidopsis Puf proteins as fluorescent protein fusions revealed a dynamic, punctate cytoplasmic pattern of localization for most of these proteins. The presence of predicted nuclear export signals and accumulation of AtPuf proteins in the nucleus after treatment of cells with leptomycin B demonstrated that shuttling of these proteins between the cytosol and nucleus is common among these proteins. In addition to the cytoplasmically enriched AtPum proteins, two AtPum proteins showed nuclear targeting with enrichment in the nucleolus. Conclusions The Puf family of RNA-binding proteins in plants consists of a greater number of members than any other model species studied to date. This, along with the

  4. A rat brain mRNA encoding a transcriptional activator homologous to the DNA binding domain of retroviral integrases.

    PubMed Central

    Duilio, A; Zambrano, N; Mogavero, A R; Ammendola, R; Cimino, F; Russo, T

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated a rat cDNA, named FE65, hybridizing to an mRNA of about 2,300 nucleotides present in rat brain, undetectable in rat liver and very poorly represented in other tissues. An mRNA of the same size is present in human neuroblastoma cells and is absent from other human cell lines. The FE65 cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) coding for a polypeptide of 499 amino acids in which 143 residues can be aligned with the DNA binding domain of the integrases encoded by mammalian immunodeficiency viruses. The remaining part of the FE65 ORF is not homologous with the correspondent regions of the integrases; the first 206 residues of the FE65 ORF show numerous negative charges and a short sequence not dispensable for the function of the transactivating acidic domain of the jun family transcriptional factors. A plasmid which expresses FE65 amino acids 1-232 fused to the yeast GAL4 DNA binding domain was co-transfected with a plasmid containing five GAL4 binding sites upstream of a minimal Adenovirus promoter controlling the expression of the CAT gene. This experiment showed that the fused protein GAL4-FE65 is able to obtain a 30-40 fold increase of the CAT gene expression compared to the expression observed in the presence of the GAL4 DNA binding domain alone. Two types of FE65 mRNA are present in rat brain, differing only for six nucleotides. We demonstrate that this is the consequence of a neuron-specific alternative splicing of a six-nucleotide miniexon, which is also present in the human genome, in an intron/exon context very similar to that of the rat FE65 gene. Images PMID:1923810

  5. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein CIRP/hnRNP A18 regulates telomerase activity in a temperature-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youwei; Wu, Yangxiu; Mao, Pingsu; Li, Feng; Han, Xin; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Shuai; Chen, Yuxi; Huang, Junjiu; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Yong; Ma, Wenbin; Songyang, Zhou

    2016-01-29

    The telomerase is responsible for adding telomeric repeats to chromosomal ends and consists of the reverse transcriptase TERT and the RNA subunit TERC. The expression and activity of the telomerase are tightly regulated, and aberrant activation of the telomerase has been observed in >85% of human cancers. To better understand telomerase regulation, we performed immunoprecipitations coupled with mass spectrometry (IP-MS) and identified cold inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP or hnRNP A18) as a telomerase-interacting factor. We have found that CIRP is necessary to maintain telomerase activities at both 32°C and 37°C. Furthermore, inhibition of CIRP by CRISPR-Cas9 or siRNA knockdown led to reduced telomerase activities and shortened telomere length, suggesting an important role of CIRP in telomere maintenance. We also provide evidence here that CIRP associates with the active telomerase complex through direct binding of TERC and regulates Cajal body localization of the telomerase. In addition, CIRP regulates the level of TERT mRNAs. At the lower temperature, TERT mRNA is upregulated in a CIRP-dependent manner to compensate for reduced telomerase activities. Taken together, these findings highlight the dual roles that CIRP plays in regulating TERT and TERC, and reveal a new class of telomerase modulators in response to hypothermia conditions. PMID:26673712

  6. Dihydrotanshinone-I interferes with the RNA-binding activity of HuR affecting its post-transcriptional function

    PubMed Central

    D’Agostino, Vito Giuseppe; Lal, Preet; Mantelli, Barbara; Tiedje, Christopher; Zucal, Chiara; Thongon, Natthakan; Gaestel, Matthias; Latorre, Elisa; Marinelli, Luciana; Seneci, Pierfausto; Amadio, Marialaura; Provenzani, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation is an essential determinant of gene expression programs in physiological and pathological conditions. HuR is a RNA-binding protein that orchestrates the stabilization and translation of mRNAs, critical in inflammation and tumor progression, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). We identified the low molecular weight compound 15,16-dihydrotanshinone-I (DHTS), well known in traditional Chinese medicine practice, through a validated high throughput screening on a set of anti-inflammatory agents for its ability to prevent HuR:RNA complex formation. We found that DHTS interferes with the association step between HuR and the RNA with an equilibrium dissociation constant in the nanomolar range in vitro (Ki = 3.74 ± 1.63 nM). In breast cancer cell lines, short term exposure to DHTS influences mRNA stability and translational efficiency of TNF in a HuR-dependent manner and also other functional readouts of its post-transcriptional control, such as the stability of selected pre-mRNAs. Importantly, we show that migration and sensitivity of breast cancer cells to DHTS are modulated by HuR expression, indicating that HuR is among the preferential intracellular targets of DHTS. Here, we disclose a previously unrecognized molecular mechanism exerted by DHTS, opening new perspectives to therapeutically target the HuR mediated, post-transcriptional control in inflammation and cancer cells. PMID:26553968

  7. Essential Roles of RNA-binding Protein HuR in Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells Induced by Transforming Growth Factor-β1

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jingjing; Chang, Na; Zhao, Zhongxin; Tian, Lei; Duan, Xianghui; Yang, Lin; Li, Liying

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding protein HuR mediates transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced profibrogenic actions. Up-regulation of Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) is involved in TGF-β1-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in liver fibrogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism of TGF-β1 regulates SphK1 remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the role of HuR in TGF-β1-induced SphK1 expression and identify a new molecular mechanism in liver fibrogenensis. In vivo, HuR expression was increased, translocated to cytoplasm, and bound to SphK1 mRNA in carbon tetrachloride- and bile duct ligation-induced mouse fibrotic liver. HuR mRNA expression had a positive correlation with mRNA expressions of SphK1 and fibrotic markers, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Collagen α1(I), respectively. In vitro, up-regulation of SphK1 and activation of HSCs stimulated by TGF-β1 depended on HuR cytoplasmic accumulation. The effects of TGF-β1 were diminished when HuR was silenced or HuR cytoplasmic translocation was blocked. Meanwhile, overexpression of HuR mimicked the effects of TGF-β1. Furthermore, TGF-β1 prolonged half-life of SphK1 mRNA by promoting its binding to HuR. Pharmacological or siRNA-induced SphK1 inhibition abrogated HuR-mediated HSC activation. In conclusion, our data suggested that HuR bound to SphK1 mRNA and played a crucial role in TGF-β1-induced HSC activation. PMID:26912347

  8. DNA and RNA Quadruplex-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brázda, Václav; Hároníková, Lucia; Liao, Jack C. C.; Fojta, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Four-stranded DNA structures were structurally characterized in vitro by NMR, X-ray and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy in detail. Among the different types of quadruplexes (i-Motifs, minor groove quadruplexes, G-quadruplexes, etc.), the best described are G-quadruplexes which are featured by Hoogsteen base-paring. Sequences with the potential to form quadruplexes are widely present in genome of all organisms. They are found often in repetitive sequences such as telomeric ones, and also in promoter regions and 5' non-coding sequences. Recently, many proteins with binding affinity to G-quadruplexes have been identified. One of the initially portrayed G-rich regions, the human telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)n, is recognized by many proteins which can modulate telomerase activity. Sequences with the potential to form G-quadruplexes are often located in promoter regions of various oncogenes. The NHE III1 region of the c-MYC promoter has been shown to interact with nucleolin protein as well as other G-quadruplex-binding proteins. A number of G-rich sequences are also present in promoter region of estrogen receptor alpha. In addition to DNA quadruplexes, RNA quadruplexes, which are critical in translational regulation, have also been predicted and observed. For example, the RNA quadruplex formation in telomere-repeat-containing RNA is involved in interaction with TRF2 (telomere repeat binding factor 2) and plays key role in telomere regulation. All these fundamental examples suggest the importance of quadruplex structures in cell processes and their understanding may provide better insight into aging and disease development. PMID:25268620

  9. DNA and RNA quadruplex-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Brázda, Václav; Hároníková, Lucia; Liao, Jack C C; Fojta, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Four-stranded DNA structures were structurally characterized in vitro by NMR, X-ray and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy in detail. Among the different types of quadruplexes (i-Motifs, minor groove quadruplexes, G-quadruplexes, etc.), the best described are G-quadruplexes which are featured by Hoogsteen base-paring. Sequences with the potential to form quadruplexes are widely present in genome of all organisms. They are found often in repetitive sequences such as telomeric ones, and also in promoter regions and 5' non-coding sequences. Recently, many proteins with binding affinity to G-quadruplexes have been identified. One of the initially portrayed G-rich regions, the human telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)n, is recognized by many proteins which can modulate telomerase activity. Sequences with the potential to form G-quadruplexes are often located in promoter regions of various oncogenes. The NHE III1 region of the c-MYC promoter has been shown to interact with nucleolin protein as well as other G-quadruplex-binding proteins. A number of G-rich sequences are also present in promoter region of estrogen receptor alpha. In addition to DNA quadruplexes, RNA quadruplexes, which are critical in translational regulation, have also been predicted and observed. For example, the RNA quadruplex formation in telomere-repeat-containing RNA is involved in interaction with TRF2 (telomere repeat binding factor 2) and plays key role in telomere regulation. All these fundamental examples suggest the importance of quadruplex structures in cell processes and their understanding may provide better insight into aging and disease development. PMID:25268620

  10. A probabilistic approach to microRNA-target binding

    SciTech Connect

    Ogul, Hasan; Umu, Sinan U.; Tuncel, Y. Yener; Akkaya, Mahinur S.

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} A new probabilistic model is introduced for microRNA-target binding. {yields} The new model significantly outperforms RNAHybrid and miRTif. {yields} The experiments can unveil the effects of the type and directions of distinct base pairings. -- Abstract: Elucidation of microRNA activity is a crucial step in understanding gene regulation. One key problem in this effort is how to model the pairwise interactions of microRNAs with their targets. As this interaction is strongly mediated by their sequences, it is desired to set-up a probabilistic model to explain the binding preferences between a microRNA sequence and the sequence of a putative target. To this end, we introduce a new model of microRNA-target binding, which transforms an aligned duplex to a new sequence and defines the likelihood of this sequence using a Variable Length Markov Chain. It offers a complementary representation of microRNA-mRNA pairs for microRNA target prediction tools or other probabilistic frameworks of integrative gene regulation analysis. The performance of present model is evaluated by its ability to predict microRNA-target mRNA interaction given a mature microRNA sequence and a putative mRNA binding site. In regard to classification accuracy, it outperforms two recent methods based on thermodynamic stability and sequence complementarity. The experiments can also unveil the effects of base pairing types and non-seed region in duplex formation.

  11. RNA Bind-n-Seq: Measuring the Binding Affinity Landscape of RNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Nicole J; Robertson, Alex D; Burge, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) coordinate post-transcriptional control of gene expression, often through sequence-specific recognition of primary transcripts or mature messenger RNAs. Hundreds of RBPs are encoded in the human genome, most with undefined or incompletely defined biological roles. Understanding the function of these factors will require the identification of each RBP's distinct RNA binding specificity. RNA Bind-n-Seq (RBNS) is a high-throughput, cost-effective in vitro method capable of resolving sequence and secondary structure preferences of RBPs. Dissociation constants can also be inferred from RBNS data when provided with additional experimental information. Here, we describe the experimental procedures to perform RBNS and discuss important parameters of the method and ways that the experiment can be tailored to the specific RBP under study. Additionally, we present the conceptual framework and execution of the freely available RBNS computational pipeline and describe the outputs of the pipeline. Different approaches to quantify binding specificity, quality control metrics, and estimation of binding constants are also covered. PMID:26068750

  12. Evidence for auto-inhibition by the N terminus of hADAR2 and activation by dsRNA binding

    PubMed Central

    MACBETH, MARK R.; LINGAM, ARUNTH T.; BASS, BRENDA L.

    2004-01-01

    Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) catalyze adenosine to inosine conversion in RNA that is largely double stranded. Human ADAR2 (hADAR2) contains two double-stranded RNA binding motifs (dsRBMs), separated by a 90-amino acid linker, and these are followed by the C-terminal catalytic domain. We assayed enzymatic activity of N-terminal deletion constructs of hADAR2 to determine the role of the dsRBMs and the intervening linker peptide. We found that a truncated protein consisting of one dsRBM and the deaminase domain was capable of deaminating a short 15-bp substrate. In contrast, full-length hADAR2 was inactive on this short substrate. In addition, we observed that the N terminus, which was deleted from the truncated protein, inhibits editing activity when added in trans. We propose that the N-terminal domain of hADAR2 contains sequences that cause auto-inhibition of the enzyme. Our results suggest activation requires binding to an RNA substrate long enough to accommodate interactions with both dsRBMs. PMID:15383678

  13. Computational Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins and Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jingna; Cui, Jing; Cheng, Jin; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Proteins and RNA interaction have vital roles in many cellular processes such as protein synthesis, sequence encoding, RNA transfer, and gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Approximately 6%–8% of all proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Distinguishing these RBPs or their binding residues is a major aim of structural biology. Previously, a number of experimental methods were developed for the determination of protein–RNA interactions. However, these experimental methods are expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Alternatively, researchers have developed many computational approaches to predict RBPs and protein–RNA binding sites, by combining various machine learning methods and abundant sequence and/or structural features. There are three kinds of computational approaches, which are prediction from protein sequence, prediction from protein structure, and protein-RNA docking. In this paper, we review all existing studies of predictions of RNA-binding sites and RBPs and complexes, including data sets used in different approaches, sequence and structural features used in several predictors, prediction method classifications, performance comparisons, evaluation methods, and future directions. PMID:26540053

  14. Specific RNA binding to ordered phospholipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Janas, Tadeusz; Janas, Teresa; Yarus, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We have studied RNA binding to vesicles bounded by ordered and disordered phospholipid membranes. A positive correlation exists between bilayer order and RNA affinity. In particular, structure-dependent RNA binding appears for rafted (liquid-ordered) domains in sphingomyelin-cholesterol-1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine vesicles. Binding to more highly ordered gel phase membranes is stronger, but much less RNA structure-dependent. All modes of RNA-membrane association seem to be electrostatic and headgroup directed. Fluorometry on 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes indicates that bound RNA broadens the gel-fluid melting transition, and reduces lipid headgroup order, as detected via fluorometric measurement of intramembrane electric fields. RNA preference for rafted lipid was visualized and confirmed using multiple fluorophores that allow fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy on RNA molecules closely associated with ordered lipid patches within giant vesicles. Accordingly, both RNA structure and membrane order could modulate biological RNA–membrane interactions. PMID:16641318

  15. Small RNA binding is a common strategy to suppress RNA silencing by several viral suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Lakatos, Lóránt; Csorba, Tibor; Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Chapman, Elisabeth J; Carrington, James C; Liu, Yu-Ping; Dolja, Valerian V; Calvino, Lourdes Fernández; López-Moya, Juan José; Burgyán, József

    2006-01-01

    RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved system that functions as an antiviral mechanism in higher plants and insects. To counteract RNA silencing, viruses express silencing suppressors that interfere with both siRNA- and microRNA-guided silencing pathways. We used comparative in vitro and in vivo approaches to analyse the molecular mechanism of suppression by three well-studied silencing suppressors. We found that silencing suppressors p19, p21 and HC-Pro each inhibit the intermediate step of RNA silencing via binding to siRNAs, although the molecular features required for duplex siRNA binding differ among the three proteins. None of the suppressors affected the activity of preassembled RISC complexes. In contrast, each suppressor uniformly inhibited the siRNA-initiated RISC assembly pathway by preventing RNA silencing initiator complex formation. PMID:16724105

  16. Small RNA binding is a common strategy to suppress RNA silencing by several viral suppressors.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Lóránt; Csorba, Tibor; Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Chapman, Elisabeth J; Carrington, James C; Liu, Yu-Ping; Dolja, Valerian V; Calvino, Lourdes Fernández; López-Moya, Juan José; Burgyán, József

    2006-06-21

    RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved system that functions as an antiviral mechanism in higher plants and insects. To counteract RNA silencing, viruses express silencing suppressors that interfere with both siRNA- and microRNA-guided silencing pathways. We used comparative in vitro and in vivo approaches to analyse the molecular mechanism of suppression by three well-studied silencing suppressors. We found that silencing suppressors p19, p21 and HC-Pro each inhibit the intermediate step of RNA silencing via binding to siRNAs, although the molecular features required for duplex siRNA binding differ among the three proteins. None of the suppressors affected the activity of preassembled RISC complexes. In contrast, each suppressor uniformly inhibited the siRNA-initiated RISC assembly pathway by preventing RNA silencing initiator complex formation. PMID:16724105

  17. RNA Binding Proteins in the miRNA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Connerty, Patrick; Ahadi, Alireza; Hutvagner, Gyorgy

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short ~22 nucleotides (nt) ribonucleic acids which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. miRNAs are key regulators of all cellular processes, and the correct expression of miRNAs in an organism is crucial for proper development and cellular function. As a result, the miRNA biogenesis pathway is highly regulated. In this review, we outline the basic steps of miRNA biogenesis and miRNA mediated gene regulation focusing on the role of RNA binding proteins (RBPs). We also describe multiple mechanisms that regulate the canonical miRNA pathway, which depends on a wide range of RBPs. Moreover, we hypothesise that the interaction between miRNA regulation and RBPs is potentially more widespread based on the analysis of available high-throughput datasets. PMID:26712751

  18. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition by activating ERK and p38 pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Na; Ahn, Sung-Min; Jang, Ho Hee

    2016-09-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a potent inducer of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), upregulates the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP). The link between CIRP and EMT, however, remains unknown. To determine the role of CIRP in EMT, we performed CIRP knockdown and overexpression experiments in in vitro TGF-β1-induced EMT models. We found that CIRP overexpression promoted the downregulation of epithelial markers and the upregulation of mesenchymal markers after TGF-β1 treatment for EMT induction. It also promoted cell migration and invasion, key features of EMT. In contrast, CIRP knockdown inhibited the downregulation of epithelial markers and the upregulation of mesenchymal markers after TGF-β1 treatment for EMT induction. In addition, it also inhibited cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the RNA-recognition motif in CIRP is essential for the role of CIRP in EMT. At the downstream level, CIRP knockdown downregulated Snail, key transcriptional regulator of EMT, while CIRP overexpression upregulated it. We found out that the link between CIRP and Snail is mediated by ERK and p38 pathways. EMT is a critical component of carcinoma metastasis and invasion. As demonstrated in this study, the biological role of CIRP in EMT may explain why CIRP overexpression has been associated with a bad prognosis in cancer patients. PMID:27395339

  19. A 3' untranslated region variant in FMR1 eliminates neuronal activity-dependent translation of FMRP by disrupting binding of the RNA-binding protein HuR.

    PubMed

    Suhl, Joshua A; Muddashetty, Ravi S; Anderson, Bart R; Ifrim, Marius F; Visootsak, Jeannie; Bassell, Gary J; Warren, Stephen T

    2015-11-24

    Fragile X syndrome is a common cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. The gene underlying the disorder, fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1), is silenced in most cases by a CGG-repeat expansion mutation in the 5' untranslated region (UTR). Recently, we identified a variant located in the 3'UTR of FMR1 enriched among developmentally delayed males with normal repeat lengths. A patient-derived cell line revealed reduced levels of endogenous fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), and a reporter containing a patient 3'UTR caused a decrease in expression. A control reporter expressed in cultured mouse cortical neurons showed an expected increase following synaptic stimulation that was absent when expressing the patient reporter, suggesting an impaired response to neuronal activity. Mobility-shift assays using a control RNA detected an RNA-protein interaction that is lost with the patient RNA, and HuR was subsequently identified as an associated protein. Cross-linking immunoprecipitation experiments identified the locus as an in vivo target of HuR, supporting our in vitro findings. These data suggest that the disrupted interaction of HuR impairs activity-dependent translation of FMRP, which may hinder synaptic plasticity in a clinically significant fashion. PMID:26554012

  20. Stabilized Interleukin-6 receptor binding RNA aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Cindy; Berg, Katharina; Eydeler-Haeder, Katja; Lorenzen, Inken; Grötzinger, Joachim; Rose-John, Stefan; Hahn, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that is involved in the progression of various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and certain cancers; for example, multiple myeloma or hepatocellular carcinoma. To interfere with IL-6-dependent diseases, targeting IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)-presenting tumor cells using aptamers might be a valuable strategy to broaden established IL-6- or IL-6R-directed treatment regimens. Recently, we reported on the in vitro selection of RNA aptamers binding to the human IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) with nanomolar affinity. One aptamer, namely AIR-3A, was 19 nt in size and able to deliver bulky cargos into IL-6R-presenting cells. As AIR-3A is a natural RNA molecule, its use for in vivo applications might be limited due to its susceptibility to ubiquitous ribonucleases. Aiming at more robust RNA aptamers targeting IL-6R, we now report on the generation of stabilized RNA aptamers for potential in vivo applications. The new 2'-F-modified RNA aptamers bind to IL-6R via its extracellular portion with low nanomolar affinity comparable to the previously identified unmodified counterpart. Aptamers do not interfere with the IL-6 receptor complex formation. The work described here represents one further step to potentially apply stabilized IL-6R-binding RNA aptamers in IL-6R-connected diseases, like multiple myeloma and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24440854

  1. Transcription activation at Escherichia coli promoters dependent on the cyclic AMP receptor protein: effects of binding sequences for the RNA polymerase alpha-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Savery, N J; Rhodius, V A; Wing, H J; Busby, S J

    1995-01-01

    Transcription activation at two semi-synthetic Escherichia coli promoters, CC(-41.5) and CC(-72.5), is dependent on the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) that binds to sites centred 41.5 and 72.5 bp upstream from the respective transcription startpoints. An UP-element that can bind the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) alpha-subunit was cloned upstream of the DNA site for CRP at CC(-41.5) and downstream of the DNA site for CRP at CC(-72.5). In both cases CRP-dependent promoter activity was increased by the UP-element, but CRP-independent activity was not increased. DNase I footprinting was exploited to investigate the juxtaposition of bound CRP and RNAP alpha-subunits. In both cases, CRP and RNAP alpha-subunits occupy their cognate binding sites in ternary CRP-RNAP promoter complexes. RNAP alpha-subunits can occupy the UP-element in the absence of CRP, but this is not sufficient for open complex formation. The positive effects of binding RNAP alpha-subunits upstream of the DNA site for CRP at -41.5 are suppressed if the UP-element is incorrectly positioned. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7619086

  2. Utilization of a mammalian cell-based RNA binding assay to characterize the RNA binding properties of picornavirus 3C proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Blair, W S; Parsley, T B; Bogerd, H P; Towner, J S; Semler, B L; Cullen, B R

    1998-01-01

    Using an assay capable of detecting sequence-specific RNA/protein interactions in mammalian cells, we demonstrate that the poliovirus and rhinovirus 3C proteinases are able to bind structured target RNA sequences derived from their respective 5' noncoding regions in vivo. Specific RNA binding by poliovirus 3C was found to be dependent on the integrity of stem-loop d of the RNA cloverleaf structure located at the 5' end of poliovirus genomic RNA. In contrast, mutation of stem-loop b did not prevent this in vivo interaction. However, mutation of stem-loop b, which serves as the RNA binding site for a cellular co-factor important for efficient poliovirus replication, did significantly attenuate the efficiency of 3C RNA binding in vivo and 3CD RNA binding in vitro. This in vivo protein:RNA binding assay was also used to identify several residues in 3C that are critical for RNA binding, but dispensable for 3C proteinase activity. The mammalian cell-based RNA binding assay described in this study may have considerable potential utility in the future detection or analysis of in vivo RNA/protein interactions unrelated to the 3C/RNA interaction described here. PMID:9570321

  3. Alternative polyadenylation and RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Erson-Bensan, Ayse Elif

    2016-08-01

    Our understanding of the extent of microRNA-based gene regulation has expanded in an impressive pace over the past decade. Now, we are beginning to better appreciate the role of 3'-UTR (untranslated region) cis-elements which harbor not only microRNA but also RNA-binding protein (RBP) binding sites that have significant effect on the stability and translational rate of mRNAs. To add further complexity, alternative polyadenylation (APA) emerges as a widespread mechanism to regulate gene expression by producing shorter or longer mRNA isoforms that differ in the length of their 3'-UTRs or even coding sequences. Resulting shorter mRNA isoforms generally lack cis-elements where trans-acting factors bind, and hence are differentially regulated compared with the longer isoforms. This review focuses on the RBPs involved in APA regulation and their action mechanisms on APA-generated isoforms. A better understanding of the complex interactions between APA and RBPs is promising for mechanistic and clinical implications including biomarker discovery and new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27208003

  4. Activation of p38 signaling increases utrophin A expression in skeletal muscle via the RNA-binding protein KSRP and inhibition of AU-rich element-mediated mRNA decay: implications for novel DMD therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Amirouche, Adel; Tadesse, Helina; Lunde, John A; Bélanger, Guy; Côté, Jocelyn; Jasmin, Bernard J

    2013-08-01

    Several therapeutic approaches are currently being developed for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) including upregulating the levels of endogenous utrophin A in dystrophic fibers. Here, we examined the role of post-transcriptional mechanisms in controlling utrophin A expression in skeletal muscle. We show that activation of p38 leads to an increase in utrophin A independently of a transcriptional induction. Rather, p38 controls the levels of utrophin A mRNA by extending the half-life of transcripts via AU-rich elements (AREs). This mechanism critically depends on a decrease in the functional availability of KSRP, an RNA-binding protein known to promote decay of ARE-containing transcripts. In vitro and in vivo binding studies revealed that KSRP interacts with specific AREs located within the utrophin A 3' UTR. Electroporation experiments to knockdown KSRP led to an increase in utrophin A in wild-type and mdx mouse muscles. In pre-clinical studies, treatment of mdx mice with heparin, an activator of p38, causes a pronounced increase in utrophin A in diaphragm muscle fibers. Together, these studies identify a pathway that culminates in the post-transcriptional regulation of utrophin A through increases in mRNA stability. Furthermore, our results constitute proof-of-principle showing that pharmacological activation of p38 may prove beneficial as a novel therapeutic approach for DMD. PMID:23575223

  5. Novel RNA chaperone domain of RNA-binding protein La is regulated by AKT phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kuehnert, Julia; Sommer, Gunhild; Zierk, Avery W.; Fedarovich, Alena; Brock, Alexander; Fedarovich, Dzmitry; Heise, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    The cellular function of the cancer-associated RNA-binding protein La has been linked to translation of viral and cellular mRNAs. Recently, we have shown that the human La protein stimulates IRES-mediated translation of the cooperative oncogene CCND1 in cervical cancer cells. However, there is little known about the underlying molecular mechanism by which La stimulates CCND1 IRES-mediated translation, and we propose that its RNA chaperone activity is required. Herein, we show that La binds close to the CCND1 start codon and demonstrate that La's RNA chaperone activity can change the folding of its binding site. We map the RNA chaperone domain (RCD) within the C-terminal region of La in close proximity to a novel AKT phosphorylation site (T389). Phosphorylation at T389 by AKT-1 strongly impairs its RNA chaperone activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the RCD as well as T389 is required to stimulate CCND1 IRES-mediated translation in cells. In summary, we provide a model whereby a novel interplay between RNA-binding, RNA chaperoning and AKT phosphorylation of La protein regulates CCND1 IRES-mediated translation. PMID:25520193

  6. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 and CREB-Binding Protein/p300 Are Subunits of Double-Stranded RNA-Activated Transcription Factor DRAF1

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Brian K.; Kumar, K. Prasanna; Reich, Nancy C.

    1998-01-01

    Cells respond to viral infection or double-stranded RNA with the transcriptional induction of a subset of alpha/beta interferon-stimulated genes by a pathway distinct from the interferon signal pathway. The transcriptional induction is mediated through a DNA sequence containing the alpha/beta interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE). We previously identified a novel transcription factor, designated double-stranded RNA-activated factor 1 (DRAF1), that recognizes this response element. The DNA-binding specificity of DRAF1 correlates with transcriptional induction, thereby distinguishing it as a positive regulator of alpha/beta interferon-stimulated genes. Two of the components of DRAF1 have now been identified as interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300. We demonstrate that IRF-3 preexists in the cytoplasm of uninfected cells and translocates to the nucleus following viral infection. Translocation of IRF-3 is accompanied by an increase in serine and threonine phosphorylation. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses of endogenous proteins demonstrate an association of IRF-3 with the transcriptional coactivators CBP and p300 only subsequent to infection. In addition, antibodies to the IRF-3, CBP, and p300 molecules react with DRAF1 bound to the ISRE target site of induced genes. The cellular response that leads to DRAF1 activation and specific gene expression may serve to increase host survival during viral infection. PMID:9488451

  7. Systematic discovery of Xist RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ci; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Flynn, Ryan A.; Bharadwaj, Maheetha; Calabrese, J. Mauro; Magnuson, Terry; Heard, Edith; Chang, Howard Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function with associated proteins to effect complex structural and regulatory outcomes. To reveal the composition and dynamics of specific noncoding RNA- protein complexes (RNPs) in vivo, we developed comprehensive identification of RNA-binding proteins by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS). ChIRP-MS analysis of four ncRNAs captures key protein interactors, including a U1-specific link to the 3′ RNA processing machinery. Xist, an essential lncRNA for X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), interacts with 81 proteins from chromatin modification, nuclear matrix, and RNA remodeling pathways. The Xist RNA-protein particle assembles in two steps coupled with the transition from pluripotency to differentiation. Specific interactors include HnrnpK that participates in Xist-mediated gene silencing and histone modifications, but not Xist localization and Drosophila Split ends homolog Spen that interacts via the A-repeat domain of Xist and is required for gene silencing. Thus, Xist lncRNA engages with proteins in a modular and developmentally controlled manner to coordinate chromatin spreading and silencing. PMID:25843628

  8. Systematic discovery of Xist RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ci; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Flynn, Ryan A; Bharadwaj, Maheetha; Calabrese, J Mauro; Magnuson, Terry; Heard, Edith; Chang, Howard Y

    2015-04-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function with associated proteins to effect complex structural and regulatory outcomes. To reveal the composition and dynamics of specific noncoding RNA-protein complexes (RNPs) in vivo, we developed comprehensive identification of RNA binding proteins by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS). ChIRP-MS analysis of four ncRNAs captures key protein interactors, including a U1-specific link to the 3' RNA processing machinery. Xist, an essential lncRNA for X chromosome inactivation (XCI), interacts with 81 proteins from chromatin modification, nuclear matrix, and RNA remodeling pathways. The Xist RNA-protein particle assembles in two steps coupled with the transition from pluripotency to differentiation. Specific interactors include HnrnpK, which participates in Xist-mediated gene silencing and histone modifications but not Xist localization, and Drosophila Split ends homolog Spen, which interacts via the A-repeat domain of Xist and is required for gene silencing. Thus, Xist lncRNA engages with proteins in a modular and developmentally controlled manner to coordinate chromatin spreading and silencing. PMID:25843628

  9. Crystal Structure of Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase Complexed with Adenosine-5′ Tetraphosphate: Evidence for Distributed Use of Catalytic Binding Energy in Amino Acid Activation by Class I Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Retailleau, Pascal; Weinreb, Violetta; Hu, Mei; Carter, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) is a functionally dimeric ligase, which specifically couples hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate to the formation of an ester bond between tryptophan and the cognate tRNA. TrpRS from Bacillus stearothermophilus binds the ATP analogue, adenosine-5′ tetraphosphate, AQP, competitively with ATP during pyrophosphate exchange. Estimates of binding affinity from this competitive inhibition and from isothermal titration calorimetry show that AQP binds 200 times more tightly than ATP both under conditions of induced-fit, where binding is coupled to an unfavourable conformational change, and under exchange conditions, where there is no conformational change. These binding data provide an indirect experimental measurement of +3.0 kcal/mole for the conformational free energy change associated with induced-fit assembly of the active site. Thermodynamic parameters derived from the calorimetry reveal very modest enthalpic changes, consistent with binding driven largely by a favorable entropy change. The 2.5 Å structure of the TrpRS:AQP complex, determined de novo by X-ray crystallography, resembles that of the previously described, pre-transition state TrpRS:ATP complexes. The anticodon-binding domain untwists relative to the Rossmann-fold domain by 20% of the way toward the orientation observed for the Products complex. An unexpected tetraphosphate conformation allows the γ̃ and δ̃ phosphate groups to occupy positions equivalent to those occupied by the β̃ and γ̃ phosphates of ATP. The β-phosphate effects a 1.11 Å extension that relocates the α-phosphate toward the tryptophan carboxylate while the PPi mimic moves deeper into the KMSKS loop. This configuration improves interactions between enzyme and nucleotide significantly and uniformly in the adenosine and PPi binding subsites. A new hydrogen bond forms between S194 from the class I KMSKS signature sequence and the PPi mimic. These complementary thermodynamic and

  10. Recombinant dengue virus type 1 NS3 protein exhibits specific viral RNA binding and NTPase activity regulated by the NS5 protein.

    PubMed

    Cui, T; Sugrue, R J; Xu, Q; Lee, A K; Chan, Y C; Fu, J

    1998-07-01

    The full-length dengue virus NS3 protein has been successfully expressed as a 94-kDa GST fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Treatment of the purified fusion protein with thrombin released a 68-kDa protein which is the expected molecular mass for the DEN1 NS3 protein. The identity of this protein was confirmed by Western blotting using dengue virus antisera. Two related activities of the recombinant NS3 protein were characterized, which were the binding of the protein to the 3'-noncoding region of the dengue virus RNA genome and NTPase activity. We demonstrated using a band shift assay that the DEN1 NS3 protein could form a complex with the stem-loop structure in the 3'-noncoding region (3'-NCR), although sites outside the stem-loop may also participate in binding. Using various unlabeled homopolymeric and heteropolymeric RNAs as competitors for binding, it was further shown that the DEN1 NS3 protein exhibits preferential binding to a 94-nt RNA transcript from the 3'-NCR of the dengue virus. The NTPase activity of the recombinant DEN1 NS3 protein was characterized using a thin-layer chromatography assay. We found that the DEN1 NS3 protein possesses some aspects of NTPase activity, which are distinct from those found in other flaviviruses. Although the NS3 protein was able to utilize all four ribonucleoside triphosphates as its substrates, the NS3 protein showed a distinct preference for purine triphosphates (i.e., ATP and GTP). The addition of poly(U) did not stimulate NTPase activity in DEN1 NS3 protein, which contrasts with the reports for other flaviviral NS3 proteins. However, NTPase activity was specifically stimulated by the viral NS5 protein, which was manifested by a more than twofold increase in the rate of ATP hydrolysis and a 25% increase in the yield of ADP at the end of a 120-min reaction. These data suggest that the NTPase activity of the NS3 protein may be regulated by the viral NS5 protein during virus replication. PMID:9657959

  11. Regulation of Pluripotency by RNA Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Julia; Blelloch, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Establishment, maintenance, and exit from pluripotency require precise coordination of a cell’s molecular machinery. Substantial headway has been made in deciphering many aspects of this elaborate system, particularly with respect to epigenetics, transcription, and noncoding RNAs. Less attention has been paid to posttranscriptional regulatory processes such as alternative splicing, RNA processing and modification, nuclear export, regulation of transcript stability, and translation. Here, we introduce the RNA binding proteins that enable the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, summarizing current and ongoing research on their roles at different regulatory points and discussing how they help script the fate of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25192462

  12. Inhibition of RNA binding to hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: a new mechanism for antiviral intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed-Belkacem, Abdelhakim; Guichou, Jean-François; Brillet, Rozenn; Ahnou, Nazim; Hernandez, Eva; Pallier, Coralie; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a key target for antiviral intervention. The goal of this study was to identify the binding site and unravel the molecular mechanism by which natural flavonoids efficiently inhibit HCV RdRp. Screening identified the flavonol quercetagetin as the most potent inhibitor of HCV RdRp activity. Quercetagetin was found to inhibit RdRp through inhibition of RNA binding to the viral polymerase, a yet unknown antiviral mechanism. X-ray crystallographic structure analysis of the RdRp-quercetagetin complex identified quercetagetin's binding site at the entrance of the RNA template tunnel, confirming its original mode of action. This antiviral mechanism was associated with a high barrier to resistance in both site-directed mutagenesis and long-term selection experiments. In conclusion, we identified a new mechanism for non-nucleoside inhibition of HCV RdRp through inhibition of RNA binding to the enzyme, a mechanism associated with broad genotypic activity and a high barrier to resistance. Our results open the way to new antiviral approaches for HCV and other viruses that use an RdRp based on RNA binding inhibition, that could prove to be useful in human, animal or plant viral infections. PMID:25053847

  13. Translation elongation factor 1A mutants with altered actin bundling activity show reduced aminoacyl-tRNA binding and alter initiation via eIF2α phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Perez, Winder B; Kinzy, Terri Goss

    2014-07-25

    Apart from its canonical function in translation elongation, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) has been shown to interact with the actin cytoskeleton. Amino acid substitutions in eEF1A that reduce its ability to bind and bundle actin in vitro cause improper actin organization in vivo and reduce total translation. Initial in vivo analysis indicated the reduced translation was through initiation. The mutant strains exhibit increased levels of phosphorylated initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) dependent on the presence of the general control non-derepressible 2 (Gcn2p) protein kinase. Gcn2p causes downregulation of total protein synthesis at initiation in response to increases in deacylated tRNA levels in the cell. Increased levels of eIF2α phosphorylation are not due to a general reduction in translation elongation as eEF2 and eEF3 mutants do not exhibit this effect. Deletion of GCN2 from the eEF1A actin bundling mutant strains revealed a second defect in translation. The eEF1A actin-bundling proteins exhibit changes in their elongation activity at the level of aminoacyl-tRNA binding in vitro. These findings implicate eEF1A in a feedback mechanism for regulating translation at initiation. PMID:24936063

  14. Structure of the RNA-Binding Domain of Telomerase: Implications For RNA Recognition and Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Rouda,S.; Skordalakes, E.

    2007-01-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein complex, replicates the linear ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, thus taking care of the 'end of replication problem.' TERT contains an essential and universally conserved domain (TRBD) that makes extensive contacts with the RNA (TER) component of the holoenzyme, and this interaction is thought to facilitate TERT/TER assembly and repeat-addition processivity. Here, we present a high-resolution structure of TRBD from Tetrahymena thermophila. The nearly all-helical structure comprises a nucleic acid-binding fold suitable for TER binding. An extended pocket on the surface of the protein, formed by two conserved motifs (CP and T motifs) comprises TRBD's RNA-binding pocket. The width and the chemical nature of this pocket suggest that it binds both single- and double-stranded RNA, possibly stem I, and the template boundary element (TBE). Moreover, the structure provides clues into the role of this domain in TERT/TER stabilization and telomerase repeat-addition processivity.

  15. RNA Polymerase I-Specific Subunit CAST/hPAF49 Has a Role in the Activation of Transcription by Upstream Binding Factor

    PubMed Central

    Panov, Kostya I.; Panova, Tatiana B.; Gadal, Olivier; Nishiyama, Kaori; Saito, Takashi; Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C. B. M.

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerases are large complexes, 12 subunits of which are structurally or functionally homologous across the three polymerase classes. Each class has a set of specific subunits, likely targets of their cognate transcription factors. We have identified and characterized a human RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-specific subunit, previously identified as ASE-1 (antisense of ERCC1) and as CD3ɛ-associated signal transducer (CAST), and here termed CAST or human Pol I-associated factor of 49 kDa (hPAF49), after mouse orthologue PAF49. We provide evidence for growth-regulated Tyr phosphorylation of CAST/hPAF49, specifically in initiation-competent Pol Iβ complexes in HeLa cells, at a conserved residue also known to be important for signaling during T-cell activation. CAST/hPAF49 can interact with activator upstream binding factor (UBF) and, weakly, with selectivity factor 1 (SL1) at the rDNA (ribosomal DNA repeat sequence encoding the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA genes) promoter. CAST/hPAF49-specific antibodies and excess CAST/hPAF49 protein, which have no effect on basal Pol I transcription, inhibit UBF-activated transcription following functional SL1-Pol I-rDNA complex assembly and disrupt the interaction of UBF with CAST/hPAF49, suggesting that interaction of this Pol I-specific subunit with UBF is crucial for activation. Drawing on parallels between mammalian and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol I transcription machineries, we advance one model for CAST/hPAF49 function in which the network of interactions of Pol I-specific subunits with UBF facilitates conformational changes of the polymerase, leading to stabilization of the Pol I-template complex and, thereby, activation of transcription. PMID:16809778

  16. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 regulates CCAAT-enhancer-binding homologous protein expression in osteoblasts through upregulation of microRNA-205

    PubMed Central

    ZHUANG, JIAN; GAO, RUFENG; WU, HAIHUI; WU, XIAO; PAN, FUGEN

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), is induced by endoplasmic reticulum-stress and mediates programmed cell death. In osteoblasts, CHOP overexpression increases the rate of apoptosis, leading to osteoblastic dysfunction. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying CHOP expression remain unclear. In the present study, western blot analysis was used to demonstrate that the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibited the levels of the CHOP protein, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated the knockdown of STAT3 upregulated CHOP expression. Furthermore, STAT3 was shown to increase the expression level of microRNA (miR)-205. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-205 was able to directly target the 3′-untranslated region of the CHOP gene to inhibit its protein expression. The miR-205 antisense largely abolished the inhibitory effect of STAT3 activation on the levels of CHOP protein. Therefore, the results demonstrated a previously unknown STAT3/miR-205/CHOP signaling pathway in osteoblasts, which may aid the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of associated diseases, including osteoporosis. PMID:26170952

  17. Ectopic expression of cyclin D3 corrects differentiation of DM1 myoblasts through activation of RNA CUG-binding protein, CUGBP1

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Elizabeth; Sakai, Keiko; Schoser, Benedikt; Huichalaf, Claudia; Schneider-Gold, Christiane; Nguyen, Heather; Wang, Gou-Li; Albrecht, Jeffrey H.; Timchenko, Lubov T.

    2008-07-01

    Differentiation of myocytes is impaired in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1, DM1. CUG repeat binding protein, CUGBP1, is a key regulator of translation of proteins that are involved in muscle development and differentiation. In this paper, we present evidence that RNA-binding activity of CUGBP1 and its interactions with initiation translation complex eIF2 are differentially regulated during myogenesis by specific phosphorylation and that this regulation is altered in DM1. In normal myoblasts, Akt kinase phosphorylates CUGBP1 at Ser28 and increases interactions of CUGBP1 with cyclin D1 mRNA. During differentiation, CUGBP1 is phosphorylated by cyclinD3-cdk4/6 at Ser302, which increases CUGBP1 binding with p21 and C/EBP{beta} mRNAs. While cyclin D3 and cdk4 are elevated in normal myotubes; DM1 differentiating cells do not increase these proteins. In normal myotubes, CUGBP1 interacts with cyclin D3/cdk4/6 and eIF2; however, interactions of CUGBP1 with eIF2 are reduced in DM1 differentiating cells and correlate with impaired muscle differentiation in DM1. Ectopic expression of cyclin D3 in DM1 cells increases the CUGBP1-eIF2 complex, corrects expression of differentiation markers, myogenin and desmin, and enhances fusion of DM1 myoblasts. Thus, normalization of cyclin D3 might be a therapeutic approach to correct differentiation of skeletal muscle in DM1 patients.

  18. The RNA helicase MOV10L1 binds piRNA precursors to initiate piRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Vourekas, Anastassios; Fu, Qi; Maragkakis, Manolis; Alexiou, Panagiotis; Ma, Jing; Pillai, Ramesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Piwi–piRNA (Piwi-interacting RNA) ribonucleoproteins (piRNPs) enforce retrotransposon silencing, a function critical for preserving the genome integrity of germ cells. The molecular functions of most of the factors that have been genetically implicated in primary piRNA biogenesis are still elusive. Here we show that MOV10L1 exhibits 5′-to-3′ directional RNA-unwinding activity in vitro and that a point mutation that abolishes this activity causes a failure in primary piRNA biogenesis in vivo. We demonstrate that MOV10L1 selectively binds piRNA precursor transcripts and is essential for the generation of intermediate piRNA processing fragments that are subsequently loaded to Piwi proteins. Multiple analyses suggest an intimate coupling of piRNA precursor processing with elements of local secondary structures such as G quadruplexes. Our results support a model in which MOV10L1 RNA helicase activity promotes unwinding and funneling of the single-stranded piRNA precursor transcripts to the endonuclease that catalyzes the first cleavage step of piRNA processing. PMID:25762440

  19. Finding the right RNA: identification of cellular mRNA substrates for RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Trifillis, P; Day, N; Kiledjian, M

    1999-01-01

    Defects in RNA-binding proteins have been implicated in human genetic disorders. However, efforts in understanding the functions of these proteins have been hampered by the inability to obtain their mRNA substrates. To identify cognate cellular mRNAs associated with an RNA-binding protein, we devised a strategy termed isolation of specific nucleic acids associated with proteins (SNAAP). The SNAAP technique allows isolation and subsequent identification of these mRNAs. To assess the validity of this approach, we utilized cellular mRNA and protein from K562 cells and alphaCP1, a protein implicated in a-globin mRNA stability, as a model system. Immobilization of an RNA-binding protein with the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) domain enables isolation of mRNA within an mRNP context and the identity of the bound mRNAs is determined by the differential display assay. The specificity of protein-RNA interactions was considerably enhanced when the interactions were carried out in the presence of cellular extract rather than purified components. Two of the mRNAs specifically bound by alphaCP1 were mRNAs encoding the transmembrane receptor protein, TAPA-1, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II enzyme, coxII. A specific poly(C)-sensitive complex formed on the TAPA-1 and coxII 3' UTRs consistent with the binding of aCP1. Furthermore, direct binding of purified alphaCP proteins to these 3' UTRs was demonstrated and the binding sites determined. These results support the feasibility of the SNAAP technique and suggest a broad applicability for the approach in identifying mRNA targets for clinically relevant RNA-binding proteins that will provide insights into their possible functions. PMID:10445881

  20. PRBP: Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins Using a Random Forest Algorithm Combined with an RNA-Binding Residue Predictor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Guo, Jing; Xiao, Ke; Sun, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of RNA-binding proteins is an incredibly challenging problem in computational biology. Although great progress has been made using various machine learning approaches with numerous features, the problem is still far from being solved. In this study, we attempt to predict RNA-binding proteins directly from amino acid sequences. A novel approach, PRBP predicts RNA-binding proteins using the information of predicted RNA-binding residues in conjunction with a random forest based method. For a given protein, we first predict its RNA-binding residues and then judge whether the protein binds RNA or not based on information from that prediction. If the protein cannot be identified by the information associated with its predicted RNA-binding residues, then a novel random forest predictor is used to determine if the query protein is a RNA-binding protein. We incorporated features of evolutionary information combined with physicochemical features (EIPP) and amino acid composition feature to establish the random forest predictor. Feature analysis showed that EIPP contributed the most to the prediction of RNA-binding proteins. The results also showed that the information from the RNA-binding residue prediction improved the overall performance of our RNA-binding protein prediction. It is anticipated that the PRBP method will become a useful tool for identifying RNA-binding proteins. A PRBP Web server implementation is freely available at http://www.cbi.seu.edu.cn/PRBP/. PMID:26671809

  1. Tethering in RNA: An RNA-Binding Fragment Discovery Tool

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Kiet; Arkin, Michelle R.; Beal, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Tethering has been extensively used to study small molecule interactions with proteins through reversible disulfide bond forming reactions to cysteine residues. We describe the adaptation of Tethering to the study of small molecule binding to RNA using a thiol-containing adenosine analog (ASH). Among 30 disulfide-containing small molecules screened for efficient Tethering to ASH-bearing RNAs derived from pre-miR21, a benzotriazole-containing compound showed prominent adduct formation and selectivity for one of the RNAs tested. The results of this screen demonstrate the viability of using thiol-modified nucleic acids to discover molecules with binding affinity and specificity for the purpose of therapeutic compound lead discovery. PMID:25749683

  2. A protein with simultaneous capsid scaffolding and dsRNA-binding activities enhances the birnavirus capsid mechanical stability

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Johann; Casado, Santiago; Mata, Carlos P.; Hernando-Pérez, Mercedes; de Pablo, Pedro J.; Carrascosa, José L.; Castón, José R.

    2015-01-01

    Viral capsids are metastable structures that perform many essential processes; they also act as robust cages during the extracellular phase. Viruses can use multifunctional proteins to optimize resources (e.g., VP3 in avian infectious bursal disease virus, IBDV). The IBDV genome is organized as ribonucleoproteins (RNP) of dsRNA with VP3, which also acts as a scaffold during capsid assembly. We characterized mechanical properties of IBDV populations with different RNP content (ranging from none to four RNP). The IBDV population with the greatest RNP number (and best fitness) showed greatest capsid rigidity. When bound to dsRNA, VP3 reinforces virus stiffness. These contacts involve interactions with capsid structural subunits that differ from the initial interactions during capsid assembly. Our results suggest that RNP dimers are the basic stabilization units of the virion, provide better understanding of multifunctional proteins, and highlight the duality of RNP as capsid-stabilizing and genetic information platforms. PMID:26336920

  3. Electrophilic activity-based RNA probes reveal a self-alkylating RNA for RNA labeling

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Richard I.; Guilinger, John P.; Mukherji, Shankar; Curtis, Edward A.; Lee, Won I.; Liu, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Probes that form covalent bonds with RNA molecules based on their chemical reactivity would advance our ability to study the transcriptome. We developed a set of electrophilic activity-based RNA probes designed to react with unusually nucleophilic RNAs. We used these probes to identify reactive genome-encoded RNAs, resulting in the discovery of a 42-nt catalytic RNA from an archaebacterium that reacts with a 2,3-disubstituted epoxide at N7 of a specific guanosine. Detailed characterization of the catalytic RNA revealed the structural requirements for reactivity. We developed this catalytic RNA into a general tool to selectively conjugate a small molecule to an RNA of interest. This strategy enabled up to 500-fold enrichment of target RNA from total mammalian RNA or from cell lysate. We demonstrated the utility of this approach by selectively capturing proteins in yeast cell lysate that bind to the ASH1 mRNA. PMID:25306441

  4. The RNA recognition motif domains of RBM5 are required for RNA binding and cancer cell proliferation inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Yu; Wu, Chuanfang

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • RNA recognition motif domains of RBM5 are essential for cell proliferation inhibition. • RNA recognition motif domains of RBM5 are essential for apoptosis induction. • RNA recognition motif domains of RBM5 are essential for RNA binding. • RNA recognition motif domains of RBM5 are essential for caspase-2 alternative splicing. - Abstract: RBM5 is a known putative tumor suppressor gene that has been shown to function in cell growth inhibition by modulating apoptosis. RBM5 also plays a critical role in alternative splicing as an RNA binding protein. However, it is still unclear which domains of RBM5 are required for RNA binding and related functional activities. We hypothesized the two putative RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains of RBM5 spanning from amino acids 98–178 and 231–315 are essential for RBM5-mediated cell growth inhibition, apoptosis regulation, and RNA binding. To investigate this hypothesis, we evaluated the activities of the wide-type and mutant RBM5 gene transfer in low-RBM5 expressing A549 cells. We found that, unlike wild-type RBM5 (RBM5-wt), a RBM5 mutant lacking the two RRM domains (RBM5-ΔRRM), is unable to bind RNA, has compromised caspase-2 alternative splicing activity, lacks cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction function in A549 cells. These data provide direct evidence that the two RRM domains of RBM5 are required for RNA binding and the RNA binding activity of RBM5 contributes to its function on apoptosis induction and cell growth inhibition.

  5. Guardian of Genetic Messenger-RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2016-01-01

    RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins. PMID:26751491

  6. Identification and RNA binding characterization of plant virus RNA silencing suppressor proteins.

    PubMed

    Vargason, Jeffrey M; Burch, Carissa J; Wilson, Jesse W

    2013-11-01

    Suppression is a common mechanism employed by viruses to evade the antiviral effects of the host's RNA silencing pathway. The activity of suppression has commonly been localized to gene products in the virus, but the variety of mechanisms used in suppression by these viral proteins spans nearly the complete biochemical pathway of RNA silencing in the host. This review describes the agrofiltration assay and a slightly modified version of the agro-infiltration assay called co-infiltration, which are common methods used to observe RNA silencing and identify viral silencing suppressor proteins in plants, respectively. In addition, this review will provide an overview of two methods, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and fluorescence polarization, used to assess the binding of a suppressor protein to siRNA which has been shown to be a general mechanism to suppress RNA silencing by plant viruses. PMID:23981361

  7. Metabolic Enzymes Enjoying New Partnerships as RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Castello, Alfredo; Hentze, Matthias W.; Preiss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In the past century, few areas of biology advanced as much as our understanding of the pathways of intermediary metabolism. Initially considered unimportant in terms of gene regulation, crucial cellular fate changes, cell differentiation, or malignant transformation are now known to involve ‘metabolic remodeling’ with profound changes in the expression of many metabolic enzyme genes. This review focuses on the recent identification of RNA-binding activity of numerous metabolic enzymes. We discuss possible roles of this unexpected second activity in feedback gene regulation (‘moonlighting’) and/or in the control of enzymatic function. We also consider how metabolism-driven post-translational modifications could regulate enzyme–RNA interactions. Thus, RNA emerges as a new partner of metabolic enzymes with far-reaching possible consequences to be unraveled in the future. PMID:26520658

  8. Identification and characterization of anion binding sites in RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Jeffrey S.; Chase, Elaine; Costantino, David A.; Golden, Barbara L.

    2010-05-24

    Although RNA molecules are highly negatively charged, anions have been observed bound to RNA in crystal structures. It has been proposed that anion binding sites found within isolated RNAs represent regions of the molecule that could be involved in intermolecular interactions, indicating potential contact points for negatively charged amino acids from proteins or phosphate groups from an RNA. Several types of anion binding sites have been cataloged based on available structures. However, currently there is no method for unambiguously assigning anions to crystallographic electron density, and this has precluded more detailed analysis of RNA-anion interaction motifs and their significance. We therefore soaked selenate into two different types of RNA crystals and used the anomalous signal from these anions to identify binding sites in these RNA molecules unambiguously. Examination of these sites and comparison with other suspected anion binding sites reveals features of anion binding motifs, and shows that selenate may be a useful tool for studying RNA-anion interactions.

  9. Comprehensive Identification of RNA-Binding Domains in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Castello, Alfredo; Fischer, Bernd; Frese, Christian K; Horos, Rastislav; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Foehr, Sophia; Curk, Tomaz; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Hentze, Matthias W

    2016-08-18

    Mammalian cells harbor more than a thousand RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), with half of these employing unknown modes of RNA binding. We developed RBDmap to determine the RNA-binding sites of native RBPs on a proteome-wide scale. We identified 1,174 binding sites within 529 HeLa cell RBPs, discovering numerous RNA-binding domains (RBDs). Catalytic centers or protein-protein interaction domains are in close relationship with RNA-binding sites, invoking possible effector roles of RNA in the control of protein function. Nearly half of the RNA-binding sites map to intrinsically disordered regions, uncovering unstructured domains as prevalent partners in protein-RNA interactions. RNA-binding sites represent hot spots for defined posttranslational modifications such as lysine acetylation and tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting metabolic and signal-dependent regulation of RBP function. RBDs display a high degree of evolutionary conservation and incidence of Mendelian mutations, suggestive of important functional roles. RBDmap thus yields profound insights into native protein-RNA interactions in living cells. PMID:27453046

  10. BC1-FMRP interaction is modulated by 2′-O-methylation: RNA-binding activity of the tudor domain and translational regulation at synapses

    PubMed Central

    Lacoux, Caroline; Di Marino, Daniele; Pilo Boyl, Pietro; Zalfa, Francesca; Yan, Bing; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Falconi, Mattia; Urlaub, Henning; Achsel, Tilmann; Mougin, Annie; Caizergues-Ferrer, Michèle; Bagni, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The brain cytoplasmic RNA, BC1, is a small non-coding RNA that is found in different RNP particles, some of which are involved in translational control. One component of BC1-containing RNP complexes is the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) that is implicated in translational repression. Peptide mapping and computational simulations show that the tudor domain of FMRP makes specific contacts to BC1 RNA. Endogenous BC1 RNA is 2′-O-methylated in nucleotides that contact the FMRP interface, and methylation can affect this interaction. In the cell body BC1 2′-O-methylations are present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, but they are virtually absent at synapses where the FMRP–BC1–mRNA complex exerts its function. These results strongly suggest that subcellular region-specific modifications of BC1 affect the binding to FMRP and the interaction with its mRNA targets. We finally show that BC1 RNA has an important role in translation of certain mRNAs associated to FMRP. All together these findings provide further insights into the translational regulation by the FMRP–BC1 complex at synapses. PMID:22238374

  11. Plant Coilin: Structural Characteristics and RNA-Binding Properties

    PubMed Central

    Protopopova, Anna; Yaminsky, Igor; Arutiunian, Alexander; Love, Andrew J.; Taliansky, Michael; Kalinina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Cajal bodies (CBs) are dynamic subnuclear compartments involved in the biogenesis of ribonucleoproteins. Coilin is a major structural scaffolding protein necessary for CB formation, composition and activity. The predicted secondary structure of Arabidopsis thaliana coilin (Atcoilin) suggests that the protein is composed of three main domains. Analysis of the physical properties of deletion mutants indicates that Atcoilin might consist of an N-terminal globular domain, a central highly disordered domain and a C-terminal domain containing a presumable Tudor-like structure adjacent to a disordered C terminus. Despite the low homology in amino acid sequences, a similar type of domain organization is likely shared by human and animal coilin proteins and coilin-like proteins of various plant species. Atcoilin is able to bind RNA effectively and in a non-specific manner. This activity is provided by three RNA-binding sites: two sets of basic amino acids in the N-terminal domain and one set in the central domain. Interaction with RNA induces the multimerization of the Atcoilin molecule, a consequence of the structural alterations in the N-terminal domain. The interaction with RNA and subsequent multimerization may facilitate coilin’s function as a scaffolding protein. A model of the N-terminal domain is also proposed. PMID:23320094

  12. Augmented DNA-binding activity of p53 protein encoded by a carboxyl-terminal alternatively spliced mRNA is blocked by p53 protein encoded by the regularly spliced form.

    PubMed Central

    Wolkowicz, R; Peled, A; Elkind, N B; Rotter, V

    1995-01-01

    DNA-binding activity of the wild-type p53 is central to its function in vivo. However, recombinant or in vitro translated wild-type p53 proteins, unless modified, are poor DNA binders. The fact that the in vitro produced protein gains DNA-binding activity upon modification at the C terminus raises the possibility that similar mechanisms may exist in the cell. Data presented here show that a C-terminal alternatively spliced wild-type p53 (ASp53) mRNA expressed by bacteria or transcribed in vitro codes for a p53 protein that efficiently binds DNA. Our results support the conclusion that the augmented DNA binding activity of an ASp53 protein is probably due to attenuation of the negative effect residing at the C terminus of the wild-type p53 protein encoded by the regularly spliced mRNA (RSp53) rather than acquisition of additional functionality by the alternatively spliced C' terminus. In addition, we found that ASp53 forms a complex with the non-DNA-binding RSp53, which in turn blocks the DNA-binding activity of ASp53. Interaction between these two wild-type p53 proteins may underline a mechanism that controls the activity of the wild-type p53 protein in the cell. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7624329

  13. The RNA binding domain of Pumilio antagonizes poly-adenosine binding protein and accelerates deadenylation.

    PubMed

    Weidmann, Chase A; Raynard, Nathan A; Blewett, Nathan H; Van Etten, Jamie; Goldstrohm, Aaron C

    2014-08-01

    PUF proteins are potent repressors that serve important roles in stem cell maintenance, neurological processes, and embryonic development. These functions are driven by PUF protein recognition of specific binding sites within the 3' untranslated regions of target mRNAs. In this study, we investigated mechanisms of repression by the founding PUF, Drosophila Pumilio, and its human orthologs. Here, we evaluated a previously proposed model wherein the Pumilio RNA binding domain (RBD) binds Argonaute, which in turn blocks the translational activity of the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A. Surprisingly, we found that Argonautes are not necessary for repression elicited by Drosophila and human PUFs in vivo. A second model proposed that the RBD of Pumilio represses by recruiting deadenylases to shorten the mRNA's polyadenosine tail. Indeed, the RBD binds to the Pop2 deadenylase and accelerates deadenylation; however, this activity is not crucial for regulation. Rather, we determined that the poly(A) is necessary for repression by the RBD. Our results reveal that poly(A)-dependent repression by the RBD requires the poly(A) binding protein, pAbp. Furthermore, we show that repression by the human PUM2 RBD requires the pAbp ortholog, PABPC1. Pumilio associates with pAbp but does not disrupt binding of pAbp to the mRNA. Taken together, our data support a model wherein the Pumilio RBD antagonizes the ability of pAbp to promote translation. Thus, the conserved function of the PUF RBD is to bind specific mRNAs, antagonize pAbp function, and promote deadenylation. PMID:24942623

  14. Diverse roles of host RNA binding proteins in RNA virus replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenghe; Nagy, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    Plus-strand +RNA viruses co-opt host RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) to perform many functions during viral replication. A few host RBPs have been identified that affect the recruitment of viral +RNAs for replication. Other subverted host RBPs help the assembly of the membrane-bound replicase complexes, regulate the activity of the replicase and control minus- or plus-strand RNA synthesis. The host RBPs also affect the stability of viral RNAs, which have to escape cellular RNA degradation pathways. While many host RBPs seem to have specialized functions, others participate in multiple events during infection. Several conserved RBPs, such as eEF1A, hnRNP proteins and Lsm 1-7 complex, are co-opted by evolutionarily diverse +RNA viruses, underscoring some common themes in virus-host interactions. On the other hand, viruses also hijack unique RBPs, suggesting that +RNA viruses could utilize different RBPs to perform similar functions. Moreover, different +RNA viruses have adapted unique strategies for co-opting unique RBPs. Altogether, a deeper understanding of the functions of the host RBPs subverted for viral replication will help development of novel antiviral strategies and give new insights into host RNA biology. PMID:21505273

  15. The RNA Binding Specificity of Human APOBEC3 Proteins Resembles That of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid.

    PubMed

    York, Ashley; Kutluay, Sebla B; Errando, Manel; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    The APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases are antiretroviral proteins, whose targets include human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Their incorporation into viral particles is critical for antiviral activity and is driven by interactions with the RNA molecules that are packaged into virions. However, it is unclear whether A3 proteins preferentially target RNA molecules that are destined to be packaged and if so, how. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq), we determined the RNA binding preferences of the A3F, A3G and A3H proteins. We found that A3 proteins bind preferentially to RNA segments with particular properties, both in cells and in virions. Specifically, A3 proteins target RNA sequences that are G-rich and/or A-rich and are not scanned by ribosomes during translation. Comparative analyses of HIV-1 Gag, nucleocapsid (NC) and A3 RNA binding to HIV-1 RNA in cells and virions revealed the striking finding that A3 proteins partially mimic the RNA binding specificity of the HIV-1 NC protein. These findings suggest a model for A3 incorporation into HIV-1 virions in which an NC-like RNA binding specificity is determined by nucleotide composition rather than sequence. This model reconciles the promiscuity of A3 RNA binding that has been observed in previous studies with a presumed advantage that would accompany selective binding to RNAs that are destined to be packaged into virions. PMID:27541140

  16. The RNA Binding Specificity of Human APOBEC3 Proteins Resembles That of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid

    PubMed Central

    Errando, Manel; Bieniasz, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases are antiretroviral proteins, whose targets include human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Their incorporation into viral particles is critical for antiviral activity and is driven by interactions with the RNA molecules that are packaged into virions. However, it is unclear whether A3 proteins preferentially target RNA molecules that are destined to be packaged and if so, how. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq), we determined the RNA binding preferences of the A3F, A3G and A3H proteins. We found that A3 proteins bind preferentially to RNA segments with particular properties, both in cells and in virions. Specifically, A3 proteins target RNA sequences that are G-rich and/or A-rich and are not scanned by ribosomes during translation. Comparative analyses of HIV-1 Gag, nucleocapsid (NC) and A3 RNA binding to HIV-1 RNA in cells and virions revealed the striking finding that A3 proteins partially mimic the RNA binding specificity of the HIV-1 NC protein. These findings suggest a model for A3 incorporation into HIV-1 virions in which an NC-like RNA binding specificity is determined by nucleotide composition rather than sequence. This model reconciles the promiscuity of A3 RNA binding that has been observed in previous studies with a presumed advantage that would accompany selective binding to RNAs that are destined to be packaged into virions. PMID:27541140

  17. Effect of Zn2+ binding and enzyme active site on the transition state for RNA 2'-O-transphosphorylation interpreted through kinetic isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haoyuan; Piccirilli, Joseph A; Harris, Michael E; York, Darrin M

    2015-11-01

    Divalent metal ions, due to their ability to stabilize high concentrations of negative charge, are important for RNA folding and catalysis. Detailed models derived from the structures and kinetics of enzymes and from computational simulations have been developed. However, in most cases the specific catalytic modes involving metal ions and their mechanistic roles and effects on transition state structures remain controversial. Valuable information about the nature of the transition state is provided by measurement of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). However, KIEs reflect changes in all bond vibrational modes that differ between the ground state and transition state. QM calculations are therefore essential for developing structural models of the transition state and evaluating mechanistic alternatives. Herein, we present computational models for Zn2+ binding to RNA 2'O-transphosphorylation reaction models that aid in the interpretation of KIE experiments. Different Zn2+ binding modes produce distinct KIE signatures, and one binding mode involving two zinc ions is in close agreement with KIEs measured for non-enzymatic catalysis by Zn2+ aquo ions alone. Interestingly, the KIE signatures in this specific model are also very close to those in RNase A catalysis. These results allow a quantitative connection to be made between experimental KIE measurements and transition state structure and bonding, and provide insight into RNA 2'O-ransphosphorylation reactions catalyzed by metal ions and enzymes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Enzyme Transition States from Theory and Experiment. PMID:25812974

  18. Multifunctional roles for the N-terminal basic motif of Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein: nucleolar/cytoplasmic shuttling, modulation of RNA-binding activity, and virion formation.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Mari Carmen; Pallas, Vicente; Aparicio, Frederic

    2012-08-01

    In addition to virion formation, the coat protein (CP) of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is involved in the regulation of replication and translation of viral RNAs, and in cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus. An intriguing feature of the AMV CP is its nuclear and nucleolar accumulation. Here, we identify an N-terminal lysine-rich nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) in the AMV CP required to both enter the nucleus and accumulate in the nucleolus of infected cells, and a C-terminal leucine-rich domain which might function as a nuclear export signal. Moreover, we demonstrate that AMV CP interacts with importin-α, a component of the classical nuclear import pathway. A mutant AMV RNA 3 unable to target the nucleolus exhibited reduced plus-strand RNA synthesis and cell-to-cell spread. Moreover, virion formation and systemic movement were completely abolished in plants infected with this mutant. In vitro analysis demonstrated that specific lysine residues within the NoLS are also involved in modulating CP-RNA binding and CP dimerization, suggesting that the NoLS represents a multifunctional domain within the AMV CP. The observation that nuclear and nucleolar import signals mask RNA-binding properties of AMV CP, essential for viral replication and translation, supports a model in which viral expression is carefully modulated by a cytoplasmic/nuclear balance of CP accumulation. PMID:22746826

  19. AU-rich RNA binding proteins in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baou, Maria; Norton, John D; Murphy, John J

    2011-11-24

    Posttranscriptional mechanisms are now widely acknowledged to play a central role in orchestrating gene-regulatory networks in hematopoietic cell growth, differentiation, and tumorigenesis. Although much attention has focused on microRNAs as regulators of mRNA stability/translation, recent data have highlighted the role of several diverse classes of AU-rich RNA-binding protein in the regulation of mRNA decay/stabilization. AU-rich elements are found in the 3'-untranslated region of many mRNAs that encode regulators of cell growth and survival, such as cytokines and onco/tumor-suppressor proteins. These are targeted by a burgeoning number of different RNA-binding proteins. Three distinct types of AU-rich RNA binding protein (ARE poly-U-binding degradation factor-1/AUF1, Hu antigen/HuR/HuA/ELAVL1, and the tristetraprolin/ZFP36 family of proteins) are essential for normal hematopoiesis. Together with 2 further AU-rich RNA-binding proteins, nucleolin and KHSRP/KSRP, the functions of these proteins are intimately associated with pathways that are dysregulated in various hematopoietic malignancies. Significantly, all of these AU-rich RNA-binding proteins function via an interconnected network that is integrated with microRNA functions. Studies of these diverse types of RNA binding protein are providing novel insight into gene-regulatory mechanisms in hematopoiesis in addition to offering new opportunities for developing mechanism-based targeted therapeutics in leukemia and lymphoma. PMID:21917750

  20. MeRNA: a Database of Metal Ion Binding Sites in RNAStructures

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Liliana R.; Zhang, Rui; Levitan, Aaron G.; Hendrix, DonnaF.; Brenner, Steven E.; Holbrook, Stephen R.

    2005-10-05

    Metal ions are essential for the folding of RNA into stable tertiary structures and for the catalytic activity of some RNA enzymes. To aid in the study of the roles of metal ions in RNA structural biology, we have created MeRNA (Metals in RNA), a comprehensive compilation of all metal binding sites identified in RNA three-dimensional structures available from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Nucleic Acid Database (NDB). Currently, our database contains information relating to binding of 9764 metal ions corresponding to 23 distinct elements; in 256 RNA structures. The metal ion locations were confirmed and ligands characterized using original literature references. MeRNA includes eight manually identified metal-ion binding motifs, which are described in the literature. MeRNA is searchable by PDB identifier, metal ion, method of structure determination, resolution and R-values for X-ray structure, and distance from metal to any RNA atom or to water. New structures with their respective binding motifs will be added to the database as they become available. The MeRNA database will further our understanding of the roles of metal ions in RNA folding and catalysis and have applications in structural and functional analysis, RNA design and engineering.

  1. Structure of the second RRM domain of Nrd1, a fission yeast MAPK target RNA binding protein, and implication for its RNA recognition and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Ayaho; Kanaba, Teppei; Satoh, Ryosuke; Fujiwara, Toshinobu; Ito, Yutaka; Sugiura, Reiko; Mishima, Masaki

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •Solution structure of the second RRM of Nrd1 was determined. •RNA binding site of the second RRM was estimated. •Regulatory mechanism of RNA binding by phosphorylation is discussed. -- Abstract: Negative regulator of differentiation 1 (Nrd1) is known as a negative regulator of sexual differentiation in fission yeast. Recently, it has been revealed that Nrd1 also regulates cytokinesis, in which physical separation of the cell is achieved by a contractile ring comprising many proteins including actin and myosin. Cdc4, a myosin II light chain, is known to be required for cytokinesis. Nrd1 binds and stabilizes Cdc4 mRNA, and thereby suppressing the cytokinesis defects of the cdc4 mutants. Interestingly, Pmk1 MAPK phosphorylates Nrd1, resulting in markedly reduced RNA binding activity. Furthermore, Nrd1 localizes to stress granules in response to various stresses, and Pmk1 phosphorylation enhances the localization. Nrd1 consists of four RRM domains, although the mechanism by which Pmk1 regulates the RNA binding activity of Nrd1 is unknown. In an effort to delineate the relationship between Nrd1 structure and function, we prepared each RNA binding domain of Nrd1 and examined RNA binding to chemically synthesized oligo RNA using NMR. The structure of the second RRM domain of Nrd1 was determined and the RNA binding site on the second RRM domain was mapped by NMR. A plausible mechanism pertaining to the regulation of RNA binding activity by phosphorylation is also discussed.

  2. The expanding universe of ribonucleoproteins: of novel RNA-binding proteins and unconventional interactions.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Benedikt M; Castello, Alfredo; Medenbach, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression plays a critical role in almost all cellular processes. Regulation occurs mostly by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that recognise RNA elements and form ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to control RNA metabolism from synthesis to decay. Recently, the repertoire of RBPs was significantly expanded owing to methodological advances such as RNA interactome capture. The newly identified RNA binders are involved in diverse biological processes and belong to a broad spectrum of protein families, many of them exhibiting enzymatic activities. This suggests the existence of an extensive crosstalk between RNA biology and other, in principle unrelated, cell functions such as intermediary metabolism. Unexpectedly, hundreds of new RBPs do not contain identifiable RNA-binding domains (RBDs), raising the question of how they interact with RNA. Despite the many functions that have been attributed to RNA, our understanding of RNPs is still mostly governed by a rather protein-centric view, leading to the idea that proteins have evolved to bind to and regulate RNA and not vice versa. However, RNPs formed by an RNA-driven interaction mechanism (RNA-determined RNPs) are abundant and offer an alternative explanation for the surprising lack of classical RBDs in many RNA-interacting proteins. Moreover, RNAs can act as scaffolds to orchestrate and organise protein networks and directly control their activity, suggesting that nucleic acids might play an important regulatory role in many cellular processes, including metabolism. PMID:27165283

  3. RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

    2014-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80 % of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein. PMID:24878641

  4. RNA binding specificity of Ebola virus transcription factor VP30.

    PubMed

    Schlereth, Julia; Grünweller, Arnold; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Becker, Stephan; Hartmann, Roland K

    2016-09-01

    The transcription factor VP30 of the non-segmented RNA negative strand Ebola virus balances viral transcription and replication. Here, we comprehensively studied RNA binding by VP30. Using a novel VP30:RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we tested truncated variants of 2 potential natural RNA substrates of VP30 - the genomic Ebola viral 3'-leader region and its complementary antigenomic counterpart (each ∼155 nt in length) - and a series of other non-viral RNAs. Based on oligonucleotide interference, the major VP30 binding region on the genomic 3'-leader substrate was assigned to the internal expanded single-stranded region (∼ nt 125-80). Best binding to VP30 was obtained with ssRNAs of optimally ∼ 40 nt and mixed base composition; underrepresentation of purines or pyrimidines was tolerated, but homopolymeric sequences impaired binding. A stem-loop structure, particularly at the 3'-end or positioned internally, supports stable binding to VP30. In contrast, dsRNA or RNAs exposing large internal loops flanked by entirely helical arms on both sides are not bound. Introduction of a 5´-Cap(0) structure impaired VP30 binding. Also, ssDNAs bind substantially weaker than isosequential ssRNAs and heparin competes with RNA for binding to VP30, indicating that ribose 2'-hydroxyls and electrostatic contacts of the phosphate groups contribute to the formation of VP30:RNA complexes. Our results indicate a rather relaxed RNA binding specificity of filoviral VP30, which largely differs from that of the functionally related transcription factor of the Paramyxoviridae which binds to ssRNAs as short as 13 nt with a preference for oligo(A) sequences. PMID:27315567

  5. Identification of dengue RNA binding proteins using RNA chromatography and quantitative mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alex M; Gunaratne, J; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in dengue virus (DENV) research has been to understand the interaction of the viral RNA with host cell proteins during infection. Until recently, there were no comprehensive studies identifying host RNA binding proteins that interact with DENV RNA (Ward et al. RNA Biol 8 (6):1173-1186, 2011). Here, we describe a method for identifying proteins that associate with DENV RNA using RNA chromatography and quantitative mass spectrometry. The method utilizes a tobramycin RNA aptamer incorporated into an RNA containing the dengue 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) in order to reversibly bind RNA to a tobramycin matrix. The RNA-tobramycin matrix is incubated with SILAC-labeled cell lysates, and bound proteins are eluted using an excess of tobramycin. The eluate is analyzed using quantitative mass spectrometry, which allows direct and quantitative comparison of proteins bound to DENV UTRs and a control RNA-tobramycin matrix. This technique has the advantage of allowing one to distinguish between specific and nonspecific binding proteins based on the ratio of protein preferentially bound to the DENV UTRs versus the control RNA. This methodology can also be used for validation of quantitative mass spectrometry results using conventional Western blotting for specific proteins. Furthermore, though it was specifically developed to identify DENV RNA binding proteins, the RNA chromatography method described here can be applied to a broad range of viral and cellular RNAs for identification of interacting proteins. PMID:24696342

  6. RNA Binding-independent Dimerization of Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA and Dominant Negative Effects of Nonfunctional Subunits on Dimer Functions*

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Louis; Nishikura, Kazuko

    2010-01-01

    RNA editing that converts adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is mediated by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR). ADAR1 and ADAR2 form respective homodimers, and this association is essential for their enzymatic activities. In this investigation, we set out experiments aiming to determine whether formation of the homodimer complex is mediated by an amino acid interface made through protein-protein interactions of two monomers or via binding of the two subunits to a dsRNA substrate. Point mutations were created in the dsRNA binding domains (dsRBDs) that abolished all RNA binding, as tested for two classes of ADAR ligands, long and short dsRNA. The mutant ADAR dimer complexes were intact, as demonstrated by their ability to co-purify in a sequential affinity-tagged purification and also by their elution at the dimeric fraction position on a size fractionation column. Our results demonstrated ADAR dimerization independent of their binding to dsRNA, establishing the importance of protein-protein interactions for dimer formation. As expected, these mutant ADARs could no longer perform their catalytic function due to the loss in substrate binding. Surprisingly, a chimeric dimer consisting of one RNA binding mutant monomer and a wild type partner still abolished its ability to bind and edit its substrate, indicating that ADAR dimers require two subunits with functional dsRBDs for binding to a dsRNA substrate and then for editing activity to occur. PMID:17428802

  7. Functional connectivity between tRNA binding domains in glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Sherman, J M; Thomann, H U; Söll, D

    1996-03-15

    The structure of Escherichia coli glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS) in complex with tRNAGln and ATP has identified a number a sequence-specific protein-tRNA interactions. The contribution to glutamine identity has previously been determined for the nucleotides in tRNAGln. Here, we report the mutational analysis of residues in all three tRNA recognition domains of GlnRS, thus completing a survey of the major sequence-specific contacts between GlnRS and tRNAGln. Specifically, we analyzed the GlnRS determinants involved in recognition of the anticodon which is essential for glutamine identity and in the communication of anticodon recognition to the acceptor binding domain in GlnRS. A combined in vivo and in vitro approach has demonstrated that Arg341, which makes a single sequence-specific hydrogen bond with U35 in the anticodon of tRNAGln, is involved in initial RNA recognition and is an important positive determinant for this base in both cognate and non- cognate tRNA contexts. However, Arg341, as well as Arg402, which interacts with G36 in the anticodon, are negative determinants for non-cognate nucleotides at their respective positions. Analysis of acceptor-anticodon binding double mutants and of a mutation of Glu323 in the loop-strand-helix connectivity subdomain in GlnRS has further implicated this domain in the functional communication of anticodon recognition. The better than expected activity (anticooperativity) of these double mutants has led us to propose an "anticodon-independent" mechanism, in which the removal of certain synthetase interactions with the anticodon eliminates structural constraints, thus allowing the relaxed specificity mutants in the acceptor binding domain ot make more productive interactions. PMID:8601833

  8. RNA-Binding Proteins Impacting on Internal Initiation of Translation

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Salas, Encarnación; Lozano, Gloria; Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Francisco-Velilla, Rosario; Galan, Alfonso; Diaz, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are pivotal regulators of all the steps of gene expression. RBPs govern gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level by virtue of their capacity to assemble ribonucleoprotein complexes on certain RNA structural elements, both in normal cells and in response to various environmental stresses. A rapid cellular response to stress conditions is triggered at the step of translation initiation. Two basic mechanisms govern translation initiation in eukaryotic mRNAs, the cap-dependent initiation mechanism that operates in most mRNAs, and the internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent mechanism activated under conditions that compromise the general translation pathway. IRES elements are cis-acting RNA sequences that recruit the translation machinery using a cap-independent mechanism often assisted by a subset of translation initiation factors and various RBPs. IRES-dependent initiation appears to use different strategies to recruit the translation machinery depending on the RNA organization of the region and the network of RBPs interacting with the element. In this review we discuss recent advances in understanding the implications of RBPs on IRES-dependent translation initiation. PMID:24189219

  9. Architecture and RNA binding of the human negative elongation factor

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Seychelle M; Pöllmann, David; Caizzi, Livia; Hofmann, Katharina B; Rombaut, Pascaline; Zimniak, Tomasz; Herzog, Franz; Cramer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Transcription regulation in metazoans often involves promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase (Pol) II, which requires the 4-subunit negative elongation factor (NELF). Here we discern the functional architecture of human NELF through X-ray crystallography, protein crosslinking, biochemical assays, and RNA crosslinking in cells. We identify a NELF core subcomplex formed by conserved regions in subunits NELF-A and NELF-C, and resolve its crystal structure. The NELF-AC subcomplex binds single-stranded nucleic acids in vitro, and NELF-C associates with RNA in vivo. A positively charged face of NELF-AC is involved in RNA binding, whereas the opposite face of the NELF-AC subcomplex binds NELF-B. NELF-B is predicted to form a HEAT repeat fold, also binds RNA in vivo, and anchors the subunit NELF-E, which is confirmed to bind RNA in vivo. These results reveal the three-dimensional architecture and three RNA-binding faces of NELF. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14981.001 PMID:27282391

  10. Coordinated Action of Two Double-Stranded RNA Binding Motifs and an RGG Motif Enables Nuclear Factor 90 To Flexibly Target Different RNA Substrates.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Tobias; Knick, Paul; Lilie, Hauke; Friedrich, Susann; Golbik, Ralph Peter; Behrens, Sven-Erik

    2016-02-16

    The mechanisms of how RNA binding proteins (RBP) bind to and distinguish different RNA molecules are yet uncertain. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the RNA binding properties of multidomain RBP nuclear factor 90 (NF90) by investigating specifically the functional activities of two double-stranded RNA binding motifs (dsRBM) and an RGG motif in the protein's unstructured C-terminus. By comparison of the RNA binding affinities of several NF90 variants and their modes of binding to a set of defined RNA molecules, the activities of the motifs turned out to be very different. While dsRBM1 contributes little to RNA binding, dsRBM2 is essential for effective binding of double-stranded RNA. The protein's immediate C-terminus, including the RGG motif, is indispensable for interactions of the protein with single-stranded RNA, and the RGG motif decisively contributes to NF90's overall RNA binding properties. Conformational studies, which compared wild-type NF90 with a variant that contains a pseudophosphorylated residue in the RGG motif, suggest that the NF90 C-terminus is involved in conformational changes in the protein after RNA binding, with the RGG motif acting as a central regulatory element. In summary, our data propose a concerted action of all RNA binding motifs within the frame of the full-length protein, which may be controlled by regulation of the activity of the RGG motif, e.g., by phosphorylation. This multidomain interplay enables the RBP NF90 to discriminate RNA features by dynamic and adaptable interactions. PMID:26795062

  11. Identification of mRNA bound to RNA binding proteins by differential display.

    PubMed

    Carr-Schmid, Anne; Jiao, Xinfu; Kiledjian, Megerditch

    2006-01-01

    A large number of RNA binding proteins have recently been identified that influence various human genetic disorders. However, the specific function of many of these proteins and what role they may play in a particular disease remains unclear. Identification of the substrate mRNA bound by an RNA binding protein will provide insights into the function of that protein and how its aberrant expression could lead to a disease phenotype. We have developed a technique termed SNAAP, for isolation of specific nucleic acids associated with proteins, to identify natural mRNA substrates for an RNA binding protein. The technique couples affinity purification of specific mRNAs bound by an RNA binding protein, with the identification of that mRNA using differential display (DD). Methods are described herein for the isolation and identification of endogenous mRNAs bound by any RNA binding protein, as well as methodology to validate the specificity of the binding. The availability of technologies to isolate the cognate substrate mRNAs potentially bound and regulated by an RNA binding protein involved in genetic disorders will greatly expedite our etiological understanding of the disorder and provide modalities for intervention. PMID:16264238

  12. Characterization of the RNA-binding regions in protein p36 of Heliothis armigera cypovirus 14.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wuguo; Hu, Yuanyang; Li, Yang; Yu, Zheng; Dong, Changjin; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Jiamin

    2007-05-01

    Some proteins of cypovirus (CPV) bind to RNA, probably contributing to the replication of viral genome. However, little is known about whether any protein from Heliothis armigera cypovirus (HaCPV) could bind to RNA. In this study, we cloned the ORF of segment 9 (S9) of HaCPV, serotype 14, into pMAL-c2X for the generation and purification of maltose binding protein (MBP) fused protein p36 (MBP-p36). The analysis of the RNA-binding properties of MBP-p36 revealed that p36, but not MBP alone, bound to ssRNA of CPV. Furthermore, the ssRNA-binding activities of p36 were significantly inhibited or completely eliminated by protein denaturants or unsuitable concentrations of NaCl. Importantly, the formation of ssRNA/p36 was only competitively inhibited by a heavy dose of competitive non-viral ssRNA or dsRNA, but not by ssDNA and dsDNA, suggesting that p36 bound to both ssRNA and dsRNA, but not DNA. Moreover, the characterization of different mutants of p36 revealed that the regions 1-26aa, 154-170aa, and 229-238aa, but not region 291-320aa, may be crucial for the ssRNA-binding ability of p36. Conceivably, the sensitivity of p36 to denaturants and the synergetic effect of different regions suggest that the RNA-binding ability of p36 may be conformation-dependent. Thus, our findings provide new insights into understanding the genomic function of HaCPV-14. PMID:17350708

  13. Dual role for the RNA-binding domain of Xenopus laevis SLBP1 in histone pre-mRNA processing.

    PubMed Central

    Ingledue, T C; Dominski, Z; Sánchez, R; Erkmann, J A; Marzluff, W F

    2000-01-01

    The replication-dependent histone mRNAs end in a conserved 26-nt sequence that forms a stem-loop structure. This sequence is required for histone pre-mRNA processing and plays a role in multiple aspects of histone mRNA metabolism. Two proteins that bind the 3' end of histone mRNA are found in Xenopus oocytes. xSLBP1 is found in the nucleus, where it functions in histone pre-mRNA processing, and in the cytoplasm, where it may control histone mRNA translation and stability. xSLBP2 is a cytoplasmic protein, inactive in histone pre-mRNA processing, whose expression is restricted to oogenesis and early development. These proteins are similar only in their RNA-binding domains (RBD). A chimeric protein (1-2-1) in which the RBD of xSLBP1 has been replaced with the RBD of xSLBP2 binds the stem-loop with an affinity similar to the original protein. The 1-2-1 protein efficiently localizes to the nucleus of the frog oocyte, but is not active in processing of histone pre-mRNA in vivo. This protein does not support processing in a nuclear extract, but inhibits processing by competing with the active SLBP by binding to the substrate. The 1-2-1 protein also inhibits processing of synthetic histone pre-mRNA injected into frog oocytes, but has no effect on processing of histone pre-mRNA transcribed from an injected histone gene. This result suggests that sequences in the RBD of xSLBP1 give it preferential access to histone pre-mRNA transcribed in vivo. PMID:11105762

  14. RNA binding proteins in neurodegeneration: Seq and you shall receive

    PubMed Central

    Nussbacher, Julia K.; Batra, Ranjan; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Yeo, Gene W.

    2015-01-01

    As critical players in gene regulation, RNA binding proteins are taking center stage in our understanding of cellular function and disease. In our era of bench-top sequencers and unprecedented computational power, biological questions can be addressed in a systematic, genome-wide manner. Development of high-throughput sequencing methodologies provides unparalleled potential to discover new mechanisms of disease-associated perturbations of RNA homeostasis. Complementary to candidate single-gene studies, these innovative technologies may elicit the discovery of unexpected mechanisms, and allow us to determine the widespread influence of the multifunctional RNA binding proteins on their targets. As disruption of RNA processing is increasingly implicated in neurological diseases, these approaches will continue to provide insights into the roles of RNA binding proteins in disease pathogenesis. PMID:25765321

  15. Bacillus subtilis TRAP binds to its RNA target by a 5' to 3' directional mechanism.

    PubMed

    Barbolina, Maria V; Li, Xiufeng; Gollnick, Paul

    2005-01-28

    TRAP is an 11 subunit RNA-binding protein that regulates expression of the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon by transcription attenuation and translation control mechanisms. Tryptophan-activated TRAP acts by binding to a site in the 5'-untranslated leader region of trp mRNA consisting of 11 (G/U)AG repeats. We used mung bean nuclease footprinting to analyze the interaction of TRAP with several artificial binding sites composed of 11 GAG repeats in nucleic acids that lack secondary structure. Affinities for individual repeats within a binding site did not vary significantly. In contrast, the association rate constants were highest for repeats at the 5' end and lowest for those at the 3' end of all binding sites tested. These results indicate that TRAP binds to its RNA targets by first associating with one or more repeat at the 5' end of its binding site followed by wrapping the remainder of binding site around the protein in a 5' to 3' direction. This directional binding is novel among RNA-binding proteins. We suggest that this mechanism of binding is important for TRAP-mediated transcription attenuation control of the trp operon. PMID:15588817

  16. Luteinizing Hormone Receptor mRNA Down-Regulation Is Mediated through ERK-Dependent Induction of RNA Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Bindu; Franzo-Romain, Megan; Damanpour, Shadi

    2011-01-01

    The ligand-induced down-regulation of LH receptor (LHR) expression in the ovaries, at least in part, is regulated by a posttranscriptional process mediated by a specific LH receptor mRNA binding protein (LRBP). The LH-mediated signaling pathways involved in this process were examined in primary cultures of human granulosa cells. Treatment with 10 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for 12 h resulted in the down-regulation of LHR mRNA expression while producing an increase in LHR mRNA binding to LRBP as well as a 2-fold increase in LRBP levels. The activation of ERK½ pathway in LH-mediated LHR mRNA down-regulation was also established by demonstrating the translocation of ERK½ from the cytosol to the nucleus using confocal microcopy. Inhibition of protein kinase A using H-89 or ERK½ by U0126 abolished the LH-induced LHR mRNA down-regulation. These treatments also abrogated both the increases in LRBP levels as well as the LHR mRNA binding activity. The abolishment of the hCG-induced increase in LRBP levels and LHR mRNA binding activity was further confirmed by transfecting granulosa cells with ERK½ specific small interfering RNA. This treatment also reversed the hCG-induced down-regulation of LHR mRNA. These data show that LH-regulated ERK½ signaling is required for the LRBP-mediated down-regulation of LHR mRNA. PMID:21147848

  17. Fluorescence anisotropy: analysis of tRNA binding to the T box riboswitch antiterminator RNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, S; Anupam, R; Hines, J V

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence anisotropy can be utilized in drug discovery screening assays to identify compounds that disrupt medicinally important RNA-macromolecular complexes. Here we describe the application of this technique to monitor tRNA binding to T box riboswitch antiterminator RNA. PMID:25352143

  18. The RNA binding site of bacteriophage MS2 coat protein.

    PubMed Central

    Peabody, D S

    1993-01-01

    The coat protein of the RNA bacteriophage MS2 binds a specific stem-loop structure in viral RNA to accomplish encapsidation of the genome and translational repression of replicase synthesis. In order to identify the structural components of coat protein required for its RNA binding function, a series of repressor-defective mutants has been isolated. To ensure that the repressor defects were due to substitution of binding site residues, the mutant coat proteins were screened for retention of the ability to form virus-like particles. Since virus assembly presumably requires native structure, this approach eliminated mutants whose repressor defects were secondary consequences of protein folding or stability defects. Each of the variant coat proteins was purified and its ability to bind operator RNA in vitro was measured. DNA sequence analysis identified the nucleotide and amino acid substitutions responsible for reduced RNA binding affinity. Localization of the substituted sites in the three-dimensional structure of coat protein reveals that amino acid residues on three adjacent strands of the coat protein beta-sheet are required for translational repression and RNA binding. The sidechains of the affected residues form a contiguous patch on the interior surface of the viral coat. Images PMID:8440248

  19. General RNA binding proteins render translation cap dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Svitkin, Y V; Ovchinnikov, L P; Dreyfuss, G; Sonenberg, N

    1996-01-01

    Translation in rabbit reticulocyte lysate is relatively independent of the presence of the mRNA m7G cap structure and the cap binding protein, eIF-4E. In addition, initiation occurs frequently at spurious internal sites. Here we show that a critical parameter which contributes to cap-dependent translation is the amount of general RNA binding proteins in the extract. Addition of several general RNA binding proteins, such as hnRNP A1, La autoantigen, pyrimidine tract binding protein (hnRNP I/PTB) and the major core protein of cytoplasmic mRNP (p50), rendered translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate cap dependent. These proteins drastically inhibited the translation of an uncapped mRNA, but had no effect on translation of a capped mRNA. Based on these and other results, we suggest that one function of general mRNA binding proteins in the cytoplasm is to promote ribosome binding by a 5' end, cap-mediated mechanism, and prevent spurious initiations at aberrant translation start sites. Images PMID:9003790

  20. The RNA-binding protein repertoire of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Marondedze, Claudius; Thomas, Ludivine; Serrano, Natalia L; Lilley, Kathryn S; Gehring, Chris

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have essential roles in determining the fate of RNA from synthesis to decay and have been studied on a protein-by-protein basis, or computationally based on a number of well-characterised RNA-binding domains. Recently, high-throughput methods enabled the capture of mammalian RNA-binding proteomes. To gain insight into the role of Arabidopsis thaliana RBPs at the systems level, we have employed interactome capture techniques using cells from different ecotypes grown in cultures and leaves. In vivo UV-crosslinking of RNA to RBPs, oligo(dT) capture and mass spectrometry yielded 1,145 different proteins including 550 RBPs that either belong to the functional category 'RNA-binding', have known RNA-binding domains or have orthologs identified in mammals, C. elegans, or S. cerevisiae in addition to 595 novel candidate RBPs. We noted specific subsets of RBPs in cultured cells and leaves and a comparison of Arabidopsis, mammalian, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae RBPs reveals a common set of proteins with a role in intermediate metabolism, as well as distinct differences suggesting that RBPs are also species and tissue specific. This study provides a foundation for studies that will advance our understanding of the biological significance of RBPs in plant developmental and stimulus specific responses. PMID:27405932

  1. Identification and characterization of anion binding sites in RNA.

    PubMed

    Kieft, Jeffrey S; Chase, Elaine; Costantino, David A; Golden, Barbara L

    2010-06-01

    Although RNA molecules are highly negatively charged, anions have been observed bound to RNA in crystal structures. It has been proposed that anion binding sites found within isolated RNAs represent regions of the molecule that could be involved in intermolecular interactions, indicating potential contact points for negatively charged amino acids from proteins or phosphate groups from an RNA. Several types of anion binding sites have been cataloged based on available structures. However, currently there is no method for unambiguously assigning anions to crystallographic electron density, and this has precluded more detailed analysis of RNA-anion interaction motifs and their significance. We therefore soaked selenate into two different types of RNA crystals and used the anomalous signal from these anions to identify binding sites in these RNA molecules unambiguously. Examination of these sites and comparison with other suspected anion binding sites reveals features of anion binding motifs, and shows that selenate may be a useful tool for studying RNA-anion interactions. PMID:20410239

  2. RNAs nonspecifically inhibit RNA polymerase II by preventing binding to the DNA template

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Dave A.; Kaplan, Craig D.; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Murakami, Kenji; Andrews, Philip C.; Engelke, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Many RNAs are known to act as regulators of transcription in eukaryotes, including certain small RNAs that directly inhibit RNA polymerases both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We have examined the potential for a variety of RNAs to directly inhibit transcription by yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and find that unstructured RNAs are potent inhibitors of purified yeast Pol II. Inhibition by RNA is achieved by blocking binding of the DNA template and requires binding of the RNA to Pol II prior to open complex formation. RNA is not able to displace a DNA template that is already stably bound to Pol II, nor can RNA inhibit elongating Pol II. Unstructured RNAs are more potent inhibitors than highly structured RNAs and can also block specific transcription initiation in the presence of basal transcription factors. Crosslinking studies with ultraviolet light show that unstructured RNA is most closely associated with the two large subunits of Pol II that comprise the template binding cleft, but the RNA has contacts in a basic residue channel behind the back wall of the active site. These results are distinct from previous observations of specific inhibition by small, structured RNAs in that they demonstrate a sensitivity of the holoenzyme to inhibition by unstructured RNA products that bind to a surface outside the DNA cleft. These results are discussed in terms of the need to prevent inhibition by RNAs, either though sequestration of nascent RNA or preemptive interaction of Pol II with the DNA template. PMID:24614752

  3. Activation of muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase and binding to dystroglycan are regulated by alternative mRNA splicing of agrin.

    PubMed

    Scotton, Patrick; Bleckmann, Dorothee; Stebler, Michael; Sciandra, Francesca; Brancaccio, Andrea; Meier, Thomas; Stetefeld, Jörg; Ruegg, Markus A

    2006-12-01

    Agrin induces the aggregation of postsynaptic proteins at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This activity requires the receptor-tyrosine kinase MuSK. Agrin isoforms differ in short amino acid stretches at two sites, called A and B, that are localized in the two most C-terminal laminin G (LG) domains. Importantly, agrin isoforms greatly differ in their activities of inducing MuSK phosphorylation and of binding to alpha-dystroglycan. By using site-directed mutagenesis, we characterized the amino acids important for these activities of agrin. We find that the conserved tripeptide asparagineglutamate-isoleucine in the eight-amino acid long insert at the B-site is necessary and sufficient for full MuSK phosphorylation activity. However, even if all eight amino acids were replaced by alanines, this agrin mutant still has significantly higher MuSK phosphorylation activity than the splice version lacking any insert. We also show that binding to alpha-dystroglycan requires at least two LG domains and that amino acid inserts at the A and the B splice sites negatively affect binding. PMID:17012237

  4. Coupling of histone methylation and RNA processing by the nuclear mRNA cap-binding complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Zicong; Jiang, Danhua; Fu, Xing; Luo, Xiao; Liu, Renyi; He, Yuehui

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, genes are transcribed into pre-mRNAs that are subsequently processed into mature mRNAs by adding a 5'-cap and a 3'-polyA tail and splicing introns. Pre-mRNA processing involves their binding proteins and processing factors, whereas gene transcription often involves chromatin modifiers. It has been unclear how the factors involved in chromatin modifications and RNA processing function in concert to control mRNA production. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, the evolutionarily conserved nuclear mRNA cap-binding complex (CBC) forms multi-protein complexes with a conserved histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase complex called COMPASS-like and a histone 3 lysine 36 (H3K36) methyltransferase to integrate active histone methylations with co-transcriptional mRNA processing and cap preservation, leading to a high level of mature mRNA production. We further show that CBC is required for H3K4 and H3K36 trimethylation, and the histone methyltransferases are required for CBC-mediated mRNA cap preservation and efficient pre-mRNA splicing at their target loci, suggesting that these factors are functionally interdependent. Our study reveals novel roles for histone methyltransferases in RNA-processing-related events and provides mechanistic insights into how the 'downstream' RNA CBC controls eukaryotic gene transcription. PMID:27249350

  5. Structural Basis for Telomerase Catalytic Subunit TERT Binding to RNA Template and Telomeric DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.; Gillis, A; Futahashi, M; Fujiwara, H; Skordalakes, E

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase is a specialized DNA polymerase that extends the 3{prime} ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, a process required for genomic stability and cell viability. Here we present the crystal structure of the active Tribolium castaneum telomerase catalytic subunit, TERT, bound to an RNA-DNA hairpin designed to resemble the putative RNA-templating region and telomeric DNA. The RNA-DNA hybrid adopts a helical structure, docked in the interior cavity of the TERT ring. Contacts between the RNA template and motifs 2 and B{prime} position the solvent-accessible RNA bases close to the enzyme active site for nucleotide binding and selectivity. Nucleic acid binding induces rigid TERT conformational changes to form a tight catalytic complex. Overall, TERT-RNA template and TERT-telomeric DNA associations are remarkably similar to those observed for retroviral reverse transcriptases, suggesting common mechanistic aspects of DNA replication between the two families of enzymes.

  6. SUMO-Modification of the La Protein Facilitates Binding to mRNA In Vitro and in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Venkatesh; Sommer, Gunhild; Durette, Chantal; Thibault, Pierre; van Niekerk, Erna A.; Twiss, Jeffery L.

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein La is involved in several aspects of RNA metabolism including the translational regulation of mRNAs and processing of pre-tRNAs. Besides its well-described phosphorylation by Casein kinase 2, the La protein is also posttranslationally modified by the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO), but the functional outcome of this modification has not been defined. The objective of this study was to test whether sumoylation changes the RNA-binding activity of La. Therefore, we established an in vitro sumoylation assay for recombinant human La and analyzed its RNA-binding activity by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. We identified two novel SUMO-acceptor sites within the La protein located between the RNA recognition motif 1 and 2 and we demonstrate for the first time that sumoylation facilitates the RNA-binding of La to small RNA oligonucleotides representing the oligopyrimidine tract (TOP) elements from the 5’ untranslated regions (UTR) of mRNAs encoding ribosomal protein L22 and L37 and to a longer RNA element from the 5’ UTR of cyclin D1 (CCND1) mRNA in vitro. Furthermore, we show by RNA immunoprecipitation experiments that a La mutant deficient in sumoylation has impaired RNA-binding activity in cells. These data suggest that modulating the RNA-binding activity of La by sumoylation has important consequences on its functionality. PMID:27224031

  7. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis. PMID:26703754

  8. Polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein: a multifunctional RNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Sawicka, Kirsty; Bushell, Martin; Spriggs, Keith A; Willis, Anne E

    2008-08-01

    PTB (polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein) is a ubiquitous RNA-binding protein. It was originally identified as a protein with a role in splicing but it is now known to function in a large number of diverse cellular processes including polyadenylation, mRNA stability and translation initiation. Specificity of PTB function is achieved by a combination of changes in the cellular localization of this protein (its ability to shuttle from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is tightly controlled) and its interaction with additional proteins. These differences in location and trans-acting factor requirements account for the fact that PTB acts both as a suppressor of splicing and an activator of translation. In the latter case, the role of PTB in translation has been studied extensively and it appears that this protein is required for an alternative form of translation initiation that is mediated by a large RNA structural element termed an IRES (internal ribosome entry site) that allows the synthesis of picornaviral proteins and cellular proteins that function to control cell growth and cell death. In the present review, we discuss how PTB regulates these disparate processes. PMID:18631133

  9. The RNA-binding protein repertoire of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Marondedze, Claudius; Thomas, Ludivine; Serrano, Natalia L.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Gehring, Chris

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have essential roles in determining the fate of RNA from synthesis to decay and have been studied on a protein-by-protein basis, or computationally based on a number of well-characterised RNA-binding domains. Recently, high-throughput methods enabled the capture of mammalian RNA-binding proteomes. To gain insight into the role of Arabidopsis thaliana RBPs at the systems level, we have employed interactome capture techniques using cells from different ecotypes grown in cultures and leaves. In vivo UV-crosslinking of RNA to RBPs, oligo(dT) capture and mass spectrometry yielded 1,145 different proteins including 550 RBPs that either belong to the functional category ‘RNA-binding’, have known RNA-binding domains or have orthologs identified in mammals, C. elegans, or S. cerevisiae in addition to 595 novel candidate RBPs. We noted specific subsets of RBPs in cultured cells and leaves and a comparison of Arabidopsis, mammalian, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae RBPs reveals a common set of proteins with a role in intermediate metabolism, as well as distinct differences suggesting that RBPs are also species and tissue specific. This study provides a foundation for studies that will advance our understanding of the biological significance of RBPs in plant developmental and stimulus specific responses. PMID:27405932

  10. Human polypyrimidine tract-binding protein interacts with mitochondrial tRNA(Thr) in the cytosol.

    PubMed

    Marnef, Aline; Jády, Beáta E; Kiss, Tamás

    2016-02-18

    Human polypyrimidine tract-binding protein PTB is a multifunctional RNA-binding protein with four RNA recognition motifs (RRM1 to RRM4). PTB is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein that functions as a key regulator of alternative pre-mRNA splicing in the nucleoplasm and promotes internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation initiation of viral and cellular mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Here, we demonstrate that PTB and its paralogs, nPTB and ROD1, specifically interact with mitochondrial (mt) tRNA(Thr) both in human and mouse cells. In vivo and in vitro RNA-binding experiments demonstrate that PTB forms a direct interaction with the T-loop and the D-stem-loop of mt tRNA(Thr) using its N-terminal RRM1 and RRM2 motifs. RNA sequencing and cell fractionation experiments show that PTB associates with correctly processed and internally modified, mature mt tRNA(Thr) in the cytoplasm outside of mitochondria. Consistent with this, PTB activity is not required for mt tRNA(Thr) biogenesis or for correct mitochondrial protein synthesis. PTB association with mt tRNA(Thr) is largely increased upon induction of apoptosis, arguing for a potential role of the mt tRNA(Thr)/PTB complex in apoptosis. Our results lend strong support to the recently emerging conception that human mt tRNAs can participate in novel cytoplasmic processes independent from mitochondrial protein synthesis. PMID:26657638

  11. Uncovering the Thermodynamics of Monomer Binding for RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The nonenzymatic replication of primordial RNA is thought to have been a critical step in the origin of life. However, despite decades of effort, the poor rate and fidelity of model template copying reactions have thus far prevented an experimental demonstration of nonenzymatic RNA replication. The overall rate and fidelity of template copying depend, in part, on the affinity of free ribonucleotides to the RNA primer–template complex. We have now used 1H NMR spectroscopy to directly measure the thermodynamic association constants, Kas, of the standard ribonucleotide monophosphates (rNMPs) to native RNA primer–template complexes. The binding affinities of rNMPs to duplexes with a complementary single-nucleotide overhang follow the order C > G > A > U. Notably, these monomers bind more strongly to RNA primer–template complexes than to the analogous DNA complexes. The relative binding affinities of the rNMPs for complementary RNA primer–template complexes are in good quantitative agreement with the predictions of a nearest-neighbor analysis. With respect to G:U wobble base-pairing, we find that the binding of rGMP to a primer–template complex with a 5′-U overhang is approximately 10-fold weaker than to the complementary 5′-C overhang. We also find that the binding of rGMP is only about 2-fold weaker than the binding of rAMP to 5′-U, consistent with the poor fidelity observed in the nonenzymatic copying of U residues in RNA templates. The accurate Ka measurements for ribonucleotides obtained in this study will be useful for designing higher fidelity, more effective RNA replication systems. PMID:25901790

  12. Gemin5 Binds to the Survival Motor Neuron mRNA to Regulate SMN Expression.

    PubMed

    Workman, Eileen; Kalda, Caitlin; Patel, Aalapi; Battle, Daniel J

    2015-06-19

    Reduced expression of SMN causes spinal muscular atrophy, a severe neurodegenerative disease. Despite the importance of maintaining SMN levels, relatively little is known about the mechanisms by which SMN levels are regulated. We show here that Gemin5, the snRNA-binding protein of the SMN complex, binds directly to the SMN mRNA and regulates SMN expression. Gemin5 binds with high specificity, both in vitro and in vivo, to sequence and structural elements in the SMN mRNA 3'-untranslated region that are reminiscent of the snRNP code to which Gemin5 binds on snRNAs. Reduction of Gemin5 redistributes the SMN mRNA from heavy polysomes to lighter polysomes and monosomes, suggesting that Gemin5 functions as an activator of SMN translation. SMN protein is not stoichiometrically present on the SMN mRNA with Gemin5, but the mRNA-binding activity of Gemin5 is dependent on SMN levels, providing a feedback mechanism for SMN to regulate its own expression via Gemin5. This work both reveals a new autoregulatory pathway governing SMN expression, and identifies a new mechanism through which SMN can modulate specific mRNA expression via Gemin5. PMID:25911097

  13. Molecular interactions and metal binding in the theophylline-binding core of an RNA aptamer.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, G R; Wick, C L; Shields, T P; Jenison, R D; Pardi, A

    2000-01-01

    An RNA aptamer containing a 15-nt binding site shows high affinity and specificity for the bronchodilator theophylline. A variety of base modifications or 2' deoxyribose substitutions in binding-site residues were tested for theophyllinebinding affinity and the results were compared with the previously determined three-dimensional structure of the RNA-theophylline complex. The RNA-theophylline complex contains a U6-A28-U23 base triple, and disruption of this A28-U23 Hoogsteen-pair by a 7-deaza, 2'-deoxy A28 mutant reduces theophylline binding >45-fold at 25 degrees C. U24 is part of a U-turn in the core of the RNA, and disruption of this U-turn motif by a 2'-deoxy substitution of U24 also reduces theophylline binding by >90-fold. Several mutations outside the "conserved core" of the RNA aptamer showed reduced binding affinity, and these effects could be rationalized by comparison with the three-dimensional structure of the complex. Divalent ions are absolutely required for high-affinity theophylline binding. High-affinity binding was observed with 5 mM Mg2+, Mn2+, or Co2+ ions, whereas little or no significant binding was observed for other divalent or lanthanide ions. A metal-binding site in the core of the complex was revealed by paramagnetic Mn2+-induced broadening of specific RNA resonances in the NMR spectra. When caffeine is added to the aptamer in tenfold excess, the NMR spectra show no evidence for binding in the conserved core and instead the drug stacks on the terminal helix. The lack of interaction between caffeine and the theophylline-binding site emphasizes the extreme molecular discrimination of this RNA aptamer. PMID:10836787

  14. Upstream Binding of Idling RNA Polymerase Modulates Transcription Initiation from a Nearby Promoter*

    PubMed Central

    Gerganova, Veneta; Maurer, Sebastian; Stoliar, Liubov; Japaridze, Aleksandre; Dietler, Giovanni; Nasser, William; Kutateladze, Tamara; Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial gene regulatory regions often demonstrate distinctly organized arrays of RNA polymerase binding sites of ill-defined function. Previously we observed a module of closely spaced polymerase binding sites upstream of the canonical promoter of the Escherichia coli fis operon. FIS is an abundant nucleoid-associated protein involved in adjusting the chromosomal DNA topology to changing cellular physiology. Here we show that simultaneous binding of the polymerase at the canonical fis promoter and an upstream transcriptionally inactive site stabilizes a RNAP oligomeric complex in vitro. We further show that modulation of the upstream binding of RNA polymerase affects the fis promoter activity both in vivo and in vitro. The effect of the upstream RNA polymerase binding on the fis promoter activity depends on the spatial arrangement of polymerase binding sites and DNA supercoiling. Our data suggest that a specific DNA geometry of the nucleoprotein complex stabilized on concomitant binding of RNA polymerase molecules at the fis promoter and the upstream region acts as a topological device regulating the fis transcription. We propose that transcriptionally inactive RNA polymerase molecules can act as accessory factors regulating the transcription initiation from a nearby promoter. PMID:25648898

  15. Structural and mutational analysis of archaeal ATP-dependent RNA ligase identifies amino acids required for RNA binding and catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Huiqiong; Yoshinari, Shigeo; Ghosh, Raka; Ignatochkina, Anna V.; Gollnick, Paul D.; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.; Ho, C. Kiong

    2016-01-01

    An ATP-dependent RNA ligase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (MthRnl) catalyzes intramolecular ligation of single-stranded RNA to form a closed circular RNA via covalent ligase-AMP and RNA-adenylylate intermediate. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of an MthRnl•ATP complex as well as the covalent MthRnl–AMP intermediate. We also performed structure-guided mutational analysis to survey the functions of 36 residues in three component steps of the ligation pathway including ligase-adenylylation (step 1), RNA adenylylation (step 2) and phosphodiester bond synthesis (step 3). Kinetic analysis underscored the importance of motif 1a loop structure in promoting phosphodiester bond synthesis. Alanine substitutions of Thr117 or Arg118 favor the reverse step 2 reaction to deadenylate the 5′-AMP from the RNA-adenylate, thereby inhibiting step 3 reaction. Tyr159, Phe281 and Glu285, which are conserved among archaeal ATP-dependent RNA ligases and are situated on the surface of the enzyme, are required for RNA binding. We propose an RNA binding interface of the MthRnl based on the mutational studies and two sulfate ions that co-crystallized at the active site cleft in the MthRnl–AMP complex. PMID:26896806

  16. Folic acid binds DNA and RNA at different locations.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2015-03-01

    We located multiple binding sites for folic acid on DNA and tRNA at physiological conditions, using FTIR, CD, fluorescence spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling. Structural analysis revealed that folic acid binds DNA and tRNA at multiple sites via hydrophilic, hydrophobic and H-bonding contacts with overall binding constants of Kfolic acid-DNA=1.1 (±0.3)×10(4) M(-1) and Kfolic acid-tRNA=6.4 (±0.5)×10(3) M(-1). Molecular modeling showed the participation of several nucleobases in folic acid complexes with DNA and tRNA, stabilized by H-bonding network. Two types of complexes were located for folic acid-tRNA adducts, one at the major groove and the other with TΨC loop, while acid binding occurs at major and minor grooves of DNA duplex. Folic acid complexation induced more alterations of DNA structure than tRNA. PMID:25555838

  17. Identification of target messenger RNA substrates for the murine deleted in azoospermia-like RNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xinfu; Trifillis, Panayiota; Kiledjian, Megerditch

    2002-02-01

    The murine autosomal deleted in azoospermia-like protein (mDAZL) is a germ cell-restricted RNA-binding protein essential for sperm production. Homozygous disruption of the mDAZL gene results in the absence of germ cells beyond the spermatogonial stage. Progress into the function of DAZL in spermatogenesis has been hampered without identification of the cognate mRNA substrates that it binds to and regulates. Using the isolation of specific nucleic acids associated with proteins (SNAAP) technique recently developed in our lab, we identified mRNAs from testis that were specifically bound by mDAZL. One mRNA encoded the Tpx-1 protein, a testicular cell adhesion protein essential for the progression of spermatogenesis. A 26-nucleotide region necessary and sufficient to bind mDAZL was found within additional mRNAs isolated by the screen. These included mRNA encoding Pam, a protein associated with myc; GRSF1, an mRNA-binding protein involved in translation activation, and TRF2, a TATA box-binding protein-like protein involved in transcriptional regulation. Each mRNA containing the mDAZL binding site was specifically bound by mDAZL. A similar sequence is also present in the Cdc25A mRNA, a threonine/tyrosine phosphatase involved in cell cycle progression. The mDAZL and Cdc25A homologues are functionally linked in Drosophila and are necessary for spermatogenesis. Our demonstration that Tpx-1 and Cdc25A mRNAs are bound by mDAZL suggests that mDAZL regulates a subset of mRNAs necessary for germ cell development and cell cycle progression. Understanding how mDAZL regulates the target mRNAs will provide new insights into spermatogenesis, strategies for therapeutic intervention in azoospermic patients, and novel approaches for male contraception. PMID:11804965

  18. In vitro selection and characterization of RNA aptamers binding thyroxine hormone

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Dominique; Beaudoin, Jean-Denis; Roy, Sébastien; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    RNA possesses the ability to bind a wide repertoire of small molecules. Some of these binding interactions have been shown to be of primary importance in molecular biology. For example, several classes of mRNA domains, collectively referred to as riboswitches, have been shown to serve as RNA genetic control elements that sense the concentrations of specific metabolites (i.e. acting as direct sensors of chemical compounds). However, to date no RNA species binding a hormone has been reported. Here, we report that the use of an appropriate SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) strategy results in the isolation of thyroxine-specific aptamers. Further biochemical characterization of these aptamers, including mutational studies, the use of transcripts with site-specific modified nucleotides, nuclease and chemical probing, binding-shift assays and CD, demonstrated that these RNA structures included a G-rich motif, reminiscent of a guanine quadruplex structure, adjacent to a helical region. The presence of the thyroxine appeared to be essential for the formation of the structural motif's scaffold. Moreover, the binding is shown to be specific to thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3), the active forms of the hormone, whereas other inactive derivatives, including thyronine (T0), do not support complex formation. These results suggest that this aptamer specifically binds to the iodine moieties of the thyroxine, a previously unreported ability for an RNA molecule. PMID:17163839

  19. Magnesium-binding architectures in RNA crystal structures: validation, binding preferences, classification and motif detection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Heping; Shabalin, Ivan G.; Handing, Katarzyna B.; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Minor, Wladek

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of magnesium ions in RNA has long been recognized as a key factor governing RNA folding, and is crucial for many diverse functions of RNA molecules. In this work, Mg2+-binding architectures in RNA were systematically studied using a database of RNA crystal structures from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Due to the abundance of poorly modeled or incorrectly identified Mg2+ ions, the set of all sites was comprehensively validated and filtered to identify a benchmark dataset of 15 334 ‘reliable’ RNA-bound Mg2+ sites. The normalized frequencies by which specific RNA atoms coordinate Mg2+ were derived for both the inner and outer coordination spheres. A hierarchical classification system of Mg2+ sites in RNA structures was designed and applied to the benchmark dataset, yielding a set of 41 types of inner-sphere and 95 types of outer-sphere coordinating patterns. This classification system has also been applied to describe six previously reported Mg2+-binding motifs and detect them in new RNA structures. Investigation of the most populous site types resulted in the identification of seven novel Mg2+-binding motifs, and all RNA structures in the PDB were screened for the presence of these motifs. PMID:25800744

  20. A Xenopus zinc finger protein that specifically binds dsRNA and RNA-DNA hybrids.

    PubMed

    Finerty, P J; Bass, B L

    1997-08-15

    Proteins containing C2H2 type zinc finger motifs represent one of the largest classes of nucleic acid-binding proteins found in nature. We describe a novel zinc finger protein, dsRBP-ZFa, isolated by screening an expression library with dsRNA. The dsRBP-ZFa cDNA encodes a protein containing seven zinc finger motifs and an acidic C-terminal domain. Mobility shift experiments demonstrate that dsRBP-ZFa binds dsRNA and RNA-DNA hybrids with nanomolar dissociation constants and in a sequence independent manner. We also show that DNA and single stranded RNA fail to compete with dsRNA for binding suggesting dsRBP-ZFa prefers to bind an A-form helix. Using western analyses we have localized dsRBP-ZFa primarily to the nucleus of Xenopus laevis oocytes. The identification of dsRBP-ZFa provides the first example of a zinc finger protein that is specific for dsRNA. In addition, dsRBP-ZFa does not contain the previously described dsRNA binding motif, suggesting certain zinc fingers may provide an alternative way to recognize the A-form helix. PMID:9268652

  1. rRNA Binding Sites and the Molecular Mechanism of Action of the Tetracyclines.

    PubMed

    Chukwudi, Chinwe U

    2016-08-01

    The tetracycline antibiotics are known to be effective in the treatment of both infectious and noninfectious disease conditions. The 16S rRNA binding mechanism currently held for the antibacterial action of the tetracyclines does not explain their activity against viruses, protozoa that lack mitochondria, and noninfectious conditions. Also, the mechanism by which the tetracyclines selectively inhibit microbial protein synthesis against host eukaryotic protein synthesis despite conservation of ribosome structure and functions is still questionable. Many studies have investigated the binding of the tetracyclines to the 16S rRNA using the small ribosomal subunit of different bacterial species, but there seems to be no agreement between various reports on the exact binding site on the 16S rRNA. The wide range of activity of the tetracyclines against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens, viruses, protozoa, and helminths, as well as noninfectious conditions, indicates a more generalized effect on RNA. In the light of recent evidence that the tetracyclines bind to various synthetic double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) of random base sequences, suggesting that the double-stranded structures may play a more important role in the binding of the tetracyclines to RNA than the specific base pairs, as earlier speculated, it is imperative to consider possible alternative binding modes or sites that could help explain the mechanisms of action of the tetracyclines against various pathogens and disease conditions. PMID:27246781

  2. An L-RNA Aptamer that Binds and Inhibits RNase.

    PubMed

    Olea, Charles; Weidmann, Joachim; Dawson, Philip E; Joyce, Gerald F

    2015-11-19

    L-RNA aptamers were developed that bind to barnase RNase and thereby inhibit the function of the enzyme. These aptamers were obtained by first carrying out in vitro selection of D-RNAs that bind to the full-length synthetic D-enantiomer of barnase, then reversing the mirror and preparing L-RNAs of identical sequence that similarly bind to natural L-barnase. The resulting L-aptamers bind L-barnase with an affinity of ∼100 nM and function as competitive inhibitors of enzyme cleavage of D-RNA substrates. L-RNA aptamers are resistant to degradation by ribonucleases, thus enabling them to function in biological samples, most notably for applications in molecular diagnostics and therapeutics. In addition to the irony of using RNA to inhibit RNase, L-RNA aptamers such as those described here could be used to measure the concentration or inhibit the function of RNase in the laboratory or in biological systems. PMID:26590636

  3. Affinity labeling of Escherichia coli phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase at the binding site for tRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hountondji, C.; Schmitter, J.M.; Beauvallet, C.; Blanquet, S.

    1987-08-25

    Periodate-oxidized tRNA/sup Phe/ (tRNA/sub ox//sup Phe/) behaves as a specific affinity label of tetrameric Escherichia coli phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS). Reaction of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ enzyme with tRNA/sub ox//sup Phe/ results in the loss of tRNA/sup Phe/ aminoacylation activity with covalent attachment of 2 mol of tRNA dialdehyde/mol of enzyme, in agreement with the stoichiometry of tRNA binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the PheRS-(/sup 14/C)tRNA/sub ox//sup Phe/ covalent complex indicates that the large (..cap alpha.., M/sub r/ 87K) subunit of the enzyme interacts with the 3'-adenosine of tRNA/sub ox//sup Phe/. The (/sup 14/C)tRNA-labeled chymotryptic peptides of PheRS were purified by both gel filtration and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The radioactivity was almost equally distributed among three peptides: Met-Lys(Ado)-Phe, Ala-Asp-Lys(Ado)-Leu, and Lys-Ile-Lys(Ado)-Ala. These sequences correspond to residues 1-3, 59-62, and 104-107, respectively, in the N-terminal region of the 795 amino acid sequence of the ..cap alpha.. subunit. It is noticeable that the labeled peptide Ala-Asp-Lys-Leu is adjacent to residues 63-66 (Arg-Val-Thr-Lys). The latter sequence was just predicted to resemble the proposed consensus tRNA CCA binding region Lys-Met-Ser-Lys-Ser, as deduced from previous affinity labeling studies on E. coli methionyl- and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases.

  4. Context-dependent control of alternative splicing by RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiang-Dong; Ares, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) bind to pre-mRNA to control alternative splicing, but it is not yet possible to read the ‘splicing code’ that dictates splicing regulation on the basis of genome sequence. Each alternative splicing event is controlled by multiple RBPs, the combined action of which creates a distribution of alternatively spliced products in a given cell type. As each cell type expresses a distinct array of RBPs, the interpretation of regulatory information on a given RNA target is exceedingly dependent on the cell type. RBPs also control each other’s functions at many levels, including by mutual modulation of their binding activities on specific regulatory RNA elements. In this Review, we describe some of the emerging rules that govern the highly context-dependent and combinatorial nature of alternative splicing regulation. PMID:25112293

  5. Gel mobility shift assays for RNA binding viral RNAi suppressors.

    PubMed

    Csorba, Tibor; Burgyán, József

    2011-01-01

    The host-virus interaction is a continuous coevolutionary race involving both host defence strategies and virus escape mechanisms. RNA silencing is one of the main processes employed by eukaryotic organisms to fight viruses. However, viruses encode suppressor proteins to counteract this antiviral mechanism. Virtually all plant viruses encode at least one suppressor. In spite of being highly diverse at the protein level, a large group of these proteins inhibit RNA silencing very similarly, by sequestration of double-stranded RNA or small-interfering RNA molecules, the central players of the pathway. The RNA binding capacity of virus suppressor proteins can be studied by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay method. Also known as gel retardation assay, gel mobility assay, gel shift assay or band shift assay, EMSA is an in vitro technique used to characterize protein:DNA or protein:RNA interactions. The method had been developed based on the observation that protein: nucleic acid complexes migrate slower through a non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel than the free nucleic acid fragments. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the analysis of crucifer-infecting Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (cr-TMV) silencing suppressor protein p122 RNA binding capacity. PMID:21431690

  6. Structural stabilization of GTP-binding domains in circularly permuted GTPases: Implications for RNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Baskaran; Verma, Sunil Kumar; Prakash, Balaji

    2006-01-01

    GTP hydrolysis by GTPases requires crucial residues embedded in a conserved G-domain as sequence motifs G1–G5. However, in some of the recently identified GTPases, the motif order is circularly permuted. All possible circular permutations were identified after artificially permuting the classical GTPases and subjecting them to profile Hidden Markov Model searches. This revealed G4–G5–G1–G2–G3 as the only possible circular permutation that can exist in nature. It was also possible to recognize a structural rationale for the absence of other permutations, which either destabilize the invariant GTPase fold or disrupt regions that provide critical residues for GTP binding and hydrolysis, such as Switch-I and Switch-II. The circular permutation relocates Switch-II to the C-terminus and leaves it unfastened, thus affecting GTP binding and hydrolysis. Stabilizing this region would require the presence of an additional domain following Switch-II. Circularly permuted GTPases (cpGTPases) conform to such a requirement and always possess an ‘anchoring’ C-terminal domain. There are four sub-families of cpGTPases, of which three possess an additional domain N-terminal to the G-domain. The biochemical function of these domains, based on available experimental reports and domain recognition analysis carried out here, are suggestive of RNA binding. The features that dictate RNA binding are unique to each subfamily. It is possible that RNA-binding modulates GTP binding or vice versa. In addition, phylogenetic analysis indicates a closer evolutionary relationship between cpGTPases and a set of universally conserved bacterial GTPases that bind the ribosome. It appears that cpGTPases are RNA-binding proteins possessing a means to relate GTP binding to RNA binding. PMID:16648363

  7. 'Black sheep' that don't leave the double-stranded RNA-binding domain fold.

    PubMed

    Gleghorn, Michael L; Maquat, Lynne E

    2014-07-01

    The canonical double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding domain (dsRBD) is composed of an α1-β1-β2-β3-α2 secondary structure that folds in three dimensions to recognize dsRNA. Recently, structural and functional studies of divergent dsRBDs revealed adaptations that include intra- and/or intermolecular protein interactions, sometimes in the absence of detectable dsRNA-binding ability. We describe here how discrete dsRBD components can accommodate pronounced amino-acid sequence changes while maintaining the core fold. We exemplify the growing importance of divergent dsRBDs in mRNA decay by discussing Dicer, Staufen (STAU)1 and 2, trans-activation responsive RNA-binding protein (TARBP)2, protein activator of protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR) (PACT), DiGeorge syndrome critical region (DGCR)8, DEAH box helicase proteins (DHX) 9 and 30, and dsRBD-like fold-containing proteins that have ribosome-related functions. We also elaborate on the computational limitations to discovering yet-to-be-identified divergent dsRBDs. PMID:24954387

  8. Mercury binding on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bihter Padak; Michael Brunetti; Amanda Lewis; Jennifer Wilcox

    2006-11-15

    Density functional theory has been employed for the modeling of activated carbon (AC) using a fused-benzene ring cluster approach. Oxygen functional groups have been investigated for their promotion of effective elemental mercury binding on AC surface sites. Lactone and carbonyl functional groups yield the highest mercury binding energies. Further, the addition of halogen atoms has been considered to the modeled surface, and has been found to increase the AC's mercury adsorption capacity. The mercury binding energies increase with the addition of the following halogen atoms, F {gt} Cl {gt} Br {gt} I, with the fluorine addition being the most promising halogen for increasing mercury adsorption.

  9. Determinants of affinity and specificity in RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Helder, Stephanie; Blythe, Amanda J; Bond, Charles S; Mackay, Joel P

    2016-06-01

    Emerging data suggest that the mechanisms by which RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) interact with RNA and the rules governing specificity might be substantially more complex than those underlying their DNA-binding counterparts. Even our knowledge of what constitutes the RNA-bound proteome is contentious; recent studies suggest that 10-30% of RBPs contain no known RNA-binding domain. Adding to this situation is a growing disconnect between the avalanche of identified interactions between proteins and long noncoding RNAs and the absence of biophysical data on these interactions. RNA-protein interactions are also at the centre of what might emerge as one of the biggest shifts in thinking about cell and molecular biology this century, following from recent reports of ribonucleoprotein complexes that drive reversible membrane-free phase separation events within the cell. Unexpectedly, low-complexity motifs are important in the formation of these structures. Here we briefly survey recent advances in our understanding of the specificity of RBPs. PMID:27315040

  10. Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A (TFAM) Binds to RNA Containing 4-Way Junctions and Mitochondrial tRNA

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy A.; Tkachuk, Ariana N.; Clayton, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is maintained within nucleoprotein complexes known as nucleoids. These structures are highly condensed by the DNA packaging protein, mitochondrial Transcription Factor A (TFAM). Nucleoids also include RNA, RNA:DNA hybrids, and are associated with proteins involved with RNA processing and mitochondrial ribosome biogenesis. Here we characterize the ability of TFAM to bind various RNA containing substrates in order to determine their role in TFAM distribution and function within the nucleoid. We find that TFAM binds to RNA-containing 4-way junctions but does not bind appreciably to RNA hairpins, internal loops, or linear RNA:DNA hybrids. Therefore the RNA within nucleoids largely excludes TFAM, and its distribution is not grossly altered with removal of RNA. Within the cell, TFAM binds to mitochondrial tRNAs, consistent with our RNA 4-way junction data. Kinetic binding assays and RNase-insensitive TFAM distribution indicate that DNA remains the preferred substrate within the nucleoid. However, TFAM binds to tRNA with nanomolar affinity and these complexes are not rare. TFAM-immunoprecipitated tRNAs have processed ends, suggesting that binding is not specific to RNA precursors. The amount of each immunoprecipitated tRNA is not well correlated with tRNA celluar abundance, indicating unequal TFAM binding preferences. TFAM-mt-tRNA interaction suggests potentially new functions for this protein. PMID:26545237

  11. The rate of TRAP binding to RNA is crucial for transcription attenuation control of the B. subtilis trp operon.

    PubMed

    Barbolina, Maria V; Kristoforov, Roman; Manfredo, Amanda; Chen, Yanling; Gollnick, Paul

    2007-07-27

    The trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) regulates expression of the tryptophan biosynthetic and transport genes in Bacillus subtilis in response to changes in the levels of intracellular tryptophan. Transcription of the trpEDCFBA operon is controlled by an attenuation mechanism involving two overlapping RNA secondary structures in the 5' leader region of the trp transcript; TRAP binding promotes formation of a transcription terminator structure that halts transcription prior to the structural genes. TRAP consists of 11 identical subunits and is activated to bind RNA by binding up to 11 molecules of L-tryptophan. The TRAP binding site in the leader region of the trp operon mRNA consists of 11 (G/U)AG repeats. We examined the importance of the rate of TRAP binding to RNA for the transcription attenuation mechanism. We compared the properties of two types of TRAP 11-mers: homo-11-mers composed of 11 wild-type subunits, and hetero-11-mers with only one wild-type subunit and ten mutant subunits defective in binding either RNA or tryptophan. The hetero-11-mers bound RNA with only slightly diminished equilibrium binding affinity but with slower on-rates as compared to WT TRAP. The hetero-11-mers showed significantly decreased ability to induce transcription termination in the trp leader region when examined using an in vitro attenuation system. Together these results indicate that the rate of TRAP binding to RNA is a crucial factor in TRAP's ability to control attenuation. PMID:17555767

  12. MicroRNA-binding viral protein interferes with Arabidopsis development.

    PubMed

    Chellappan, Padmanabhan; Vanitharani, Ramachandran; Fauquet, Claude M

    2005-07-19

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (approximately 21 nt), noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate target mRNAs at the posttranscriptional level that are involved in development. In plants, virus-induced disease symptoms often result in developmental abnormalities resembling perturbation of miRNA-mediated function. Here, we report that expression in transgenic plants of a geminivirus-encoded AC4 protein from African cassava mosaic virus Cameroon Strain (ACMV), a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing, was correlated with decreased accumulation of host miRNAs and increased development abnormalities in Arabidopsis. Down-regulation of miRNA correlated with an up-regulation of target mRNA level. In vitro binding assays revealed the ability of AC4 of ACMV (A-AC4) but not East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus AC2 to bind single-stranded forms of miRNAs and short interfering RNAs but not double-stranded RNA forms. Normally, a labile intermediate during the miRNA biogenesis/RNA-induced silencing complex assembly, miRNA*, was below the level of detection, indicating that AC4 might interfere at a point downstream of the miRNA duplex unwinding process. The association of AC4 with miRNA was demonstrated by the association of A-AC4-GFP fusion protein, extracted from Arabidopsis protoplasts, with 2'-O-methyloligonucleotide complementary to miR159 (miR159*) and by the presence of miRNA with the A-AC4-GFP fusion protein after immunoprecipitation with antibody against GFP. In both assays, A-AC4 protein and miRNA complexes were copurified. These results provide direct evidence that AC4 is a unique virus-encoded posttranscriptional gene-silencing suppressor protein that binds to and presumably inactivates mature miRNAs and thus blocks the normal miRNA-mediated regulation of target mRNAs, resulting in developmental defects in Arabidopsis. PMID:16006510

  13. Hacking RNA: Hakai promotes tumorigenesis by enhancing the RNA-binding function of PSF.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Angélica; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Gorospe, Myriam

    2009-11-15

    Hakai, an E3 ubiquitin ligase for the E-cadherin complex, plays a crucial role in lowering cell-cell contacts in epithelial cells, a hallmark feature of tumor progression. Recently, Hakai was also found to interact with PSF (PTB-associated splicing factor). While PSF can function as a DNA-binding protein with a tumor suppressive function, its association with Hakai promotes PSF's RNA-binding ability and post-transcriptional influence on target mRNAs. Hakai overexpression enhanced the binding of PSF to mRNAs encoding cancer-related proteins, while knockdown of Hakai reduced the RNA-binding ability of PSF. Furthermore, the knockdown of PSF suppressed Hakai-induced cell proliferation. Thus, Hakai can affect the oncogenic phenotype both by altering E-cadherin-based intercellular adhesions and by increasing PSF's ability to bind RNAs that promote cancer-related gene expression. PMID:19855157

  14. RNA binding properties of the US11 protein from four primate simplexviruses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The protein encoded by the Us11 gene of herpes simplex viruses is a dsRNA binding protein which inhibits protein kinase R activity, thereby preventing the interferon-induced shut down of protein synthesis following viral infection. Us11 protein is not essential for infectivity in vitro and in mice in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), however this virus has a second, and apparently more important, inhibitor of PKR activity, the γ134.5 protein. Recently sequenced simian simplexviruses SA8, HVP2 and B virus do not have an ORF corresponding to the γ134.5 protein, yet they have similar, or greater, infectivity as HSV1 and HSV2. Methods We have expressed the US11 proteins of the simplexviruses HSV1, HSV2, HVP2 and B virus and measured their abilities to bind dsRNA, in order to investigate possible differences that could complement the absence of the γ134.5 protein. We employed a filter binding technique that allows binding of the Us11 protein under condition of excess dsRNA substrate and therefore a measurement of the true Kd value of Us11-dsRNA binding. Results and Conclusions The results show a Kd of binding in the range of 0.89 nM to 1.82 nM, with no significant difference among the four Us11 proteins. PMID:22054255

  15. Recycling of a regulatory protein by degradation of the RNA to which it binds.

    PubMed

    Deikus, Gintaras; Babitzke, Paul; Bechhofer, David H

    2004-03-01

    When Bacillus subtilis is grown in the presence of excess tryptophan, transcription of the trp operon is regulated by binding of tryptophan-activated TRAP to trp leader RNA, which promotes transcription termination in the trp leader region. Transcriptome analysis of a B. subtilis strain lacking polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase; a 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease) revealed a striking overexpression of trp operon structural genes when the strain was grown in the presence of abundant tryptophan. Analysis of trp leader RNA in the PNPase(-) strain showed accumulation of a stable, TRAP-protected fragment of trp leader RNA. Loss of trp operon transcriptional regulation in the PNPase(-) strain was due to the inability of ribonucleases other than PNPase to degrade TRAP-bound leader RNA, resulting in the sequestration of limiting TRAP. Thus, in the case of the B. subtilis trp operon, specific ribonuclease degradation of RNA in an RNA-protein complex is required for recycling of an RNA-binding protein. Such a mechanism may be relevant to other systems in which limiting concentrations of an RNA-binding protein must keep pace with ongoing transcription. PMID:14976255

  16. Roquin binds microRNA-146a and Argonaute2 to regulate microRNA homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Monika; Duan, Guowen; Kershaw, Nadia J.; Athanasopoulos, Vicki; Yeo, Janet H. C.; Ose, Toyoyuki; Hu, Desheng; Brown, Simon H. J.; Jergic, Slobodan; Patel, Hardip R.; Pratama, Alvin; Richards, Sashika; Verma, Anil; Jones, E. Yvonne; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Preiss, Thomas; Dixon, Nicholas E.; Chong, Mark M. W.; Babon, Jeffrey J.; Vinuesa, Carola G.

    2015-01-01

    Roquin is an RNA-binding protein that prevents autoimmunity and inflammation via repression of bound target mRNAs such as inducible costimulator (Icos). When Roquin is absent or mutated (Roquinsan), Icos is overexpressed in T cells. Here we show that Roquin enhances Dicer-mediated processing of pre-miR-146a. Roquin also directly binds Argonaute2, a central component of the RNA-induced silencing complex, and miR-146a, a microRNA that targets Icos mRNA. In the absence of functional Roquin, miR-146a accumulates in T cells. Its accumulation is not due to increased transcription or processing, rather due to enhanced stability of mature miR-146a. This is associated with decreased 3′ end uridylation of the miRNA. Crystallographic studies reveal that Roquin contains a unique HEPN domain and identify the structural basis of the ‘san’ mutation and Roquin’s ability to bind multiple RNAs. Roquin emerges as a protein that can bind Ago2, miRNAs and target mRNAs, to control homeostasis of both RNA species. PMID:25697406

  17. The mRNA-binding protein which controls ferritin and transferrin receptor expression is conserved during evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberger, S; Müllner, E W; Kühn, L C

    1990-01-01

    A post-transcriptional regulatory protein, termed iron regulatory factor (IRF), that binds specifically to the iron-responsive elements of ferritin and transferrin receptor mRNA, has recently been identified in the cytoplasm of human and mouse cells. Activation of this factor by low intracellular iron levels leads to inhibition of ferritin translation and an increase of TR mRNA stability. To investigate whether these feedback regulatory mechanisms are conserved during evolution, we analysed cytoplasmic extracts from 12 different species for a specific IRE-binding activity. We found mRNA-binding proteins in chicken, frog, fish and fly, which are equivalent to human and mouse IRF in gel-retardation assays with radiolabeled RNA transcripts. Competition experiments, molecular weight determinations, and modulation of the mRNA-binding activity in response to intracellular iron levels or reduction by beta-mercaptoethanol indicate that IRF has similar structural and functional properties in these different species. Images PMID:2157191

  18. Distinct binding sites for zinc and double-stranded RNA in the reovirus outer capsid protein sigma3

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, L.A.; Nibert, M.L.; Co, M.S.; Brown, E.G.; Fields, B.N.

    1988-01-01

    By atomic absorption analysis, the authors determined that the reovirus outer capsid protein sigma3, which binds double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is a zinc metalloprotein. Using Northwestern blots and a novel zinc blotting technique, the authors localized the zinc- and dsRNA-binding activities of sigma3 to distinct V8 protease-generated fragments. Zinc-binding activity was contained within an amino-terminal fragment that contained a transcription factor IIIA-like zinc-binding sequence, and dsRNA-binding activity was associated with a carboxy-terminal fragment. By these techniques, new zinc- and dsRNA-binding activities were also detected in reovirus core proteins. A sequence similarity was observed between the catalytic site of the picornavirus proteases and the transcription factor IIIA-like zinc-binding site within sigma3. The authors suggest that the zinc- and dsRNA-binding activities of sigma3 may be important for its proposed regulatory effects on viral and host cell transcription and translation.

  19. Functionally related transcripts have common RNA motifs for specific RNA-binding proteins in trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Noé, Griselda; De Gaudenzi, Javier G; Frasch, Alberto C

    2008-01-01

    Background Trypanosomes mostly control gene expression by post-transcriptional events such as modulation of mRNA stability and translational efficiency. These mechanisms involve RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), which associate with transcripts to form messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes. Results In this study, we report the identification of mRNA targets for Trypanosoma cruzi U-rich RBP 1 (TcUBP1) and T. cruzi RBP 3 (TcRBP3), two phylogenetically conserved proteins among Kinetoplastids. Co-immunoprecipitated RBP-associated RNAs were extracted from mRNP complexes and binding of RBPs to several targets was confirmed by independent experimental assays. Analysis of target transcript sequences allowed the identification of different signature RNA motifs for each protein. Cis-elements for RBP binding have a stem-loop structure of 30–35 bases and are more frequently represented in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs. Insertion of the correctly folded RNA elements to a non-specific mRNA rendered it into a target transcript, whereas substitution of the RNA elements abolished RBP interaction. In addition, RBPs competed for RNA-binding sites in accordance with the distribution of different and overlapping motifs in the 3'-UTRs of common mRNAs. Conclusion Functionally related transcripts were preferentially associated with a given RBP; TcUBP1 targets were enriched in genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism, whereas ribosomal protein-encoding transcripts were the largest group within TcRBP3 targets. Together, these results suggest coordinated control of different mRNA subsets at the post-transcriptional level by specific RBPs. PMID:19063746

  20. RNase R mutants elucidate the catalysis of structured RNA: RNA-binding domains select the RNAs targeted for degradation.

    PubMed

    Matos, Rute Gonçalves; Barbas, Ana; Arraiano, Cecília Maria

    2009-10-15

    The RNase II superfamily is a ubiquitous family of exoribonucleases that are essential for RNA metabolism. RNase II and RNase R degrade RNA in the 3'-->5' direction in a processive and sequence-independent manner. However, although RNase R is capable of degrading highly structured RNAs, the RNase II activity is impaired by the presence of secondary structures. RNase II and RNase R share structural properties and have a similar modular domain organization. The eukaryotic RNase II homologue, Rrp44/Dis3, is the catalytic subunit of the exosome, one of the most important protein complexes involved in the maintenance of the correct levels of cellular RNAs. In the present study, we constructed truncated RNase II and RNase R proteins and point mutants and characterized them regarding their exoribonucleolytic activity and RNA-binding ability. We report that Asp280 is crucial for RNase R activity without affecting RNA binding. When Tyr324 was changed to alanine, the final product changed from 2 to 5 nt in length, showing that this residue is responsible for setting the end-product. We have shown that the RNB domain of RNase II has catalytic activity. The most striking result is that the RNase R RNB domain itself degrades double-stranded substrates even in the absence of a 3'-overhang. Moreover, we have demonstrated for the first time that the substrate recognition of RNase R depends on the RNA-binding domains that target the degradation of RNAs that are 'tagged' by a 3'-tail. These results can have important implications for the study of poly(A)-dependent RNA degradation mechanisms. PMID:19630750

  1. Lomofungin and dilomofungin: inhibitors of MBNL1-CUG RNA binding with distinct cellular effects.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Jason W; Ofori, Leslie O; Chen, Catherine Z; Kumar, Amit; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Nakamori, Masayuki; Southall, Noel; Patnaik, Samarjit; Marugan, Juan J; Zheng, Wei; Austin, Christopher P; Disney, Matthew D; Miller, Benjamin L; Thornton, Charles A

    2014-06-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a dominantly inherited neuromuscular disorder resulting from expression of RNA containing an expanded CUG repeat (CUG(exp)). The pathogenic RNA is retained in nuclear foci. Poly-(CUG) binding proteins in the Muscleblind-like (MBNL) family are sequestered in foci, causing misregulated alternative splicing of specific pre-mRNAs. Inhibitors of MBNL1-CUG(exp) binding have been shown to restore splicing regulation and correct phenotypes in DM1 models. We therefore conducted a high-throughput screen to identify novel inhibitors of MBNL1-(CUG)12 binding. The most active compound was lomofungin, a natural antimicrobial agent. We found that lomofungin undergoes spontaneous dimerization in DMSO, producing dilomofungin, whose inhibition of MBNL1-(CUG)12 binding was 17-fold more potent than lomofungin itself. However, while dilomofungin displayed the desired binding characteristics in vitro, when applied to cells it produced a large increase of CUG(exp) RNA in nuclear foci, owing to reduced turnover of the CUG(exp) transcript. By comparison, the monomer did not induce CUG(exp) accumulation in cells and was more effective at rescuing a CUG(exp)-induced splicing defect. These results support the feasibility of high-throughput screens to identify compounds targeting toxic RNA, but also demonstrate that ligands for repetitive sequences may have unexpected effects on RNA decay. PMID:24799433

  2. Lomofungin and dilomofungin: inhibitors of MBNL1-CUG RNA binding with distinct cellular effects

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Jason W.; Ofori, Leslie O.; Chen, Catherine Z.; Kumar, Amit; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Nakamori, Masayuki; Southall, Noel; Patnaik, Samarjit; Marugan, Juan J.; Zheng, Wei; Austin, Christopher P.; Disney, Matthew D.; Miller, Benjamin L.; Thornton, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a dominantly inherited neuromuscular disorder resulting from expression of RNA containing an expanded CUG repeat (CUGexp). The pathogenic RNA is retained in nuclear foci. Poly-(CUG) binding proteins in the Muscleblind-like (MBNL) family are sequestered in foci, causing misregulated alternative splicing of specific pre-mRNAs. Inhibitors of MBNL1-CUGexp binding have been shown to restore splicing regulation and correct phenotypes in DM1 models. We therefore conducted a high-throughput screen to identify novel inhibitors of MBNL1-(CUG)12 binding. The most active compound was lomofungin, a natural antimicrobial agent. We found that lomofungin undergoes spontaneous dimerization in DMSO, producing dilomofungin, whose inhibition of MBNL1–(CUG)12 binding was 17-fold more potent than lomofungin itself. However, while dilomofungin displayed the desired binding characteristics in vitro, when applied to cells it produced a large increase of CUGexp RNA in nuclear foci, owing to reduced turnover of the CUGexp transcript. By comparison, the monomer did not induce CUGexp accumulation in cells and was more effective at rescuing a CUGexp-induced splicing defect. These results support the feasibility of high-throughput screens to identify compounds targeting toxic RNA, but also demonstrate that ligands for repetitive sequences may have unexpected effects on RNA decay. PMID:24799433

  3. Functional equivalence of an evolutionarily conserved RNA binding module.

    PubMed

    Wells, Melissa L; Hicks, Stephanie N; Perera, Lalith; Blackshear, Perry J

    2015-10-01

    Members of the tristetraprolin (TTP) family of proteins participate in the regulation of mRNA turnover after initially binding to AU-rich elements in target mRNAs. Related proteins from most groups of eukaryotes contain a conserved tandem zinc finger (TZF) domain consisting of two closely spaced, similar CCCH zinc fingers that form the primary RNA binding domain. There is considerable sequence variation within the TZF domains from different family members within a single organism and from different organisms, raising questions about sequence-specific effects on RNA binding and decay promotion. We hypothesized that TZF domains from evolutionarily distant species are functionally interchangeable. The single family member expressed in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Zfs1, promotes the turnover of several dozen transcripts, some of which are involved in cell-cell interactions. Using knockin techniques, we replaced the TZF domain of S. pombe Zfs1 with the equivalent domains from human TTP and the single family member proteins expressed in the silkworm Bombyx mori, the pathogenic yeast Candida guilliermondii, and the plant Chromolaena odorata. We found that the TZF domains from these widely disparate species could completely substitute for the native S. pombe TZF domain, as determined by measurement of target transcript levels and the flocculation phenotype characteristic of Zfs1 deletion. Recombinant TZF domain peptides from several of these species bound to an AU-rich RNA oligonucleotide with comparably high affinity. We conclude that the TZF domains from TTP family members in these evolutionarily widely divergent species are functionally interchangeable in mRNA binding and decay. PMID:26292216

  4. microRNAs and RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Galardi, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, an ever-growing number of connections between microRNAs (miRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have uncovered a new level of complexity of gene expression regulation in cancer. In this review, we examine several aspects of the functional interactions between miRNAs and RBPs in cancer models. We will provide examples of reciprocal regulation: miRNAs regulating the expression of RBPs, or the converse, where an RNA-binding protein specifically regulates the expression of a specific miRNA, or when an RBP can exert a widespread effect on miRNAs via the modulation of a key protein for miRNA production or function. Moreover, we will focus on the ever-growing number of functional interactions that have been discovered in the last few years: RBPs that were shown to cooperate with microRNAs in the downregulation of shared target mRNAs or, on the contrary, that inhibit microRNA action, thus resulting in a protection of the specific target mRNAs. We surely need to obtain a deeper comprehension of such intricate networks to have a chance of understanding and, thus, fighting cancer. PMID:23696003

  5. A 3′ untranslated region variant in FMR1 eliminates neuronal activity-dependent translation of FMRP by disrupting binding of the RNA-binding protein HuR

    PubMed Central

    Suhl, Joshua A.; Muddashetty, Ravi S.; Anderson, Bart R.; Ifrim, Marius F.; Visootsak, Jeannie; Bassell, Gary J.; Warren, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is a common cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. The gene underlying the disorder, fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1), is silenced in most cases by a CGG-repeat expansion mutation in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR). Recently, we identified a variant located in the 3′UTR of FMR1 enriched among developmentally delayed males with normal repeat lengths. A patient-derived cell line revealed reduced levels of endogenous fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), and a reporter containing a patient 3′UTR caused a decrease in expression. A control reporter expressed in cultured mouse cortical neurons showed an expected increase following synaptic stimulation that was absent when expressing the patient reporter, suggesting an impaired response to neuronal activity. Mobility-shift assays using a control RNA detected an RNA–protein interaction that is lost with the patient RNA, and HuR was subsequently identified as an associated protein. Cross-linking immunoprecipitation experiments identified the locus as an in vivo target of HuR, supporting our in vitro findings. These data suggest that the disrupted interaction of HuR impairs activity-dependent translation of FMRP, which may hinder synaptic plasticity in a clinically significant fashion. PMID:26554012

  6. RNA Silencing Suppressor p21 of Beet Yellows Virus Forms an RNA binding Octameric Ring Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ye,K.; Patel, D.

    2005-01-01

    Many plant viruses encode proteins that suppress the antiviral RNA silencing response mounted by the host. The suppressors p19 from tombusvirus and p21 from Beet yellows virus appear to block silencing by directly binding siRNA, a critical mediator in the process. Here, we report the crystal structure of p21, which reveals an octameric ring architecture with a large central cavity of {approx}90 Angstrom diameter. The all {alpha}-helical p21 monomer consists of N- and C-terminal domains that associate with their neighboring counterparts through symmetric head-to-head and tail-to-tail interactions. A putative RNA binding surface is identified in the conserved, positive-charged inner surface of the ring. In contrast to the specific p19-siRNA duplex interaction, p21 is a general nucleic acid binding protein, interacting with 21 nt or longer single- and double-stranded RNAs in vitro. This study reveals an RNA binding structure adopted by the p21 silencing suppressor.

  7. RNA-binding proteins in pluripotency, differentiation, and reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    GUALLAR, Diana; WANG, Jianlong

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic stem cell maintenance, differentiation, and somatic cell reprogramming require the interplay of multiple pluripotency factors, epigenetic remodelers, and extracellular signaling pathways. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are involved in a wide range of regulatory pathways, from RNA metabolism to epigenetic modifications. In recent years we have witnessed more and more studies on the discovery of new RBPs and the assessment of their functions in a variety of biological systems, including stem cells. We review the current studies on RBPs and focus on those that have functional implications in pluripotency, differentiation, and/or reprogramming in both the human and mouse systems. PMID:25554730

  8. Evolutionary Conservation and Diversification of Puf RNA Binding Proteins and Their mRNA Targets

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Gregory J.; Brown, Patrick O.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming of a gene’s expression pattern by acquisition and loss of sequences recognized by specific regulatory RNA binding proteins may be a major mechanism in the evolution of biological regulatory programs. We identified that RNA targets of Puf3 orthologs have been conserved over 100–500 million years of evolution in five eukaryotic lineages. Focusing on Puf proteins and their targets across 80 fungi, we constructed a parsimonious model for their evolutionary history. This model entails extensive and coordinated changes in the Puf targets as well as changes in the number of Puf genes and alterations of RNA binding specificity including that: 1) Binding of Puf3 to more than 200 RNAs whose protein products are predominantly involved in the production and organization of mitochondrial complexes predates the origin of budding yeasts and filamentous fungi and was maintained for 500 million years, throughout the evolution of budding yeast. 2) In filamentous fungi, remarkably, more than 150 of the ancestral Puf3 targets were gained by Puf4, with one lineage maintaining both Puf3 and Puf4 as regulators and a sister lineage losing Puf3 as a regulator of these RNAs. The decrease in gene expression of these mRNAs upon deletion of Puf4 in filamentous fungi (N. crassa) in contrast to the increase upon Puf3 deletion in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) suggests that the output of the RNA regulatory network is different with Puf4 in filamentous fungi than with Puf3 in budding yeast. 3) The coregulated Puf4 target set in filamentous fungi expanded to include mitochondrial genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and other nuclear-encoded RNAs with mitochondrial function not bound by Puf3 in budding yeast, observations that provide additional evidence for substantial rewiring of post-transcriptional regulation. 4) Puf3 also expanded and diversified its targets in filamentous fungi, gaining interactions with the mRNAs encoding the mitochondrial electron transport

  9. Specific protein binding to a conserved region of the ornithine decarboxylase mRNA 5'-untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Manzella, J M; Blackshear, P J

    1992-04-01

    An RNA gel retardation assay was used to identify one or more cellular protein(s) (ornithine decarboxylase mRNA 5'-UTR binding protein (ODCBP)) that bind specifically to a conserved region of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of rat ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA. Ultraviolet light cross-linking demonstrated that this protein has an apparent Mr = 58,000 in mammalian cells. Treatment with the oxidizing agent diamide prevented binding of the ODCBP to ODC mRNA; addition of beta-mercaptoethanol reversed this inhibition and permitted mRNA.ODCBP complex formation. Cytoplasmic extracts from a variety of animal cells and tissues demonstrated similar binding activities; however, there was marked tissue-specific expression of the protein in the rat, with brain, heart, lung, and testis containing large amounts, and kidney, spleen, and skeletal muscle expressing negligible amounts. Binding was completely prevented by several mutations within a highly conserved heptanucleotide region (CCAU/ACUC) that was within 61 bases of the initiation codon in ODC mRNAs from mammals, Xenopus, and Caenorhabditis elegans; mutations 5' and 3' of the conserved heptanucleotide domain had no effect on binding activity. Binding was not affected by manipulation of cellular polyamine levels or by treatment of cells with agents that stimulate ODC biosynthesis. Thus, we have identified a widely distributed cellular protein that binds to a conserved domain within the 5'-UTR of ODC mRNA from many animal species; functional consequences of this binding remain to be determined. PMID:1551914

  10. Expression of Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1), Progestin and AdipoQ Receptor 7 (PAQPR7), and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 RNA-Binding Protein (PAIRBP1) in Glioma Spheroids In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hlavaty, Juraj; Ertl, Reinhard; Miller, Ingrid; Gabriel, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Some effects of progesterone on glioma cells can be explained through the slow, genomic mediated response via nuclear receptors; the other effects suggest potential role of a fast, nongenomic action mediated by membrane-associated progesterone receptors. Methods. The effects of progesterone treatment on the expression levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA-binding protein (PAIRBP1), and progestin and adipoQ receptor 7 (PAQR7) on both mRNA and protein levels were investigated in spheroids derived from human glioma cell lines U-87 MG and LN-229. Results. The only significant alteration at the transcript level was the decrease in PGRMC1 mRNA observed in LN-229 spheroids treated with 30 ng/mL of progesterone. No visible alterations at the protein levels were observed using immunohistochemical analysis. Stimulation of U-87 MG spheroids resulted in an increase of PGRMC1 but a decrease of PAIRBP1 protein. Double immunofluorescent detection of PGRMC1 and PAIRBP1 identified the two proteins to be partially colocalized in the cells. Western blot analysis revealed the expected bands for PGRMC1 and PAIRBP1, whereas two bands were detected for PAQR7. Conclusion. The progesterone action is supposed to be mediated via membrane-associated progesterone receptors as the nuclear progesterone receptor was absent in tested spheroids. PMID:27340667

  11. Identification of a novel HIV-1 TAR RNA bulge binding protein.

    PubMed

    Baker, B; Muckenthaler, M; Vives, E; Blanchard, A; Braddock, M; Nacken, W; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1994-08-25

    The Tat protein binds to TAR RNA to stimulate the expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome. Tat is an 86 amino acid protein that contains a short region of basic residues (aa49-aa57) that are required for RNA binding and TAR is a 59 nucleotide stem-loop with a tripyrimidine bulge in the upper stem. TAR is located at the 5' end of all viral RNAs. In vitro, Tat specifically interacts with TAR by recognising the sequence of the bulge and upper stem, with no requirement for the loop. However, in vivo the loop sequence is critical for activation, implying a requirement for accessory cellular TAR RNA binding factors. A number of TAR binding cellular factors have been identified in cell extracts and various models for the function of these factors have been suggested, including roles as coactivators and inhibitors. We have now identified a novel 38 kD cellular factor that has little general, single-stranded or double-stranded RNA binding activity, but that specifically recognises the bulge and upper stem region of TAR. The protein, referred to as BBP (bulge binding protein), is conserved in mammalian and amphibian cells and in Schizosaccharomyces pombe but is not found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. BBP is an effective competitive inhibitor of Tat binding to TAR in vitro. Our data suggest that the bulge-stem recognition motif in TAR is used to mediate cellular factor/RNA interactions and indicates that Tat action might be inhibited by such competing reactions in vivo. PMID:8078772

  12. Importance of diffuse metal ion binding to RNA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2011-01-01

    RNAs are highly charged polyanionic molecules. RNA structure and function are strongly correlated with the ionic condition of the solution. The primary focus of this article is on the role of diffusive ions in RNA folding. Due to the long-range nature of electrostatic interactions, the diffuse ions can contribute significantly to RNA structural stability and folding kinetics. We present an overview of the experimental findings as well as the theoretical developments on the diffuse ion effects in RNA folding. This review places heavy emphasis on the effect of magnesium ions. Magnesium ions play a highly efficient role in stabilizing RNA tertiary structures and promoting tertiary structural folding. The highly efficient role goes beyond the mean-field effect such as the ionic strength. In addition to the effects of specific ion binding and ion dehydration, ion-ion correlation for the diffuse ions can contribute to the efficient role of the multivalent ions such as the magnesium ions in RNA folding. PMID:22010269

  13. RNA-binding protein Lin28 in cancer and immunity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuai; Baltimore, David

    2016-05-28

    The highly conserved RNA-binding protein, Lin28, is involved in many biological processes, including development, reprogramming, pluripotency, and metabolism. Importantly, Lin28 functions as an oncogene, promoting tumor progression and metastasis in various human cancers. Lin28 can regulate gene expression either by directly binding to mRNAs or by blocking microRNA biogenesis, and the underlying mechanisms include Let-7-dependent and Let-7-independent modes of action. Recent evidence shows that Lin28 also plays a fundamental role in immunity. The roles of Lin28 in disease are complex and require characterization of its physiological functions in cancer and immunological contexts. Here we review emerging information on the role of Lin28 in cancer and immunity and the molecular mechanisms it uses. We discuss our present knowledge of the system and highlight remaining mysteries related to the functions of this small RNA-binding protein. This knowledge may lead to Lin28 becoming a diagnostic marker for cancer or immune-related diseases and a possible therapeutic target. PMID:26945970

  14. Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene expression by lipopolysaccharide through the RNA-binding protein HuR: involvement of NADPH oxidase, reactive oxygen species and mitogen-activated protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ning; Lin, Chih-Chung; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) has been implicated in several respiratory diseases. HuR is known to enhance the expression of genes by binding to 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of mRNA and stabilizing mRNA. However, the exact mechanisms by which HuR affects the stability of mRNA and modulates LPS-induced COX-2 and cPLA2 expression in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs) are not known. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The expression of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was measured by ELISA, and pro-inflammatory proteins were determined by use of a promoter assay, PCR or Western blot analysis. Overexpression of siRNAs to knock down the target components was used to manipulate the expression of HuR. Release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by fluorescence dye. The activation of signalling components was assessed by comparing phosphorylation levels, localization of protein kinases or coimmunoprecipitation assay. KEY RESULTS LPS induced COX-2 and cPLA2 expression via post-translational regulation of mRNA stabilization, which were attenuated by transfection with HuR siRNA in HTSMCs. In addition, LPS-stimulated NADPH oxidase activation and ROS generation were attenuated by the NADPH oxidase inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) and apocynin (APO). Generation of ROS induced phosphorylation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p38 MAPK and JNK1/2, which was attenuated by DPI and APO and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggested that in HTSMCs, LPS-induced COX-2 and cPLA2 expression is mediated through NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent MAPKs associated with HuR accumulation in the cytoplasm. Activated MAPKs may regulate the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HuR, and thus induce the cytoplasmic accumulation of HuR. PMID:21391979

  15. Staufen Negatively Modulates MicroRNA Activity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhiji; Veksler-Lublinsky, Isana; Morrissey, David; Ambros, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The double-stranded RNA-binding protein Staufen has been implicated in various posttranscriptional gene regulatory processes. Here, we demonstrate that the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Staufen, STAU-1, functionally interacts with microRNAs. Loss-of-function mutations of stau-1 significantly suppress phenotypes of let-7 family microRNA mutants, a hypomorphic allele of dicer, and a lsy-6 microRNA partial loss-of-function mutant. Furthermore, STAU-1 modulates the activity of lin-14, a target of lin-4 and let-7 family microRNAs, and this modulation is abolished when the 3′ untranslated region of lin-14 is removed. Deep sequencing of small RNA cDNA libraries reveals no dramatic change in the levels of microRNAs or other small RNA populations between wild-type and stau-1 mutants, with the exception of certain endogenous siRNAs in the WAGO pathway. The modulation of microRNA activity by STAU-1 does not seem to be associated with the previously reported enhanced exogenous RNAi (Eri) phenotype of stau-1 mutants, since eri-1 exhibits the opposite effect on microRNA activity. Altogether, our results suggest that STAU-1 negatively modulates microRNA activity downstream of microRNA biogenesis, possibly by competing with microRNAs for binding on the 3′ untranslated region of target mRNAs. PMID:26921297

  16. Staufen Negatively Modulates MicroRNA Activity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhiji; Veksler-Lublinsky, Isana; Morrissey, David; Ambros, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The double-stranded RNA-binding protein Staufen has been implicated in various posttranscriptional gene regulatory processes. Here, we demonstrate that the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Staufen, STAU-1, functionally interacts with microRNAs. Loss-of-function mutations of stau-1 significantly suppress phenotypes of let-7 family microRNA mutants, a hypomorphic allele of dicer, and a lsy-6 microRNA partial loss-of-function mutant. Furthermore, STAU-1 modulates the activity of lin-14, a target of lin-4 and let-7 family microRNAs, and this modulation is abolished when the 3' untranslated region of lin-14 is removed. Deep sequencing of small RNA cDNA libraries reveals no dramatic change in the levels of microRNAs or other small RNA populations between wild-type and stau-1 mutants, with the exception of certain endogenous siRNAs in the WAGO pathway. The modulation of microRNA activity by STAU-1 does not seem to be associated with the previously reported enhanced exogenous RNAi (Eri) phenotype of stau-1 mutants, since eri-1 exhibits the opposite effect on microRNA activity. Altogether, our results suggest that STAU-1 negatively modulates microRNA activity downstream of microRNA biogenesis, possibly by competing with microRNAs for binding on the 3' untranslated region of target mRNAs. PMID:26921297

  17. RNA-Binding Proteins: Splicing Factors and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, Alger M.; Cygan, Kamil J.; Brown, Brian A.; Fairbrother, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is mediated by interactions of the Core Spliceosome and an array of accessory RNA binding proteins with cis-sequence elements. Splicing is a major regulatory component in higher eukaryotes. Disruptions in splicing are a major contributor to human disease. One in three hereditary disease alleles are believed to cause aberrant splicing. Hereditary disease alleles can alter splicing by disrupting a splicing element, creating a toxic RNA, or affecting splicing factors. One of the challenges of medical genetics is identifying causal variants from the thousands of possibilities discovered in a clinical sequencing experiment. Here we review the basic biochemistry of splicing, the mechanisms of splicing mutations, the methods for identifying splicing mutants, and the potential of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25985083

  18. RNA binding by the Wilms tumor suppressor zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Caricasole, A; Duarte, A; Larsson, S H; Hastie, N D; Little, M; Holmes, G; Todorov, I; Ward, A

    1996-01-01

    The Wilms tumor suppressor gene WT1 is implicated in the ontogeny of genito-urinary abnormalities, including Denys-Drash syndrome and Wilms tumor of the kidney. WT1 encodes Kruppel-type zinc finger proteins that can regulate the expression of several growth-related genes, apparently by binding to specific DNA sites located within 5' untranslated leader regions as well as 5' promoter sequences. Both WT1 and a closely related early growth response factor, EGR1, can bind the same DNA sequences from the mouse gene encoding insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf-2). We report that WT1, but not EGR1, can bind specific Igf-2 exonic RNA sequences, and that the zinc fingers are required for this interaction. WT1 zinc finger 1, which is not represented in EGR1, plays a more significant role in RNA binding than zinc finger 4, which does have a counterpart in EGR1. Furthermore, the normal subnuclear localization of WT1 proteins is shown to be RNase, but not DNase, sensitive. Therefore, WT1 might, like the Kruppel-type zinc finger protein TFIIIA, regulate gene expression by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8755514

  19. Robust transcriptome-wide discovery of RNA-binding protein binding sites with enhanced CLIP (eCLIP).

    PubMed

    Van Nostrand, Eric L; Pratt, Gabriel A; Shishkin, Alexander A; Gelboin-Burkhart, Chelsea; Fang, Mark Y; Sundararaman, Balaji; Blue, Steven M; Nguyen, Thai B; Surka, Christine; Elkins, Keri; Stanton, Rebecca; Rigo, Frank; Guttman, Mitchell; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-06-01

    As RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play essential roles in cellular physiology by interacting with target RNA molecules, binding site identification by UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) of ribonucleoprotein complexes is critical to understanding RBP function. However, current CLIP protocols are technically demanding and yield low-complexity libraries with high experimental failure rates. We have developed an enhanced CLIP (eCLIP) protocol that decreases requisite amplification by ∼1,000-fold, decreasing discarded PCR duplicate reads by ∼60% while maintaining single-nucleotide binding resolution. By simplifying the generation of paired IgG and size-matched input controls, eCLIP improves specificity in the discovery of authentic binding sites. We generated 102 eCLIP experiments for 73 diverse RBPs in HepG2 and K562 cells (available at https://www.encodeproject.org), demonstrating that eCLIP enables large-scale and robust profiling, with amplification and sample requirements similar to those of ChIP-seq. eCLIP enables integrative analysis of diverse RBPs to reveal factor-specific profiles, common artifacts for CLIP and RNA-centric perspectives on RBP activity. PMID:27018577

  20. The Human dsRNA binding protein PACT is unable to functionally substitute for the Drosophila dsRNA binding protein R2D2

    PubMed Central

    Dickerman, Benjamin K; McDonald, Jocelyn A; Sen, Ganes C

    2014-01-01

    The dsRNA binding protein (dsRBP) PACT was first described as an activator of the dsRNA dependent protein kinase PKR in response to stress signals.  Additionally, it has been identified as a component of the small RNA processing pathway.  A role for PACT in this pathway represents an important interplay between two modes of post-transcriptional gene regulation.  The function of PACT in this context is poorly understood.  Thus, additional approaches are required to clarify the mechanism by which PACT functions.  In this study, the genetic utility of  Drosophila melanogaster was employed to identify dsRNA-binding proteins that are functionally orthologous to PACT.  Transgenic  Drosophila expressing human PACT were generated to determine whether PACT is capable of functionally substituting for the  Drosophila dsRBP R2D2, which has a well-defined role in small RNA biogenesis.  Results presented here indicate that PACT is unable to substitute for R2D2 at the whole organism level. PMID:24715958

  1. A crystallographic study of the binding of 13 metal ions to two related RNA duplexes

    PubMed Central

    Ennifar, Eric; Walter, Philippe; Dumas, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Metal ions, and magnesium in particular, are known to be involved in RNA folding by stabilizing secondary and tertiary structures, and, as cofactors, in RNA enzymatic activity. We have conducted a systematic crystallographic analysis of cation binding to the duplex form of the HIV-1 RNA dimerization initiation site for the subtype-A and -B natural sequences. Eleven ions (K+, Pb2+, Mn2+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Cd2+, Sr2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Au3+ and Pt4+) and two hexammines [Co (NH3)6]3+ and [Ru (NH3)6]3+ were found to bind to the DIS duplex structure. Although the two sequences are very similar, strong differences were found in their cation binding properties. Divalent cations bind almost exclusively, as Mg2+, at ‘Hoogsteen’ sites of guanine residues, with a cation-dependent affinity for each site. Notably, a given cation can have very different affinities for a priori equivalent sites within the same molecule. Surprisingly, none of the two hexammines used were able to efficiently replace hexahydrated magnesium. Instead, [Co (NH3)4]3+ was seen bound by inner-sphere coordination to the RNA. This raises some questions about the practical use of [Co (NH3)6]3+ as a [Mg (H2O)6]2+ mimetic. Also very unexpected was the binding of the small Au3+ cation exactly between the Watson–Crick sites of a G-C base pair after an obligatory deprotonation of N1 of the guanine base. This extensive study of metal ion binding using X-ray crystallography significantly enriches our knowledge on the binding of middleweight or heavy metal ions to RNA, particularly compared with magnesium. PMID:12736317

  2. NF45 and NF90 Bind HIV-1 RNA and Modulate HIV Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Belshan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A previous proteomic screen in our laboratory identified nuclear factor 45 (NF45) and nuclear factor 90 (NF90) as potential cellular factors involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Both are RNA binding proteins that regulate gene expression; and NF90 has been shown to regulate the expression of cyclin T1 which is required for Tat-dependent trans-activation of viral gene expression. In this study the roles of NF45 and NF90 in HIV replication were investigated through overexpression studies. Ectopic expression of either factor potentiated HIV infection, gene expression, and virus production. Deletion of the RNA binding domains of NF45 and NF90 diminished the enhancement of HIV infection and gene expression. Both proteins were found to interact with the HIV RNA. RNA decay assays demonstrated that NF90, but not NF45, increased the half-life of the HIV RNA. Overall, these studies indicate that both NF45 and NF90 potentiate HIV infection through their RNA binding domains. PMID:26891316

  3. Acidic Residues in the Hfq Chaperone Increase the Selectivity of sRNA Binding and Annealing.

    PubMed

    Panja, Subrata; Santiago-Frangos, Andrew; Schu, Daniel J; Gottesman, Susan; Woodson, Sarah A

    2015-11-01

    Hfq facilitates gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), thereby affecting bacterial attributes such as biofilm formation and virulence. Escherichia coli Hfq recognizes specific U-rich and AAN motifs in sRNAs and target mRNAs, after which an arginine patch on the rim promotes base pairing between their complementary sequences. In the cell, Hfq must discriminate between many similar RNAs. Here, we report that acidic amino acids lining the sRNA binding channel between the inner pore and rim of the Hfq hexamer contribute to the selectivity of Hfq's chaperone activity. RNase footprinting, in vitro binding and stopped-flow fluorescence annealing assays showed that alanine substitution of D9, E18 or E37 strengthened RNA interactions with the rim of Hfq and increased annealing of non-specific or U-tailed RNA oligomers. Although the mutants were less able than wild-type Hfq to anneal sRNAs with wild-type rpoS mRNA, the D9A mutation bypassed recruitment of Hfq to an (AAN)4 motif in rpoS, both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that acidic residues normally modulate access of RNAs to the arginine patch. We propose that this selectivity limits indiscriminate target selection by E. coli Hfq and enforces binding modes that favor genuine sRNA and mRNA pairs. PMID:26196441

  4. Integrity of the core mitochondrial RNA-binding complex 1 is vital for trypanosome RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenqiu; Faktorová, Drahomíra; Křížová, Adéla; Kafková, Lucie; Read, Laurie K; Lukeš, Julius; Hashimi, Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of the human and veterinarian diseases African sleeping sickness and nagana. A majority of its mitochondrial-encoded transcripts undergo RNA editing, an essential process of post-transcriptional uridine insertion and deletion to produce translatable mRNA. Besides the well-characterized RNA editing core complex, the mitochondrial RNA-binding 1 (MRB1) complex is one of the key players. It comprises a core complex of about six proteins, guide RNA-associated proteins (GAPs) 1/2, which form a heterotetramer that binds and stabilizes gRNAs, plus MRB5390, MRB3010, and MRB11870, which play roles in initial stages of RNA editing, presumably guided by the first gRNA:mRNA duplex in the case of the latter two proteins. To better understand all functions of the MRB1 complex, we performed a functional analysis of the MRB8620 core subunit, the only one not characterized so far. Here we show that MRB8620 plays a role in RNA editing in both procyclic and bloodstream stages of T. brucei, which reside in the tsetse fly vector and mammalian circulatory system, respectively. While RNAi silencing of MRB8620 does not affect procyclic T. brucei fitness when grown in glucose-containing media, it is somewhat compromised in cells grown in the absence of this carbon source. MRB8620 is crucial for integrity of the MRB1 core, such as its association with GAP1/2, which presumably acts to deliver gRNAs to this complex. In contrast, GAP1/2 is not required for the fabrication of the MRB1 core. Disruption of the MRB1 core assembly is followed by the accumulation of mRNAs associated with GAP1/2. PMID:26447184

  5. Regulation of RNA binding proteins in trypanosomatid protozoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Romaniuk, María Albertina; Cervini, Gabriela; Cassola, Alejandro

    2016-02-26

    Posttranscriptional mechanisms have a critical role in the overall outcome of gene expression. These mechanisms are especially relevant in protozoa from the genus Trypanosoma, which is composed by death threatening parasites affecting people in Sub-saharan Africa or in the Americas. In these parasites the classic view of regulation of transcription initiation to modulate the products of a given gene cannot be applied. This is due to the presence of transcription start sites that give rise to long polycistronic units that need to be processed costranscriptionally by trans-splicing and polyadenylation to give mature monocistronic mRNAs. Posttranscriptional mechanisms such as mRNA degradation and translational repression are responsible for the final synthesis of the required protein products. In this context, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in trypanosomes have a relevant role as modulators of mRNA abundance and translational repression by associating to the 3' untranslated regions in mRNA. Many different RBPs have been proposed to modulate cohorts of mRNAs in trypanosomes. However, the current understanding of their functions lacks a dynamic view on the different steps at which these RBPs are regulated. Here, we discuss different evidences to propose regulatory events for different RBPs in these parasites. These events vary from regulated developmental expression, to biogenesis of cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes in the nucleus, and condensation of RBPs and mRNA into large cytoplasmic granules. Finally, we discuss how newly identified posttranslational modifications of RBPs and mRNA metabolism-related proteins could have an enormous impact on the modulation of mRNA abundance. To understand these modifications is especially relevant in these parasites due to the fact that the enzymes involved could be interesting targets for drug therapy. PMID:26981203

  6. Regulation of RNA binding proteins in trypanosomatid protozoan parasites

    PubMed Central

    Romaniuk, María Albertina; Cervini, Gabriela; Cassola, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Posttranscriptional mechanisms have a critical role in the overall outcome of gene expression. These mechanisms are especially relevant in protozoa from the genus Trypanosoma, which is composed by death threatening parasites affecting people in Sub-saharan Africa or in the Americas. In these parasites the classic view of regulation of transcription initiation to modulate the products of a given gene cannot be applied. This is due to the presence of transcription start sites that give rise to long polycistronic units that need to be processed costranscriptionally by trans-splicing and polyadenylation to give mature monocistronic mRNAs. Posttranscriptional mechanisms such as mRNA degradation and translational repression are responsible for the final synthesis of the required protein products. In this context, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in trypanosomes have a relevant role as modulators of mRNA abundance and translational repression by associating to the 3’ untranslated regions in mRNA. Many different RBPs have been proposed to modulate cohorts of mRNAs in trypanosomes. However, the current understanding of their functions lacks a dynamic view on the different steps at which these RBPs are regulated. Here, we discuss different evidences to propose regulatory events for different RBPs in these parasites. These events vary from regulated developmental expression, to biogenesis of cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes in the nucleus, and condensation of RBPs and mRNA into large cytoplasmic granules. Finally, we discuss how newly identified posttranslational modifications of RBPs and mRNA metabolism-related proteins could have an enormous impact on the modulation of mRNA abundance. To understand these modifications is especially relevant in these parasites due to the fact that the enzymes involved could be interesting targets for drug therapy. PMID:26981203

  7. A third member of the RNA-specific adenosine deaminase gene family, ADAR3, contains both single- and double-stranded RNA binding domains.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C X; Cho, D S; Wang, Q; Lai, F; Carter, K C; Nishikura, K

    2000-01-01

    Members of the double-stranded RNA- (dsRNA) specific adenosine deaminase gene family convert adenosine residues into inosines in dsRNA and are involved in A-to-I RNA editing of transcripts of glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits and serotonin receptor subtype 2C (5-HT(2C)R). We have isolated hADAR3, the third member of this class of human enzyme and investigated its editing site selectivity using in vitro RNA editing assay systems. As originally reported for rat ADAR3 or RED2, purified ADAR3 proteins could not edit GluR-B RNA at the "Q/R" site, the "R/G" site, and the intronic "hot spot" site. In addition, ADAR3 did not edit any of five sites discovered recently within the intracellular loop II region of 5-HT(2C)R RNAs, confirming its total lack of editing activity for currently known substrate RNAs. Filter-binding analyses revealed that ADAR3 is capable of binding not only to dsRNA but also to single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Deletion mutagenesis identified a region rich in arginine residues located in the N-terminus that is responsible for binding of ADAR3 to ssRNA. The presence of this ssRNA-binding domain as well as its expression in restricted brain regions and postmitotic neurons make ADAR3 distinct from the other two ADAR gene family members, editing competent ADAR1 and ADAR2. ADAR3 inhibited in vitro the activities of RNA editing enzymes of the ADAR gene family, raising the possibility of a regulatory role in RNA editing. PMID:10836796

  8. tRNA binding, positioning, and modification by the pseudouridine synthase Pus10.

    PubMed

    Kamalampeta, Rajashekhar; Keffer-Wilkes, Laura C; Kothe, Ute

    2013-10-23

    Pus10 is the most recently identified pseudouridine synthase found in archaea and higher eukaryotes. It modifies uridine 55 in the TΨC arm of tRNAs. Here, we report the first quantitative biochemical analysis of tRNA binding and pseudouridine formation by Pyrococcus furiosus Pus10. The affinity of Pus10 for both substrate and product tRNA is high (Kd of 30nM), and product formation occurs with a Km of 400nM and a kcat of 0.9s(-1). Site-directed mutagenesis was used to demonstrate that the thumb loop in the catalytic domain is important for efficient catalysis; we propose that the thumb loop positions the tRNA within the active site. Furthermore, a new catalytic arginine residue was identified (arginine 208), which is likely responsible for triggering flipping of the target uridine into the active site of Pus10. Lastly, our data support the proposal that the THUMP-containing domain, found in the N-terminus of Pus10, contributes to binding of tRNA. Together, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tRNA binding by Pus10 occurs through an induced-fit mechanism, which is a prerequisite for efficient pseudouridine formation. PMID:23743107

  9. CLIPZ: a database and analysis environment for experimentally determined binding sites of RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Khorshid, Mohsen; Rodak, Christoph; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The stability, localization and translation rate of mRNAs are regulated by a multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that find their targets directly or with the help of guide RNAs. Among the experimental methods for mapping RBP binding sites, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) coupled with deep sequencing provides transcriptome-wide coverage as well as high resolution. However, partly due to their vast volume, the data that were so far generated in CLIP experiments have not been put in a form that enables fast and interactive exploration of binding sites. To address this need, we have developed the CLIPZ database and analysis environment. Binding site data for RBPs such as Argonaute 1-4, Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-3, TNRC6 proteins A-C, Pumilio 2, Quaking and Polypyrimidine tract binding protein can be visualized at the level of the genome and of individual transcripts. Individual users can upload their own sequence data sets while being able to limit the access to these data to specific users, and analyses of the public and private data sets can be performed interactively. CLIPZ, available at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch, aims to provide an open access repository of information for post-transcriptional regulatory elements. PMID:21087992

  10. Structural and functional analysis reveals that human OASL binds dsRNA to enhance RIG-I signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ibsen, Mikkel Søes; Gad, Hans Henrik; Andersen, Line Lykke; Hornung, Veit; Julkunen, Ilkka; Sarkar, Saumendra N.; Hartmann, Rune

    2015-01-01

    The oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) enzymes are cytoplasmic dsRNA sensors belonging to the antiviral innate immune system. Upon binding to viral dsRNA, the OAS enzymes synthesize 2′-5′ linked oligoadenylates (2-5As) that initiate an RNA decay pathway to impair viral replication. The human OAS-like (OASL) protein, however, does not harbor the catalytic activity required for synthesizing 2-5As and differs from the other human OAS family members by having two C-terminal ubiquitin-like domains. In spite of its lack of enzymatic activity, human OASL possesses antiviral activity. It was recently demonstrated that the ubiquitin-like domains of OASL could substitute for K63-linked poly-ubiquitin and interact with the CARDs of RIG-I and thereby enhance RIG-I signaling. However, the role of the OAS-like domain of OASL remains unclear. Here we present the crystal structure of the OAS-like domain, which shows a striking similarity with activated OAS1. Furthermore, the structure of the OAS-like domain shows that OASL has a dsRNA binding groove. We demonstrate that the OAS-like domain can bind dsRNA and that mutating key residues in the dsRNA binding site is detrimental to the RIG-I signaling enhancement. Hence, binding to dsRNA is an important feature of OASL that is required for enhancing RIG-I signaling. PMID:25925578

  11. RNA-binding protein RBM20 represses splicing to orchestrate cardiac pre-mRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Maatz, Henrike; Jens, Marvin; Liss, Martin; Schafer, Sebastian; Heinig, Matthias; Kirchner, Marieluise; Adami, Eleonora; Rintisch, Carola; Dauksaite, Vita; Radke, Michael H.; Selbach, Matthias; Barton, Paul J.R.; Cook, Stuart A.; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Gotthardt, Michael; Landthaler, Markus; Hubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein RBM20 have been implicated in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a major cause of chronic heart failure, presumably through altering cardiac RNA splicing. Here, we combined transcriptome-wide crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP-seq), RNA-seq, and quantitative proteomics in cell culture and rat and human hearts to examine how RBM20 regulates alternative splicing in the heart. Our analyses revealed the presence of a distinct RBM20 RNA-recognition element that is predominantly found within intronic binding sites and linked to repression of exon splicing with RBM20 binding near 3′ and 5′ splice sites. Proteomic analysis determined that RBM20 interacts with both U1 and U2 small nuclear ribonucleic particles (snRNPs) and suggested that RBM20-dependent splicing repression occurs through spliceosome stalling at complex A. Direct RBM20 targets included several genes previously shown to be involved in DCM as well as genes not typically associated with this disease. In failing human hearts, reduced expression of RBM20 affected alternative splicing of several direct targets, indicating that differences in RBM20 expression may affect cardiac function. Together, these findings identify RBM20-regulated targets and provide insight into the pathogenesis of human heart failure. PMID:24960161

  12. RNA-binding protein RBM20 represses splicing to orchestrate cardiac pre-mRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Maatz, Henrike; Jens, Marvin; Liss, Martin; Schafer, Sebastian; Heinig, Matthias; Kirchner, Marieluise; Adami, Eleonora; Rintisch, Carola; Dauksaite, Vita; Radke, Michael H; Selbach, Matthias; Barton, Paul J R; Cook, Stuart A; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Gotthardt, Michael; Landthaler, Markus; Hubner, Norbert

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein RBM20 have been implicated in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a major cause of chronic heart failure, presumably through altering cardiac RNA splicing. Here, we combined transcriptome-wide crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP-seq), RNA-seq, and quantitative proteomics in cell culture and rat and human hearts to examine how RBM20 regulates alternative splicing in the heart. Our analyses revealed the presence of a distinct RBM20 RNA-recognition element that is predominantly found within intronic binding sites and linked to repression of exon splicing with RBM20 binding near 3' and 5' splice sites. Proteomic analysis determined that RBM20 interacts with both U1 and U2 small nuclear ribonucleic particles (snRNPs) and suggested that RBM20-dependent splicing repression occurs through spliceosome stalling at complex A. Direct RBM20 targets included several genes previously shown to be involved in DCM as well as genes not typically associated with this disease. In failing human hearts, reduced expression of RBM20 affected alternative splicing of several direct targets, indicating that differences in RBM20 expression may affect cardiac function. Together, these findings identify RBM20-regulated targets and provide insight into the pathogenesis of human heart failure. PMID:24960161

  13. RNA-binding proteins in plants: the tip of an iceberg?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedoroff, Nina V.; Federoff, N. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins, which are involved in the synthesis, processing, transport, translation, and degradation of RNA, are emerging as important, often multifunctional, cellular regulatory proteins. Although relatively few RNA-binding proteins have been studied in plants, they are being identified with increasing frequency, both genetically and biochemically. RNA-binding proteins that regulate chloroplast mRNA stability and translation in response to light and that have been elegantly analyzed in Clamydomonas reinhardtii have counterparts with similar functions in higher plants. Several recent reports describe mutations in genes encoding RNA-binding proteins that affect plant development and hormone signaling.

  14. Inhibition of HIV derived lentiviral production by TAR RNA binding domain of TAT protein

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Michael Y; Zhang, Jiying; He, Yukai

    2005-01-01

    Background A critical step in the production of new HIV virions involves the TAT protein binding to the TAR element. The TAT protein contains in close proximity its TAR RNA binding domain and protein transduction domain (PTD). The PTD domain of TAT has been identified as being instrumental in the protein's ability to cross mammalian cell and nuclear membranes. All together, this information led us to form the hypothesis that a protein containing the TAR RNA binding domain could compete with the native full length TAT protein and effectively block the TAR RNA binding site in transduced HIV infected cells. Results We synthesized a short peptide named Tat-P, which contained the TAR RNA binding and PTD domains to examine whether the peptide has the potential of inhibiting TAT dependent HIV replication. We investigated the inhibiting effects of Tat-P in vitro using a HIV derived lentiviral vector model. We found that the TAT PTD domain not only efficiently transduced test cells, but also effectively inhibited the production of lentiviral particles in a TAT dependent manner. These results were also supported by data derived from the TAT activated LTR-luciferase expression model and RNA binding assays. Conclusion Tat-P may become part of a category of anti-HIV drugs that competes with full length TAT proteins to inhibit HIV replication. In addition, this study indicates that the HIV derived lentiviral vector system is a safe and reliable screening method for anti-HIV drugs, especially for those targeting the interaction of TAT and TAR RNAs. PMID:16293193

  15. RNA and DNA binding properties of HIV-1 Vif protein: a fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Bernacchi, Serena; Henriet, Simon; Dumas, Philippe; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2007-09-01

    The HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) is a small basic protein essential for viral fitness and pathogenicity. Some "non-permissive" cell lines cannot sustain replication of Vif(-) HIV-1 virions. In these cells, Vif counteracts the natural antiretroviral activity of the DNA-editing enzymes APOBEC3G/3F. Moreover, Vif is packaged into viral particles through a strong interaction with genomic RNA in viral nucleoprotein complexes. To gain insights into determinants of this binding process, we performed the first characterization of Vif/nucleic acid interactions using Vif intrinsic fluorescence. We determined the affinity of Vif for RNA fragments corresponding to various regions of the HIV-1 genome. Our results demonstrated preferential and moderately cooperative binding for RNAs corresponding to the 5'-untranslated region of HIV-1 (5'-untranslated region) and gag (cooperativity parameter omega approximately 65-80, and K(d) = 45-55 nM). In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy allowed us to point out the TAR apical loop and a short region in gag as primary strong affinity binding sites (K(d) = 9.5-14 nM). Interestingly, beside its RNA binding properties, the Vif protein can also bind the corresponding DNA oligonucleotides and their complementary counterparts with an affinity similar to the one observed for the RNA sequences, while other DNA sequences displayed reduced affinity. Taken together, our results suggest that Vif binding to RNA and DNA offers several non-exclusive ways to counteract APOBEC3G/3F factors, in addition to the well documented Vif-induced degradation by the proteasome and to the Vif-mediated repression of translation of these antiviral factors. PMID:17609216

  16. A Second RNA-Binding Site in the NS1 Protein of Influenza B Virus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Chung; Guan, Rongjin; Hamilton, Keith; Aramini, James M; Mao, Lei; Wang, Shanshan; Krug, Robert M; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2016-09-01

    Influenza viruses cause a highly contagious respiratory disease in humans. The NS1 proteins of influenza A and B viruses (NS1A and NS1B proteins, respectively) are composed of two domains, a dimeric N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain, connected by a flexible polypeptide linker. Here we report the 2.0-Å X-ray crystal structure and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the NS1B C-terminal domain, which reveal a novel and unexpected basic RNA-binding site that is not present in the NS1A protein. We demonstrate that single-site alanine replacements of basic residues in this site lead to reduced RNA-binding activity, and that recombinant influenza B viruses expressing these mutant NS1B proteins are severely attenuated in replication. This novel RNA-binding site of NS1B is required for optimal influenza B virus replication. Most importantly, this study reveals an unexpected RNA-binding function in the C-terminal domain of NS1B, a novel function that distinguishes influenza B viruses from influenza A viruses. PMID:27545620

  17. In Vivo Binding and Hierarchy of Assembly of the Yeast RNA Polymerase I Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bordi, Licia; Cioci, Francesco; Camilloni, Giorgio

    2001-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires a series of transcription factors that have been genetically and biochemically identified. In particular, the core factor (CF) and the upstream activation factor (UAF) have been shown in vitro to bind the core element and the upstream promoter element, respectively. We have analyzed in vivo the DNAse I footprinting of the 35S promoter in wild-type and mutant strains lacking one specific transcription factor at the time. In this way we were able to unambiguously attribute the protections by the CF and the UAF to their respective putative binding sites. In addition, we have found that in vivo a binding hierarchy exists, the UAF being necessary for CF binding. Because the CF footprinting is lost in mutants lacking a functional RNA polymerase I, we also conclude that the final step of preinitiation-complex assembly affects binding of the CF, stabilizing its contact with DNA. Thus, in vivo, the CF is recruited to the core element by the UAF and stabilized on DNA by the presence of a functional RNA polymerase I. PMID:11251085

  18. Crystal Structure and RNA Binding of the Tex Protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson,S.; Close, D.; Robinson, H.; Vallet-Gely, I.; Dove, S.; Hill, C.

    2008-01-01

    Tex is a highly conserved bacterial protein that likely functions in a variety of transcriptional processes. Here, we describe two crystal structures of the 86-kDa Tex protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2.3 and 2.5 Angstroms resolution, respectively. These structures reveal a relatively flat and elongated protein, with several potential nucleic acid binding motifs clustered at one end, including an S1 domain near the C-terminus that displays considerable structural flexibility. Tex binds nucleic acids, with a preference for single-stranded RNA, and the Tex S1 domain is required for this binding activity. Point mutants further demonstrate that the primary nucleic acid binding site corresponds to a surface of the S1 domain. Sequence alignment and modeling indicate that the eukaryotic Spt6 transcription factor adopts a similar core structure. Structural analysis further suggests that the RNA polymerase and nucleosome interacting regions of Spt6 flank opposite sides of the Tex-like scaffold. Therefore, the Tex structure may represent a conserved scaffold that binds single-stranded RNA to regulate transcription in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms.

  19. Profiling the Binding Sites of RNA-Binding Proteins with Nucleotide Resolution Using iCLIP.

    PubMed

    Sutandy, F X Reymond; Hildebrandt, Andrea; König, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The importance of posttranscriptional regulation in cellular metabolism has recently gone beyond what was previously appreciated. The regulatory mechanisms are controlled by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), which form complexes with RNA and regulate RNA processing, stability, and localization, among others. Consistently, mutations in RBPs result in defects in developmental processes, diseases, and cancer. Gaining deeper insights into the biology of RNA-RBP interactions will lead to a better understanding of regulatory processes and disease development. Several techniques have been developed to capture the properties of RNA-RBP interactions. Furthermore, the development of high-throughput sequencing has broadened the capability of these methods. Here, we summarize individual-nucleotide resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP), a powerful technique that provides genome-wide information on RNA-RBP interactions at nucleotide resolution. In this chapter, we outline the iCLIP protocol and list possible controls that allow a targeted and cost-minimizing optimization of the protocol for an RBP-of-interest. Moreover, we provide notes on experimental design and a troubleshooting guideline for common problems that can occur during iCLIP library preparation. PMID:26463384

  20. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  1. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2006-10-17

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  2. RNA and protein complexes of trp RNA-binding attenuation protein characterized by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Satoko; Watanabe, Masahiro; Heddle, Jonathan G; Unzai, Satoru; Park, Sam-Yong; Tame, Jeremy R H

    2009-03-15

    We have characterized both wild-type and mutant TRAP (trp RNA-binding attenuation protein) from Bacillus stearothermophilus , and their complexes with RNA or its regulator anti-TRAP protein (AT), by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Wild-type TRAP mainly forms homo-11mer rings. The mutant used carries three copies of the TRAP monomer on a single polypeptide chain so that it associates to form a 12mer ring with four polypeptide molecules. Mass spectra showed that both the wild-type TRAP 11mer and the mutant TRAP 12mer can bind a cognate single-stranded RNA molecule with a molar ratio of 1:1. The crystal structure of wild-type TRAP complexed with AT shows a TRAP 12mer ring surrounded by six AT trimers. However, nanoESI-MS of wild-type TRAP mixed with AT shows four species with different binding stoichiometries, and the complex observed by crystallography represents only a minor species in solution; most of the TRAP remains in an 11mer ring form. Mass spectra of mutant TRAP showed only a single species, TRAP 12mer + six copies of AT trimer, which is observed by crystallography. These results suggest that crystallization selects only the most symmetrical TRAP-AT complex from the solution, whereas ESI-MS can take a "snapshot" of all the species in solution. PMID:19219981

  3. Exploring the RNA World in Hematopoietic Cells Through the Lens of RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Joan; Muljo, Stefan A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The discovery of microRNAs has renewed interest in post-transcriptional modes of regulation, fueling an emerging view of a rich RNA world within our cells that deserves further exploration. Much work has gone into elucidating genetic regulatory networks that orchestrate gene expression programs and direct cell fate decisions in the hematopoietic system. However, the focus has been to elucidate signaling pathways and transcriptional programs. To bring us one step closer to reverse engineering the molecular logic of cellular differentiation, it will be necessary to map post-transcriptional circuits as well and integrate them in the context of existing network models. In this regard, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) may rival transcription factors as important regulators of cell fates and represent a tractable opportunity to connect the RNA world to the proteome. ChIP-seq has greatly facilitated genome-wide localization of DNA-binding proteins, helping us to understand genomic regulation at a systems level. Similarly, technological advances such as CLIP-seq allow transcriptome-wide mapping of RBP binding sites, aiding us to unravel post-transcriptional networks. Here, we review RBP-mediated post-transcriptional regulation, paying special attention to findings relevant to the immune system. As a prime example, we highlight the RBP Lin28B, which acts as a heterochronic switch between fetal and adult lymphopoiesis. PMID:23550653

  4. Regulation of luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA expression by a specific RNA binding protein in the ovary*

    PubMed Central

    Menon, K.M.J.; Nair, Anil K.; Wang, Lei; Peegel, Helle

    2009-01-01

    Summary The expression of LH receptor mRNA shows significant changes during different physiological states of the ovary. Previous studies from our laboratory have identified a post-transcriptional mechanism by which LH receptor mRNA is regulated following preovulatory LH surge or in response to hCG administration. A specific binding protein, identified as mevalonate kinase, binds to the open reading frame of LH receptor mRNA. The protein binding site is localized to nucleotides 203–220 of the LH receptor mRNA and exhibits a high degree of specificity. The expression levels of the protein show an inverse relationship to the LH receptor mRNA levels. The hCG-induced down-regulation of LH receptor mRNA can be mimicked by increasing the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP by a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. An in vitro mRNA decay assay showed that addition of the binding protein to the decay system caused accelerated LH receptor mRNA decay. Our results therefore show that LH receptor mRNA expression in the ovary is regulated post-transcriptionally by altering the rate of mRNA degradation by a specific mRNA binding protein. PMID:17055149

  5. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; Yang, Li; Bolisetty, Mohan; Landolin, Jane; Wan, Ken; Sandler, Jeremy; Booth, Benjamin W.; Celniker, Susan E.; et al

    2015-08-20

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected themore » splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. In conclusion, this large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs.« less

  6. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; Yang, Li; Bolisetty, Mohan; Landolin, Jane; Wan, Ken; Sandler, Jeremy; Booth, Benjamin W.; Celniker, Susan E.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected the splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. This large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs. PMID:26294686

  7. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; Yang, Li; Bolisetty, Mohan; Landolin, Jane; Wan, Ken; Sandler, Jeremy; Booth, Benjamin W.; Celniker, Susan E.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-08-20

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected the splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. In conclusion, this large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs.

  8. RNA-Binding Protein FXR1 Regulates p21 and TERC RNA to Bypass p53-Mediated Cellular Senescence in OSCC.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Mrinmoyee; House, Reniqua; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Qie, Shuo; Day, Terrence A; Neskey, David; Diehl, J Alan; Palanisamy, Viswanathan

    2016-09-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBP) regulate numerous aspects of co- and post-transcriptional gene expression in cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that RBP, fragile X-related protein 1 (FXR1), plays an essential role in cellular senescence by utilizing mRNA turnover pathway. We report that overexpressed FXR1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma targets (G-quadruplex (G4) RNA structure within) both mRNA encoding p21 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A, Cip1) and the non-coding RNA Telomerase RNA Component (TERC), and regulates their turnover to avoid senescence. Silencing of FXR1 in cancer cells triggers the activation of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors, p53, increases DNA damage, and ultimately, cellular senescence. Overexpressed FXR1 binds and destabilizes p21 mRNA, subsequently reduces p21 protein expression in oral cancer cells. In addition, FXR1 also binds and stabilizes TERC RNA and suppresses the cellular senescence possibly through telomerase activity. Finally, we report that FXR1-regulated senescence is irreversible and FXR1-depleted cells fail to form colonies to re-enter cellular proliferation. Collectively, FXR1 displays a novel mechanism of controlling the expression of p21 through p53-dependent manner to bypass cellular senescence in oral cancer cells. PMID:27606879

  9. The human nuclear poly(a)-binding protein promotes RNA hyperadenylation and decay.

    PubMed

    Bresson, Stefan M; Conrad, Nicholas K

    2013-01-01

    Control of nuclear RNA stability is essential for proper gene expression, but the mechanisms governing RNA degradation in mammalian nuclei are poorly defined. In this study, we uncover a mammalian RNA decay pathway that depends on the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein (PABPN1), the poly(A) polymerases (PAPs), PAPα and PAPγ, and the exosome subunits RRP6 and DIS3. Using a targeted knockdown approach and nuclear RNA reporters, we show that PABPN1 and PAPα, redundantly with PAPγ, generate hyperadenylated decay substrates that are recognized by the exosome and degraded. Poly(A) tail extension appears to be necessary for decay, as cordycepin treatment or point mutations in the PAP-stimulating domain of PABPN1 leads to the accumulation of stable transcripts with shorter poly(A) tails than controls. Mechanistically, these data suggest that PABPN1-dependent promotion of PAP activity can stimulate nuclear RNA decay. Importantly, efficiently exported RNAs are unaffected by this decay pathway, supporting an mRNA quality control function for this pathway. Finally, analyses of both bulk poly(A) tails and specific endogenous transcripts reveals that a subset of nuclear RNAs are hyperadenylated in a PABPN1-dependent fashion, and this hyperadenylation can be either uncoupled or coupled with decay. Our results highlight a complex relationship between PABPN1, PAPα/γ, and nuclear RNA decay, and we suggest that these activities may play broader roles in the regulation of human gene expression. PMID:24146636

  10. A Bromodomain-Containing Protein from Tomato Specifically Binds Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid RNA In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Martínez de Alba, Angel Emilio; Sägesser, Rudolf; Tabler, Martin; Tsagris, Mina

    2003-01-01

    For the identification of RNA-binding proteins that specifically interact with potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), we subjected a tomato cDNA expression library prepared from viroid-infected leaves to an RNA ligand screening procedure. We repeatedly identified cDNA clones that expressed a protein of 602 amino acids. The protein contains a bromodomain and was termed viroid RNA-binding protein 1 (VIRP1). The specificity of interaction of VIRP1 with viroid RNA was studied by different methodologies, which included Northwestern blotting, plaque lift, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. VIRP1 interacted strongly and specifically with monomeric and oligomeric PSTVd positive-strand RNA transcripts. Other RNAs, for example, U1 RNA, did not bind to VIRP1. Further, we could immunoprecipitate complexes from infected tomato leaves that contained VIRP1 and viroid RNA in vivo. Analysis of the protein sequence revealed that VIRP1 is a member of a newly identified family of transcriptional regulators associated with chromatin remodeling. VIRP1 is the first member of this family of proteins, for which a specific RNA-binding activity is shown. A possible role of VIRP1 in viroid replication and in RNA mediated chromatin remodeling is discussed. PMID:12915580

  11. BindUP: a web server for non-homology-based prediction of DNA and RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Paz, Inbal; Kligun, Efrat; Bengad, Barak; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2016-07-01

    Gene expression is a multi-step process involving many layers of regulation. The main regulators of the pathway are DNA and RNA binding proteins. While over the years, a large number of DNA and RNA binding proteins have been identified and extensively studied, it is still expected that many other proteins, some with yet another known function, are awaiting to be discovered. Here we present a new web server, BindUP, freely accessible through the website http://bindup.technion.ac.il/, for predicting DNA and RNA binding proteins using a non-homology-based approach. Our method is based on the electrostatic features of the protein surface and other general properties of the protein. BindUP predicts nucleic acid binding function given the proteins three-dimensional structure or a structural model. Additionally, BindUP provides information on the largest electrostatic surface patches, visualized on the server. The server was tested on several datasets of DNA and RNA binding proteins, including proteins which do not possess DNA or RNA binding domains and have no similarity to known nucleic acid binding proteins, achieving very high accuracy. BindUP is applicable in either single or batch modes and can be applied for testing hundreds of proteins simultaneously in a highly efficient manner. PMID:27198220

  12. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays: analysis of tRNA binding to the T box riboswitch antiterminator RNA.

    PubMed

    Anupam, R; Zhou, S; Hines, J V

    2015-01-01

    Changes in electrophoretic mobility upon complex formation with RNA can be used to probe structure-function relationships that are critical for complex formation. Here, we describe the application of this technique to monitor tRNA binding to the T box riboswitch antiterminator RNA. PMID:25352142

  13. Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters RNA binding proteins and impairs RNA granules formation

    SciTech Connect

    Takanashi, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters ALS-associated RNA-binding proteins (FUS wt, hnRNP A1, and hnRNP A2). • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters SMN1 in the detergent-insoluble fraction. • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant reduced the number of speckles in the nucleus. • Overproduced ALS-linked FUS mutant reduced the number of processing-bodies (PBs). - Abstract: Protein aggregate/inclusion is one of hallmarks for neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). FUS/TLS, one of causative genes for familial ALS, encodes a multifunctional DNA/RNA binding protein predominantly localized in the nucleus. C-terminal mutations in FUS/TLS cause the retention and the inclusion of FUS/TLS mutants in the cytoplasm. In the present study, we examined the effects of ALS-linked FUS mutants on ALS-associated RNA binding proteins and RNA granules. FUS C-terminal mutants were diffusely mislocalized in the cytoplasm as small granules in transiently transfected SH-SY5Y cells, whereas large aggregates were spontaneously formed in ∼10% of those cells. hnRNP A1, hnRNP A2, and SMN1 as well as FUS wild type were assembled into stress granules under stress conditions, and these were also recruited to FUS mutant-derived spontaneous aggregates in the cytoplasm. These aggregates stalled poly(A) mRNAs and sequestered SMN1 in the detergent insoluble fraction, which also reduced the number of nuclear oligo(dT)-positive foci (speckles) in FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) assay. In addition, the number of P-bodies was decreased in cells harboring cytoplasmic granules of FUS P525L. These findings raise the possibility that ALS-linked C-terminal FUS mutants could sequester a variety of RNA binding proteins and mRNAs in the cytoplasmic aggregates, which could disrupt various aspects of RNA equilibrium and biogenesis.

  14. Substrate recognition and specificity of double-stranded RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Lela; Koh, Hye Ran; Myong, Sua; Schulten, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    Recognition of double-stranded (ds) RNA is an important part of many cellular pathways, including RNA silencing, viral recognition, RNA editing, processing, and transport. dsRNA recognition is often achieved by dsRNA binding domains (dsRBDs). We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to examine the binding interface of the transactivation response RNA binding protein (TRBP) dsRBDs to dsRNA substrates. Our results explain the exclusive selectivity of dsRBDs toward dsRNA and against DNA-RNA hybrid and dsDNA duplexes. We also provide corresponding experimental evidence. The dsRNA duplex is recognized by dsRBDs through the A-form of three duplex grooves and by the chemical properties of RNA bases, which have 2'-hydroxyl groups on their sugar rings. Our simulations show that TRBP dsRBD discriminates dsRNA- from DNA-containing duplexes primarily through interactions at two duplex grooves. The simulations also reveal that the conformation of the DNA-RNA duplex can be altered by dsRBD proteins, resulting in a weak binding of dsRBDs to DNA-RNA hybrids. Our study reveals the structural and molecular basis of protein-RNA interaction that gives rise to the observed substrate specificity of dsRNA binding proteins. PMID:24801449

  15. Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural Protein 5A: Biochemical Characterization of a Novel Structural Class of RNA-Binding Proteins▿

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jungwook; Huang, Luyun; Cordek, Daniel G.; Vaughan, Robert; Reynolds, Shelley L.; Kihara, George; Raney, Kevin D.; Kao, C. Cheng; Cameron, Craig E.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) exhibits a preference for G/U-rich RNA in vitro. Biological analysis of the NS5A RNA-binding activity and its target sites in the genome will be facilitated by a description of the NS5A-RNA complex. We demonstrate that the C-4 carbonyl of the uracil base and, by inference, the C-6 carbonyl of the guanine base interact with NS5A. U-rich RNA of 5 to 6 nucleotides (nt) is sufficient for high-affinity binding to NS5A. The minimal RNA-binding domain of NS5A consists of residues 2005 to 2221 (referred to as domain I-plus). This region of the protein includes the amino-terminal domain I as well as the subsequent linker that separates domains I and II. This linker region is the site of adaptive mutations. U-rich RNA-binding activity is not observed for an NS5A derivative containing only residues 2194 to 2419 (domains II and III). Mass spectrometric analysis of an NS5A-poly(rU) complex identified domains I and II as sites for interaction with RNA. Dimerization of NS5A was demonstrated by glutaraldehyde cross-linking. This dimerization is likely mediated by domain I-plus, as dimers of this protein are trapped by cross-linking. Dimers of the domain II-III protein are not observed. The monomer-dimer equilibrium of NS5A shifts in favor of dimer when U-rich RNA is present but not when A-rich RNA is present, consistent with an NS5A dimer being the RNA-binding-competent form of the protein. These data provide a molecular perspective of the NS5A-RNA complex and suggest possible mechanisms for regulation of HCV and cellular gene expression. PMID:20926572

  16. Differential regulation of RNA polymerases I, II, and III by the TBP-binding repressor Dr1.

    PubMed

    White, R J; Khoo, B C; Inostroza, J A; Reinberg, D; Jackson, S P

    1994-10-21

    RNA polymerases I, II, and III each use the TATA-binding protein (TBP). Regulators that target this shared factor may therefore provide a means to coordinate the activities of the three nuclear RNA polymerases. The repressor Dr1 binds to TBP and blocks the interaction of TBP with polymerase II- and polymerase III-specific factors. This enables Dr1 to coordinately regulate transcription by RNA polymerases II and III. Under the same conditions, Dr1 does not inhibit polymerase I transcription. By selectively repressing polymerases II and III, Dr1 may shift the physiological balance of transcriptional output in favor of polymerase I. PMID:7939686

  17. New Insights into the Functions of Transcription Factors that Bind the RNA Polymerase Secondary Channel

    PubMed Central

    Zenkin, Nikolay; Yuzenkova, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Transcription elongation is regulated at several different levels, including control by various accessory transcription elongation factors. A distinct group of these factors interacts with the RNA polymerase secondary channel, an opening at the enzyme surface that leads to its active center. Despite investigation for several years, the activities and in vivo roles of some of these factors remain obscure. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the functions of the secondary channel binding factors in bacteria. In particular, we highlight the surprising role of global regulator DksA in fidelity of RNA synthesis and the resolution of RNA polymerase traffic jams by the Gre factor. These findings indicate a potential link between transcription fidelity and collisions of the transcription and replication machineries. PMID:26120903

  18. Phosphorylation of the RNA-binding protein Dazl by MAPKAP kinase 2 regulates spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Patrick A; Krug, Michael S; McMillan, Emily A; Peake, Jasmine D; Davis, Tara L; Cocklin, Simon; Strochlic, Todd I

    2016-08-01

    Developing male germ cells are exquisitely sensitive to environmental insults such as heat and oxidative stress. An additional characteristic of these cells is their unique dependence on RNA-binding proteins for regulating posttranscriptional gene expression and translational control. Here we provide a mechanistic link unifying these two features. We show that the germ cell-specific RNA-binding protein deleted in azoospermia-like (Dazl) is phosphorylated by MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2), a stress-induced protein kinase activated downstream of p38 MAPK. We demonstrate that phosphorylation of Dazl by MK2 on an evolutionarily conserved serine residue inhibits its interaction with poly(A)-binding protein, resulting in reduced translation of Dazl-regulated target RNAs. We further show that transgenic expression of wild-type human Dazl but not a phosphomimetic form in the Drosophila male germline can restore fertility to flies deficient in boule, the Drosophila orthologue of human Dazl. These results illuminate a novel role for MK2 in spermatogenesis, expand the repertoire of RNA-binding proteins phosphorylated by this kinase, and suggest that signaling by the p38-MK2 pathway is a negative regulator of spermatogenesis via phosphorylation of Dazl. PMID:27280388

  19. Structural delineation of stem-loop RNA binding by human TAF15 protein.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Maruthi; Ganguly, Akshay Kumar; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar

    2015-01-01

    Human TATA binding protein associated factor 2 N (TAF15) and Fused in sarcoma (FUS) are nucleic acid binding proteins belonging to the conserved FET family of proteins. They are involved in diverse processes such as pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA transport, and DNA binding. The absence of information regarding the structural mechanism employed by the FET family in recognizing and discriminating their cognate and non-cognate RNA targets has hampered the attainment of consensus on modes of protein-RNA binding for this family. Our study provides a molecular basis of this RNA recognition using a combination of solution-state NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry, docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of TAF15-RRM solution structure and its binding with stem-loop RNA has yielded conclusive evidence of a non-canonical mode of RNA recognition. Rather than classical stacking interactions that occur across nitrogen bases and aromatic amino acids on ribonucleoprotein sites, moderate-affinity hydrogen bonding network between the nitrogen bases in the stem-loop RNA and a concave face on the RRM surface primarily mediate TAF15-RRM RNA interaction. We have compared the binding affinities across a set of single-stranded RNA oligonucleotides to conclusively establish that RNA binding is dependent upon structural elements in the RNA rather than sequence. PMID:26612539

  20. Structural delineation of stem-loop RNA binding by human TAF15 protein

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Maruthi; Ganguly, Akshay Kumar; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar

    2015-01-01

    Human TATA binding protein associated factor 2 N (TAF15) and Fused in sarcoma (FUS) are nucleic acid binding proteins belonging to the conserved FET family of proteins. They are involved in diverse processes such as pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA transport, and DNA binding. The absence of information regarding the structural mechanism employed by the FET family in recognizing and discriminating their cognate and non-cognate RNA targets has hampered the attainment of consensus on modes of protein-RNA binding for this family. Our study provides a molecular basis of this RNA recognition using a combination of solution-state NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry, docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of TAF15-RRM solution structure and its binding with stem-loop RNA has yielded conclusive evidence of a non-canonical mode of RNA recognition. Rather than classical stacking interactions that occur across nitrogen bases and aromatic amino acids on ribonucleoprotein sites, moderate-affinity hydrogen bonding network between the nitrogen bases in the stem-loop RNA and a concave face on the RRM surface primarily mediate TAF15-RRM RNA interaction. We have compared the binding affinities across a set of single-stranded RNA oligonucleotides to conclusively establish that RNA binding is dependent upon structural elements in the RNA rather than sequence. PMID:26612539

  1. Structural basis for Pan3 binding to Pan2 and its function in mRNA recruitment and deadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Jana; Valkov, Eugene; Allen, Mark D; Meineke, Birthe; Gordiyenko, Yuliya; McLaughlin, Stephen H; Olsen, Tayla M; Robinson, Carol V; Bycroft, Mark; Stewart, Murray; Passmore, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    The conserved eukaryotic Pan2–Pan3 deadenylation complex shortens cytoplasmic mRNA 3′ polyA tails to regulate mRNA stability. Although the exonuclease activity resides in Pan2, efficient deadenylation requires Pan3. The mechanistic role of Pan3 is unclear. Here, we show that Pan3 binds RNA directly both through its pseudokinase/C-terminal domain and via an N-terminal zinc finger that binds polyA RNA specifically. In contrast, isolated Pan2 is unable to bind RNA. Pan3 binds to the region of Pan2 that links its N-terminal WD40 domain to the C-terminal part that contains the exonuclease, with a 2:1 stoichiometry. The crystal structure of the Pan2 linker region bound to a Pan3 homodimer shows how the unusual structural asymmetry of the Pan3 dimer is used to form an extensive high-affinity interaction. This binding allows Pan3 to supply Pan2 with substrate polyA RNA, facilitating efficient mRNA deadenylation by the intact Pan2–Pan3 complex. PMID:24872509

  2. The structure of the C-terminal domain of the largest editosome interaction protein and its role in promoting RNA binding by RNA-editing ligase L2

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Jun; Budiarto, Tanya; Wu, Meiting; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosomatids, such as the sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei, contain a ∼20S RNA-editing complex, also called the editosome, which is required for U-insertion/deletion editing of mitochondrial mRNAs. The editosome contains a core of 12 proteins including the large interaction protein A1, the small interaction protein A6, and the editing RNA ligase L2. Using biochemical and structural data, we identified distinct domains of T. brucei A1 which specifically recognize A6 and L2. We provide evidence that an N-terminal domain of A1 interacts with the C-terminal domain of L2. The C-terminal domain of A1 appears to be required for the interaction with A6 and also plays a key role in RNA binding by the RNA-editing ligase L2 in trans. Three crystal structures of the C-terminal domain of A1 have been elucidated, each in complex with a nanobody as a crystallization chaperone. These structures permitted the identification of putative dsRNA recognition sites. Mutational analysis of conserved residues of the C-terminal domain identified Arg703, Arg731 and Arg734 as key requirements for RNA binding. The data show that the editing RNA ligase activity is modulated by a novel mechanism, i.e. by the trans-acting RNA binding C-terminal domain of A1. PMID:22561373

  3. The RNA-binding protein SFPQ orchestrates an RNA regulon to promote axon viability.

    PubMed

    Cosker, Katharina E; Fenstermacher, Sara J; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Elliott, Hunter L; Segal, Rosalind A

    2016-05-01

    To achieve accurate spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) guide nuclear processing, intracellular trafficking and local translation of target mRNAs. In neurons, RBPs direct transport of target mRNAs to sites of translation in remote axons and dendrites. However, it is not known whether an individual RBP coordinately regulates multiple mRNAs within these morphologically complex cells. Here we identify SFPQ (splicing factor, poly-glutamine rich) as an RBP that binds and regulates multiple mRNAs in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons and thereby promotes neurotrophin-dependent axonal viability. SFPQ acts in nuclei, cytoplasm and axons to regulate functionally related mRNAs essential for axon survival. Notably, SFPQ is required for coassembly of LaminB2 (Lmnb2) and Bclw (Bcl2l2) mRNAs in RNA granules and for axonal trafficking of these mRNAs. Together these data demonstrate that SFPQ orchestrates spatial gene expression of a newly identified RNA regulon essential for axonal viability. PMID:27019013

  4. LncRNA OIP5-AS1/cyrano sponges RNA-binding protein HuR

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Yang, Xiaoling; De, Supriyo; Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Noh, Ji Heon; Gorospe, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The function of the vast majority of mammalian long noncoding (lnc) RNAs remains unknown. Here, analysis of a highly abundant mammalian lncRNA, OIP5-AS1, known as cyrano in zebrafish, revealed that OIP5-AS1 reduces cell proliferation. In human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, the RNA-binding protein HuR, which enhances cell proliferation, associated with OIP5-AS1 and stabilized it. Tagging OIP5-AS1 with MS2 hairpins to identify associated microRNAs revealed that miR-424 interacted with OIP5-AS1 and competed with HuR for binding to OIP5-AS1. We further identified a ‘sponge’ function for OIP5-AS1, as high levels of OIP5-AS1 increased HuR-OIP5-AS1 complexes and prevented HuR interaction with target mRNAs, including those that encoded proliferative proteins, while conversely, lowering OIP5-AS1 increased the abundance of HuR complexes with target mRNAs. We propose that OIP5-AS1 serves as a sponge or a competing endogenous (ce)RNA for HuR, restricting its availability to HuR target mRNAs and thereby repressing HuR-elicited proliferative phenotypes. PMID:26819413

  5. RNA structure generates natural cooperativity between single-stranded RNA binding proteins targeting 5′ and 3′UTRs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    In post-transcriptional regulation, an mRNA molecule is bound by many proteins and/or miRNAs to modulate its function. To enable combinatorial gene regulation, these binding partners of an RNA must communicate with each other, exhibiting cooperativity. Even in the absence of direct physical interactions between the binding partners, such cooperativity can be mediated through RNA secondary structures, since they affect the accessibility of the binding sites. Here we propose a quantitative measure of this structure-mediated cooperativity that can be numerically calculated for an arbitrary RNA sequence. Focusing on an RNA with two binding sites, we derive a characteristic difference of free energy differences, i.e. ΔΔG, as a measure of the effect of the occupancy of one binding site on the binding strength of another. We apply this measure to a large number of human and Caenorhabditis elegans mRNAs, and find that structure-mediated cooperativity is a generic feature. Interestingly, this cooperativity not only affects binding sites in close proximity along the sequence but also configurations in which one binding site is located in the 5′UTR and the other is located in the 3′UTR of the mRNA. Furthermore, we find that this end-to-end cooperativity is determined by the UTR sequences while the sequences of the coding regions are irrelevant. PMID:25550422

  6. Polypyrimidine tract-binding proteins of potato mediate tuberization through an interaction with StBEL5 RNA

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Ki; Sharma, Pooja; Butler, Nathaniel M.; Kang, Il-Ho; Shah, Shweta; Rao, A. Gururaj; Hannapel, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Polypyrimidine tract-binding (PTB) proteins are a family of RNA-binding proteins that function in a wide range of RNA metabolic processes by binding to motifs rich in uracils and cytosines. A PTB protein of pumpkin was identified as the core protein of an RNA–protein complex that trafficks RNA. The biological function of the PTB–RNA complex, however, has not been demonstrated. In potato, six PTB proteins have been identified, and two, designated StPTB1 and StPTB6, are similar to the phloem-mobile pumpkin type. RNA binding assays confirmed the interaction of StPTB1 and StPTB6 with discrete pyrimidine-rich sequences of the 3′-untranslated regions of the phloem-mobile mRNA, StBEL5. The promoter of StPTB1 was active in companion cells of phloem in both stem and petioles. Expression of both types was evident in phloem cells of roots and in stolons during tuber formation. RNA accumulation of both PTB proteins was induced by short days in leaves in correlation with enhanced accumulation of StBEL5 RNA. StPTB suppression lines exhibited reduced tuber yields and decreased StBEL5 RNA accumulation, whereas StPTB overexpression lines displayed an increase in tuber production correlated with the enhanced production in stolons of steady-state levels of StBEL5 transcripts and RNA of key tuber identity genes. In StPTB overexpression lines, both the stability and long-distance transport of StBEL5 transcripts were enhanced, whereas in suppression lines stability and transport decreased. Using a transgenic approach, it is shown that the StPTB family of RNA-binding proteins regulate specific stages of development through an interaction with phloem-mobile transcripts of StBEL5. PMID:26283046

  7. APC/C-Mediated Degradation of dsRNA-Binding Protein 4 (DRB4) Involved in RNA Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Marrocco, Katia; Criqui, Marie-Claire; Zervudacki, Jérôme; Schott, Gregory; Eisler, Herfried; Parnet, Aude; Dunoyer, Patrice; Genschik, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Background Selective protein degradation via the ubiquitin-26S proteasome is a major mechanism underlying DNA replication and cell division in all Eukaryotes. In particular, the APC/C (Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome) is a master ubiquitin protein ligase (E3) that targets regulatory proteins for degradation allowing sister chromatid separation and exit from mitosis. Interestingly, recent work also indicates that the APC/C remains active in differentiated animal and plant cells. However, its role in post-mitotic cells remains elusive and only a few substrates have been characterized. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to identify novel APC/C substrates, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using as the bait Arabidopsis APC10/DOC1, one core subunit of the APC/C, which is required for substrate recruitment. This screen identified DRB4, a double-stranded RNA binding protein involved in the biogenesis of different classes of small RNA (sRNA). This protein interaction was further confirmed in vitro and in plant cells. Moreover, APC10 interacts with DRB4 through the second dsRNA binding motif (dsRBD2) of DRB4, which is also required for its homodimerization and binding to its Dicer partner DCL4. We further showed that DRB4 protein accumulates when the proteasome is inactivated and, most importantly, we found that DRB4 stability depends on APC/C activity. Hence, depletion of Arabidopsis APC/C activity by RNAi leads to a strong accumulation of endogenous DRB4, far beyond its normal level of accumulation. However, we could not detect any defects in sRNA production in lines where DRB4 was overexpressed. Conclusions/Significance Our work identified a first plant substrate of the APC/C, which is not a regulator of the cell cycle. Though we cannot exclude that APC/C-dependent degradation of DRB4 has some regulatory roles under specific growth conditions, our work rather points to a housekeeping function of APC/C in maintaining precise cellular

  8. Estrogen binding, receptor mRNA, and biologic response in osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Komm, B.S.; Terpening, C.M.; Benz, D.J.; Graeme, K.A.; Gallegos, A.; Korc, M.; Greene, G.L.; O'Malley, B.W.; Haussler, M.R.

    1988-07-01

    High specific activity estradiol labeled with iodine-125 was used to detect approximately 200 saturable, high-affinity (dissociation constant approximately equal to 1.0 nM) nuclear binding sites in rat (ROS 17/2.8) and human (HOS TE85) clonal osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells. Of the steroids tested, only testosterone exhibited significant cross-reactivity with estrogen binding. RNA blot analysis with a complementary DNA probe to the human estrogen receptor revealed putative receptor transcripts of 6 to 6.2 kilobases in both rat and human osteosarcoma cells. Type I procollagen and transforming growth factor-beta messenger RNA levels were enhanced in cultured human osteoblast-like cells treated with 1 nM estradiol. Thus, estrogen can act directly on osteoblasts by a receptor-mediated mechanism and thereby modulate the extracellular matrix and other proteins involved in the maintenance of skeletal mineralization and remodeling.

  9. RNA-binding proteins in eye development and disease: implication of conserved RNA granule components.

    PubMed

    Dash, Soma; Siddam, Archana D; Barnum, Carrie E; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Lachke, Salil A

    2016-07-01

    The molecular biology of metazoan eye development is an area of intense investigation. These efforts have led to the surprising recognition that although insect and vertebrate eyes have dramatically different structures, the orthologs or family members of several conserved transcription and signaling regulators such as Pax6, Six3, Prox1, and Bmp4 are commonly required for their development. In contrast, our understanding of posttranscriptional regulation in eye development and disease, particularly regarding the function of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), is limited. We examine the present knowledge of RBPs in eye development in the insect model Drosophila as well as several vertebrate models such as fish, frog, chicken, and mouse. Interestingly, of the 42 RBPs that have been investigated for their expression or function in vertebrate eye development, 24 (~60%) are recognized in eukaryotic cells as components of RNA granules such as processing bodies, stress granules, or other specialized ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. We discuss the distinct developmental and cellular events that may necessitate potential RBP/RNA granule-associated RNA regulon models to facilitate posttranscriptional control of gene expression in eye morphogenesis. In support of these hypotheses, three RBPs and RNP/RNA granule components Tdrd7, Caprin2, and Stau2 are linked to ocular developmental defects such as congenital cataract, Peters anomaly, and microphthalmia in human patients or animal models. We conclude by discussing the utility of interdisciplinary approaches such as the bioinformatics tool iSyTE (integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery) to prioritize RBPs for deriving posttranscriptional regulatory networks in eye development and disease. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:527-557. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1355 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27133484

  10. Mutually Exclusive Binding of Telomerase RNA and DNA by Ku Alters Telomerase Recruitment Model

    PubMed Central

    Pfingsten, Jennifer S.; Goodrich, Karen J.; Taabazuing, Cornelius; Ouenzar, Faissal; Chartrand, Pascal; Cech, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Ku heterodimer contributes to telomere maintenance as a component of telomeric chromatin and as an accessory subunit of telomerase. How Ku binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and to telomerase RNA (TLC1) promotes its telomeric functions is incompletely understood. We demonstrate that deletions designed to constrict the DNA-binding ring of Ku80 disrupt non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), telomeric gene silencing and telomere length maintenance, suggesting that these functions require Ku's DNA end-binding activity. Contrary to the current model, a mutant Ku with low affinity for dsDNA also loses affinity for TLC1 both in vitro and in vivo. Competition experiments reveal that wild-type Ku binds dsDNA and TLC1 mutually exclusively. Cells expressing the mutant Ku are deficient in nuclear accumulation of TLC1, as expected from the RNA-binding defect. These findings force reconsideration of the mechanisms by which Ku assists in recruiting telomerase to natural telomeres and broken chromosome ends. PMID:22365814

  11. In vitro selection of RNA aptamers that selectively bind danofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Ryul; Yu, Jaehoon; Lee, Seong-Wook

    2014-06-13

    Danofloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone with broad spectrum antibacterial activity that is used for the treatment of respiratory diseases in animal husbandry. However, danofloxacin has many adverse reactions and is toxic to humans. Especially, it detrimentally affects muscle, central nerve system, peripheral nerve system, liver, and skin in those who ingest foods in which danofloxacin has accumulated. Prescreening and determination of the level of danofloxacin in foods or food products is necessary for human health. Aptamers are composing of oligonucleotides that specifically interact with target molecules. They are emerging as detection/diagnostic ligands. Here, we used the SELEX in vitro selection technology to identify specific and high-affinity RNA aptamers with 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyribonucleotide modified pyrimidine nucleotides against danofloxacin. Selected RNA aptamers bound specifically to danofloxacin, but not to tetracycline. Truncation of RNA aptamer up to 36 mer did not comprise specificity and affinity. The truncated RNA aptamer specifically bound to target chemical, allowing the discrimination of danofloxacin from other fluoroquinolones. The isolated specific aptamer could be a potential agent used for the rapid and cost-effective detection and sensing of danofloxacin, replacing instrumental methods including the more expensive and time-consuming methods of high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. PMID:24792181

  12. RNA binding proteins, neural development and the addictions

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Camron D.; Yazdani, Neema

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression defines the neurobiological mechanisms that bridge genetic and environmental risk factors with neurobehavioral dysfunction underlying the addictions. More than 1000 genes in the eukaryotic genome code for multifunctional RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that can regulate all levels of RNA biogenesis. More than 50% of these RBPs are expressed in the brain where they regulate alternative splicing, transport, localization, stability, and translation of RNAs during development and adulthood. RBP dysfunction can exert global effects on their targetomes that underlie neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease as well as neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. Here, we consider the evidence that RBPs influence key molecular targets, neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, and neurobehavioral dysfunction underlying the addictions. Increasingly well-powered genome-wide association studies in humans and mammalian model organisms combined with ever more precise transcriptomic and proteomic approaches will continue to uncover novel and possibly selective roles for RBPs in the addictions. Key challenges include identifying the biological functions of the dynamic RBP targetomes from specific cell types throughout subcellular space (e.g., the nuclear spliceome versus the synaptic translatome) and time and manipulating RBP programs through post-transcriptional modifications to prevent or reverse aberrant neurodevelopment and plasticity underlying the addictions. PMID:26643147

  13. A single mutation in Escherichia coli ribonuclease II inactivates the enzyme without affecting RNA binding.

    PubMed

    Amblar, Mónica; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2005-01-01

    Exoribonuclease II (RNase II), encoded by the rnb gene, is a ubiquitous enzyme that is responsible for 90% of the hydrolytic activity in Escherichia coli crude extracts. The E. coli strain SK4803, carrying the mutant allele rnb296, has been widely used in the study of the role of RNase II. We determined the DNA sequence of rnb296 and cloned this mutant gene in an expression vector. Only a point mutation in the coding sequence of the gene was detected, which results in the single substitution of aspartate 209 for asparagine. The mutant and the wild-type RNase II enzymes were purified, and their 3' to 5' exoribonucleolytic activity, as well as their RNA binding capability, were characterized. We also studied the metal dependency of the exoribonuclease activity of RNase II. The results obtained demonstrated that aspartate 209 is absolutely essential for RNA hydrolysis, but is not required for substrate binding. This is the first evidence of an acidic residue that is essential for the activity of RNase II-like enzymes. The possible involvement of this residue in metal binding at the active site of the enzyme is discussed. These results are particularly relevant at this time given that no structural or mutational analysis has been performed for any protein of the RNR family of exoribonucleases. PMID:15654875

  14. Application of RNase in the purification of RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jonghoon; Lee, Myung Soog; Gorenstein, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Basic findings It was found that RNA-binding proteins can be contaminated with host RNA during purification. The contamination of purified RNA-binding protein with RNA was identified by gel electrophoresis and EtBr staining. Our data suggest that applications of appropriate enzymes (DNase or RNase) in the early stage of purification may remove the contaminating nucleic acids. Significance The concept introduced in this research can easily be extended to the purification of other RNA- or DNA-binding proteins by applying RNase or DNase directly to the cell extracts. PMID:17400170

  15. Total Cellular RNA Modulates Protein Activity.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Subhabrata; DeMott, Christopher M; Reverdatto, Sergey; Burz, David S; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2016-08-16

    RNA constitutes up to 20% of a cell's dry weight, corresponding to ∼20 mg/mL. This high concentration of RNA facilitates low-affinity protein-RNA quinary interactions, which may play an important role in facilitating and regulating biological processes. In the yeast Pichia pastoris, the level of ubiquitin-RNA colocalization increases when cells are grown in the presence of dextrose and methanol instead of methanol as the sole carbon source. Total RNA isolated from cells grown in methanol increases β-galactosidase activity relative to that seen with RNA isolated from cells grown in the presence of dextrose and methanol. Because the total cellular RNA content changes with growth medium, protein-RNA quinary interactions can alter in-cell protein biochemistry and may play an important role in cell adaptation, critical to many physiological and pathological states. PMID:27456029

  16. MicroRNA binding sites in C. elegans 3' UTRs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaochun; Rennie, William A; Mallick, Bibekanand; Kanoria, Shaveta; Long, Dang; Wolenc, Adam; Carmack, C Steven; Ding, Ye

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Since the discovery of lin-4, the founding member of the miRNA family, over 360 miRNAs have been identified for Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Prediction and validation of targets are essential for elucidation of regulatory functions of these miRNAs. For C. elegans, crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP) has been successfully performed for the identification of target mRNA sequences bound by Argonaute protein ALG-1. In addition, reliable annotation of the 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) as well as developmental stage-specific expression profiles for both miRNAs and 3' UTR isoforms are available. By utilizing these data, we developed statistical models and bioinformatics tools for both transcriptome-scale and developmental stage-specific predictions of miRNA binding sites in C. elegans 3' UTRs. In performance evaluation via cross validation on the ALG-1 CLIP data, the models were found to offer major improvements over established algorithms for predicting both seed sites and seedless sites. In particular, our top-ranked predictions have a substantially higher true positive rate, suggesting a much higher likelihood of positive experimental validation. A gene ontology analysis of stage-specific predictions suggests that miRNAs are involved in dynamic regulation of biological functions during C. elegans development. In particular, miRNAs preferentially target genes related to development, cell cycle, trafficking, and cell signaling processes. A database for both transcriptome-scale and stage-specific predictions and software for implementing the prediction models are available through the Sfold web server at http://sfold.wadsworth.org. PMID:24827614

  17. Structural studies of lysyl-tRNA synthetase: conformational changes induced by substrate binding.

    PubMed

    Onesti, S; Desogus, G; Brevet, A; Chen, J; Plateau, P; Blanquet, S; Brick, P

    2000-10-24

    Lysyl-tRNA synthetase is a member of the class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and catalyses the specific aminoacylation of tRNA(Lys). The crystal structure of the constitutive lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysS) from Escherichia coli has been determined to 2.7 A resolution in the unliganded form and in a complex with the lysine substrate. A comparison between the unliganded and lysine-bound structures reveals major conformational changes upon lysine binding. The lysine substrate is involved in a network of hydrogen bonds. Two of these interactions, one between the alpha-amino group and the carbonyl oxygen of Gly 216 and the other between the carboxylate group and the side chain of Arg 262, trigger a subtle and complicated reorganization of the active site, involving the ordering of two loops (residues 215-217 and 444-455), a change in conformation of residues 393-409, and a rotation of a 4-helix bundle domain (located between motif 2 and 3) by 10 degrees. The result of these changes is a closing up of the active site upon lysine binding. PMID:11041850

  18. Roles of RNA-Binding Proteins in DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Mihoko

    2016-01-01

    Living cells experience DNA damage as a result of replication errors and oxidative metabolism, exposure to environmental agents (e.g., ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation (IR)), and radiation therapies and chemotherapies for cancer treatments. Accumulation of DNA damage can lead to multiple diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, immune deficiencies, infertility, and also aging. Cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms to deal with DNA damage. Networks of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are coordinated to detect and repair DNA damage, regulate cell cycle and transcription, and determine the cell fate. Upstream factors of DNA damage checkpoints and repair, “sensor” proteins, detect DNA damage and send the signals to downstream factors in order to maintain genomic integrity. Unexpectedly, we have discovered that an RNA-processing factor is involved in DNA repair processes. We have identified a gene that contributes to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)’s treatment resistance and recurrence. This gene, RBM14, is known to function in transcription and RNA splicing. RBM14 is also required for maintaining the stem-like state of GBM spheres, and it controls the DNA-PK-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway by interacting with KU80. RBM14 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP) with low complexity domains, called intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), and it also physically interacts with PARP1. Furthermore, RBM14 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent manner (unpublished data). DNA-dependent PARP1 (poly-(ADP) ribose polymerase 1) makes key contributions in the DNA damage response (DDR) network. RBM14 therefore plays an important role in a PARP-dependent DSB repair process. Most recently, it was shown that the other RBPs with intrinsically disordered domains are recruited to DNA damage sites in a PAR-dependent manner, and that these RBPs form liquid compartments (also known as

  19. Roles of RNA-Binding Proteins in DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Kai, Mihoko

    2016-01-01

    Living cells experience DNA damage as a result of replication errors and oxidative metabolism, exposure to environmental agents (e.g., ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation (IR)), and radiation therapies and chemotherapies for cancer treatments. Accumulation of DNA damage can lead to multiple diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, immune deficiencies, infertility, and also aging. Cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms to deal with DNA damage. Networks of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are coordinated to detect and repair DNA damage, regulate cell cycle and transcription, and determine the cell fate. Upstream factors of DNA damage checkpoints and repair, "sensor" proteins, detect DNA damage and send the signals to downstream factors in order to maintain genomic integrity. Unexpectedly, we have discovered that an RNA-processing factor is involved in DNA repair processes. We have identified a gene that contributes to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)'s treatment resistance and recurrence. This gene, RBM14, is known to function in transcription and RNA splicing. RBM14 is also required for maintaining the stem-like state of GBM spheres, and it controls the DNA-PK-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway by interacting with KU80. RBM14 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP) with low complexity domains, called intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), and it also physically interacts with PARP1. Furthermore, RBM14 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent manner (unpublished data). DNA-dependent PARP1 (poly-(ADP) ribose polymerase 1) makes key contributions in the DNA damage response (DDR) network. RBM14 therefore plays an important role in a PARP-dependent DSB repair process. Most recently, it was shown that the other RBPs with intrinsically disordered domains are recruited to DNA damage sites in a PAR-dependent manner, and that these RBPs form liquid compartments (also known as "liquid-demixing"). Among the

  20. A non-proteolytic role for ubiquitin in deadenylation of MHC-I mRNA by the RNA-binding E3-ligase MEX-3C

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Florencia; Rapiteanu, Radu; Sebastiaan Winkler, G.; Lehner, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of protein and mRNA turnover is essential for many cellular processes. We recently showed that ubiquitin—traditionally linked to protein degradation—directly regulates the degradation of mRNAs through the action of a newly identified family of RNA-binding E3 ubiquitin ligases. How ubiquitin regulates mRNA decay remains unclear. Here, we identify a new role for ubiquitin in regulating deadenylation, the initial and often rate-limiting step in mRNA degradation. MEX-3C, a canonical member of this family of RNA-binding ubiquitin ligases, associates with the cytoplasmic deadenylation complexes and ubiquitinates CNOT7(Caf1), the main catalytic subunit of the CCR4-NOT deadenylation machinery. We establish a new role for ubiquitin in regulating MHC-I mRNA deadenylation as ubiquitination of CNOT7 by MEX-3C regulates its deadenylation activity and is required for MHC-I mRNA degradation. Since neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitors rescued MEX-3C-mediated MHC-I mRNA degradation, our findings suggest a new non-proteolytic function for ubiquitin in the regulation of mRNA decay. PMID:26471122

  1. A non-proteolytic role for ubiquitin in deadenylation of MHC-I mRNA by the RNA-binding E3-ligase MEX-3C.

    PubMed

    Cano, Florencia; Rapiteanu, Radu; Sebastiaan Winkler, G; Lehner, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of protein and mRNA turnover is essential for many cellular processes. We recently showed that ubiquitin--traditionally linked to protein degradation--directly regulates the degradation of mRNAs through the action of a newly identified family of RNA-binding E3 ubiquitin ligases. How ubiquitin regulates mRNA decay remains unclear. Here, we identify a new role for ubiquitin in regulating deadenylation, the initial and often rate-limiting step in mRNA degradation. MEX-3C, a canonical member of this family of RNA-binding ubiquitin ligases, associates with the cytoplasmic deadenylation complexes and ubiquitinates CNOT7(Caf1), the main catalytic subunit of the CCR4-NOT deadenylation machinery. We establish a new role for ubiquitin in regulating MHC-I mRNA deadenylation as ubiquitination of CNOT7 by MEX-3C regulates its deadenylation activity and is required for MHC-I mRNA degradation. Since neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitors rescued MEX-3C-mediated MHC-I mRNA degradation, our findings suggest a new non-proteolytic function for ubiquitin in the regulation of mRNA decay. PMID:26471122

  2. Natural product (–)-gossypol inhibits colon cancer cell growth by targeting RNA-binding protein Musashi-1

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Lan; Appelman, Carl; Smith, Amber R.; Yu, Jia; Larsen, Sarah; Marquez, Rebecca T.; Liu, Hao; Wu, Xiaoqing; Gao, Philip; Roy, Anuradha; Anbanandam, Asokan; Gowthaman, Ragul; Karanicolas, John; De Guzman, Roberto N.; Rogers, Steven; Aubé, Jeffrey; Ji, Min; Cohen, Robert S.; Neufeld, Kristi L.; Xu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Musashi-1 (MSI1) is an RNA-binding protein that acts as a translation activator or repressor of target mRNAs. The best-characterized MSI1 target is Numb mRNA, whose encoded protein negatively regulates Notch signaling. Additional MSI1 targets include the mRNAs for the tumor suppressor protein APC that regulates Wnt signaling and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P21WAF-1. We hypothesized that increased expression of NUMB, P21 and APC, through inhibition of MSI1 RNA-binding activity might be an effective way to simultaneously downregulate Wnt and Notch signaling, thus blocking the growth of a broad range of cancer cells. We used a fluorescence polarization assay to screen for small molecules that disrupt the binding of MSI1 to its consensus RNA binding site. One of the top hits was (–)-gossypol (Ki = 476 ± 273 nM), a natural product from cottonseed, known to have potent anti-tumor activity and which has recently completed Phase IIb clinical trials for prostate cancer. Surface plasmon resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance studies demonstrate a direct interaction of (–)-gossypol with the RNA binding pocket of MSI1. We further showed that (–)-gossypol reduces Notch/Wnt signaling in several colon cancer cell lines having high levels of MSI1, with reduced SURVIVIN expression and increased apoptosis/autophagy. Finally, we showed that orally administered (–)-gossypol inhibits colon cancer growth in a mouse xenograft model. Our study identifies (–)-gossypol as a potential small molecule inhibitor of MSI1-RNA interaction, and suggests that inhibition of MSI1's RNA binding activity may be an effective anti-cancer strategy. PMID:25933687

  3. A novel RNA-binding protein from Triturus carnifex identified by RNA-ligand screening with the newt hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Denti, M A; Martínez de Alba, A E; Sägesser, R; Tsagris, M; Tabler, M

    2000-03-01

    The newt hammerhead ribozyme is transcribed from Satellite 2 DNA, which consists of tandemly repeated units of 330 bp. However, different transcripts are synthesized in different tissues. In all somatic tissues and in testes, dimeric and multimeric RNA transcripts are generated which, to some extent, self-cleave into monomers at the hammerhead domain. In ovaries, primarily a distinct monomeric unit is formed by transcription, which retains an intact hammerhead self-cleavage site. The ovarian monomeric RNA associates to form a 12S complex with proteins that are poorly characterised so far. In this work we identified NORA, a protein that binds the ovarian form of the newt ribozyme. We show that the newt ribozyme binds to the Escherichia coli -expressed protein, as well as to a protein of identical size that is found exclusively in newt ovaries. Also NORA mRNA was detectable only in ovary, but in neither somatic tissues nor testes. The tissue-specific expression of NORA is analogous to the ovary-specific transcription of the newt ribozyme. Although NORA was identified by its ability to bind to the newt ribozyme in the presence of a vast excess of carrier RNA, it was able to interact with certain other RNA probes. This novel RNA-binding protein does not contain any motif characteristic for RNA-binding proteins or any other known protein domain, but it shares a striking similarity with a rat resiniferatoxin-binding protein. PMID:10666442

  4. A novel RNA-binding protein from Triturus carnifex identified by RNA-ligand screening with the newt hammerhead ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Denti, Michela A.; Alba, A. Emilio Martínez de; Sägesser, Rudolf; Tsagris, Mina; Tabler, Martin

    2000-01-01

    The newt hammerhead ribozyme is transcribed from Satellite 2 DNA, which consists of tandemly repeated units of 330 bp. However, different transcripts are synthesized in different tissues. In all somatic tissues and in testes, dimeric and multimeric RNA transcripts are generated which, to some extent, self-cleave into monomers at the hammerhead domain. In ovaries, primarily a distinct monomeric unit is formed by transcription, which retains an intact hammerhead self-cleavage site. The ovarian monomeric RNA associates to form a 12S complex with proteins that are poorly characterised so far. In this work we identified NORA, a protein that binds the ovarian form of the newt ribozyme. We show that the newt ribozyme binds to the Escherichia coli-expressed protein, as well as to a protein of identical size that is found exclusively in newt ovaries. Also NORA mRNA was detectable only in ovary, but in neither somatic tissues nor testes. The tissue-specific expression of NORA is analogous to the ovary-specific transcription of the newt ribozyme. Although NORA was identified by its ability to bind to the newt ribozyme in the presence of a vast excess of carrier RNA, it was able to interact with certain other RNA probes. This novel RNA-binding protein does not contain any motif characteristic for RNA-binding proteins or any other known protein domain, but it shares a striking similarity with a rat resiniferatoxin-binding protein. PMID:10666442

  5. The Infectious Bursal Disease Virus RNA-Binding VP3 Polypeptide Inhibits PKR-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Busnadiego, Idoia; Maestre, Ana M.; Rodríguez, Dolores; Rodríguez, José F.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an avian pathogen responsible for an acute immunosuppressive disease that causes major losses to the poultry industry. Despite having a bipartite dsRNA genome, IBDV, as well as other members of the Birnaviridae family, possesses a single capsid layer formed by trimers of the VP2 capsid protein. The capsid encloses a ribonucleoprotein complex formed by the genome associated to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the RNA-binding polypeptide VP3. A previous report evidenced that expression of the mature VP2 IBDV capsid polypeptide triggers a swift programmed cell death response in a wide variety of cell lines. The mechanism(s) underlying this effect remained unknown. Here, we show that VP2 expression in HeLa cells activates the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR), which in turn triggers the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). This results in a strong blockade of protein synthesis and the activation of an apoptotic response which is efficiently blocked by coexpression of a dominant negative PKR polypeptide. Our results demonstrate that coexpression of the VP3 polypeptide precludes phosphorylation of both PKR and eIF2α and the onset of programmed cell death induced by VP2 expression. A mutation blocking the capacity of VP3 to bind dsRNA also abolishes its capacity to prevent PKR activation and apoptosis. Further experiments showed that VP3 functionally replaces the host-range vaccinia virus (VACV) E3 protein, thus allowing the E3 deficient VACV deletion mutant WRΔE3L to grow in non-permissive cell lines. According to results presented here, VP3 can be categorized along with other well characterized proteins such us VACV E3, avian reovirus sigmaA, and influenza virus NS1 as a virus-encoded dsRNA-binding polypeptide with antiapoptotic properties. Our results suggest that VP3 plays a central role in ensuring the viability of the IBDV replication cycle by preventing programmed

  6. Unzipping and binding of small interfering RNA with single walled carbon nanotube: A platform for small interfering RNA delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; Panigrahi, Swati; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Sood, A. K.; Maiti, Prabal K.

    2012-02-01

    In an effort to design efficient platform for siRNA delivery, we combine all atom classical and quantum simulations to study the binding of small interfering RNA (siRNA) by pristine single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT). Our results show that siRNA strongly binds to SWCNT surface via unzipping its base-pairs and the propensity of unzipping increases with the increase in the diameter of the SWCNTs. The unzipping and subsequent wrapping events are initiated and driven by van der Waals interactions between the aromatic rings of siRNA nucleobases and the SWCNT surface. However, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of double strand DNA (dsDNA) of the same sequence show that the dsDNA undergoes much less unzipping and wrapping on the SWCNT in the simulation time scale of 70 ns. This interesting difference is due to smaller interaction energy of thymidine of dsDNA with the SWCNT compared to that of uridine of siRNA, as calculated by dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT) methods. After the optimal binding of siRNA to SWCNT, the complex is very stable which serves as one of the major mechanisms of siRNA delivery for biomedical applications. Since siRNA has to undergo unwinding process with the effect of RNA-induced silencing complex, our proposed delivery mechanism by SWCNT possesses potential advantages in achieving RNA interference.

  7. Visualizing double-stranded RNA distribution and dynamics in living cells by dsRNA binding-dependent fluorescence complementation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaofei; Deng, Ping; Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming

    2015-11-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is an important type of RNA that plays essential roles in diverse cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms and a hallmark in infections by positive-sense RNA viruses. Currently, no in vivo technology has been developed for visualizing dsRNA in living cells. Here, we report a dsRNA binding-dependent fluorescence complementation (dRBFC) assay that can be used to efficiently monitor dsRNA distribution and dynamics in vivo. The system consists of two dsRNA-binding proteins, which are fused to the N- and C-terminal halves of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Binding of the two fusion proteins to a common dsRNA brings the split YFP halves in close proximity, leading to the reconstitution of the fluorescence-competent structure and restoration of fluorescence. Using this technique, we were able to visualize the distribution and trafficking of the replicative RNA intermediates of positive-sense RNA viruses in living cells. PMID:26351203

  8. In silico evaluation of miRNA binding site in mutated 3'UTR mRNA of G6PD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Syarifah Anis Wafa Binti Syed Mohd; Noorden, Mohd Shihabudin; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Ismail, Endom

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non coding RNA sized 21-25 nucleotide. It has the ability to bind to the 3'- untranslated regions (3'UTR) of their target genes. Consequently, the binding of miRNA in the 3'UTR of targeted mRNA will regulate the expression of this gene. Thus, changes in 3'UTR may affect miRNA binding to mRNA of their target gene, leading to aberrations in mRNA regulations or expression and likely contribute to the various phenotypic changes or clinical risk for certain diseases in man. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate candidate miRNAs species involved during the regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) mRNA with and without a specific 3'UTR nucleotide change that was previously shown to be responsible for G6PD deficiency in a Negrito sub-group of the Malaysian Orang Asli. We have conducted in silico analysis using TargetScan, PITA, RegRNA 2.0 and miRanda platform. Our results indicate that three potential miRNAs may have a functional role towards the regulated expression of those bearing the 3'UTR mutation. The role of these eleven miRNA can be investigated in future in vitro expression studies in order to verify its miRNA:mRNA relationship.

  9. Solution structure and metal-ion binding of the P4 element from bacterial RNase P RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, M; Tinoco, I

    2000-01-01

    We determined the solution structure of two 27-nt RNA hairpins and their complexes with cobalt(III)-hexammine (Co(NH3)3+(6)) by NMR spectroscopy. The RNA hairpins used in this study are the P4 region from Escherichia coli RNase P RNA and a C-to-U mutant that confers altered divalent metal-ion specificity (Ca2+ replaces Mg2+) for catalytic activity of this ribozyme. Co(NH3)3+(6) is a useful spectroscopic probe for Mg(H2O)2+(6)-binding sites because both complexes have octahedral symmetry and have similar radii. The thermodynamics of binding to both RNA hairpins was studied using chemical shift changes upon titration with Mg2+, Ca2+, and Co(NH3)3+(6). We found that the equilibrium binding constants for each of the metal ions was essentially unchanged when the P4 model RNA hairpin was mutated, although the NMR structures show that the RNA hairpins adopt different conformations. In the C-to-U mutant a C.G base pair is replaced by U.G, and the conserved bulged uridine in the P4 wild-type stem shifts in the 3' direction by 1 nt. Intermolecular NOE cross-peaks between Co(NH3)3+(6) and RNA protons were used to locate the site of Co(NH3)3+(6) binding to both RNA hairpins. The metal ion binds in the major groove near a bulge loop, but is shifted 5' by more than 1 bp in the mutant. The change of the metal-ion binding site provides a possible explanation for changes in catalytic activity of the mutant RNase P in the presence of Ca2+. PMID:10999599

  10. catRAPID signature: identification of ribonucleoproteins and RNA-binding regions

    PubMed Central

    Livi, Carmen Maria; Klus, Petr; Delli Ponti, Riccardo; Tartaglia, Gian Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Recent technological advances revealed that an unexpected large number of proteins interact with transcripts even if the RNA-binding domains are not annotated. We introduce catRAPID signature to identify ribonucleoproteins based on physico-chemical features instead of sequence similarity searches. The algorithm, trained on human proteins and tested on model organisms, calculates the overall RNA-binding propensity followed by the prediction of RNA-binding regions. catRAPID signature outperforms other algorithms in the identification of RNA-binding proteins and detection of non-classical RNA-binding regions. Results are visualized on a webpage and can be downloaded or forwarded to catRAPID omics for predictions of RNA targets. Availability and implementation: catRAPID signature can be accessed at http://s.tartaglialab.com/new_submission/signature. Contact: gian.tartaglia@crg.es or gian@tartaglialab.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26520853

  11. RNA binding by the novel helical domain of the influenza virus NS1 protein requires its dimer structure and a small number of specific basic amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W; Riedel, K; Lynch, P; Chien, C Y; Montelione, G T; Krug, R M

    1999-01-01

    The RNA-binding/dimerization domain of the NS1 protein of influenza A virus (73 amino acids in length) exhibits a novel dimeric six-helical fold. It is not known how this domain binds to its specific RNA targets, one of which is double-stranded RNA. To elucidate the mode of RNA binding, we introduced single alanine replacements into the NS1 RNA-binding domain at specific positions in the three-dimensional structure. Our results indicate that the dimer structure is essential for RNA binding, because any alanine replacement that causes disruption of the dimer also leads to the loss of RNA-binding activity. Surprisingly, the arginine side chain at position 38, which is in the second helix of each monomer, is the only amino-acid side chain that is absolutely required only for RNA binding and not for dimerization, indicating that this side chain probably interacts directly with the RNA target. This interaction is primarily electrostatic, because replacement of this arginine with lysine had no effect on RNA binding. A second basic amino acid, the lysine at position 41, which is also in helix 2, makes a strong contribution to the affinity of binding. We conclude that helix 2 and helix 2', which are antiparallel and next to each other in the dimer conformation, constitute the interaction face between the NS1 RNA-binding domain and its RNA targets, and that the arginine side chain at position 38 and possibly the lysine side chain at position 41 in each of these antiparallel helices contact the phosphate backbone of the RNA target. PMID:10024172

  12. Altered Gene Expression Associated with microRNA Binding Site Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Võsa, Urmo; Esko, Tõnu; Kasela, Silva; Annilo, Tarmo

    2015-01-01

    Allele-specific gene expression associated with genetic variation in regulatory regions can play an important role in the development of complex traits. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in microRNA (miRNA) response elements (MRE-SNPs) that either disrupt a miRNA binding site or create a new miRNA binding site can affect the allele-specific expression of target genes. By integrating public expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) data, miRNA binding site predictions, small RNA sequencing, and Argonaute crosslinking immunoprecipitation (AGO-CLIP) datasets, we identified genetic variants that can affect gene expression by modulating miRNA binding efficiency. We also identified MRE-SNPs located in regions associated with complex traits, indicating possible causative mechanisms associated with these loci. The results of this study expand the current understanding of gene expression regulation and help to interpret the mechanisms underlying eQTL effects. PMID:26496489

  13. A novel viral RNA helicase with an independent translation enhancement activity.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Ambily; Savithri, Handanahal S

    2016-04-01

    RNA helicases have not been identified among negative sense RNA viruses. In this study, it is shown that Nonstructural protein (NSs) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) acts as a Mg(2+) - and ATP-dependent bipolar RNA helicase. Biophysical and biochemical analysis of the deletion mutants (NΔ124 NSs, CΔ80 NSs) revealed that both the N- and C-terminal residues are required for substrate binding, oligomerization and helicase activity, but are dispensable for ATPase activity. Interestingly, NSs could enhance the translation of RNA (~ 10-fold) independent of its helicase activity. This is the first report of a RNA helicase from negative strand RNA viruses. PMID:27001161

  14. Divergence of Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA Binding Factor (PUF) Protein Specificity through Variations in an RNA-binding Pocket*

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chen; Kershner, Aaron; Wang, Yeming; Holley, Cynthia P.; Wilinski, Daniel; Keles, Sunduz; Kimble, Judith; Wickens, Marvin; Hall, Traci M. Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    mRNA control networks depend on recognition of specific RNA sequences. Pumilio-fem-3 mRNA binding factor (PUF) RNA-binding proteins achieve that specificity through variations on a conserved scaffold. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Puf3p achieves specificity through an additional binding pocket for a cytosine base upstream of the core RNA recognition site. Here we demonstrate that this chemically simple adaptation is prevalent and contributes to the diversity of RNA specificities among PUF proteins. Bioinformatics analysis shows that mRNAs associated with Caenorhabditis elegans fem-3 mRNA binding factor (FBF)-2 in vivo contain an upstream cytosine required for biological regulation. Crystal structures of FBF-2 and C. elegans PUF-6 reveal binding pockets structurally similar to that of Puf3p, whereas sequence alignments predict a pocket in PUF-11. For Puf3p, FBF-2, PUF-6, and PUF-11, the upstream pockets and a cytosine are required for maximal binding to RNA, but the quantitative impact on binding affinity varies. Furthermore, the position of the upstream cytosine relative to the core PUF recognition site can differ, which in the case of FBF-2 originally masked the identification of this consensus sequence feature. Importantly, other PUF proteins lack the pocket and so do not discriminate upstream bases. A structure-based alignment reveals that these proteins lack key residues that would contact the cytosine, and in some instances, they also present amino acid side chains that interfere with binding. Loss of the pocket requires only substitution of one serine, as appears to have occurred during the evolution of certain fungal species. PMID:22205700

  15. RNA-binding protein mis-regulation in microsatellite expansion disorders

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Marianne; Swanson, Maurice S.

    2015-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play pivotal roles in multiple cellular pathways from transcription to RNA turnover by interacting with RNA sequence and/or structural elements to form distinct RNA-protein complexes. Since these complexes are required for the normal regulation of gene expression, mutations that alter RBP functions may result in a cascade of deleterious events that lead to severe disease. Here, we focus on a group of hereditary disorders, the microsatellite expansion diseases, which alter RBP activities and result in abnormal neurological and neuromuscular phenotypes. While many of these diseases are classified as adult-onset disorders, mounting evidence indicates that disruption of normal RNA-protein interaction networks during embryogenesis modifies developmental pathways which ultimately leads to disease manifestations later in life. Efforts to understand the molecular basis of these disorders has already uncovered novel pathogenic mechanisms, including RNA toxicity and repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation, and current studies suggest that additional surprising insights into cellular regulatory pathways will emerge in the future. PMID:25201111

  16. A Host Small GTP-binding Protein ARL8 Plays Crucial Roles in Tobamovirus RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Nishikiori, Masaki; Mori, Masashi; Dohi, Koji; Okamura, Hideyasu; Katoh, Etsuko; Naito, Satoshi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), like other eukaryotic positive-strand RNA viruses, replicates its genomic RNA in replication complexes formed on intracellular membranes. Previous studies showed that a host seven-pass transmembrane protein TOM1 is necessary for efficient ToMV multiplication. Here, we show that a small GTP-binding protein ARL8, along with TOM1, is co-purified with a FLAG epitope-tagged ToMV 180K replication protein from solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. When solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco cells that expressed FLAG-tagged ARL8 were subjected to immunopurification with anti-FLAG antibody, ToMV 130K and 180K replication proteins and TOM1 were co-purified and the purified fraction showed RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity that transcribed ToMV RNA. From uninfected cells, TOM1 co-purified with FLAG-tagged ARL8 less efficiently, suggesting that a complex containing ToMV replication proteins, TOM1, and ARL8 are formed on membranes in infected cells. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ARL8 consists of four family members. Simultaneous mutations in two specific ARL8 genes completely inhibited tobamovirus multiplication. In an in vitro ToMV RNA translation-replication system, the lack of either TOM1 or ARL8 proteins inhibited the production of replicative-form RNA, indicating that TOM1 and ARL8 are required for efficient negative-strand RNA synthesis. When ToMV 130K protein was co-expressed with TOM1 and ARL8 in yeast, RNA 5′-capping activity was detected in the membrane fraction. This activity was undetectable or very weak when the 130K protein was expressed alone or with either TOM1 or ARL8. Taken together, these results suggest that TOM1 and ARL8 are components of ToMV RNA replication complexes and play crucial roles in a process toward activation of the replication proteins' RNA synthesizing and capping functions. PMID:22174675

  17. A host small GTP-binding protein ARL8 plays crucial roles in tobamovirus RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Nishikiori, Masaki; Mori, Masashi; Dohi, Koji; Okamura, Hideyasu; Katoh, Etsuko; Naito, Satoshi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2011-12-01

    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), like other eukaryotic positive-strand RNA viruses, replicates its genomic RNA in replication complexes formed on intracellular membranes. Previous studies showed that a host seven-pass transmembrane protein TOM1 is necessary for efficient ToMV multiplication. Here, we show that a small GTP-binding protein ARL8, along with TOM1, is co-purified with a FLAG epitope-tagged ToMV 180K replication protein from solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. When solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco cells that expressed FLAG-tagged ARL8 were subjected to immunopurification with anti-FLAG antibody, ToMV 130K and 180K replication proteins and TOM1 were co-purified and the purified fraction showed RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity that transcribed ToMV RNA. From uninfected cells, TOM1 co-purified with FLAG-tagged ARL8 less efficiently, suggesting that a complex containing ToMV replication proteins, TOM1, and ARL8 are formed on membranes in infected cells. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ARL8 consists of four family members. Simultaneous mutations in two specific ARL8 genes completely inhibited tobamovirus multiplication. In an in vitro ToMV RNA translation-replication system, the lack of either TOM1 or ARL8 proteins inhibited the production of replicative-form RNA, indicating that TOM1 and ARL8 are required for efficient negative-strand RNA synthesis. When ToMV 130K protein was co-expressed with TOM1 and ARL8 in yeast, RNA 5'-capping activity was detected in the membrane fraction. This activity was undetectable or very weak when the 130K protein was expressed alone or with either TOM1 or ARL8. Taken together, these results suggest that TOM1 and ARL8 are components of ToMV RNA replication complexes and play crucial roles in a process toward activation of the replication proteins' RNA synthesizing and capping functions. PMID:22174675

  18. The RNA-Binding Protein QKI Suppresses Cancer-Associated Aberrant Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Feng-Yang; Fu, Xing; Wei, Wen-Juan; Luo, Ya-Ge; Heiner, Monika; Cao, Li-Juan; Fang, Zhaoyuan; Fang, Rong; Lu, Daru; Ji, Hongbin; Hui, Jingyi

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Aberrant splicing has been implicated in lung tumorigenesis. However, the functional links between splicing regulation and lung cancer are not well understood. Here we identify the RNA-binding protein QKI as a key regulator of alternative splicing in lung cancer. We show that QKI is frequently down-regulated in lung cancer, and its down-regulation is significantly associated with a poorer prognosis. QKI-5 inhibits the proliferation and transformation of lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that QKI-5 regulates the alternative splicing of NUMB via binding to two RNA elements in its pre-mRNA, which in turn suppresses cell proliferation and prevents the activation of the Notch signaling pathway. We further show that QKI-5 inhibits splicing by selectively competing with a core splicing factor SF1 for binding to the branchpoint sequence. Taken together, our data reveal QKI as a critical regulator of splicing in lung cancer and suggest a novel tumor suppression mechanism involving QKI-mediated regulation of the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:24722255

  19. Rapid Synthesis, RNA Binding, and Antibacterial Screening of a Peptidic-Aminosugar (PA) Library

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Liuwei; Watkins, Derrick; Jin, Yi; Gong, Changjun; King, Ada; Washington, Arren Z.; Green, Keith D.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.; Arya, Dev P.

    2016-01-01

    A 215-member mono- and diamino acid peptidic-aminosugar (PA) library, with neomycin as the model aminosugar, was systematically and rapidly synthesized via solid phase synthesis. Antibacterial activities of the PA library, on 13 bacterial strains (seven Gram-positive and six Gram-negative bacterial strains), and binding affinities of the PA library for a 27-base model of the bacterial 16S ribosomal A-site RNA were evaluated using high-throughput screening. The results of the two assays were correlated using Ribosomal Binding-Bacterial Inhibition Plot (RB-BIP) analysis to provide structure–activity relationship (SAR) information. From this work, we have identified PAs that can discriminate the E. coli A-site from the human A-site by up to a 28-fold difference in binding affinity. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme activity studies indicate that APH(2″)-Ia showed nearly complete removal of activity with a number of PAs. The synthesis of the compound library and screening can both be performed rapidly, allowing for an iterative process of aminoglycoside synthesis and screening of PA libraries for optimal binding and antibacterial activity for lead identification. PMID:25706406

  20. Degenerate in vitro genetic selection reveals mutations that diminish alfalfa mosaic virus RNA replication without affecting coat protein binding.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, Gail; Petrillo, Jessica; Guogas, Laura; Gehrke, Lee

    2004-08-01

    The alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs are infectious only in the presence of the viral coat protein; however, the mechanisms describing coat protein's role during replication are disputed. We reasoned that mechanistic details might be revealed by identifying RNA mutations in the 3'-terminal coat protein binding domain that increased or decreased RNA replication without affecting coat protein binding. Degenerate (doped) in vitro genetic selection, based on a pool of randomized 39-mers, was used to select 30 variant RNAs that bound coat protein with high affinity. AUGC sequences that are conserved among AMV and ilarvirus RNAs were among the invariant nucleotides in the selected RNAs. Five representative clones were analyzed in functional assays, revealing diminished viral RNA expression resulting from apparent defects in replication and/or translation. These data identify a set of mutations, including G-U wobble pairs and nucleotide mismatches in the 5' hairpin, which affect viral RNA functions without significant impact on coat protein binding. Because the mutations associated with diminished function were scattered over the 3'-terminal nucleotides, we considered the possibility that RNA conformational changes rather than disruption of a precise motif might limit activity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments showed that the 3' RNA conformation was indeed altered by nucleotide substitutions. One interpretation of the data is that coat protein binding to the AUGC sequences determines the orientation of the 3' hairpins relative to one another, while local structural features within these hairpins are also critical determinants of functional activity. PMID:15254175

  1. Redundancy of primary RNA-binding functions of the bacterial transcription terminator Rho

    PubMed Central

    Shashni, Rajesh; Qayyum, M. Zuhaib; Vishalini, V.; Dey, Debashish; Sen, Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial transcription terminator, Rho, terminates transcription at half of the operons. According to the classical model derived from in vitro assays on a few terminators, Rho is recruited to the transcription elongation complex (EC) by recognizing specific sites (rut) on the nascent RNA. Here, we explored the mode of in vivo recruitment process of Rho. We show that sequence specific recognition of the rut site, in majority of the Rho-dependent terminators, can be compromised to a great extent without seriously affecting the genome-wide termination function as well as the viability of Escherichia coli. These terminators function optimally only through a NusG-assisted recruitment and activation of Rho. Our data also indicate that at these terminators, Rho-EC-bound NusG interaction facilitates the isomerization of Rho into a translocase-competent form by stabilizing the interactions of mRNA with the secondary RNA binding site, thereby overcoming the defects of the primary RNA binding functions. PMID:25081210

  2. Identification of discrete classes of small nucleolar RNA featuring different ends and RNA binding protein dependency

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps-Francoeur, Gabrielle; Garneau, Daniel; Dupuis-Sandoval, Fabien; Roy, Audrey; Frappier, Marie; Catala, Mathieu; Couture, Sonia; Barbe-Marcoux, Mélissa; Abou-Elela, Sherif; Scott, Michelle S.

    2014-01-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are among the first discovered and most extensively studied group of small non-coding RNA. However, most studies focused on a small subset of snoRNAs that guide the modification of ribosomal RNA. In this study, we annotated the expression pattern of all box C/D snoRNAs in normal and cancer cell lines independent of their functions. The results indicate that C/D snoRNAs are expressed as two distinct forms differing in their ends with respect to boxes C and D and in their terminal stem length. Both forms are overexpressed in cancer cell lines but display a conserved end distribution. Surprisingly, the long forms are more dependent than the short forms on the expression of the core snoRNP protein NOP58, thought to be essential for C/D snoRNA production. In contrast, a subset of short forms are dependent on the splicing factor RBFOX2. Analysis of the potential secondary structure of both forms indicates that the k-turn motif required for binding of NOP58 is less stable in short forms which are thus less likely to mature into a canonical snoRNP. Taken together the data suggest that C/D snoRNAs are divided into at least two groups with distinct maturation and functional preferences. PMID:25074380

  3. Posttranscriptional Regulation of p53 and Its Targets by RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Chen, Xinbin

    2009-01-01

    p53 tumor suppressor plays a pivotal role in maintaining genomic integrity and preventing cancer development. The importance of p53 in tumor suppression is illustrated by the observation that about 50% human tumor cells have a dysfunctional p53 pathway. Although it has been well accepted that the activity of p53 is mainly controlled through post-translational modifications, recent studies have revealed that posttranscriptional regulations of p53 by various RNA-binding proteins also play a crucial role in modulating p53 activity and its downstream targets. PMID:19075680

  4. tRNA binding properties of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 from Encephalitozoon cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Naveau, Marie; Lazennec-Schurdevin, Christine; Panvert, Michel; Mechulam, Yves; Schmitt, Emmanuelle

    2010-10-12

    A critical consequence of the initiation of translation is the setting of the reading frame for mRNA decoding. In eukaryotic and archaeal cells, heterotrimeric initiation factor e/aIF2, in its GTP form, specifically binds Met-tRNA(i)(Met) throughout the translation initiation process. After start codon recognition, the factor, in its GDP-bound form, loses affinity for Met-tRNA(i)(Met) and eventually dissociates from the initiation complex. The role of each aIF2 subunit in tRNA binding has been extensively studied in archaeal systems. The isolated archaeal γ subunit is able to bind tRNA, but the α subunit is required for strong binding. Until now, difficulties during purification have hampered the study of the role of each of the three subunits of eukaryotic eIF2 in specific binding of the initiator tRNA. Here, we have produced the three subunits of eIF2 from Encephalitozoon cuniculi, isolated or assembled into heterodimers or into the full heterotrimer. Using assays following protection of Met-tRNA(i)(Met) against deacylation, we show that the eukaryotic γ subunit is able to bind by itself the initiator tRNA. However, the two peripheral α and β subunits are required for strong binding and contribute equally to tRNA binding affinity. The core domains of α and β probably act indirectly by stabilizing the tRNA binding site on the γ subunit. These results, together with those previously obtained with archaeal aIF2 and yeast eIF2, show species-specific distributions of the roles of the peripheral subunits of e/aIF2 in tRNA binding. PMID:20822097

  5. Duplicate gene divergence by changes in microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis and Brassica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sishuo; Adams, Keith L

    2015-03-01

    Gene duplication provides large numbers of new genes that can lead to the evolution of new functions. Duplicated genes can diverge by changes in sequences, expression patterns, and functions. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in many eukaryotes. After duplication, two paralogs may diverge in their microRNA binding sites, which might impact their expression and function. Little is known about conservation and divergence of microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in plants. We analyzed microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. We found that duplicates are more often targeted by microRNAs than singletons. The vast majority of duplicated genes in A. thaliana with microRNA binding sites show divergence in those sites between paralogs. Analysis of microRNA binding sites in genes derived from the ancient whole-genome triplication in B. rapa also revealed extensive divergence. Paralog pairs with divergent microRNA binding sites show more divergence in expression patterns compared with paralog pairs with the same microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis. Close to half of the cases of binding site divergence are caused by microRNAs that are specific to the Arabidopsis genus, indicating evolutionarily recent gain of binding sites after target gene duplication. We also show rapid evolution of microRNA binding sites in a jacalin gene family. Our analyses reveal a dynamic process of changes in microRNA binding sites after gene duplication in Arabidopsis and highlight the role of microRNA regulation in the divergence and contrasting evolutionary fates of duplicated genes. PMID:25644246

  6. Bases in 16S rRNA Important for Subunit Association, tRNA binding, and Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xinying; Chiu, Katie; Ghosh, Srikanta; Joseph, Simpson

    2009-01-01

    Ribosomes are the cellular machinery responsible for protein synthesis. A well-orchestrated step in the elongation cycle of protein synthesis is the precise translocation of the tRNA-mRNA complex within the ribosome. Here we report the application of a new in vitro modification-interference method for the identification of bases in 16S rRNA that are essential for translocation. Our results suggest that conserved bases U56, U723, A1306, A1319, and A1468 in 16S rRNA are important for translocation. These five bases were deleted or mutated in order to study their role in translation. Depending on the type of mutation, we observed inhibition of growth rate, subunit association, tRNA binding and/or translocation. Interestingly, deletion of U56 or A1319 or mutation of A1319 to C showed a lethal phenotype and were defective in protein synthesis in vitro. Further analysis showed that deletion of U56 or A1319 caused defects in 30S subunit assembly, subunit association and tRNA binding. In contrast, A1319C mutation showed no defects in subunit association; however, the extent of tRNA binding and translocation was significantly reduced. These results show that conserved bases located as far away as 100 Å from the tRNA binding sites can be important for translation. PMID:19545171

  7. Breast anticancer drug tamoxifen and its metabolites bind tRNA at multiple sites.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, P; Thomas, T J; Bariyanga, J; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2015-01-01

    The binding sites of breast anticancer drug tamoxifen and its metabolites with tRNA were located by FTIR, CD, UV-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling. Structural analysis showed that tamoxifen and its metabolites bind tRNA at several binding sites with overall binding constants of K(tam-tRNA) = 5.2 (± 0.6) × 10(4) M(-1), K(4-hydroxytam-tRNA) = 6.5 ( ± 0.5) × 10(4) M(-1) and K(endox-tRNA) = 1.3 (± 0.2) × 10(4) M(-1). The number of binding sites occupied by drug molecules on tRNA were 1 (tamoxifen), 0.8 (4-hydroxitamoxifen) and 1.2 (endoxifen). Docking showed the participation of several nucleobases in drug-tRNA complexes with the free binding energy of -4.31 (tamoxifen), -4.45 (4-hydroxtamoxifen) and -4.38 kcal/mol (endoxifen). The order of binding is 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen > tamoxifen > endoxifen. Drug binding did not alter tRNA conformation from A-family structure, while biopolymer aggregation occurred at high drug concentration. PMID:25263468

  8. Ebolavirus VP35 uses a bimodal strategy to bind dsRNA for innate immune suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberlin, Christopher R.; Bornholdt, Zachary A.; Li, Sheng; Woods, Jr., Virgil L.; MacRae, Ian J.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2010-03-12

    Ebolavirus causes a severe hemorrhagic fever and is divided into five distinct species, of which Reston ebolavirus is uniquely nonpathogenic to humans. Disease caused by ebolavirus is marked by early immunosuppression of innate immune signaling events, involving silencing and sequestration of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by the viral protein VP35. Here we present unbound and dsRNA-bound crystal structures of the dsRNA-binding domain of Reston ebolavirus VP35. The structures show that VP35 forms an unusual, asymmetric dimer on dsRNA binding, with each of the monomers binding dsRNA in a different way: one binds the backbone whereas the other caps the terminus. Additional SAXS, DXMS, and dsRNA-binding experiments presented here support a model of cooperative dsRNA recognition in which binding of the first monomer assists binding of the next monomer of the oligomeric VP35 protein. This work illustrates how ebolavirus VP35 could mask key recognition sites of molecules such as RIG-I, MDA-5, and Dicer to silence viral dsRNA in infection.

  9. Identification of an RNA-binding protein that is phosphorylated by PTH and potentially mediates PTH-induced destabilization of Npt2a mRNA.

    PubMed

    Murray, Rebecca D; Merchant, Michael L; Hardin, Ericka; Clark, Barbara; Khundmiri, Syed J; Lederer, Eleanor D

    2016-02-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a key regulator of the expression and function of the type IIa sodium-phosphate cotransporter (Npt2a), the protein responsible for regulated renal phosphate reabsorption. We previously showed that PTH induces rapid decay of Npt2a mRNA through posttranscriptional mechanisms. We hypothesized that PTH-induced changes in RNA-binding protein (RBP) activity mediate the degradation of Npt2a mRNA. To address this aim, we treated opossum kidney (OK) cells, a PTH-sensitive proximal tubule cell culture model, with 100 nM PTH for 30 min and 2 h, followed by mass spectrometry characterization of the PTH-stimulated phosphoproteome. We identified 1,182 proteins differentially phosphorylated in response to PTH, including 68 RBPs. Preliminary analysis identified a phospho-RBP, hnRNPK-homology-type-splicing regulatory protein (KSRP), with predicted binding sites for the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Npt2a mRNA. Western blot analysis confirmed expression of KSRP in OK cells and showed PTH-dependent translocation to the nucleus. Immunoprecipitation of KSRP from control and PTH-treated cells followed by RNA isolation and RT-quantitative PCR analysis identified Npt2a mRNA from both control and PTH-treated KSRP pulldowns. Knockdown of KSRP followed by PTH treatment showed that KSRP is required for mediating PTH-stimulated reduction in sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 mRNA, but not Npt2a mRNA. We conclude that 1) PTH is a major regulator of both transcription and translation, and 2) KSRP binds Npt2a mRNA but its role in PTH regulation of Npt2a mRNA is not clear. PMID:26834145

  10. Hapten-Binding Bispecific Antibodies for the Targeted Delivery of SiRNA and SiRNA-Containing Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Thorey, Irmgard S; Grote, Michael; Mayer, Klaus; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Hapten-binding bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) are effective and versatile tools for targeting diverse payloads, including siRNAs, to specific cells and tissues. In this chapter, we provide examples for successful SiRNA delivery using this powerful targeting platform. We further provide protocols for designing and producing bsAbs, for combining bsAbs with SiRNA into functional complexes, and achieving specific mRNA knockdown in cells by using these functional complexes. PMID:26472454

  11. Progesterone receptor induces bcl-x expression through intragenic binding sites favoring RNA polymerase II elongation.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Paola Y; Nacht, A Silvina; Alló, Mariano; Rocha-Viegas, Luciana; Ballaré, Cecilia; Soronellas, Daniel; Castellano, Giancarlo; Zaurin, Roser; Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Beato, Miguel; Vicent, Guillermo P; Pecci, Adali

    2013-07-01

    Steroid receptors were classically described for regulating transcription by binding to target gene promoters. However, genome-wide studies reveal that steroid receptors-binding sites are mainly located at intragenic regions. To determine the role of these sites, we examined the effect of progestins on the transcription of the bcl-x gene, where only intragenic progesterone receptor-binding sites (PRbs) were identified. We found that in response to hormone treatment, the PR is recruited to these sites along with two histone acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and GCN5, leading to an increase in histone H3 and H4 acetylation and to the binding of the SWI/SNF complex. Concomitant, a more relaxed chromatin was detected along bcl-x gene mainly in the regions surrounding the intragenic PRbs. PR also mediated the recruitment of the positive elongation factor pTEFb, favoring RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation activity. Together these events promoted the re-distribution of the active Pol II toward the 3'-end of the gene and a decrease in the ratio between proximal and distal transcription. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which PR regulates gene expression by facilitating the proper passage of the polymerase along hormone-dependent genes. PMID:23640331

  12. Progesterone receptor induces bcl-x expression through intragenic binding sites favoring RNA polymerase II elongation

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, Paola Y.; Nacht, A. Silvina; Alló, Mariano; Rocha-Viegas, Luciana; Ballaré, Cecilia; Soronellas, Daniel; Castellano, Giancarlo; Zaurin, Roser; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.; Beato, Miguel; Vicent, Guillermo P.; Pecci, Adali

    2013-01-01

    Steroid receptors were classically described for regulating transcription by binding to target gene promoters. However, genome-wide studies reveal that steroid receptors-binding sites are mainly located at intragenic regions. To determine the role of these sites, we examined the effect of progestins on the transcription of the bcl-x gene, where only intragenic progesterone receptor-binding sites (PRbs) were identified. We found that in response to hormone treatment, the PR is recruited to these sites along with two histone acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and GCN5, leading to an increase in histone H3 and H4 acetylation and to the binding of the SWI/SNF complex. Concomitant, a more relaxed chromatin was detected along bcl-x gene mainly in the regions surrounding the intragenic PRbs. PR also mediated the recruitment of the positive elongation factor pTEFb, favoring RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation activity. Together these events promoted the re-distribution of the active Pol II toward the 3′-end of the gene and a decrease in the ratio between proximal and distal transcription. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which PR regulates gene expression by facilitating the proper passage of the polymerase along hormone-dependent genes. PMID:23640331

  13. Posttranscriptional regulation of urokinase receptor mRNA: identification of a novel urokinase receptor mRNA binding protein in human mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, S; Kumar, A; Idell, S

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of human pleural mesothelioma (MS-1) cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and cycloheximide results in 17- and 10-fold, respectively, increases in steady-state expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) mRNA. Studies of transcriptional inhibition by actinomycin D showed four- and sixfold extensions of uPAR mRNA half-life in MS-1 cells treated with PMA and cycloheximide, respectively, suggesting that uPAR gene expression involves a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism. Using gel mobility shift and UV cross-linking assays, we identified a 50-kDa uPAR mRNA binding protein (uPAR mRNABp) that selectively bound to a 51-nucleotide (nt) fragment of mRNA corresponding to the uPAR coding region. We investigated the possibility that this 51-nt protein binding fragment of uPAR mRNA contains regulatory information for message stability. Chimeric beta-globin/uPAR/beta-globin mRNA containing the 51-nt protein binding fragment was able to destabilize otherwise stable beta-globin mRNA. Conversely, a control chimeric beta-globin/uPAR/beta-globin mRNA containing a 51-nt fragment of the uPAR coding region that does not bind uPAR mRNABp was stable under identical conditions. Binding of uPAR mRNABp to uPAR mRNA was abolished after treatment with cycloheximide and rapidly down-regulated by PMA. These data suggest that the 51-nt protein binding fragment of uPAR mRNA may be involved in mRNA turnover as well as in cycloheximide-induced uPAR message stabilization. Our results indicate a novel mechanism of uPAR gene regulation in which cis elements within a 51-nt coding region interact with a uPAR mRNABp to regulate uPAR message stability. PMID:9032234

  14. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli to RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkney, M; Hoggett, J G

    1988-01-01

    Fluorescence polarization studies were used to study the interaction of a fluorescein-labelled conjugate of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (F-CRP) and RNA polymerase. Under conditions of physiological ionic strength, F-CRP binds to RNA polymerase holoenzyme in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner; the dissociation constant was about 3 microM in the presence of cyclic AMP and about 100 microM in its absence. Binding to core RNA polymerase under the same conditions was weak (Kdiss. approx. 80-100 microM) and independent of cyclic AMP. Competition experiments established that native CRP and F-CRP compete for the same binding site on RNA polymerase holoenzyme and that the native protein binds about 3 times more strongly than does F-CRP. Analytical ultracentrifuge studies showed that CRP binds predominantly to the monomeric rather than the dimeric form of RNA polymerase. PMID:2839152

  15. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli to RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, M; Hoggett, J G

    1988-03-15

    Fluorescence polarization studies were used to study the interaction of a fluorescein-labelled conjugate of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (F-CRP) and RNA polymerase. Under conditions of physiological ionic strength, F-CRP binds to RNA polymerase holoenzyme in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner; the dissociation constant was about 3 microM in the presence of cyclic AMP and about 100 microM in its absence. Binding to core RNA polymerase under the same conditions was weak (Kdiss. approx. 80-100 microM) and independent of cyclic AMP. Competition experiments established that native CRP and F-CRP compete for the same binding site on RNA polymerase holoenzyme and that the native protein binds about 3 times more strongly than does F-CRP. Analytical ultracentrifuge studies showed that CRP binds predominantly to the monomeric rather than the dimeric form of RNA polymerase. PMID:2839152

  16. Iron regulatory factor expressed from recombinant baculovirus: conversion between the RNA-binding apoprotein and Fe-S cluster containing aconitase.

    PubMed Central

    Emery-Goodman, A; Hirling, H; Scarpellino, L; Henderson, B; Kühn, L C

    1993-01-01

    Iron regulatory factor (IRF) is a cytoplasmic mRNA-binding protein that coordinates post-transcriptionally the expression of several important proteins in iron metabolism. Binding of IRF to iron-responsive elements (IRE) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of ferritin and erythroid 5-aminolevulinic acid-synthase mRNAs inhibits their translation, whereas binding to IREs in the 3' UTR of transferrin receptor (TfR) mRNA prevents the degradation of this mRNA. IRF binds RNA strongly after iron deprivation, but is inactive, yet present, under conditions of high cellular iron supply. Recently, IRF was also shown to have aconitase activity indicating the existence of an Fe-S cluster in the protein. In the current study we expressed human IRF in insect cells from recombinant baculovirus and analysed IRE-binding and aconitase activities under various culture conditions. Newly made apoprotein, synthesized in the absence of iron, was fully active in IRE-binding, but showed no aconitase activity. In contrast, IRF made by cells grown in high iron medium bound RNA poorly, but exhibited high aconitase activity with a Km of 9.2 microM for cis-aconitate. Apo-IRF was converted in vitro to active aconitase by Fe-S cluster-generating conditions, and under the same conditions lost its RNA-binding capacity. These results indicate that the two activities are mutually exclusive and controlled through formation of the Fe-S cluster. Images PMID:8464737

  17. HIV-1 Integrase Binds the Viral RNA Genome and Is Essential during Virion Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kessl, Jacques J; Kutluay, Sebla B; Townsend, Dana; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Slaughter, Alison; Larue, Ross C; Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Bakouche, Nordine; Fuchs, James R; Bieniasz, Paul D; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2016-08-25

    While an essential role of HIV-1 integrase (IN) for integration of viral cDNA into human chromosome is established, studies with IN mutants and allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs) have suggested that IN can also influence viral particle maturation. However, it has remained enigmatic as to how IN contributes to virion morphogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that IN directly binds the viral RNA genome in virions. These interactions have specificity, as IN exhibits distinct preference for select viral RNA structural elements. We show that IN substitutions that selectively impair its binding to viral RNA result in eccentric, non-infectious virions without affecting nucleocapsid-RNA interactions. Likewise, ALLINIs impair IN binding to viral RNA in virions of wild-type, but not escape mutant, virus. These results reveal an unexpected biological role of IN binding to the viral RNA genome during virion morphogenesis and elucidate the mode of action of ALLINIs. PMID:27565348

  18. Identification of RNA-binding Proteins in Macrophages by Interactome Capture.

    PubMed

    Liepelt, Anke; Naarmann-de Vries, Isabel S; Simons, Nadine; Eichelbaum, Katrin; Föhr, Sophia; Archer, Stuart K; Castello, Alfredo; Usadel, Björn; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Preiss, Thomas; Marx, Gernot; Hentze, Matthias W; Ostareck, Dirk H; Ostareck-Lederer, Antje

    2016-08-01

    Pathogen components, such as lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria that activate Toll-like receptor 4, induce mitogen activated protein kinases and NFκB through different downstream pathways to stimulate pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. Importantly, post-transcriptional control of the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 downstream signaling molecules contributes to the tight regulation of inflammatory cytokine synthesis in macrophages. Emerging evidence highlights the role of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in the post-transcriptional control of the innate immune response. To systematically identify macrophage RBPs and their response to LPS stimulation, we employed RNA interactome capture in LPS-induced and untreated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. This combines RBP-crosslinking to RNA, cell lysis, oligo(dT) capture of polyadenylated RNAs and mass spectrometry analysis of associated proteins. Our data revealed 402 proteins of the macrophage RNA interactome including 91 previously not annotated as RBPs. A comparison with published RNA interactomes classified 32 RBPs uniquely identified in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Of these, 19 proteins are linked to biochemical activities not directly related to RNA. From this group, we validated the HSP90 cochaperone P23 that was demonstrated to exhibit cytosolic prostaglandin E2 synthase 3 (PTGES3) activity, and the hematopoietic cell-specific LYN substrate 1 (HCLS1 or HS1), a hematopoietic cell-specific adapter molecule, as novel macrophage RBPs. Our study expands the mammalian RBP repertoire, and identifies macrophage RBPs that respond to LPS. These RBPs are prime candidates for the post-transcriptional regulation and execution of LPS-induced signaling pathways and the innate immune response. Macrophage RBP data have been deposited to ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002890. PMID:27281784

  19. HuR, a protein implicated in oncogene and growth factor mRNA decay, binds to the 3' ends of hepatitis C virus RNA of both polarities.

    PubMed

    Spångberg, K; Wiklund, L; Schwartz, S

    2000-09-01

    To identify cellular factors that interact with hepatitis C virus RNA, cellular extracts were subjected to UV cross-linking to radiolabeled RNAs corresponding to the hepatitis C virus 5' and 3' untranslated regions of positive and negative polarities. Our results demonstrate that the U-rich region of the hepatitis C virus 3' untranslated region of the positive RNA strand is a hot spot for cellular RNA binding proteins. Two of these proteins were identified as the ELAV-like HuR protein and hnRNP C. Interestingly, HuR and hnRNP C also interacted with the 3' end of the RNA representing the negative strand of the HCV genome. The binding of HuR and hnRNP C to the 3' ends of the HCV RNAs of both negative and positive polarities suggests that HuR and hnRNP C may be involved in the transcription of the HCV RNA genome. Alternatively, they act by protecting the HCV RNAs from premature degradation by binding to their 3' ends. However, we were unable to demonstrate an effect on HCV RNA stability by the HuR protein. These interactions may be necessary for the establishment of chronic active infections that may develop into cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:10964780

  20. ADAR Proteins: Double-stranded RNA and Z-DNA Binding Domains

    PubMed Central

    Barraud, Pierre; Allain, Frédéric H.-T

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze adenosine to inosine editing within double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) substrates. Inosine is read as a guanine by most cellular processes and therefore these changes create codons for a different amino acid, stop codons or even a new splice-site allowing protein diversity generated from a single gene. We are reviewing here the current structural and molecular knowledge on RNA editing by the ADAR family of protein. We focus especially on two types of nucleic acid binding domains present in ADARs, namely the double-stranded RNA and Z-DNA binding domains. PMID:21728134

  1. Nanog RNA-binding proteins YBX1 and ILF3 affect pluripotency of embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chuanliang; Xue, Yan; Yang, Guanheng; Yin, Shang; Shi, Wansheng; Cheng, Yan; Yan, Xiaoshuang; Fan, Shuyue; Zhang, Huijun; Zeng, Fanyi

    2016-08-01

    Nanog is a well-known transcription factor that plays a fundamental role in stem cell self-renewal and the maintenance of their pluripotent cell identity. There remains a large data gap with respect to the spectrum of the key pluripotency transcription factors' interaction partners. Limited information is available concerning Nanog-associated RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), and the intrinsic protein-RNA interactions characteristic of the regulatory activities of Nanog. Herein, we used an improved affinity protocol to purify Nanog-interacting RBPs from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and 49 RBPs of Nanog were identified. Among them, the interaction of YBX1 and ILF3 with Nanog mRNA was further confirmed by in vitro assays, such as Western blot, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), and ex vivo methods, such as immunofluorescence staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), MS2 in vivo biotin-tagged RNA affinity purification (MS2-BioTRAP). Interestingly, RNAi studies revealed that YBX1 and ILF3 positively affected the expression of Nanog and other pluripotency-related genes. Particularly, downregulation of YBX1 or ILF3 resulted in high expression of mesoderm markers. Thus, a reduction in the expression of YBX1 and ILF3 controls the expression of pluripotency-related genes in ESCs, suggesting their roles in further regulation of the pluripotent state of ESCs. PMID:26289635

  2. Locating the binding sites of antioxidants resveratrol, genistein and curcumin with tRNA.

    PubMed

    N'soukpoé-Kossi, C N; Bourassa, P; Mandeville, J S; Bekale, L; Bariyanga, J; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2015-09-01

    We located the binding sites of antioxidants resveratrol, genistein and curcumin on tRNA in aqueous solution at physiological conditions using constant tRNA concentration and various polyphenol contents. FTIR, UV-visible, CD spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling were used to determine polyphenol binding sites, the binding constant and the effects of polyphenol complexation on tRNA conformation and particle formation. Structural analysis showed that polyphenols bind tRNA via G-C and A-U base pairs through hydrophilic, hydrophobic and H-bonding contacts with overall binding constants of K(res-tRNA)=8.95(±0.80)×10(3) M(-1), K(gen-tRNA)=3.07(±0.5)×10(3) M(-1) and K(cur-tRNA)=1.55(±0.3)×10(4) M(-1). Molecular modeling showed the participation of several nucleobases in polyphenol-tRNA adduct formation with free binding energy of -4.43 for resveratrol, -4.26 kcal/mol for genistein and -4.84 kcal/mol for curcumin, indicating that the interaction process is spontaneous at room temperature. While tRNA remains in A-family structure, major biopolymer aggregation and particle formation occurred at high polyphenol contents. PMID:26093317

  3. Structural Divergence of the Group I Intron Binding Surface in Fungal Mitochondrial Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetases That Function in RNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Lamech, Lilian T; Saoji, Maithili; Paukstelis, Paul J; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2016-05-27

    The mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases (mtTyrRSs) of Pezizomycotina fungi, a subphylum that includes many pathogenic species, are bifunctional proteins that both charge mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr) and act as splicing cofactors for autocatalytic group I introns. Previous studies showed that one of these proteins, Neurospora crassa CYT-18, binds group I introns by using both its N-terminal catalytic and C-terminal anticodon binding domains and that the catalytic domain uses a newly evolved group I intron binding surface that includes an N-terminal extension and two small insertions (insertions 1 and 2) with distinctive features not found in non-splicing mtTyrRSs. To explore how this RNA binding surface diverged to accommodate different group I introns in other Pezizomycotina fungi, we determined x-ray crystal structures of C-terminally truncated Aspergillus nidulans and Coccidioides posadasii mtTyrRSs. Comparisons with previous N. crassa CYT-18 structures and a structural model of the Aspergillus fumigatus mtTyrRS showed that the overall topology of the group I intron binding surface is conserved but with variations in key intron binding regions, particularly the Pezizomycotina-specific insertions. These insertions, which arose by expansion of flexible termini or internal loops, show greater variation in structure and amino acids potentially involved in group I intron binding than do neighboring protein core regions, which also function in intron binding but may be more constrained to preserve mtTyrRS activity. Our results suggest a structural basis for the intron specificity of different Pezizomycotina mtTyrRSs, highlight flexible terminal and loop regions as major sites for enzyme diversification, and identify targets for therapeutic intervention by disrupting an essential RNA-protein interaction in pathogenic fungi. PMID:27036943

  4. Impact of Genetic Variation in MicroRNA-binding Site on Susceptibility to Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byung Woog; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Chae, Yee Soo; Lee, Soo Jung; Park, Jun Seok; Choi, Gyu Seog; Kim, Jong Gwang

    2016-07-01

    The present study analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located at putative microRNA(miRNA)-binding sites of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) in different genes and investigated their impact on the susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). Ninety-two SNPs were selected using an in silico analysis of 3'-UTR SNPs in an SNP database and their miRNA binding efficiency was calculated using several miRNA databases and the HapMap database. Two independent study sets were used: 380 healthy controls and 371 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma for the discovery set, and 521 healthy controls and 524 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma for the validation set. The SNP genotyping was performed using a Sequenom MassARRAY. In addition, a luciferase assay was used to investigate whether miR-370 modulated docking protein 3 (DOK3) gene expression when rs2279398G>A was included in the DOK3 3'-UTR region. For the discovery set, 16 out of 92 SNPs were significantly associated with the risk of CRC in at least one of the genetic models. The validation set showed that among these 16 SNPs, DOK3 rs2279398G>A was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC in a recessive model [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.44-0.97, p=0.03]. In a combined analysis, DOK3 rs2279398G>A was associated with a significantly reduced risk of CRC in a co-dominant and recessive model (aOR=0.84, 95% CI=0.73-0.96, p=0.012; aOR=0.65, CI=0.49-0.88, p=0.004, respectively). Significantly lower Renilla activity was also observed with the rs2279398 AA construct when compared to the rs2279398 GG construct (p<0.001). DOK3 rs2279398G>A may affect the expression of DOK3 by altering the miRNA binding efficiency at the miRNA-binding sites of the 3'-UTR in DOK3, thereby impacting CRC tumorigenesis. PMID:27354594

  5. Poly(A) RNA and Paip2 act as allosteric regulators of poly(A)-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Oh, Jungsic; Park, Jonghyun; Paek, Ki Young; Rho, Sangchul; Jang, Sung Key; Lee, Jong-Bong

    2014-02-01

    When bound to the 3' poly(A) tail of mRNA, poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) modulates mRNA translation and stability through its association with various proteins. By visualizing individual PABP molecules in real time, we found that PABP, containing four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), adopts a conformation on poly(A) binding in which RRM1 is in proximity to RRM4. This conformational change is due to the bending of the region between RRM2 and RRM3. PABP-interacting protein 2 actively disrupts the bent structure of PABP to the extended structure, resulting in the inhibition of PABP-poly(A) binding. These results suggest that the changes in the configuration of PABP induced by interactions with various effector molecules, such as poly(A) and PABP-interacting protein 2, play pivotal roles in its function. PMID:24293655

  6. Nuclear factor 90 uses an ADAR2-like binding mode to recognize specific bases in dsRNA

    PubMed Central

    Jayachandran, Uma; Grey, Heather; Cook, Atlanta G.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factors 90 and 45 (NF90 and NF45) form a protein complex involved in the post-transcriptional control of many genes in vertebrates. NF90 is a member of the dsRNA binding domain (dsRBD) family of proteins. RNA binding partners identified so far include elements in 3′ untranslated regions of specific mRNAs and several non-coding RNAs. In NF90, a tandem pair of dsRBDs separated by a natively unstructured segment confers dsRNA binding activity. We determined a crystal structure of the tandem dsRBDs of NF90 in complex with a synthetic dsRNA. This complex shows surprising similarity to the tandem dsRBDs from an adenosine-to-inosine editing enzyme, ADAR2 in complex with a substrate RNA. Residues involved in unusual base-specific recognition in the minor groove of dsRNA are conserved between NF90 and ADAR2. These data suggest that, like ADAR2, underlying sequences in dsRNA may influence how NF90 recognizes its target RNAs. PMID:26712564

  7. Nuclear factor 90 uses an ADAR2-like binding mode to recognize specific bases in dsRNA.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, Uma; Grey, Heather; Cook, Atlanta G

    2016-02-29

    Nuclear factors 90 and 45 (NF90 and NF45) form a protein complex involved in the post-transcriptional control of many genes in vertebrates. NF90 is a member of the dsRNA binding domain (dsRBD) family of proteins. RNA binding partners identified so far include elements in 3' untranslated regions of specific mRNAs and several non-coding RNAs. In NF90, a tandem pair of dsRBDs separated by a natively unstructured segment confers dsRNA binding activity. We determined a crystal structure of the tandem dsRBDs of NF90 in complex with a synthetic dsRNA. This complex shows surprising similarity to the tandem dsRBDs from an adenosine-to-inosine editing enzyme, ADAR2 in complex with a substrate RNA. Residues involved in unusual base-specific recognition in the minor groove of dsRNA are conserved between NF90 and ADAR2. These data suggest that, like ADAR2, underlying sequences in dsRNA may influence how NF90 recognizes its target RNAs. PMID:26712564

  8. Live Cell Genomics: RNA Exon-Specific RNA-Binding Protein Isolation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Thomas J; Eberwine, James

    2015-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are essential regulatory proteins that control all modes of RNA processing and regulation. New experimental approaches to isolate these indispensable proteins under in vivo conditions are needed to advance the field of RBP biology. Historically, in vitro biochemical approaches to isolate RBP complexes have been useful and productive, but biological relevance of the identified RBP complexes can be imprecise or erroneous. Here we review an inventive experimental to isolate RBPs under the in vivo conditions. The method is called peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-assisted identification of RBP (PAIR) technology and it uses cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) to deliver photo-activatible RBP-capture molecule to the cytoplasm of the live cells. The PAIR methodology provides two significant advantages over the most commonly used approaches: (1) it overcomes the in vitro limitation of standard biochemical approaches and (2) the PAIR RBP-capture molecule is highly selective and adaptable which allows investigators to isolate exon-specific RBP complexes. Most importantly, the in vivo capture conditions and selectivity of the RBP-capture molecule yield biologically accurate and relevant RBP data. PMID:26202289

  9. In Vitro Selection of a DNAzyme Cooperatively Binding Two Lanthanide Ions for RNA Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Vazin, Mahsa; Liu, Juewen

    2016-05-01

    Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)) were recently employed to select RNA-cleaving DNAzymes, and three new DNAzymes have been reported so far. In this work, dysprosium (Dy(3+)) was used with a library containing 50 random nucleotides. After six rounds of in vitro selection, a new DNAzyme named Dy10a was obtained and characterized. Dy10a has a bulged hairpin structure cleaving a RNA/DNA chimeric substrate. Dy10a is highly active in the presence of the five Ln(3+) ions in the middle of the lanthanide series (Sm(3+), Eu(3+), Gd(3+), Tb(3+), and Dy(3+)), while its activity descends on the two sides. The cleavage rate reaches 0.6 min(-1) at pH 6 with just 200 nM Sm(3+), which is the fastest among all known Ln(3+)-dependent enzymes. Dy10a binds two Ln(3+) ions cooperatively. When a phosphorothioate (PS) modification is introduced at the cleavage junction, the activity decreases by >2500-fold for both the Rp and Sp diastereomers, and thiophilic Cd(2+) cannot rescue the activity. The pH-rate profile has a slope of 0.37 between pH 4.2 and 5.2, and the slope was even lower at higher pH. On the basis of these data, a model of metal binding is proposed. Finally, a catalytic beacon sensor that can detect Ho(3+) down to 1.7 nM is constructed. PMID:27054549

  10. Regulation of transcription attenuation and translation initiation by allosteric control of an RNA-binding protein: the Bacillus subtilis TRAP protein.

    PubMed

    Babitzke, Paul

    2004-04-01

    Tryptophan allosterically controls the 11-subunit trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) of Bacillus subtilis. When activated by tryptophan, TRAP binds to multiple trinucleotide repeats in target transcripts. TRAP is responsible for the decision to terminate transcription in the leader region of the trpEDCFBA operon or to allow transcription to proceed into the structural genes. TRAP also regulates translation of trpE by promoting formation of an RNA structure that prevents ribosome binding. In addition, bound TRAP regulates translation initiation of pabA, trpP and ycbK by directly blocking ribosome binding. The anti-TRAP protein inhibits TRAP activity by competing with RNA for the RNA binding surface of TRAP. PMID:15063849

  11. MTHFSD and DDX58 are novel RNA-binding proteins abnormally regulated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    MacNair, Laura; Xiao, Shangxi; Miletic, Denise; Ghani, Mahdi; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Keith, Julia; Zinman, Lorne; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Robertson, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Tar DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is an RNA-binding protein normally localized to the nucleus of cells, where it elicits functions related to RNA metabolism such as transcriptional regulation and alternative splicing. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, TDP-43 is mislocalized from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of diseased motor neurons, forming ubiquitinated inclusions. Although mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43, TARDBP, are found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, these are rare. However, TDP-43 pathology is common to over 95% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases, suggesting that abnormalities of TDP-43 play an active role in disease pathogenesis. It is our hypothesis that a loss of TDP-43 from the nucleus of affected motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis will lead to changes in RNA processing and expression. Identifying these changes could uncover molecular pathways that underpin motor neuron degeneration. Here we have used translating ribosome affinity purification coupled with microarray analysis to identify the mRNAs being actively translated in motor neurons of mutant TDP-43(A315T) mice compared to age-matched non-transgenic littermates. No significant changes were found at 5 months (presymptomatic) of age, but at 10 months (symptomatic) the translational profile revealed significant changes in genes involved in RNA metabolic process, immune response and cell cycle regulation. Of 28 differentially expressed genes, seven had a ≥ 2-fold change; four were validated by immunofluorescence labelling of motor neurons in TDP-43(A315T) mice, and two of these were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases. Both of these identified genes, DDX58 and MTHFSD, are RNA-binding proteins, and we show that TDP-43 binds to their respective mRNAs and we identify MTHFSD as a novel component of stress granules. This discovery-based approach has for the first time revealed translational changes in motor neurons of a TDP-43 mouse model

  12. Specific binding of a HeLa cell nuclear protein to RNA sequences in the human immunodeficiency virus transactivating region.

    PubMed Central

    Gaynor, R; Soultanakis, E; Kuwabara, M; Garcia, J; Sigman, D S

    1989-01-01

    The transactivator protein, tat, encoded by the human immunodeficiency virus is a key regulator of viral transcription. Activation by the tat protein requires sequences downstream of the transcription initiation site called the transactivating region (TAR). RNA derived from the TAR is capable of forming a stable stem-loop structure and the maintenance of both the stem structure and the loop sequences located between +19 and +44 is required for complete in vivo activation by tat. Gel retardation assays with RNA from both wild-type and mutant TAR constructs generated in vitro with SP6 polymerase indicated specific binding of HeLa nuclear proteins to the TAR. To characterize this RNA-protein interaction, a method of chemical "imprinting" has been developed using photoactivated uranyl acetate as the nucleolytic agent. This reagent nicks RNA under physiological conditions at all four nucleotides in a reaction that is independent of sequence and secondary structure. Specific interaction of cellular proteins with TAR RNA could be detected by enhanced cleavages or imprints surrounding the loop region. Mutations that either disrupted stem base-pairing or extensively changed the primary sequence resulted in alterations in the cleavage pattern of the TAR RNA. Structural features of the TAR RNA stem-loop essential for tat activation are also required for specific binding of the HeLa cell nuclear protein. Images PMID:2544877

  13. Allosteric inhibition of a stem cell RNA-binding protein by an intermediary metabolite

    PubMed Central

    Clingman, Carina C; Deveau, Laura M; Hay, Samantha A; Genga, Ryan M; Shandilya, Shivender MD; Massi, Francesca; Ryder, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression and metabolism are coupled at numerous levels. Cells must sense and respond to nutrients in their environment, and specialized cells must synthesize metabolic products required for their function. Pluripotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of specialized cells. How metabolic state contributes to stem cell differentiation is not understood. In this study, we show that RNA-binding by the stem cell translation regulator Musashi-1 (MSI1) is allosterically inhibited by 18–22 carbon ω-9 monounsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid binds to the N-terminal RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) and induces a conformational change that prevents RNA association. Musashi proteins are critical for development of the brain, blood, and epithelium. We identify stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 as a MSI1 target, revealing a feedback loop between ω-9 fatty acid biosynthesis and MSI1 activity. We propose that other RRM proteins could act as metabolite sensors to couple gene expression changes to physiological state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02848.001 PMID:24935936

  14. Targeted inhibition of oncogenic miR-21 maturation with designed RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Yang, Fan; Zubovic, Lorena; Pavelitz, Tom; Yang, Wen; Godin, Katherine; Walker, Matthew; Zheng, Suxin; Macchi, Paolo; Varani, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    The RNA recognition motif (RRM) is the largest family of eukaryotic RNA-binding proteins. Engineered RRMs with well-defined specificity would provide valuable tools and an exacting test of the current understanding of specificity. We have redesigned the specificity of an RRM using rational methods and demonstrated retargeting of its activity in cells. We engineered the conserved RRM of human Rbfox proteins to specifically bind to the terminal loop of a microRNA precursor (pre-miR-21) with high affinity and inhibit its processing by Drosha and Dicer. We further engineered Giardia Dicer by replacing its PAZ domain with the designed RRM. The reprogrammed enzyme degrades pre-miR-21 specifically in vitro and suppresses mature miR-21 levels in cells, which results in increased expression of the tumor suppressor PDCD4 and significantly decreased viability for cancer cells. The results demonstrate the feasibility of rationally engineering the sequence-specificity of RRMs and of using this ubiquitous platform for diverse biological applications. PMID:27428511

  15. Mutational Analysis of Vaccinia Virus E3 Protein: the Biological Functions Do Not Correlate with Its Biochemical Capacity To Bind Double-Stranded RNA

    PubMed Central

    Dueck, Kevin J.; Hu, YuanShen (Sandy); Chen, Peter; Deschambault, Yvon; Lee, Jocelyn; Varga, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccinia E3 protein has the biochemical capacity of binding to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The best characterized biological functions of the E3 protein include its host range function, suppression of cytokine expression, and inhibition of interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral activity. Currently, the role of the dsRNA binding capacity in the biological functions of the E3 protein is not clear. To further understand the mechanism of the E3 protein biological functions, we performed alanine scanning of the entire dsRNA binding domain of the E3 protein to examine the link between its biochemical capacity of dsRNA binding and biological functions. Of the 115 mutants examined, 20 were defective in dsRNA binding. Although the majority of the mutants defective in dsRNA binding also showed defective replication in HeLa cells, nine mutants (I105A, Y125A, E138A, F148A, F159A, K171A, L182A, L183A, and I187/188A) retained the host range function to various degrees. Further examination of a set of representative E3L mutants showed that residues essential for dsRNA binding are not essential for the biological functions of E3 protein, such as inhibition of protein kinase R (PKR) activation, suppression of cytokine expression, and apoptosis. Thus, data described in this communication strongly indicate the E3 protein performs its biological functions via a novel mechanism which does not correlate with its dsRNA binding activity. IMPORTANCE dsRNAs produced during virus replication are important pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for inducing antiviral immune responses. One of the strategies used by many viruses to counteract such antiviral immune responses is achieved by producing dsRNA binding proteins, such as poxvirus E3 family proteins, influenza virus NS1, and Ebola virus V35 proteins. The most widely accepted model for the biological functions of this class of viral dsRNA binding proteins is that they bind to and sequester viral dsRNA PAMPs; thus, they

  16. MBSTAR: multiple instance learning for predicting specific functional binding sites in microRNA targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Ghosh, Dip; Mitra, Ramkrishna; Zhao, Zhongming

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) regulates gene expression by binding to specific sites in the 3'untranslated regions of its target genes. Machine learning based miRNA target prediction algorithms first extract a set of features from potential binding sites (PBSs) in the mRNA and then train a classifier to distinguish targets from non-targets. However, they do not consider whether the PBSs are functional or not, and consequently result in high false positive rates. This substantially affects the follow up functional validation by experiments. We present a novel machine learning based approach, MBSTAR (Multiple instance learning of Binding Sites of miRNA TARgets), for accurate prediction of true or functional miRNA binding sites. Multiple instance learning framework is adopted to handle the lack of information about the actual binding sites in the target mRNAs. Biologically validated 9531 interacting and 973 non-interacting miRNA-mRNA pairs are identified from Tarbase 6.0 and confirmed with PAR-CLIP dataset. It is found that MBSTAR achieves the highest number of binding sites overlapping with PAR-CLIP with maximum F-Score of 0.337. Compared to the other methods, MBSTAR also predicts target mRNAs with highest accuracy. The tool and genome wide predictions are available at http://www.isical.ac.in/~bioinfo_miu/MBStar30.htm.

  17. Position-specific binding of FUS to nascent RNA regulates mRNA length

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Akio; Takeda, Jun-ichi; Okuno, Tatsuya; Okamoto, Takaaki; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ito, Mikako; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Sobue, Gen

    2015-01-01

    More than half of all human genes produce prematurely terminated polyadenylated short mRNAs. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. CLIP-seq (cross-linking immunoprecipitation [CLIP] combined with deep sequencing) of FUS (fused in sarcoma) in neuronal cells showed that FUS is frequently clustered around an alternative polyadenylation (APA) site of nascent RNA. ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] combined with deep sequencing) of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) demonstrated that FUS stalls RNAP II and prematurely terminates transcription. When an APA site is located upstream of an FUS cluster, FUS enhances polyadenylation by recruiting CPSF160 and up-regulates the alternative short transcript. In contrast, when an APA site is located downstream from an FUS cluster, polyadenylation is not activated, and the RNAP II-suppressing effect of FUS leads to down-regulation of the alternative short transcript. CAGE-seq (cap analysis of gene expression [CAGE] combined with deep sequencing) and PolyA-seq (a strand-specific and quantitative method for high-throughput sequencing of 3' ends of polyadenylated transcripts) revealed that position-specific regulation of mRNA lengths by FUS is operational in two-thirds of transcripts in neuronal cells, with enrichment in genes involved in synaptic activities. PMID:25995189

  18. From face to interface recognition: a differential geometric approach to distinguish DNA from RNA binding surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shazman, Shula; Elber, Gershon; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2011-01-01

    Protein nucleic acid interactions play a critical role in all steps of the gene expression pathway. Nucleic acid (NA) binding proteins interact with their partners, DNA or RNA, via distinct regions on their surface that are characterized by an ensemble of chemical, physical and geometrical properties. In this study, we introduce a novel methodology based on differential geometry, commonly used in face recognition, to characterize and predict NA binding surfaces on proteins. Applying the method on experimentally solved three-dimensional structures of proteins we successfully classify double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) binding proteins, with 83% accuracy. We show that the method is insensitive to conformational changes that occur upon binding and can be applicable for de novo protein-function prediction. Remarkably, when concentrating on the zinc finger motif, we distinguish successfully between RNA and DNA binding interfaces possessing the same binding motif even within the same protein, as demonstrated for the RNA polymerase transcription-factor, TFIIIA. In conclusion, we present a novel methodology to characterize protein surfaces, which can accurately tell apart dsDNA from an ssRNA binding interfaces. The strength of our method in recognizing fine-tuned differences on NA binding interfaces make it applicable for many other molecular recognition problems, with potential implications for drug design. PMID:21693557

  19. Identification of neomycin B-binding site in T box antiterminator model RNA.

    PubMed

    Anupam, Rajaneesh; Denapoli, Leyna; Muchenditsi, Abigael; Hines, Jennifer V

    2008-04-15

    The T box transcription antitermination mechanism regulates the expression of unique genes in many Gram-positive bacteria by responding, in a magnesium-dependent manner, to uncharged cognate tRNA base pairing with an antiterminator RNA element and other regions of the 5'-untranslated region. Model T box antiterminator RNA is known to bind aminoglycosides, ligands that typically bind RNA in divalent metal ion-binding sites. In this study, enzymatic footprinting and spectroscopic assays were used to identify and characterize the binding site of neomycin B to an antiterminator model RNA. Neomycin B binds the antiterminator bulge nucleotides in an electrostatic-dependent manner and displaces 3-4 monovalent cations, indicating that the antiterminator likely contains a divalent metal ion-binding site. Neomycin B facilitates rather than inhibits tRNA binding indicating that bulge-targeted inhibitors that bind the antiterminator via non-electrostatic interactions may be the more optimal candidates for antiterminator-targeted ligand design. PMID:18329274

  20. From face to interface recognition: a differential geometric approach to distinguish DNA from RNA binding surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shazman, Shula; Elber, Gershon; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2011-09-01

    Protein nucleic acid interactions play a critical role in all steps of the gene expression pathway. Nucleic acid (NA) binding proteins interact with their partners, DNA or RNA, via distinct regions on their surface that are characterized by an ensemble of chemical, physical and geometrical properties. In this study, we introduce a novel methodology based on differential geometry, commonly used in face recognition, to characterize and predict NA binding surfaces on proteins. Applying the method on experimentally solved three-dimensional structures of proteins we successfully classify double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) binding proteins, with 83% accuracy. We show that the method is insensitive to conformational changes that occur upon binding and can be applicable for de novo protein-function prediction. Remarkably, when concentrating on the zinc finger motif, we distinguish successfully between RNA and DNA binding interfaces possessing the same binding motif even within the same protein, as demonstrated for the RNA polymerase transcription-factor, TFIIIA. In conclusion, we present a novel methodology to characterize protein surfaces, which can accurately tell apart dsDNA from an ssRNA binding interfaces. The strength of our method in recognizing fine-tuned differences on NA binding interfaces make it applicable for many other molecular recognition problems, with potential implications for drug design. PMID:21693557

  1. Functional requirements of AID's higher order structures and their interaction with RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Samiran; Begum, Nasim A; Hu, Wenjun; Honjo, Tasuku

    2016-03-15

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for the somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of Ig genes. Although both the N and C termini of AID have unique functions in DNA cleavage and recombination, respectively, during SHM and CSR, their molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay combined with glycerol gradient fractionation, we revealed that the AID C terminus is required for a stable dimer formation. Furthermore, AID monomers and dimers form complexes with distinct heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). AID monomers associate with DNA cleavage cofactor hnRNP K whereas AID dimers associate with recombination cofactors hnRNP L, hnRNP U, and Serpine mRNA-binding protein 1. All of these AID/ribonucleoprotein associations are RNA-dependent. We propose that AID's structure-specific cofactor complex formations differentially contribute to its DNA-cleavage and recombination functions. PMID:26929374

  2. Structure and RNA-binding properties of the bacterial LSm protein Hfq

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) emerged as important modulators of gene expression in bacteria. Guided by partial sequence complementarity, these sRNAs interact with target mRNAs and eventually affect transcript stability and translation. The physiological function of sRNAs depends on the protein Hfq, which binds sRNAs in the cell and promotes the interaction with their mRNA targets. This important physiological function of Hfq as a central hub of sRNA-mediated regulation made it one of the most intensely studied proteins in bacteria. Recently, a new model for sRNA binding by Hfq has been proposed that involves the direct recognition of the sRNA 3′ end and interactions of the sRNA body with the lateral RNA-binding surface of Hfq. This review summarizes the current understanding of the RNA binding properties of Hfq and its (s)RNA complexes. Moreover, the implications of the new binding model for sRNA-mediated regulation are discussed. PMID:23535768

  3. A model for the study of ligand binding to the ribosomal RNA helix h44

    SciTech Connect

    Dibrov, Sergey M.; Parsons, Jerod; Hermann, Thomas

    2010-09-02

    Oligonucleotide models of ribosomal RNA domains are powerful tools to study the binding and molecular recognition of antibiotics that interfere with bacterial translation. Techniques such as selective chemical modification, fluorescence labeling and mutations are cumbersome for the whole ribosome but readily applicable to model RNAs, which are readily crystallized and often give rise to higher resolution crystal structures suitable for detailed analysis of ligand-RNA interactions. Here, we have investigated the HX RNA construct which contains two adjacent ligand binding regions of helix h44 in 16S ribosomal RNA. High-resolution crystal structure analysis confirmed that the HX RNA is a faithful structural model of the ribosomal target. Solution studies showed that HX RNA carrying a fluorescent 2-aminopurine modification provides a model system that can be used to monitor ligand binding to both the ribosomal decoding site and, through an indirect effect, the hygromycin B interaction region.

  4. Structures of the Bacterial Ribosome in Classical and Hybrid States of tRNA Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkle, Jack A.; Wang, Leyi; Feldman, Michael B.; Pulk, Arto; Chen, Vincent B.; Kapral, Gary J.; Noeske, Jonas; Richardson, Jane S.; Blanchard, Scott C.; Cate, Jamie H. Doudna

    2011-09-06

    During protein synthesis, the ribosome controls the movement of tRNA and mRNA by means of large-scale structural rearrangements. We describe structures of the intact bacterial ribosome from Escherichia coli that reveal how the ribosome binds tRNA in two functionally distinct states, determined to a resolution of {approx}3.2 angstroms by means of x-ray crystallography. One state positions tRNA in the peptidyl-tRNA binding site. The second, a fully rotated state, is stabilized by ribosome recycling factor and binds tRNA in a highly bent conformation in a hybrid peptidyl/exit site. The structures help to explain how the ratchet-like motion of the two ribosomal subunits contributes to the mechanisms of translocation, termination, and ribosome recycling.

  5. G-quadruplex RNA binding and recognition by the lysine-specific histone demethylase-1 enzyme.

    PubMed

    Hirschi, Alexander; Martin, William J; Luka, Zigmund; Loukachevitch, Lioudmila V; Reiter, Nicholas J

    2016-08-01

    Lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) is an essential epigenetic regulator in metazoans and requires the co-repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (CoREST) to efficiently catalyze the removal of mono- and dimethyl functional groups from histone 3 at lysine positions 4 and 9 (H3K4/9). LSD1 interacts with over 60 regulatory proteins and also associates with lncRNAs (TERRA, HOTAIR), suggesting a regulatory role for RNA in LSD1 function. We report that a stacked, intramolecular G-quadruplex (GQ) forming TERRA RNA (GG[UUAGGG]8UUA) binds tightly to the functional LSD1-CoREST complex (Kd ≈ 96 nM), in contrast to a single GQ RNA unit ([UUAGGG]4U), a GQ DNA ([TTAGGG]4T), or an unstructured single-stranded RNA. Stabilization of a parallel-stranded GQ RNA structure by monovalent potassium ions (K(+)) is required for high affinity binding to the LSD1-CoREST complex. These data indicate that LSD1 can distinguish between RNA and DNA as well as structured versus unstructured nucleotide motifs. Further, cross-linking mass spectrometry identified the primary location of GQ RNA binding within the SWIRM/amine oxidase domain (AOD) of LSD1. An ssRNA binding region adjacent to this GQ binding site was also identified via X-ray crystallography. This RNA binding interface is consistent with kinetic assays, demonstrating that a GQ-forming RNA can serve as a noncompetitive inhibitor of LSD1-catalyzed demethylation. The identification of a GQ RNA binding site coupled with kinetic data suggests that structured RNAs can function as regulatory molecules in LSD1-mediated mechanisms. PMID:27277658

  6. PUB1: a major yeast poly(A)+ RNA-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Matunis, M J; Matunis, E L; Dreyfuss, G

    1993-01-01

    The expression of RNA polymerase II transcripts can be regulated at the posttranscriptional level by RNA-binding proteins. Although extensively characterized in metazoans, relatively few RNA-binding proteins have been characterized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three major proteins are cross-linked by UV light to poly(A)+ RNA in living S. cerevisiae cells. These are the 72-kDa poly(A)-binding protein and proteins of 60 and 50 kDa (S.A. Adam, T.Y. Nakagawa, M.S. Swanson, T. Woodruff, and G. Dreyfuss, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:2932-2943, 1986). Here, we describe the 60-kDa protein, one of the major poly(A)+ RNA-binding proteins in S. cerevisiae. This protein, PUB1 [for poly(U)-binding protein 1], was purified by affinity chromatography on immobilized poly(rU), and specific monoclonal antibodies to it were produced. UV cross-linking demonstrated that PUB1 is bound to poly(A)+ RNA (mRNA or pre-mRNA) in living cells, and it was detected primarily in the cytoplasm by indirect immunofluorescence. The gene for PUB1 was cloned and sequenced, and the sequence was found to predict a 51-kDa protein with three ribonucleoprotein consensus RNA-binding domains and three glutamine- and asparagine-rich auxiliary domains. This overall structure is remarkably similar to the structures of the Drosophila melanogaster elav gene product, the human neuronal antigen HuD, and the cytolytic lymphocyte protein TIA-1. Each of these proteins has an important role in development and differentiation, potentially by affecting RNA processing. PUB1 was found to be nonessential in S. cerevisiae by gene replacement; however, further genetic analysis should reveal important features of this class of RNA-binding proteins. Images PMID:8413213

  7. A domain in the N-terminal extension of class IIb eukaryotic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases is important for tRNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Frugier, Magali; Moulinier, Luc; Giegé, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Cytoplasmic aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (AspRS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a homodimer of 64 kDa subunits. Previous studies have emphasized the high sensitivity of the N-terminal region to proteolytic cleavage, leading to truncated species that have lost the first 20–70 residues but that retain enzymatic activity and dimeric structure. In this work, we demonstrate that the N-terminal extension in yeast AspRS participates in tRNA binding and we generalize this finding to eukaryotic class IIb aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. By gel retardation studies and footprinting experiments on yeast tRNAAsp, we show that the extension, connected to the anticodon-binding module of the synthetase, contacts tRNA on the minor groove side of its anticodon stem. Sequence comparison of eukaryotic class IIb synthetases identifies a lysine-rich 11 residue sequence (29LSKKALKKLQK39 in yeast AspRS with the consensus xSKxxLKKxxK in class IIb synthetases) that is important for this binding. Direct proof of the role of this sequence comes from a mutagenesis analysis and from binding studies using the isolated peptide. PMID:10811628

  8. Potent hepatitis C inhibitors bind directly to NS5A and reduce its affinity for RNA.

    PubMed

    Ascher, David B; Wielens, Jerome; Nero, Tracy L; Doughty, Larissa; Morton, Craig J; Parker, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects more than 170 million people. The high genetic variability of HCV and the rapid development of drug-resistant strains are driving the urgent search for new direct-acting antiviral agents. A new class of agents has recently been developed that are believed to target the HCV protein NS5A although precisely where they interact and how they affect function is unknown. Here we describe an in vitro assay based on microscale thermophoresis and demonstrate that two clinically relevant inhibitors bind tightly to NS5A domain 1 and inhibit RNA binding. Conversely, RNA binding inhibits compound binding. The compounds bind more weakly to known resistance mutants L31V and Y93H. The compounds do not affect NS5A dimerisation. We propose that current NS5A inhibitors act by favouring a dimeric structure of NS5A that does not bind RNA. PMID:24755925

  9. Potent hepatitis C inhibitors bind directly to NS5A and reduce its affinity for RNA

    PubMed Central

    Ascher, David B.; Wielens, Jerome; Nero, Tracy L.; Doughty, Larissa; Morton, Craig J.; Parker, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects more than 170 million people. The high genetic variability of HCV and the rapid development of drug-resistant strains are driving the urgent search for new direct-acting antiviral agents. A new class of agents has recently been developed that are believed to target the HCV protein NS5A although precisely where they interact and how they affect function is unknown. Here we describe an in vitro assay based on microscale thermophoresis and demonstrate that two clinically relevant inhibitors bind tightly to NS5A domain 1 and inhibit RNA binding. Conversely, RNA binding inhibits compound binding. The compounds bind more weakly to known resistance mutants L31V and Y93H. The compounds do not affect NS5A dimerisation. We propose that current NS5A inhibitors act by favouring a dimeric structure of NS5A that does not bind RNA. PMID:24755925

  10. Structure, dynamics and RNA binding of the multi-domain splicing factor TIA-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Iren; Hennig, Janosch; Jagtap, Pravin Kumar Ankush; Sonntag, Miriam; Valcárcel, Juan; Sattler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alternative pre-messenger ribonucleic acid (pre-mRNA) splicing is an essential process in eukaryotic gene regulation. The T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is an apoptosis-promoting factor that modulates alternative splicing of transcripts, including the pre-mRNA encoding the membrane receptor Fas. TIA-1 is a multi-domain ribonucleic acid (RNA) binding protein that recognizes poly-uridine tract RNA sequences to facilitate 5′ splice site recognition by the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP). Here, we characterize the RNA interaction and conformational dynamics of TIA-1 by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our NMR-derived solution structure of TIA-1 RRM2–RRM3 (RRM2,3) reveals that RRM2 adopts a canonical RNA recognition motif (RRM) fold, while RRM3 is preceded by an non-canonical helix α0. NMR and SAXS data show that all three RRMs are largely independent structural modules in the absence of RNA, while RNA binding induces a compact arrangement. RRM2,3 binds to pyrimidine-rich FAS pre-mRNA or poly-uridine (U9) RNA with nanomolar affinities. RRM1 has little intrinsic RNA binding affinity and does not strongly contribute to RNA binding in the context of RRM1,2,3. Our data unravel the role of binding avidity and the contributions of the TIA-1 RRMs for recognition of pyrimidine-rich RNAs. PMID:24682828

  11. Binding by TRBP-dsRBD2 Does Not Induce Bending of Double-Stranded RNA.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Roderico; Evans, Declan; Penrod, Katheryn A; Showalter, Scott A

    2016-06-21

    Protein-nucleic acid interactions are central to a variety of biological processes, many of which involve large-scale conformational changes that lead to bending of the nucleic acid helix. Here, we focus on the nonsequence-specific protein TRBP, whose double-stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) interact with the A-form geometry of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Crystal structures of dsRBD-dsRNA interactions suggest that the dsRNA helix must bend in such a way that its major groove expands to conform to the dsRBD's binding surface. We show through isothermal titration calorimetry experiments that dsRBD2 of TRBP binds dsRNA with a temperature-independent observed binding affinity (KD ∼500 nM). Furthermore, a near-zero observed heat capacity change (ΔCp = 70 ± 40 cal·mol(-1)·K(-1)) suggests that large-scale conformational changes do not occur upon binding. This result is bolstered by molecular-dynamics simulations in which dsRBD-dsRNA interactions generate only modest bending of the RNA along its helical axis. Overall, these results suggest that this particular dsRBD-dsRNA interaction produces little to no change in the A-form geometry of dsRNA in solution. These results further support our previous hypothesis, based on extensive gel-shift assays, that TRBP preferentially binds to sites of nearly ideal A-form structure while being excluded from sites of local deformation in the RNA helical structure. The implications of this mechanism for efficient micro-RNA processing will be discussed. PMID:27332119

  12. Theoretical structures and binding energies of RNA-RNA/cyanine dyes and spectroscopic properties of cyanine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaeh, Salsabila; Chong, Wei Lim; Dokmaisrijan, Supaporn; Payaka, Apirak; Yana, Janchai; Nimmanpipug, Piyarat; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Dumri, Kanchana; Anh, Dau Hung

    2014-10-01

    Cyanine dyes have been widely used as a fluorescence probe for biomolecules and protein labeling. The mostly used cyanine dyes for nucleic acids labeling are DiSC2(3), DiSC2(5), and DiSC2(7). The possible structures and binding energies of RNA-RNA/Cyanine dyes were predicted theoretically using AutoDock Vina. The results showed that cyanine dyes and bases of RNA-RNA have the van der Waals and pi-pi interactions. The maximum absorption wavelength in the visible region obtained from the TD-DFT calculations of all cyanine dyes in the absence of the RNA-RNA double strand showed the bathochromic shift.

  13. A G-Quadruplex-Containing RNA Activates Fluorescence in a GFP-Like Fluorophore

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Suslov, Nikolai B.; Li, Nan-Sheng; Shelke, Sandip A.; Evans, Molly E.; Koldobskaya, Yelena; Rice, Phoebe A.; Piccirilli, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Spinach is an in vitro selected RNA aptamer that binds a GFP-like ligand and activates its green fluorescence.Spinach is thus an RNA analog of GFP, and has potentially widespread applications for in vivo labeling and imaging. We used antibody-assisted crystallography to determine the structures of Spinach both with and without bound fluorophore at 2.2 and 2.4 Å resolution, respectively. Spinach RNA has an elongated structure containing two helical domains separated by an internal bulge that folds into a G-quadruplex motif of unusual topology. The G-quadruplex motif and adjacent nucleotides comprise a partially pre-formed binding site for the fluorophore.The fluorophore binds in a planar conformation and makes extensive aromatic stacking and hydrogen bond interactions with the RNA. Our findings provide a foundation for structure-based engineering of new fluorophore-binding RNA aptamers. PMID:24952597

  14. A G-quadruplex-containing RNA activates fluorescence in a GFP-like fluorophore

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hao; Suslov, Nikolai B.; Li, Nan-Sheng; Shelke, Sandip A.; Evans, Molly E.; Koldobskaya, Yelena; Rice, Phoebe A.; Piccirilli, Joseph A.

    2014-08-21

    Spinach is an in vitro–selected RNA aptamer that binds a GFP-like ligand and activates its green fluorescence. Spinach is thus an RNA analog of GFP and has potentially widespread applications for in vivo labeling and imaging. We used antibody-assisted crystallography to determine the structures of Spinach both with and without bound fluorophore at 2.2-Å and 2.4-Å resolution, respectively. Spinach RNA has an elongated structure containing two helical domains separated by an internal bulge that folds into a G-quadruplex motif of unusual topology. The G-quadruplex motif and adjacent nucleotides comprise a partially preformed binding site for the fluorophore. The fluorophore binds in a planar conformation and makes extensive aromatic stacking and hydrogen bond interactions with the RNA. Our findings provide a foundation for structure-based engineering of new fluorophore-binding RNA aptamers.

  15. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the RNA-binding domains of the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein FOG-1 are needed to regulate germ cell fates.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S W; Arno, N; Cohen, A; Shah, A; Xu, Q; Chen, N; Ellis, R E

    2001-01-01

    FOG-1 controls germ cell fates in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Sequence analyses revealed that FOG-1 is a cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding (CPEB) protein; similar proteins from other species have been shown to bind messenger RNAs and regulate their translation. Our analyses of fog-1 mutations indicate that each of the three RNA-binding domains of FOG-1 is essential for activity. In addition, biochemical tests show that FOG-1 is capable of binding RNA sequences in the 3'-untranslated region of its own message. Finally, genetic assays reveal that fog-1 functions zygotically, that the small fog-1 transcript has no detectable function, and that missense mutations in fog-1 cause a dominant negative phenotype. This last observation suggests that FOG-1 acts in a complex, or as a multimer, to regulate translation. On the basis of these data, we propose that FOG-1 binds RNA to regulate germ cell fates and that it does so by controlling the translation of its targets. One of these targets might be the fog-1 transcript itself. PMID:11779801

  16. Tobacco rattle virus 16K silencing suppressor binds ARGONAUTE 4 and inhibits formation of RNA silencing complexes.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Calvino, Lourdes; Martínez-Priego, Llúcia; Szabo, Edit Z; Guzmán-Benito, Irene; González, Inmaculada; Canto, Tomás; Lakatos, Lóránt; Llave, César

    2016-01-01

    The cysteine-rich 16K protein of tobacco rattle virus (TRV), the type member of the genus Tobravirus, is known to suppress RNA silencing. However, the mechanism of action of the 16K suppressor is not well understood. In this study, we used a GFP-based sensor strategy and an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay in Nicotiana benthamiana to show that 16K was unable to inhibit the activity of existing small interfering RNA (siRNA)- and microRNA (miRNA)-programmed RNA-induced silencing effector complexes (RISCs). In contrast, 16K efficiently interfered with de novo formation of miRNA- and siRNA-guided RISCs, thus preventing cleavage of target RNA. Interestingly, we found that transiently expressed endogenous miR399 and miR172 directed sequence-specific silencing of complementary sequences of viral origin. 16K failed to bind small RNAs, although it interacted with ARGONAUTE 4, as revealed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation and immunoprecipitation assays. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that highly conserved cysteine residues within the N-terminal and central regions of the 16K protein are required for protein stability and/or RNA silencing suppression. PMID:26498945

  17. The NS3 protein of Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus suppresses RNA silencing in plant and insect hosts by efficiently binding both siRNAs and miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hemmes, Hans; Lakatos, Lóránt; Goldbach, Rob; Burgyán, József; Prins, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    RNA silencing plays a key role in antiviral defense as well as in developmental processes in plants and insects. Negative strand RNA viruses such as the plant virus Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus (RHBV) replicate in plants and in their insect transmission vector. Like most plant-infecting viruses, RHBV encodes an RNA silencing suppressor, the NS3 protein, and here it is demonstrated that this protein is capable of suppressing RNA silencing in both plants and insect cells. Biochemical analyses showed that NS3 efficiently binds siRNA as well as miRNA molecules. Binding of NS3 is greatly influenced by the size of small RNA molecules, as 21 nucleotide (nt) siRNA molecules are bound > 100 times more efficiently than 26 nt species. Competition assays suggest that the activity of NS3 is based on binding to siRNAs prior to strand separation during the assembly of the RNA-induced silencing complex. In addition, NS3 has a high affinity for miRNA/miRNA* duplexes, indicating that its activity might also interfere with miRNA-regulated gene expression in both insects and plants. PMID:17513697

  18. RBFox2 Binds Nascent RNA to Globally Regulate Polycomb Complex 2 Targeting in Mammalian Genomes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chaoliang; Xiao, Rui; Chen, Liang; Cui, Hanwei; Zhou, Yu; Xue, Yuanchao; Hu, Jing; Zhou, Bing; Tsutsui, Taiki; Qiu, Jinsong; Li, Hairi; Tang, Liling; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2016-06-16

    Increasing evidence suggests that diverse RNA binding proteins (RBPs) interact with regulatory RNAs to regulate transcription. RBFox2 is a well-characterized pre-mRNA splicing regulator, but we now encounter an unexpected paradigm where depletion of this RBP induces widespread increase in nascent RNA production in diverse cell types. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) reveals extensive interaction of RBFox2 with chromatin in a nascent RNA-dependent manner. Bayesian network analysis connects RBFox2 to Polycomb complex 2 (PRC2) and H3K27me3, and biochemical experiments demonstrate the ability of RBFox2 to directly interact with PRC2. Strikingly, RBFox2 inactivation eradicates PRC2 targeting on the majority of bivalent gene promoters and leads to transcriptional de-repression. Together, these findings uncover a mechanism underlying the enigmatic association of PRC2 with numerous active genes, highlight the importance of gene body sequences to gauge transcriptional output, and suggest nascent RNAs as critical signals for transcriptional feedback control to maintain homeostatic gene expression in mammalian genomes. PMID:27211866

  19. Structure and semi-sequence-specific RNA binding of Nrd1

    PubMed Central

    Bacikova, Veronika; Pasulka, Josef; Kubicek, Karel; Stefl, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Nrd1-dependent termination and processing pathways play an important role in surveillance and processing of non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs). The termination and subsequent processing is dependent on the Nrd1 complex consisting of two RNA-binding proteins Nrd1 and Nab3 and Sen1 helicase. It is established that Nrd1 and Nab3 cooperatively recognize specific termination elements within nascent RNA, GUA[A/G] and UCUU[G], respectively. Interestingly, some transcripts do not require GUA[A/G] motif for transcription termination in vivo and binding in vitro, suggesting the existence of alternative Nrd1-binding motifs. Here we studied the structure and RNA-binding properties of Nrd1 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), fluorescence anisotropy and phenotypic analyses in vivo. We determined the solution structure of a two-domain RNA-binding fragment of Nrd1, formed by an RNA-recognition motif and helix–loop bundle. NMR and fluorescence data show that not only GUA[A/G] but also several other G-rich and AU-rich motifs are able to bind Nrd1 with affinity in a low micromolar range. The broad substrate specificity is achieved by adaptable interaction surfaces of the RNA-recognition motif and helix–loop bundle domains that sandwich the RNA substrates. Our findings have implication for the role of Nrd1 in termination and processing of many non-coding RNAs arising from bidirectional pervasive transcription. PMID:24860164

  20. Substrate Binding and Active Site Residues in RNases E and G

    PubMed Central

    Garrey, Stephen M.; Blech, Michaela; Riffell, Jenna L.; Hankins, Janet S.; Stickney, Leigh M.; Diver, Melinda; Hsu, Ying-Han Roger; Kunanithy, Vitharani; Mackie, George A.

    2009-01-01

    The paralogous endoribonucleases, RNase E and RNase G, play major roles in intracellular RNA metabolism in Escherichia coli and related organisms. To assay the relative importance of the principal RNA binding sites identified by crystallographic analysis, we introduced mutations into the 5′-sensor, the S1 domain, and the Mg+2/Mn+2 binding sites. The effect of such mutations has been measured by assays of activity on several substrates as well as by an assay of RNA binding. RNase E R169Q and the equivalent mutation in RNase G (R171Q) exhibit the strongest reductions in both activity (the kcat decrease ∼40- to 100-fold) and RNA binding consistent with a key role for the 5′-sensor. Our analysis also supports a model in which the binding of substrate results in an increase in catalytic efficiency. Although the phosphate sensor plays a key role in vitro, it is unexpectedly dispensable in vivo. A strain expressing only RNase E R169Q as the sole source of RNase E activity is viable, exhibits a modest reduction in doubling time and colony size, and accumulates immature 5 S rRNA. Our results point to the importance of alternative RNA binding sites in RNase E and to alternative pathways of RNA recognition. PMID:19778900

  1. Structural Analysis of dsRNA Binding to Anti-viral Pattern Recognition Receptors LGP2 and MDA5.

    PubMed

    Uchikawa, Emiko; Lethier, Mathilde; Malet, Hélène; Brunel, Joanna; Gerlier, Denis; Cusack, Stephen

    2016-05-19

    RIG-I and MDA5 sense virus-derived short 5'ppp blunt-ended or long dsRNA, respectively, causing interferon production. Non-signaling LGP2 appears to positively and negatively regulate MDA5 and RIG-I signaling, respectively. Co-crystal structures of chicken (ch) LGP2 with dsRNA display a fully or semi-closed conformation depending on the presence or absence of nucleotide. LGP2 caps blunt, 3' or 5' overhang dsRNA ends with 1 bp longer overall footprint than RIG-I. Structures of 1:1 and 2:1 complexes of chMDA5 with short dsRNA reveal head-to-head packing rather than the polar head-to-tail orientation described for long filaments. chLGP2 and chMDA5 make filaments with a similar axial repeat, although less co-operatively for chLGP2. Overall, LGP2 resembles a chimera combining a MDA5-like helicase domain and RIG-I like CTD supporting both stem and end binding. Functionally, RNA binding is required for LGP2-mediated enhancement of MDA5 activation. We propose that LGP2 end-binding may promote nucleation of MDA5 oligomerization on dsRNA. PMID:27203181

  2. A novel RNA-binding peptide regulates the establishment of the Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti nitrogen-fixing symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Philippe; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice; Velasco, Isabel; Csorba, Tibor; Van de Velde, Willem; Campalans, Anna; Burgyan, Joszef; Arevalo-Rodriguez, Miguel; Crespi, Martin

    2010-04-01

    Plants use a variety of small peptides for cell to cell communication during growth and development. Leguminous plants are characterized by their ability to develop nitrogen-fixing nodules via an interaction with symbiotic bacteria. During nodule organogenesis, several so-called nodulin genes are induced, including large families that encode small peptides. Using a three-hybrid approach in yeast cells, we identified two new small nodulins, MtSNARP1 and MtSNARP2 (for small nodulin acidic RNA-binding protein), which interact with the RNA of MtENOD40, an early induced nodulin gene showing conserved RNA secondary structures. The SNARPs are acidic peptides showing single-stranded RNA-binding activity in vitro and are encoded by a small gene family in Medicago truncatula. These peptides exhibit two new conserved motifs and a putative signal peptide that redirects a GFP fusion to the endoplasmic reticulum both in protoplasts and during symbiosis, suggesting they are secreted. MtSNARP2 is expressed in the differentiating region of the nodule together with several early nodulin genes. MtSNARP2 RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic roots showed aberrant early senescent nodules where differentiated bacteroids degenerate rapidly. Hence, a functional symbiotic interaction may be regulated by secreted RNA-binding peptides. PMID:20042020

  3. Deletion mapping of the potyviral helper component-proteinase reveals two regions involved in RNA binding.

    PubMed

    Urcuqui-Inchima, S; Maia, I G; Arruda, P; Haenni, A L; Bernardi, F

    2000-03-01

    The Potyvirus helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) binds nonspecifically to single-stranded nucleic acids with a preference for RNA. To delineate the regions of the protein responsible for RNA binding, deletions were introduced into the full-length Potato potyvirus Y HC-Pro gene carried by an Escherichia coli expression vector. The corresponding proteins were expressed as fusions with the maltose-binding protein, purified, and assayed for their RNA-binding capacity. The results obtained by UV cross-linking and Northwestern blot assays demonstrated that the N- and C-terminal regions of HC-Pro are dispensable for RNA binding. They also revealed the presence of two independent RNA-binding domains (designated A and B) located in the central part of HC-Pro. Domain B appears to contain a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) motif typical of a large family of RNA-binding proteins involved in several cellular processes. The possibility that domain B consists of an RNP domain is discussed and suggests that HC-Pro could constitute the first example of a plant viral protein belonging to the RNP-containing family of proteins. PMID:10683332

  4. Competition and collaboration between RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Ho, J J David; Marsden, Philip A

    2014-01-01

    Posttranscriptional regulation of mRNA species represents a major regulatory checkpoint in the control of gene expression. Historically, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been regarded as the primary regulators of mRNA stability and translation. More recently, however, microRNAs have emerged as a class of potent and pervasive posttranscriptional rheostats that similarly affect mRNA stability and translation. The observation that both microRNAs and RBPs regulate mRNA stability and translation has initiated a newer area of research that involves the examination of dynamic interactions between these two important classes of posttranscriptional regulators, the myriad of factors that influence these biological interactions, and ultimately, their effects on target mRNAs. Specifically, microRNAs and RBPs can act synergistically to effect mRNA destabilization and translational inhibition. They can also engage in competition with each other and exert opposing effects on target mRNAs. To date, several key studies have provided critical details regarding the mechanisms and principles of interaction between these molecules. Additionally, these findings raise important questions regarding the regulation of these interactions, including the roles of posttranslational modification, subcellular localization, target inhibition versus activation, and changes in expression levels of these regulatory factors, especially under stimulus- and cell-specific conditions. Indeed, further experimentation is warranted to address these key issues that pertain to the collaboration and competition between microRNAs and RBPs. Significantly, the elucidation of these important details bears critical implications for disease management, especially for those diseases in which these cellular factors are dysregulated. PMID:24124109

  5. Multiple proteins bind to VA RNA genes of adenovirus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, M W; Roeder, R G

    1987-01-01

    Using fractionated HeLa cell nuclear extracts and both nuclease (DNase I) cleavage and chemical cleavage (methidiumpropyl-EDTA X Fe(II) protection methodologies, we demonstrated the presence of three proteins which interacted specifically, yet differentially, with the two VA genes of adenovirus type 2. One, previously identified as transcription initiation factor TFIIIC, bound to a site centered on the transcriptionally essential B-block concensus element of the VAI gene and, with a lower affinity, to the analogous site in the VAII gene. Another, identified as the cellular protein involved in adenovirus replication, nuclear factor I, bound to sites immediately downstream from the two VAI terminators (at approximately +160 and +200). The third, a previously unrecognized VA gene binding protein termed VBP, bound immediately upstream of the B-block element in the VAI gene but showed no binding to VAII. Possible roles for these proteins in VA gene transcription were investigated in in vitro assay systems reconstituted with partially purified transcription factors (RNA polymerase III, TFIIIB, and TFIIIC). Although TFIIIC activity was present predominantly in fractions containing B-block binding activity, there was not complete correspondence between functional and DNA binding activities. The nuclear factor I-like protein had no effect when added to a complete transcription reaction. The presence of VBP appeared to depress the intrinsic ratio of VAI-VAII synthesis, thereby simulating the relative transcription levels observed early in adenovirus infection of HeLa cells. These observations suggest a model, involving both intragenic binding factors (VBP and TFIIIC) and variable template concentrations, for the differential regulation of VA transcription during the course of adenovirus infection. Images PMID:3561405

  6. The RNA binding protein Hfq interacts specifically with tRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taewoo; Feig, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    Hfq is an RNA binding protein that has been studied extensively for its role in the biology of small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in bacteria, where it facilitates post-transcriptional gene regulation during stress responses. We show that Hfq also binds with high specificity and nanomolar affinity to tRNAs despite their lack of a canonical A/U rich single-stranded sequence. This affinity is comparable to that of Hfq for its validated ncRNA targets. Two sites on tRNAs are protected by Hfq binding, one on the D-stem and the other on the T-stem. Mutational analysis and competitive binding experiments indicate that Hfq uses its proximal surface (also called the L4 face) to bind tRNAs, the same surface that interacts with ncRNAs but a site distinct from where poly(A) oligonucleotides bind. hfq knockout strains are known to have broad pleiotropic phenotypes, but none of them are easily explained by or imply a role for tRNA binding. We show that hfq deletion strains have a previously unrecognized phenotype associated with mistranslation and significantly reduced translational fidelity. We infer that tRNA binding and reduced fidelity are linked by a role for Hfq in tRNA modification. PMID:18230766

  7. Identification of a nucleoside triphosphate binding site on calf thymus RNA polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, E.; McGuire, P.M.

    1986-01-14

    A nucleoside triphosphate binding site on calf thymus RNA polymerase II was identified by using photoaffinity analogues of adenosine 5'-triphosphate and guanosine 5'-triphosphate. Both radiolabeled 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (8-N3ATP) and radiolabeled 8-azidoguanosine 5'-triphosphate (8-N3GTP) bound to a single polypeptide of this enzyme. This polypeptide has a molecular mass of 37 kilodaltons and an isoelectric point of 5.4. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was necessary for photolabeling to occur. In addition, no labeling occurred when the probe was prephotolyzed or when the enzyme was inactivated. Furthermore, photolabeling of the enzyme could be decreased by preincubation with natural substrates. To provide evidence that the radiolabeled polypeptide forms a part of the domain of the nucleoside triphosphate binding site, experiments were performed using unlabeled 8-N3ATP. Although this unlabeled analogue was not a substrate for RNA polymerase II, it photoinactivated the enzyme in the presence of UV irradiation, and it inhibited transcription elongation by the enzyme in a competitive manner in the absence of UV irradiation. As in the case with photolabeling, photoinactivation by 8-N3ATP could be decreased by natural substrates; in both cases, purine ribonucleoside triphosphates were more efficient than pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates. Furthermore, photoinactivation was saturable at about the same concentration as the inhibition constant for 8-N3ATP. Collectively, these results provide evidence that the radiolabeled polypeptide in calf thymus RNA polymerase II is an essential component for activity and suggest that this polypeptide may be part of this enzyme's purine ribonucleoside triphosphate binding site.

  8. Inhibition of RNA Polymerase II Transcription in Human Cells by Synthetic DNA-Binding Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Liliane A.; Gulizia, Richard J.; Trauger, John W.; Baird, Eldon E.; Mosier, Donald E.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Dervan, Peter B.

    1998-10-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-binding small molecules that can permeate human cells potentially could regulate transcription of specific genes. Multiple cellular DNA-binding transcription factors are required by HIV type 1 for RNA synthesis. Two pyrrole--imidazole polyamides were designed to bind DNA sequences immediately adjacent to binding sites for the transcription factors Ets-1, lymphoid-enhancer binding factor 1, and TATA-box binding protein. These synthetic ligands specifically inhibit DNA-binding of each transcription factor and HIV type 1 transcription in cell-free assays. When used in combination, the polyamides inhibit virus replication by >99% in isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no detectable cell toxicity. The ability of small molecules to target predetermined DNA sequences located with RNA polymerase II promoters suggests a general approach for regulation of gene expression, as well as a mechanism for the inhibition of viral replication.

  9. Programmable RNA-binding protein composed of repeats of a single modular unit.

    PubMed

    Adamala, Katarzyna P; Martin-Alarcon, Daniel A; Boyden, Edward S

    2016-05-10

    The ability to monitor and perturb RNAs in living cells would benefit greatly from a modular protein architecture that targets unmodified RNA sequences in a programmable way. We report that the RNA-binding protein PumHD (Pumilio homology domain), which has been widely used in native and modified form for targeting RNA, can be engineered to yield a set of four canonical protein modules, each of which targets one RNA base. These modules (which we call Pumby, for Pumilio-based assembly) can be concatenated in chains of varying composition and length, to bind desired target RNAs. The specificity of such Pumby-RNA interactions was high, with undetectable binding of a Pumby chain to RNA sequences that bear three or more mismatches from the target sequence. We validate that the Pumby architecture can perform RNA-directed protein assembly and enhancement of translation of RNAs. We further demonstrate a new use of such RNA-binding proteins, measurement of RNA translation in living cells. Pumby may prove useful for many applications in the measurement, manipulation, and biotechnological utilization of unmodified RNAs in intact cells and systems. PMID:27118836

  10. Membrane binding of Escherichia coli RNase E catalytic domain stabilizes protein structure and increases RNA substrate affinity

    PubMed Central

    Murashko, Oleg N.; Kaberdin, Vladimir R.; Lin-Chao, Sue

    2012-01-01

    RNase E plays an essential role in RNA processing and decay and tethers to the cytoplasmic membrane in Escherichia coli; however, the function of this membrane–protein interaction has remained unclear. Here, we establish a mechanistic role for the RNase E–membrane interaction. The reconstituted highly conserved N-terminal fragment of RNase E (NRne, residues 1–499) binds specifically to anionic phospholipids through electrostatic interactions. The membrane-binding specificity of NRne was confirmed using circular dichroism difference spectroscopy; the dissociation constant (Kd) for NRne binding to anionic liposomes was 298 nM. E. coli RNase G and RNase E/G homologs from phylogenetically distant Aquifex aeolicus, Haemophilus influenzae Rd, and Synechocystis sp. were found to be membrane-binding proteins. Electrostatic potentials of NRne and its homologs were found to be conserved, highly positive, and spread over a large surface area encompassing four putative membrane-binding regions identified in the “large” domain (amino acids 1–400, consisting of the RNase H, S1, 5′-sensor, and DNase I subdomains) of E. coli NRne. In vitro cleavage assay using liposome-free and liposome-bound NRne and RNA substrates BR13 and GGG-RNAI showed that NRne membrane binding altered its enzymatic activity. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed no obvious thermotropic structural changes in membrane-bound NRne between 10 and 60 °C, and membrane-bound NRne retained its normal cleavage activity after cooling. Thus, NRne membrane binding induced changes in secondary protein structure and enzymatic activation by stabilizing the protein-folding state and increasing its binding affinity for its substrate. Our results demonstrate that RNase E–membrane interaction enhances the rate of RNA processing and decay. PMID:22509045

  11. Membrane binding of Escherichia coli RNase E catalytic domain stabilizes protein structure and increases RNA substrate affinity.

    PubMed

    Murashko, Oleg N; Kaberdin, Vladimir R; Lin-Chao, Sue

    2012-05-01

    RNase E plays an essential role in RNA processing and decay and tethers to the cytoplasmic membrane in Escherichia coli; however, the function of this membrane-protein interaction has remained unclear. Here, we establish a mechanistic role for the RNase E-membrane interaction. The reconstituted highly conserved N-terminal fragment of RNase E (NRne, residues 1-499) binds specifically to anionic phospholipids through electrostatic interactions. The membrane-binding specificity of NRne was confirmed using circular dichroism difference spectroscopy; the dissociation constant (K(d)) for NRne binding to anionic liposomes was 298 nM. E. coli RNase G and RNase E/G homologs from phylogenetically distant Aquifex aeolicus, Haemophilus influenzae Rd, and Synechocystis sp. were found to be membrane-binding proteins. Electrostatic potentials of NRne and its homologs were found to be conserved, highly positive, and spread over a large surface area encompassing four putative membrane-binding regions identified in the "large" domain (amino acids 1-400, consisting of the RNase H, S1, 5'-sensor, and DNase I subdomains) of E. coli NRne. In vitro cleavage assay using liposome-free and liposome-bound NRne and RNA substrates BR13 and GGG-RNAI showed that NRne membrane binding altered its enzymatic activity. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed no obvious thermotropic structural changes in membrane-bound NRne between 10 and 60 °C, and membrane-bound NRne retained its normal cleavage activity after cooling. Thus, NRne membrane binding induced changes in secondary protein structure and enzymatic activation by stabilizing the protein-folding state and increasing its binding affinity for its substrate. Our results demonstrate that RNase E-membrane interaction enhances the rate of RNA processing and decay. PMID:22509045

  12. Integrin binding and mechanical tension induce movement of mRNA and ribosomes to focal adhesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicurel, M. E.; Singer, R. H.; Meyer, C. J.; Ingber, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) activates signalling pathways that control cell behaviour by binding to cell-surface integrin receptors and inducing the formation of focal adhesion complexes (FACs). In addition to clustered integrins, FACs contain proteins that mechanically couple the integrins to the cytoskeleton and to immobilized signal-transducing molecules. Cell adhesion to the ECM also induces a rapid increase in the translation of preexisting messenger RNAs. Gene expression can be controlled locally by targeting mRNAs to specialized cytoskeletal domains. Here we investigate whether cell binding to the ECM promotes formation of a cytoskeletal microcompartment specialized for translational control at the site of integrin binding. High-resolution in situ hybridization revealed that mRNA and ribosomes rapidly and specifically localized to FACs that form when cells bind to ECM-coated microbeads. Relocation of these protein synthesis components to the FAC depended on the ability of integrins to mechanically couple the ECM to the contractile cytoskeleton and on associated tension-moulding of the actin lattice. Our results suggest a new type of gene regulation by integrins and by mechanical stress which may involve translation of mRNAs into proteins near the sites of signal reception.

  13. Novel RNA- and FMRP-binding protein TRF2-S regulates axonal mRNA transport and presynaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peisu; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Liu, Yong; Tominaga-Yamanaka, Kumiko; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Ioannis, Grammatikakis; Martindale, Jennifer L; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Yang, In Hong; Gorospe, Myriam; Mattson, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable evidence that RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate mRNA transport and local translation in dendrites, roles for axonal RBPs are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a non-telomeric isoform of telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2-S) is a novel RBP that regulates axonal plasticity. TRF2-S interacts directly with target mRNAs to facilitate their axonal delivery. The process is antagonized by fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Distinct from the current RNA-binding model of FMRP, we show that FMRP occupies the GAR domain of TRF2-S protein to block the assembly of TRF2-S-mRNA complexes. Overexpressing TRF2-S and silencing FMRP promotes mRNA entry to axons and enhances axonal outgrowth and neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals. Our findings suggest a pivotal role for TRF2-S in an axonal mRNA localization pathway that enhances axon outgrowth and neurotransmitter release. PMID:26586091

  14. Novel RNA- and FMRP-binding protein TRF2-S regulates axonal mRNA transport and presynaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peisu; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Liu, Yong; Tominaga-Yamanaka, Kumiko; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Ioannis, Grammatikakis; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Yang, In Hong; Gorospe, Myriam; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable evidence that RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate mRNA transport and local translation in dendrites, roles for axonal RBPs are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a non-telomeric isoform of telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2-S) is a novel RBP that regulates axonal plasticity. TRF2-S interacts directly with target mRNAs to facilitate their axonal delivery. The process is antagonized by fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Distinct from the current RNA-binding model of FMRP, we show that FMRP occupies the GAR domain of TRF2-S protein to block the assembly of TRF2-S–mRNA complexes. Overexpressing TRF2-S and silencing FMRP promotes mRNA entry to axons and enhances axonal outgrowth and neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals. Our findings suggest a pivotal role for TRF2-S in an axonal mRNA localization pathway that enhances axon outgrowth and neurotransmitter release. PMID:26586091

  15. Binding of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) to the hepatitis delta virus RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Greco-Stewart, Valerie S.; Thibault, Catherine St-Laurent; Pelchat, Martin . E-mail: mpelchat@uottawa.ca

    2006-12-20

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) has a very limited protein coding capacity and must rely on host proteins for its replication. A ribonucleoprotein complex was detected following UV cross-linking between HeLa nuclear proteins and an RNA corresponding to the right terminal stem-loop domain of HDV genomic RNA. Mass spectrometric analysis of the complex revealed the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) as a novel HDV RNA-interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated the interaction between HDV RNA and PSF both in vitro in HeLa nuclear extract and in vivo within HeLa cells containing both polarities of the HDV genome. Analysis of the binding of various HDV-derived RNAs to purified, recombinant PSF further confirmed the specificity of the interaction and revealed that PSF directly binds to the terminal stem-loop domains of both polarities of HDV RNA. Our findings provide evidence of the involvement of a host mRNA processing protein in the HDV life cycle.

  16. DNA Binding of Centromere Protein C (CENPC) Is Stabilized by Single-Stranded RNA

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yaqing; Topp, Christopher N.; Dawe, R. Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Centromeres are the attachment points between the genome and the cytoskeleton: centromeres bind to kinetochores, which in turn bind to spindles and move chromosomes. Paradoxically, the DNA sequence of centromeres has little or no role in perpetuating kinetochores. As such they are striking examples of genetic information being transmitted in a manner that is independent of DNA sequence (epigenetically). It has been found that RNA transcribed from centromeres remains bound within the kinetochore region, and this local population of RNA is thought to be part of the epigenetic marking system. Here we carried out a genetic and biochemical study of maize CENPC, a key inner kinetochore protein. We show that DNA binding is conferred by a localized region 122 amino acids long, and that the DNA-binding reaction is exquisitely sensitive to single-stranded RNA. Long, single-stranded nucleic acids strongly promote the binding of CENPC to DNA, and the types of RNAs that stabilize DNA binding match in size and character the RNAs present on kinetochores in vivo. Removal or replacement of the binding module with HIV integrase binding domain causes a partial delocalization of CENPC in vivo. The data suggest that centromeric RNA helps to recruit CENPC to the inner kinetochore by altering its DNA binding characteristics. PMID:20140237

  17. The elongation factor Tu.kirromycin complex has two binding sites for tRNA molecules.

    PubMed Central

    van Noort, J M; Duisterwinkel, F J; Jonák, J; Sedlácek, J; Kraal, B; Bosch, L

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of the polypeptide chain elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) with the antibiotic kirromycin and tRNA has been studied by measuring the extent of protein modification with N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethylketone (TPCK) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). Kirromycin protects both EF-Tu.GDP and EF-Tu.GTP against modification with TPCK. Binding of aminoacyl-tRNA added at increasing concentrations to a solution of 40 microM EF-Tu.GDP.kirromycin complex re-exposes the TPCK target site on the protein. However, when the aminoacyl-tRNA concentration is raised beyond 20 microM, TPCK labeling drops again and is blocked completely at approximately 300 microM aminoacyl-tRNA. By contrast, addition of uncharged tRNA or N- acetylaminoacyl -tRNA enhances TPCK labeling of the protein over the entire tRNA concentration range studied. These data strongly suggest that kirromycin induces in EF-Tu.GDP an additional tRNA binding site that can bind uncharged tRNA, aminoacyl-tRNA, and N- acetylaminoacyl -tRNA. Support for this assumption is provided by measuring the modification of EF-Tu.GDP with the sulfhydryl reagent NEM. Moreover, NEM modification also indicates an additional tRNA binding site on EF-Tu.GTP.kirromycin, which could not be detected with TPCK. Mapping of the tryptic peptides of EF-Tu.GDP labeled with [14C]TPCK revealed only one target site for this agent, i.e., cysteine-81. Modification occurred at the same site in the presence and in the absence of kirromycin and uncharged tRNA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6765192

  18. The 1.3 Å resolution structure of the RNA tridecamer r(GCGUUUGAAACGC): Metal ion binding correlates with base unstacking and groove contraction

    PubMed Central

    Timsit, Youri; Bombard, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Metal ions play a key role in RNA folding and activity. Elucidating the rules that govern the binding of metal ions is therefore an essential step for better understanding the RNA functions. High-resolution data are a prerequisite for a detailed structural analysis of ion binding on RNA and, in particular, the observation of monovalent cations. Here, the high-resolution crystal structures of the tridecamer duplex r(GCGUUUGAAACGC) crystallized under different conditions provides new structural insights on ion binding on GAAA/UUU sequences that exhibit both unusual structural and functional properties in RNA. The present study extends the repertory of RNA ion binding sites in showing that the two first bases of UUU triplets constitute a specific site for sodium ions. A striking asymmetric pattern of metal ion binding in the two equivalent halves of the palindromic sequence demonstrates that sequence and its environment act together to bind metal ions. A highly ionophilic half that binds six metal ions allows, for the first time, the observation of a disodium cluster in RNA. The comparison of the equivalent halves of the duplex provides experimental evidences that ion binding correlates with structural alterations and groove contraction. PMID:17940138

  19. Importance of Basic Residues in Binding of Rous Sarcoma Virus Nucleocapsid to the RNA Packaging Signal

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-gyung; Alidina, Annie; May, Cynthia; Linial, Maxine L.

    2003-01-01

    In the context of the Rous sarcoma virus Gag polyprotein, only the nucleocapsid (NC) domain is required to mediate the specificity of genomic RNA packaging. We have previously showed that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae three-hybrid system provides a rapid genetic assay to analyze the RNA and protein components of the avian retroviral RNA-Gag interactions necessary for specific encapsidation. In this study, using both site-directed mutagenesis and in vivo random screening in the yeast three-hybrid binding assay, we have examined the amino acids in NC required for genomic RNA binding. We found that we could delete either of the two Cys-His boxes without greatly abrogating either RNA binding or packaging, although the two Cys-His boxes are likely to be required for efficient viral assembly and release. In contrast, substitutions for the Zn-coordinating residues within the boxes did prevent RNA binding, suggesting changes in the overall conformation of the protein. In the basic region between the two Cys-His boxes, three positively charged residues, as well as basic residues flanking the two boxes, were necessary for both binding and packaging. Our results suggest that the stretches of positively charged residues within NC that need to be in a proper conformation appear to be responsible for selective recognition and binding to the packaging signal (Ψ)-containing RNAs. PMID:12525635

  20. Importance of basic residues in binding of rous sarcoma virus nucleocapsid to the RNA packaging signal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-gyung; Alidina, Annie; May, Cynthia; Linial, Maxine L

    2003-02-01

    In the context of the Rous sarcoma virus Gag polyprotein, only the nucleocapsid (NC) domain is required to mediate the specificity of genomic RNA packaging. We have previously showed that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae three-hybrid system provides a rapid genetic assay to analyze the RNA and protein components of the avian retroviral RNA-Gag interactions necessary for specific encapsidation. In this study, using both site-directed mutagenesis and in vivo random screening in the yeast three-hybrid binding assay, we have examined the amino acids in NC required for genomic RNA binding. We found that we could delete either of the two Cys-His boxes without greatly abrogating either RNA binding or packaging, although the two Cys-His boxes are likely to be required for efficient viral assembly and release. In contrast, substitutions for the Zn-coordinating residues within the boxes did prevent RNA binding, suggesting changes in the overall conformation of the protein. In the basic region between the two Cys-His boxes, three positively charged residues, as well as basic residues flanking the two boxes, were necessary for both binding and packaging. Our results suggest that the stretches of positively charged residues within NC that need to be in a proper conformation appear to be responsible for selective recognition and binding to the packaging signal (Psi)-containing RNAs. PMID:12525635

  1. Overlapping RNA and DNA binding domains of the wt1 tumor suppressor gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Bardeesy, N; Pelletier, J

    1998-01-01

    The Wilms' tumour suppressor gene (wt1) is mutated in a subset of patients with Wilms' tumour and has a critical role in urogenital development. wt1 encodes a zinc finger transcription factor which regulates expression of several genes involved in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Although a number of studies have characterized the DNA binding properties of the WT1 protein, recent evidence has suggested that WT1 may also have a role in RNA metabolism. We have used an RNA selection method to identify WT1 binding ligands from a random RNA pool. Three groups of RNA ligands specifically recognized by WT1 were identified. Mutational analysis pinpointed ribonucleotide sequences critical for binding. Analysis of truncated WT1 proteins demonstrated that three of four zinc fingers were necessary for RNA-protein interaction. The naturally occurring WT1 isoforms with insertion of lysine, threonine and serine between zinc fingers three and four were unable to bind the selected RNAs. The selected RNA ligands competed with the cognate WT1 DNA binding site for complex formation with WT1. Our findings suggest potential cellular RNA target sequences for WT1 and provide tools for studying the structural and functional properties of this tumour suppressor protein. PMID:9512553

  2. SNPs in microRNA Binding Sites as Prognostic and Predictive Cancer Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Preskill, Carina; Weidhaas, Joanne B.

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms within microRNA (miRNA) binding sites comprise a novel genre of cancer biomarkers. Since miRNA regulation is dependent on sequence complementarity between the mRNA transcript and the miRNA, even single nucleotide aberrations can have significant effects. Over the past few years, many examples of these functional miRNA binding site SNPs have been identified as cancer biomarkers. While most of the research to date focuses on associations with cancer risk, more and more studies are linking these SNPs to cancer prognosis and response to treatment as well. This review summarizes the state of the field and draws importance to this rapidly expanding area of cancer biomarkers. PMID:23614619

  3. SNPs in microRNA binding sites as prognostic and predictive cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Preskill, Carina; Weidhaas, Joanne B

    2013-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms within microRNA (miRNA) binding sites comprise a novel genre of cancer biomarkers. Since miRNA regulation is dependent on sequence complementarity between the mRNA transcript and the miRNA, even single-nucleotide aberrations can have significant effects. Over the past few years, many examples of these functional miRNA binding site SNPs have been identified as cancer biomarkers. While most of the research to date focuses on associations with cancer risk, more and more studies are linking these SNPs to cancer prognosis and response to treatment as well. This review summarizes the state of the field and draws importance to this rapidly expanding area of cancer biomarkers. PMID:23614619

  4. Mutations in the coat protein-binding cis-acting RNA motifs debilitate RNA recombination of Brome mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Sztuba-Solińska, Joanna; Fanning, Sean W; Horn, James R; Bujarski, Jozef J

    2012-12-01

    We have previously described the efficient homologous recombination system between 5' subgenomic RNA3a (sgRNA3a) and genomic RNA3 of Brome mosaic virus (BMV) in barley protoplasts (Sztuba-Solińska et al., 2011a). Here, we demonstrated that sequence alterations in the coat protein (CP)-binding cis-acting RNA motifs, the Bbox region (in the intercistronic RNA3 sequence) and the RNA3 packaging element (PE, in the movement protein ORF), reduced crossover frequencies in protoplasts. Additionally, the modification of Bbox-like element in the 5' UTR region strongly debilitated crossovers. Along the lines of these observations, RNA3 mutants not expressing CP or expressing mutated CPs also reduced recombination. A series of reciprocal transfections demonstrated a functional crosstalk between the Bbox and PE elements. Altogether, our data imply the role of CP in sgRNA3a-directed recombination by either facilitating the interaction of the RNA substrates and/or by creating roadblocks for the viral replicase. PMID:23079110

  5. UPF201 Archaeal Specific Family Members Reveal Structural Similarity to RNA-Binding Proteins but Low Likelyhood for RNA-Binding Function

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.; Burley, S; Swaminathan, S

    2008-01-01

    We have determined X-ray crystal structures of four members of an archaeal specific family of proteins of unknown function (UPF0201; Pfam classification: DUF54) to advance our understanding of the genetic repertoire of archaea. Despite low pairwise amino acid sequence identities (10-40%) and the absence of conserved sequence motifs, the three-dimensional structures of these proteins are remarkably similar to one another. Their common polypeptide chain fold, encompassing a five-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet and five {alpha}-helices, proved to be quite unexpectedly similar to that of the RRM-type RNA-binding domain of the ribosomal L5 protein, which is responsible for binding the 5S- rRNA. Structure-based sequence alignments enabled construction of a phylogenetic tree relating UPF0201 family members to L5 ribosomal proteins and other structurally similar RNA binding proteins, thereby expanding our understanding of the evolutionary purview of the RRM superfamily. Analyses of the surfaces of these newly determined UPF0201 structures suggest that they probably do not function as RNA binding proteins, and that this domain specific family of proteins has acquired a novel function in archaebacteria, which awaits experimental elucidation.

  6. UPF201 Archaeal Specific Family Members Reveals Structural Similarity to RNA-Binding Proteins but Low Likelihood for RNA-Binding Function

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.N.; Swaminathan, S.; Burley, S. K.

    2008-12-11

    We have determined X-ray crystal structures of four members of an archaeal specific family of proteins of unknown function (UPF0201; Pfam classification: DUF54) to advance our understanding of the genetic repertoire of archaea. Despite low pairwise amino acid sequence identities (10-40%) and the absence of conserved sequence motifs, the three-dimensional structures of these proteins are remarkably similar to one another. Their common polypeptide chain fold, encompassing a five-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet and five {alpha}-helices, proved to be quite unexpectedly similar to that of the RRM-type RNA-binding domain of the ribosomal L5 protein, which is responsible for binding the 5S- rRNA. Structure-based sequence alignments enabled construction of a phylogenetic tree relating UPF0201 family members to L5 ribosomal proteins and other structurally similar RNA binding proteins, thereby expanding our understanding of the evolutionary purview of the RRM superfamily. Analyses of the surfaces of these newly determined UPF0201 structures suggest that they probably do not function as RNA binding proteins, and that this domain specific family of proteins has acquired a novel function in archaebacteria, which awaits experimental elucidation.

  7. The trp RNA-binding attenuation protein of Bacillus subtilis regulates translation of the tryptophan transport gene trpP (yhaG) by blocking ribosome binding.

    PubMed

    Yakhnin, Helen; Zhang, Hong; Yakhnin, Alexander V; Babitzke, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Expression of the Bacillus subtilis tryptophan biosynthetic genes (trpEDCFBA and pabA [trpG]) is regulated in response to tryptophan by TRAP, the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein. TRAP-mediated regulation of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes includes a transcription attenuation and two distinct translation control mechanisms. TRAP also regulates translation of trpP (yhaG), a single-gene operon that encodes a putative tryptophan transporter. Its translation initiation region contains triplet repeats typical of TRAP-regulated mRNAs. We found that regulation of trpP and pabA is unaltered in a rho mutant strain. Results from filter binding and gel mobility shift assays demonstrated that TRAP binds specifically to a segment of the trpP transcript that includes the untranslated leader and translation initiation region. While the affinities of TRAP for the trpP and pabA transcripts are similar, TRAP-mediated translation control of trpP is much more extensive than for pabA. RNA footprinting revealed that the trpP TRAP binding site consists of nine triplet repeats (five GAG, three UAG, and one AAG) that surround and overlap the trpP Shine-Dalgarno (S-D) sequence and translation start codon. Results from toeprint and RNA-directed cell-free translation experiments indicated that tryptophan-activated TRAP inhibits TrpP synthesis by preventing binding of a 30S ribosomal subunit. Taken together, our results establish that TRAP regulates translation of trpP by blocking ribosome binding. Thus, TRAP coordinately regulates tryptophan synthesis and transport by three distinct mechanisms: attenuation transcription of the trpEDCFBA operon, promoting formation of the trpE S-D blocking hairpin, and blocking ribosome binding to the pabA and trpP transcripts. PMID:14702295

  8. RNA-binding protein hnRNPLL as a critical regulator of lymphocyte homeostasis and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xing

    2016-05-01

    RNA-binding proteins orchestrate posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, such as messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing, RNA stability regulation, and translation regulation. Heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding proteins (hnRNPs) refer to a collection of unrelated RNA-binding proteins predominantly located in the nucleus (Han et al. Biochem J 2010, 430:379-392). Although canonical functions of hnRNPs are to promote pre-mRNA splicing, they are involved in all the processes of RNA metabolism through recognizing specific cis-elements on RNA (Dreyfuss et al. Annu Rev Biochem 1993, 62:289-321; Huelga et al. Cell Rep 2012, 1:167-178; Krecic and Swanson. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1999, 11:363-371). Heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding protein L like (hnRNPLL) is a tissue-specific hnRNP, which was identified as a regulator of CD45RA to CD45RO switching during memory T-cell development (Oberdoerffer et al. Science 2008, 321:686-691; Topp et al. RNA 2008, 14:2038-2049; Wu et al. Immunity 2008, 29:863-875). Since then, hnRNPLL has emerged as a critical regulator of lymphocyte homeostasis and terminal differentiation, controlling alternative splicing or expression of critical genes for the lymphocytes development (Wu et al. Immunity 2008, 29:863-875; Chang et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2015, 112:E1888-E1897). This review will summarize recent advances in understanding the functions of hnRNPLL, focusing on its biochemical functions and physiological roles in lymphocyte differentiation and homeostasis. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:295-302. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1335 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26821996

  9. Binding of DNA-binding alkaloids berberine and palmatine to tRNA and comparison to ethidium: Spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md. Maidul; Pandya, Prateek; Chowdhury, Sebanti Roy; Kumar, Surat; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2008-11-01

    The interaction of two natural protoberberine plant alkaloids berberine and palmatine with tRNA phe was studied using various biophysical techniques and molecular modeling and the data were compared with the binding of the classical DNA intercalator, ethidium. Circular dichroic studies revealed that the tRNA conformation was moderately perturbed on binding of the alkaloids. The cooperative binding of both the alkaloids and ethidium to tRNA was revealed from absorbance and fluorescence studies. Fluorescence quenching studies advanced a conclusion that while berberine and palmatine are partially intercalated, ethidium is fully intercalated on the tRNA molecule. The binding of the alkaloids as well as ethidium stabilized the tRNA melting, and the binding constant evaluated from the averaged optical melting temperature data was in agreement with fluorescence spectral-binding data. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the tRNA melting showed three close transitions that were affected on binding of these small molecules. Molecular docking calculations performed showed the preferred regions of binding of these small molecules on the tRNA. Taken together, the results suggest that the binding of the alkaloids berberine and palmatine on the tRNA structure appears to be mostly by partial intercalation while ethidium intercalates fully on the tRNA. These results further advance our knowledge on the molecular aspects on the interaction of these alkaloids to tRNA.

  10. The Arabidopsis thaliana double-stranded RNA binding protein DRB1 directs guide strand selection from microRNA duplexes

    PubMed Central

    Eamens, Andrew L.; Smith, Neil A.; Curtin, Shaun J.; Wang, Ming-Bo; Waterhouse, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), DICER-LIKE1 (DCL1) functions together with the double-stranded RNA binding protein (dsRBP), DRB1, to process microRNAs (miRNAs) from their precursor transcripts prior to their transfer to the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). miRNA-loaded RISC directs RNA silencing of cognate mRNAs via ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1)-catalyzed cleavage. Short interefering RNAs (siRNAs) are processed from viral-derived or transgene-encoded molecules of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by the DCL/dsRBP partnership, DCL4/DRB4, and are also loaded to AGO1-catalyzed RISC for cleavage of complementary mRNAs. Here, we use an artificial miRNA (amiRNA) technology, transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, to produce a series of amiRNA duplexes with differing intermolecular thermostabilities at the 5′ end of duplex strands. Analyses of amiRNA duplex strand accumulation and target transcript expression revealed that strand selection (amiRNA and amiRNA*) is directed by asymmetric thermostability of the duplex termini. The duplex strand possessing a lower 5′ thermostability was preferentially retained by RISC to guide mRNA cleavage of the corresponding target transgene. In addition, analysis of endogenous miRNA duplex strand accumulation in Arabidopsis drb1 and drb2345 mutant plants revealed that DRB1 dictates strand selection, presumably by directional loading of the miRNA duplex onto RISC for passenger strand degradation. Bioinformatic and Northern blot analyses of DCL4/DRB4-dependent small RNAs (miRNAs and siRNAs) revealed that small RNAs produced by this DCL/dsRBP combination do not conform to the same terminal thermostability rules as those governing DCL1/DRB1-processed miRNAs. This suggests that small RNA processing in the DCL1/DRB1-directed miRNA and DCL4/DRB4-directed sRNA biogenesis pathways operates via different mechanisms. PMID:19861421

  11. PDZ Binding Domains, Structural Disorder and Phosphorylation: A Menage-a-trois Tailing Dcp2 mRNA Decapping Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gunawardana, Dilantha

    2016-01-01

    Diverse cellular activities are mediated through the interaction of protein domains and their binding partners. One such protein domain widely distributed in the higher metazoan world is the PDZ domain, which facilitates abundant protein-protein interactions. The PDZ domain-PDZ binding domain interaction has been implicated in several pathologies including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Down syndrome. PDZ domains bind to C-terminal peptides/proteins which have either of the following combinations: S/T-X-hydrophobic-COOH for type I, hydrophobic-Xhydrophobic- COOH for type II, and D/E-X-hydrophobic-COOH for type III, although hydrophobicity in the termini form the key characteristic of the PDZ-binding domains. We identified and characterized a Dcp2 type mRNA decapping enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana, a protein containing a putative PDZ-binding domain using mutagenesis and protein biochemistry. Now we are using bioinformatics to study the Cterminal end of mRNA decapping enzymes from complex metazoans with the aim of (1) identifying putative PDZ-binding domains (2) Correlating structural disorder with PDZ binding domains and (3) Demonstrating the presence of phosphorylation sites in C-terminal extremities of Dcp2 type mRNA decapping enzymes. It is proposed here that the trinity of PDZbinding domains, structural disorder and phosphorylation-susceptible sites are a feature of the Dcp2 family of decapping enzymes and perhaps is a wider trick in protein evolution where scaffolding/tethering is a requirement for localization and function. It is critical though laboratory-based supporting evidence is sought to back-up this bioinformatics exploration into tail regions of mRNA decapping enzymes. PMID:27151193

  12. Osteoblastic alkaline phosphatase mRNA is stabilized by binding to vimentin intermediary filaments.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Yvonne; Biniossek, Martin; Stark, G Björn; Finkenzeller, Günter; Simunovic, Filip

    2015-03-01

    Vascularization is essential in bone tissue engineering and recent research has focused on interactions between osteoblasts (hOBs) and endothelial cells (ECs). It was shown that cocultivation increases the stability of osteoblastic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA. We investigated the mechanisms behind this observation, focusing on mRNA binding proteins. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we found that the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of ALP mRNA is necessary for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)-mediated stabilization of osteoblastic ALP mRNA. Using pulldown experiments and nanoflow-HPLC mass spectrometry, vimentin was identified to bind to the 3'-UTR of ALP mRNA. Validation was performed by Western blotting. Functional experiments inhibiting intermediate filaments with iminodipropionitrile and specific inhibition of vimentin by siRNA transfection showed reduced levels of ALP mRNA and protein. Therefore, ALP mRNA binds to and is stabilized by vimentin. This data add to the understanding of intracellular trafficking of ALP mRNA, its function, and have possible implications in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25536665

  13. Strictly Conserved Lysine of Prolyl-tRNA Synthetase Editing Domain Facilitates Binding and Positioning of Misacylated tRNAPro

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To ensure high fidelity in translation, many aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, enzymes responsible for attaching specific amino acids to cognate tRNAs, require proof-reading mechanisms. Most bacterial prolyl-tRNA synthetases (ProRSs) misactivate alanine and employ a post-transfer editing mechanism to hydrolyze Ala-tRNAPro. This reaction occurs in a second catalytic site (INS) that is distinct from the synthetic active site. The 2′-OH of misacylated tRNAPro and several conserved residues in the Escherichia coli ProRS INS domain are directly involved in Ala-tRNAPro deacylation. Although mutation of the strictly conserved lysine 279 (K279) results in nearly complete loss of post-transfer editing activity, this residue does not directly participate in Ala-tRNAPro hydrolysis. We hypothesized that the role of K279 is to bind the phosphate backbone of the acceptor stem of misacylated tRNAPro and position it in the editing active site. To test this hypothesis, we carried out pKa, charge neutralization, and free-energy of binding calculations. Site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies were performed to verify the computational results. The calculations revealed a considerably higher pKa of K279 compared to an isolated lysine and showed that the protonated state of K279 is stabilized by the neighboring acidic residue. However, substitution of this acidic residue with a positively charged residue leads to a significant increase in Ala-tRNAPro hydrolysis, suggesting that enhancement in positive charge density in the vicinity of K279 favors tRNA binding. A charge-swapping experiment and free energy of binding calculations support the conclusion that the positive charge at position 279 is absolutely necessary for tRNA binding in the editing active site. PMID:24450765

  14. TRAP binding to the Bacillus subtilis trp leader region RNA causes efficient transcription termination at a weak intrinsic terminator.

    PubMed

    Potter, Kristine D; Merlino, Natalie M; Jacobs, Timothy; Gollnick, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon is regulated by a transcription attenuation mechanism controlled by the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP). TRAP binds to 11 (G/U)AG repeats in the trp leader transcript and prevents formation of an antiterminator, which allows formation of an intrinsic terminator (attenuator). Previously, formation of the attenuator RNA structure was believed to be solely responsible for signaling RNA polymerase (RNAP) to halt transcription. However, base substitutions that prevent formation of the antiterminator, and thus allow the attenuator structure to form constitutively, do not result in efficient transcription termination. The observation that the attenuator requires the presence of TRAP bound to the nascent RNA to cause efficient transcription termination suggests TRAP has an additional role in causing termination at the attenuator. We show that the trp attenuator is a weak intrinsic terminator due to low GC content of the hairpin stem and interruptions in the U-stretch following the hairpin. We also provide evidence that termination at the trp attenuator requires forward translocation of RNA polymerase and that TRAP binding to the nascent transcript can induce this activity. PMID:21097886

  15. Single-Molecule Observation of the Induction of k-Turn RNA Structure on Binding L7Ae Protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Fessl, Tomáš; Schroeder, Kersten T.; Ouellet, Jonathan; Liu, Yijin; Freeman, Alasdair D.J.; Lilley, David M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The k-turn is a commonly occurring structural motif that introduces a tight kink into duplex RNA. In free solution, it can exist in an extended form, or by folding into the kinked structure. Binding of proteins including the L7Ae family can induce the formation of the kinked geometry, raising the question of whether this occurs by passive selection of the kinked structure, or a more active process in which the protein manipulates the RNA structure. We have devised a single-molecule experiment whereby immobilized L7Ae protein binds Cy3-Cy5-labeled RNA from free solution. We find that all bound RNA is in the kinked geometry, with no evidence for transitions to an extended form at the millisecond timescale of the camera. Furthermore, real-time binding experiments provide no evidence for a more extended intermediate even at the earliest times, at a time resolution of 16 ms. The data support a passive conformational selection model by which the protein selects a fraction of RNA that is already in the kinked conformation, thereby drawing the equilibrium into this form. PMID:23260056

  16. A Nucleotide Binding Motif in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS4B Mediates HCV RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Shirit; Elazar, Menashe; Danieli, Tsafi; Glenn, Jeffrey S.

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis. There is no effective therapy for most patients. We have identified a nucleotide binding motif (NBM) in one of the virus's nonstructural proteins, NS4B. This structural motif binds and hydrolyzes GTP and is conserved across HCV isolates. Genetically disrupting the NBM impairs GTP binding and hydrolysis and dramatically inhibits HCV RNA replication. These results have exciting implications for the HCV life cycle and novel antiviral strategies. PMID:15452248

  17. A deep learning framework for modeling structural features of RNA-binding protein targets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sai; Zhou, Jingtian; Hu, Hailin; Gong, Haipeng; Chen, Ligong; Cheng, Chao; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in the post-transcriptional control of RNAs. Identifying RBP binding sites and characterizing RBP binding preferences are key steps toward understanding the basic mechanisms of the post-transcriptional gene regulation. Though numerous computational methods have been developed for modeling RBP binding preferences, discovering a complete structural representation of the RBP targets by integrating their available structural features in all three dimensions is still a challenging task. In this paper, we develop a general and flexible deep learning framework for modeling structural binding preferences and predicting binding sites of RBPs, which takes (predicted) RNA tertiary structural information into account for the first time. Our framework constructs a unified representation that characterizes the structural specificities of RBP targets in all three dimensions, which can be further used to predict novel candidate binding sites and discover potential binding motifs. Through testing on the real CLIP-seq datasets, we have demonstrated that our deep learning framework can automatically extract effective hidden structural features from the encoded raw sequence and structural profiles, and predict accurate RBP binding sites. In addition, we have conducted the first study to show that integrating the additional RNA tertiary structural features can improve the model performance in predicting RBP binding sites, especially for the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), which also provides a new evidence to support the view that RBPs may own specific tertiary structural binding preferences. In particular, the tests on the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) segments yield satisfiable results with experimental support from the literature and further demonstrate the necessity of incorporating RNA tertiary structural information into the prediction model. The source code of our approach can be found in https

  18. A deep learning framework for modeling structural features of RNA-binding protein targets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai; Zhou, Jingtian; Hu, Hailin; Gong, Haipeng; Chen, Ligong; Cheng, Chao; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-02-29

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in the post-transcriptional control of RNAs. Identifying RBP binding sites and characterizing RBP binding preferences are key steps toward understanding the basic mechanisms of the post-transcriptional gene regulation. Though numerous computational methods have been developed for modeling RBP binding preferences, discovering a complete structural representation of the RBP targets by integrating their available structural features in all three dimensions is still a challenging task. In this paper, we develop a general and flexible deep learning framework for modeling structural binding preferences and predicting binding sites of RBPs, which takes (predicted) RNA tertiary structural information into account for the first time. Our framework constructs a unified representation that characterizes the structural specificities of RBP targets in all three dimensions, which can be further used to predict novel candidate binding sites and discover potential binding motifs. Through testing on the real CLIP-seq datasets, we have demonstrated that our deep learning framework can automatically extract effective hidden structural features from the encoded raw sequence and structural profiles, and predict accurate RBP binding sites. In addition, we have conducted the first study to show that integrating the additional RNA tertiary structural features can improve the model performance in predicting RBP binding sites, especially for the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), which also provides a new evidence to support the view that RBPs may own specific tertiary structural binding preferences. In particular, the tests on the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) segments yield satisfiable results with experimental support from the literature and further demonstrate the necessity of incorporating RNA tertiary structural information into the prediction model. The source code of our approach can be found in https

  19. Interaction of tRNA with tRNA (guanosine-1)methyltransferase: binding specificity determinants involve the dinucleotide G36pG37 and tertiary structure.

    PubMed

    Redlak, M; Andraos-Selim, C; Giege, R; Florentz, C; Holmes, W M

    1997-07-22

    The sequence G37pG36 is present in all tRNA species recognized and methylated by the Escherichia coli modification enzyme tRNA (guanosine-1)methyltransferase. We have examined whether this dinucleotide sequence provides the base specific recognition signal for this enzyme and have assessed the role of the remaining tRNA in recognition. E. coli tRNAHis and yeast tRNAAsp were substituted with G at positions 36 and 37 and were found to be excellent substrates for methylation. This suggested that the general tRNA structure can be specifically bound by the enzyme. In addition, heterologous tRNA species including fully modified tRNA1Leu are excellent inhibitors of tRNA1Leu transcript methylation. Analyses of structural variants of yeast tRNAAsp and E. coli tRNA1Leu demonstrate clearly that the core tertiary structures of tRNA are required for recognition and that G37 must be in the correct position in space relative to important contacts elsewhere in the molecule. This latter conclusion was reached because the addition of one to three stacked base pairs in the anticodon stem of tRNA1Leu dramatically alters activity. In this case, the G37 base is rotated away from the correct position in space relative to other tRNA contact sites. The acceptor stem structure is required for optimal activity since deletion of three or five base pairs is detrimental to activity; however, specific base sequence may not be important because (i) the addition of three stacked base pairs of different sequence had little effect on activity and (ii) heterologous tRNAs with little or no sequence homology in the acceptor stem are excellent substrates. Both poly G and GpG are potent and specific inhibitors of enzyme activity and are minimal substrates which can be methylated, forming m1G. Taken together, these studies suggest that 1MGT can bind the general tRNA structure and that the crucial base-pair contacts are G37 and G36. PMID:9220956

  20. Sequences far downstream from the classical tRNA promoter elements bind RNA polymerase III transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Young, L S; Rivier, D H; Sprague, K U

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the interaction of transcription factors TFIIIC and TFIIID with a silkworm alanine tRNA gene. Previous functional analysis showed that the promoter for this gene is unusually large compared with the classical tRNA promoter elements (the A and B boxes) and includes sequences downstream from the transcription termination site. The goal of the experiments reported here was to determine which sequences within the full promoter make stable contacts with transcription factors. We show that when TFIIIC and TFIIID are combined, a complex is formed with the tRNA(Ala)C gene. Neither factor alone can form this complex. DNase I digestion of gene-factor complexes reveals that most of the tRNA(Ala)C promoter is in contact with factors. The protected region extends from -1 to at least +136 and includes both the A and B boxes and the previously identified downstream promoter sequences. Analysis of mutant promoters shows that sequence-specific contacts throughout the protected region are required for binding. The role of 3'-flanking sequences in transcription factor binding explains the contribution of these sequences to the tRNA(Ala)C promoter. We discuss the possibility that such sequences affect promoter strength in other tRNA genes. Images PMID:1996100

  1. Stem Cell Ribonomics: RNA-Binding Proteins and Gene Networks in Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Shigunov, Patrícia; Dallagiovanna, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the ability to self-renew and the potential to differentiate into all body cell types. Stem cells follow a developmental genetic program and are able to respond to alterations in the environment through various signaling pathways. The mechanisms that control these processes involve the activation of transcription followed by a series of post-transcriptional events. These post-transcriptional steps are mediated by the interaction of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with defined subpopulations of RNAs creating a regulatory gene network. Characterizing these RNA-protein networks is essential to understanding the regulatory mechanisms underlying the control of stem cell fate. Ribonomics is the combination of classical biochemical purification protocols with the high-throughput identification of transcripts applied to the functional characterization of RNA-protein complexes. Here, we describe the different approaches that can be used in a ribonomic approach and how they have contributed to understanding the function of several RBPs with central roles in stem cell biology. PMID:26734617

  2. Evidence That Antibiotics Bind to Human Mitochondrial Ribosomal RNA Has Implications for Aminoglycoside Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seoyeon; Harris, Kimberly A; Fanning, Kathryn D; Sarachan, Kathryn L; Frohlich, Kyla M; Agris, Paul F

    2015-07-31

    Aminoglycosides are a well known antibiotic family used to treat bacterial infections in humans and animals, but which can be toxic. By binding to the decoding site of helix44 of the small subunit RNA of the bacterial ribosome, the aminoglycoside antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis, cause misreading, or obstruct peptidyl-tRNA translocation. Although aminoglycosides bind helix69 of the bacterial large subunit RNA as well, little is known about their interaction with the homologous human helix69. To probe the role this binding event plays in toxicity, changes to thermal stability, base stacking, and conformation upon aminoglycoside binding to the human cytoplasmic helix69 were compared with those of the human mitochondrial and Escherichia coli helix69. Surprisingly, binding of gentamicin and kanamycin A to the chemically synthesized terminal hairpins of the human cytoplasmic, human mitochondrial, and E. coli helix69 revealed similar dissociation constants (1.3-1.7 and 4.0-5.4 μM, respectively). In addition, aminoglycoside binding enhanced conformational stability of the human mitochondrial helix69 by increasing base stacking. Proton one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR suggested significant and specific conformational changes of human mitochondrial and E. coli helix69 upon aminoglycoside binding, as compared with human cytoplasmic helix69. The conformational changes and similar aminoglycoside binding affinities observed for human mitochondrial helix69 and E. coli helix69, as well as the increase in structural stability shown for the former, suggest that this binding event is important to understanding aminoglycoside toxicity. PMID:26060252

  3. Functional Advantages of Conserved Intrinsic Disorder in RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Varadi, Mihaly; Zsolyomi, Fruzsina; Guharoy, Mainak; Tompa, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Proteins form large macromolecular assemblies with RNA that govern essential molecular processes. RNA-binding proteins have often been associated with conformational flexibility, yet the extent and functional implications of their intrinsic disorder have never been fully assessed. Here, through large-scale analysis of comprehensive protein sequence and structure datasets we demonstrate the prevalence of intrinsic structural disorder in RNA-binding proteins and domains. We addressed their functionality through a quantitative description of the evolutionary conservation of disordered segments involved in binding, and investigated the structural implications of flexibility in terms of conformational stability and interface formation. We conclude that the functional role of intrinsically disordered protein segments in RNA-binding is two-fold: first, these regions establish extended, conserved electrostatic interfaces with RNAs via induced fit. Second, conformational flexibility enables them to target different RNA partners, providing multi-functionality, while also ensuring specificity. These findings emphasize the functional importance of intrinsically disordered regions in RNA-binding proteins. PMID:26439842

  4. Two RNA-binding motifs in eIF3 direct HCV IRES-dependent translation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chaomin; Querol-Audí, Jordi; Mortimer, Stefanie A.; Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Doudna, Jennifer A.; Nogales, Eva; Cate, Jamie H. D.

    2013-01-01

    The initiation of protein synthesis plays an essential regulatory role in human biology. At the center of the initiation pathway, the 13-subunit eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) controls access of other initiation factors and mRNA to the ribosome by unknown mechanisms. Using electron microscopy (EM), bioinformatics and biochemical experiments, we identify two highly conserved RNA-binding motifs in eIF3 that direct translation initiation from the hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site (HCV IRES) RNA. Mutations in the RNA-binding motif of subunit eIF3a weaken eIF3 binding to the HCV IRES and the 40S ribosomal subunit, thereby suppressing eIF2-dependent recognition of the start codon. Mutations in the eIF3c RNA-binding motif also reduce 40S ribosomal subunit binding to eIF3, and inhibit eIF5B-dependent steps downstream of start codon recognition. These results provide the first connection between the structure of the central translation initiation factor eIF3 and recognition of the HCV genomic RNA start codon, molecular interactions that likely extend to the human transcriptome. PMID:23766293

  5. Prediction of RNA binding proteins comes of age from low resolution to high resolution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiying; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2013-10-01

    Networks of protein-RNA interactions is likely to be larger than protein-protein and protein-DNA interaction networks because RNA transcripts are encoded tens of times more than proteins (e.g. only 3% of human genome coded for proteins), have diverse function and localization, and are controlled by proteins from birth (transcription) to death (degradation). This massive network is evidenced by several recent experimental discoveries of large numbers of previously unknown RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Meanwhile, more than 400 non-redundant protein-RNA complex structures (at 25% sequence identity or less) have been deposited into the protein databank. These sequences and structural resources for RBPs provide ample data for the development of computational techniques dedicated to RBP prediction, as experimentally determining RNA-binding functions is time-consuming and expensive. This review compares traditional machine-learning based approaches with emerging template-based methods at several levels of prediction resolution ranging from two-state binding/non-binding prediction, to binding residue prediction and protein-RNA complex structure prediction. The analysis indicates that the two approaches are complementary and their combinations may lead to further improvements. PMID:23872922

  6. Identification of RNA-Binding Protein LARP4B as a Tumor Suppressor in Glioma.

    PubMed

    Koso, Hideto; Yi, Hungtsung; Sheridan, Paul; Miyano, Satoru; Ino, Yasushi; Todo, Tomoki; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2016-04-15

    Transposon-based insertional mutagenesis is a valuable method for conducting unbiased forward genetic screens to identify cancer genes in mice. We used this system to elucidate factors involved in the malignant transformation of neural stem cells into glioma-initiating cells. We identified an RNA-binding protein, La-related protein 4b (LARP4B), as a candidate tumor-suppressor gene in glioma. LARP4B expression was consistently decreased in human glioma stem cells and cell lines compared with normal neural stem cells. Moreover, heterozygous deletion of LARP4B was detected in nearly 80% of glioblastomas in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. LARP4B loss was also associated with low expression and poor patient survival. Overexpression of LARP4B in glioma cell lines strongly inhibited proliferation by inducing mitotic arrest and apoptosis in four of six lines as well as in two patient-derived glioma stem cell populations. The expression levels of CDKN1A and BAX were also upregulated upon LARP4B overexpression, and the growth-inhibitory effects were partially dependent on p53 (TP53) activity in cells expressing wild-type, but not mutant, p53. We further found that the La module, which is responsible for the RNA chaperone activity of LARP4B, was important for the growth-suppressive effect and was associated with BAX mRNA. Finally, LARP4B depletion in p53 and Nf1-deficient mouse primary astrocytes promoted cell proliferation and led to increased tumor size and invasiveness in xenograft and orthotopic models. These data provide strong evidence that LARP4B serves as a tumor-suppressor gene in glioma, encouraging further exploration of the RNA targets potentially involved in LARP4B-mediatd growth inhibition. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2254-64. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26933087

  7. New hypoxanthine nucleosides with RNA antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Nair, V; Ussery, M A

    1992-08-01

    A series of novel C-2 functionalized hypoxanthine and purine ribonucleosides have been synthesized and evaluated against exotic RNA viruses of the family or genus alpha, arena, flavi, and rhabdo. Both specific and broad-spectrum antiviral activities were discovered but only with hypoxanthine nucleosides. PMID:1444325

  8. Poly(A)-binding proteins and mRNA localization: who rules the roost?

    PubMed

    Gray, Nicola K; Hrabálková, Lenka; Scanlon, Jessica P; Smith, Richard W P

    2015-12-01

    RNA-binding proteins are often multifunctional, interact with a variety of protein partners and display complex localizations within cells. Mammalian cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) are multifunctional RNA-binding proteins that regulate multiple aspects of mRNA translation and stability. Although predominantly diffusely cytoplasmic at steady state, they shuttle through the nucleus and can be localized to a variety of cytoplasmic foci, including those associated with mRNA storage and localized translation. Intriguingly, PABP sub-cellular distribution can alter dramatically in response to cellular stress or viral infection, becoming predominantly nuclear and/or being enriched in induced cytoplasmic foci. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that govern this distribution/relocalization and in many cases PABP functions within specific sites remain unclear. Here we discuss the emerging evidence with respect to these questions in mammals. PMID:26614673

  9. The RNA-binding proteomes from yeast to man harbour conserved enigmRBPs

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Benedikt M.; Horos, Rastislav; Fischer, Bernd; Castello, Alfredo; Eichelbaum, Katrin; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Schwarzl, Thomas; Curk, Tomaž; Foehr, Sophia; Huber, Wolfgang; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Hentze, Matthias W.

    2015-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) exert a broad range of biological functions. To explore the scope of RBPs across eukaryotic evolution, we determined the in vivo RBP repertoire of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified 678 RBPs from yeast and additionally 729 RBPs from human hepatocytic HuH-7 cells. Combined analyses of these and recently published data sets define the core RBP repertoire conserved from yeast to man. Conserved RBPs harbour defined repetitive motifs within disordered regions, which display striking evolutionary expansion. Only 60% of yeast and 73% of the human RBPs have functions assigned to RNA biology or structural motifs known to convey RNA binding, and many intensively studied proteins surprisingly emerge as RBPs (termed ‘enigmRBPs'), including almost all glycolytic enzymes, pointing to emerging connections between gene regulation and metabolism. Analyses of the mitochondrial hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B10) uncover the RNA-binding specificity of an enigmRBP. PMID:26632259

  10. Three-dimensional model of a selective theophylline-binding RNA molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, Chang-Shung; Oprea, T.I.; Hummer, G.; Garcia, A.E.

    1995-07-01

    We propose a three-dimensional (3D) model for an RNA molecule that selectively binds theophylline but not caffeine. This RNA, which was found using SELEX [Jenison, R.D., et al., Science (1994) 263:1425] is 10,000 times more specific for theophylline (Kd=320 nM) than for caffeine (Kd=3.5 mM), although the two ligands are identical except for a methyl group substituted at N7 (present only in caffeine). The binding affinity for ten xanthine-based ligands was used to derive a Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) model (R{sup 2} = 0.93 for 3 components, with cross-validated R{sup 2} of 0.73), using the SYBYL and GOLPE programs. A pharmacophoric map was generated to locate steric and electrostatic interactions between theophylline and the RNA binding site. This information was used to identify putative functional groups of the binding pocket and to generate distance constraints. Based on a model for the secondary structure (Jenison et al., idem), the 3D structure of this RNA was then generated using the following method: each helical region of the RNA molecule was treated as a rigid body; single-stranded loops with specific end-to-end distances were generated. The structures of RNA-xanthine complexes were studied using a modified Monte Carlo algorithm. The detailed structure of an RNA-ligand complex model, as well as possible explanations for the theophylline selectivity will be discussed.

  11. Reading RNA methylation codes through methyl-specific binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; He, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    N (6)-methyladenosine (m (6)A) is a prevalent modification of eukaryotic mRNAs. It regulates yeast cell fate and is essential to the development and fertility of metazoans. Although its presence in mRNA has been known since the early 1970s, the function of m (6)A remained a mystery until the spate of discoveries in the past three years. Here, we focus on the discovery of m (6)A "readers" (proteins that specifically recognize m (6)A), and their functions in tuning mRNA stability, as well as the broader significance of such m (6)A-dependent regulation of gene expression. PMID:24823649

  12. RNA binding proteins implicated in Xist-mediated chromosome silencing.

    PubMed

    Moindrot, Benoit; Brockdorff, Neil

    2016-08-01

    Chromosome silencing by Xist RNA occurs in two steps; localisation in cis within the nuclear matrix to form a domain that corresponds to the territory of the inactive X chromosome elect, and transduction of silencing signals from Xist RNA to the underlying chromatin. Key factors that mediate these processes have been identified in a series of recent studies that harnessed comprehensive proteomic or genetic screening strategies. In this review we discuss these findings in light of prior knowledge both of Xist-mediated silencing and known functions/properties of the novel factors. PMID:26816113

  13. mRNA Decay of Most Arabidopsis miRNA Targets Requires Slicer Activity of AGO11[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression in animals and plants. They guide RNA-induced silencing complexes to complementary target mRNA, thereby mediating mRNA degradation or translational repression. ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins bind directly to miRNAs and may catalyze cleavage (slicing) of target mRNAs. In animals, miRNA target degradation via slicing occurs only exceptionally, and target mRNA decay is induced via AGO-dependent recruitment of deadenylase complexes. Conversely, plant miRNAs generally direct slicing of their targets, but it is unclear whether slicer-independent mechanisms of target mRNA decay also exist, and, if so, how much they contribute to miRNA-induced mRNA decay. Here, we compare phenotypes and transcript profiles of ago1 null and slicer-deficient mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We also construct conditional loss-of-function mutants of AGO1 to allow transcript profiling in true leaves. Although phenotypic differences between ago1 null and slicer-deficient mutants can be discerned, the results of both transcript profiling approaches indicate that slicer activity is required for mRNA repression of the vast majority of miRNA targets. A set of genes exhibiting up-regulation specifically in ago1 null, but not in ago1 slicer-deficient mutants was also identified, leaving open the possibility that AGO1 may have functions in gene regulation independent of small RNAs. PMID:27208258

  14. Organic additives stabilize RNA aptamer binding of malachite green.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yubin; Chi, Hong; Wu, Yuanyuan; Marks, Robert S; Steele, Terry W J

    2016-11-01

    Aptamer-ligand binding has been utilized for biological applications due to its specific binding and synthetic nature. However, the applications will be limited if the binding or the ligand is unstable. Malachite green aptamer (MGA) and its labile ligand malachite green (MG) were found to have increasing apparent dissociation constants (Kd) as determined through the first order rate loss of emission intensity of the MGA-MG fluorescent complex. The fluorescent intensity loss was hypothesized to be from the hydrolysis of MG into malachite green carbinol base (MGOH). Random screening organic additives were found to reduce or retain the fluorescence emission and the calculated apparent Kd of MGA-MG binding. The protective effect became more apparent as the percentage of organic additives increased up to 10% v/v. The mechanism behind the organic additive protective effects was primarily from a ~5X increase in first order rate kinetics of MGOH→MG (kMGOH→MG), which significantly changed the equilibrium constant (Keq), favoring the generation of MG, versus MGOH without organic additives. A simple way has been developed to stabilize the apparent Kd of MGA-MG binding over 24h, which may be beneficial in stabilizing other triphenylmethane or carbocation ligand-aptamer interactions that are susceptible to SN1 hydrolysis. PMID:27591602

  15. The Arabidopsis RNA-binding protein AtRGGA regulates tolerance to salt and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Ambrosone, Alfredo; Batelli, Giorgia; Nurcato, Roberta; Aurilia, Vincenzo; Punzo, Paola; Bangarusamy, Dhinoth Kumar; Ruberti, Ida; Sassi, Massimiliano; Leone, Antonietta; Costa, Antonello; Grillo, Stefania

    2015-05-01

    Salt and drought stress severely reduce plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. The identification of genes underlying stress response and tolerance is the subject of intense research in plant biology. Through microarray analyses, we previously identified in potato (Solanum tuberosum) StRGGA, coding for an Arginine Glycine Glycine (RGG) box-containing RNA-binding protein, whose expression was specifically induced in potato cell cultures gradually exposed to osmotic stress. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ortholog, AtRGGA, is a functional RNA-binding protein required for a proper response to osmotic stress. AtRGGA gene expression was up-regulated in seedlings after long-term exposure to abscisic acid (ABA) and polyethylene glycol, while treatments with NaCl resulted in AtRGGA down-regulation. AtRGGA promoter analysis showed activity in several tissues, including stomata, the organs controlling transpiration. Fusion of AtRGGA with yellow fluorescent protein indicated that AtRGGA is localized in the cytoplasm and the cytoplasmic perinuclear region. In addition, the rgga knockout mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in root growth and survival tests and to salt stress during germination and at the vegetative stage. AtRGGA-overexpressing plants showed higher tolerance to ABA and salt stress on plates and in soil, accumulating lower levels of proline when exposed to drought stress. Finally, a global analysis of gene expression revealed extensive alterations in the transcriptome under salt stress, including several genes such as ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2, GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE TAU9, and several SMALL AUXIN UPREGULATED RNA-like genes showing opposite expression behavior in transgenic and knockout plants. Taken together, our results reveal an important role of AtRGGA in the mechanisms of plant response and adaptation to stress. PMID:25783413

  16. Studying metal ion binding properties of a three-way junction RNA by heteronuclear NMR.

    PubMed

    Bartova, Simona; Pechlaner, Maria; Donghi, Daniela; Sigel, Roland K O

    2016-06-01

    Self-splicing group II introns are highly structured RNA molecules, containing a characteristic secondary and catalytically active tertiary structure, which is formed only in the presence of Mg(II). Mg(II) initiates the first folding step governed by the κζ element within domain 1 (D1κζ). We recently solved the NMR structure of D1κζ derived from the mitochondrial group II intron ribozyme Sc.ai5γ and demonstrated that Mg(II) is essential for its stabilization. Here, we performed a detailed multinuclear NMR study of metal ion interactions with D1κζ, using Cd(II) and cobalt(III)hexammine to probe inner- and outer-sphere coordination of Mg(II) and thus to better characterize its binding sites. Accordingly, we mapped (1)H, (15)N, (13)C, and (31)P spectral changes upon addition of different amounts of the metal ions. Our NMR data reveal a Cd(II)-assisted macrochelate formation at the 5'-end triphosphate, a preferential Cd(II) binding to guanines in a helical context, an electrostatic interaction in the ζ tetraloop receptor and various metal ion interactions in the GAAA tetraloop and κ element. These results together with our recently published data on Mg(II) interaction provide a much better understanding of Mg(II) binding to D1κζ, and reveal how intricate and complex metal ion interactions can be. PMID:26880094

  17. Identification of a Binding Site for ASF/SF2 on an RNA Fragment Derived from the Hepatitis delta Virus Genome

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Dorota; Zhang, Dajiang; Bojic, Teodora; Beeharry, Yasnee; Tanara, Ali; Pelchat, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a small (∼1700 nucleotides) RNA pathogen which encodes only one open reading frame. Consequently, HDV is dependent on host proteins to replicate its RNA genome. Recently, we reported that ASF/SF2 binds directly and specifically to an HDV-derived RNA fragment which has RNA polymerase II promoter activity. Here, we localized the binding site of ASF/SF2 on the HDV RNA fragment by performing binding experiments using purified recombinant ASF/SF2 combined with deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. In addition, we investigated the requirement of ASF/SF2 for HDV RNA replication using RNAi-mediated knock-down of ASF/SF2 in 293 cells replicating HDV RNA. Overall, our results indicate that ASF/SF2 binds to a purine-rich region distant from both the previously published initiation site of HDV mRNA transcription and binding site of RNAP II, and suggest that this protein is not involved in HDV replication in the cellular system used. PMID:23349975

  18. LRP130, a pentatricopeptide motif protein with a noncanonical RNA-binding domain, is bound in vivo to mitochondrial and nuclear RNAs.

    PubMed

    Mili, Stavroula; Piñol-Roma, Serafín

    2003-07-01

    LRP130 (also known as LRPPRC) is an RNA-binding protein that is a constituent of postsplicing nuclear RNP complexes associated with mature mRNA. It belongs to a growing family of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motif-containing proteins, several of which have been implicated in organellar RNA metabolism. We show here that only a fraction of LRP130 proteins are in nuclei and are directly bound in vivo to at least some of the same RNA molecules as the nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein hnRNP A1. The majority of LRP130 proteins are located within mitochondria, where they are directly bound to polyadenylated RNAs in vivo. In vitro, LRP130 binds preferentially to polypyrimidines. This RNA-binding activity maps to a domain in its C-terminal region that does not contain any previously described RNA-binding motifs and that contains only 2 of the 11 predicted PPR motifs. Therefore, LRP130 is a novel type of RNA-binding protein that associates with both nuclear and mitochondrial mRNAs and as such is a potential candidate for coordinating nuclear and mitochondrial gene expression. These findings provide the first identification of a mammalian protein directly bound to mitochondrial RNA in vivo and provide a possible molecular explanation for the recently described association of mutations in LRP130 with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in humans. PMID:12832482

  19. Probing the leucyl/phenylalanyl tRNA protein transferase active site with tRNA substrate analogues.

    PubMed

    Fung, Angela Wai Shan; Ebhardt, H Alexander; Krishnakumar, Kollappillil S; Moore, Jack; Xu, Zhizhong; Strazewski, Peter; Fahlman, Richard P

    2014-07-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA protein transferases post-translationally conjugate an amino acid from an aminoacyl-tRNA onto the N-terminus of a target polypeptide. The eubacterial aminoacyl-tRNA protein transferase, L/F transferase, utilizes both leucyl-tRNA(Leu) and phenylalanyl-tRNA(Phe) as substrates. X-ray crystal structures with substrate analogues, the minimal substrate phenylalanyl adenosine (rA-Phe) and inhibitor puromycin, have been used to characterize tRNA recognition by L/F transferase. However analyses of these two X-ray crystal structures reveal significant differences in binding. Through structural analyses, mutagenesis, and enzymatic activity assays, we rationalize and demonstrate that the substrate analogues bind to L/F transferase with similar binding affinities using a series of different interactions by the various chemical groups of the analogues. Our data also demonstrates that enlarging the hydrophobic pocket of L/F transferase selectively enhances puromycin inhibition and may aid in the development of improved inhibitors for this class of enzymes. PMID:24521222

  20. Structural basis for binding the TREX2 complex to nuclear pores, GAL1 localisation and mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Jani, Divyang; Valkov, Eugene; Stewart, Murray

    2014-06-01

    The conserved Sac3:Thp1:Sem1:Sus1:Cdc31 (TREX2) complex binds to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and, in addition to integrating mRNA nuclear export with preceding steps in the gene expression pathway, facilitates re-positioning of highly regulated actively transcribing genes (such as GAL1) to NPCs. Although TREX2 is thought to bind NPC protein Nup1, defining the precise role of this interaction has been frustrated by the complex pleiotropic phenotype exhibited by nup1Δ strains. To provide a structural framework for understanding the binding of TREX2 to NPCs and its function in the gene expression pathway, we have determined the structure of the Nup1:TREX2 interaction interface and used this information to engineer a Sac3 variant that impairs NPC binding while not compromising TREX2 assembly. This variant inhibited the NPC association of both de-repressed and activated GAL1 and also produced mRNA export and growth defects. These results indicate that the TREX2:Nup1 interaction facilitates the efficient nuclear export of bulk mRNA together with the re-positioning of GAL1 to NPCs that is required for transcriptional control that is mediated by removal of SUMO from repressors by NPC-bound Ulp1. PMID:24705649

  1. STarMir: a web server for prediction of microRNA binding sites.

    PubMed

    Rennie, William; Liu, Chaochun; Carmack, C Steven; Wolenc, Adam; Kanoria, Shaveta; Lu, Jun; Long, Dang; Ding, Ye

    2014-07-01

    STarMir web server predicts microRNA (miRNA) binding sites on a target ribonucleic acid (RNA). STarMir is an implementation of logistic prediction models developed with miRNA binding data from crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP) studies (Liu,C., Mallick, B., Long, D., Rennie, W.A., Wolenc, A., Carmack, C.S. and Ding, Y. (2013). CLIP-based prediction of mammalian microRNA binding sites. Nucleic Acids Res., 41(14), e138). In both intra-dataset and inter-dataset validations, the models showed major improvements over established algorithms in predictions of both seed and seedless sites. General applicability of the models was indicated by good performance in cross-species validations. The input data for STarMir is processed by the web server to perform prediction of miRNA binding sites, compute comprehensive sequence, thermodynamic and target structure features and a logistic probability as a measure of confidence for each predicted site. For each of seed and seedless sites and for all three regions of a mRNA (3' UTR, CDS and 5' UTR), STarMir output includes the computed binding site features, the logistic probability and a publication-quality diagram of the predicted miRNA:target hybrid. The prediction results are available through both an interactive viewer and downloadable text files. As an application module of the Sfold RNA package (http://sfold.wadsworth.org), STarMir is freely available to all at http://sfold.wadsworth.org/starmir.html. PMID:24803672

  2. Microarray-based technologies for the discovery of selective, RNA-binding molecules.

    PubMed

    Abulwerdi, Fardokht A; Schneekloth, John S

    2016-07-01

    The identification of small molecules that bind specifically to RNA is a challenge. However, the recent explosion in knowledge about the role RNA plays in a number of physiological processes apart from coding for protein sequences makes it a highly interesting target for chemical probes and therapeutics. One technology that has played an important role in the discovery of RNA-binding molecules is microarrays. Microarrays have been broadly employed to screen, profile, and quantify RNA interactions, and will likely play an important role in the discovery of new classes of ligands going forward. Here, we discuss the development of microarray technologies, including aminoglycoside, peptide, peptoid, and small molecule microarrays, and their use in studying RNA-interacting molecules. PMID:27109057

  3. RNA-binding proteins involved in post-transcriptional regulation in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Van Assche, Elke; Van Puyvelde, Sandra; Vanderleyden, Jos; Steenackers, Hans P.

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation is a very important mechanism to control gene expression in changing environments. In the past decade, a lot of interest has been directed toward the role of small RNAs (sRNAs) in bacterial post-transcriptional regulation. However, sRNAs are not the only molecules controlling gene expression at this level, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play an important role as well. CsrA and Hfq are the two best studied bacterial proteins of this type, but recently, additional proteins involved in post-transcriptional control have been identified. This review focuses on the general working mechanisms of post-transcriptionally active RBPs, which include (i) adaptation of the susceptibility of mRNAs and sRNAs to RNases, (ii) modulating the accessibility of the ribosome binding site of mRNAs, (iii) recruiting and assisting in the interaction of mRNAs with other molecules and (iv) regulating transcription terminator/antiterminator formation, and gives an overview of both the well-studied and the newly identified proteins that are involved in post-transcriptional regulatory processes. Additionally, the post-transcriptional mechanisms by which the expression or the activity of these proteins is regulated, are described. For many of the newly identified proteins, however, mechanistic questions remain. Most likely, more post-transcriptionally active proteins will be identified in the future. PMID:25784899

  4. Identification of two proteins that bind to a pyrimidine-rich sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of GAP-43 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, N; Baekelandt, V; Goritchenko, L; Benowitz, L I

    1997-01-01

    GAP-43 is a membrane phosphoprotein that is important for the development and plasticity of neural connections. In undifferentiated PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, GAP-43 mRNA degrades rapidly ( t = 5 h), but becomes stable when cells are treated with nerve growth factor. To identify trans- acting factors that may influence mRNA stability, we combined column chromatography and gel mobility shift assays to isolate GAP-43 mRNA binding proteins from neonatal bovine brain tissue. This resulted in the isolation of two proteins that bind specifically and competitively to a pyrimidine-rich sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of GAP-43 mRNA. Partial amino acid sequencing revealed that one of the RNA binding proteins coincides with FBP (far upstream element binding protein), previously characterized as a protein that resembles hnRNP K and which binds to a single-stranded, pyrimidine-rich DNA sequence upstream of the c -myc gene to activate its expression. The other binding protein shares sequence homology with PTB, a polypyrimidine tract binding protein implicated in RNA splicing and regulation of translation initiation. The two proteins bind to a 26 nt pyrimidine-rich sequence lying 300 nt downstream of the end of the coding region, in an area shown by others to confer instability on a reporter mRNA in transient transfection assays. We therefore propose that FBP and the PTB-like protein may compete for binding at the same site to influence the stability of GAP-43 mRNA. PMID:9092640

  5. Structural mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus Hfq binding to an RNA A-tract

    PubMed Central

    Horstmann, Nicola; Orans, Jillian; Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Shelburne, Samuel A.; Brennan, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Hfq is a post-transcriptional regulator that plays a key role in bacterial gene expression by binding AU-rich sequences and A-tracts to facilitate the annealing of sRNAs to target mRNAs and to affect RNA stability. To understand how Hfq from the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) binds A-tract RNA, we determined the crystal structure of an Sa Hfq–adenine oligoribonucleotide complex. The structure reveals a bipartite RNA-binding motif on the distal face that is composed of a purine nucleotide-specificity site (R-site) and a non-discriminating linker site (L-site). The (R–L)-binding motif, which is also utilized by Bacillus subtilis Hfq to bind (AG)3A, differs from the (A–R–N) tripartite poly(A) RNA-binding motif of Escherichia coli Hfq whereby the Sa Hfq R-site strongly prefers adenosine, is more aromatic and permits deeper insertion of the adenine ring. R-site adenine-stacking residue Phe30, which is conserved among Gram-positive bacterial Hfqs, and an altered conformation about β3 and β4 eliminate the adenosine-specificity site (A-site) and create the L-site. Binding studies show that Sa Hfq binds (AU)3A ≈ (AG)3A ≥ (AC)3A > (AA)3A and L-site residue Lys33 plays a significant role. The (R–L) motif is likely utilized by Hfqs from most Gram-positive bacteria to bind alternating (A–N)n RNA. PMID:22965117

  6. Role of Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein in Mediating Internal Initiation of Translation of Interferon Regulatory Factor 2 RNA

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Debojyoti; Venkataramana, Musturi; Ponnuswamy, Anand; Das, Saumitra

    2009-01-01

    Background Earlier we have reported translational control of interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) by internal initiation (Dhar et al, Nucleic Acids Res, 2007). The results implied possible role of IRF2 in controlling the intricate balance of cellular gene expression under stress conditions in general. Here we have investigated the secondary structure of the Internal Ribosome Entry Site of IRF2 RNA and demonstrated the role of PTB protein in ribosome assembly to facilitate internal initiation. Methodology/Principal Findings We have probed the putative secondary structure of the IRF2 5′UTR RNA using various enzymatic and chemical modification agents to constrain the secondary structure predicted from RNA folding algorithm Mfold. The IRES activity was found to be influenced by the interaction of trans-acting factor, polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB). Deletion of 25 nts from the 3′terminus of the 5′untranslated region resulted in reduced binding with PTB protein and also showed significant decrease in IRES activity compared to the wild type. We have also demonstrated putative contact points of PTB on the IRF2–5′UTR using primer extension inhibition assay. Majority of the PTB toe-prints were found to be restricted to the 3′end of the IRES. Additionally, Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra analysis suggested change in the conformation of the RNA upon PTB binding. Further, binding studies using S10 extract from HeLa cells, partially silenced for PTB gene expression, resulted in reduced binding by other trans-acting factors. Finally, we have demonstrated that addition of recombinant PTB enhances ribosome assembly on IRF2 IRES suggesting possible role of PTB in mediating internal initiation of translation of IRF2 RNA. Conclusion/Significance It appears that PTB binding to multiple sites within IRF2 5′UTR leads to a conformational change in the RNA that facilitate binding of other trans-acting factors to mediate internal initiation of translation. PMID

  7. Orthogonal matrix factorization enables integrative analysis of multiple RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Stražar, Martin; Žitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž; Ule, Jernej; Curk, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in post-transcriptional control of gene expression, including splicing, transport, polyadenylation and RNA stability. To model protein–RNA interactions by considering all available sources of information, it is necessary to integrate the rapidly growing RBP experimental data with the latest genome annotation, gene function, RNA sequence and structure. Such integration is possible by matrix factorization, where current approaches have an undesired tendency to identify only a small number of the strongest patterns with overlapping features. Because protein–RNA interactions are orchestrated by multiple factors, methods that identify discriminative patterns of varying strengths are needed. Results: We have developed an integrative orthogonality-regularized nonnegative matrix factorization (iONMF) to integrate multiple data sources and discover non-overlapping, class-specific RNA binding patterns of varying strengths. The orthogonality constraint halves the effective size of the factor model and outperforms other NMF models in predicting RBP interaction sites on RNA. We have integrated the largest data compendium to date, which includes 31 CLIP experiments on 19 RBPs involved in splicing (such as hnRNPs, U2AF2, ELAVL1, TDP-43 and FUS) and processing of 3’UTR (Ago, IGF2BP). We show that the integration of multiple data sources improves the predictive accuracy of retrieval of RNA binding sites. In our study the key predictive factors of protein–RNA interactions were the position of RNA structure and sequence motifs, RBP co-binding and gene region type. We report on a number of protein-specific patterns, many of which are consistent with experimentally determined properties of RBPs. Availability and implementation: The iONMF implementation and example datasets are available at https://github.com/mstrazar/ionmf. Contact: tomaz.curk@fri.uni-lj.si Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available

  8. Heme activation by DNA: isoguanine pentaplexes, but not quadruplexes, bind heme and enhance its oxidative activity

    PubMed Central

    Shumayrikh, Nisreen; Huang, Yu Chuan; Sen, Dipankar

    2015-01-01

    Guanine-rich, single-stranded, DNAs and RNAs are able to fold to form G-quadruplexes that are held together by guanine base quartets. G-quadruplexes are known to bind ferric heme [Fe(III)-protoporphyrin IX] and to strongly activate such bound hemes toward peroxidase (1-electron oxidation) as well as oxygenase/peroxygenase (2-electron oxidation) activities. However, much remains unknown about how such activation is effected. Herein, we investigated whether G-quadruplexes were strictly required for heme activation or whether related multi-stranded DNA/RNA structures such as isoguanine (iG) quadruplexes and pentaplexes could also bind and activate heme. We found that iG-pentaplexes did indeed bind and activate heme comparably to G-quadruplexes; however, iG-quadruplexes did neither. Earlier structural and computational studies had suggested that while the geometry of backbone-unconstrained iG-quintets templated by cations such as Na+ or NH4+ was planar, that of iG-quartets deviated from planarity. We hypothesize that the binding as well as activation of heme by DNA or RNA is strongly supported by the planarity of the nucleobase quartet or quintet that interacts directly with the heme. PMID:25824944

  9. Structural basis of RNA recognition and activation by innate immune receptor RIG-I

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Fuguo; Ramanathan, Anand; Miller, Matthew T.; Tang, Guo-Qing; Gale, Jr., Michael; Patel, Smita S.; Marcotrigiano, Joseph

    2012-05-29

    Retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I; also known as DDX58) is a cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) motifs to differentiate between viral and cellular RNAs. RIG-I is activated by blunt-ended double-stranded (ds)RNA with or without a 5'-triphosphate (ppp), by single-stranded RNA marked by a 5'-ppp and by polyuridine sequences. Upon binding to such PAMP motifs, RIG-I initiates a signalling cascade that induces innate immune defences and inflammatory cytokines to establish an antiviral state. The RIG-I pathway is highly regulated and aberrant signalling leads to apoptosis, altered cell differentiation, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and cancer. The helicase and repressor domains (RD) of RIG-I recognize dsRNA and 5'-ppp RNA to activate the two amino-terminal caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) for signalling. Here, to understand the synergy between the helicase and the RD for RNA binding, and the contribution of ATP hydrolysis to RIG-I activation, we determined the structure of human RIG-I helicase-RD in complex with dsRNA and an ATP analogue. The helicase-RD organizes into a ring around dsRNA, capping one end, while contacting both strands using previously uncharacterized motifs to recognize dsRNA. Small-angle X-ray scattering, limited proteolysis and differential scanning fluorimetry indicate that RIG-I is in an extended and flexible conformation that compacts upon binding RNA. These results provide a detailed view of the role of helicase in dsRNA recognition, the synergy between the RD and the helicase for RNA binding and the organization of full-length RIG-I bound to dsRNA, and provide evidence of a conformational change upon RNA binding. The RIG-I helicase-RD structure is consistent with dsRNA translocation without unwinding and cooperative binding to RNA. The structure yields unprecedented insight into innate immunity and has a broader impact on other areas of biology, including RNA

  10. The B-WICH chromatin-remodelling complex regulates RNA polymerase III transcription by promoting Max-dependent c-Myc binding.

    PubMed

    Sadeghifar, Fatemeh; Böhm, Stefanie; Vintermist, Anna; Östlund Farrants, Ann-Kristin

    2015-05-19

    The chromatin-remodelling complex B-WICH, comprised of William syndrome transcription factor, the ATPase SNF2h and nuclear myosin, specifically activates RNA polymerase III transcription of the 5S rRNA and 7SL genes. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Using high-resolution MN walking we demonstrate here that B-WICH changes the chromatin structure in the vicinity of the 5S rRNA and 7SL RNA genes during RNA polymerase III transcription. The action of B-WICH is required for the binding of the RNA polymerase machinery and the regulatory factors c-Myc at the 5S rRNA and 7SL RNA genes. In addition to the c-Myc binding site at the 5S genes, we have revealed a novel c-Myc and Max binding site in the intergenic spacer of the 5S rDNA. This region also contains a region remodelled by B-WICH. We demonstrate that c-Myc binds to both sites in a Max-dependent way, and thereby activate transcription by acetylating histone H3. The novel binding patterns of c-Myc and Max link transcription of 5S rRNA to the Myc/Max/Mxd network. Since B-WICH acts prior to c-Myc and other factors, we propose a model in which the B-WICH complex is required to maintain an open chromatin structure at these RNA polymerase III genes. This is a prerequisite for the binding of additional regulatory factors. PMID:25883140

  11. Thermodynamics and kinetics of adaptive binding in the malachite green RNA aptamer.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Jason B; Andreiev, Aurelia I; Dieckmann, Thorsten

    2013-09-24

    Adaptive binding, the ability of molecules to fold themselves around the structure of a ligand and thereby incorporating it into their three-dimensional fold, is a key feature of most RNA aptamers. The malachite green aptamer (MGA) has been shown to bind several closely related triphenyl dyes with planar and nonplanar structures in this manner. Competitive binding studies using isothermal titration calorimetry and stopped flow kinetics have been conducted with the aim of understanding the adaptive nature of RNA-ligand interaction. The results of these studies reveal that binding of one ligand can reduce the ability of the aptamer pocket to adapt to another ligand, even if this second ligand has a significantly higher affinity to the free aptamer. A similar effect is observed in the presence of Mg(2+) ions which stabilize the binding pocket in a more ligand bound-like conformation. PMID:23984874

  12. Stabilized sulfur binding using activated fillers

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Vagin, Vyacheslav P.; Vagin, Sergey P.

    2015-07-21

    A method of making a stable, sulfur binding composite comprising impregnating a solid aggregate with an organic modifier comprising unsaturated hydrocarbons with at least one double or triple covalent bond between adjacent carbon atoms to create a modifier-impregnated aggregate; heating and drying the modifier-impregnated aggregate to activate the surface of the modifier-impregnated aggregate for reaction with sulfur.

  13. spongeScan: A web for detecting microRNA binding elements in lncRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Furió-Tarí, Pedro; Tarazona, Sonia; Gabaldón, Toni; Enright, Anton J; Conesa, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Non-coding RNA transcripts such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important genetic regulators. However, the functions of many of these transcripts are still not clearly understood. Recently, it has become apparent that there is significant crosstalk between miRNAs and lncRNAs and that this creates competition for binding between the miRNA, a lncRNA and other regulatory targets. Indeed, various competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) have already been identified where a lncRNA acts by sequestering miRNAs. This implies the down-regulation in the interaction of the miRNAs with their mRNA targets, what has been called a sponge effect. Multiple approaches exist for the prediction of miRNA targets in mRNAs. However, few methods exist for the prediction of miRNA response elements (MREs) in lncRNAs acting as ceRNAs (sponges). Here, we present spongeScan (http://spongescan.rc.ufl.edu), a graphical web tool to compute and visualize putative MREs in lncRNAs, along with different measures to assess their likely behavior as ceRNAs. PMID:27198221

  14. Insights into the Recognition, Binding and Reactivity of Catalytic Metallodrugs Targeting Stem Loop IIb of Hepatitis C IRES RNA

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Seth S.; Ross, Martin James; Fidai, Insiya; Cowan, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Complex Cu-GGHYrFK-amide (1-Cu) was previously reported as a novel metallotherapeutic that catalytically inactivates stem loop IIb of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Internal Ribosomal Entry Site (IRES) RNA and demonstrates significant antiviral activity in a cellular HCV replicon assay. Herein are described additional studies focused on understanding the cleavage mechanism, as well as the relationship of catalyst configuration to structural recognition and site-selective cleavage of the structured RNA motif. These are advanced by use of a combination of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, melting temperature determination, and computational analysis to develop a structural model for binding and reactivity toward SLIIb of the IRES RNA. In addition, the binding, reactivity, and structural chemistry of the all d-amino acid form of this metallopeptide, complex 2-Cu, is reported and compared to complex 1-Cu. In vitro RNA binding and cleavage assays for complex 2-Cu show a KD of 76 ± 3 nM, and Michaelis-Menten parameters of kcat of 0.14 ± 0.01 min−1 and KM of 7.9 ± 1.2 µM, with a turnover number exceeding 40. In a luciferase-based cellular replicon assay Cu-GGhyrfk-amide shows activity similar to the parent peptide, complex 1-Cu, with IC50 of 1.9 ± 0.4 µM and cytotoxicity exceeding 100 µM. RT-PCR experiments confirm a significant reduction in HCV RNA levels in replicon assays for up to nine days when treated with complex 1-Cu in three day dosing increments. This study shows the influence that the α-carbon stereocenter has for this the new class of compounds, while detailed mass spectrometry and computational analysis provide new insights into the mechanisms of recognition, binding, and reactivity. PMID:24756921

  15. RNA Binding of T-cell Intracellular Antigen-1 (TIA-1) C-terminal RNA Recognition Motif Is Modified by pH Conditions*

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Gallardo, Isabel; Aroca, Ángeles; Persson, Cecilia; Karlsson, B. Göran; Díaz-Moreno, Irene

    2013-01-01

    T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is a DNA/RNA-binding protein that regulates critical events in cell physiology by the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. TIA-1 is composed of three RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and a glutamine-rich domain and binds to uridine-rich RNA sequences through its C-terminal RRM2 and RRM3 domains. Here, we show that RNA binding mediated by either isolated RRM3 or the RRM23 construct is controlled by slight environmental pH changes due to the protonation/deprotonation of TIA-1 RRM3 histidine residues. The auxiliary role of the C-terminal RRM3 domain in TIA-1 RNA recognition is poorly understood, and this work provides insight into its binding mechanisms. PMID:23902765

  16. Redefining the structural motifs that determine RNA binding and RNA editing by pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in land plants.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shifeng; Gutmann, Bernard; Zhong, Xiao; Ye, Yongtao; Fisher, Mark F; Bai, Fengqi; Castleden, Ian; Song, Yue; Song, Bo; Huang, Jiaying; Liu, Xin; Xu, Xun; Lim, Boon L; Bond, Charles S; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Small, Ian

    2016-02-01

    The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins form one of the largest protein families in land plants. They are characterised by tandem 30-40 amino acid motifs that form an extended binding surface capable of sequence-specific recognition of RNA strands. Almost all of them are post-translationally targeted to plastids and mitochondria, where they play important roles in post-transcriptional processes including splicing, RNA editing and the initiation of translation. A code describing how PPR proteins recognise their RNA targets promises to accelerate research on these proteins, but making use of this code requires accurate definition and annotation of all of the various nucleotide-binding motifs in each protein. We have used a structural modelling approach to define 10 different variants of the PPR motif found in plant proteins, in addition to the putative deaminase motif that is found at the C-terminus of many RNA-editing factors. We show that the super-helical RNA-binding surface of RNA-editing factors is potentially longer than previously recognised. We used the redefined motifs to develop accurate and consistent annotations of PPR sequences from 109 genomes. We report a high error rate in PPR gene models in many public plant proteomes, due to gene fusions and insertions of spurious introns. These consistently annotated datasets across a wide range of species are valuable resources for future comparative genomics studies, and an essential pre-requisite for accurate large-scale computational predictions of PPR targets. We have created a web portal (http://www.plantppr.com) that provides open access to these resources for the community. PMID:26764122

  17. Ribosomal protein S7 from Escherichia coli uses the same determinants to bind 16S ribosomal RNA and its messenger RNA

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Francis; Brakier-Gingras, Léa

    2001-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S7 from Escherichia coli binds to the lower half of the 3′ major domain of 16S rRNA and initiates its folding. It also binds to its own mRNA, the str mRNA, and represses its translation. Using filter binding assays, we show in this study that the same mutations that interfere with S7 binding to 16S rRNA also weaken its affinity for its mRNA. This suggests that the same protein regions are responsible for mRNA and rRNA binding affinities, and that S7 recognizes identical sequence elements within the two RNA targets, although they have dissimilar secondary structures. Overexpression of S7 is known to inhibit bacterial growth. This phenotypic growth defect was relieved in cells overexpressing S7 mutants that bind poorly the str mRNA, confirming that growth impairment is controlled by the binding of S7 to its mRNA. Interestingly, a mutant with a short deletion at the C-terminus of S7 was more detrimental to cell growth than wild-type S7. This suggests that the C-terminal portion of S7 plays an important role in ribosome function, which is perturbed by the deletion. PMID:11160889

  18. Human importin alpha and RNA do not compete for binding to influenza A virus nucleoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Boulo, Sebastien; Akarsu, Hatice; Lotteau, Vincent; Mueller, Christoph W.; Ruigrok, Rob W.H.; Baudin, Florence

    2011-01-05

    Influenza virus has a segmented genome composed of eight negative stranded RNA segments. Each segment is covered with NP forming ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) and carries a copy of the heterotrimeric polymerase complex. As a rare phenomenon among the RNA viruses, the viral replication occurs in the nucleus and therefore implies interactions between host and viral factors, such as between importin alpha and nucleoprotein. In the present study we report that through binding with the human nuclear receptor importin {alpha}5 (Imp{alpha}5), the viral NP is no longer oligomeric but maintained as a monomer inside the complex. In this regard, Imp{alpha}5 acts as a chaperone until NP is delivered in the nucleus for viral RNA encapsidation. Moreover, we show that the association of NP with the host transporter does not impair the binding of NP to RNA. The complex human Imp{alpha}5-NP binds RNA with the same affinity as wt NP alone, whereas engineered monomeric NP through point mutations binds RNA with a strongly reduced affinity.

  19. Binding of Kinetically Inert Metal Ions to RNA: The Case of Platinum(II)

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Erich G.; Hostetter, Alethia A.; Osborn, Maire F.; Miller, Amanda L.; DeRose, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter several aspects of Pt(II) are highlighted that focus on the properties of Pt(II)-RNA adducts and the possibility that they influence RNA-based processes in cells. Cellular distribution of Pt(II) complexes results in significant platination of RNA, and localization studies find Pt(II) in the nucleus, nucleolus, and a distribution of other sites in cells. Treatment with Pt(II) compounds disrupts RNA-based processes including enzymatic processing, splicing, and translation, and this disruption may be indicative of structural changes to RNA or RNA-protein complexes. Several RNA-Pt(II) adducts have been characterized in vitro by biochemical and other methods. Evidence for Pt(II) binding in non-helical regions and for Pt(II) cross-linking of internal loops has been found. Although platinated sites have been identified, there currently exists very little in the way of detailed structural characterization of RNA-Pt(II) adducts. Some insight into the details of Pt(II) coordination to RNA, especially RNA helices, can be gained from DNA model systems. Many RNA structures, however, contain complex tertiary folds and common, purine-rich structural elements that present suitable Pt(II) nucleophiles in unique arrangements which may hold the potential for novel types of platinum-RNA adducts. Future research aimed at structural characterization of platinum-RNA adducts may provide further insights into platinum-nucleic acid binding motifs, and perhaps provide a rationale for the observed inhibition by Pt(II) complexes of splicing, translation, and enzymatic processing. PMID:22010278

  20. Pre-mRNA Splicing in Plants: In Vivo Functions of RNA-Binding Proteins Implicated in the Splicing Process

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Katja; Koester, Tino; Staiger, Dorothee

    2015-01-01

    Alternative pre-messenger RNA splicing in higher plants emerges as an important layer of regulation upon exposure to exogenous and endogenous cues. Accordingly, mutants defective in RNA-binding proteins predicted to function in the splicing process show severe phenotypic alterations. Among those are developmental defects, impaired responses to pathogen threat or abiotic stress factors, and misregulation of the circadian timing system. A suite of splicing factors has been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we summarize recent insights on how defects in these splicing factors impair plant performance. PMID:26213982

  1. Negative regulation of RNA-binding protein HuR by tumor-suppressor ECRG2.

    PubMed

    Lucchesi, C; Sheikh, M S; Huang, Y

    2016-05-19

    Esophageal cancer-related gene 2 (ECRG2) is a newer tumor suppressor whose function in the regulation of cell growth and apoptosis remains to be elucidated. Here we show that ECRG2 expression was upregulated in response to DNA damage, and increased ECRG2 expression induced growth suppression in cancer cells but not in non-cancerous epithelial cells. ECRG2-mediated growth suppression was associated with activation of caspases and marked reduction in the levels of apoptosis inhibitor, X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). ECRG2, via RNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR), regulated XIAP mRNA stability and expression. Furthermore, ECRG2 increased HuR ubiquitination and degradation but was unable to modulate the non-ubiquitinable mutant form of HuR. We also identified missense and frame-shift ECRG2 mutations in various human malignancies and noted that, unlike wild-type ECRG2, one cancer-derived ECRG2 mutant harboring glutamic acid instead of valine at position 30 (V30E) failed to induce cell death and activation of caspases. This naturally occurring V30E mutant also did not suppress XIAP and HuR. Importantly, the V30E mutant overexpressing cancer cells acquired resistance against multiple anticancer drugs, thus suggesting that ECRG2 mutations appear to have an important role in the acquisition of anticancer drug resistance in a subset of human malignancies. PMID:26434587

  2. Shiga toxin binds to activated platelets.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S A; Polanowska-Grabowska, R K; Fujii, J; Obrig, T; Gear, A R L

    2004-03-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is associated with acute renal failure in children and can be caused by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli. Thrombocytopenia and formation of renal thrombi are characteristic of HUS, suggesting that platelet activation is involved in its pathogenesis. However, whether Shiga toxin directly activates platelets is controversial. The present study evaluates if potential platelet sensitization during isolation by different procedures influences platelet interaction with Shiga toxin. Platelets isolated from sodium citrate anticoagulated blood were exposed during washing to EDTA and higher g forces than platelets prepared from acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) plasma. Platelet binding of Stx was significantly higher in EDTA-washed preparations relative to ACD-derived platelets. Binding of Stx was also increased with ACD-derived platelets when activated with thrombin (1 U mL-1) and exposure of the Gb3 Stx receptor was detected only on platelets subjected to EDTA, higher g forces or thrombin. EDTA-exposed platelets lost their normal discoid shape and were larger. P-selectin (CD62P) exposure was significantly increased in EDTA-washed preparations relative to ACD-derived platelets, suggesting platelet activation. Taken together, these results suggest that direct binding of Stx occurs only on 'activated' platelets rather than on resting platelets. The ability of Stx to interact with previously activated platelets may be an important element in understanding the pathogenesis of HUS. PMID:15009469

  3. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein binds to the 5' untranslated region of the mouse mammary tumor virus mRNA and stimulates cap-independent translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Carlos J; Contreras, Nataly; Angulo, Jenniffer; Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Pino-Ajenjo, Constanza; Llorian, Miriam; Ameur, Melissa; Lisboa, Francisco; Pino, Karla; Lowy, Fernando; Sargueil, Bruno; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    The 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the full-length mRNA of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) harbors an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). In this study, we show that the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), an RNA-binding protein with four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), binds to the MMTV 5' UTR stimulating its IRES activity. There are three isoforms of PTB: PTB1, PTB2, and PTB4. Results show that PTB1 and PTB4, but not PTB2, stimulate MMTV-IRES activity. PTB1 promotes MMTV-IRES-mediated initiation more strongly than PTB4. When expressed in combination, PTB1 further enhanced PTB4 stimulation of the MMTV-IRES, while PTB2 fully abrogates PTB4-induced stimulation. PTB1-induced stimulation of MMTV-IRES was not altered in the presence of PTB4 or PTB2. Mutational analysis reveals that stimulation of MMTV-IRES activity is abrogated when PTB1 is mutated either in RRM1/RRM2 or RRM3/RRM4. In contrast, a PTB4 RRM1/RRM2 mutant has reduced effect over MMTV-IRES activity, while stimulation of the MMTV-IRES activity is still observed when the PTB4 RRM3/RMM4 mutant is used. Therefore, PTB1 and PTB4 differentially stimulate the IRES activity. In contrast, PTB2 acts as a negative modulator of PTB4-induced stimulation of MMTV-IRES. We conclude that PTB1 and PTB4 act as IRES trans-acting factors of the MMTV-IRES. PMID:26972759

  4. Combining structure probing data on RNA mutants with evolutionary information reveals RNA-binding interfaces.

    PubMed

    Reinharz, Vladimir; Ponty, Yann; Waldispühl, Jérôme

    2016-06-20

    Systematic structure probing experiments (e.g. SHAPE) of RNA mutants such as the mutate-and-map (MaM) protocol give us a direct access into the genetic robustness of ncRNA structures. Comparative studies of homologous sequences provide a distinct, yet complementary, approach to analyze structural and functional properties of non-coding RNAs. In this paper, we introduce a formal framework to combine the biochemical signal collected from MaM experiments, with the evolutionary information available in multiple sequence alignments. We apply neutral theory principles to detect complex long-range dependencies between nucleotides of a single stranded RNA, and implement these ideas into a software called aRNhAck We illustrate the biological significance of this signal and show that the nucleotides networks calculated with aRNhAck are correlated with nucleotides located in RNA-RNA, RNA-protein, RNA-DNA and RNA-ligand interfaces. aRNhAck is freely available at http://csb.cs.mcgill.ca/arnhack. PMID:27095200

  5. Poly(rC) binding protein 2 binds to stem-loop IV of the poliovirus RNA 5' noncoding region: identification by automated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Blyn, L B; Swiderek, K M; Richards, O; Stahl, D C; Semler, B L; Ehrenfeld, E

    1996-01-01

    The 5' noncoding region of poliovirus RNA contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) for cap-independent initiation of translation. Utilization of the IRES requires the participation of one or more cellular proteins that mediate events in the translation initiation reaction, but whose biochemical roles have not been defined. In this report, we identify a cellular RNA binding protein isolated from the ribosomal salt wash of uninfected HeLa cells that specifically binds to stem-loop IV, a domain located in the central part of the poliovirus IRES. The protein was isolated by specific RNA affinity chromatography, and 55% of its sequence was determined by automated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The sequence obtained matched that of poly(rC) binding protein 2 (PCBP2), previously identified as an RNA binding protein from human cells. PCBP2, as well as a related protein, PCBP1, was over-expressed in Escherichia coli after cloning the cDNAs into an expression plasmid to produce a histidine-tagged fusion protein. Specific interaction between recombinant PCBP2 and poliovirus stem-loop IV was demonstrated by RNA mobility shift analysis. The closely related PCBP1 showed no stable interaction with the RNA. Stem-loop IV RNA containing a three nucleotide insertion that abrogates translation activity and virus viability was unable to bind PCBP2. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8855318

  6. Identification and characterization of the RNA binding surface of the pentatricopeptide repeat protein

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Keiko; Kawabata, Masuyo; Hisano, Keizo; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsuoka, Ken; Sugita, Mamoru; Nakamura, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The expressions of chloroplast and mitochondria genes are tightly controlled by numerous nuclear-encoded proteins, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Recent analyses have identified a large, plant-specific family of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motif-containing proteins that are exclusively involved in RNA metabolism of organelle genes via sequence-specific RNA binding. A tandem array of PPR motifs within the protein is believed to facilitate the RNA interaction, although little is known of the mechanism. Here, we describe the RNA interacting framework of a PPR protein, Arabidopsis HCF152. First, we demonstrated that a Pfam model could be relevant to the PPR motif function. A series of proteins with two PPR motifs showed significant differences in their RNA binding affinities, indicating functional differences among PPR motifs. Mutagenesis and informatics analysis putatively identified five amino acids organizing its RNA binding surface [the 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th and ‘ii’(-2nd) amino acids] and their complex connections. SELEX (Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) and nucleobase preference assays determined the nucleobases with high affinity for HCF152 and suggested several characteristic amino acids that may be involved in determining specificity and/or affinity of the PPR/RNA interaction. PMID:22127869

  7. STarMirDB: A database of microRNA binding sites.

    PubMed

    Rennie, William; Kanoria, Shaveta; Liu, Chaochun; Mallick, Bibekanand; Long, Dang; Wolenc, Adam; Carmack, C Steven; Lu, Jun; Ding, Ye

    2016-06-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small endogenous non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of ∼22 nucleotides (nts) in length. These small regulatory molecules are involved in diverse developmental, physiological and pathological processes. miRNAs target mRNAs (mRNAs) for translational repression and/or mRNA degradation. Predictions of miRNA binding sites facilitate experimental validation of miRNA targets. Models developed with data from CLIP studies have been used for predictions of miRNA binding sites in the whole transcriptomes of human, mouse and worm. The prediction results have been assembled into STarMirDB, a new database of miRNA binding sites available at http://sfold.wadsworth.org/starmirDB.php . STarMirDB can be searched by miRNAs or mRNAs separately or in combination. The search results are categorized into seed and seedless sites in 3' UTR, CDS and 5' UTR. For each predicted site, STarMirDB provides a comprehensive list of sequence, thermodynamic and target structural features that are known to influence miRNA: target interaction. A high resolution PDF diagram of the conformation of the miRNA:target hybrid is also available for visualization and publication. The results of a database search are available through both an interactive viewer and downloadable text files. PMID:27144897

  8. Constitutive patterns of gene expression regulated by RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background RNA-binding proteins regulate a number of cellular processes, including synthesis, folding, translocation, assembly and clearance of RNAs. Recent studies have reported that an unexpectedly large number of proteins are able to interact with RNA, but the partners of many RNA-binding proteins are still uncharacterized. Results We combined prediction of ribonucleoprotein interactions, based on catRAPID calculations, with analysis of protein and RNA expression profiles from human tissues. We found strong interaction propensities for both positively and negatively correlated expression patterns. Our integration of in silico and ex vivo data unraveled two major types of protein–RNA interactions, with positively correlated patterns related to cell cycle control and negatively correlated patterns related to survival, growth and differentiation. To facilitate the investigation of protein–RNA interactions and expression networks, we developed the catRAPID express web server. Conclusions Our analysis sheds light on the role of RNA-binding proteins in regulating proliferation and differentiation processes, and we provide a data exploration tool to aid future experimental studies. PMID:24401680

  9. A tale of two paralogs: human Transformer2 proteins with differential RNA-binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pritha; Grellscheid, Sushma Nagaraja; Sowdhamini, R

    2016-09-01

    The Transformer2 (Tra2) proteins in humans are homologues of the Drosophila Tra2 protein. One of the two RNA-binding paralogs, Tra2β, has been very well-studied over the past decade, but not much is known about Tra2α. It was very recently shown that the two proteins demonstrate the phenomenon of paralog compensation. Here, we provide a structural basis for this genetic backup circuit, using molecular modelling and dynamics studies. We show that the two proteins display similar binding specificities, but differential affinities to a short GAA-rich RNA stretch. Starting from the 6-nucleotide RNA in the solution structure, close to 4000 virtual mutations were modelled on RNA and the domain-RNA interactions were studied after energy minimisation to convergence. Separately, another known 13-nucleotide stretch was docked and the domain-RNA interactions were observed through a 100-ns dynamics trajectory. We have also demonstrated the 'compensatory' mechanism at the level of domains in one of the domain repeat-containing RNA-binding proteins. PMID:26414300

  10. STarMirDB: A database of microRNA binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Rennie, William; Kanoria, Shaveta; Liu, Chaochun; Mallick, Bibekanand; Long, Dang; Wolenc, Adam; Carmack, C. Steven; Lu, Jun; Ding, Ye

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT microRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small endogenous non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of ∼22 nucleotides (nts) in length. These small regulatory molecules are involved in diverse developmental, physiological and pathological processes. miRNAs target mRNAs (mRNAs) for translational repression and/or mRNA degradation. Predictions of miRNA binding sites facilitate experimental validation of miRNA targets. Models developed with data from CLIP studies have been used for predictions of miRNA binding sites in the whole transcriptomes of human, mouse and worm. The prediction results have been assembled into STarMirDB, a new database of miRNA binding sites available at http://sfold.wadsworth.org/starmirDB.php. STarMirDB can be searched by miRNAs or mRNAs separately or in combination. The search results are categorized into seed and seedless sites in 3′ UTR, CDS and 5′ UTR. For each predicted site, STarMirDB provides a comprehensive list of sequence, thermodynamic and target structural features that are known to influence miRNA: target interaction. A high resolution PDF diagram of the conformation of the miRNA:target hybrid is also available for visualization and publication. The results of a database search are available through both an interactive viewer and downloadable text files. PMID:27144897

  11. Structure and specificity of the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 during DNA interrogation, target binding and cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Josephs, Eric A.; Kocak, D. Dewran; Fitzgibbon, Christopher J.; McMenemy, Joshua; Gersbach, Charles A.; Marszalek, Piotr E.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 cuts DNA at variable target sites designated by a Cas9-bound RNA molecule. Cas9's ability to be directed by single ‘guide RNA’ molecules to target nearly any sequence has been recently exploited for a number of emerging biological and medical applications. Therefore, understanding the nature of Cas9's off-target activity is of paramount importance for its practical use. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we directly resolve individual Cas9 and nuclease-inactive dCas9 proteins as they bind along engineered DNA substrates. High-resolution imaging allows us to determine their relative propensities to bind with different guide RNA variants to targeted or off-target sequences. Mapping the structural properties of Cas9 and dCas9 to their respective binding sites reveals a progressive conformational transformation at DNA sites with increasing sequence similarity to its target. With kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations, these results provide evidence of a ‘conformational gating’ mechanism driven by the interactions between the guide RNA and the 14th–17th nucleotide region of the targeted DNA, the stabilities of which we find correlate significantly with reported off-target cleavage rates. KMC simulations also reveal potential methodologies to engineer guide RNA sequences with improved specificity by considering the invasion of guide RNAs into targeted DNA duplex. PMID:26384421

  12. Role and timing of GTP binding and hydrolysis during EF-G-dependent tRNA translocation on the ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Wilden, Berthold; Savelsbergh, Andreas; Rodnina, Marina V.; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The translocation of tRNA and mRNA through the ribosome is promoted by elongation factor G (EF-G), a GTPase that hydrolyzes GTP during the reaction. Recently, it was reported that, in contrast to previous observations, the affinity of EF-G was much weaker for GTP than for GDP and that ribosome-catalyzed GDP–GTP exchange would be required for translocation [Zavialov AV, Hauryliuk VV, Ehrenberg M (2005) J Biol 4:9]. We have reinvestigated GTP/GDP binding and show that EF-G binds GTP and GDP with affinities in the 20 to 40 μM range (37°C), in accordance with earlier reports. Furthermore, GDP exchange, which is extremely rapid on unbound EF-G, is retarded, rather than accelerated, on the ribosome, which, therefore, is not a nucleotide-exchange factor for EF-G. The EF-G·GDPNP complex, which is very labile, is stabilized 30,000-fold by binding to the ribosome. These findings, together with earlier kinetic results, reveal that EF-G enters the pretranslocation ribosome in the GTP-bound form and indicate that, upon ribosome-complex formation, the nucleotide-binding pocket of EF-G is closed, presumably in conjunction with GTPase activation. GTP hydrolysis is required for rapid tRNA–mRNA movement, and Pi release induces further rearrangements of both EF-G and the ribosome that are required for EF-G turnover. PMID:16940356

  13. Upregulation of long non-coding RNA urothelial carcinoma associated 1 by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α contributes to bladder cancer cell growth and reduced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    XUE, MEI; LI, XU; WU, WENJING; ZHANG, SHUWAN; WU, SHOUZHEN; LI, ZHENGKUN; CHEN, WEI

    2014-01-01

    Long non-coding RNA urothelial carcinoma associated 1 (lncRNA-UCA1) is upregulated in bladder cancer and plays a pivotal role in bladder cancer progression and metastasis. Recent studies and our research found that lncRNA-UCA1 may be an important biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder cancer. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the upregulation of lncRNA-UCA1 in bladder cancer is largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that lncRNA-UCA1 expression in bladder cancer cells was upregulated by transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), which was the only candidate transcription factor simultaneously predicted by a total of five bioinformatical software programs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that C/EBPα bound to the lncRNA-UCA1 core promoter region in vitro and in vivo. The luciferase assays further showed that there was a point mutation (A231G) in the C/EBPα binding site of the lncRNA-UCA1 core promoter in various bladder cancer cell lines, which in turn significantly increased the transcriptional activity of lncRNA-UCA1. We also demonstrated that C/EBPα siRNA treatment contributed to the downregulation of lncRNA-UCA1 expression, whereas overexpression of C/EBPα enhanced lncRNA-UCA1 expression. Furthermore, lncRNA-UCA1 transcriptional repression by C/EBPα siRNA sharply reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptosis in vitro. Collectively, our results provide a novel therapeutic strategy for bladder cancer by effectively interrupting the binding of the lncRNA-UCA1 promoter and certain transcription factors, so as to reverse the upregulation of lncRNA-UCA1 and prevent bladder cancer progression. PMID:24648007

  14. PPM1D phosphatase, a target of p53 and RBM38 RNA-binding protein, inhibits p53 mRNA translation via dephosphorylation of RBM38

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Xu, Enshun; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Xinbin

    2015-01-01

    PPM1D phosphatase, also called wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1), promotes tumor development by inactivating the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. RBM38 RNA-binding protein, also called RNPC1 and a target of p53, inhibits p53 mRNA translation, which can be reversed by GSK3 protein kinase via phosphorylation of RBM38 at serine 195. Here we showed that ectopic expression of RBM38 increases, whereas knockdown of RBM38 inhibits, PPM1D mRNA translation. Consistent with this, we found that RBM38 directly binds to PPM1D 3' untranslated region (3’UTR) and promotes expression of a heterologous reporter gene that carries PPM1D 3’UTR in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, we showed that PPM1D directly interacts with and dephosphorylates RBM38 at serine 195. Furthermore, we showed that PPM1D modulates p53 mRNA translation and p53-dependent growth suppression through dephosphorylation of RBM38. These findings provide evidence that the crosstalk between PPM1D and RBM38, both of which are targets and modulators of p53, plays a critical role in p53 expression and activity. PMID:25823026

  15. An AU-Rich Sequence Element (UUUN[A/U]U) Downstream of the Edited C in Apolipoprotein B mRNA Is a High-Affinity Binding Site for Apobec-1: Binding of Apobec-1 to This Motif in the 3′ Untranslated Region of c-myc Increases mRNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Anant, Shrikant; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2000-01-01

    Apobec-1, the catalytic subunit of the mammalian apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA-editing enzyme, is a cytidine deaminase with RNA binding activity for AU-rich sequences. This RNA binding activity is required for Apobec-1 to mediate C-to-U RNA editing. Filter binding assays, using immobilized Apobec-1, demonstrate saturable binding to a 105-nt apoB RNA with a Kd of ∼435 nM. A series of AU-rich templates was used to identify a high-affinity (∼50 nM) binding site of consensus sequence UUUN[A/U]U, with multiple copies of this sequence constituting the high-affinity binding site. In order to determine whether this consensus site could be functionally demonstrated from within an apoB RNA, circular-permutation analysis was performed, revealing one major (UUUGAU) and one minor (UU) site located 3 and 16 nucleotides, respectively, downstream of the edited base. Secondary-structure predictions reveal a stem-loop flanking the edited base with Apobec-1 binding to the consensus site(s) at an open loop. A similar consensus (AUUUA) is present in the 3′ untranslated regions of several mRNAs, including that of c-myc, that are known to undergo rapid degradation. In this context, it is presumed that the consensus motif acts as a destabilizing element. As an independent test of the ability of Apobec-1 to bind to this sequence, F442A cells were transfected with Apobec-1 and the half-life of c-myc mRNA was determined following actinomycin D treatment. These studies demonstrated an increase in the half-life of c-myc mRNA from 90 to 240 min in control versus Apobec-1-expressing cells. Apobec-1 expression mutants, in which RNA binding activity is eliminated, failed to alter c-myc mRNA turnover. Taken together, the data establish a consensus binding site for Apobec-1 embedded in proximity to the edited base in apoB RNA. Binding to this site in other target RNAs raises the possibility that Apobec-1 may be involved in other aspects of RNA metabolism, independent of its role as an apoB RNA

  16. Conserved Surface Features Form the Double-stranded RNA Binding Site of Non-structural Protein 1 (NS1) from Influenza A and B Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Yin,C.; Khan, J.; Swapna, G.; Ertekin, A.; Krug, R.; Tong, L.; Montelione, G.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause a highly contagious respiratory disease in humans and are responsible for periodic widespread epidemics with high mortality rates. The influenza A virus NS1 protein (NS1A) plays a key role in countering host antiviral defense and in virulence. The 73-residue N-terminal domain of NS1A (NS1A-(1-73)) forms a symmetric homodimer with a unique six-helical chain fold. It binds canonical A-form double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Mutational inactivation of this dsRNA binding activity of NS1A highly attenuates virus replication. Here, we have characterized the unique structural features of the dsRNA binding surface of NS1A-(1-73) using NMR methods and describe the 2.1-{angstrom} x-ray crystal structure of the corresponding dsRNA binding domain from human influenza B virus NS1B-(15-93). These results identify conserved dsRNA binding surfaces on both NS1A-(1-73) and NS1B-(15-93) that are very different from those indicated in earlier 'working models' of the complex between dsRNA and NS1A-(1-73). The combined NMR and crystallographic data reveal highly conserved surface tracks of basic and hydrophilic residues that interact with dsRNA. These tracks are structurally complementary to the polyphosphate backbone conformation of A-form dsRNA and run at an {approx}45{sup o} angle relative to the axes of helices {alpha}2/{alpha}2'. At the center of this dsRNA binding epitope, and common to NS1 proteins from influenza A and B viruses, is a deep pocket that includes both hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids. This pocket provides a target on the surface of the NS1 protein that is potentially suitable for the development of antiviral drugs targeting both influenza A and B viruses.

  17. Conserved surface features form the double-stranded RNA binding site of non-structural protein 1 (NS1) from influenza A and B viruses.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cuifeng; Khan, Javed A; Swapna, G V T; Ertekin, Asli; Krug, Robert M; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2007-07-13

    Influenza A viruses cause a highly contagious respiratory disease in humans and are responsible for periodic widespread epidemics with high mortality rates. The influenza A virus NS1 protein (NS1A) plays a key role in countering host antiviral defense and in virulence. The 73-residue N-terminal domain of NS1A (NS1A-(1-73)) forms a symmetric homodimer with a unique six-helical chain fold. It binds canonical A-form double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Mutational inactivation of this dsRNA binding activity of NS1A highly attenuates virus replication. Here, we have characterized the unique structural features of the dsRNA binding surface of NS1A-(1-73) using NMR methods and describe the 2.1-A x-ray crystal structure of the corresponding dsRNA binding domain from human influenza B virus NS1B-(15-93). These results identify conserved dsRNA binding surfaces on both NS1A-(1-73) and NS1B-(15-93) that are very different from those indicated in earlier "working models" of the complex between dsRNA and NS1A-(1-73). The combined NMR and crystallographic data reveal highly conserved surface tracks of basic and hydrophilic residues that interact with dsRNA. These tracks are structurally complementary to the polyphosphate backbone conformation of A-form dsRNA and run at an approximately 45 degrees angle relative to the axes of helices alpha2/alpha2'. At the center of this dsRNA binding epitope, and common to NS1 proteins from influenza A and B viruses, is a deep pocket that includes both hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids. This pocket provides a target on the surface of the NS1 protein that is potentially suitable for the development of antiviral drugs targeting both influenza A and B viruses. PMID:17475623

  18. hnRNP G: sequence and characterization of a glycosylated RNA-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Soulard, M; Della Valle, V; Siomi, M C; Piñol-Roma, S; Codogno, P; Bauvy, C; Bellini, M; Lacroix, J C; Monod, G; Dreyfuss, G

    1993-01-01

    The autoantigen p43 is a nuclear protein initially identified with autoantibodies from dogs with a lupus-like syndrome. Here we show that p43 is an RNA-binding protein, and identify it as hnRNP G, a previously described component of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes. We demonstrate that p43/hnRNP G is glycosylated, and identify the modification as O-linked N-acetylglucosamine. A full-length cDNA clone for hnRNP G has been isolated and sequenced, and the predicted amino acid sequence for hnRNP G shows that it contains one RNP-consensus RNA binding domain (RBD) at the amino terminus and a carboxyl domain rich in serines, arginines and glycines. The RBD of human hnRNP G shows striking similarities with the RBDs of several plant RNA-binding proteins. Images PMID:7692398

  19. Eukaryotic RNases H1 act processively by interactions through the duplex RNA-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Gaidamakov, Sergei A.; Gorshkova, Inna I.; Schuck, Peter; Steinbach, Peter J.; Yamada, Hirofumi; Crouch, Robert J.; Cerritelli, Susana M.

    2005-01-01

    Ribonucleases H have mostly been implicated in eliminating short RNA primers used for initiation of lagging strand DNA synthesis. Escherichia coli RNase HI cleaves these RNA–DNA hybrids in a distributive manner. We report here that eukaryotic RNases H1 have evolved to be processive enzymes by attaching a duplex RNA-binding domain to the RNase H region. Highly conserved amino acids of the duplex RNA-binding domain are required for processivity and nucleic acid binding, which leads to dimerization of the protein. The need for a processive enzyme underscores the importance in eukaryotic cells of processing long hybrids, most of which remain to be identified. However, long RNA–DNA hybrids formed during immunoglobulin class-switch recombination are potential targets for RNase H1 in the nucleus. In mitochondria, where RNase H1 is essential for DNA formation during embryogenesis, long hybrids may be involved in DNA replication. PMID:15831789

  20. hnRNPL and nucleolin bind LINE-1 RNA and function as host factors to modulate retrotransposition

    PubMed Central

    Peddigari, Suresh; Li, Patrick Wai-Lun; Rabe, Jennifer L.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Long INterspersed Element one (LINE-1, or L1), is a widely distributed, autonomous retrotransposon in mammalian genomes. During retrotransposition, L1 RNA functions first as a dicistronic mRNA and then as a template for cDNA synthesis. Previously, we defined internal ribosome entry sequences (IRESs) upstream of both ORFs (ORF1 and ORF2) in the dicistronic mRNA encoded by mouse L1. Here, RNA affinity chromatography was used to isolate cellular proteins that bind these regions of L1 RNA. Four proteins, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) R, Q and L, and nucleolin (NCL), appeared to interact specifically with the ORF2 IRES. These were depleted from HeLa cells to examine their effects on L1 IRES-mediated translation and L1 retrotransposition. NCL knockdown specifically reduced the ORF2 IRES activity, L1 and L1-assisted Alu retrotransposition without altering L1 RNA or protein abundance. These findings are consistent with NCL acting as an IRES trans-acting factor (ITAF) for ORF2 translation and hence a positive host factor for L1 retrotransposition. In contrast, hnRNPL knockdown dramatically increased L1 retrotransposition as well as L1 RNA and ORF1 protein, indicating that this cellular protein normally interferes with retrotransposition. Thus, hnRNPL joins a small, but growing list of cellular proteins that are potent negative regulators of L1 retrotransposition. PMID:23161687

  1. hnRNPL and nucleolin bind LINE-1 RNA and function as host factors to modulate retrotransposition.

    PubMed

    Peddigari, Suresh; Li, Patrick Wai-Lun; Rabe, Jennifer L; Martin, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Long INterspersed Element one (LINE-1, or L1), is a widely distributed, autonomous retrotransposon in mammalian genomes. During retrotransposition, L1 RNA functions first as a dicistronic mRNA and then as a template for cDNA synthesis. Previously, we defined internal ribosome entry sequences (IRESs) upstream of both ORFs (ORF1 and ORF2) in the dicistronic mRNA encoded by mouse L1. Here, RNA affinity chromatography was used to isolate cellular proteins that bind these regions of L1 RNA. Four proteins, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) R, Q and L, and nucleolin (NCL), appeared to interact specifically with the ORF2 IRES. These were depleted from HeLa cells to examine their effects on L1 IRES-mediated translation and L1 retrotransposition. NCL knockdown specifically reduced the ORF2 IRES activity, L1 and L1-assisted Alu retrotransposition without altering L1 RNA or protein abundance. These findings are consistent with NCL acting as an IRES trans-acting factor (ITAF) for ORF2 translation and hence a positive host factor for L1 retrotransposition. In contrast, hnRNPL knockdown dramatically increased L1 retrotransposition as well as L1 RNA and ORF1 protein, indicating that this cellular protein normally interferes with retrotransposition. Thus, hnRNPL joins a small, but growing list of cellular proteins that are potent negative regulators of L1 retrotransposition. PMID:23161687

  2. Circular RNA oligonucleotides. Synthesis, nucleic acid binding properties, and a comparison with circular DNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S; Kool, E T

    1994-01-01

    We report the synthesis and nucleic acid binding properties of two cyclic RNA oligonucleotides designed to bind single-stranded nucleic acids by pyr.pur.pyr-type triple helix formation. The circular RNAs are 34 nucleotides in size and were cyclized using a template-directed nonenzymatic ligation. To ensure isomeric 3'-5' purity in the ligation reaction, one nucleotide at the ligation site is a 2'-deoxyribose. One circle (1) is complementary to the sequence 5'-A12, and the second (2) is complementary to 5'-AAGAAAGAAAAG. Results of thermal denaturation experiments and mixing studies show that both circles bind complementary single-stranded DNA or RNA substrates by triple helix formation, in which two domains in a pyrimidine-rich circle sandwich a central purine-rich substrate. The affinities of these circles with their purine complements are much higher than the affinities of either the linear precursors or simple Watson-Crick DNA complements. For example, circle 1 binds rA12 (pH 7.0, 10 mM MgCl2, 100 mM NaCl) with a Tm of 48 degrees C and a Kd (37 degrees C) of 4.1 x 10(-9) M, while the linear precursor of the circle binds with a Tm of 34 degrees C and a Kd of 1.2 x 10(-6) M. The complexes of circle 2 are pH-dependent, as expected for triple helical complexes involving C(+)G.C triads, and mixing plots for both circles reveal one-to-one stoichiometry of binding either to RNA or DNA substrates. Comparison of circular RNAs with previously synthesized circular DNA oligonucleotides of the same sequence reveals similar behavior in the binding of DNA, but strikingly different behavior in the binding of RNA. The cyclic DNAs show high DNA-binding selectivity, giving relatively weaker duplex-type binding with complementary RNAs. The relative order of thermodynamic stability for the four types of triplex studied here is found to be DDD >> RRR > RDR >> DRD. The results are discussed in the context of recent reports of strong triplex dependence on RNA versus DNA backbones

  3. Circular RNA oligonucleotides. Synthesis, nucleic acid binding properties, and a comparison with circular DNAs.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Kool, E T

    1994-06-25

    We report the synthesis and nucleic acid binding properties of two cyclic RNA oligonucleotides designed to bind single-stranded nucleic acids by pyr.pur.pyr-type triple helix formation. The circular RNAs are 34 nucleotides in size and were cyclized using a template-directed nonenzymatic ligation. To ensure isomeric 3'-5' purity in the ligation reaction, one nucleotide at the ligation site is a 2'-deoxyribose. One circle (1) is complementary to the sequence 5'-A12, and the second (2) is complementary to 5'-AAGAAAGAAAAG. Results of thermal denaturation experiments and mixing studies show that both circles bind complementary single-stranded DNA or RNA substrates by triple helix formation, in which two domains in a pyrimidine-rich circle sandwich a central purine-rich substrate. The affinities of these circles with their purine complements are much higher than the affinities of either the linear precursors or simple Watson-Crick DNA complements. For example, circle 1 binds rA12 (pH 7.0, 10 mM MgCl2, 100 mM NaCl) with a Tm of 48 degrees C and a Kd (37 degrees C) of 4.1 x 10(-9) M, while the linear precursor of the circle binds with a Tm of 34 degrees C and a Kd of 1.2 x 10(-6) M. The complexes of circle 2 are pH-dependent, as expected for triple helical complexes involving C(+)G.C triads, and mixing plots for both circles reveal one-to-one stoichiometry of binding either to RNA or DNA substrates. Comparison of circular RNAs with previously synthesized circular DNA oligonucleotides of the same sequence reveals similar behavior in the binding of DNA, but strikingly different behavior in the binding of RNA. The cyclic DNAs show high DNA-binding selectivity, giving relatively weaker duplex-type binding with complementary RNAs. The relative order of thermodynamic stability for the four types of triplex studied here is found to be DDD > RRR > RDR > DRD. The results are discussed in the context of recent reports of strong triplex dependence on RNA versus DNA backbones. Triplex

  4. RNA helicase A activity is inhibited by oncogenic transcription factor EWS-FLI1

    PubMed Central

    Erkizan, Hayriye Verda; Schneider, Jeffrey A.; Sajwan, Kamal; Graham, Garrett T.; Griffin, Brittany; Chasovskikh, Sergey; Youbi, Sarah E.; Kallarakal, Abraham; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan; Casey, John L.; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    RNA helicases impact RNA structure and metabolism from transcription through translation, in part through protein interactions with transcription factors. However, there is limited knowledge on the role of transcription factor influence upon helicase activity. RNA helicase A (RHA) is a DExH-box RNA helicase that plays multiple roles in cellular biology, some functions requiring its activity as a helicase while others as a protein scaffold. The oncogenic transcription factor EWS-FLI1 requires RHA to enable Ewing sarcoma (ES) oncogenesis and growth; a small molecule, YK-4-279 disrupts this complex in cells. Our current study investigates the effect of EWS-FLI1 upon RHA helicase activity. We found that EWS-FLI1 reduces RHA helicase activity in a dose-dependent manner without affecting intrinsic ATPase activity; however, the RHA kinetics indicated a complex model. Using separated enantiomers, only (S)-YK-4-279 reverses the EWS-FLI1 inhibition of RHA helicase activity. We report a novel RNA binding property of EWS-FLI1 leading us to discover that YK-4-279 inhibition of RHA binding to EWS-FLI1 altered the RNA binding profile of both proteins. We conclude that EWS-FLI1 modulates RHA helicase activity causing changes in overall transcriptome processing. These findings could lead to both enhanced understanding of oncogenesis and provide targets for therapy. PMID:25564528

  5. Structure of a low-population binding intermediate in protein-RNA recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bardaro, Michael F.; Aprile, Francesco A.; Varani, Gabriele; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the HIV-1 protein transactivator of transcription (Tat) and its cognate transactivation response element (TAR) RNA transactivates viral transcription and represents a paradigm for the widespread occurrence of conformational rearrangements in protein-RNA recognition. Although the structures of free and bound forms of TAR are well characterized, the conformations of the intermediates in the binding process are still unknown. By determining the free energy landscape of the complex using NMR residual dipolar couplings in replica-averaged metadynamics simulations, we observe two low-population intermediates. We then rationally design two mutants, one in the protein and another in the RNA, that weaken specific nonnative interactions that stabilize one of the intermediates. By using surface plasmon resonance, we show that these mutations lower the release rate of Tat, as predicted. These results identify the structure of an intermediate for RNA-protein binding and illustrate a general strategy to achieve this goal with high resolution. PMID:27286828

  6. RNA binding by Hfq and ring-forming (L)Sm proteins

    PubMed Central

    Weichenrieder, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic Sm and the Sm-like (LSm) proteins form a large family that includes LSm proteins in archaea and the Hfq proteins in bacteria. Commonly referred to as the (L)Sm protein family, the various members play important roles in RNA processing, decay, and riboregulation. Particularly interesting from a structural point of view is their ability to assemble into doughnut-shaped rings, which allows them to bind preferentially the uridine-rich 3′-end of RNA oligonucleotides. With an emphasis on Hfq, this review compares the RNA-binding properties of the various (L)Sm rings that were recently co-crystallized with RNA substrates, and it discusses how these properties relate to physiological function. PMID:24828406

  7. Nucleic acids encoding phloem small RNA-binding proteins and transgenic plants comprising them

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, William J.; Yoo, Byung-Chun; Lough, Tony J.; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2007-03-13

    The present invention provides a polynucleotide sequence encoding a component of the protein machinery involved in small RNA trafficking, Cucurbita maxima phloem small RNA-binding protein (CmPSRB 1), and the corresponding polypeptide sequence. The invention also provides genetic constructs and transgenic plants comprising the polynucleotide sequence encoding a phloem small RNA-binding protein to alter (e.g., prevent, reduce or elevate) non-cell autonomous signaling events in the plants involving small RNA metabolism. These signaling events are involved in a broad spectrum of plant physiological and biochemical processes, including, for example, systemic resistance to pathogens, responses to environmental stresses, e.g., heat, drought, salinity, and systemic gene silencing (e.g., viral infections).

  8. Function of RNA-binding protein Musashi-1 in stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Hideyuki . E-mail: hidokano@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp; Kawahara, Hironori; Toriya, Masako; Nakao, Keio; Shibata, Shinsuke; Imai, Takao

    2005-06-10

    Musashi is an evolutionarily conserved family of RNA-binding proteins that is preferentially expressed in the nervous system. The first member of the Musashi family was identified in Drosophila. This protein plays an essential role in regulating the asymmetric cell division of ectodermal precursor cells known as sensory organ precursor cells through the translational regulation of target mRNA. In the CNS of Drosophila larvae, however, Musashi is expressed in proliferating neuroblasts and likely has a different function. Its probable mammalian homologue, Musashi-1, is a neural RNA-binding protein that is strongly expressed in fetal and adult neural stem cells (NSCs). Mammalian Musashi-1 augments Notch signaling through the translational repression of its target mRNA, m-Numb, thereby contributing to the self-renewal of NSCs. In addition to its functions in NSCs, the role of mammalian Musashi-1 protein in epithelial stem cells, including intestinal and mammary gland stem cells, is attracting increasing interest.

  9. The Cardiomyocyte RNA-Binding Proteome: Links to Intermediary Metabolism and Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yalin; Castello, Alfredo; Fischer, Bernd; Leicht, Stefan; Föehr, Sophia; Frese, Christian K; Ragan, Chikako; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Pagler, Eloisa; Yang, Hao; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Hentze, Matthias W; Preiss, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    RNA functions through the dynamic formation of complexes with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in all clades of life. We determined the RBP repertoire of beating cardiomyocytic HL-1 cells by jointly employing two in vivo proteomic methods, mRNA interactome capture and RBDmap. Together, these yielded 1,148 RBPs, 391 of which are shared with all other available mammalian RBP repertoires, while 393 are thus far unique to cardiomyocytes. RBDmap further identified 568 regions of RNA contact within 368 RBPs. The cardiomyocyte mRNA interactome composition reflects their unique biology. Proteins with roles in cardiovascular physiology or disease, mitochondrial function, and intermediary metabolism are all highly represented. Notably, we identified 73 metabolic enzymes as RBPs. RNA-enzyme contacts frequently involve Rossmann fold domains with examples in evidence of both, mutual exclusivity of, or compatibility between RNA binding and enzymatic function. Our findings raise the prospect of previously hidden RNA-mediated regulatory interactions among cardiomyocyte gene expression, physiology, and metabolism. PMID:27452465