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Sample records for rna content measured

  1. Evaluating bacterial activity from cell-specific ribosomal RNA content measured with oligonucleotide probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, P.F.; Lee, S.; LaRoche, J.

    1992-10-01

    We describe a procedure for measuring the cell-specific quantity of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and DNA in order to evaluate the frequency distribution of activity among cells. The procedure is inherently quantitative, does not require sample incubation and potentially can be taxon-specific. Fluorescently-labelled oligonucleotide probes are hybridized to the complementary 16S rRNA sequences in preserved, intact cells. The resulting cell fluorescence is proportional to cellular rRNA content and can be measured with a microscope-mounted photometer system, by image analysis, or by flow cytometry. Similarly, DNA content is measured as fluorescence of cells stained with the DNA specific fluorochrome DAPI. These are either prepared as separate samples for purposes of enumeration and DNA measurements, or are dual-labelled cells which are also hybridized with oligonucleotide probes.

  2. Evaluating bacterial activity from cell-specific ribosomal RNA content measured with oligonucleotide probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, P.F.; Lee, S.; LaRoche, J.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a procedure for measuring the cell-specific quantity of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and DNA in order to evaluate the frequency distribution of activity among cells. The procedure is inherently quantitative, does not require sample incubation and potentially can be taxon-specific. Fluorescently-labelled oligonucleotide probes are hybridized to the complementary 16S rRNA sequences in preserved, intact cells. The resulting cell fluorescence is proportional to cellular rRNA content and can be measured with a microscope-mounted photometer system, by image analysis, or by flow cytometry. Similarly, DNA content is measured as fluorescence of cells stained with the DNA specific fluorochrome DAPI. These are either prepared as separate samples for purposes of enumeration and DNA measurements, or are dual-labelled cells which are also hybridized with oligonucleotide probes.

  3. [The RNA content of hepatocytes of different ploidies].

    PubMed

    Ni, V V; Shteĭn, G I; Maĭtesian, E S; Kudriavtsev, B N

    1988-03-01

    The RNA contents in rat and human liver cells was measured using the scanning absorbtion photometric method after gallocyanin-chromalum staining. The RNA content was shown to increase proportionally with the increase of genome numbers in hepatocytes. PMID:2457966

  4. Can we estimate bacterial growth rates from ribosomal RNA content?

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between the quantity of RNA in bacterial cells and their growth rate under laboratory conditions. It may be possible to use this relationship to provide information on the activity of natural bacterial communities, and in particular on growth rate. However, if this approach is to provide reliably interpretable information, the relationship between RNA content and growth rate must be well-understood. In particular, a requisite of such applications is that the relationship must be universal among bacteria, or alternately that the relationship can be determined and measured for specific bacterial taxa. The RNA-growth rate relationship has not been used to evaluate bacterial growth in field studies, although RNA content has been measured in single cells and in bulk extracts of field samples taken from coastal environments. These measurements have been treated as probable indicators of bacterial activity, but have not yet been interpreted as estimators of growth rate. The primary obstacle to such interpretations is a lack of information on biological and environmental factors that affect the RNA-growth rate relationship. In this paper, the available data on the RNA-growth rate relationship in bacteria will be reviewed, including hypotheses regarding the regulation of RNA synthesis and degradation as a function of growth rate and environmental factors; i.e. the basic mechanisms for maintaining RNA content in proportion to growth rate. An assessment of the published laboratory and field data, the current status of this research area, and some of the remaining questions will be presented.

  5. Growth rate regulation of rRNA content of a marine Synechococcus (cyanobacterium) strain

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, B.J.; Liu, Y.C.

    1998-09-01

    The relationship between growth rate and rRNA content in a marine Synechococcus strain was examined. A combination of flow cytometry and whole-cell hybridization with fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was used to measure the rRNA content of Synechococcus strain WH8101 cells grown at a range of light-limited growth rates. The sensitivity of this approach was sufficient for the analysis of rRNA even in very slowly growing Synechococcus cells. The relationship between growth rate and cellular rRNA content comprised three phases: (1) at low growth rates, rRNA cell{sup {minus}1} remained approximately constant; (2) at intermediate rates, rRNA cell{sup {minus}1} increased proportionally with growth rate; and (3) at the highest, light-saturated rates, rRNA cell{sup {minus}1} dropped abruptly. Total cellular RNA was well correlated with the probe-based measure of rRNA and varied in a similar manner with growth rate. Mean cell volume and rRNA concentration were related to growth rate in a manner similar to rRNA cell{sup {minus}1}, although the overall magnitude linear increase in ribosome efficiency with increasing growth rate, which is consistent with the prevailing prokaryotic model at low growth rates. Taken together, these results support the notion that measurements of cellular rRNA content might be useful for estimating in situ growth rates in natural Synechococcus populations.

  6. Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

  7. RNA content in spinal cord motoneurons during hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunova, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a diminished motor activity of rats upon the ribonucleic and (RNA) content in a single isolated motoneuron of frontal of their spinal cord was studied. Within a 1 to 30 day exposure of rats to the hypokinetic conditions, RNA content was found to decrease on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th day and to return to the initial level by the 7th day. No changes in RNA content were observed during the subsequent stages of the xperiments. The volume of the nerve cells declined on the 3rd and 5th day, whereas RNA concentration reduced on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 30th day.

  8. The Effect of Folate Deficiency on Neuronal RNA Content

    PubMed Central

    Haltia, Matti

    1970-01-01

    One-day-old chicks were fed a defined ration deficient in folic acid. They were killed at 4 weeks of age when they showed characteristic clinical signs of folate deficiency and extremely low whole blood folate levels. Cerebellar Purkinje cells were dissected out and their total ribonucleic acid (RNA) content was determined by Edström's microchemical technique. The total RNA content of Purkinje cells of the folate deficient chicks was significantly lower than that of control chicks fed a complete ration. The low RNA values of the folate deficient chicks were apparently not only secondary to anaemia or growth retardation, and suggest that severe folate deficiency may directly interfere with neuronal RNA synthesis. The significance of the findings is discussed with reference to human pathology. PMID:5420991

  9. Mapping the small RNA content of simian immunodeficiency virions (SIV).

    PubMed

    Brameier, Markus; Ibing, Wiebke; Höfer, Katharina; Montag, Judith; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Motzkus, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that regulatory small non-coding RNAs are not only components of eukaryotic cells and vesicles, but also reside within a number of different viruses including retroviral particles. Using ultra-deep sequencing we have comprehensively analyzed the content of simian immunodeficiency virions (SIV), which were compared to mock-control preparations. Our analysis revealed that more than 428,000 sequence reads matched the SIV mac239 genome sequence. Among these we could identify 12 virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) that were highly abundant. Beside known retrovirus-enriched small RNAs, like 7SL-RNA, tRNA(Lys3) and tRNA(Lys) isoacceptors, we also identified defined fragments derived from small ILF3/NF90-associated RNA snaR-A14, that were enriched more than 50 fold in SIV. We also found evidence that small nucleolar RNAs U2 and U12 were underrepresented in the SIV preparation, indicating that the relative number or the content of co-isolated exosomes was changed upon infection. Our comprehensive atlas of SIV-incorporated small RNAs provides a refined picture of the composition of retrovirions, which gives novel insights into viral packaging. PMID:24086438

  10. Mapping the Small RNA Content of Simian Immunodeficiency Virions (SIV)

    PubMed Central

    Brameier, Markus; Ibing, Wiebke; Höfer, Katharina; Montag, Judith; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Motzkus, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that regulatory small non-coding RNAs are not only components of eukaryotic cells and vesicles, but also reside within a number of different viruses including retroviral particles. Using ultra-deep sequencing we have comprehensively analyzed the content of simian immunodeficiency virions (SIV), which were compared to mock-control preparations. Our analysis revealed that more than 428,000 sequence reads matched the SIV mac239 genome sequence. Among these we could identify 12 virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) that were highly abundant. Beside known retrovirus-enriched small RNAs, like 7SL-RNA, tRNALys3 and tRNALys isoacceptors, we also identified defined fragments derived from small ILF3/NF90-associated RNA snaR-A14, that were enriched more than 50 fold in SIV. We also found evidence that small nucleolar RNAs U2 and U12 were underrepresented in the SIV preparation, indicating that the relative number or the content of co-isolated exosomes was changed upon infection. Our comprehensive atlas of SIV-incorporated small RNAs provides a refined picture of the composition of retrovirions, which gives novel insights into viral packaging. PMID:24086438

  11. [Determination of the relative RNA-content of liver cell nuclei with gallocyanin-chromealum-staining (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wenzelides, K; Korek, G; Voss, K

    1981-01-01

    The relative RNA-content of liver cell nuclei from histological slides of rat liver was determined by automatical microscope picture analysis. The slides were stained with Gallocyanin-Chromealum. Extinction measurements are made before and after perchloracid extraction of RNA for the same slide. The changes of extinction measurements caused by the changes of slide thickness and of tissue inhomogeneity could be lowered using this method. PMID:6177185

  12. Cytophotometric investigation of DNA and RNA content in nuclei of active Strasburger cells in Pinus nigra var. austriaca (Hoess) Badoux.

    PubMed

    Sauter, J J; Ulrich, H

    1977-01-01

    The nuclei of active, sieve cell-associated Strasburger cells in the secondary phloem of Pinus nigra var. austriaca (Hoess) Badoux have been studied for their structure and DNA and RNA content. No difference in size compared to those of ordinary ray cells was found. The nuclear surface is often increased by an ameboid or lobed shape. The amount of highly decondensed chromatin is greatly increased. Cytophotometric measurements of DNA content of both Feulgen and gallocyanine chromalum-stained nuclei showed normal DNA levels and proved absence of endomitotic polyploidization. RNA content, however, was significantly increased as compared to nuclei of young Strasburger cells and of ordinary ray parenchyma cells. PMID:24420510

  13. RNA content in motor and sensory neurons and surrounding neuroglia of mouse spinal cord under conditions of hypodynamia and following normalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumberg, V. A.; Pevzner, L. Z.

    1979-01-01

    Male white mice were subjected to two and three week hypodynamia and then decapitated. Cytoplasmic RNA content per cell was measured by means of ultraviolet cytospectrometry. Changes in RNA content are shown, and the dynamics of the reparative processes of cells are discussed.

  14. Whole transcriptome profiling reveals the RNA content of motor axons

    PubMed Central

    Briese, Michael; Saal, Lena; Appenzeller, Silke; Moradi, Mehri; Baluapuri, Apoorva; Sendtner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Most RNAs within polarized cells such as neurons are sorted subcellularly in a coordinated manner. Despite advances in the development of methods for profiling polyadenylated RNAs from small amounts of input RNA, techniques for profiling coding and non-coding RNAs simultaneously are not well established. Here, we optimized a transcriptome profiling method based on double-random priming and applied it to serially diluted total RNA down to 10 pg. Read counts of expressed genes were robustly correlated between replicates, indicating that the method is both reproducible and scalable. Our transcriptome profiling method detected both coding and long non-coding RNAs sized >300 bases. Compared to total RNAseq using a conventional approach our protocol detected 70% more genes due to reduced capture of ribosomal RNAs. We used our method to analyze the RNA composition of compartmentalized motoneurons. The somatodendritic compartment was enriched for transcripts with post-synaptic functions as well as for certain nuclear non-coding RNAs such as 7SK. In axons, transcripts related to translation were enriched including the cytoplasmic non-coding RNA 7SL. Our profiling method can be applied to a wide range of investigations including perturbations of subcellular transcriptomes in neurodegenerative diseases and investigations of microdissected tissue samples such as anatomically defined fiber tracts. PMID:26464439

  15. Quantitative Measurements of Autobiographical Memory Content

    PubMed Central

    Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM), subjective recollection of past experiences, is fundamental in everyday life. Nevertheless, characterization of the spontaneous occurrence of AM, as well as of the number and types of recollected details, remains limited. The CRAM (Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory) test (http://cramtest.info) adapts and combines the cue-word method with an assessment that collects counts of details recalled from different life periods. The SPAM (Spontaneous Probability of Autobiographical Memories) protocol samples introspection during everyday activity, recording memory duration and frequency. These measures provide detailed, naturalistic accounts of AM content and frequency, quantifying essential dimensions of recollection. AM content (∼20 details/recollection) decreased with the age of the episode, but less drastically than the probability of reporting remote compared to recent memories. AM retrieval was frequent (∼20/hour), each memory lasting ∼30 seconds. Testable hypotheses of the specific content retrieved in a fixed time from given life periods are presented. PMID:23028629

  16. Quantitative measurements of autobiographical memory content.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Robert S; Vogel, Adam T; Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM), subjective recollection of past experiences, is fundamental in everyday life. Nevertheless, characterization of the spontaneous occurrence of AM, as well as of the number and types of recollected details, remains limited. The CRAM (Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory) test (http://cramtest.info) adapts and combines the cue-word method with an assessment that collects counts of details recalled from different life periods. The SPAM (Spontaneous Probability of Autobiographical Memories) protocol samples introspection during everyday activity, recording memory duration and frequency. These measures provide detailed, naturalistic accounts of AM content and frequency, quantifying essential dimensions of recollection. AM content (∼20 details/recollection) decreased with the age of the episode, but less drastically than the probability of reporting remote compared to recent memories. AM retrieval was frequent (∼20/hour), each memory lasting ∼30 seconds. Testable hypotheses of the specific content retrieved in a fixed time from given life periods are presented. PMID:23028629

  17. Radar measurement of soil moisture content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of soil moisture on the radar backscattering coefficient was investigated by measuring the 4-8 GHz spectral response from two types of bare-soil fields: slightly rough and very rough, in terms of the wavelength. An FM-CW radar system was used to measure the return at 10 frequency points across the 4-8 GHz band, at different look angles, and for all polarization combinations. The results indicate that the radar response to soil moisture content is highly dependent on the surface roughness, microwave frequency, and look angle. The response seems to be linear over the range 15%-30% moisture content for all angles, frequencies, polarizations and surface conditions.

  18. MMPI-2 Content Scales: How Much Content Do They Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Douglas N.; Fraboni, Maryann; Helmes, Edward

    1997-01-01

    The content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), designed to assess substantive dimensions of psychopathology, were evaluated through responses of 221 undergraduates. Results indicate that the convergent and discriminant validity of MMPI-2 content scales are compromised by substantial confounding general variance.…

  19. Carbon fiber content measurement in composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiushi

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been widely used in various structural applications in industries such as aerospace and automotive because of their high specific stiffness and specific strength. Their mechanical properties are strongly influenced by the carbon fiber content in the composites. Measurement of the carbon fiber content in CFRPs is essential for product quality control and process optimization. In this work, a novel carbonization-in-nitrogen method (CIN) is developed to characterize the fiber content in carbon fiber reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composites. In this method, a carbon fiber composite sample is carbonized in a nitrogen environment at elevated temperatures, alongside a neat resin sample. The carbon fibers are protected from oxidization while the resin (the neat resin and the resin matrix in the composite sample) is carbonized under the nitrogen environment. The residue of the carbonized neat resin sample is used to calibrate the resin carbonization rate and calculate the amount of the resin matrix in the composite sample. The new method has been validated on several thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems and found to yield an accurate measurement of fiber content in carbon fiber polymer composites. In order to further understand the thermal degradation behavior of the high temperature thermoplastic polymer during the carbonization process, the mechanism and the kinetic model of thermal degradation behavior of carbon fiber reinforced poly (phenylene sulfide) (CPPS) are studied using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The CPPS is subjected to TGA in an air and nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates from 5 to 40°C min--1. The TGA curves obtained in air are different from those in nitrogen. This demonstrates that weight loss occurs in a single stage in nitrogen but in two stages in air. To elucidate this difference, thermal decomposition kinetics is analyzed by applying the Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coat-Redfern and

  20. Effect of restricted mobility on RNA content and nucleotide composition and on protein content in motoneurons of spinal cord anterior horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunova, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation into the effect of hypokinesia on the ribonucleic acid (RNA) content, the nucleotide composition, and dynamics of protein content in the motoneuron of the rat spinal cord anterior horns is described. Methodology and findings are presented. The study results showed that the nucleotide composition of the total cellular RNA at all the studied periods of hypokinesia remained unchanged and is characteristic for the cytoplasmic, high polymer ribosomal RNA. This means that with a change in the functional state of the neuron the newly formed RNA of the nerve cell has the same composition of bases as the original RNA that belongs to the ribosomal type.

  1. Does acute, intense stimulation of oxytocin neurones in the supraoptic nucleus increase their content of oxytocin mRNA?

    PubMed

    Sumner, B E; Kawata, M; Russell, J A

    1989-06-12

    We investigated whether a sustained increase in oxytocin secretion, with or without enhanced electrical activity of the cell-bodies of oxytocin neurones, leads to a rapid increase in oxytocin mRNA content in these neurones. To stimulate oxytocin release, naloxone (2.5 mg/kg i.v. twice, 30 min apart) was given to urethane-anaesthetized female rats after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) morphine or vehicle infusion for 5 days; in the latter, naloxone acts on the neurohypophysis to increase oxytocin release without affecting the electrical activity of oxytocin neurone cell-bodies, but in the former, naloxone acts both on the neucohypophysis and on the cell-bodies to excite them electrically. Oxytocin content in peripheral plasma was measured intermittently by radioimmunoassay for 4 h after i.v. naloxone or vehicle, then the brain was removed and cryostat sections were cut through the supraoptic nucleus (SON). Oxytocin mRNA content in individual neurones (25-50 per rat) was measured semiquantitatively by in situ hybridisation histochemistry, using a tritiated synthetic cDNA 25-mer oligonucleotide probe, autoradiographical visualisation, and computer-assisted image-analysis to measure silver grain density. Nalaxone increased oxytocin content in plasma 7-fold for at least 40 min in i.c.v. vehicle-infused rats, and 40-fold for at least 40 min in i.c.v. morphine-infused rats. Naloxone had no significant effect on the oxytocin mRNA content in labelled cells in the SON, and no effect on the proportion of labelled cells, in either the i.c.v. morphine- or i.c.v. vehicle-infused rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2743158

  2. Sex Differences in Global mRNA Content of Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Amy C.; Fu, Minghua H.; Isfort, Robert J.; Varbanov, Alex R.; Qu, Xiaoyan A.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Women oxidize more fat as compared to men during endurance exercise and several groups have shown that the mRNA content of selected genes related to fat oxidation are higher in women (e.g. hormone sensitive lipase, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, CD36). One of the possible mechanisms is that women tend to have a higher area percentage of type I skeletal muscle fibers as compared with men. Consequently, we hypothesized that sex would influence the basal mRNA and protein content for genes involved in metabolism and the determination of muscle fiber type. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were collected from healthy men and women. We examined mRNA content globally using Affymetrix GeneChips, and selected genes were examined and/or confirmed by RT-PCR. Furthermore, we examined protein content by Western blot analysis. Stringent gene array analysis revealed 66 differentially expressed genes representing metabolism, mitochondrial function, transport, protein biosynthesis, cell proliferation, signal transduction pathways, transcription and translation. Stringent gene array analysis and RT-PCR confirmed that mRNA for; acyl-coenzyme A acyltransferase 2 (ACAA2), trifunctional protein β (HADHB), catalase, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) were higher in women. Targeted gene analysis revealed that myosin heavy chain I (MHCI), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)δ were higher in women compared with men. Surprisingly, there were no significant sex based differences in protein content for HADHB, ACAA2, catalase, PPARδ, and MHC1. In conclusion, the differences in the basal mRNA content in resting skeletal muscle suggest that men and women are transcriptionally “primed” for known physiological differences in metabolism however the mechanism behind sex differences in fiber type remains to be determined. PMID:19623254

  3. Total RNA and protein content, Cyclin B1 expression and developmental competence of prepubertal goat oocytes.

    PubMed

    Anguita, Begoña; Paramio, Maria-Teresa; Jiménez-Macedo, Ana R; Morató, Roser; Mogas, Teresa; Izquierdo, Dolors

    2008-01-30

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the developmental competence of oocytes and their total RNA and protein contents, and the level of Cyclin B1 transcription. Ovaries from prepubertal goats were collected from a slaughterhouse. Oocytes were recovered by slicing and those with two or more layers of cumulus cells and homogenous cytoplasm were matured in vitro (20-25 oocytes per drop) for 27 h. Both before and after IVM, samples of oocytes were denuded and categorised into four group treatments by diameter (<110 microm, 110-125 microm, 125-135 microm; >135 microm), separated into sub-groups of 10 oocytes per treatment-replicate and stored in liquid nitrogen until total RNA content analysis by spectophotometry, total protein content analysis by a colorimetric assay and Cyclin B1 transcription analysis by RT-PCR. For the study of developmental competence, the rest of the matured oocytes were fertilised in vitro in groups of 20-25 for 24 h. Presumptive zygotes were denuded, sorted into the four categories of diameter noted above, and placed into culture drops in groups of 18-25 for in vitro culture. Cleavage rate was evaluated at 48 hpi and embryo development at 8 d post-insemination. There were four replicates of each treatment for each assay or evaluation point of the experiment. There were no significant differences between the size categories of oocytes at collection in total RNA content, total protein content and Cyclin B1 mRNA. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the expression of Cyclin B1 before IVM with oocytes in the >135 mm diameter category having the highest value for this variant. There were no significant differences in these characteristics between the categories of oocyte diameter after IVM except in respect of total RNA content, which was lower for the largest size of oocytes (>135 microm; mean+/-S.D.=12.3+/-1.84 ng/oocyte) than the other three size groups (19.2+/-1.38-22.1+/-4.44 ng/oocyte; P<0.05). Significant

  4. Quantitative and stoichiometric analysis of the microRNA content of exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Chevillet, John R.; Kang, Qing; Ruf, Ingrid K.; Briggs, Hilary A.; Vojtech, Lucia N.; Hughes, Sean M.; Cheng, Heather H.; Arroyo, Jason D.; Meredith, Emily K.; Gallichotte, Emily N.; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era L.; Morrissey, Colm; Stirewalt, Derek L.; Hladik, Florian; Yu, Evan Y.; Higano, Celestia S.; Tewari, Muneesh

    2014-01-01

    Exosomes have been proposed as vehicles for microRNA (miRNA) -based intercellular communication and a source of miRNA biomarkers in bodily fluids. Although exosome preparations contain miRNAs, a quantitative analysis of their abundance and stoichiometry is lacking. In the course of studying cancer-associated extracellular miRNAs in patient blood samples, we found that exosome fractions contained a small minority of the miRNA content of plasma. This low yield prompted us to perform a more quantitative assessment of the relationship between miRNAs and exosomes using a stoichiometric approach. We quantified both the number of exosomes and the number of miRNA molecules in replicate samples that were isolated from five diverse sources (i.e., plasma, seminal fluid, dendritic cells, mast cells, and ovarian cancer cells). Regardless of the source, on average, there was far less than one molecule of a given miRNA per exosome, even for the most abundant miRNAs in exosome preparations (mean ± SD across six exosome sources: 0.00825 ± 0.02 miRNA molecules/exosome). Thus, if miRNAs were distributed homogenously across the exosome population, on average, over 100 exosomes would need to be examined to observe one copy of a given abundant miRNA. This stoichiometry of miRNAs and exosomes suggests that most individual exosomes in standard preparations do not carry biologically significant numbers of miRNAs and are, therefore, individually unlikely to be functional as vehicles for miRNA-based communication. We propose revised models to reconcile the exosome-mediated, miRNA-based intercellular communication hypothesis with the observed stoichiometry of miRNAs associated with exosomes. PMID:25267620

  5. Changes in mRNA and protein content of SO sub 2 -fumigated maple leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Stinemetz, C.L. ); Roberts, B.R.; Schnipke, V.M. )

    1989-04-01

    The effect of acute SO{sub 2} fumigation on foliar DNA, RNA, and protein levels in 2-yr-old containerized Acer seedlings was examined. While DNA content did not change appreciably in either SO{sub 2}-sensitive red maple (A. rubrum L.) or SO{sub 2}-tolerant silver maple (A. saccharinum L.), significant reductions in mRNA (35% for red maple; 21% for silver maple) were observed after 54 h fumigation (6 h/day {times} 3 days/wk {times} 3 wk) at 2.5 ppm SO{sub 2}. Reductions in mRNA and protein content were accompanied by a corresponding decline in net photosynthesis (Pn). The data from this study suggest that acute SO{sub 2} fumigation alters Pn in red and silver maple by disrupting molecular events, and that species sensitivity for these particular Acer spp may be related to the degree of change associated with mRNA and total protein content.

  6. miRNA contents of cerebrospinal fluid extracellular vesicles in glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Akers, Johnny C.; Ramakrishnan, Valya; Kim, Ryan; Phillips, Shirley; Kaimal, Vivek; Mao, Ying; Hua, Wei; Yang, Isaac; Fu, Chia-Chun; Nolan, John; Nakano, Ichiro; Yang, Yuanfan; Beaulieu, Martin; Carter, Bob S.; Chen, Clark C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Analysis of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has emerged as a promising biomarker platform for therapeutic monitoring in glioblastoma patients. However, the contents of the various subpopulations of EVs in these clinical specimens remain poorly defined. Here we characterize the relative abundance of miRNA species in EVs derived from the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of glioblastoma patients. Methods EVs were isolated from glioblastoma cell lines as well as the plasma and CSF of glioblastoma patients. The microvesicle subpopulation was isolated by pelleting at 10,000×g for 30 min after cellular debris was cleared by a 2,000×g (20 min) spin. The exosome subpopulation was isolated by pelleting the microvesicle supernatant at 120,000×g (120 min). qRT-PCR was performed to examine the distribution of miR-21, miR-103, miR-24, and miR-125. Global miRNA profiling was performed in select glioblastoma CSF samples. Results In plasma and cell line derived EVs, the relative abundance of miRNAs in exosome and microvesicles were highly variable. In some specimens, the majority of the miRNA species were found in exosomes while in other, they were found in microvesicles. In contrast, CSF exosomes were enriched for miRNAs relative to CSF microvesicles. In CSF, there is an average of one molecule of miRNA per 150-25,000 EVs. Conclusion Most EVs derived from clinical biofluids are devoid of miRNA content. The relative distribution of miRNA species in plasma exosomes or microvesicles is unpredictable. In contrast, CSF exosomes are the major EV compartment that harbor miRNAs. PMID:25903655

  7. Isolation of the protein and RNA content of active sites of transcription from mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Svitlana; Caudron-Herger, Maïwen; Brant, Lilija; Carr, Ian M; Rippe, Karsten; Cook, Peter R; Papantonis, Argyris

    2016-03-01

    Mammalian cell nuclei contain three RNA polymerases (RNAP I, RNAP II and RNAP III), which transcribe different gene subsets, and whose active forms are contained in supramolecular complexes known as 'transcription factories.' These complexes are difficult to isolate because they are embedded in the 3D structure of the nucleus. Factories exchange components with the soluble nucleoplasmic pool over time as gene expression programs change during development or disease. Analysis of their content can provide information on the nascent transcriptome and its regulators. Here we describe a protocol for the isolation of large factory fragments under isotonic salt concentrations in <72 h. It relies on DNase I-mediated detachment of chromatin from the nuclear substructure of freshly isolated, unfixed cells, followed by caspase treatment to release multi-megadalton factory complexes. These complexes retain transcriptional activity, and isolation of their contents is compatible with downstream analyses by mass spectrometry (MS) or RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to catalog the proteins and RNA associated with sites of active transcription. PMID:26914315

  8. Measurement of leaf relative water content by infrared reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Rock, Barrett N.; Nobel, Park S.

    1987-01-01

    From basic considerations and Beer's law, a leaf water content index incorporating reflectances of wavelengths from 0.76 to 0.90 microns and from 1.55 to 1.75 microns was developed that relates leaf reflectance to leaf relative water content. For the leaf succulent, Agave deserti, the leaf water content index was not significantly different from the relative water content for either individual leaves or an entire plant. Also, the relative water contents of intact plants of Encelia farinosa and Hilaria rigida in the field were estimated by the leaf water content index; variations in the proportion of living to dead leaf area could cause large errors in the estimate of relative water content. Thus, the leaf water content index may be able to estimate average relative water content of canopies when TM4 and TM5 are measured at a known relative water content and fraction of dead leaf material.

  9. [A cytophotometric study of the RNA and glycogen content of human hepatocytes at different stages in the development of traumatic disease].

    PubMed

    Kudriavtseva, M V; Shteĭn, G I; Shashkov, B V; Kudriavtsev, B N

    1992-01-01

    Absorption and fluorescent cytophotometry techniques were applied to studies of RNA, glycogen and its fractions in hepatocytes of patients with hard mechanic trauma, both with and without endointoxication. For measuring RNA and glycogen contents, slides were stained by gallocyanin-chromalum or underwent fluorescent PAS-reaction, respectively. The repeated aspiration biopsy material was used for investigation of RNA and glycogen contents in dynamics. A quick increase in RNA content took place at the first stage (within the first 3 days) of traumatic illness of both the groups of patients. At the second stage of illness the hepatocyte RNA content in patients without endointoxication was seen to decrease to the initial level, whereas that in patients with endointoxication increased from the initial level by 36%. At different stages of illness the total glycogen content is changed insignificantly in the course of illness, but its labile fraction decreases to 70% of the total glycogen in patients with endointoxication. The increase of hepatocyte synthetic activity and the maintenance of the normal glycogen level may suggest a sufficient compensatory possibility of the liver, in spite of a high functional load under endointoxication. PMID:1284098

  10. Effect of calcium on RNA content in meristematic cells of pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots treated with toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Lbik-Nowak, A; Gabara, B

    1997-01-01

    RNA content in nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm in meristematic cells of pea roots growing for 144 h in the presence of calcium and/or toxic metals (Cd2+, Cr3+, Pb2+) was examined using cytophotometric procedures, after staining with gallocyanine. The effect of treatment with tested metals was twofold: on the one hand, it considerably reduced RNA content in the nucleolus, on the other it enhanced RNA level in the nucleus and most visibly in the cytoplasm, resulting in the increase in total amount of RNA in cells of pea roots. The presence of calcium in metal solutions in different ways affected RNA content in meristematic cells of pea. In roots treated with cadmium, the addition of calcium ions diminished the toxic effect of that metal, as demonstrated by an increase in RNA content in the nucleolus, although reduction of RNA amount in the nucleus, cytoplasm and in whole cell was observed. A clearly stimulative effect of calcium was noted in material grown in the presence of chromium or lead, where a high increase in RNA content in nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm took place. PMID:9619424

  11. Efficient measurement of amylose content in cereal grains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid and economical measurement of amylose content in barley is important for genetic study and breeding improvement of this trait. Seventeen genotypes with a wide range of amylose contents were used to compare the amylose measurement accuracy of the cost-effective iodine-potassium iodide (I:KI) me...

  12. 46 CFR 162.050-39 - Measurement of oil content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement of oil content. 162.050-39 Section 162.050-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... Measurement of oil content. The collection and testing of all samples of oil in water from the required...

  13. 46 CFR 162.050-39 - Measurement of oil content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measurement of oil content. 162.050-39 Section 162.050... Measurement of oil content. The collection and testing of all samples of oil in water from the required test... oil index-Part 2: Method Using solvent extraction and Gas Chromatography (incorporated by...

  14. 46 CFR 162.050-39 - Measurement of oil content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement of oil content. 162.050-39 Section 162.050... Measurement of oil content. The collection and testing of all samples of oil in water from the required test... oil index-Part 2: Method Using solvent extraction and Gas Chromatography (incorporated by...

  15. 46 CFR 162.050-39 - Measurement of oil content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measurement of oil content. 162.050-39 Section 162.050... Measurement of oil content. The collection and testing of all samples of oil in water from the required test... oil index-Part 2: Method Using solvent extraction and Gas Chromatography (incorporated by...

  16. 46 CFR 162.050-39 - Measurement of oil content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measurement of oil content. 162.050-39 Section 162.050... Measurement of oil content. The collection and testing of all samples of oil in water from the required test... oil index-Part 2: Method Using solvent extraction and Gas Chromatography (incorporated by...

  17. Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

  18. A path-based measurement for human miRNA functional similarities using miRNA-disease associations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Pingjian; Luo, Jiawei; Xiao, Qiu; Chen, Xiangtao

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the sequence and expression similarity, miRNA functional similarity is so important for biology researches and many applications such as miRNA clustering, miRNA function prediction, miRNA synergism identification and disease miRNA prioritization. However, the existing methods always utilized the predicted miRNA target which has high false positive and false negative to calculate the miRNA functional similarity. Meanwhile, it is difficult to achieve high reliability of miRNA functional similarity with miRNA-disease associations. Therefore, it is increasingly needed to improve the measurement of miRNA functional similarity. In this study, we develop a novel path-based calculation method of miRNA functional similarity based on miRNA-disease associations, called MFSP. Compared with other methods, our method obtains higher average functional similarity of intra-family and intra-cluster selected groups. Meanwhile, the lower average functional similarity of inter-family and inter-cluster miRNA pair is obtained. In addition, the smaller p-value is achieved, while applying Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Kruskal-Wallis test to different miRNA groups. The relationship between miRNA functional similarity and other information sources is exhibited. Furthermore, the constructed miRNA functional network based on MFSP is a scale-free and small-world network. Moreover, the higher AUC for miRNA-disease prediction indicates the ability of MFSP uncovering miRNA functional similarity. PMID:27585796

  19. A path-based measurement for human miRNA functional similarities using miRNA-disease associations

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Pingjian; Luo, Jiawei; Xiao, Qiu; Chen, Xiangtao

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the sequence and expression similarity, miRNA functional similarity is so important for biology researches and many applications such as miRNA clustering, miRNA function prediction, miRNA synergism identification and disease miRNA prioritization. However, the existing methods always utilized the predicted miRNA target which has high false positive and false negative to calculate the miRNA functional similarity. Meanwhile, it is difficult to achieve high reliability of miRNA functional similarity with miRNA-disease associations. Therefore, it is increasingly needed to improve the measurement of miRNA functional similarity. In this study, we develop a novel path-based calculation method of miRNA functional similarity based on miRNA-disease associations, called MFSP. Compared with other methods, our method obtains higher average functional similarity of intra-family and intra-cluster selected groups. Meanwhile, the lower average functional similarity of inter-family and inter-cluster miRNA pair is obtained. In addition, the smaller p-value is achieved, while applying Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Kruskal-Wallis test to different miRNA groups. The relationship between miRNA functional similarity and other information sources is exhibited. Furthermore, the constructed miRNA functional network based on MFSP is a scale-free and small-world network. Moreover, the higher AUC for miRNA-disease prediction indicates the ability of MFSP uncovering miRNA functional similarity. PMID:27585796

  20. An assessment of RNA content in Prymnesium parvum, Prymnesium polylepis, cf. Chattonella sp. and Karlodinium veneficum under varying environmental conditions for calibrating an RNA microarray for species detection.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Gary R; Kegel, Jessica U; Touzet, Nicolas; Fleming, Gerard T A; Medlin, Linda K; Raine, Robin

    2014-04-01

    Traditional methods of identification and enumeration can be somewhat ambiguous when identifying phytoplankton that requires electron microscopic examination to verify specific morphological features. Members of the genus Prymnesium (division Haptophyta), members of the Raphidophyceae and naked dinoflagellates are examples of such phytoplankton whose identification can be difficult. One alternative to traditional microscopy-based methods of identification is to use molecular protocols to detect target species. Methods that measure cellular DNA and RNA content can be used to estimate the number of cells present in a sample. This study investigated the variation of RNA yields in Prymnesium parvum, P. polylepis, cf. Chattonella sp. and Karlodinium veneficum cells grown under different light, temperature, salinity and inorganic nutrient conditions. This information was used to calibrate the signal intensity of a variety of oligonucleotide probes spotted onto the microarrays for the detection of toxic algae (MIDTAL), which is being developed to aid national monitoring agencies and to provide a faster means of identifying and quantifying harmful phytoplankton in water column samples. PMID:24392749

  1. Changes in nuclear, nucleolar and cytoplasmic RNA content during growth and differentiation of root parenchyma cells in plant species with different dynamics of DNA endoreplication.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, K; Bilecka, A

    1985-01-01

    Using cytophotometric method, after staining preparations with gallocyanin RNA content was examined in nucleus, nucleolus and cytoplasm of six species of angiospermal plants in successive (1-7 mm) segments of root representing successive zones of differentiation. During the cell cycle, RNA content duplicates in the nucleus, nucleolus and cytoplasm of meristematic cells. On the other hand, during growth and differentiation of parenchyma cells in species with endoreplication the content of nucleolar RNA does not increase in proportion with DNA content. High level of endoreplication is connected with high nucleolar RNA content and low cytoplasmic RNA content. In species without endoreplication at low nucleolar RNA content, a considerable growth of cytoplasmic RNA content takes place. PMID:2417894

  2. Measuring workaholism: content validity of the Work Addiction Risk Test.

    PubMed

    Robinson, B E; Phillips, B

    1995-10-01

    A total of 20 psychotherapists, randomly selected from a state list, critically examined the 25 items on the Work Addiction Risk Test for content validity. Subjects were asked to identify 25 items from a list of 35 which most accurately measured work addiction. Selected test items have generally high content validity for the domain of work addiction. PMID:8559897

  3. Rapid Measurement Of Asbestos Content Of Building Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, James R.; Grove, Cindy I.; Hoover, Gordon L.; Stephens, James B.

    1994-01-01

    Portable instrument measures asbestos content of construction materials in place. Helps building renovators determine, quickly and accurately, whether asbestos is present. Concept readily adapted to special-purpose, battery-powered instrument. Contractor using such instrument could obtain reliable information on asbestos content in minutes.

  4. Elastin content, cross-links, and mRNA in normal and aneurysmal human aorta.

    PubMed

    Baxter, B T; McGee, G S; Shively, V P; Drummond, I A; Dixit, S N; Yamauchi, M; Pearce, W H

    1992-08-01

    Although elastin depletion is thought to be an etiologic factor in abdominal aortic aneurysm, little is known about its transcription and posttranslational modification in normal and diseased human aorta. Our objectives were to quantify total elastin and elastin cross-links (desmosine/isodesmosine [DID]) and to determine if elastin mRNA was detectable in the disease-prone infrarenal aorta from patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and a comparative group with no aneurysmal diseases. After preliminary extraction and thermolysin digestion, content of DID and the elastin tetrapeptide, valine-alanine-proline-glycine (VAPG), were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Tissue mRNA was studied by Northern blot analysis. Mean values (+/- SE) were compared by Student's t test. The proportion of insoluble elastin was markedly decreased in abdominal aortic aneurysm tissue (1.3% +/- 0.04% vs 12% +/- -2.8%; p less than 0.001). There was no difference in the small percentage of elastin solubilized during extraction in abdominal aortic aneurysm (5.3% +/- 1%) and no aneurysmal disease (6.0% +/- 1.2%; p = 0.71) tissues. The DID concentration of insoluble elastin was not different for abdominal aortic aneurysm and no aneurysmal disease tissue (0.18% +/- 0.07 vs 0.18 +/- 0.05 nm DID/nm VAPG; p = 0.97). On the basis of VAPG content, only 26% +/- 4% of the sodium hydroxide insoluble residue from abdominal aortic aneurysm was elastin; the predominate protein(s) was high in polar amino acids. Elastin mRNA was detectable in all tissues.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1495142

  5. A Sensitive Measurement for Estimating Impressions of Image-Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Mie; Matouge, Shingo; Mori, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Noboru; Kasuga, Masao

    We have investigated Kansei Content that appeals maker's intention to viewer's kansei. An SD method is a very good way to evaluate subjective impression of image-contents. However, because the SD method is performed after subjects view the image-contents, it is difficult to examine impression of detailed scenes of the image-contents in real time. To measure viewer's impression of the image-contents in real time, we have developed a Taikan sensor. With the Taikan sensor, we investigate relations among the image-contents, the grip strength and the body temperature. We also explore the interface of the Taikan sensor to use it easily. In our experiment, a horror movie is used that largely affects emotion of the subjects. Our results show that there is a possibility that the grip strength increases when the subjects view a strained scene and that it is easy to use the Taikan sensor without its circle base that is originally installed.

  6. Developmental changes of the FAS and HSL mRNA expression and their effects on the content of intramuscular fat in Kazak and Xinjiang sheep.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yong; Huang, Zhiguo; Li, Qifa; Liu, Zhenshan; Hao, Chengli; Shi, Guoqing; Dai, Rong; Xie, Zhuang

    2007-10-01

    Twenty-four male Kazak sheep and 30 Xinjiang fine wool sheep at different ages were selected to investigate the development-dependent expression levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) gene in muscle and their effects on the contents of intramuscular fat (IMF). Longissimus dorsal muscle was sampled to measure IMF and total RNA was extracted to determine FAS and HSL mRNA expression levels by real-time PCR. The results showed that: 1) The IMF content increased continuously with growth and showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between different age groups in male Kazak sheep, but in Xinjiang fine wool sheep there was no such difference observed. Furthermore, the IMF contents in Kazak were much higher (P < 0.01) than that of the other breed from day 30 to 90. 2) FAS mRNA expression level was the highest (P < 0.05) on day 0 in Kazak sheep and then declined with growth, in the other breed the gene showed a 'decline-rise-decline-rise' expression manner as the animals grew. HSL mRNA expression level had a similar model in two breeds, in Kazak sheep it was the highest on day 0 (P < 0.05) and in Xinjiang fine wool sheep on day 30 (P < 0.01), then both decreased after this term. 3) In male Kazak sheep, FAS and HSL mRNA expression level were both negatively related to IMF content (r = -0.485 (P = 0.02), r = -0.423 (P = 0.05)), and the ratio of FAS/HSL expression exhibited significantly negatively related IMF contents. In male Xinjiang sheep, there were no obvious relationship between FAS and HSL expression and IMF content (P > 0.05). PMID:17945169

  7. Comparison of Protamine 1 to Protamine 2 mRNA Ratio and YBX2 gene mRNA Content in Testicular Tissue of Fertile and Azoospermic Men

    PubMed Central

    Moghbelinejad, Sahar; Najafipour, Reza; Hashjin, Amir Samimi

    2015-01-01

    Background Although aberrant protamine (PRM) ratios have been observed in infertile men, the mechanisms that implicit the uncoupling of PRM1 and PRM2 expression remain unclear. To uncover these mechanisms, in this observational study we have compared the PRM1/PRM2 mRNA ratio and mRNA contents of two regulatory factors of these genes. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, sampling was performed by a multi-step method from 50 non-obstructive azoospermic and 12 normal men. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT- QPCR) was used to analyze the PRM1, PRM2, Y box binding protein 2 (YBX2) and JmjC-containing histone demethylase 2a (JHDM2A) genes in testicular biopsies of the studied samples. Results The PRM1/PRM2 mRNA ratio differed significantly among studied groups, namely 0.21 ± 0.13 in azoospermic samples and -0.8 ± 0.22 in fertile samples. The amount of PRM2 mRNA, significantly reduced in azoospermic patients. Azoospermic men exhibited significant under expression of YBX2 gene compared to controls (P<0.001). mRNA content of this gene showed a positive correlation with PRM mRNA ratio (R=0.6, P=0.007). JHDM2A gene expression ratio did not show any significant difference between the studied groups (P=0.3). We also observed no correlation between JHDM2A mRNA content and the PRM mRNA ratio (R=0.2, P=0.3). Conclusion We found significant correlation between the aberrant PRM ratio (PRM2 under expression) and lower YBX2 mRNA content in testicular biopsies of azoospermic men compared to controls, which suggested that downregulation of the YBX2 gene might be involved in PRM2 under expression. These molecules could be useful biomarkers for predicting male infertility. PMID:26644857

  8. Evaluation of the information content of RNA structure mapping data for secondary structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Quarrier, Scott; Martin, Joshua S; Davis-Neulander, Lauren; Beauregard, Arthur; Laederach, Alain

    2010-06-01

    Structure mapping experiments (using probes such as dimethyl sulfate [DMS], kethoxal, and T1 and V1 RNases) are used to determine the secondary structures of RNA molecules. The process is iterative, combining the results of several probes with constrained minimum free-energy calculations to produce a model of the structure. We aim to evaluate whether particular probes provide more structural information, and specifically, how noise in the data affects the predictions. Our approach involves generating "decoy" RNA structures (using the sFold Boltzmann sampling procedure) and evaluating whether we are able to identify the correct structure from this ensemble of structures. We show that with perfect information, we are always able to identify the optimal structure for five RNAs of known structure. We then collected orthogonal structure mapping data (DMS and RNase T1 digest) under several solution conditions using our high-throughput capillary automated footprinting analysis (CAFA) technique on two group I introns of known structure. Analysis of these data reveals the error rates in the data under optimal (low salt) and suboptimal solution conditions (high MgCl(2)). We show that despite these errors, our computational approach is less sensitive to experimental noise than traditional constraint-based structure prediction algorithms. Finally, we propose a novel approach for visualizing the interaction of chemical and enzymatic mapping data with RNA structure. We project the data onto the first two dimensions of a multidimensional scaling of the sFold-generated decoy structures. We are able to directly visualize the structural information content of structure mapping data and reconcile multiple data sets. PMID:20413617

  9. Measurement of Moisture Content in Sand, Slag, and Crucible Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.

    1999-09-20

    The deinventory process at Rocky Flats (RFETS) has included moisture content measurements of sand, slag, and crucible (SSC) materials by performing weight loss measurements at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius on representative samples prior to packaging for shipment. Shipping requirements include knowledge of the moisture content. Work at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) showed that the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius did not account for all of the moisture. The objective of the work in this report was to determine if the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius at RFETS could be used to set upper bounds on moisture content and therefore, eliminate the need for RFETS to unpack, reanalyze and repack the material.

  10. Measurement of soil water content with dielectric dispersion frequency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) is an inexpensive and attractive methodology for repeated measurements of soil water content (SWC). Although there are some known measurement limitations for dry soil and sand, a fixed-frequency method is commonly employed using commercially available FDR probes....

  11. Shape Measures for Content Based Image Retrieval: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehtre, Babu M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Explores the evaluation of image and multimedia information-retrieval systems, particularly the effectiveness of several shape measures for content-based retrieval of similar images. Shape feature measures, or vectors, are computed automatically and can either be used for retrieval or stored in the database for future queries. (57 references)…

  12. RNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

  13. RNA Interference

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIGMS Home > Science Education > RNA Interference Fact Sheet RNA Interference Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is RNA interference? RNA interference (RNAi) is a natural process ...

  14. Measurement Practices: Methods for Developing Content-Valid Student Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Patrick D.; Musial, Joseph; Frank, Robert; Roe, Thomas; Sawilowsky, Shlomo

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the fundamental principles associated with achieving a high level of content validity when developing tests for students. Suggests that the short-term efforts necessary to develop and integrate measurement theory into practice will lead to long-term gains for students, faculty, and academic institutions. (Includes 21 references.)…

  15. Information Theoretic Similarity Measures for Content Based Image Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachary, John; Iyengar, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval is based on the idea of extracting visual features from images and using them to index images in a database. Proposes similarity measures and an indexing algorithm based on information theory that permits an image to be represented as a single number. When used in conjunction with vectors, this method displays…

  16. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Yuan-yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-xun; Guo, Dong-quan; Xing, Guo-jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-yun; Li, Qi-yun; Dong, Ying-shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts. PMID:25197629

  17. Assessing the ceRNA hypothesis with quantitative measurements of miRNA and target abundance

    PubMed Central

    Denzler, Rémy; Agarwal, Vikram; Stefano, Joanna; Bartel, David P; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent studies have reported that competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) can act as sponges for a microRNA (miRNA) through their binding sites and that changes in ceRNA abundances from individual genes can modulate the miRNA’s activity. Consideration of this hypothesis would benefit from knowing the quantitative relationship between a miRNA and its endogenous target sites. Here, we altered intracellular target-site abundance through expression of a miR-122 target in hepatocytes and livers, and analyzed the effects on miR-122 target genes. Target repression was released in a threshold-like manner at high target-site abundance (≥1.5×105 added target sites per cell), and this threshold was insensitive to the effective levels of the miRNA. Furthermore, in response to extreme metabolic liver disease models, global target-site abundance of hepatocytes did not change sufficiently to affect miRNA-mediated repression. Thus, modulation of miRNA target abundance is unlikely to cause significant effects on gene expression and metabolism through a ceRNA effect. PMID:24793693

  18. Assessing the ceRNA hypothesis with quantitative measurements of miRNA and target abundance.

    PubMed

    Denzler, Rémy; Agarwal, Vikram; Stefano, Joanna; Bartel, David P; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have reported that competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) can act as sponges for a microRNA (miRNA) through their binding sites and that changes in ceRNA abundances from individual genes can modulate the activity of miRNAs. Consideration of this hypothesis would benefit from knowing the quantitative relationship between a miRNA and its endogenous target sites. Here, we altered intracellular target site abundance through expression of an miR-122 target in hepatocytes and livers and analyzed the effects on miR-122 target genes. Target repression was released in a threshold-like manner at high target site abundance (≥1.5 × 10(5) added target sites per cell), and this threshold was insensitive to the effective levels of the miRNA. Furthermore, in response to extreme metabolic liver disease models, global target site abundance of hepatocytes did not change sufficiently to affect miRNA-mediated repression. Thus, modulation of miRNA target abundance is unlikely to cause significant effects on gene expression and metabolism through a ceRNA effect. PMID:24793693

  19. Lunar Titanium Content from UV-VIS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, P. G.; Blewett, D. T.; Johnson, J. L.; Taylor, G. J.; Hawke, B. R.

    1996-03-01

    Recently a technique for deriving the Fe content of the lunar surface from spectral measurements in the extended visible wavelength range was developed and applied to images obtained by Clementine cameras [Lucey et al. (1995) Science 268, 1150.]. In concert with that effort, we have been re-examining the effects of Ti content on the spectral properties of a group of lunar soil samples. Insight gained from the study of the soil spectra has suggested a method for calibrating lunar imaging data sets to TiO2. Unlike the previous "Charette relationship", the new method for determination of Ti is insensitive to Fe, and thus is applicable to much lower Ti contents. This allows Ti-mapping to be extended to the lunar highlands and low-Ti maria. TiO2 images have been prepared from Galileo and Clementine data.

  20. Measuring the chlorophyll content in leaves by near infrared analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Huanyu; Bao, Yingshi; Ying, Yibin

    2005-11-01

    Chlorophyll content in leaves is one of the important internal information for predicting plants growth status. In this study, we use near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique to predict chlorophyll content in pepper leaves. Calibration models were created from spectral and constituent measurements, chlorophyll content measured by a SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter, 74 samples served as the calibration sets and 16 samples served as the validation sets. Partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) analysis technique were used to develop the prediction models, and four different mathematical treatments were used in spectrums processing: smoothing, baseline correction, different wavelength range, first and second derivative. When we use PLS analysis and select spectra with second derivate, we can get high correlation efficient and low RMSEC value, but big difference between RMSEC and RMSEP. The best calibration model when we delete four outlier samples, when we process spectra with second derivate at full wavelength, we can get highest correlation coefficient (r=0.97537), a relative lower RMSEC value (2.33), and a small difference between RMSEC (2.33) and RMSEP (5.49). Result showed that NIR technique is a non-destructive way; it can acquire chlorophyll content in pepper leaves quickly and conveniently.

  1. Moisture content measurements of moss (Sphagnum spp.) using commercial sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshikawa, K.; Overduin, P.P.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Sphagnum (spp.) is widely distributed in permafrost regions around the arctic and subarctic. The moisture content of the moss layer affects the thermal insulative capacity and preservation of permafrost. It also controls the growth and collapse history of palsas and other peat mounds, and is relevant, in general terms, to permafrost thaw (thermokarst). In this study, we test and calibrate seven different soil moisture sensors for measuring the moisture content of Sphagnum moss under laboratory conditions. The soil volume to which each probe is sensitive is one of the important parameters influencing moisture measurement, particularly in a heterogeneous medium such as moss. Each sensor has a unique response to changing moisture content levels, solution salinity, moss bulk density and to the orientation (structure) of the Sphagnum relative to the sensor. All of the probes examined here require unique polynomial calibration equations to obtain moisture content from probe output. We provide polynomial equations for dead and live Sphagnum moss (R2 > 0.99. Copyright ?? 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Measuring the 14C content in liquid scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enqvist, T.; Barabanov, I. R.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Gavrilyuk, Y. M.; Grishina, V. Yu; Gurentsov, V. I.; Hissa, J.; Joutsenvaara, J.; Kazalov, V. V.; Krokhaleva, S.; Kutuniva, J.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Kurlovich, A. S.; Loo, K.; Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Lubsandorzhiev, S.; Morgalyuk, V. P.; Novikova, G. Y.; Pshukov, A. M.; Sinev, V. V.; Słupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Umerov, Sh I.; Veresnikova, A. V.; Virkajärvi, A.; Yanovich, Y. A.; Zavarzina, V. P.

    2016-05-01

    We are going to perform a series of measurements where the 14C/12 C ratio will be measured from several liquid scintillator samples with a dedicated setup. The setup is designed with the aim of measuring ratios smaller than 10-18. Measurements take place in two underground laboratories: in the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, Russia and in the Pyhäsalmi mine, Finland. In Baksan the measurements started in 2015 and in Pyhäsalmi they start in the beginning of 2015. In order to fully understand the operation of the setup and its background contributions a development of simulation packages has also been started. Low-energy neutrino detection with a liquid scintillator requires that the intrinsic 14C content in the liquid is extremely low. In the Borexino CTF detector at Gran Sasso, Italy the 14C/12C ratio of 2 × 10-18 has been achieved being the lowest 14C concentration ever measured. In principle, the older the oil or gas source that the liquid scintillator is derived of and the deeper it situates, the smaller the 14C/12C ratio is supposed to be. This, however, is not generally the case, and the ratio is probably determined by the U and Th content of the local environment.

  3. Noninvasive technique for measurement of glucose content in body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapiou, George; Theofanous, N. G.

    1998-07-01

    This work is focused on the measurement of glucose in various diluted solutions and aims to be implemented in testing the glucose content in the anterior chamber of the eye by means of an electro-optic modulation method. By using solutions containing only glucose concentrations, a calibration curve displaying the dependence of the glucose concentration on a DC field, applied to a modulator, was obtained.

  4. The effect of trichloroethylene and acrylonitrile on RNA and ribosome synthesis and ribosome content in Saccharomyces cells.

    PubMed

    Lochmann, E R; Ehrlich, W; Mangir, M

    1984-04-01

    The effects of trichloroethylene (TCE) and acrylonitrile (ACN) on growth, RNA synthesis, ribosome synthesis, and ribosome content were tested in yeast cells. TCE causes a delay of the growth of a cell culture (prolongation of the lag phase), but does not cause inhibition. Cells exposed to increasing concentrations of ACN show increasing damage, so that, at a certain point of the growth curve, cell division stops altogether. Similar results were obtained when RNA synthesis was investigated: After treatment with TCE, the maximum RNA synthesis of the cell culture was retarded, but subsequently reached the same level as the untreated control cells. In the presence of ACN, however, the rate of RNA synthesis was lowered with increasing ACN concentrations. The same effect was observed upon investigation of ribosome synthesis: Whereas TCE produces only a slight effect, treatment with increasing concentrations of ACN leads to a substantial decrease in ribosome synthesis, and finally to total inhibition. Parallel to this, the content of free and membrane-bound ribosomes is diminished. Obviously, the decrease in ribosome content is caused not only by an inhibition of ribosome synthesis, but also by a degradation of existing ribosomes, as well as by induction of a ribosome-associated RNase. PMID:6714140

  5. Total Water Content Measurements with an Isokinetic Sampling Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Miller, Dean R.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a Total Water Content (TWC) Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument is comprised of the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Analysis and testing have been conducted on the subsystems to ensure their proper function and accuracy. End-to-end bench testing has also been conducted to ensure the reliability of the entire instrument system. A Stokes Number based collection efficiency correction was developed to correct for probe thickness effects. The authors further discuss the need to ensure that no condensation occurs within the instrument plumbing. Instrument measurements compared to facility calibrations from testing in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel are presented and discussed. There appears to be liquid water content and droplet size effects in the differences between the two measurement techniques.

  6. [Measurement of chlorophyll content in wheat leaves using hyperspectral scanning].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Wang, Wei; Peng, Yan-kun; Wu, Jian-hu; Gao, Xiao-dong; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Jing

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to evaluate the potential of hyperspectral scanning as a way for nondestructive measurement of chlorophyll content in wheat leaves, which can indicates the plant healthy status. One hundred twenty samples were randomly picked from Xiao Tangshan farm. Ninety samples were used as calibration set and others were used for verification set. After capturing hyperspectral image in the range of 400-1,000 nm, the chlorophyll contents of samples were measured immediately. Four different mathematical treatments were used in spectra processing in the wavelength range of 491-887 nm: multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first derivative correction, and second derivative correction. Statistical models were developed using partial least square regression (PLSR), and stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) analysis technique. The results showed that the best calibration model was obtained by PLSR analysis, after processing spectra with MSC and second derivate, with a relatively higher coefficient of determination of calibration (0.82) and validation (0.79) respectively, a relatively lower RMSEC value (0.69), and a small difference between RMSEC (0.69) and RMSEP (0.71). The results indicate that it is feasible to use hyperspectral scanning technique for nondestructive measurement of chlorophyll content in wheat leaves. PMID:20827976

  7. Cellular stress conditions are reflected in the protein and RNA content of endothelial cell-derived exosomes

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Olivier G.; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Chen, Yong; Vader, Pieter; Gremmels, Hendrik; Posthuma, George; Schiffelers, Raymond M.; Gucek, Marjan; van Balkom, Bas W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The healthy vascular endothelium, which forms the barrier between blood and the surrounding tissues, is known to efficiently respond to stress signals like hypoxia and inflammation by adaptation of cellular physiology and the secretion of (soluble) growth factors and cytokines. Exosomes are potent mediators of intercellular communication. Their content consists of RNA and proteins from the cell of origin, and thus depends on the condition of these cells at the time of exosome biogenesis. It has been suggested that exosomes protect their target cells from cellular stress through the transfer of RNA and proteins. We hypothesized that endothelium-derived exosomes are involved in the endothelial response to cellular stress, and that exosome RNA and protein content reflect the effects of cellular stress induced by hypoxia, inflammation or hyperglycemia. Methods We exposed cultured endothelial cells to different types of cellular stress (hypoxia, TNF-α-induced activation, high glucose and mannose concentrations) and compared mRNA and protein content of exosomes produced by these cells by microarray analysis and a quantitative proteomics approach. Results We identified 1,354 proteins and 1,992 mRNAs in endothelial cell-derived exosomes. Several proteins and mRNAs showed altered abundances after exposure of their producing cells to cellular stress, which were confirmed by immunoblot or qPCR analysis. Conclusion Our data show that hypoxia and endothelial activation are reflected in RNA and protein exosome composition, and that exposure to high sugar concentrations alters exosome protein composition only to a minor extend, and does not affect exosome RNA composition. PMID:24009886

  8. A measure of the information content of EIT data.

    PubMed

    Adler, Andy; Youmaran, Richard; Lionheart, William R B

    2008-06-01

    We ask: how many bits of information (in the Shannon sense) do we get from a set of EIT measurements? Here, the term information in measurements (IM) is defined as: the decrease in uncertainty about the contents of a medium, due to a set of measurements. This decrease in uncertainty is quantified by the change from the inter-class model, q, defined by the prior information, to the intra-class model, p, given by the measured data (corrupted by noise). IM is measured by the expected relative entropy (Kullback-Leibler divergence) between distributions q and p, and corresponds to the channel capacity in an analogous communications system. Based on a Gaussian model of the measurement noise, (Sigma(n)), and a prior model of the image element covariances (Sigma(x)), we calculate IM = 1/2 summation operator log(2)([SNR](i) + 1), where [SNR](i) is the signal-to-noise ratio for each independent measurement calculated from the prior and noise models. For an example, we consider saline tank measurements from a 16 electrode EIT system, with a 2 cm radius non-conductive target, and calculate IM =179 bits. Temporal sequences of frames are considered, and formulae for IM as a function of temporal image element correlations are derived. We suggest that this measure may allow novel insights into questions such as distinguishability limits, optimal measurement schemes and data fusion. PMID:18544803

  9. Integrative RNA-seq and microarray data analysis reveals GC content and gene length biases in the psoriasis transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xianying; Voorhees, John J.; Elder, James T.; Johnston, Andrew; Gudjonsson, Johann E.

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of psoriasis has driven research advances and may soon provide the basis for clinical applications. For expression profiling studies, RNA-seq is now a competitive technology, but RNA-seq results may differ from those obtained by microarray. We therefore compared findings obtained by RNA-seq with those from eight microarray studies of psoriasis. RNA-seq and microarray datasets identified similar numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), with certain genes uniquely identified by each technology. Correspondence between platforms and the balance of increased to decreased DEGs was influenced by mRNA abundance, GC content, and gene length. Weakly expressed genes, genes with low GC content, and long genes were all biased toward decreased expression in psoriasis lesions. The strength of these trends differed among array datasets, most likely due to variations in RNA quality. Gene length bias was by far the strongest trend and was evident in all datasets regardless of the expression profiling technology. The effect was due to differences between lesional and uninvolved skin with respect to the genome-wide correlation between gene length and gene expression, which was consistently more negative in psoriasis lesions. These findings demonstrate the complementary nature of RNA-seq and microarray technology and show that integrative analysis of both data types can provide a richer view of the transcriptome than strict reliance on a single method alone. Our results also highlight factors affecting correspondence between technologies, and we have established that gene length is a major determinant of differential expression in psoriasis lesions. PMID:24844236

  10. High resolution DNA content measurements of mammalian sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkel, D.; Lake, S.; Gledhill, B.L.; Van Dilla, M.A.; Stephenson, D.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-01-01

    The high condensation and flat shape of the mammalian sperm nucleus present unique difficulties to flow cytometric measurement of DNA content. Chromatin compactness makes quantitative fluorescent staining for DNA difficult and causes a high index of refraction. The refractive index makes optical measurements sensitive to sperm head orientation. We demonstrate that the optical problems can be overcome using the commercial ICP22 epiillumination flow cytometer (Ortho Instruments, Westwood, MA) or a specially built cell orientating flow cytometer (OFCM). The design and operation of the OFCM are described. Measurements of the angular dependence of fluorescence from acriflavine stained rabbit sperm show that it is capable of orienting flat sperm with a tolerance of +-7/sup 0/. Differences in the angular dependence for the similarly shaped bull and rabbit sperm allow discrimination of these cells. We show that DNA staining with 4-6 diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) or an ethidium bromide mithramycin combination allows resolution of the X and Y populations in mouse sperm. They have also been successful with sperm from the bull, ram, rabbit, and boar. Reliable results with human sperm are not obtained. The accuracy of the staining and measurement techniques are verified by the correct determination of the relative content of these two populations in sperm from normal mice and those with the Cattanach (7 to X) translocation. Among the potential uses of these techniques are measurement of DNA content errors induced in sperm due to mutagen exposure, and assessment of the fractions of X and Y sperm in semen that may have one population artifically enriched.

  11. Recovery of total microbial RNA from lactic acid fermented foods with a high starch content.

    PubMed

    Ampe, F; ben Omar, N; Guyot, J P

    1998-11-01

    An optimized procedure for the recovery of RNA from micro-organisms involved in the fermentation of starchy foods (mainly hard-to-lyse lactic acid bacteria) is reported. Critical steps for the extraction were: cell recovery by differential centrifugation; cell wall digestion with both mutanolysin and lysozyme; and CTAB treatment for the elimination of starch. Digestion of starch with alpha-amylase did not improve extraction yields. The method yielded high amounts of RNA from pozol, a Mexican maize-based fermented food, and was found to extract total RNA efficiently from all the micro-organisms potentially present in these ecosystems. Both rRNA and mRNA recovered were of high quality and suitable for hybridization studies. PMID:9830143

  12. Measurement of the U-235 Content of Concreted Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Rackham, J.; Hughes, K.; Oldeide, R.; Sharpe, J.; Morgan, S.

    2008-07-01

    A challenging assay situation recently arose, whereby the fissile (i.e. total plutonium plus U-235) content of a population of 164 historical waste drums containing concrete needed to be measured, to comply with nuclear safety limits for transport to, and interim storage within, an Engineered Drum Store. BIL Solutions Ltd has developed a new methodology for measurement of the U-235 content of these 'concrete' drums, because the approach normally used by the in-situ Drum Monitors was found to be overly pessimistic. Initial investigations indicated significant quantities of uranium were present in these drums (but negligible plutonium), mixed with Np-237 and / or Ra-226. These initial measurements also indicated that the uranium was likely to be depleted in enrichment. The U-235 content was therefore determined by measuring the U-238 mass via the passive coincident neutron emission, and combining this with the U-235 and U-238 isotopic abundances, obtained by analysis of a gamma spectrum. Of the uranium isotopic analysis codes available, the FRAM (Fixed energy, Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies) software was selected as being most suitable for this application. A wide gamma-ray energy range is used (i.e. 120 keV to 1200 keV) which was considered more likely to yield results when there is significant attenuation. The software is also user configurable, enabling interferences from the other radionuclides present (i.e. Np-237 and Ra-226) to be accounted for. A series of test measurements were performed with well-characterised uranium sources attenuated by concrete shielding, to gain confidence in the performance of FRAM under such conditions. These test measurements indicated that FRAM was able to correctly determine the enrichment of heavily shielded uranium. The new U-235 measurement methodology was then applied to the population of concrete drums; successfully yielding U-235 results despite the dense waste matrix and significant interference from

  13. [Effect of large doses of vitamin A on the salivary gland secretory elements and their RNA content].

    PubMed

    Rys-Uly, M R

    1980-01-01

    The content of RNA in secretory cells of the salivary glands was studied after administration of different doses of vitamin A. The experiments were carried out on 60 male albino mice weighing 20-25 g. The mice were given orally 1000, 3000, 5000 and 8000 IU of a 3.44% oily solution of retinol acetate for 10 days. The control animals received amygdalic oil. RNA content was determined by cytophotometry on a Reichert cytospectrophotometer (single-wave technique) after the sections were stained with gallocyanine-chromine alum. It was demonstrated that vitamin A given in doses that did not provoke that clinical symptoms of hypervitaminosis are capable of increasing RNA concentration in secretory cells of the salivary glands. Higher doses of the vitamin responsible for hypervitaminosis could diminish RNA concentration. In both cases vitamin A exerted a more powerful effect on secretory cells showing more intensive protein metabolism, i. e. on glandulocytes as compared to the effect on the cells of convoluted granular tubes. PMID:6157247

  14. Simultaneous Multiplexed Measurement of RNA and Proteins in Single Cells

    PubMed Central

    Darmanis, Spyros; Gallant, Caroline Julie; Marinescu, Voichita Dana; Niklasson, Mia; Segerman, Anna; Flamourakis, Georgios; Fredriksson, Simon; Assarsson, Erika; Lundberg, Martin; Nelander, Sven; Westermark, Bengt; Landegren, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Summary Significant advances have been made in methods to analyze genomes and transcriptomes of single cells, but to fully define cell states, proteins must also be accessed as central actors defining a cell’s phenotype. Methods currently used to analyze endogenous protein expression in single cells are limited in specificity, throughput, or multiplex capability. Here, we present an approach to simultaneously and specifically interrogate large sets of protein and RNA targets in lysates from individual cells, enabling investigations of cell functions and responses. We applied our method to investigate the effects of BMP4, an experimental therapeutic agent, on early-passage glioblastoma cell cultures. We uncovered significant heterogeneity in responses to treatment at levels of RNA and protein, with a subset of cells reacting in a distinct manner to BMP4. Moreover, we found overall poor correlation between protein and RNA at the level of single cells, with proteins more accurately defining responses to treatment. PMID:26748716

  15. Red edge measurements for remotely sensing plant chlorophyll content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horler, D. N. H.; Dockray, M.; Barber, J.; Barringer, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using the wavelength of the maximum slope of the red edge of leaf reflectance spectra, Lambda(re), as an indication of plant chlorophyll status was examined in the laboratory for single leaves of several species. Lambda(re) for each sample was determined by derivative reflectance spectroscopy. A high positive correlation was found between Lambda(re) and leaf chlorophyll content for all species, although there were some differences in the quantitative nature of the relationship for plants of different types. The position of the red edge was found to be unaffected by simulated change in ground cover, but multiple leaf layers produced a shift in its position. Appropriate spectral measurements and processing for obtaining useful information from the red edge are discussed, and the potential of the red edge in relation to other spectral measurements is considered.

  16. Polysome shift assay for direct measurement of miRNA inhibition by anti-miRNA drugs

    PubMed Central

    Androsavich, John R.; Sobczynski, Daniel J.; Liu, Xueqing; Pandya, Shweta; Kaimal, Vivek; Owen, Tate; Liu, Kai; MacKenna, Deidre A.; Chau, B. Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Anti-miRNA (anti-miR) oligonucleotide drugs are being developed to inhibit overactive miRNAs linked to disease. To help facilitate the transition from concept to clinic, new research tools are required. Here we report a novel method—miRNA Polysome Shift Assay (miPSA)—for direct measurement of miRNA engagement by anti-miR, which is more robust than conventional pharmacodynamics using downstream target gene derepression. The method takes advantage of size differences between active and inhibited miRNA complexes. Active miRNAs bind target mRNAs in high molecular weight polysome complexes, while inhibited miRNAs are sterically blocked by anti-miRs from forming this interaction. These two states can be assessed by fractionating tissue or cell lysates using differential ultracentrifugation through sucrose gradients. Accordingly, anti-miR treatment causes a specific shift of cognate miRNA from heavy to light density fractions. The magnitude of this shift is dose-responsive and maintains a linear relationship with downstream target gene derepression while providing a substantially higher dynamic window for aiding drug discovery. In contrast, we found that the commonly used ‘RT-interference’ approach, which assumes that inhibited miRNA is undetectable by RT-qPCR, can yield unreliable results that poorly reflect the binding stoichiometry of anti-miR to miRNA. We also demonstrate that the miPSA has additional utility in assessing anti-miR cross-reactivity with miRNAs sharing similar seed sequences. PMID:26384419

  17. Polysome shift assay for direct measurement of miRNA inhibition by anti-miRNA drugs.

    PubMed

    Androsavich, John R; Sobczynski, Daniel J; Liu, Xueqing; Pandya, Shweta; Kaimal, Vivek; Owen, Tate; Liu, Kai; MacKenna, Deidre A; Chau, B Nelson

    2016-01-29

    Anti-miRNA (anti-miR) oligonucleotide drugs are being developed to inhibit overactive miRNAs linked to disease. To help facilitate the transition from concept to clinic, new research tools are required. Here we report a novel method--miRNA Polysome Shift Assay (miPSA)--for direct measurement of miRNA engagement by anti-miR, which is more robust than conventional pharmacodynamics using downstream target gene derepression. The method takes advantage of size differences between active and inhibited miRNA complexes. Active miRNAs bind target mRNAs in high molecular weight polysome complexes, while inhibited miRNAs are sterically blocked by anti-miRs from forming this interaction. These two states can be assessed by fractionating tissue or cell lysates using differential ultracentrifugation through sucrose gradients. Accordingly, anti-miR treatment causes a specific shift of cognate miRNA from heavy to light density fractions. The magnitude of this shift is dose-responsive and maintains a linear relationship with downstream target gene derepression while providing a substantially higher dynamic window for aiding drug discovery. In contrast, we found that the commonly used 'RT-interference' approach, which assumes that inhibited miRNA is undetectable by RT-qPCR, can yield unreliable results that poorly reflect the binding stoichiometry of anti-miR to miRNA. We also demonstrate that the miPSA has additional utility in assessing anti-miR cross-reactivity with miRNAs sharing similar seed sequences. PMID:26384419

  18. RNA Bind-n-Seq: Measuring the Binding Affinity Landscape of RNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Nicole J; Robertson, Alex D; Burge, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) coordinate post-transcriptional control of gene expression, often through sequence-specific recognition of primary transcripts or mature messenger RNAs. Hundreds of RBPs are encoded in the human genome, most with undefined or incompletely defined biological roles. Understanding the function of these factors will require the identification of each RBP's distinct RNA binding specificity. RNA Bind-n-Seq (RBNS) is a high-throughput, cost-effective in vitro method capable of resolving sequence and secondary structure preferences of RBPs. Dissociation constants can also be inferred from RBNS data when provided with additional experimental information. Here, we describe the experimental procedures to perform RBNS and discuss important parameters of the method and ways that the experiment can be tailored to the specific RBP under study. Additionally, we present the conceptual framework and execution of the freely available RBNS computational pipeline and describe the outputs of the pipeline. Different approaches to quantify binding specificity, quality control metrics, and estimation of binding constants are also covered. PMID:26068750

  19. A comprehensive assessment of RNA-seq accuracy, reproducibility and information content by the Sequencing Quality Control consortium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present primary results from the Sequencing Quality Control (SEQC) project, coordinated by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Examining Illumina HiSeq, Life Technologies SOLiD and Roche 454 platforms at multiple laboratory sites using reference RNA samples with built-in controls, we assess RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) performance for junction discovery and differential expression profiling and compare it to microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) data using complementary metrics. At all sequencing depths, we discover unannotated exon-exon junctions, with >80% validated by qPCR. We find that measurements of relative expression are accurate and reproducible across sites and platforms if specific filters are used. In contrast, RNA-seq and microarrays do not provide accurate absolute measurements, and gene-specific biases are observed, for these and qPCR. Measurement performance depends on the platform and data analysis pipeline, and variation is large for transcript-level profiling. The complete SEQC data sets, comprising >100 billion reads (10Tb), provide unique resources for evaluating RNA-seq analyses for clinical and regulatory settings. PMID:25150838

  20. Characterization and Small RNA Content of Extracellular Vesicles in Follicular Fluid of Developing Bovine Antral Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Navakanitworakul, Raphatphorn; Hung, Wei-Ting; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Davis, John S.; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Christenson, Lane K.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes and microvesicles (i.e., extracellular vesicles: EVs) have been identified within ovarian follicular fluid and recent evidence suggests that EVs are able to elicit profound effects on ovarian cell function. While existence of miRNA within EVs has been reported, whether EV size and concentration as well as their cargos (i.e., proteins and RNA) change during antral follicle growth remains unknown. Extracellular vesicles isolated from follicular fluid of small, medium and large bovine follicles were similar in size, while concentration of EVs decreased progressively as follicle size increased. Electron microscopy indicated a highly purified population of the lipid bilayer enclosed vesicles that were enriched in exosome biomarkers including CD81 and Alix. Small RNA sequencing identified a large number of known and novel miRNAs that changed in the EVs of different size follicles. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) indicated that miRNA abundant in small follicle EV preparations were associated with cell proliferation pathways, while those miRNA abundant in large follicle preparations were related to inflammatory response pathways. These studies are the first to demonstrate that EVs change in their levels and makeup during antral follicle development and point to the potential for a unique vesicle-mediated cell-to-cell communication network within the ovarian follicle. PMID:27158133

  1. Characterization and Small RNA Content of Extracellular Vesicles in Follicular Fluid of Developing Bovine Antral Follicles.

    PubMed

    Navakanitworakul, Raphatphorn; Hung, Wei-Ting; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Davis, John S; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Christenson, Lane K

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes and microvesicles (i.e., extracellular vesicles: EVs) have been identified within ovarian follicular fluid and recent evidence suggests that EVs are able to elicit profound effects on ovarian cell function. While existence of miRNA within EVs has been reported, whether EV size and concentration as well as their cargos (i.e., proteins and RNA) change during antral follicle growth remains unknown. Extracellular vesicles isolated from follicular fluid of small, medium and large bovine follicles were similar in size, while concentration of EVs decreased progressively as follicle size increased. Electron microscopy indicated a highly purified population of the lipid bilayer enclosed vesicles that were enriched in exosome biomarkers including CD81 and Alix. Small RNA sequencing identified a large number of known and novel miRNAs that changed in the EVs of different size follicles. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) indicated that miRNA abundant in small follicle EV preparations were associated with cell proliferation pathways, while those miRNA abundant in large follicle preparations were related to inflammatory response pathways. These studies are the first to demonstrate that EVs change in their levels and makeup during antral follicle development and point to the potential for a unique vesicle-mediated cell-to-cell communication network within the ovarian follicle. PMID:27158133

  2. Estimation of total electron content (TEC) using spaceborne GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Key-Rok; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    2008-09-01

    TerraSAR-X (TSX), a high-resolution interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission from DLR (German Aerospace Center, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt), was successfully launched into orbit on June 15, 2007. It includes a dual-frequency GPS receiver called IGOR (Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver), which is a heritage NASA/JPL BlackJack receiver. The software for the TSX IGOR receiver was specially-modified software developed at UT/CSR. This software was upgraded to provide enhanced occultation capabilities. This paper describes total electron content (TEC) estimation using simulation data and onboard GPS data of TerraSAR-X. The simulated GPS data were collected using the IGOR Engineering Model (EM) in the laboratory and the onboard GPS data were collected from the IGOR Flight Model (FM) on TSX. To estimate vertical total electron content (vTEC) for the simulation data, inter-frequency biases (IFB) were estimated using the "carrier to code leveling process." For the onboard GPS data, IFBs of GPS satellites were retrieved from the navigation message and applied to the measurements.

  3. Determination of alloy content from plume spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, George C.

    1991-01-01

    The mathematical derivation for a method to determine the identities and amounts of alloys present in a flame where numerous alloys may be present is described. This method is applicable if the total number of elemental species from all alloys that may be in the flame is greater than or equal to the total number of alloys. Arranging the atomic spectral line emission equations for the elemental species as a series of simultaneous equations enables solution for identity and amount of the alloy present in the flame. This technique is intended for identification and quantification of alloy content in the plume of a rocket engine. Spectroscopic measurements reveal the atomic species entrained in the plume. Identification of eroding alloys may lead to the identification of the eroding component.

  4. A modified procedure for measuring oxygen-18 content of nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Aly, A. I. M.; Abdel Monem, N.; Hanafy, M.; Gomaa, H. E.

    2012-11-01

    SummaryMass spectrometric analysis of O-isotopic composition of nitrate has many potential applications in studies of environmental processes. Through this work, rapid, reliable, precise, broadly applicable, catalyst-free, low-priced and less labor intensive procedure for measuring δ18O of nitrate using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer has been developed and implemented. The conditions necessary to effect complete nitrate recovery and complete removal of other oxygen containing anions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) without scarifying the isotopic signature of nitrate were investigated. The developed procedure consists of two main parts: (1) wet chemistry train for extraction and purification of nitrate from the liquid matrix; (2) off-line pyrolysis of extracted nitrate salt with activated graphite at 550 °C for 30 min. The conditions necessary to effect complete nitrate recovery and complete removal of other oxygen containing compounds were investigated. Dramatic reduction in processing times needed for analysis of δ18O of nitrate at natural abundance level was achieved. Preservation experiments revealed that chloroform (99.8%) is an effective preservative. Isotopic contents of some selected nitrate salts were measured using the modified procedure and some other well established methods at two laboratories in Egypt and Germany. Performance assessment of the whole developed analytical train was made using internationally distributed nitrate isotopes reference materials and real world sample of initial zero-nitrate content. The uncertainty budget was evaluated using the graphical nested hierarchal approach. The obtained results proved the suitability for handling samples of complicated matrices. Reduction of consumables cost by about 80% was achieved.

  5. Content Appraisal as a Method for Measuring the Effectiveness & Usability of Online Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeau, Jenifer; Heidorn, Neely; Broady, Nick; Whittle, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Content appraisal is a simple, qualitative system to identify modifications to make website material more useful to clientele. This system provides a comprehensive evaluation of content, focuses on content strategy, identifies weaknesses, and provides recommendations for improvement. The criteria examined included knowledge level,…

  6. Measuring rainwater content by radar using propagation differential phase shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    While radars measure several quantities closely coupled to the rainfall rate, for frequencies less than 15 GHz, estimates of the rainwater content W are traditionally computed from the radar reflectivity factor Z or the rate of attenuation A--quantities only weakly related to W. Consequently, instantaneous point estimates of W using Z and A are often erroneous. A more natural, alternative parameter for estimating W at these frequencies is the specific polarization propagation differential phase shift phi(sub DP), which is a measure of the change in the difference between phases of vertically (V) and horizontally (H) polarized waves with increasing distance from a radar. It is now well known that W is nearly linearly related to phi(sub DP) divided by (1 - reversed R), where reversed R is the mass-weighted mean axis ratio of the raindrops. Unfortunately, such relations are not widely used in part because measurements of phi(sub DP) are scarce but also because one must determine reversed R. In this work it is shown that this parameter can be estimated using the differential reflectivity (Z(sub H)/Z(sub V) at 3 GHz. An alternative technique is suggested for higher frequencies when the differential reflectivity becomes degraded by attenuation. While theory indicates that it should be possible using phi(sub DP) to estimate W quite accurately, measurement errors increase the uncertainty to +/- 18%-35% depending on reversed R. While far from ideal, it appears that these estimates are likely to be considerably more accurate than those deduced using currently available methods.

  7. Measurement of bone mineral content in vivo using photon absorptiometry

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, R. M.; Cameron, E. C.; McIntosh, H. W.; Walker, V. R.

    1974-01-01

    Progress in evaluating treatment of systemic bone disease has been hampered in the past by lack of precise in vivo quantitative techniques. Recently a method has been developed for measurement of bone mineral content (BMC), based on bone absorption of low-energy monochromatic radiation. This paper discusses a technique of photon absorptiometry using 125l as a collimated point source. The technique is simple, with accuracy and precision within 2%. BMC and bone width (W) were measured in the distal radius of 359 normal subjects ranging in age from 5 to 82 years. A “normal” curve of BMC/W with age as the independent variable was then obtained from this population and was constructed for each sex. A positive correlation of BMC/W with height and body weight was found in a group of normal males. A series of patients with osteoporosis or malabsorption, or undergoing hemodialysis or steroid treatment, was then assessed in order to demonstrate changes in BMC/W that may occur secondary to disease or disturbances in calcium metabolism. Many of these patients were found to have a BMC/W below the normal mean value for their age and sex. PMID:4434288

  8. Impact of Measurement System Characteristics on Advanced Sounder Information Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel K.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced satellite sensors are tasked with improving global observations of the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface to enable enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring capability, and environmental change detection. Achieving such an improvement in geophysical information inferred from these observations requires optimal usage of data from current systems as well as instrument system enhancements for future sensors. This presentation addresses results of tradeoff studies evaluating the impact of spectral resolution, spectral coverage, instrument noise, and a priori knowledge on remote sensing system information content, with a specific emphasis on thermodynamic state and trace species information obtainable from advanced atmospheric sounders. Particular attention will be devoted toward information achievable from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on the NASA EOS Aqua satellite in orbit since 2002, the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) aboard MetOp-A since 2006, and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) instrument to fly aboard the NPP and JPSS series of satellites expected to begin in late 2011. While all of these systems cover nearly the same infrared spectral extent, they have very different number of channels, instrument line shapes, coverage continuity, and instrument noise. AIRS is a grating spectrometer having 2378 discrete spectral channels ranging from about 0.4 to 2.2/cm resolution; IASI is a Michelson interferometer with 8461 uniformly-spaced spectral channels of 0.5/cm (apodized) resolution; and CrIS is a Michelson interferometer having 1305 spectral channels of 0.625, 1.250, and 2.50/cm (unapodized) spectral resolution, respectively, over its three continuous but non-overlapping bands. Results of tradeoff studies showing information content sensitivity to assumed measurement system characteristics will be presented.

  9. Rapid RNA-ligand interaction analysis through high-information content conformational and stability landscapes.

    PubMed

    Baird, Nathan J; Inglese, James; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2015-01-01

    The structure and biological properties of RNAs are a function of changing cellular conditions, but comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of the effect of multiple interacting environmental variables is not easily achieved. We have developed an efficient, high-throughput method to characterize RNA structure and thermodynamic stability as a function of multiplexed solution conditions using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). In a single FRET experiment using conventional quantitative PCR instrumentation, 19,400 conditions of MgCl2, ligand and temperature are analysed to generate detailed empirical conformational and stability landscapes of the cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) riboswitch. The method allows rapid comparison of RNA structure modulation by cognate and non-cognate ligands. Landscape analysis reveals that kanamycin B stabilizes a non-native, idiosyncratic conformation of the riboswitch that inhibits c-di-GMP binding. This demonstrates that allosteric control of folding, rather than direct competition with cognate effectors, is a viable approach for pharmacologically targeting riboswitches and other structured RNA molecules. PMID:26638992

  10. Rapid RNA-ligand interaction analysis through high-information content conformational and stability landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Nathan J.; Inglese, James; Ferré-D’Amaré, Adrian R.

    2015-12-07

    The structure and biological properties of RNAs are a function of changing cellular conditions, but comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of the effect of multiple interacting environmental variables is not easily achieved. We have developed an efficient, high-throughput method to characterize RNA structure and thermodynamic stability as a function of multiplexed solution conditions using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). In a single FRET experiment using conventional quantitative PCR instrumentation, 19,400 conditions of MgCl2, ligand and temperature are analysed to generate detailed empirical conformational and stability landscapes of the cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) riboswitch. This method allows rapid comparison of RNA structure modulation by cognate and non-cognate ligands. Landscape analysis reveals that kanamycin B stabilizes a non-native, idiosyncratic conformation of the riboswitch that inhibits c-di-GMP binding. Our research demonstrates that allosteric control of folding, rather than direct competition with cognate effectors, is a viable approach for pharmacologically targeting riboswitches and other structured RNA molecules.

  11. Rapid RNA-ligand interaction analysis through high-information content conformational and stability landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Nathan J.; Inglese, James; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.

    2015-12-01

    The structure and biological properties of RNAs are a function of changing cellular conditions, but comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of the effect of multiple interacting environmental variables is not easily achieved. We have developed an efficient, high-throughput method to characterize RNA structure and thermodynamic stability as a function of multiplexed solution conditions using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). In a single FRET experiment using conventional quantitative PCR instrumentation, 19,400 conditions of MgCl2, ligand and temperature are analysed to generate detailed empirical conformational and stability landscapes of the cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) riboswitch. The method allows rapid comparison of RNA structure modulation by cognate and non-cognate ligands. Landscape analysis reveals that kanamycin B stabilizes a non-native, idiosyncratic conformation of the riboswitch that inhibits c-di-GMP binding. This demonstrates that allosteric control of folding, rather than direct competition with cognate effectors, is a viable approach for pharmacologically targeting riboswitches and other structured RNA molecules.

  12. Determination of Ionospheric Total Electron Content Derived from Gnss Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inyurt, S.; Mekik, C.; Yildirim, O.

    2014-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has been used in numerous fields especially related to satellite- based radio navigation system for a long time. Ionosphere, one of the upper atmosphere layers ranges from 60 km to 1500 km, is a dispersive medium and it includes a number of free electrons and ions. The ionization is mainly subject to the sun and its activity. Ionospheric activity depends also on seasonal, diurnal variations and geographical location. Total Electron Content (TEC), which is also called Slant Total Electron Content (STEC), is a parameter that changes according to ionospheric conditions and has highly variable structure. Furthermore, Vertical TEC (VTEC) can be explained as TEC value in the direction of zenith. Thanks to VTEC, TEC values can be modelled. TEC is measured in units of TECU and 1TECU= 1016 electrons/m2. Ionospheric modelling has a great importance for improving the accuracies of positioning and understanding the ionosphere. Thus, various models have been developed to detect TEC value in the last years. Single Layer Model (SLM) which provides determining TEC value and GPS positioning in the ionosphere accurately is one of the most commonly used models. SLM assumes that all free electrons are concentrated in a shell of infinitesimal thickness. In this paper SLM model was used to derive TEC values by means of Bernese 5.0 program developed by the University of Bern, Sweden. In this study, we have used regional ionosphere model to derive TEC value. First of all, GPS data have been collected from 10 stations in Turkey and 13 IGS stations for 7 days from 06.03.2010 to 12.03.2010. Then, Regional Ionosphere Model (RIM) is created with the reference of the GPS data. At the end of the process, the result files are stored as IONEX format. TEC results for those days are obtained with two hours interval. TEC variation related to the research area ranges from nearly 6 TECU to approximately 20 TECU. The obtained results show that TEC values start

  13. Measuring Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Primary Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohaan, Ellen J.; Taconis, Ruurd; Jochems, Wim M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge is found to be a crucial part of the knowledge base for teaching. Studies in the field of primary technology education showed that this domain of teacher knowledge is related to pupils' increased learning, motivation, and interest. The common methods to investigate teachers' pedagogical content knowledge are often…

  14. The HI Content of Groups as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 groups at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5 < log M/M⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies out to a projected group-centric distance of 4.0 Mpc. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger gradient in HI properties, despite a similar gradient in stellar mass, and in color at fixed stellar mass, over the same range in r/R200. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/R200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Overall, our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps by ram-pressure stripping. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  15. Selecting Reliable mRNA Expression Measurements Across Platforms Improves Downstream Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Pan; Diao, Lixia; Shen, Li; Li, Lerong; Heymach, John Victor; Girard, Luc; Minna, John D.; Coombes, Kevin R.; Byers, Lauren Averett; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    With increasing use of publicly available gene expression data sets, the quality of the expression data is a critical issue for downstream analysis, gene signature development, and cross-validation of data sets. Thus, identifying reliable expression measurements by leveraging multiple mRNA expression platforms is an important analytical task. In this study, we propose a statistical framework for selecting reliable measurements between platforms by modeling the correlations of mRNA expression levels using a beta-mixture model. The model-based selection provides an effective and objective way to separate good probes from probes with low quality, thereby improving the efficiency and accuracy of the analysis. The proposed method can be used to compare two microarray technologies or microarray and RNA sequencing measurements. We tested the approach in two matched profiling data sets, using microarray gene expression measurements from the same samples profiled on both Affymetrix and Illumina platforms. We also applied the algorithm to mRNA expression data to compare Affymetrix microarray data with RNA sequencing measurements. The algorithm successfully identified probes/genes with reliable measurements. Removing the unreliable measurements resulted in significant improvements for gene signature development and functional annotations. PMID:27199546

  16. Density-based similarity measures for content based search

    SciTech Connect

    Hush, Don R; Porter, Reid B; Ruggiero, Christy E

    2009-01-01

    We consider the query by multiple example problem where the goal is to identify database samples whose content is similar to a coUection of query samples. To assess the similarity we use a relative content density which quantifies the relative concentration of the query distribution to the database distribution. If the database distribution is a mixture of the query distribution and a background distribution then it can be shown that database samples whose relative content density is greater than a particular threshold {rho} are more likely to have been generated by the query distribution than the background distribution. We describe an algorithm for predicting samples with relative content density greater than {rho} that is computationally efficient and possesses strong performance guarantees. We also show empirical results for applications in computer network monitoring and image segmentation.

  17. An Experimental Study on the Iso-Content-Based Angle Similarity Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    2002-01-01

    Retrieval performance of the iso-content-based angle similarity measure within the angle, distance, conjunction, disjunction, and ellipse retrieval models is compared with retrieval performance of the distance similarity measure and the angle similarity measure. Results show the iso-content-based angle similarity measure achieves satisfactory…

  18. A broadly applicable continuous spectrophotometric assay for measuring aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, A J; Thomann, H U; Ibba, M; Söll, D

    1995-01-01

    We describe a convenient, simple and novel continuous spectrophotometric method for the determination of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity. The assay relies upon the measurement of inorganic pyrophosphate generated in the first step of the aminoacylation of a tRNA. Pyrophosphate release is coupled to inorganic pyrophosphatase, to generate phosphate, which in turn is used as the substrate of purine nucleoside phosphorylase to catalyze the N-glycosidic cleavage of 2-amino 6-mercapto 7-methylpurine ribonucleoside. Of the reaction products, ribose 1-phosphate and 2-amino 6-mercapto 7-methylpurine, the latter has a high absorbance at 360 nm relative to the nucleoside and hence provides a spectrophotometric signal that can be continuously followed. The non-destructive nature of the spectrophotometric assay allowed the re-use of the tRNAs in question in successive experiments. The usefulness of this method was demonstrated for glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS) and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. Initial velocities measured using this assay correlate closely with those assayed by quantitation of [3H]Gln-tRNA or [14C]Trp-tRNA formation respectively. In both cases amino acid transfer from the aminoacyl adenylate to the tRNA represents the rate determining step. In addition, aminoacyl adenylate formation by aspartyl-tRNA synthetase was followed and provided a more sensitive means of active site titration than existing techniques. Finally, this novel method was used to provide direct evidence for the cooperativity of tRNA and ATP binding to GlnRS. PMID:7659511

  19. Measuring the Information Content of Written Materials in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battista, Michael

    The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a new method for measuring the subjective information of written materials in mathematics. In order to support the theoretical validity of the new measure, the study provided a derivation of the measure from Shannon's original information formula. Then the measure was used to measure the…

  20. Defining and Measuring Student Competencies: A Content Validation Approach for Business Program Outcome Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Michael T.; Carnes, Lana W.; Vice, Janna P.

    2002-01-01

    Points out problems in assessing student learning outcomes. Outlines a content validation approach to outcomes assessment and suggests steps for defining the content domains and developing and adopting measures. (Contains 28 references.) (SK)

  1. Identification of modulators of autophagic flux in an image-based high content siRNA screen.

    PubMed

    Hale, Christopher M; Cheng, Qingwen; Ortuno, Danny; Huang, Ming; Nojima, Dana; Kassner, Paul D; Wang, Songli; Ollmann, Michael M; Carlisle, Holly J

    2016-04-01

    Autophagy is the primary process for recycling cellular constituents through lysosomal degradation. In addition to nonselective autophagic engulfment of cytoplasm, autophagosomes can recognize specific cargo by interacting with ubiquitin-binding autophagy receptors such as SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1). This selective form of autophagy is important for degrading aggregation-prone proteins prominent in many neurodegenerative diseases. We carried out a high content image-based siRNA screen (4 to 8 siRNA per gene) for modulators of autophagic flux by monitoring fluorescence of GFP-SQSTM1 as well as colocalization of GFP-SQSTM1 with LAMP2 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2)-positive lysosomal vesicles. GFP-SQSTM1 and LAMP2 phenotypes of primary screen hits were confirmed in 2 cell types and profiled with image-based viability and MTOR signaling assays. Common seed analysis guided siRNA selection for these assays to reduce bias toward off-target effects. Confirmed hits were further validated in a live-cell assay to monitor fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. Knockdown of 10 targets resulted in phenotypic profiles across multiple assays that were consistent with upregulation of autophagic flux. These hits include modulators of transcription, lysine acetylation, and ubiquitination. Two targets, KAT8 (K[lysine] acetyltransferase 8) and CSNK1A1 (casein kinase 1, α 1), have been implicated in autophagic regulatory feedback loops. We confirmed that CSNK1A1 knockout (KO) cell lines have accelerated turnover of long-lived proteins labeled with (14)C-leucine in a pulse-chase assay as additional validation of our screening assays. Data from this comprehensive autophagy screen point toward novel regulatory pathways that might yield new therapeutic targets for neurodegeneration. PMID:27050463

  2. MEASUREMENT OF BALE MOISTURE CONTENT BASED ON BALE COMPRESSION PRESSURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper control of the moisture content (mc) of ginned lint in commercial gins requires accurate moisture sensors. A microprocessor-based system that predicted the mc of lint in the bale based on the bale press geometry and the hydraulic pressure required to form the bale was installed in a new gin ...

  3. Study on fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt using Vis/NIR spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Feng, Shuijuan; Wu, Di; Li, Xiaoli

    2006-09-01

    In order to measuring the sugar content of yogurt rapidly, a fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt using Vis/NIR-spectroscopy techniques was established. 25 samples selected separately from five different brands of yogurt were measured by Vis/NIR-spectroscopy. The sugar content of yogurt on positions scanned by spectrum were measured by a sugar content meter. The mathematical model between sugar content and Vis/NIR spectral measurements was established and developed based on partial least squares (PLS). The correlation coefficient of sugar content based on PLS model is more than 0.894, and standard error of calibration (SEC) is 0.356, standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.389. Through predicting the sugar content quantitatively of 35 samples of yogurt from 5 different brands, the correlation coefficient between predictive value and measured value of those samples is more than 0.934. The results show the good to excellent prediction performance. The Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique had significantly greater accuracy for determining the sugar content. It was concluded that the Vis/NIRS measurement technique seems reliable to assess the fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt, and a new method for the measurement of sugar content of yogurt was established.

  4. Platelets confound the measurement of extracellular miRNA in archived plasma.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Adam J; Gray, Warren D; Hayek, Salim S; Ko, Yi-An; Thomas, Sheena; Rooney, Kim; Awad, Mosaab; Roback, John D; Quyyumi, Arshed; Searles, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular miRNAs are detectable in biofluids and represent a novel class of disease biomarker. Although many studies have utilized archived plasma for miRNA biomarker discovery, the effects of processing and storage have not been rigorously studied. Previous reports have suggested plasma samples are commonly contaminated by platelets, significantly confounding the measurement of extracellular miRNA, which was thought to be easily addressed by additional post-thaw plasma processing. In a case-control study of archived plasma, we noted a significant correlation between miRNA levels and platelet counts despite post-thaw processing. We thus examined the effects of a single freeze/thaw cycle on microparticles (MPs) and miRNA levels, and show that a single freeze/thaw cycle of plasma dramatically increases the number of platelet-derived MPs, contaminates the extracellular miRNA pool, and profoundly affects the levels of miRNAs detected. The measurement of extracellular miRNAs in archived samples is critically dependent on the removal of residual platelets prior to freezing plasma samples. Many previous clinical studies of extracellular miRNA in archived plasma should be interpreted with caution and future studies should avoid the effects of platelet contamination. PMID:27623086

  5. Post-synthetic Spin-Labeling of RNA through Click Chemistry for PELDOR Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kerzhner, Mark; Abdullin, Dinar; Więcek, Jennifer; Matsuoka, Hideto; Hagelueken, Gregor; Schiemann, Olav; Famulok, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Site-directed spin labeling of RNA based on click chemistry is used in combination with pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) to benchmark a nitroxide spin label, called here dŲ. We compare this approach with another established method that employs the rigid spin label Çm for RNA labeling. By using CD spectroscopy, thermal denaturation measurements, CW-EPR as well as PELDOR we analyzed and compared the influence of dŲ and Çm on a self-complementary RNA duplex. Our results demonstrate that the conformational diversity of dŲ is significantly reduced near the freezing temperature of a phosphate buffer, resulting in strongly orientation-selective PELDOR time traces of the dŲ-labeled RNA duplex. PMID:27412453

  6. Characterizing a novel and sensitive method to measure dsRNA in soil.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Joshua R; Zapata, Fatima; Dubelman, Samuel; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Jensen, Peter D; Levine, Steven L

    2016-10-01

    Performing environmental assessments for double-stranded RNA-based agricultural products require the development of sensitive and selective methods to measure biodegradation rates of dsRNAs. We developed and characterized a novel analytical procedure that uses a molecular hybridization assay (QuantiGene(®)) to accurately measure dsRNA extracted from diverse soils. In this report, we utilize this method to demonstrate that two dsRNAs with distinct size, structure, and sequence degrade rapidly in soil with indistinguishable kinetics. PMID:27441991

  7. A novel strategy for the identification of genomic islands by comparative analysis of the contents and contexts of tRNA sites in closely related bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ou, Hong-Yu; Chen, Ling-Ling; Lonnen, James; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Thani, Ali Bin; Smith, Rebecca; Garton, Natalie J; Hinton, Jay; Pallen, Mark; Barer, Michael R; Rajakumar, Kumar

    2006-01-01

    We devised software tools to systematically investigate the contents and contexts of bacterial tRNA and tmRNA genes, which are known insertion hotspots for genomic islands (GIs). The strategy, based on MAUVE-facilitated multigenome comparisons, was used to examine 87 Escherichia coli MG1655 tRNA and tmRNA genes and their orthologues in E.coli EDL933, E.coli CFT073 and Shigella flexneri Sf301. Our approach identified 49 GIs occupying approximately 1.7 Mb that mapped to 18 tRNA genes, missing 2 but identifying a further 30 GIs as compared with Islander [Y. Mantri and K. P. Williams (2004), Nucleic Acids Res., 32, D55-D58]. All these GIs had many strain-specific CDS, anomalous GC contents and/or significant dinucleotide biases, consistent with foreign origins. Our analysis demonstrated marked conservation of sequences flanking both empty tRNA sites and tRNA-associated GIs across all four genomes. Remarkably, there were only 2 upstream and 5 downstream deletions adjacent to the 328 loci investigated. In silico PCR analysis based on conserved flanking regions was also used to interrogate hotspots in another eight completely or partially sequenced E.coli and Shigella genomes. The tools developed are ideal for the analysis of other bacterial species and will lead to in silico and experimental discovery of new genomic islands. PMID:16414954

  8. How to measure wisdom: content, reliability, and validity of five measures

    PubMed Central

    Glück, Judith; König, Susanne; Naschenweng, Katja; Redzanowski, Uwe; Dorner, Lara; Straßer, Irene; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom is a field of growing interest both inside and outside academic psychology, and researchers are increasingly interested in using measures of wisdom in their work. However, wisdom is a highly complex construct, and its various operationalizations are based on quite different definitions. Which measure a researcher chooses for a particular research project may have a strong influence on the results. This study compares four well-established measures of wisdom—the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (Webster, 2003, 2007), the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (Ardelt, 2003), the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory (Levenson et al., 2005), and the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm (Baltes and Smith, 1990; Baltes and Staudinger, 2000)—with respect to content, reliability, factorial structure, and construct validity (relationships to wisdom nomination, interview-based wisdom ratings, and correlates of wisdom). The sample consisted of 47 wisdom nominees and 123 control participants. While none of the measures performed “better” than the others by absolute standards, recommendations are given for researchers to select the most suitable measure for their substantive interests. In addition, a “Brief Wisdom Screening Scale” is introduced that contains those 20 items from the three self-report scales that were most highly correlated with the common factor across the scales. PMID:23874310

  9. Bone optical spectroscopy for the measurement of hemoglobin content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollmann, Joseph L.; Arambel, Paula; Piet, Judith; Shefelbine, Sandra; Markovic, Stacey; Niedre, Mark; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2014-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a common side effect of spinal cord injuries. Blood perfusion in the bone provides an indication of bone health and may help to evaluate therapies addressing bone loss. Current methods for measuring blood perfusion of bone use dyes and ionizing radiation, and yield qualitative results. We present a device capable of measuring blood oxygenation in the tibia. The device illuminates the skin directly over the tibia with a white light source and measures the diffusely reflected light in the near infrared spectrum. Multiple source-detector distances are utilized so that the blood perfusion in skin and bone may be differentiated.

  10. Collimated neutron probe for soil water content measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klenke, J.M.; Flint, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    A collimated neutron probe was designed to enable mesurements in specific directions from the access tube. To determine the size and shape of soil volume affecting the neutron counts, experiments were conducted to evaluate: 1) the vertical distance of soil above and below the probe that influences neutron counts; 2) the horizontal distance away from the probe into the soil that influences neutron counts; 3) the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator; and 4) the three-dimensional thermal-neutron density field. The vertical distance was ~0.5m, the horizontal distance was ~0.2m, and the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator was ~120??. Thermal neutrons detected from distances or angles larger than these values influence the determination of relative water content by 5% or less. -from Authors

  11. Simultaneous measurements of plant structure and chlorophyll content in broadleaf saplings with a terrestrial laser scanner

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant structure and chlorophyll content strongly affect rates of photosynthesis. Rapid, objective, and repeatable methods are needed to measure these vegetative parameters to advance our understanding and modeling of plant ecophysiological processes. Terrestrial scanners (TLS) can be used to measure...

  12. NONDESTRUCTIVE MEASUREMENT OF MOISTURE CONTENT USING A PARALLEL-PLATE CAPACITANCE SENSOR FOR GRAIN AND NUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, low cost instrument that measures impedance and phase angle was used along with a parallel-plate capacitance system to estimate the moisture content (MC) of in-shell peanuts and yellow field corn. Moisture content of the field crops is important and is measured at various stages of their ...

  13. A Theory of the Measurement of Knowledge Content, Access, and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirolli, Peter; Wilson, Mark

    1998-01-01

    An approach to the measurement of knowledge content, knowledge access, and knowledge learning is developed. First a theoretical view of cognition is described, and then a class of measurement models, based on Rasch modeling, is presented. Knowledge access and content are viewed as determining the observable actions selected by an agent to achieve…

  14. Feasibility of measuring soil moisture content using the inelastic neutron scattering (INS) carbon analyzer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of soil carbon (C) and moisture contents is vital for crop and soil management. Current techniques for measuring these components require independent techniques that could be labor intensive and time consuming. The prospect of simultaneously measuring the soil C and moisture content in rea...

  15. Fiber moisture content measurements of lint and seed cotton by a small microwave instrument

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The timely and accurate measurement of cotton fiber moisture content is important, as deviations in moisture fiber content can impact the fiber quality and processing of cotton fiber. The Mesdan Aqualab is a small, modular, microwave-based fiber moisture measurement instrument for samples with mode...

  16. A Simple Experiment To Measure the Content of Oxygen in the Air Using Heated Steel Wool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Francisco; Rivera, Rodrigo; Nunez, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    The typical experiment to measure the oxygen content in the atmosphere uses the rusting of steel wool inside a closed volume of air. Two key aspects of this experiment that make possible a successful measurement of the content of oxygen in the air are the use of a closed atmosphere and the use of a chemical reaction that involves the oxidation of…

  17. Artificial miRNA-mediated down-regulation of two monolignoid biosynthetic genes (C3H and F5H) cause reduction in lignin content in jute.

    PubMed

    Shafrin, Farhana; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Khan, Haseena

    2015-11-01

    Artificial microRNAs (amiRNA) provide a new feature in the gene silencing era. Concomitantly, reducing the amount of lignin in fiber-yielding plants such as jute holds significant commercial and environmental potential, since this amount is inversely proportional to the quality of the fiber. The present study aimed at reducing the lignin content in jute, by introducing amiRNA based vectors for down-regulation of two monolignoid biosynthetic genes of jute, coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) and ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H). The transgenic lines of F5H-amiRNA and C3H-amiRNA showed a reduced level of gene expression, which resulted in about 25% reduction in acid insoluble lignin content for whole stem and 12-15% reduction in fiber lignin as compared to the non-transgenic plants. The results indicate successful F5H-amiRNA and C3H-amiRNA transgenesis for lignin reduction in jute. This is likely to have far-reaching commercial implications and economic acceleration for jute producing countries. PMID:26453352

  18. Study of E. coli Hfq’s RNA annealing acceleration and duplex destabilization activities using substrates with different GC-contents

    PubMed Central

    Doetsch, Martina; Stampfl, Sabine; Fürtig, Boris; Beich-Frandsen, Mads; Saxena, Krishna; Lybecker, Meghan; Schroeder, Renée

    2013-01-01

    Folding of RNA molecules into their functional three-dimensional structures is often supported by RNA chaperones, some of which can catalyse the two elementary reactions helix disruption and helix formation. Hfq is one such RNA chaperone, but its strand displacement activity is controversial. Whereas some groups found Hfq to destabilize secondary structures, others did not observe such an activity with their RNA substrates. We studied Hfq’s activities using a set of short RNAs of different thermodynamic stabilities (GC-contents from 4.8% to 61.9%), but constant length. We show that Hfq’s strand displacement as well as its annealing activity are strongly dependent on the substrate’s GC-content. However, this is due to Hfq’s preferred binding of AU-rich sequences and not to the substrate’s thermodynamic stability. Importantly, Hfq catalyses both annealing and strand displacement with comparable rates for different substrates, hinting at RNA strand diffusion and annealing nucleation being rate-limiting for both reactions. Hfq’s strand displacement activity is a result of the thermodynamic destabilization of the RNA through preferred single-strand binding whereas annealing acceleration is independent from Hfq’s thermodynamic influence. Therefore, the two apparently disparate activities annealing acceleration and duplex destabilization are not in energetic conflict with each other. PMID:23104381

  19. The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements ofwood chips

    SciTech Connect

    Barale, P.J.; Fong, C.G.; Green, M.A.; Luft, P.A.; McInturff,A.D.; Reimer, J.A.; Yahnke, M.

    2001-09-20

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed a device that measures the water content of wood chips, pulp and brown stock for the paper industry. This device employs a permanent magnet as the central part of a NMR measurement system. This report describes the magnet and the NMR measurement system. The results of water content measurements in wood chips in a magnetic field of 0.47 T are presented.

  20. On the Information Content of the Results of Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batura, N. I.

    2016-03-01

    Based on the introduced measure of experimental information, an approach is suggested that simplifies the planning of an experiment, as well as the processing and interpretation of its results. The approach considered is quite universal and can be used in experimental investigation of a wide range of processes (phenomena) described by linear (relative to the parameters investigated) models. The results of numerical calculation that illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach are presented. The calculation is carried out with the aid of the example of solving a model problem of processing the results of nonstationary temperature measurements.

  1. [Functional changes in the chromatophilic substance and RNA content of the cytoplasm of sympathetic neurons in the presence of synaptic transmission disorders].

    PubMed

    Gorelikov, P L

    1981-07-01

    At a disturbed synaptic transmission in the rabbit cranial sympathetic cervical ganglion in histological sections stained with gallocyanin chrome alum, distribution of the chromatophilic substance was studied, and in the same sections RNA content was determined cytophotometrically. In ganglia of intact animals three groups of neurons with various structure of the chromatophilic substance were defined and their quantitative relation was stated. After administration of various doses of the ganglio-blockader, there was an essential difference in the changes of the chromatophilic substance, but they were unitypical in mono- and double-nuclear neurons. In the same cells, the synaptic blockade produced a rather great increase in the content of the cytoplasmic RNA. Comparing the quantitative data with the visual observation results, a conclusion was made that it is not reliable to use any changes in the chromatophilic substance as a criterium on quantitative shifts in the neuronal RNA and for the morphological test of the neuronal functional activity. PMID:6170279

  2. Apparatus automatically measures soluble residue content of volatile solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswalt, F. W.

    1969-01-01

    Solvent Purity Meter /SPM/ automatically measures the soluble residue in volatile solvents used in cleaning or extraction of oils, greases, and other nonvolatile materials. The SPM gives instantaneous and continuous readout of soluble contaminant residues in concentrations as low as one part per million of solution.

  3. Reduction of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Content by Antisense RNA Reduces Photosynthesis in Transgenic Tobacco Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Graham S.; Evans, John R.; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Arvidsson, Yvonne B. C.; Andrews, T. John

    1992-01-01

    A complementary DNA for the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was cloned from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and fused in the antisense orientation to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. This antisense gene was introduced into the tobacco genome, and the resulting transgenic plants were analyzed to assess the effect of the antisense RNA on Rubisco activity and photosynthesis. The mean content of extractable Rubisco activity from the leaves of 10 antisense plants was 18% of the mean level of activity of control plants. The soluble protein content of the leaves of anti-small subunit plants was reduced by the amount equivalent to the reduction in Rubisco. There was little change in phosphoribulokinase activity, electron transport, and chlorophyll content, indicating that the loss of Rubisco did not affect these other components of photosynthesis. However, there was a significant reduction in carbonic anhydrase activity. The rate of CO2 assimilation measured at 1000 micromoles quanta per square meter per second, 350 microbars CO2, and 25°C was reduced by 63% (mean value) in the antisense plants and was limited by Rubisco activity over a wide range of intercellular CO2 partial pressures (pi). In control leaves, Rubisco activity only limited the rate of CO2 assimilation below a pi of 400 microbars. Despite the decrease in photosynthesis, there was no reduction in stomatal conductance in the antisense plants, and the stomata still responded to changes in pi. The unchanged conductance and lower CO2 assimilation resulted in a higher pi, which was reflected in greater carbon isotope discrimination in the leaves of the antisense plants. These results suggest that stomatal function is independent of total leaf Rubisco activity. PMID:16668627

  4. Reduction of drosopterin content caused by a 45-nt insertion in Henna pre-mRNA of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhao, Chunjiang; Bai, Lihua; Deng, Xuemei; Wu, Changxin

    2008-08-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase is assumed to be a key enzyme in drosopterin metabolism, but direct in vivo evidence to support this hypothesis is still absent. In the present study, we found a new natural recessive purple eye mutant of Drosophila melanogaster, Hn ( bp ), which was a 45-nt insertion mutant in the second exon of Henna. The insertion resulted in a predicted protein with 15 additional amino acids as compared to the wild-type protein. Further analysis of protein structure showed that the predicted mutant protein probably had two more beta-sheets, which may cause instability of two alpha-helices near the catalytic centre of the enzyme in the Biopterin-Hydroxyl binding domain. Hn ( bp ) mutant showed eye color defect with decrease of mRNA level, as well as drosopterin content reduction. The drosopterin defect could be fully rescued by expression of wild type Henna in the Hn ( bp ) background by GMR-GAL4 UAS-Henna/UAS-Henna:Hn ( bp )/Hn ( bp ) transgenic line. All taken together, it can be concluded that the mutation in Henna is responsible for drosopterin reduction in mutant Hn ( bp ), which provides key in vivo evidence to support the hypothesis that Henna is involved in drosopterin synthesis. PMID:18677598

  5. Developing Respondent Based Multi-Media Measures of Exposure to Sexual Content

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Hennessy, Michal; Jordan, Amy; Chernin, Ariel; Stevens, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Despite the interest in the effects of the media on sexual behavior, there is no single method for assessing exposure to a particular type of media content (e.g., sex). This paper discusses the development of six sexual content exposure measures based on adolescents’ own subjective ratings of the sexual content in titles in 4 media (i.e., television, music, magazines, videogames). We assessed the construct and criterion validity of these measures by examining the associations among each of these measures of exposure to sexual content as well as their associations with adolescents’ sexual activity. Data were collected in summer 2005 through a web-based survey using a quota sample of 547 youth aged 14–16 from the Philadelphia area. Adolescents rated how often they were exposed to specific television shows, magazine titles, etc. on 4-point never to often scales. They also rated the sexual content of those titles on 4-point no sexual content to a lot of sexual content scales. Sexual behavior was measured using an ordered index of lifetime pre-coital and coital sexual activity. The strength of association between exposure to sexual content and sexual activity varied by medium and measure. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of a multiple media weighted sum measure. This measure produces findings that are consistent with those of similar studies. PMID:20411048

  6. A concise, content valid, gender invariant measure of workplace incivility.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Russell A; Ritter, Kelsey-Jo

    2016-07-01

    The authors present a short, valid, gender invariant measure of workplace incivility that should have a high degree of utility in a variety of research designs, especially those concerned with reducing participant burden such as experience sampling and multiwave longitudinal designs. Given ongoing concerns about the psychometric properties of workplace mistreatment constructs, they validated a 4-item measure of experienced incivility based on series of 3 independent field studies (N = 2,636). In addition to retaining items on the basis of employee rated conceptual alignment (i.e., judgmental criteria) with a standard incivility definition (i.e., ambiguous intent to harm), items were also chosen based on external criteria in terms of their ability to explain incremental variance in outcomes of interest (e.g., role overload, interpersonal deviance). Items with large systematic relationships with other mistreatment constructs (i.e., abusive supervision, supervisor undermining) were excluded. In turn, the authors demonstrated that the 4-item measure is gender invariant, a critical issue that has received limited attention in the literature to date. They also experimentally investigated the effect of recall window (2 weeks, 1 month, 1 year) and found a differential pattern of effect sizes for various outcomes of interest. A fourth independent field study was conducted as a practical application of the measure within a longitudinal framework. An autoregressive model examining experienced incivility and counterproductive work behaviors was tested. Data was collected from a sample of 278 respondents at 3 time points with 1 month between assessments. Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26569134

  7. Measuring the Dark Matter Content of Galaxies with SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixel, Alex; Sellwood, Jerry; Mitchell, Carl

    2016-01-01

    In order to test the predictions of galaxy formation models, we seek to measure the detailed dark matter distributions of spiral galaxies. The best way to accomplish this is through measurements of the Doppler shift of the Hα line, through which we can produce detailed velocity maps and rotational models of a galaxy. Since the gas flows in rough centrifugal balance, we can use the rotational models to estimate the central gravitational attraction and therefore the mass distribution. As an example, we present a rotational velocity model fitted to an Hα velocity map of the spiral galaxy NGC 908, and find that the fitted systemic velocity gives good agreement with previous measurements in the literature. In the future, this method can be used to determine the rotation curves of the nineteen nearby galaxies for which we have or plan to collect interferometric data; we are currently working to produce similar results for the galaxy NGC 7606.This research has been supported by NSF grant PHY-1263280.

  8. PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

    2012-06-05

    For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

  9. Determining the Influence of Soil Water Content Variability on GPR Measurements with Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Jens S.; Wollschläger, Ute; Schneider, Stefan; Roth, Kurt

    2010-05-01

    Soil water content in the vadose zone is a key quantity in the hydrological cycle. Atmospheric forcing and soil textural heterogeneity may lead to a high temporal and spatial variability of the soil water content. Due to the large difference between the dielectric permittivity of water and the further soil constituents soil matrix and air, soil water content can be observed using electromagnetic methods. GPR has become a widely used non-invasive method to investigate soil water content dynamics at scales ranging between a few meters and a few kilometers. In this study, the influence of soil water content variability on the GPR wave field is investigated quantitatively. We consider a two-dimensional model of a measurement site. Transient water content dynamics are simulated by numerical solutions of Richard's equation using rainfall measurements as atmospheric forcing. The resulting water content profiles are transformed into dielectric permittivity profiles by invoking the CRIM formula. For representative states of the permittivity distributions, GPR measurements are simulated numerically by solving Maxwell's equations. We show the effects on the GPR measurements for these states and for specific features of the water content distribution, for instance sharp infiltration fronts. In addition, we discuss the impact of the often made simplified assumption of a homogeneous permittivity distribution and the necessity to account for spatial soil water content variability in GPR evaluations.

  10. Effect of monaural and binaural stimulation on cytoplasmic RNA content in cells of the central nucleus of the cat inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Shmigidina, G N

    1981-01-01

    A cytophotometric study of sections stained with gallocyanin and chrome alum showed that monaural stimulation for 2 h and binaural stimulation for 1.5 h with rhythmic noise signals led to a marked increase in the cytoplasmic RNA content per cell in the principal and large multipolar neurons of the dorsal and ventral parts of the ventrolateral region of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. The increase in cytoplasmic RNA content in the principal cells of the ipsi- and contralateral parts of this nucleus relative to the stimulated ear in the case of monaural stimulation and the increase in RNA content in response to binaural stimulation suggests a uniform distribution of bilaterally converging connections from the lower nuclei of the auditory system on the principal cells. The increase in cytoplasmic RNA in the large multipolar cells of the contralateral central nucleus in response to monaural stimulation is evidence of the predominantly contralateral projection to these cells. The results are evidence of convergence of binaural influences on the principal and large multipolar cells of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. PMID:6173796

  11. The content of DNA and RNA in microparticles released by Jurkat and HL-60 cells undergoing in vitro apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, Charles F.; Pisetsky, David S.

    2009-03-10

    Microparticles are small membrane-bound vesicles that are released from apoptotic cells during blebbing. These particles contain DNA and RNA and display important functional activities, including immune system activation. Furthermore, nucleic acids inside the particle can be analyzed as biomarkers in a variety of disease states. To elucidate the nature of microparticle nucleic acids, DNA and RNA released in microparticles from the Jurkat T and HL-60 promyelocytic cell lines undergoing apoptosis in vitro were studied. Microparticles were isolated from culture media by differential centrifugation and characterized by flow cytometry and molecular approaches. In these particles, DNA showed laddering by gel electrophoresis and was present in a form that allowed direct binding by a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody, suggesting antigen accessibility even without fixation. Analysis of RNA by gel electrophoresis showed intact 18s and 28s ribosomal RNA bands, although lower molecular bands consistent with 28s ribosomal RNA degradation products were also present. Particles also contained messenger RNA as shown by RT-PCR amplification of sequences for {beta}-actin and GAPDH. In addition, gel electrophoresis showed the presence of low molecular weight RNA in the size range of microRNA. Together, these results indicate that microparticles from apoptotic Jurkat and HL-60 cells contain diverse nucleic acid species, indicating translocation of both nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA and RNA as particle release occurs during death.

  12. Field tests of a down-hole TDR profiling water content measurement system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate soil profile water content monitoring at multiple depths has previously been possible only using the neutron probe (NP), but with great effort and at unsatisfactory intervals. Despite the existence of several capacitance systems for profile water content measurements, accuracy and spatial r...

  13. COMPARING MOISTURE METER READINGS WITH MEASURED EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT OF GYPSUM BOARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Moisture meters routinely used in the field to determine the moisture content in gypsum wallboard are primarily designed and manufactured to measure the moisture content of wood. Often they are used to decide whether to replace wallboard by determining if moisture is qualitativel...

  14. Synergy between NMR measurements and MD simulations of protein/RNA complexes: application to the RRMs, the most common RNA recognition motifs.

    PubMed

    Krepl, Miroslav; Cléry, Antoine; Blatter, Markus; Allain, Frederic H T; Sponer, Jiri

    2016-07-27

    RNA recognition motif (RRM) proteins represent an abundant class of proteins playing key roles in RNA biology. We present a joint atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) and experimental study of two RRM-containing proteins bound with their single-stranded target RNAs, namely the Fox-1 and SRSF1 complexes. The simulations are used in conjunction with NMR spectroscopy to interpret and expand the available structural data. We accumulate more than 50 μs of simulations and show that the MD method is robust enough to reliably describe the structural dynamics of the RRM-RNA complexes. The simulations predict unanticipated specific participation of Arg142 at the protein-RNA interface of the SRFS1 complex, which is subsequently confirmed by NMR and ITC measurements. Several segments of the protein-RNA interface may involve competition between dynamical local substates rather than firmly formed interactions, which is indirectly consistent with the primary NMR data. We demonstrate that the simulations can be used to interpret the NMR atomistic models and can provide qualified predictions. Finally, we propose a protocol for 'MD-adapted structure ensemble' as a way to integrate the simulation predictions and expand upon the deposited NMR structures. Unbiased μs-scale atomistic MD could become a technique routinely complementing the NMR measurements of protein-RNA complexes. PMID:27193998

  15. Measurement of rRNA Variations in Natural Communities of Microorganisms on the Southeastern U.S. Continental Shelf †

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jonathan G.; Singleton, Fred L.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a clear understanding of the physiology of marine prokaryotes is complicated by the difficulties inherent in resolving the activity of various components of natural microbial communities. Application of appropriate molecular biological techniques offers a means of overcoming some of these problems. In this regard, we have used direct probing of bulk RNA purified from selective size fractions to examine variations in the rRNA content of heterotrophic communities and Synechococcus populations on the southeastern U.S. continental shelf. Heterotrophic communities in natural seawater cultures amended with selected substrates were examined. Synechococcus populations were isolated from the water column by differential filtration. The total cellular rRNA content of the target populations was assayed by probing RNA purified from these samples with an oligonucleotide complementing a universally conserved region in the eubacterial 16S rRNA (heterotrophs) or with a 1.5-kbp fragment encoding the Synechococcus sp. strain WH 7803 16S rRNA (cyanobacteria). The analyses revealed that heterotrophic bacteria responded to the addition of glucose and trace nutrients after a 6-h lag period. However, no response was detected after amino acids were added. The cellular rRNA content increased 48-fold before dropping to a value 20 times that detected before nutrients were added. Variations in the rRNA content from Synechococcus spp. followed a distinct diel pattern imposed by the phasing of cell division within the irradiance cycle. The results indicate that careful application of these appropriate molecular biological techniques can be of great use in discerning basic physiological characteristics of selected natural populations and the mechanisms which regulate growth at the subcellular level. Images PMID:16349009

  16. Retro-orbital blood acquisition facilitates circulating microRNA measurement in zebrafish with paracetamol hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Vliegenthart, A D B; Lewis, P Starkey; Tucker, C S; Del Pozo, J; Rider, S; Antoine, D J; Dubost, V; Westphal, M; Moulin, P; Bailey, M A; Moggs, J G; Goldring, C E; Park, B K; Dear, J W

    2014-01-01

    Paracetamol is the commonest cause of acute liver failure in the Western world and biomarkers are needed that report early hepatotoxicity. The liver enriched microRNA, miR-122, is a promising biomarker currently being qualified in humans. For biomarker development and drug toxicity screening the zebrafish has advantages over rodents, however, blood acquisition in this model remains technically challenging. We developed a method for collecting blood from the adult zebrafish by retro-orbital (RO) bleeding and compared it to the commonly used ‘lateral incision’ (LI) method. The RO technique was more reliable in terms of the blood yield and minimum amount per fish. This new RO technique was used in a zebrafish model of paracetamol toxicity. Paracetamol induced dose-dependent increases in liver cell necrosis, serum ALT activity and mortality. In situ hybridization localised expression of miR-122 to the cytoplasm of zebrafish hepatocytes. After collection by RO bleeding, serum miR-122 could be measured and this microRNA was substantially increased by paracetamol 24 hours after exposure, an increase that was prevented by delayed (3 hours post start of paracetamol exposure) treatment with acetylcysteine. In summary, collection of blood by RO bleeding facilitated measurement of miR-122 in a zebrafish model of paracetamol hepatotoxicity. The zebrafish represents a new species for measurement of circulating microRNA biomarkers that are translational and can bridge between fish and humans. PMID:24625211

  17. Design and Testing of an Instrument to Measure Equilibrium Moisture Content of Grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two instruments to measure the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of grain were designed and tested under different grain conditions to determine their measurement time and their suitability for quick spot measurements. An initial prototype was tested and information was used to refine a second prot...

  18. The Chloroplast Genome of Pellia endiviifolia: Gene Content, RNA-Editing Pattern, and the Origin of Chloroplast Editing

    PubMed Central

    Grosche, Christopher; Funk, Helena T.; Maier, Uwe G.; Zauner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that can act upon transcripts from mitochondrial, nuclear, and chloroplast genomes. In chloroplasts, single-nucleotide conversions in mRNAs via RNA editing occur at different frequencies across the plant kingdom. These range from several hundred edited sites in some mosses and ferns to lower frequencies in seed plants and the complete lack of RNA editing in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Here, we report the sequence and edited sites of the chloroplast genome from the liverwort Pellia endiviifolia. The type and frequency of chloroplast RNA editing display a pattern highly similar to that in seed plants. Analyses of the C to U conversions and the genomic context in which the editing sites are embedded provide evidence in favor of the hypothesis that chloroplast RNA editing evolved to compensate mutations in the first land plants. PMID:23221608

  19. Outdoor, indoor, and human breath content measurements of ammonia by tunable diode laser spectroscopy technique

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, C.L.; Nadezhdinskii, A.I.

    1996-12-31

    Trace contents of ammonia in outdoor, indoor and exhaled air were measured on the base of high resolution absorption spectra. Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) system developed for this purpose possesses: {approximately}one second time constant, {approximately}200 cm{sup 3} sample volume, 5 ppb-sensitivity. The calibration of unit was based on measurements of relative intensities of sQ(3,1){hor_ellipsis}sQ(3,3) absorption lines of {nu}{sub 2S} and following calculation on the base of a priori data on strength and broadening coefficients of detected lines. Measured indoor contents (20--50 ppb) of ammonia was in 5--10 times higher than outdoor contents ({approximately}5 ppb). Approximately two times drop in NH{sub 3} room content after 6 p.m. was detected. Obtained behavior of ammonia content in respiration right after the smoking demonstrates that the removing of ammonia from lungs has the ventilation character. Measured contents of NH{sub 3} in human respiration was ranged between 120 and 220 ppb. The absence of ammonia content differences from respiration of smoking and non-smoking persons demonstrates that the accumulation of NH{sub 3} by humans seems to be rather negligible for a short time exposure, e.g., like smoking.

  20. Outdoor, indoor, and human breath content measurements of ammonia by tunable diode laser spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, Konstantin L.; Nadezhdinskii, Alexander I.

    1996-10-01

    Trace contents of ammonia in outdoor, indoor and exhaled air were measured on the base of high resolution absorption spectra. Tunable diode laser system developed for this purpose possesses approximately one second time constant, approximately 200 cm3 sample volume, 5 ppb sensitivity. The calibration of unit was based on measurements of relative intensities of sQ(3,1)...sQ(3,3) absorption lines of v2s and following calculation on the base of a priori data on strength and broadening coefficients of detected lines. Measured indoor contents of ammonia was in 5-10 times higher than outdoor contents. Approximately two times drop in NH3 room content after 6 p.m. was detected. Obtained behavior of ammonia content in respiration right after the smoking demonstrates that the removing of ammonia from lungs has the ventilation character. Measured contents of NH3 in human respiration was ranged between 120 and 220 ppb. The absence of ammonia content differences from respiration of smoking and non smoking persons demonstrates that the accumulation of NH3 by human organism seems to be rather negligible for a short time exposure, e.g. like smoking.

  1. Balancing Cationic and Hydrophobic Content of PEGylated siRNA Polyplexes Enhances Endosome Escape, Stability, Blood Circulation Time, and Bioactivity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Ann; Shannon, Joshua M.; Gupta, Mukesh K.; Duvall, Craig L.

    2013-01-01

    A family of pH-responsive diblock polymers composed of poly[(ethylene glycol)–b-[(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-co-(butyl methacrylate)] PEG-(DMAEMA-co-BMA) was reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) synthesized with 0-75 mole% BMA in the second polymer block. The relative mole% of DMAEMA and BMA was varied in order to identify a polymer that can be used to formulate PEGylated, siRNA-loaded polyplex nanoparticles (NPs) with an optimized balance of cationic and hydrophobic content in the NP core based on siRNA packaging, cytocompatibility, blood circulation half-life, endosomal escape, and in vivo bioactivity. The polymer with 50:50 mole% of DMAEMA:BMA (polymer “50B”) in the RAFT-polymerized block efficiently condensed siRNA into 100-nm NPs that displayed pH-dependent membrane disruptive behavior finely tuned for endosomal escape. In vitro delivery of siRNA with polymer 50B produced up to 94% protein-level knockdown of the model gene luciferase. The PEG corona of the NPs blocked nonspecific interactions with constituents of human whole blood, and the relative hydrophobicity of polymer 50B increased NP stability in the presence of human serum or the polyanion heparin. When injected intravenously, 50B NPs enhanced blood circulation half-life 3-fold relative to more standard PEG-DMAEMA (0B) NPs (p<0.05), due to improved stability and a reduced rate of renal clearance. The 50B NPs enhanced siRNA biodistribution to the liver and other organs and significantly increased gene silencing in the liver, kidneys, and spleen relative to the benchmark polymer 0B (p<0.05). These collective findings validate the functional significance of tuning the balance of cationic and hydrophobic content of polyplex NPs utilized for systemic siRNA delivery in vivo. PMID:24041122

  2. Comparison of sodium content of workplace and homemade meals through chemical analysis and salinity measurements

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Most Koreans consume nearly 70-80% of the total sodium through their dishes. The use of a salinometer to measure salinity is recommended to help individuals control their sodium intake. The purpose of this study was to compare sodium content through chemical analysis and salinity measurement in foods served by industry foodservice operations and homemade meals. MATERIALS/METHODS Workplace and homemade meals consumed by employees in 15 cafeterias located in 8 districts in Daegu were collected and the sodium content was measured through chemical analysis and salinity measurements and then compared. The foods were categorized into 9 types of menus with 103 workplace meals and 337 homemade meals. RESULTS Workplace meals did not differ significantly in terms of sodium content per 100 g of food but had higher sodium content via chemical analysis in roasted foods per portion. Homemade meals had higher broth salt content and higher salt content by chemical analysis per 100 g of roasted foods and hard-boiled foods. One-dish workplace meals had higher salinity (P < 0.05), while homemade broths and stews had higher sodium content (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). The sodium content per 100 g of foods was higher in one-dish workplace meals (P < 0.05) and in homemade broths and stews (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSIONS The use of a salinometer may be recommended to estimate the sodium content in foods and control one's sodium intake within the daily intake target as a way to promote cooking bland foods at home. However, estimated and actual measured values may differ. PMID:25324937

  3. Prototype Specifications and Measures for Content-Based Explanation Skills. Project 2.2: Alternative Approaches to Measuring School Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, Los Angeles, CA.

    A set of prototype measures has been developed to measure students' understanding of content areas. Although the starting point has been history, the project has explored the use of a common model for assessment in geography and science as well. These prototypes are intended to provide models for users with assessment requirements who do not have…

  4. The Shannon information content of hyperspectral shortwave cloud albedo measurements: Quantification and practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coddington, Odele; Pilewskie, Peter; Vukicevic, Tomislava

    2012-02-01

    The Shannon information content provides an objective measure of the information in a data set. In this paper, we quantify the information content of hyperspectral liquid water cloud measurements over a spectral range (300-2500 nm) representing approximately 95% of the total energy in the solar spectrum. We also use the Shannon information content to analyze the cloud retrieval wavelengths and weightings used by the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and to determine the cumulative information in the SSFR retrieval. These applications illustrate the utility of the Shannon information content in guiding the effective processing of hyperspectral data. Such efficiency is of growing importance considering the push toward spectrally resolved satellite measurements of reflected solar irradiance used to study climate.

  5. Measuring differences in preactivation on the Internet: the content category superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Eichstaedt, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Preactivation of particular content categories in memory yields latency differences in a visual recognition task. Two Internet studies demonstrate this content category superiority effect (CCSE). Target words are repeatedly flashed for 400 ms and then masked for 200 ms. Experiment 1 shows that differences in pre-activated memory content, related to participants' use of computer operating systems, influence z-scored visual word recognition latencies. Experiment 2 shows that this influence is susceptible to instruction. Participants expecting to find positive words recognized those words faster, whereas participants expecting to find negative words were faster on negative words. The CCSE provides a basis on which new measures of implicit memory content can be founded. Two such applications are discussed--the Motive Superiority Measure of implicit motives, and a latency-based measure of self-focused attention. PMID:12455334

  6. Unbinding forces and energies between a siRNA molecule and a dendrimer measured by force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dumitru, Andra C; Herruzo, Elena T; Rausell, Estrella; Ceña, Valentin; Garcia, Ricardo

    2015-12-21

    We have measured the intermolecular forces between small interference RNA (siRNA) and polyamidoamine dendrimers at the single molecular level. A single molecule force spectroscopy approach has been developed to measure the unbinding forces and energies between a siRNA molecule and polyamidoamine dendrimers deposited on a mica surface in a buffer solution. We report three types of unbinding events which are characterized by forces and free unbinding energies, respectively, of 28 pN, 0.709 eV; 38 pN, 0.722 eV; and 50 pN, 0.724 eV. These events reflect different possible electrostatic interactions between the positive charges of one or two dendrimers and the negatively charged phosphate groups of a single siRNA. We have evidence of a high binding affinity of siRNA towards polyamidoamine dendrimers that leads to a 45% probability of measuring specific unbinding events. PMID:26580848

  7. Unbinding forces and energies between a siRNA molecule and a dendrimer measured by force spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, Andra C.; Herruzo, Elena T.; Rausell, Estrella; Ceña, Valentin; Garcia, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    We have measured the intermolecular forces between small interference RNA (siRNA) and polyamidoamine dendrimers at the single molecular level. A single molecule force spectroscopy approach has been developed to measure the unbinding forces and energies between a siRNA molecule and polyamidoamine dendrimers deposited on a mica surface in a buffer solution. We report three types of unbinding events which are characterized by forces and free unbinding energies, respectively, of 28 pN, 0.709 eV; 38 pN, 0.722 eV; and 50 pN, 0.724 eV. These events reflect different possible electrostatic interactions between the positive charges of one or two dendrimers and the negatively charged phosphate groups of a single siRNA. We have evidence of a high binding affinity of siRNA towards polyamidoamine dendrimers that leads to a 45% probability of measuring specific unbinding events.

  8. Measuring cooperative Rev protein-protein interactions on Rev responsive RNA by fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    Vercruysse, Thomas; Pawar, Sonalika; De Borggraeve, Wim; Pardon, Els; Pavlakis, George N; Pannecouque, Christophe; Steyaert, Jan; Balzarini, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The export of viral RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of the cellular host is a crucial step in the life cycle of HIV-1 that is mediated by the viral Rev protein. One aspect of the Rev function, its multimerization, is still unexplored as a target for antiviral therapy. This is partly due to the lack of a fast and solid system to measure Rev multimerization. We have developed a high throughput in vitro Rev multimerization assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in which real-time Rev-Rev interactions can be measured both in the absence and the presence of Rev specific RRE RNA. Well-characterized Rev multimerization deficient mutants showed reduced FRET as well as unlabeled Rev molecules were able to inhibit the FRET signal demonstrating the specificity of the assay. Upon multimerization along RRE RNA the FRET signal significantly increased but dropped again at equimolar Rev/RRE ratios suggesting that in this condition most Rev molecules are bound as monomers to the RRE. Furthermore, using this assay, we demonstrate that a previously selected llama heavy-chain only antibody was shown to not only prevent the development of Rev multimers but also disassemble the already formed complexes confirming the dynamic nature of the Rev-Rev interactions. The in vitro FRET based multimerization assay facilitates the further study of the basic mechanism of cooperative Rev multimerization along the RRE and is also widely applicable to study the assembly of other functional complexes involving protein homo-multimerization or cooperative protein-protein interactions on RNA or DNA. PMID:21358282

  9. A New Route for Unburned Carbon Concentration Measurements Eliminating Mineral Content and Coal Rank Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Zhen; Yu, Hai-Tong

    2014-01-01

    500 million tons of coal fly ash are produced worldwide every year with only 16% of the total amount utilized. Therefore, potential applications using fly ash have both environmental and industrial interests. Unburned carbon concentration measurements are fundamental to effective fly ash applications. Current on-line measurement accuracies are strongly affected by the mineral content and coal rank. This paper describes a char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance method for unburned carbon concentration measurements. The char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance is predicted theoretically here for various unburned carbon concentrations to show that the measurements are sensitive to unburned carbon concentration but insensitive to the mineral content and coal rank at short wavelengths. The results show that the char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance method is a novel and promising route for unburned carbon concentration on-line measurements without being influenced by mineral content or coal rank effects. PMID:24691496

  10. Mode Content Determination of Terahertz Corrugated Waveguides Using Experimentally Measured Radiated Field Patterns.

    PubMed

    Jawla, Sudheer K; Nanni, Emilio A; Shapiro, Michael A; Woskov, Paul P; Temkin, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    This work focuses on the accuracy of the mode content measurements in an overmoded corrugated waveguide using measured radiated field patterns. Experimental results were obtained at 250 GHz using a vector network analyzer with over 70 dB of dynamic range. The intensity and phase profiles of the fields radiated from the end of the 19 mm diameter helically tapped brass waveguide were measured on planes at 7, 10, and 13 cm from the waveguide end. The measured fields were back propagated to the waveguide aperture to provide three independent estimates of the field at the waveguide exit aperture. Projecting that field onto the modes of the guide determined the waveguide mode content. The three independent mode content estimates were found to agree with one another to an accuracy of better than ±0.3%. These direct determinations of the mode content were compared with indirect measurements using the experimentally measured amplitude in three planes, with the phase determined by a phase retrieval algorithm. The phase retrieval technique using the planes at 7, 10, and 13 cm yielded a mode content estimate in excellent agreement, within 0.3%, of the direct measurements. Phase retrieval results using planes at 10, 20, and 30 cm were less accurate due to truncation of the measurement in the transverse plane. The reported measurements benefited greatly from a precise mechanical alignment of the scanner with respect to the waveguide axis. These results will help to understand the accuracy of mode content measurements made directly in cold test and indirectly in hot test using the phase retrieval technique. PMID:25264391

  11. Mode Content Determination of Terahertz Corrugated Waveguides Using Experimentally Measured Radiated Field Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jawla, Sudheer K.; Nanni, Emilio A.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Woskov, Paul P.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    This work focuses on the accuracy of the mode content measurements in an overmoded corrugated waveguide using measured radiated field patterns. Experimental results were obtained at 250 GHz using a vector network analyzer with over 70 dB of dynamic range. The intensity and phase profiles of the fields radiated from the end of the 19 mm diameter helically tapped brass waveguide were measured on planes at 7, 10, and 13 cm from the waveguide end. The measured fields were back propagated to the waveguide aperture to provide three independent estimates of the field at the waveguide exit aperture. Projecting that field onto the modes of the guide determined the waveguide mode content. The three independent mode content estimates were found to agree with one another to an accuracy of better than ±0.3%. These direct determinations of the mode content were compared with indirect measurements using the experimentally measured amplitude in three planes, with the phase determined by a phase retrieval algorithm. The phase retrieval technique using the planes at 7, 10, and 13 cm yielded a mode content estimate in excellent agreement, within 0.3%, of the direct measurements. Phase retrieval results using planes at 10, 20, and 30 cm were less accurate due to truncation of the measurement in the transverse plane. The reported measurements benefited greatly from a precise mechanical alignment of the scanner with respect to the waveguide axis. These results will help to understand the accuracy of mode content measurements made directly in cold test and indirectly in hot test using the phase retrieval technique. PMID:25264391

  12. Bacterial community composition in the gut content and ambient sediment of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Li, Fenghui; Tan, Jie; Yan, Jingping; Sun, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the bacterial communities in the contents of the foregut and hindgut of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and in the ambient surface sediment was surveyed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 188,623 optimized reads and 15,527 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the ten gut contents samples and four surface sediment samples. The sequences in the sediments, foregut contents, and hindgut contents were assigned to 38.0±4.7, 31.2±6.2 and 27.8±6.5 phyla, respectively. The bacterial richness and Shannon diversity index were both higher in the ambient sediments than in the gut contents. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both the gut contents and sediment samples. The predominant classes in the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment were Holophagae and Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, respectively. The potential probiotics, including sequences related to Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus) and Pseudomonas were detected in the gut of A. japonicus. Principle component analysis and heatmap figure showed that the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment respectively harbored different characteristic bacterial communities. Selective feeding of A. japonicus may be the primary source of the different bacterial communities between the foregut contents and ambient sediments. PMID:24967593

  13. Bacterial Community Composition in the Gut Content and Ambient Sediment of Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Li, Fenghui; Tan, Jie; Yan, Jingping; Sun, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the bacterial communities in the contents of the foregut and hindgut of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and in the ambient surface sediment was surveyed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 188,623 optimized reads and 15,527 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the ten gut contents samples and four surface sediment samples. The sequences in the sediments, foregut contents, and hindgut contents were assigned to 38.0±4.7, 31.2±6.2 and 27.8±6.5 phyla, respectively. The bacterial richness and Shannon diversity index were both higher in the ambient sediments than in the gut contents. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both the gut contents and sediment samples. The predominant classes in the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment were Holophagae and Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, respectively. The potential probiotics, including sequences related to Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus) and Pseudomonas were detected in the gut of A. japonicus. Principle component analysis and heatmap figure showed that the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment respectively harbored different characteristic bacterial communities. Selective feeding of A. japonicus may be the primary source of the different bacterial communities between the foregut contents and ambient sediments. PMID:24967593

  14. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  15. Capacitance sensors for the nondestructive measurement of moisture content in in-shell peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture content (mc) in peanuts is measured at various stages of their processing and storage in the peanut industry. An instrument was developed earlier that would measure the capacitance and phase angle of a small sample of peanuts held between two circular parallel-plates at two frequencies 1 a...

  16. Short, multi-needle FDR sensor suitable for measuring soil water content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is a well-established electromagnetic technique used to measure soil water content. TDR sensors have been combined with heat pulse sensors to produce thermo-TDR sensors. Thermo-TDR sensors are restricted to having relatively short needles in order to accurately measur...

  17. Measuring the internal energy content of molecules transported across the liquid-gas interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, Olivia J.; Gascooke, Jason R.; Lawrance, Warren D.; Buntine, Mark A.

    2009-09-01

    Many details concerning the mechanism associated with the liberation of molecules from a liquid surface remain to be elucidated. We use the liquid microjet technique coupled with laser spectroscopy to measure the rotational and vibrational energy content of benzene spontaneously evaporating from a water-ethanol solution. These measurements provide molecular level insight into the mass and energy transfer processes associated with evaporation.

  18. Validating Measures of Algebra Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschang, Rebecca E.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Delacruz, Girlie C.; Baker, Eva L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate inferences about scores of one task designed to measure subject matter knowledge and three tasks designed to measure aspects of pedagogical content knowledge. Evidence for the validity of inferences was based on two expectations. First, if tasks were sensitive to expertise, we would find group differences.…

  19. Improved methods for adjusting the UV content of measurement instrument illumination for papermaking industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li

    2014-09-01

    Optical brightening agents (OBAs) or fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are often used additives in paper and board products as they improve both whiteness and brightness of the products. When printed, OBAs can even contribute to colour tone reproduction. Fluorescent emissions of OBAs depend on the UV content of the illuminant (light source). Adequate adjustment (control or adjustment) of UV content of measurement apparatus (e.g. spectrophotometer) is essential for accurate colour measurement and printing colour reproduction. We proposed a method to adjust the UV content against assigned spectra rather than, as adopted in current ISO standards, against single assigned values. Demonstrations of applying this method to the CIE standard illuminants used in papermaking and graphic industries, D65, C and D50 have been given. Thanks to the well-established traceability of reference standards (IRs), the UV contents of a spectrophotometer corresponding to the standard CIE illuminants have been achieved.

  20. Determination of cloud ice water content and geometrical thickness using microwave and infrared radiometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Man-Li C.

    1987-01-01

    Cloud ice water content and cloud geometrical thickness have been determined using a combination of near-infrared, thermal infrared and thermal microwave radiometric measurements. The radiometric measurements are from a Multispectral Cloud Radiometer, which has seven channels ranging from visible to thermal infrared, and an Advanced Microwave Moisture Sounder, which has four channels ranging from 90 to 183 GHz. Studies indicate that the microwave brightness temperatures depend not only on the amount of ice water content but also on the vertical distribution of ice water content. Studies also show that the low brightness temperature at 92 GHz for large ice water content is due to cloud reflection which reflects most of the irradiance incident at the cloud base downward. Therefore the 92 GHz channel detects a low brightness temperature at the cloud top.

  1. Lifelong Parental Voluntary Wheel Running Increases Offspring Hippocampal Pgc-1α mRNA Expression But Not Mitochondrial Content or Bdnf Expression

    PubMed Central

    Venezia, Andrew C.; Guth, Lisa M.; Spangenburg, Espen E.; Roth, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    When exercise is initiated during pregnancy, offspring of physically active mothers have higher hippocampal expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and other plasticity and mitochondrial-associated genes, resulting in hippocampal structural and functional adaptations. In the present study, we examined the effects of lifelong parental voluntary wheel running (before, during, and after pregnancy) on offspring hippocampal mRNA expression of genes implicated in the exercise-induced improvement of cognitive function. C57BL/6 mice were individually housed at 8 weeks of age with (EX; n=20) or without (SED; n=20) access to a computer-monitored voluntary running wheel (VRW) for 12 weeks prior to breeding. EX breeders maintained access to the VRW throughout breeding, pregnancy, and lactation. Male offspring were housed in sedentary cages, regardless of parental group, and were sacrificed at 8 (n=18) or 28 weeks (n=19). PCR was used to assess mRNA expression of several genes and mitochondrial content (ratio of mitochondrial to nuclear DNA) in hippocampal homogenates. We found significantly higher peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 alpha (Pgc-1α) mRNA expression in EX offspring compared to SED offspring at 8 wks (p=0.04), though the effect was no longer present at 28 wks. There was no difference in mitochondrial content or expression of Bdnf or any other mRNA targets between offspring at 8 or 28 wks. In contrast to exercise initiated during pregnancy, parental voluntary physical activity initiated early in life and maintained throughout pregnancy has little effect on offspring mRNA expression of genes implicated in exercise-induced hippocampal plasticity. PMID:25919993

  2. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  3. Sensitive hydrogen peroxide content measurement technology using refractive-index-based optical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bao-jin; Ying, Chao-Fu; Ye, Hui-qun; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Yun-Tao

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring of water quality is essential to modern life. Not only is it a major factor in safeguarding public health, high quality freshwater is also a key input in agriculture and many industrial process. A preliminary prototype for hydrogen peroxide content in water is setup and introduced. Based on the detection of beam deviation due to the refractive index changes of the aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution, hydrogen peroxide content can be measured by a position-sensitive detector. Measurement principle is theoretically described. Experimental results indicate the feasibility of the developed system. Not like intensity-modulated refractive index sensor which necessitates a stable light source, this sensor exploits the beam deviation due to optical refraction at the receiving end face of the measurement cell, which is caused by changes in refractive index with different hydrogen peroxide content in water. Hydrogen peroxide content measurement resolution can reach about 0.01% within the measurement range from distilled water to hydrogen peroxide content of 30%.

  4. Design and Implementation Content Validity Study: Development of an instrument for measuring Patient-Centered Communication

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Ghahramanian, Akram; Rassouli, Maryam; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Nikanfar, Ali-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of content validity in the instrument psychometric and its relevance with reliability, have made it an essential step in the instrument development. This article attempts to give an overview of the content validity process and to explain the complexity of this process by introducing an example. Methods: We carried out a methodological study conducted to examine the content validity of the patient-centered communication instrument through a two-step process (development and judgment). At the first step, domain determination, sampling (item generation) and instrument formation and at the second step, content validity ratio, content validity index and modified kappa statistic was performed. Suggestions of expert panel and item impact scores are used to examine the instrument face validity. Results: From a set of 188 items, content validity process identified seven dimensions includes trust building (eight items), informational support (seven items), emotional support (five items), problem solving (seven items), patient activation (10 items), intimacy/friendship (six items) and spirituality strengthening (14 items). Content validity study revealed that this instrument enjoys an appropriate level of content validity. The overall content validity index of the instrument using universal agreement approach was low; however, it can be advocated with respect to the high number of content experts that makes consensus difficult and high value of the S-CVI with the average approach, which was equal to 0.93. Conclusion: This article illustrates acceptable quantities indices for content validity a new instrument and outlines them during design and psychometrics of patient-centered communication measuring instrument. PMID:26161370

  5. Super-resolution measurement of distance between transcription sites using RNA FISH with intronic probes.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Joshua D; Cook, Peter R

    2016-04-01

    Nascent transcripts being copied from specific human genes can be detected using RNA FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) with intronic probes, and the distance between two different nascent transcripts is often measured when studying structure-function relationships. Such distance measurements are limited by the resolution of the light microscope. Here we describe methods for measuring these distances in cultured cells with a precision of a few tens of nanometers, using equipment found in most laboratories (i.e., a wide-field fluorescence microscope equipped with a charged-coupled-device camera). Using images of pairs of transcripts that are often co-transcribed, we discuss how selection of cell type, design of FISH probes, image acquisition, and image processing affect the precision that can be achieved. PMID:26564237

  6. Super-resolution measurement of distance between transcription sites using RNA FISH with intronic probes

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Joshua D.; Cook, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Nascent transcripts being copied from specific human genes can be detected using RNA FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) with intronic probes, and the distance between two different nascent transcripts is often measured when studying structure–function relationships. Such distance measurements are limited by the resolution of the light microscope. Here we describe methods for measuring these distances in cultured cells with a precision of a few tens of nanometers, using equipment found in most laboratories (i.e., a wide-field fluorescence microscope equipped with a charged-coupled-device camera). Using images of pairs of transcripts that are often co-transcribed, we discuss how selection of cell type, design of FISH probes, image acquisition, and image processing affect the precision that can be achieved. PMID:26564237

  7. Meeting report: discussions and preliminary findings on extracellular RNA measurement methods from laboratories in the NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Louise C.; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.; Adelson, P. David; Arango, Jorge; Balaj, Leonora; Breakefield, Xandra; Carlson, Elizabeth; Carter, Bob S.; Majem, Blanca; Chen, Clark C.; Cocucci, Emanuele; Danielson, Kirsty; Courtright, Amanda; Das, Saumya; Elmageed, Zakaria Y. Abd; Enderle, Daniel; Ezrin, Alan; Ferrer, Marc; Freedman, Jane; Galas, David; Gandhi, Roopali; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall; Kalani, Yashar; Kim, Yong; Krichevsky, Anna M.; Lai, Charles; Lal-Nag, Madhu; Laurent, Clara D.; Leonardo, Trevor; Li, Feng; Malenica, Ivana; Mondal, Debasis; Nejad, Parham; Patel, Tushar; Raffai, Robert L.; Rubio, Renee; Skog, Johan; Spetzler, Robert; Sun, Jie; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Vickers, Kasey; Wang, Liang; Wang, Yaoyu; Wei, Zhiyun; Weiner, Howard L.; Wong, David; Yan, Irene K.; Yeri, Ashish; Gould, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) have been identified in all tested biofluids and have been associated with a variety of extracellular vesicles, ribonucleoprotein complexes and lipoprotein complexes. Much of the interest in exRNAs lies in the fact that they may serve as signalling molecules between cells, their potential to serve as biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of disease and the possibility that exRNAs or the extracellular particles that carry them might be used for therapeutic purposes. Among the most significant bottlenecks to progress in this field is the lack of robust and standardized methods for collection and processing of biofluids, separation of different types of exRNA-containing particles and isolation and analysis of exRNAs. The Sample and Assay Standards Working Group of the Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium is a group of laboratories funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health to develop such methods. In our first joint endeavour, we held a series of conference calls and in-person meetings to survey the methods used among our members, placed them in the context of the current literature and used our findings to identify areas in which the identification of robust methodologies would promote rapid advancements in the exRNA field. PMID:26320937

  8. Online measurement of contents in compound fertilizer and application research using VIS-NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhidan; Wang, Yubing; Wang, Rujing; Liu, Jing; Lu, Cuiping; Wang, Liusan

    2015-10-01

    The on-line measurement of the main component contents is essential for production, detection and identification of compound fertilizer. Using developed VIS-NIR sensors for on-line measurement of the main component contents in compound fertilizer, primary results about nitrogen (N), phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) and potassium oxide (K2O) were reported. A visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer (Ocean Optics), with a measurement range of 360.18-2221.53 nm was used to measure fertilizer spectra in reflectance mode. By using principal component analysis (PCA) and mahalanobis distance method, 3 outlier samples were detected and eliminated from 174 samples firstly. Then these models of three components with the 124 samples in calibration set were established using principal component regress (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS) coupled respectively with the full cross-validation technique after preprocessing the original spectrum with different methods. These models were used to estimate the contents of N, P2O5 and K2O of the other 47 samples in predicted set. The research results showed that the method could be applied to rapid measurement to the main component contents in compound fertilizer. Compared with the traditional analysis method, the on-line measurement could do it rapidly, inexpensively and pollution-freely. It suggested the potential use of the VIS-NIR sensing system for on-line measurement in the production, detection and identification process of compound fertilizer.

  9. A systematic review and content analysis of bullying and cyber-bullying measurement strategies

    PubMed Central

    Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Martell, Brandi N.; Holland, Kristin M.; Westby, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Bullying has emerged as a behavior with deleterious effects on youth; however, prevalence estimates vary based on measurement strategies employed. We conducted a systematic review and content analysis of bullying measurement strategies to gain a better understanding of each strategy including behavioral content. Multiple online databases (i.e., PsychInfo, MedLine, ERIC) were searched to identify measurement strategies published between 1985 and 2012. Included measurement strategies assessed bullying behaviors, were administered to respondents with ages of 12 to 20, were administered in English, and included psychometric data. Each publication was coded independently by two study team members with a pre-set data extraction form, who subsequently met to discuss discrepancies. Forty-one measures were included in the review. A majority used differing terminology; student self-report as primary reporting method; and included verbal forms of bullying in item content. Eleven measures included a definition of bullying, and 13 used the term “bullying” in the measure. Very few definitions or measures captured components of bullying such as repetition, power imbalance, aggression, and intent to harm. Findings demonstrate general inconsistency in measurement strategies on a range of issues, thus, making comparing prevalence rates between measures difficult. PMID:26752229

  10. Continuous measurements of the total ozone content in the full moon period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishov, Alexander G.

    1994-01-01

    Presented are the experimental data on the total ozone content obtained during continuous measurements (day-night-...-night-day) by Brewer 044 spectrophotometer near the Issyk Kul Lake (42.59N, 77.04W) at 1650 m above the sea level at full moon from 13 to 18 October 1989 under anomalously high transparent atmospheric conditions (the horizontal visibility range exceeded 50 km). At night the total O3 content decreased regularly to about 20 percent of the average daytime values. The minimum values at night were observed in 1-2 hours after the maximum solar dip below the horizon. In the daytime the measurements were carried out from direct Sun, at night - from the Moon. The values of the total ozone content for adjacent measurements from the Sun and from the Moon in the evening as well as in the morning are in good agreement.

  11. Optical transparency of paper as a function of moisture content with applications to moisture measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forughi, A. F.; Green, S. I.; Stoeber, B.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate measurement of the moisture content of paper is essential in papermaking and is also important in some paper-based microfluidic devices. Traditional measurement techniques provide very limited spatiotemporal resolution and working range. This article presents a novel method for moisture content measurement whose operating principle is the strong correlation between the optical transparency of paper and its moisture content. Spectrographic and microscopic measurement techniques were employed to characterize the relation of moisture content and relative transparency of four types of paper: hardwood chemi-thermomechanical pulp paper, Northern bleached softwood kraft paper, unbleached softwood kraft paper, and General Electric® Whatman™ grade 1 chromatography paper. It was found that for all paper types, the paper transparency increased monotonically with the moisture content (as the ratio of the mass-of-water to the mass-of-dry-paper increased from 0% to 120%). This significant increase in relative transparency occurred due to the refractive index matching role of water in wet paper. It is further shown that mechanical loading of the paper has little impact on the relative transparency, for loadings that would be typical on a paper machine. The results of two transient water absorption experiments are presented that show the utility and accuracy of the technique.

  12. Optical transparency of paper as a function of moisture content with applications to moisture measurement.

    PubMed

    Forughi, A F; Green, S I; Stoeber, B

    2016-02-01

    Accurate measurement of the moisture content of paper is essential in papermaking and is also important in some paper-based microfluidic devices. Traditional measurement techniques provide very limited spatiotemporal resolution and working range. This article presents a novel method for moisture content measurement whose operating principle is the strong correlation between the optical transparency of paper and its moisture content. Spectrographic and microscopic measurement techniques were employed to characterize the relation of moisture content and relative transparency of four types of paper: hardwood chemi-thermomechanical pulp paper, Northern bleached softwood kraft paper, unbleached softwood kraft paper, and General Electric(®) Whatman™ grade 1 chromatography paper. It was found that for all paper types, the paper transparency increased monotonically with the moisture content (as the ratio of the mass-of-water to the mass-of-dry-paper increased from 0% to 120%). This significant increase in relative transparency occurred due to the refractive index matching role of water in wet paper. It is further shown that mechanical loading of the paper has little impact on the relative transparency, for loadings that would be typical on a paper machine. The results of two transient water absorption experiments are presented that show the utility and accuracy of the technique. PMID:26931859

  13. Accurate measurement of bromine contents in plastic samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, I J; Lee, K S; Hwang, E; Min, H S; Yim, Y H

    2013-03-26

    Accurate measurements of bromine contents in plastic samples were made by the direct comparator instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Individual factors affecting the measurements were comprehensively evaluated and compensated, including the volatility loss of bromine from standard comparators, the background bromine level in the filter papers used for preparation of the standard comparators, nuclear interference, γ-ray spectral interference and the variance among replicates of the samples. Uncertainty contributions from those factors were thoroughly evaluated and included in the uncertainty budgeting of the INAA measurement. (81)Br was chosen as the target isotope, and the INAA measurements for bromine were experimentally confirmed to exhibit good linearity within a bromine content range of 10-170 μg. The established method has been applied to the analysis of eight plastic samples: four commercially available certified reference materials (CRMs) of polyethylene and polystyrene and four acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) samples prepared as the candidate reference materials (KRISS CRM 113-01-012, -013, -014 and -015). The bromine contents of the samples were calculated at three different γ-ray energies and compared, showing good agreement. The results of the four CRMs also showed good consistency with their certified values within the stated uncertainties. Finally, the bromine contents of the ABS samples were determined with expanded uncertainties (at a 95% level of confidence) between 2.5% and 5% in a bromine content range of 25-900 mg kg(-1). PMID:23498117

  14. Development and calibration of the shielded measurement system for fissile contents measurements on irradiated nuclear fuel in dry storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Mosby, W. R.; Jensen, B. A.

    2002-05-31

    In recent years there has been a trend towards storage of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel (INF) in dry conditions rather than in underwater environments. At the same time, the Department of Energy (DOE) has begun encouraging custodians of INF to perform measurements on INF for which no recent fissile contents measurement data exists. INF, in the form of spent fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-II), has been stored in close-fitting, dry underground storage locations at the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility (RSWF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) for many years. In Fiscal Year 2000, funding was obtained from the DOE Office of Safeguards and Security Technology Development Program to develop and prepare for deployment a Shielded Measurement System (SMS) to perform fissile content measurements on INF stored in the RSWF. The SMS is equipped to lift an INF item out of its storage location, perform scanning neutron coincidence and high-resolution gamma-ray measurements, and restore the item to its storage location. The neutron and gamma-ray measurement results are compared to predictions based on isotope depletion and Monte Carlo neutral-particle transport models to provide confirmation of the accuracy of the models and hence of the fissile material contents of the item as calculated by the same models. This paper describes the SMS and discusses the results of the first calibration and validation measurements performed with the SMS.

  15. High-accuracy measurement of low-water-content in liquid using NIR spectral absorption method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bao-Jin; Wan, Xu; Jin, Hong-Zhen; Zhao, Yong; Mao, He-Fa

    2005-01-01

    Water content measurement technologies are very important for quality inspection of food, medicine products, chemical products and many other industry fields. In recent years, requests for accurate low-water-content measurement in liquid are more and more exigent, and great interests have been shown from the research and experimental work. With the development and advancement of modern production and control technologies, more accurate water content technology is needed. In this paper, a novel experimental setup based on near-infrared (NIR) spectral technology and fiber-optic sensor (OFS) is presented. It has a good measurement accuracy about -/+ 0.01%, which is better, to our knowledge, than most other methods published until now. It has a high measurement resolution of 0.001% in the measurement range from zero to 0.05% for water-in-alcohol measurement, and the water-in-oil measurement is carried out as well. In addition, the advantages of this method also include pollution-free to the measured liquid, fast measurement and so on.

  16. The Calculated and Measured Performance Characteristics of a Heated-Wire Liquid-Water-Content Meter for Measuring Icing Severity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neel, Carr B.; Steinmetz, Charles P.

    1952-01-01

    Ground tests have been made of an instrument which, when assembled in a more compact form for flight installation, could be used to obtain statistical flight data on the liquid-water content of icing clouds and to provide an indication of icing severity. The sensing element of the instrument consists of an electrically heated wire which is mounted in the air stream. The degree of cooling of the wire resulting from evaporation of the impinging water droplets is a measure. of the liquid-water content of the cloud. Determination of the value of the liquid-water content from the wire temperature at any instant requires a knowledge of the airspeed, altitude, and air temperature. An analysis was made of the temperature response of a heated wire exposed to an air stream containing water drops. Comparisons were made of the liquid-water content as measured with several heated wires and absorbent cylinders in an artificially produced cloud. For one of the wires, comparative tests were made with a rotating-disk icing-rate meter in an icing wind tunnel. From the test results, it was shown that an instrument for measuring the concentration of liquid water in an air stream can be built using an electrically heated wire of known temperatureresistance characteristics, and that the performance of such a device can be predicted using appropriate theory. Although an instrument in a form suitable for gathering statistical data in flight was not built, the practicability of constructing such an instrument was illustrated. The ground-test results indicated that a flight heated-wire instrument would be simple and durable, would respond rapidly to variations in liquid-water content, and could be used for the measurement of water content in clouds which are above freezing temperature, as well as in icing clouds.

  17. The influence of glucocorticoid on the fibrinogen messenger RNA content of rat liver in vivo and in hepatocyte suspension culture.

    PubMed Central

    Princen, H M; Moshage, H J; de Haard, H J; van Gemert, P J; Yap, S H

    1984-01-01

    The plasma concentration of fibrinogen, one of the major acute-phase proteins produced by the liver, increases during the acute-phase response as a result of enhanced synthesis in liver. Since adrenal-cortical hormones have been thought to have a key role in the regulation of the fibrinogen synthesis, fibrinogen-polypeptide mRNA sequences were determined in the present study, by using a specific complementary-DNA probe, in RNA fractions obtained from rat hepatocytes exposed to glucocorticoids in vitro (hepatocyte suspension cultures) and in vivo. Maximal induction of the fibrinogen-polypeptide mRNA (to 400% of the control value) was found in vitro at 0.1 microM-dexamethasone after 9 h of incubation. The same magnitude of induction was obtained with 20 microM-cortisol or 60 microM-corticosterone. In contrast with the findings in vitro, no induction of the fibrinogen-polypeptide mRNA was observed in the liver at various times after injection of different doses of glucocorticoids into rats. These results suggest that more complex regulatory mechanisms are involved and that glucocorticoids are not the sole regulatory factors in vivo in the enhanced synthesis of fibrinogen during the acute-phase response. PMID:6547834

  18. Correlation between near infrared spectroscopy and electrical techniques in measuring skin moisture content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, M.; Sabbri, A. R. M.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.; Omar, A. F.

    2014-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique serves as an important tool for the measurement of moisture content of skin owing to the advantages it has over the other techniques. The purpose of the study is to develop a correlation between NIR spectrometer with electrical conventional techniques for skin moisture measurement. A non-invasive measurement of moisture content of skin was performed on different part of human face and hand under control environment (temperature 21 ± 1 °C, relative humidity 45 ± 5 %). Ten healthy volunteers age between 21-25 (male and female) participated in this study. The moisture content of skin was measured using DermaLab® USB Moisture Module, Scalar Moisture Checker and NIR spectroscopy (NIRQuest). Higher correlation was observed between NIRQuest and Dermalab moisture probe with a coefficient of determination (R2) above 70 % for all the subjects. However, the value of R2 between NIRQuest and Moisture Checker was observed to be lower with the R2 values ranges from 51.6 to 94.4 %. The correlation of NIR spectroscopy technique successfully developed for measuring moisture content of the skin. The analysis of this correlation can help to establish novel instruments based on an optical system in clinical used especially in the dermatology field.

  19. Assessing advertising content in a hospital advertising campaign: An application of Puto and Wells (1984) measure of informational and transformational advertising content.

    PubMed

    Menon, Mohan K; Goodnight, Janelle M; Wayne, Robin J

    2006-01-01

    The following is a report of a study designed to measure advertising content based on the cognitive and affective elements of informational (i.e., information processing) and transformational (i.e., experiential) content using the measure of advertising informational and transformational content developed by Puto and Wells (1984). A university hospital advertising campaign designed to be high in transformational content did not appear to affect perceived quality of local university hospitals relative to private hospitals or increase the likelihood of choosing a university hospital in the future. Further, experiences with university hospitals that seemed to be in direct contrast to the content of the advertisements based on subject perceptions affected how university hospital advertisements were perceived in terms of content. Conclusions and implications for hospital advertising campaigns are discussed. PMID:17062533

  20. Statistical modelling of measurement errors in gas chromatographic analyses of blood alcohol content.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Rossana; Blomstedt, Paul; Wilhelm, Lars; Reinikainen, Tapani; Sippola, Erkki; Corander, Jukka

    2010-10-10

    Headspace gas chromatographic measurements of ethanol content in blood specimens from suspect drunk drivers are routinely carried out in forensic laboratories. In the widely established standard statistical framework, measurement errors in such data are represented by Gaussian distributions for the population of blood specimens at any given level of ethanol content. It is known that the variance of measurement errors increases as a function of the level of ethanol content and the standard statistical approach addresses this issue by replacing the unknown population variances by estimates derived from large sample using a linear regression model. Appropriate statistical analysis of the systematic and random components in the measurement errors is necessary in order to guarantee legally sound security corrections reported to the police authority. Here we address this issue by developing a novel statistical approach that takes into account any potential non-linearity in the relationship between the level of ethanol content and the variability of measurement errors. Our method is based on standard non-parametric kernel techniques for density estimation using a large database of laboratory measurements for blood specimens. Furthermore, we address also the issue of systematic errors in the measurement process by a statistical model that incorporates the sign of the error term in the security correction calculations. Analysis of a set of certified reference materials (CRMs) blood samples demonstrates the importance of explicitly handling the direction of the systematic errors in establishing the statistical uncertainty about the true level of ethanol content. Use of our statistical framework to aid quality control in the laboratory is also discussed. PMID:20494532

  1. [Application of ANFIS in in-situ measured hyperspectral data for vegetation chlorophyll content estimation].

    PubMed

    Yao, Fu-qi; Zhang, Zhen-hua; Yang, Run-ya; Sun, Jin-wei; Wang, Hai-jiang; Ren, Shang-gang

    2010-07-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance and green degree of Platanus orientalis L. and Populus tomentosa Carr. leaves were measured by the ASD portable spectrometer and the portable chlorophyll meter SPAD-502, respectively. The chlorophyll concentration retrieval models based on 10 common vegetation indexes were established, and the ANN-BP model which used wave bands with larger correlation coefficient as input variables was established for chlorophyll content estimation. Finally, the ANFIS model was established to inverse vegetation chlorophyll content using hyperspectral data. The results showed that normalized difference vegetation index can inverse chlorophyll content better than other vegetation index, and the determination coefficients R2 of models of Platanus orientalis L. and Populus tomentosa Carr. were 0.795 7 and 0.754 6, respectively. The determination coefficients R2 between the predicted and the measured chlorophyll content based on ANN-BP models of Platanus orientalis L. and Populus tomentosa Carr. were 0.935 2 and 0.917 1, respectively. ANFIS model which is a good method to be applied to hyperspectral data for estimation of vegetation chlorophyll concentration can greatly improve vegetation chlorophyll concentration estimation accuracy, and the determination coefficients R2 between the predicted and the measured chlorophyll content of Platanus orientalis L. and Populus tomentosa Carr. were 0.935 2 and 0.917 1, respectively. PMID:20827981

  2. Porous media matric potential and water content measurements during parabolic flight.

    PubMed

    Norikane, Joey H; Jones, Scott B; Steinberg, Susan L; Levine, Howard G; Or, Dani

    2005-01-01

    Control of water and air in the root zone of plants remains a challenge in the microgravity environment of space. Due to limited flight opportunities, research aimed at resolving microgravity porous media fluid dynamics must often be conducted on Earth. The NASA KC-135 reduced gravity flight program offers an opportunity for Earth-based researchers to study physical processes in a variable gravity environment. The objectives of this study were to obtain measurements of water content and matric potential during the parabolic profile flown by the KC-135 aircraft. The flight profile provided 20-25 s of microgravity at the top of the parabola, while pulling 1.8 g at the bottom. The soil moisture sensors (Temperature and Moisture Acquisition System: Orbital Technologies, Madison, WI) used a heat-pulse method to indirectly estimate water content from heat dissipation. Tensiometers were constructed using a stainless steel porous cup with a pressure transducer and were used to measure the matric potential of the medium. The two types of sensors were placed at different depths in a substrate compartment filled with 1-2 mm Turface (calcined clay). The ability of the heat-pulse sensors to monitor overall changes in water content in the substrate compartment decreased with water content. Differences in measured water content data recorded at 0, 1, and 1.8 g were not significant. Tensiometer readings tracked pressure differences due to the hydrostatic force changes with variable gravity. The readings may have been affected by changes in cabin air pressure that occurred during each parabola. Tensiometer porous membrane conductivity (function of pore size) and fluid volume both influence response time. Porous media sample height and water content influence time-to-equilibrium, where shorter samples and higher water content achieve faster equilibrium. Further testing is needed to develop these sensors for space flight applications. PMID:15751144

  3. Porous media matric potential and water content measurements during parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norikane, Joey H.; Jones, Scott B.; Steinberg, Susan L.; Levine, Howard G.; Or, Dani

    2005-01-01

    Control of water and air in the root zone of plants remains a challenge in the microgravity environment of space. Due to limited flight opportunities, research aimed at resolving microgravity porous media fluid dynamics must often be conducted on Earth. The NASA KC-135 reduced gravity flight program offers an opportunity for Earth-based researchers to study physical processes in a variable gravity environment. The objectives of this study were to obtain measurements of water content and matric potential during the parabolic profile flown by the KC-135 aircraft. The flight profile provided 20-25 s of microgravity at the top of the parabola, while pulling 1.8 g at the bottom. The soil moisture sensors (Temperature and Moisture Acquisition System: Orbital Technologies, Madison, WI) used a heat-pulse method to indirectly estimate water content from heat dissipation. Tensiometers were constructed using a stainless steel porous cup with a pressure transducer and were used to measure the matric potential of the medium. The two types of sensors were placed at different depths in a substrate compartment filled with 1-2 mm Turface (calcined clay). The ability of the heat-pulse sensors to monitor overall changes in water content in the substrate compartment decreased with water content. Differences in measured water content data recorded at 0, 1, and 1.8 g were not significant. Tensiometer readings tracked pressure differences due to the hydrostatic force changes with variable gravity. The readings may have been affected by changes in cabin air pressure that occurred during each parabola. Tensiometer porous membrane conductivity (function of pore size) and fluid volume both influence response time. Porous media sample height and water content influence time-to-equilibrium, where shorter samples and higher water content achieve faster equilibrium. Further testing is needed to develop these sensors for space flight applications.

  4. Relating x-ray attenuation measurements to water content and distribution in SB-15D core

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, B.P.; Roberts, J.J.; Schneberk, D.J

    1996-09-30

    Making improved estimates of the water content of The Geysers reservoir is fundamental to efficient and economic long term production of steam power from the resource. A series of coordinated physical properties measurements form core recovered from the SB-15D, reported in this volume in a series of papers, have been made to better understand water storage and to relate water content and distribution to observable geophysical properties such as electrical conductivity and seismic velocities. A principal objective here is to report new interpretations of x-ray scans made within 72 hours of core recovery from SB-15D, which suggest, taking advantage of preliminary measurements of capillary suction for metagraywacke, that water content was low in much of the preserved core.

  5. A high resolution capacitive sensing system for the measurement of water content in crude oil.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Muhammad; Tang, Tong Boon

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ± 50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design. PMID:24967606

  6. Impact of stone content on soil moisture measurement with capacitive sensors 10HS (Decagon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deraedt, Deborah; Bernard, Julien; Bietlot, Louise; Clerbois, Laura; Rosière, Clément; Starren, Amandine; Colinet, Gilles; Mercatoris, Benoit; Degré, Aurore

    2015-04-01

    Lot of soil survey focused on agricultural soils. For practical reasons, those soils have a low stone content. So, most of the soil water content sensors are placed on low stone content soils and the calibration equations are developed for them. Yet some researches take an interest in forest soils that are often much different from the previous ones. The differences lie in their stone content and their slope. Lots of studies have proved the importance of making soil specific calibration of the soil water content sensor. As our lab use regularly the 10HS sensors (Decagon Devices, United States) in forested soil, we decided to evaluate the importance of the stone content in the soil moisture measurement. The soil used for this experimentation comes from Gembloux (50°33'54.9''N, 4°42'11.3''E). It is silt that has been sieved at 2 mm to remove the gravel. The stones used to form the samples come from an experimental site located in the Belgian Ardennes (50°1'52.6''N, 4°53'22.5''E). They are mainly composed of schist with some quartz and sandstone elements. Initially, only five samples were constructed with three replications each. The size and the proportion of stones were the variables. Stones were classified in two groups, the first contains gravels whose size is less than 1,5 cm and a the second contains gravels whose size is comprised between 2 and 3 cm. The proportions of stone selected for the experiment are 0, 20 and 40%. In order to generate validation data, two more samples were constructed with intermediate proportion of stone content (30%). The samples were built in PVC container which dimensions are slightly bigger than the sensor volume of influence (1.1-1.3l). The soil samples were saturated and then dried on a thermal chamber set at about 32°C. During at least 14 days, the samples soil water content was determined by the sensor measurement with the Procheck read-out system (Decagon Devices, United State) and by weighting the samples thrice a day

  7. Measurement of resistant starch content in cooked rice and analysis of gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nakayoshi, Yuuki; Nakamura, Sumiko; Kameo, Yoji; Shiiba, Daisuke; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Digestion-resistant starch (RS) has many physiologic functions. The RS content is measured by enzymatically degrading flour samples according to the method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Experiments have been performed with wheat, corn, and other grains, but there are no data for cooked rice grains in the form ingested by humans. Thus, we investigated a method to measure RS that is suitable for cooked rice grains using rice cultivars that are reported to differentially increase postprandial blood glucose in humans. Using a method for cooking individual rice grains and optimized enzyme reaction conditions, we established an RS measurement method. We also found that the amylopectin crystal condition affects the RS content measured using our method. PMID:25996617

  8. CAPACITANCE AND PHASE ANGLE MEASUREMENT FOR ESTIMATING MOISTURE CONTENT IN NUTS AND GRAIN NONDESTRUCTIVELY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurement of moisture content (mc) is an important aspect in the harvesting, storage, marketing and processing of agricultural products such as corn, wheat and peanuts. These products when freshly harvested may have a mc usually in the range of 20 to 40%. For trading, processing or storage the mo...

  9. Relationship between the real and imaginary permittivities, temperature and soil water content measured at 50Hz.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture sensors generally strive to use the real permittivity as the basis for estimating soil water content from measured electrical properties of soil. It has been shown that a reasonably good general calibration can be developed for mineral soils on this basis. However, at the low measureme...

  10. A Turn toward Specifying Validity Criteria in the Measurement of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Robert F.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    The impetus for this paper stems from a concern about directions and progress in the measurement of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework for effective technology integration. In this paper, we develop the rationale for using a seven-criterion lens, based upon contemporary validity theory, for critiquing empirical…

  11. Evaluation of a root zone TDR sensor for soil water content measurement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is a well-established dielectric technique of measuring the soil volumetric water content (VWC). However, it is expensive and difficult to determine the depth-averaged VWC in the root zone using conventional TDR probes. The objectives of this study are to develop a lo...

  12. Using Multiple Choice Examination Items To Measure Teachers' Content-Specific Pedagogical Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Renfrow, Donata D.

    The use of multiple-choice test items measuring content-specific pedagogical knowledge (C-P) as a viable method of increasing the validity of teacher tests is described. The purposes of the paper are to: (1) present examples of multiple-choice test items used for the assessment of C-P and contrast these items with items used for assessing content…

  13. NIR Characterization and Measurement of the Cotton Content of Dyed Blend Fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used extensively for several years in the fiber, textiles, and textile auxiliaries industries. NIR techniques for the measurement of cotton-polyester (PET) blend content have concentrated on yarn slivers and greige fabrics rather than the more much difficult...

  14. Monitoring compliance with sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel by in situ measurements of ship emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattner, L.; Mathieu-Üffing, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Richter, A.; Schmolke, S.; Seyler, A.; Wittrock, F.

    2015-09-01

    In 1997 the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted MARPOL Annex VI to prevent air pollution by shipping emissions. It regulates, among other issues, the sulfur content in shipping fuels, which is transformed into the air pollutant sulfur dioxide (SO2) during combustion. Within designated Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA), the sulfur content was limited to 1 %, and on 1 January 2015, this limit was further reduced to 0.1 %. Here we present the set-up and measurement results of a permanent ship emission monitoring site near Hamburg harbour in the North Sea SECA. Trace gas measurements are conducted with in situ instruments and a data set from September 2014 to January 2015 is presented. By combining measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and SO2 with ship position data, it is possible to deduce the sulfur fuel content of individual ships passing the measurement station, thus facilitating the monitoring of compliance of ships with the IMO regulations. While compliance is almost 100 % for the 2014 data, it decreases only very little in 2015 to 95.4 % despite the much stricter limit. We analysed more than 1400 ship plumes in total and for months with favourable conditions, up to 40 % of all ships entering and leaving Hamburg harbour could be checked for their sulfur fuel content.

  15. Using Content Acquisition Podcasts to Improve Teacher Candidate Knowledge of Curriculum-Based Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Wagner, Dana; Stegall, Joanna; Lembke, Erica; Miciak, Jeremy; Alves, Kat D.; Brown, Tiara; Driver, Melissa K.; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner

    2016-01-01

    Given the significant literature supporting the use of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for data-based decision making, it is critical that teacher candidates learn about it prior to student teaching and entry into the field as full-time teachers. The authors of this study used a content acquisition podcast (CAP), a multimedia-based…

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of blood oxygenation content and its application in sports practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guodong; Gong, Hui; Ge, Xinfa; Luo, Qingming

    2003-12-01

    To research the change characteristics of blood oxygenation content in skeletal muscle, the change regularity between blood oxygenation content and exercise intensity as well as HbO2 and blood lactate acid while taking incremental exercises, we took an in vivo, real-time and continuous measurement on the blood oxygenation content of eight sportsmen when they did incremental exercises of five degrees on a power bicycle using a portable tissue oximeter which is based on the principle of near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS), simultaneously, we detected the blood lactate acid of subjects after each degree of incremental physical load instantly using a blood lactate analysis equipment. The results showed that the content of HbO2 descended regularly while that of Hb ascended; blood volume decreased; and the density of lactate increased as the intensity of exercises was heightened. The statistics analyses showed that the relationship between HbO2 and blood lactate is rather close (correlation coefficient r=-0.918). With this discovery, a theoretical basis in measuring the relative change of blood oxygenation content non-invasively was evidenced, and a novel technology for assessing the physical situation of sportsman, grasping sports density and evaluating the training effect could be imported.

  17. Antioxidants in food: content, measurement, significance, action, cautions, caveats, and research needs.

    PubMed

    Benzie, Iris F F; Choi, Siu-Wai

    2014-01-01

    There are a multitude of antioxidants in foods, especially in foods of plant origin. Higher intake of antioxidant-rich foods is clearly associated with better health and functional longevity. The specific agents and mechanisms responsible are not yet clear, but there is convincing evidence that including more plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods, herbs, and beverages in the diet is effective in promoting health and lowering risk of various age-related diseases. The content of some individual antioxidants, such as vitamin C, in food can be measured, but it is not feasible to attempt to measure each antioxidant separately, and methods have been developed to assess the "total antioxidant content" of foods. One of the most widely used methods is the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, which is relatively simple, quick, sensitive, and inexpensive to perform. There are many published studies that have used the FRAP assay, and these have generated a very large database of total antioxidant content of foods that can help guide food choices for increased antioxidant intake. The FRAP assay has also been used to assess the bioavailability of antioxidants in foods and to investigate the effects of growing conditions, storage, processing, and cooking method on the total antioxidant content of food. The test can be employed as a quality control check device, and to detect adulteration of food. Furthermore, in a modified form (FRASC), the assay can measure ascorbic acid content almost simultaneously with the total antioxidant content of the sample. In this chapter, basic concepts of oxidation and the role of antioxidants, as well as the types and action of different antioxidants in foods will be reviewed briefly, and the underpinning concepts and evidence for health benefits of increased intake of dietary antioxidants will be discussed, with some focus on vitamin C, and also in the context of our evolutionary development. The basic concepts and limitations of measuring

  18. Time Domain Reflectometry for Measuring Volumetric Water Content in Processed Oil Shale Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, T. L.; Elgezawi, S. M.

    1992-03-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) was evaluated and developed to monitor volumetric water content (θυ) in oil shale solid waste retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process. A TDR probe was designed and tested that could be buried and compacted in waste embankments and provide in situ measurements for θυ in the high-saline and high-alkaline conditions exhibited by this waste. TDR was found to be accurate for measurement of θυ across a broad range of water contents in the processed oil shale waste. A computer algorithm to automate the analysis of TDR traces to determine θυ, was developed and tested. A sensitivity test was performed to analyze differences between three smoothing algorithms on the measurement. No significant differences were found between smoothing algorithms or between the number of points applied for smoothing.

  19. A new fast response instrument for measuring total water content from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, S.; Leighton, J.; Barker, R.

    1990-10-01

    A device for measuring the total water content of a parcel of air from an aircraft has been developed. The total water of a parcel of air is a conserved quantity, independent of phase changes, provided there is no transport of water through the parcel boundaries. Current airborne hygrometers normally attempt to measure the water content in individual phases and the presence of other phases invariably influences the quality of the data. However, any liquid water or ice entering this new probe is efficiently evaporated and the resultant water vapor measured using a Lyman-alpha hygrometer. In airborne trials the device was calibrated against a cooled-mirror dewpoint device. Runs were conducted in warm stratocumulus tops, through small cumulus, in mixed-phase precipitation and cirrus cloud. In all cases the device was found to produce high quality, fast response data.

  20. Measurement of water content in polymer electrolyte membranes using high resolution neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L; Davey, John; Mukherjee, Partha P; Hussey, Daniel S; Jacobson, David

    2010-01-01

    Sufficient water content within a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is necessary for adequate ionic conductivity. Membrane hydration is therefore a fundamental requirement for fuel cell operation. The hydration state of the membrane affects the water transport within, as both the diffusion coefficient and electro-osmotic drag depend on the water content. Membrane's water uptake is conventionally measured ex situ by weighing free-swelling samples equilibrated at controlled water activity. In the present study, water profiles in Nafion{reg_sign} membranes were measured using the high-resolution neutron imaging. The state-of-the-art, 10 {micro}m resolution neutron detector is capable of resolving water distributions across N1120, N1110 and N117 membranes. It provides a means to measure the water uptake and transport properties of fuel cell membranes in situ.

  1. UV differential optical absorption method for measuring sulfur content in coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Feihu; Xu, Chuanlong; Wang, Shimin

    2012-02-01

    Determining the sulfur content in coal rapidly and accurately can provide a technical basis for the enterprises and the environmental administration departments. A novel method for measuring the sulfur content in coal based on UV differential optical absorption is presented in this paper. However, compared with the applications in atmosphere monitoring, the UV differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) for the sulfur content measurement in coal has the problems that the concentration range of SO2 in the flue gas is wider and the optical path-length of the gas cell is shorter. To solve these problems, an improved DOAS algorithm based on a finite impulse response (FIR) filter and a nonlinear compensation technique is proposed. An experimental measurement system based on the modified DOAS is designed and established. The standard SO2 gas and five kinds of standard coals are experimentally tested. Theoretical and experimental results show that the lower detection limit of the system is better than 0.014%, and the repeatability of the measurement system fairly meets the national standard of China. The system has advantages of low maintenance and shorter measurement duration (4 min).

  2. The effect of hypophysectomy on pancreatic islet hormone and insulin-like growth factor I content and mRNA expression in rat.

    PubMed

    Jevdjovic, Tanja; Maake, Caroline; Zwimpfer, Cornelia; Krey, Gunthild; Eppler, Elisabeth; Zapf, Jürgen; Reinecke, Manfred

    2005-02-01

    The growth arrest after hypophysectomy in rats is mainly due to growth hormone (GH) deficiency because replacement of GH or insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, the mediator of GH action, leads to resumption of growth despite the lack of other pituitary hormones. Hypophysectomized (hypox) rats have, therefore, often been used to study metabolic consequences of GH deficiency and its effects on tissues concerned with growth. The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of hypophysectomy on the serum and pancreatic levels of the three major islet hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as well as on IGF-I. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH), radioimmunoassays (RIA), and Northern blot analysis were used to localize and quantify the hormones in the pancreas at the peptide and mRNA levels. IHC showed slightly decreased insulin levels in the beta cells of hypox compared with normal, age-matched rats whereas glucagon in alpha cells and somatostatin in delta cells showed increase. IGF-I, which localized to alpha cells, showed decrease. ISH detected a slightly higher expression of insulin mRNA and markedly stronger signals for glucagon and somatostatin mRNA in the islets of hypox rats. Serum glucose concentrations did not differ between the two groups although serum insulin and C-peptide were lower and serum glucagon was higher in the hypox animals. These changes were accompanied by a more than tenfold drop in serum IGF-I. The pancreatic insulin content per gram of tissue was not significantly different in hypox and normal rats. Pancreatic glucagon and somatostatin per gram of tissue were higher in the hypox animals. The pancreatic IGF-I content of hypox rats was significantly reduced. Northern blot analysis gave a 2.6-, 4.5-, and 2.2-fold increase in pancreatic insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin mRNA levels, respectively, in hypox rats, and a 2.3-fold decrease in IGF-I mRNA levels. Our results show that the fall of serum IGF-I after

  3. Modification of tumor cell exosome content by transfection with wt-p53 and microRNA-125b expressing plasmid DNA and its effect on macrophage polarization

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, M; Talekar, M; Shah, P; Ouyang, Q; Amiji, M

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are responsible for intercellular communication between tumor cells and others in the tumor microenvironment. These microvesicles promote oncogensis and can support towards metastasis by promoting a pro-tumorogenic environment. Modifying the exosomal content and exosome delivery are emerging novel cancer therapies. However, the clinical translation is limited due to feasibility of isolating and delivery of treated exosomes as well as an associated immune response in patients. In this study, we provide proof-of-concept for a novel treatment approach for manipulating exosomal content by genetic transfection of tumor cells using dual-targeted hyaluronic acid-based nanoparticles. Following transfection with plasmid DNA encoding for wild-type p53 (wt-p53) and microRNA-125b (miR-125b), we evaluate the transgene expression in the SK-LU-1 cells and in the secreted exosomes. Furthermore, along with modulation of wt-p53 and miR-125b expression, we also show that the exosomes (i.e., wt-p53/exo, miR-125b/exo and combination/exo) have a reprogramed global miRNA profile. The miRNAs in the exosomes were mainly related to the activation of genes associated with apoptosis as well as p53 signaling. More importantly, these altered miRNA levels in the exosomes could mediate macrophage repolarization towards a more pro-inflammatory/antitumor M1 phenotype. However, further studies, especially in vivo studies, are warranted to assess the direct influence of such macrophage reprogramming on cancer cells and oncogenesis post-treatment. The current study provides a novel platform enabling the development of therapeutic strategies affecting not only the cancer cells but also the tumor microenvironment by utilizing the ‘bystander effect' through genetic transfer with secreted exosomes. Such modification could also support antitumor environment leading to decreased oncogenesis. PMID:27500388

  4. Modification of tumor cell exosome content by transfection with wt-p53 and microRNA-125b expressing plasmid DNA and its effect on macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, M; Talekar, M; Shah, P; Ouyang, Q; Amiji, M

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are responsible for intercellular communication between tumor cells and others in the tumor microenvironment. These microvesicles promote oncogensis and can support towards metastasis by promoting a pro-tumorogenic environment. Modifying the exosomal content and exosome delivery are emerging novel cancer therapies. However, the clinical translation is limited due to feasibility of isolating and delivery of treated exosomes as well as an associated immune response in patients. In this study, we provide proof-of-concept for a novel treatment approach for manipulating exosomal content by genetic transfection of tumor cells using dual-targeted hyaluronic acid-based nanoparticles. Following transfection with plasmid DNA encoding for wild-type p53 (wt-p53) and microRNA-125b (miR-125b), we evaluate the transgene expression in the SK-LU-1 cells and in the secreted exosomes. Furthermore, along with modulation of wt-p53 and miR-125b expression, we also show that the exosomes (i.e., wt-p53/exo, miR-125b/exo and combination/exo) have a reprogramed global miRNA profile. The miRNAs in the exosomes were mainly related to the activation of genes associated with apoptosis as well as p53 signaling. More importantly, these altered miRNA levels in the exosomes could mediate macrophage repolarization towards a more pro-inflammatory/antitumor M1 phenotype. However, further studies, especially in vivo studies, are warranted to assess the direct influence of such macrophage reprogramming on cancer cells and oncogenesis post-treatment. The current study provides a novel platform enabling the development of therapeutic strategies affecting not only the cancer cells but also the tumor microenvironment by utilizing the 'bystander effect' through genetic transfer with secreted exosomes. Such modification could also support antitumor environment leading to decreased oncogenesis. PMID:27500388

  5. Measuring Water Content and Desorption Isotherms in Soil Simulants Under Martian Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, T.; Aharonson, O.; Schorghofer, N.; Hecht, M. H.; Bridges, N.; Green, J. R.

    2003-12-01

    Theoretical predictions as well as recent spacecraft observations indicate that large quantities of ice is present in the high latitudes upper decimeters to meters of the Martian regolith. At shallower depths and warmer locations small amounts of H2O, either adsorbed or free, may be present transiently. We seek to simulate Mars surface conditions and to observe the effects of temperature cycling (diurnal and seasonal scale) on the water content profiles of several soil simulants. To model the upper Martian regolith, we begin by using crushed JSC Mars-1 palagonite with particles in the 50 micron to sub-micron size range. Spheres of pure silica in the 10 to 40 mm range may also be used to study the effects of grain surface morphology and composition. Simulants with various water contents are brought to Mars pressures and monitored. A line source heat-pulse probe is being prepared to monitor water content profiles in real-time and to be calibrated against water content samples measured with thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Initial experiments will allow us to monitor water content; more refined investigations will permit the determination of desorption isotherms.

  6. Method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content using microwave absorption techniques

    DOEpatents

    Fryer, Michael O.; Hills, Andrea J.; Morrison, John L.

    2000-01-01

    A self calibrating method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content based on measuring the microwave absorption of a sample of milk at several microwave frequencies. A microwave energy source injects microwave energy into the resonant cavity for absorption and reflection by the sample undergoing evaluation. A sample tube is centrally located in the resonant cavity passing therethrough and exposing the sample to the microwave energy. A portion of the energy is absorbed by the sample while another portion of the microwave energy is reflected back to an evaluation device such as a network analyzer. The frequency at which the reflected radiation is at a minimum within the cavity is combined with the scatter coefficient S.sub.11 as well as a phase change to calculate the butterfat content in the sample. The protein located within the sample may also be calculated in a likewise manner using the frequency, S.sub.11 and phase variables. A differential technique using a second resonant cavity containing a reference standard as a sample will normalize the measurements from the unknown sample and thus be self-calibrating. A shuttered mechanism will switch the microwave excitation between the unknown and the reference cavities. An integrated apparatus for measuring the butterfat content in milk using microwave absorption techniques is also presented.

  7. Measure the Semantic Similarity of GO Terms Using Aggregate Information Content.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuebo; Li, Lin; Srimani, Pradip K; Yu, Philip S; Wang, James Z

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of gene ontology (GO) and huge amount of biomedical data annotated by GO terms necessitate computation of semantic similarity of GO terms and, in turn, measurement of functional similarity of genes based on their annotations. In this paper we propose a novel and efficient method to measure the semantic similarity of GO terms. The proposed method addresses the limitations in existing GO term similarity measurement techniques; it computes the semantic content of a GO term by considering the information content of all of its ancestor terms in the graph. The aggregate information content (AIC) of all ancestor terms of a GO term implicitly reflects the GO term's location in the GO graph and also represents how human beings use this GO term and all its ancestor terms to annotate genes. We show that semantic similarity of GO terms obtained by our method closely matches the human perception. Extensive experimental studies show that this novel method also outperforms all existing methods in terms of the correlation with gene expression data. We have developed web services for measuring semantic similarity of GO terms and functional similarity of genes using the proposed AIC method and other popular methods. These web services are available at http://bioinformatics.clemson.edu/G-SESAME. PMID:26356015

  8. Measurement of Low-Abundance Intracellular mRNA Using Amplified FISH Staining and Image-Based Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Henning, Andrea L; Sampson, Jill N Best; McFarlin, Brian Keith

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in instrument design and reagent development have enabled the rapid progression in available measurement techniques in the field of flow cytometry. In particular, image-based flow cytometry extends the analysis capacity found in traditional flow cytometry. Until recently, it was not possible to measure intracellular mRNA in specific phenotypes of cells by flow cytometry. In this protocol, a method of completing simultaneous intracellular measurement of mRNA and protein for PPAR-gamma in peripheral blood monocytes, which have been exposed in vitro to modified LDL, is described. The process of PPAR-gamma activation following uptake of modified LDL is believed to play a role in the development of atherogenesis. PPAR-gamma mRNA measurement was made possible using an amplified FISH technique (PrimeFlow RNA Assay) that allowed for detection of low-abundant intracellular mRNA expression. This protocol represents a continued effort by the authors' laboratory to establish and validate new techniques to assess the role of the immune system in chronic disease. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27037579

  9. Karyotype characterization and nuclear DNA content measurement in Bromeliaceae: state of the art and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Andrei C P; Clarindo, Wellington R

    2014-12-01

    In Bromeliaceae, cytogenetic and flow cytometry analyses have been performed to clarify systematic and evolutionary aspects. Karyotyping approaches have shown the relatively high chromosome number, similar morphology and small size of the chromosomes. These facts have prevented a correct chromosome counting and characterization. Authors have established a basic chromosome number of x = 25 for Bromeliaceae. Recently, one karyomorphological analysis revealed that x = 25 is no longer the basic chromosome number, whose genome may have a polyploid origin. Besides cytogenetic characterization, the 2C DNA content of bromeliads has been measured. Nuclear DNA content has varied from 2C = 0.60 to 2C = 3.34 picograms. Thus, in relation to most angiosperms, the 2C DNA content of Bromeliaceae species as well as their chromosome size can be considered relatively small. In spite of some advances, cytogenetic and flow cytometry data are extremely scarce in this group. In this context, this review reports the state of the art in karyotype characterization and nuclear DNA content measurement in Bromeliaceae, emphasizing the main problems and suggesting prospective solutions and ideas for future research. PMID:25590721

  10. NeQuick and IRI Plas models performance on topside electron content representation: spaceborne GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina

    2016-07-01

    The correct representation of the topside ionosphere is still a big problem for the empirical ionospheric models due to the scarce satellite probe measurements. We presents new results of the concurrent analysis of the the topside electron content values derived from the GPS measurements onboard the GOCE and TerraSAR-X satellites with two empirical ionospheric models: NeQuick and IRI Plas. Two periods of low (2009/2010) and high (2012) solar activity are analyzed. It is found that the IRI Plus model overestimates topside electron density in the both 250-500 and 500-20000 altitude ranges during low solar activity period and tends to underestimates all topside electron content during high solar activity. The NeQuick 2 model demonstrates rather similar to the IRI Plas results for the 250-500 km region and the opposite behaviour for the region above 500 km with underestimeted values for all considered seasons and local time.

  11. Coherent and incoherent scatterings for measurement of mandibular bone density and stable iodine content of tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amandeep; Singh, Mohinderpal; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, Balvir S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study is to investigate the feasibility of gamma ray scattering for measurements of mandibular bone density and stable iodine content of tissue. Scattered spectra from solutions of K2HPO4 in distilled water (a phantom simulating the mandibular bone) and KI in distilled water filled in a thin plastic vial (a phantom simulating the kinetics of thyroid iodine) are recorded for 59.54 and 145 keV incident gamma rays, respectively. A high-purity germanium detector is placed at various angular positions to record the scattered spectra originating from interactions of incident gamma rays with the phantom. The measured intensity ratio of coherent to incoherent scattered gamma rays, corrected for photo-peak efficiency of HPGe detector, absorption of gamma rays in air column present between phantom and detector, and self-absorption in the phantom, is found to be increasing linearly with increase in concentration of K2HPO4 and KI in distilled water within experimental estimated error of <6%. The regression lines, obtained from experimental data for intensity ratio, provide the bone density and stable iodine contents of thyroid. The present non-destructive technique has the potential for a measure of mandibular bone density and stable iodine contents of thyroid. PMID:20098568

  12. Soil Water Content Sensors as a Method of Measuring Ice Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, E.; Reed, D. E.; Desai, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Lake ice depth provides important information about local and regional climate change, weather patterns, and recreational safety, as well as impacting in situ ecology and carbon cycling. However, it is challenging to measure ice depth continuously from a remote location, as existing methods are too large, expensive, and/or time-intensive. Therefore, we present a novel application that reduces the size and cost issues by using soil water content reflectometer sensors. Analysis of sensors deployed in an environmental chamber using a scale model of a lake demonstrated their value as accurate measures of the change in ice depth over any time period, through measurement of the liquid-to-solid phase change. A robust correlation exists between volumetric water content in time as a function of environmental temperature. This relationship allows us to convert volumetric water content into ice depth. An array of these sensors will be placed in Lake Mendota, Madison, Wisconsin in winter 2015-2016, to create a temporally high-resolution ice depth record, which will be used for ecological or climatological studies while also being transmitted to the public to increase recreational safety.

  13. Uncertainty quantification for nuclear density functional theory and information content of new measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McDonnell, J. D.; Schunck, N.; Higdon, D.; Sarich, J.; Wild, S. M.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-03-24

    Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models, to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability, to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment, and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squaresmore » optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, we apply the Bayesian framework to propagate theoretical statistical uncertainties in predictions of nuclear masses, two-neutron dripline, and fission barriers. Overall, we find that the new mass measurements do not impose a constraint that is strong enough to lead to significant changes in the model parameters. In addition, the example discussed in this study sets the stage for quantifying and maximizing the impact of new measurements with respect to current modeling and guiding future experimental efforts, thus enhancing the experiment-theory cycle in the scientific method.« less

  14. Uncertainty quantification for nuclear density functional theory and information content of new measurements.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, J D; Schunck, N; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S M; Nazarewicz, W

    2015-03-27

    Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models, to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability, to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment, and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squares optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, we apply the Bayesian framework to propagate theoretical statistical uncertainties in predictions of nuclear masses, two-neutron dripline, and fission barriers. Overall, we find that the new mass measurements do not impose a constraint that is strong enough to lead to significant changes in the model parameters. The example discussed in this study sets the stage for quantifying and maximizing the impact of new measurements with respect to current modeling and guiding future experimental efforts, thus enhancing the experiment-theory cycle in the scientific method. PMID:25860736

  15. Uncertainty quantification for nuclear density functional theory and information content of new measurements

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, J. D.; Schunck, N.; Higdon, D.; Sarich, J.; Wild, S. M.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-03-24

    Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models, to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability, to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment, and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squares optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, we apply the Bayesian framework to propagate theoretical statistical uncertainties in predictions of nuclear masses, two-neutron dripline, and fission barriers. Overall, we find that the new mass measurements do not impose a constraint that is strong enough to lead to significant changes in the model parameters. In addition, the example discussed in this study sets the stage for quantifying and maximizing the impact of new measurements with respect to current modeling and guiding future experimental efforts, thus enhancing the experiment-theory cycle in the scientific method.

  16. Uncertainty quantification for nuclear density functional theory and information content of new measurements

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, J. D.; Schunck, N.; Higdon, D.; Sarich, J.; Wild, S. M.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-03-24

    Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models, to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability, to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment, and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squares optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, we apply the Bayesian framework to propagate theoretical statistical uncertainties in predictions of nuclear masses, two-neutron dripline, and fission barriers. Overall, we find that the new mass measurements do not impose a constraint that is strong enough to lead to significant changes in the model parameters. As a result, the example discussed in this study sets the stage for quantifying and maximizing the impact of new measurements with respect to current modeling and guiding future experimental efforts, thus enhancing the experiment-theory cycle in the scientific method.

  17. A method for routine measurements of total sugar and starch content in woody plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Chow, Pak S; Landhäusser, Simon M

    2004-10-01

    Several extraction and measurement methods currently employed in the determination of total sugar and starch contents in plant tissues were investigated with the view to streamline the process of total sugar and starch determination. Depending on the type and source of tissue, total sugar and starch contents estimated from samples extracted with 80% hot ethanol were significantly greater than from samples extracted with a methanol:chloroform:water solution. The residual ethanol did not interfere with the sugar and starch determination, rendering the removal of ethanol from samples unnecessary. The use of phenol-sulfuric acid with a phenol concentration of 2% provided a relatively simple and reliable colorimetric method to quantify the total soluble-sugar concentration. Performing parallel sugar assays with and without phenol was more useful for accounting for the interfering effects of other substances present in plant tissue than using chloroform. For starch determination, an enzyme mixture of 1000 U alpha-amylase and 5 U amyloglucosidase digested starch in plant tissue samples more rapidly and completely than previously recommended enzyme doses. Dilute sulfuric acid (0.005 N) was less suitable for starch digestion than enzymatic hydrolysis because the acid also broke down structural carbohydrates, resulting in overestimates of starch content. After the enzymatic digestion of starch, the glucose hydrolyzate obtained was measured with a peroxidase-glucose oxidase/o-dianisidine reagent; absorbance being read at 525 nm after the addition of sulfuric acid. With the help of this series of studies, we developed a refined and shortened method suitable for the rapid measurement of total sugar and starch contents in woody plant tissues. PMID:15294759

  18. DAPI-fluorescent fading: a problem in microscopy or a way to measure nuclear DNA content?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué; Kober, V.; del Río-Portilla, Miguel Á.

    2006-01-01

    In observation by confocal or conventional fluorescence microscopy, the retardation of the lost in fluorescence, from highest signal of fluorescence to lowest intensity are important factors in order to obtain accurate images. This problem is very common in fluorochromes for nuclear DNA and especially for DAPI stain. The fluorescence of DAPI is rapidly lost when it is exposure to excitation by ultra violet (UV) light, and especially under optimal condition of observation. Although the fading process could be retardate by using of mounting medium with antifading solutions, the photochemical process underlying the fluorescence decay has not yet been fully explained. In addiction, neither relationship has been tested between the fluorescence fading and nuclear DNA content. However, the capacity of the DNA to absorb UV light is knows. In order to test this relationship we measured by means of image analysis the fluorescence intensity in several nuclei types during a fading period. The analysis was performed by an algorithm specifically built in MATLAB software. The relationship between nuclear DNA content and DAPI-fluorescence fading was found equal to 99%. This study demonstrates the feasibility for estimates genome size by quantification of fluorescence fading. In this context, the present method allows to measure nuclear DNA content in several medical applications (cancer, HIV, organ transplants, etc). Nowadays, for measuring DNA content, flow cytometry is widely used; however, with the flow cytometry method it is not possible to select a specific group of cells, such as from a specific region of a tumor. Moreover, the using of image analysis allows automatizing diagnostics procedures.

  19. Laboratory-field scaling of soil hydraulic properties: numerical validation based on soil water content measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Coppola, Antonio; Basile, Angelo

    2010-05-01

    Hydraulic properties should be determined at the scale of the process modeled. The methods to hydraulically characterize a soil in situ remain extremely difficult to implement, needing measurements of water content and pressure head with adequate time-depth resolution. The authors recently proposed a method of scaling, physically based, that allows to obtain the field soil hydraulic parameters from the laboratory hydraulic characterization and the maximum water content in field. The procedure is based on the hypothesis that the field retention curve represents a secondary internal curves of the hysteresis loop. Assuming the sample as the REV (Representative Elementary Volume) of the soil, the drying and wetting laboratory curve represent the primaries curves. The procedure, recently validated on different soil samples, has been applied in four case studies (Cerese, Lodi, Scafati and Eboli). In each site, the soil water content was monitored at different depths along the soil profile with Time Domain Reflectometry technique (TDR)(years 2002-2003 for Cerese and Lodi, and years 2005-2006 for Scafati and Eboli). The SWAP hydrological simulation model, based on the Richard's equation, was applied to test in a composite field water flow processes the goodness of the proposed procedure. In particular, we compared water content measured in field and estimated by SWAP in two different runs, applying the same boundary conditions and crop parameterization, using hydraulic parameters obtained from (i) trials and errors calibration procedure and (ii) proposed scaling procedure. The agreement between observed and predicted values was expressed by the indexes RMSE (root mean squared error) and r (Pearson correlation). In the preliminary analysis, the statistical indexes has shown that the results obtained from scaling procedure are very similar or better of those obtained from calibration procedure. The main advantage arising from such scaling procedure rely on the significant

  20. Method for Determining the Coalbed Methane Content with Determination the Uncertainty of Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Korzec, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Methane has a bad influence on safety in underground mines as it is emitted to the air during mining works. Appropriate identification of methane hazard is essential to determining methane hazard prevention methods, ventilation systems and methane drainage systems. Methane hazard is identified while roadways are driven and boreholes are drilled. Coalbed methane content is one of the parameters which is used to assess this threat. This is a requirement according to the Decree of the Minister of Economy dated 28 June 2002 on work safety and hygiene, operation and special firefighting protection in underground mines. For this purpose a new method for determining coalbed methane content in underground coal mines has been developed. This method consists of two stages - collecting samples in a mine and testing the sample in the laboratory. The stage of determining methane content in a coal sample in a laboratory is essential. This article presents the estimation of measurement uncertainty of determining methane content in a coal sample according to this methodology.

  1. Measuring Adverse Events in Helicopter Emergency Medical Services: Establishing Content Validity

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Lave, Judith R.; Martin-Gill, Christian; Weaver, Matthew D.; Wadas, Richard J.; Arnold, Robert M.; Roth, Ronald N.; Mosesso, Vincent N.; Guyette, Francis X.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Yealy, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We sought to create a valid framework for detecting Adverse Events (AEs) in the high-risk setting of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS). Methods We assembled a panel of 10 expert clinicians (n=6 emergency medicine physicians and n=4 prehospital nurses and flight paramedics) affiliated with a large multi-state HEMS organization in the Northeast U.S. We used a modified Delphi technique to develop a framework for detecting AEs associated with the treatment of critically ill or injured patients. We used a widely applied measure, the Content Validity Index (CVI), to quantify the validity of the framework’s content. Results The expert panel of 10 clinicians reached consensus on a common AE definition and four-step protocol/process for AE detection in HEMS. The consensus-based framework is composed of three main components: 1) a trigger tool, 2) a method for rating proximal cause, and 3) a method for rating AE severity. The CVI findings isolate components of the framework considered content valid. Conclusions We demonstrate a standardized process for the development of a content valid framework for AE detection. The framework is a model for the development of a method for AE identification in other settings, including ground-based EMS. PMID:24003951

  2. A new TDR multiplexing system for reliable electrical conductivity and soil water content measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihermueller, Lutz; Huisman, Sander; Hermes, Normen; Pickel, Stefanie; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is a standard method to estimate soil water content and bulk soil electrical conductivity. In many applications, several TDR probes are installed in soil columns or field setups, and they are measured using a multiplexing system. It has been reported that commercially available multiplexers share a common ground, which might lead to inaccurate TDR measurements when probes are installed close together or at sites with high electromagnetic noise. Therefore, a new eight-channel differential multiplexer (50C81-SDM) was developed that allows communication with standard TDR equipment. The 50C81-SDM multiplexer was tested using measurement in electrolyte solutions and a sand tank. In contrast to multiplexers with a common ground, they showed no interference of closely spaced TDR probes. Measurements at a test site also showed the applicability of the 50C81-SDM multiplexer in an environment contaminated with high electromagnetic noise.

  3. Precise measurement method for ionospheric total electron content using signals from GPS satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imae, Michito; Kiuchi, Hitoshi; Kaneko, Akihiro; Hama, Shinichi; Miki, Chihiro

    1990-01-01

    A GPS codeless receiver called GTR-2 was for measuring total electron content (TEC) along the line of sight to the GPS satellite by using the cross correlation amplitude of the received P-code signals carried by L1(1575.42 MHz) and L2(1227.6 MHz). This equipment has the performance of uncertainty in the measurement of TEC of about 2 X 10(exp 16) electrons/sq m when a 10 dBi gain antenna was used. To increase the measurement performance, an upper version of GTR-2 called GTR-3 is planned which uses the phase information of the continuous signals obtained by making a cross correlation or multiplication of the received L1 and L2 P-code signals. By using the difference of these measured phases values, the ionospheric delay with the ambiguities of the periods of L1+L2 and L1-L2 signals can be estimated.

  4. Elucidating MicroRNA Regulatory Networks Using Transcriptional, Post-transcriptional, and Histone Modification Measurements.

    PubMed

    Gosline, Sara J C; Gurtan, Allan M; JnBaptiste, Courtney K; Bosson, Andrew; Milani, Pamela; Dalin, Simona; Matthews, Bryan J; Yap, Yoon S; Sharp, Phillip A; Fraenkel, Ernest

    2016-01-12

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate diverse biological processes by repressing mRNAs, but their modest effects on direct targets, together with their participation in larger regulatory networks, make it challenging to delineate miRNA-mediated effects. Here, we describe an approach to characterizing miRNA-regulatory networks by systematically profiling transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic activity in a pair of isogenic murine fibroblast cell lines with and without Dicer expression. By RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and CLIP (crosslinking followed by immunoprecipitation) sequencing (CLIP-seq), we found that most of the changes induced by global miRNA loss occur at the level of transcription. We then introduced a network modeling approach that integrated these data with epigenetic data to identify specific miRNA-regulated transcription factors that explain the impact of miRNA perturbation on gene expression. In total, we demonstrate that combining multiple genome-wide datasets spanning diverse regulatory modes enables accurate delineation of the downstream miRNA-regulated transcriptional network and establishes a model for studying similar networks in other systems. PMID:26748710

  5. An evaluation of measurement uncertainties in the on-line measurement of coal ash content by gamma-ray transmission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenzhong; Kong, Li; Qu, Tan; Chen, Jingjing

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, a significant effect producing systematic errors in the on-line measurement using gamma-ray transmission is revealed. Ash content fluctuations or thickness changes lead to a permanent negative systematic error in the results of the measurements. To study uncertainties in the measurements applicable to time-independent ash content indicators and to investigate the characteristics of the radiation attenuation process, the behavior of the quantity in question in modeled with a stationary Gaussian distribution. A systematic error-producing effect has been found, and a quantitative correction is given to compensate for it. For some other quantities in question that vary in time, a linear model is used to discuss the systematic errors in the case of automated coal gangue separator. Results of experiments that demonstrate different systematic errors for different sampling intervals are presented. The reason for these errors is the nonlinearity of the relationship between the radiation intensity, on the one hand, and the sample thickness and mass attention, on the other. PMID:12201142

  6. Laser Capture Microdissection and Real-Time PCR for Measuring mRNA in Giant Cells Induced by Meloidogyne javanica.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Magill, C; Starr, J L

    2005-09-01

    The techniques of laser capture microdissection and quantitative RT-PCR were investigated as methods for measuring mRNA in giant cells induced by Meloidogyne javanica. Laser capture microdissection allowed precise sampling of giant cells at 1 to 3 weeks after inoculation. The expression of three genes (a water channel protein gene Rb7, a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (LHA4), and a hexose kinase (HXK1) was measured based on mRNA extracted from tissue samples and quantitated using reversetranscription real-time PCR. These genes were chosen arbitrarily to represent different aspects of primary metabolism. The amount of HXK1 mRNA in giant cells was not different from that in root meristem or cortical cells when compared on the basis of number of molecules per unit tissue volume, and was similar at all sample times. Amount of mRNA for LHA4 and Rb7 was much greater in giant cells than in cortical cells, but only Rb7 was also greater in giant cells than in root meristem cells. Numbers of mRNA molecules of LHA4 increased linearly in giant cells from 1 to 3 weeks after inoculation, whereas the amount of Rb7 mRNA was similar at 1 and 2 weeks after inoculation but increased at 3 weeks after inoculation. The amount of mRNA for these two genes was similar at all sample times in cortical and root-tip cells. Apparent up regulation of some genes in giant cells may be due primarily to the increased number of copies of the gene in giant cells, whereas for other genes up regulation may also involve increased transcription of the increased number of copies of the gene. PMID:19262878

  7. Overexpression of the maize Corngrass1 microRNA prevents flowering, improves digestibility, and increases starch content of switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Chuck, George S.; Tobias, Christian; Sun, Lan; Kraemer, Florian; Li, Chenlin; Dibble, Dean; Arora, Rohit; Bragg, Jennifer N.; Vogel, John P.; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.; Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels developed from biomass crops have the potential to supply a significant portion of our transportation fuel needs. To achieve this potential, however, it will be necessary to develop improved plant germplasm specifically tailored to serve as energy crops. Liquid transportation fuel can be created from the sugars locked inside plant cell walls. Unfortunately, these sugars are inherently resistant to hydrolytic release because they are contained in polysaccharides embedded in lignin. Overcoming this obstacle is a major objective toward developing sustainable bioenergy crop plants. The maize Corngrass1 (Cg1) gene encodes a microRNA that promotes juvenile cell wall identities and morphology. To test the hypothesis that juvenile biomass has superior qualities as a potential biofuel feedstock, the Cg1 gene was transferred into several other plants, including the bioenergy crop Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Such plants were found to have up to 250% more starch, resulting in higher glucose release from saccharification assays with or without biomass pretreatment. In addition, a complete inhibition of flowering was observed in both greenhouse and field grown plants. These results point to the potential utility of this approach, both for the domestication of new biofuel crops, and for the limitation of transgene flow into native plant species. PMID:21987797

  8. Indirect measurement of water content in an aseptic solid substrate cultivation pilot-scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Peña Y Lillo, M; Pérez-Correa, R; Agosin, E; Latrille, E

    2001-01-01

    A lack of models and sensors for describing and monitoring large-scale solid substrate cultivation (SSC) bioreactors has hampered industrial development and application of this type of process. This study presents an indirect dynamic measurement model for a 200-kg-capacity fixed-bed SSC bioreactor under periodic agitation. Growth of the filamentous fungus Gibberella fujikuroi on wheat bran was used as a case study. Real data were preprocessed using previously reported methodology. The model uses CO2 production rate and inlet air conditions to estimate average bed water content and average bed temperature. The model adequately reproduces the evolution of the average bed water content and can therefore be used as an on-line estimator in pilot-scale SSC bioreactors. To obtain a reasonable fit of the bed temperature, however, inlet air humidity measurements will have to be adjusted with a data reconciliation algorithm. Good estimation of temperature is important for the future design of improved water content estimation using state observers. The model also provides insight into understanding the complex behavior of the dynamic system, which could prove useful when establishing advanced model-based operational and control strategies. PMID:11400105

  9. Insulin receptor content in tissues of normal and diabetic rats measured by radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Pezzino, V; Costantino, A; Russo, P; Gullo, D; Papa, V

    1996-10-01

    Insulin receptor (IR) content in different tissues has been quantitatively evaluated by means of steady state binding studies with radiolabeled insulin. The information provided by this approach, however, does not give a direct measurement of the receptor protein. Rather, it depends on the binding function of the IR, evaluated on the basis of curvilinear plots derived by Scatchard analysis of the experimental data. In the present report we employed a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) that allows a direct measurement of IR in solubilized cells or tissues. By this method we studied: a) IR distribution in several tissues of the rat, the animal model most frequently used in studies of insulin action; b) IR regulation in streptozotocin-treated, diabetic insulin deficient rats. Tissues from male Wistar rats (11 controls and 6 streptozotocin-treated diabetic animals) were homogenized, solubilized with Triton X-100 in the presence of protease inhibitors and stored at -80 C. IR content in the solubilized material was then measured by RIA. IR were detectable in all 11 tissues tested. Liver, kidney and brain neocortex had the highest IR content. (24.7 +/- 1.0, 20.5 +/- 1.1, 25.9 +/- 1.6 ng/mg protein, m +/- SE, respectively). As expected, circulating insulin levels were lower in diabetic rats than in control rats. In diabetic, insulin deficient rats, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle contained more IR than in control rats (p = 0.001; p = 0.018; p = 0.003, respectively), whereas IR content in neocortex was similar in the two groups. The IR RIA may represent a useful tool for the study of IR regulation and patho-physiology. Our data provide a comparative direct measurement of IR distribution in a variety of rat tissues. IR content in diabetic rats is increased in typical target organs for insulin action, as a consequence of up-regulation due to the reduced insulin levels. This is not the case for metabolically insulin-dependent tissues, like brain. PMID:8957742

  10. Non-invasive measurements of soil water content using a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most current techniques of setting crop irrigation schedules use invasive, labor-intensive soil-water content measurements. We developed a cart-mounted neutron probe capable of non-invasive measurements of volumetric soil moisture contents. The instrument emits neutrons which are captured by hydroge...

  11. Time-domain reflectometry: Simultaneous measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity with a single probe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, F.N.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Rawlins, D.S.; Rhoades, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Two parallel metallic rods were used as a wave guide to measure the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of soils having different electrical conductivities but the same water content. Measurements showed that the two parameters were sufficiently independent to permit simultaneous determinations of water content and bulk electrical conductivity.

  12. Capacitance and phase-angle measurement for estimating moisture content in nuts and grain nondestructively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandala, Chari V.; Butts, Chris L.

    2006-03-01

    The design and performance of an electrical instrument that would be useful in estimating the moisture content (mc) of agricultural products such as grain and nuts nondestructively and rapidly is described here. The instrument, here after called the impedance meter, determines the capacitance and phase angle of a sample of the produce (about 100 g), filling the space between two parallel-plate electrodes, at two frequencies 1 and 5 MHz. The measured values were used in a semi-empirical equation to obtain the mc of the sample. In this paper, capacitance and phase angle were determined for in-shell peanuts in the moisture range between 6 and 25% by the impedance meter, and their moisture contents were calculated. The calculated values were compared with the mc values obtained by the standard air-oven method. The estimated values were in good agreement with the standard values. This method is applicable to produce such as corn, wheat and pecans also.

  13. Fast Measurement of Soluble Solid Content in Mango Based on Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

    Mango is a kind of popular tropical fruit, and the soluble solid content is an important in this study visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIR) technique was applied. For sake of investigating the feasibility of using VIS/SWNIR spectroscopy to measure the soluble solid content in mango, and validating the performance of selected sensitive bands, for the calibration set was formed by 135 mango samples, while the remaining 45 mango samples for the prediction set. The combination of partial least squares and backpropagation artificial neural networks (PLS-BP) was used to calculate the prediction model based on raw spectrum data. Based on PLS-BP, the determination coefficient for prediction (Rp) was 0.757 and root mean square and the process is simple and easy to operate. Compared with the Partial least squares (PLS) result, the performance of PLS-BP is better.

  14. Research on content measurement of textile mixture by near infrared spectroscopy based on principal component regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li; Liu, Li

    2010-07-01

    A new method for accurate measurement of content of textile mixture by use of Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy is put forward. The near infrared spectra of 56 samples with different cotton and polyester contents were obtained, in which 41 samples, 10 samples and 5 samples were used for the calibration set, validation set and prediction set respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized for the spectra data compression. Principal component regression (PCR) model was developed. It indicates that the MAE is within 2.9% and the RMSE is less than 3.6% for the validation samples, which is suitable for the prediction of unknown samples. The PCR model was applied to predict unknown samples. Experimental results show that this approach by use of Fourier transform Near Infrared Spectroscopy can be used to quantitative analysis for textile fiber.

  15. Method and apparatus for measuring incombustible content of coal mine dust using gamma-ray backscatter

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, Frederick E.

    1976-09-28

    Method and apparatus for measuring incombustible content of particulate material, particularly coal mine dust, includes placing a sample of the particulate material in a container to define a pair of angularly oriented surfaces of the sample, directing an incident gamma-ray beam from a radiation source at one surface of the sample and detecting gamma-ray backscatter from the other surface of the sample with a radiation detector having an output operating a display to indicate incombustible content of the sample. The positioning of the source and detector along different surfaces of the sample permits the depth of the scattering volume defined by intersection of the incident beam and a detection cone from the detector to be selected such that variations in scattered radiation produced by variations in density of the sample are compensated by variations in the attenuation of the incident beam and the gamma-ray backscatter.

  16. Determination of Radioisotope Content by Measurement of Waste Package Dose Rates - 13394

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Daiane Cristini B.; Gimenes Tessaro, Ana Paula; Vicente, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this communication is to report the observed correlation between the calculated air kerma rates produced by radioactive waste drums containing untreated ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal slurries with the measured radiation field of each package. Air kerma rates at different distances from the drum surface were calculated with the activity concentrations previously determined by gamma spectrometry of waste samples and the estimated mass, volume and geometry of solid and liquid phases of each waste package. The water content of each waste drum varies widely between different packages. Results will allow determining the total activity of wastes and are intended to complete the previous steps taken to characterize the radioisotope content of wastes packages. (authors)

  17. Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Misun; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Voisin, Sophie; Cheng, Chu-lin; Perfect, Edmund; Horita, Juske; Warren, Jeffrey

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  18. Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Voisin, S.; Cheng, C. L.; Perfect, E.; Horita, J.; Warren, J. M.

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  19. C-14 content of ten meteorites measured by tandem accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. M.; Andrews, H. R.; Ball, G. C.; Burn, N.; Imahori, Y.; Milton, J. C. D.; Fireman, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of C-14 in three North American and seven Antarctic meteorites show in most cases that this cosmogenic isotope, which is tightly bound, was separated from absorbed atmospheric radiocarbon by stepwise heating extractions. The present upper limit to age determination by the accelerator method varies from 50,000 to 70,000 years, depending on the mass and carbon content of the sample. The natural limit caused by cosmic ray production of C-14 in silicate rocks at 2000 m elevation is estimated to be 55,000 + or - 5000 years. An estimation is also made of the 'weathering ages' of the Antarctic meteorites from the specific activity of loosely bound CO2 which is thought to be absorbed from the terrestrial atmosphere. Accelerator measurements are found to agree with previous low level counting measurements, but are more sensitive and precise.

  20. NASA Glenn Research Center, Propulsion Systems Laboratory: Plan to Measure Engine Core Flow Water Vapor Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will be made at the 92nd AIAA Turbine Engine Testing Working Group (TETWoG), a semi-annual technical meeting of turbine engine testing professionals. The objective is to describe an effort by NASA to measure the water vapor content on the core airflow in a full scale turbine engine ice crystal icing test and to open a discussion with colleagues how to accurately conduct the measurement based on any previous collective experience with the procedure, instruments and nature of engine icing testing within the group. The presentation lays out the schematics of the location in the flow path from which the sample will be drawn, the plumbing to get it from the engine flow path to the sensor and several different water vapor measurement technologies that will be used: Tunable diode laser and infrared spectroscopy.

  1. Cardiac calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor) in control and cardiomyopathic human hearts: mRNA and protein contents are differentially regulated.

    PubMed

    Sainte Beuve, C; Allen, P D; Dambrin, G; Rannou, F; Marty, I; Trouvé, P; Bors, V; Pavie, A; Gandgjbakch, I; Charlemagne, D

    1997-04-01

    Abnormal intracellular calcium handling in cardiomyopathic human hearts has been associated with an impaired function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, but previous reports on the gene expression of the ryanodine receptors (Ry2) are contradictory. We measured the mRNA levels, the protein levels and the number of high affinity [3H]ryanodine binding sites in the left ventricle of non-failing (n = 9) and failing human hearts [idiopathic dilated (IDCM n = 16), ischemic (ICM n = 7) or mixed (MCM n = 8) cardiomyopathies]. Ry2 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in IDCM (-30%) and unchanged in MCM and ICM and Ry2 protein levels were similar. In contrast, we observed a two-fold increase in the number of high affinity Ry2 (B(max) = 0.43 +/- 0.11 v 0.22 +/- 0.13 pmol/mg protein, respectively; P<0.01) and an unchanged K(d). Furthermore, levels of myosin heavy chain mRNA and protein per g of tissue were similar in failing and non-failing hearts, suggesting that the observed differences in Ry2 are not caused by the increase in fibrosis in failing heart. Therefore, the dissociation between the two-fold increase in the number of high affinity ryanodine receptors observed in all failing hearts and the slightly decreased mRNA level or unchanged protein level suggests that the ryanodine binding properties are affected in failing myocardium and that such modifications rather than a change in gene expression alter the channel activity and could contribute to abnormalities in intracellular Ca2+ handling. PMID:9160875

  2. Estimation of Canopy Water Content in Konza Parry Grasslands Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Measurements During FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; van Zyl, Jacob J.; Asrar, Ghassem

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an algorithm to retrieve the canopy water contents of natural grasslands and pasture from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements. The development on this algorithm involves three interrelated steps: (1) calibration of SAR data for ground topographic variations, (2) development and validation of backscatter model for cross-polarized ratio. The polarimetric radar data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory AIRSAR system during the 1989 First International Satellite land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) used for this study. The SAR data have been calibrated and corrected for the topographical effects by using the digital elevation map of the study area.

  3. Measurement of liquid water content in a melting snowpack using cold calorimeter techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Jones, E. B.; Howell, S.

    1980-01-01

    Liquid water in a snowpack is a quantifiable parameter of hydrological significance. It is also important in the interpretation of snowpack remote sensing data using microwave techniques. One acceptable approach to measuring liquid water content of a snowpack (by weight) is the cold calorimeter. This technique is presented from theory through application. Silicon oil was used successfully as the freezing agent. Consistent results can be obtained even when using operators with a minimum of training. Data can be obtained approximately every 15 minutes by using two calorimeters and three operators. Accuracy within one to two percent can be achieved under reasonable field conditions.

  4. Measurement of effective thermal conductivity of wheat as a function of moisture content

    SciTech Connect

    Tavman, S.; Tavman, I.H.

    1998-07-01

    Grain drying and storage are one of the main activities of agricultural industry. Increasing energy costs have stressed the importance of calculation of heat and mass transfer in a grain bulk in order to be able to optimize drying facilities. Another limitation during drying is the preservation of grain structure and its nutritional values, Muehlbauer and Christ have shown that damage to the grain structure and grain nutritional value is dependent upon grain temperature and drying time. Therefore, proper conditions during drying and storage of cereal grains require the knowledge of the thermophysical properties of the grains. The effective thermal conductivity of two varieties of Triticum durum wheat and a wheat product, bulgur, is determined at different moisture contents and at ambient temperature by the transient lime heat source method. The moisture contents of the samples ranged from 9.17 to 38.65% wet basis and the bulk densities ranged from 675 to 827 kg/m{sup 3}. Under those conditions, the measured effective thermal conductivities ranged from 0.159 to 0.201 W/m.K. The effective thermal conductivity is found to be linearly increasing with moisture content. The results are also in good agreement with literature values.

  5. Comparison of different methods for the in situ measurement of forest litter moisture content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, C.; Ruth, B.; Leuchner, M.; Wastl, C.; Menzel, A.

    2015-06-01

    Dead fine fuel (e.g. litter) moisture content is an important parameter for both forest fire and ecological applications as it is related to ignitability, fire behavior as well as soil respiration. However, the comprehensive literature review in this paper shows that there is no easy-to-use method for automated measurements available. This study investigates the applicability of four different sensor types (permittivity and electrical resistance measuring principles) for this measurement. Comparisons were made to manual gravimetric reference measurements carried out almost daily for one fire season and overall agreement was good (highly significant correlations with 0.792 ≦ r ≦ 0.947). Standard deviations within sensor types were linearly correlated to daily sensor mean values; however, above a certain threshold they became irregular, which may be linked to exceedance of the working ranges. Thus, measurements with irregular standard deviations were considered unusable and calibrations of all individual sensors were compared for useable periods. A large drift in the sensor raw value-litter moisture-relationship became obvious from drought to drought period. This drift may be related to installation effects or settling and decomposition of the litter layer throughout the fire season. Because of the drift and the in situ calibration necessary, it cannot be recommended to use the methods presented here for monitoring purposes. However, they may be interesting for scientific studies when some manual fuel moisture measurements are made anyway. Additionally, a number of potential methodological improvements are suggested.

  6. Measurement of humerus and radius bone mineral content in the term and preterm infant

    SciTech Connect

    Vyhmeister, N.R.; Linkhart, T.A.

    1988-07-01

    We compared two anatomic sites for single-photon absorptiometric measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) in term and preterm infants. The distal one third of the radius and the midportion of the humerus were evaluated for measurements of BMC with an unmodified, commercially available bone densitometer. We assessed reproducibility of BMC and bone width (BW) measurements and defined normal at-birth ranges of BMC, BW, and BMC/BW ratio for infants with gestational ages of 24 to 42 weeks. Humerus BMC correlated with gestational age, birth weight, and BW of patients and did not differ from humerus BMC values determined over the same range of gestational ages at another center. Representative serial measurements of two very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of using humerus BMC in longitudinal studies to assess changes in bone mineralization. We conclude that bone densitometer measurements of mid-humerus BMC can be successfully performed and are preferable to similar measurements of the radius for VLBW infants. Normal humerus BMC values were defined for use in diagnosis and evaluation of the efficacy of treatment in VLBW infants who are at high risk of developing osteopenia of prematurity.

  7. RNA-Seq Analysis of the Effect of Kanamycin and the ABC Transporter AtWBC19 on Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings Reveals Changes in Metal Content

    PubMed Central

    Mentewab, Ayalew; Matheson, Kinnari; Adebiyi, Morayo; Robinson, Shanice; Elston, Brianna

    2014-01-01

    Plants are exposed to antibiotics produced by soil microorganisms, but little is known about their responses at the transcriptional level. Likewise, few endogenous mechanisms of antibiotic resistance have been reported. The Arabidopsis thaliana ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter AtWBC19 (ABCG19) is known to confer kanamycin resistance, but the exact mechanism of resistance is not well understood. Here we examined the transcriptomes of control seedlings and wbc19 mutant seedlings using RNA-seq analysis. Exposure to kanamycin indicated changes in the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus, metabolic fluxes and metal uptake. Elemental analysis showed a 60% and 80% reduction of iron uptake in control and wbc19 mutant seedlings respectively, upon exposure to kanamycin. The drop in iron content was accompanied by the upregulation of the gene encoding for FERRIC REDUCTION OXIDASE 6 (FRO6) in mutant seedlings but not by the differential expression of other transport genes known to be induced by iron deficiency. In addition, wbc19 mutants displayed a distinct expression profile in the absence of kanamycin. Most notably the expression of several zinc ion binding proteins, including ZINC TRANSPORTER 1 PRECURSOR (ZIP1) was increased, suggesting abnormal zinc uptake. Elemental analysis confirmed a 50% decrease of zinc content in wbc19 mutants. Thus, the antibiotic resistance gene WBC19 appears to also have a role in zinc uptake. PMID:25310285

  8. RNA-seq analysis of the effect of kanamycin and the ABC transporter AtWBC19 on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings reveals changes in metal content.

    PubMed

    Mentewab, Ayalew; Matheson, Kinnari; Adebiyi, Morayo; Robinson, Shanice; Elston, Brianna

    2014-01-01

    Plants are exposed to antibiotics produced by soil microorganisms, but little is known about their responses at the transcriptional level. Likewise, few endogenous mechanisms of antibiotic resistance have been reported. The Arabidopsis thaliana ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter AtWBC19 (ABCG19) is known to confer kanamycin resistance, but the exact mechanism of resistance is not well understood. Here we examined the transcriptomes of control seedlings and wbc19 mutant seedlings using RNA-seq analysis. Exposure to kanamycin indicated changes in the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus, metabolic fluxes and metal uptake. Elemental analysis showed a 60% and 80% reduction of iron uptake in control and wbc19 mutant seedlings respectively, upon exposure to kanamycin. The drop in iron content was accompanied by the upregulation of the gene encoding for FERRIC REDUCTION OXIDASE 6 (FRO6) in mutant seedlings but not by the differential expression of other transport genes known to be induced by iron deficiency. In addition, wbc19 mutants displayed a distinct expression profile in the absence of kanamycin. Most notably the expression of several zinc ion binding proteins, including ZINC TRANSPORTER 1 PRECURSOR (ZIP1) was increased, suggesting abnormal zinc uptake. Elemental analysis confirmed a 50% decrease of zinc content in wbc19 mutants. Thus, the antibiotic resistance gene WBC19 appears to also have a role in zinc uptake. PMID:25310285

  9. Electronmagnetic induction probe calibration for electrical conductivity measurements and moisture content determination of Hanford high level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wittekind, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-23

    Logic of converting EMI measured electrical conductivity to moisture with expected uncertainty. Estimates from present knowledge, assumptions, and measured data. Archie`s Law has been used since the 1940`s to relate electrical conductivity in porous media to liquid volume fraction. Measured electrical conductivity to moisture content uses: Porosity, Interstitial liquid electrical conductivity, Solid particle density,Interstitial liquid density, and interstitial liquid water content. The uncertainty of assumed values is calculated to determine the final moisture wt.% result uncertainty.

  10. Use of low-frequency electrical impedance measurements to determine phospholipid content in amniotic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, F.; Cametti, C.; Zimatore, G.; Maraviglia, B.; Pachi', A.

    1996-09-01

    In this report we propose a new method for an in vitro test of the foetal lung maturity based on the measurement of the electrical conductivity of the overall amniotic fluid obtained from transabdominal amniocentesis, since this quantity can be linked to a first approximation in a very simple way to the phospholipid content. We have carried out measurements of 85 different samples of amniotic fluid as a function of gestation weeks and we have observed a pronounced change of the electrical conductivity that reflects the increase in the phospholipid concentration occurring at the end of normal pregnancies. The method could be further developed to obtain similar information on in vivo experiments by means of bioelectric impedance tomography, taking advantage of the frequency dependence of the tissue electrical impedance.