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1

RNA modularity for synthetic biology  

PubMed Central

RNA molecules are highly modular components that can be used in a variety of contexts for building new metabolic, regulatory and genetic circuits in cells. The majority of synthetic RNA systems to date predominately rely on two-dimensional modularity. However, a better understanding and integration of three-dimensional RNA modularity at structural and functional levels is critical to the development of more complex, functional bio-systems and molecular machines for synthetic biology applications. PMID:24273647

2013-01-01

2

Modular weapon control unit  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Modular Weapon Control Unit (MWCU) program was to design and develop a reconfigurable weapon controller (programmer/sequencer) that can be adapted to different weapon systems based on the particular requirements for that system. Programmers from previous systems are conceptually the same and perform similar tasks. Because of this commonality and the amount of re-engineering necessary with the advent of every new design, the idea of a modular, adaptable system has emerged. Also, the controller can be used in more than one application for a specific weapon system. Functionality has been divided into a Processor Module (PM) and an Input/Output Module (IOM). The PM will handle all operations that require calculations, memory, and timing. The IOM will handle interfaces to the rest of the system, input level shifting, output drive capability, and detection of interrupt conditions. Configuration flexibility is achieved in two ways. First, the operation of the PM is determined by a surface mount Read-Only Memory (ROM). Other surface-mount components can be added or neglected as necessary for functionality. Second, IOMs consist of configurable input buffers, configurable output drivers, and configurable interrupt generation. Further, these modules can be added singly or in groups to a Processor Module to achieve the required I/O configuration. The culmination of this LDRD was the building of both Processor Module and Input/Output Module. The MWCU was chosen as a test system to evaluate Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology, desirable for high component density and good thermal characteristics.

Boccabella, M.F.; McGovney, G.N.

1997-01-01

3

CRISPR-Mediated Modular RNA-Guided Regulation  

E-print Network

Resource CRISPR-Mediated Modular RNA-Guided Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes Luke A. The CRISPR- associated catalytically inactive dCas9 protein offers a general platform for RNA-guided DNA indicates that CRISPR interference (CRISPRi)-medi- ated transcriptional repression is highly specific. Our

Lim, Wendell

4

Engineering modular 'ON' RNA switches using biological components  

PubMed Central

Riboswitches are cis-acting regulatory elements broadly distributed in bacterial mRNAs that control a wide range of critical metabolic activities. Expression is governed by two distinct domains within the mRNA leader: a sensory ‘aptamer domain’ and a regulatory ‘expression platform’. Riboswitches have also received considerable attention as important tools in synthetic biology because of their conceptually simple structure and the ability to obtain aptamers that bind almost any conceivable small molecule using in vitro selection (referred to as SELEX). In the design of artificial riboswitches, a significant hurdle has been to couple the two domains enabling their efficient communication. We previously demonstrated that biological transcriptional ‘OFF’ expression platforms are easily coupled to diverse aptamers, both biological and SELEX-derived, using simple design rules. Here, we present two modular transcriptional ‘ON’ riboswitch expression platforms that are also capable of hosting foreign aptamers. We demonstrate that these biological parts can be used to facilely generate artificial chimeric riboswitches capable of robustly regulating transcription both in vitro and in vivo. We expect that these modular expression platforms will be of great utility for various synthetic biological applications that use RNA-based biosensors. PMID:23999097

Ceres, Pablo; Trausch, Jeremiah J.; Batey, Robert T.

2013-01-01

5

RNA Graph Partitioning for the Discovery of RNA Modularity: A Novel Application of Graph Partition Algorithm to Biology  

PubMed Central

Graph representations have been widely used to analyze and design various economic, social, military, political, and biological networks. In systems biology, networks of cells and organs are useful for understanding disease and medical treatments and, in structural biology, structures of molecules can be described, including RNA structures. In our RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) framework, we represent RNA structures as tree graphs by translating unpaired regions into vertices and helices into edges. Here we explore the modularity of RNA structures by applying graph partitioning known in graph theory to divide an RNA graph into subgraphs. To our knowledge, this is the first application of graph partitioning to biology, and the results suggest a systematic approach for modular design in general. The graph partitioning algorithms utilize mathematical properties of the Laplacian eigenvector (µ2) corresponding to the second eigenvalues (?2) associated with the topology matrix defining the graph: ?2 describes the overall topology, and the sum of µ2?s components is zero. The three types of algorithms, termed median, sign, and gap cuts, divide a graph by determining nodes of cut by median, zero, and largest gap of µ2?s components, respectively. We apply these algorithms to 45 graphs corresponding to all solved RNA structures up through 11 vertices (?220 nucleotides). While we observe that the median cut divides a graph into two similar-sized subgraphs, the sign and gap cuts partition a graph into two topologically-distinct subgraphs. We find that the gap cut produces the best biologically-relevant partitioning for RNA because it divides RNAs at less stable connections while maintaining junctions intact. The iterative gap cuts suggest basic modules and assembly protocols to design large RNA structures. Our graph substructuring thus suggests a systematic approach to explore the modularity of biological networks. In our applications to RNA structures, subgraphs also suggest design strategies for novel RNA motifs. PMID:25188578

Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

2014-01-01

6

Features of modularly assembled compounds that impart bioactivity against an RNA target.  

PubMed

Transcriptomes provide a myriad of potential RNAs that could be the targets of therapeutics or chemical genetic probes of function. Cell-permeable small molecules, however, generally do not exploit these targets, owing to the difficulty in the design of high affinity, specific small molecules targeting RNA. As part of a general program to study RNA function using small molecules, we designed bioactive, modularly assembled small molecules that target the noncoding expanded RNA repeat that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), r(CUG)(exp). Herein, we present a rigorous study to elucidate features in modularly assembled compounds that afford bioactivity. Different modular assembly scaffolds were investigated, including polyamines, ?-peptides, ?-peptides, and peptide tertiary amides (PTAs). On the basis of activity as assessed by improvement of DM1-associated defects, stability against proteases, cellular permeability, and toxicity, we discovered that constrained backbones, namely, PTAs, are optimal. Notably, we determined that r(CUG)(exp) is the target of the optimal PTA in cellular models and that the optimal PTA improves DM1-associated defects in a mouse model. Biophysical analyses were employed to investigate potential sources of bioactivity. These investigations show that modularly assembled compounds have increased residence times on their targets and faster on rates than the RNA-binding modules from which they were derived. Moreover, they have faster on rates than the protein that binds r(CUG)(exp), the inactivation of which gives rise to DM1-associated defects. These studies provide information about features of small molecules that are programmable for targeting RNA, allowing for the facile optimization of therapeutics or chemical probes against other cellular RNA targets. PMID:24032410

Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Gao, Yu; Tang, Zhen-Zhi; Thornton, Charles A; Kodadek, Thomas; Disney, Matthew D

2013-10-18

7

Features of Modularly Assembled Compounds That Impart Bioactivity Against an RNA Target  

PubMed Central

Transcriptomes provide a myriad of potential RNAs that could be the targets of therapeutics or chemical genetic probes of function. Cell permeable small molecules, however, generally do not exploit these targets, owing to the difficulty in the design of high affinity, specific small molecules targeting RNA. As part of a general program to study RNA function using small molecules, we designed bioactive, modularly assembled small molecules that target the non-coding expanded RNA repeat that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), r(CUG)exp. Herein, we present a rigorous study to elucidate features in modularly assembled compounds that afford bioactivity. Different modular assembly scaffolds were investigated including polyamines, ?-peptides, ?-peptides, and peptide tertiary amides (PTAs). Based on activity as assessed by improvement of DM1-associated defects, stability against proteases, cellular permeability, and toxicity, we discovered that constrained backbones, namely PTAs, are optimal. Notably, we determined that r(CUG)exp is the target of the optimal PTA in cellular models and that the optimal PTA improves DM1-associated defects in a mouse model. Biophysical analyses were employed to investigate potential sources of bioactivity. These investigations show that modularly assembled compounds have increased residence times on their targets and faster on rates than the RNA-binding modules from which they were derived and faster on rates than the protein that binds r(CUG)exp, the inactivation of which gives rise to DM1-associated defects. These studies provide information about features of small molecules that are programmable for targeting RNA, allowing for the facile optimization of therapeutics or chemical probes against other cellular RNA targets. PMID:24032410

Rzuczek, Suzanne G.; Gao, Yu; Tang, Zhen-Zhi; Thornton, Charles A.; Kodadek, Thomas; Disney, Matthew D.

2013-01-01

8

M-pick, a modularity-based method for OTU picking of 16S rRNA sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Binning 16S rRNA sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) is an initial crucial step in analyzing large sequence datasets generated to determine microbial community compositions in various environments including that of the human gut. Various methods have been developed, but most suffer from either inaccuracies or from being unable to handle millions of sequences generated in current studies. Furthermore, existing binning methods usually require a priori decisions regarding binning parameters such as a distance level for defining an OTU. Results We present a novel modularity-based approach (M-pick) to address the aforementioned problems. The new method utilizes ideas from community detection in graphs, where sequences are viewed as vertices on a weighted graph, each pair of sequences is connected by an imaginary edge, and the similarity of a pair of sequences represents the weight of the edge. M-pick first generates a graph based on pairwise sequence distances and then applies a modularity-based community detection technique on the graph to generate OTUs to capture the community structures in sequence data. To compare the performance of M-pick with that of existing methods, specifically CROP and ESPRIT-Tree, sequence data from different hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA were used and binning results were compared. Conclusions A new modularity-based clustering method for OTU picking of 16S rRNA sequences is developed in this study. The algorithm does not require a predetermined cut-off level, and our simulation studies suggest that it is superior to existing methods that require specified distance levels to define OTUs. The source code is available at http://plaza.ufl.edu/xywang/Mpick.htm. PMID:23387433

2013-01-01

9

The GA-minor submotif as a case study of RNA modularity, prediction, and design  

PubMed Central

Complex natural RNAs such as the ribosome, group I and group II introns, and RNase P exemplify the fact that three-dimensional (3D) RNA structures are highly modular and hierarchical in nature. Tertiary RNA folding typically takes advantage of a rather limited set of recurrent structural motifs that are responsible for controlling bends or stacks between adjacent helices. Herein, the GA minor and related structural motifs are presented as a case study to highlight several structural and folding principles, to gain further insight into the structural evolution of naturally occurring RNAs, as well as to assist the rational design of artificial RNAs. PMID:23378290

Grabow, Wade W.; Zhuang, Zhuoyun; Shea, Joan-Emma; Jaeger, Luc

2013-01-01

10

Rational design of bioactive, modularly assembled aminoglycosides targeting the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1.  

PubMed

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused when an expanded r(CUG) repeat (r(CUG)(exp)) binds the RNA splicing regulator muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1) as well as other proteins. Previously, we reported that modularly assembled small molecules displaying a 6'-N-5-hexynoate kanamycin A RNA-binding module (K) on a peptoid backbone potently inhibit the binding of MBNL1 to r(CUG)(exp). However, these parent compounds are not appreciably active in cell-based models of DM1. The lack of potency was traced to suboptimal cellular permeability and localization. To improve these properties, second-generation compounds that are conjugated to a d-Arg(9) molecular transporter were synthesized. These modified compounds enter cells in higher concentrations than the parent compounds and are efficacious in cell-based DM1 model systems at low micromolar concentrations. In particular, they improve three defects that are the hallmarks of DM1: a translational defect due to nuclear retention of transcripts containing r(CUG)(exp); pre-mRNA splicing defects due to inactivation of MBNL1; and the formation of nuclear foci. The best compound in cell-based studies was tested in a mouse model of DM1. Modest improvement of pre-mRNA splicing defects was observed. These studies suggest that a modular assembly approach can afford bioactive compounds that target RNA. PMID:23130637

Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Parkesh, Raman; Nakamori, Masayuki; Thornton, Charles A; Disney, Matthew D

2012-12-21

11

KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF MODULAR, TRUSS-BASED MANIPULATOR UNITS  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and Dismantling (D&D) activities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) require a long reach manipulator with a large load capacity. Variable Geometry Trusses (VGTs) are a unique class of mechanical structures which allow the advantages of truss structures for large scale applications to be applied to large robotic manipulators. Individual VGT units may be assembled to create a modular, long-reach, truss-type manipulator. Each module of such a manipulator system is either a static truss section or one of several possible VGT geometries. While many potential applications exist for this technology, the present work is largely motivated by the need for generic robotic systems for remote manipulation. A manipulator system based on VGT modules provides several advantages. The reconfigurable nature of the manipulator system allows it to be adapted on site to unforeseen conditions. The kinematic redundancy of the manipulator enables it to work effectively even in a highly obstructed workspace. The parallel structure of the truss modules enables the manipulator to be withdrawn in the event of a structural failure. Finally, the open framework of the modules provides a clear, protected passageway for control and power cabling, waste conveyance, or other services required at the end effector. As is implied in a truss structure, all primary members of a VGT are ideally loaded in pure tension or compression. This results in an extremely stiff and strong manipulator system with minimal overall weight. Careful design of the joints of a VGT is very important to the overall stiffness and accuracy of the structure, as several links (as many as six) are joined together at each joint. The greatest disadvantage to this approach to manipulator design has traditionally been that the kinematics of VGT structures are complex and poorly understood. This report specifically addresses the kinematics of several possible geometries for the individual VGT units. Equations and solution techniques are developed for solving the "forward" or "direct" and "inverse" kinematic problems for these geometries. The" forward" kinematic problem is that of finding the position and orientation of the distal end of the VGT relative to the proximal end, given the specific displacements of the (linear) actuators. This problem is rarely solvable in closed form. However, powerful iterative algorithms capable of solution in real time on typical modern robot control hardware are presented. The "inverse" kinematic problem is that of finding the required actuator displacements given the position and orientation of the distal end of the VGT relative to the proximal end. For specific VGT geometries, closed-form solutions are presented. For the more general problem, iterative algorithms capable of solution in real time are again derived and presented.

Salerno, R. J.

1994-06-01

12

Specific and Modular Binding Code for Cytosine Recognition in Pumilio/FBF (PUF) RNA-binding Domains  

SciTech Connect

Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) proteins possess a recognition code for bases A, U, and G, allowing designed RNA sequence specificity of their modular Pumilio (PUM) repeats. However, recognition side chains in a PUM repeat for cytosine are unknown. Here we report identification of a cytosine-recognition code by screening random amino acid combinations at conserved RNA recognition positions using a yeast three-hybrid system. This C-recognition code is specific and modular as specificity can be transferred to different positions in the RNA recognition sequence. A crystal structure of a modified PUF domain reveals specific contacts between an arginine side chain and the cytosine base. We applied the C-recognition code to design PUF domains that recognize targets with multiple cytosines and to generate engineered splicing factors that modulate alternative splicing. Finally, we identified a divergent yeast PUF protein, Nop9p, that may recognize natural target RNAs with cytosine. This work deepens our understanding of natural PUF protein target recognition and expands the ability to engineer PUF domains to recognize any RNA sequence.

Dong, Shuyun; Wang, Yang; Cassidy-Amstutz, Caleb; Lu, Gang; Bigler, Rebecca; Jezyk, Mark R.; Li, Chunhua; Tanaka Hall, Traci M.; Wang, Zefeng (NIH); (Beijing U); (UNC)

2011-10-28

13

Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

2012-01-17

14

Extreme environment capable, modular and scalable power processing unit for solar electric propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is to present a concept of a modular and scalable High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU) capable of operating at temperatures beyond the standard military temperature range. The various extreme environments technologies are also described as the fundamental technology path to this concept. The proposed HTB PPU is intended for power processing in the area of space solar electric propulsion, where reduction of in-space mass and volume are desired, and sometimes even critical, to achieve the goals of future space flight missions. The concept of the HTB PPU can also be applied to other extreme environment applications, such as geothermal and petroleum deep-well drilling, where higher temperature operation is required.

Carr, Gregory A.; Iannello, Christopher J.; Chen, Yuan; Hunter, Don J.; Del Castillo, Linda; Bradley, Arthur T.; Stell, Christopher; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.

15

A Modular Approach to Arithmetic and Logic Unit Design on a Reconfigurable Hardware Platform for Educational Purpose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) design is one of the important topics in Computer Architecture and Organization course in Computer and Electrical Engineering departments. There are ALU designs that have non-modular nature to be used as an educational tool. As the programmable logic technology has developed rapidly, it is feasible that ALU design based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is implemented in this course. In this paper, we have adopted the modular approach to ALU design based on FPGA. All the modules in the ALU design are realized using schematic structure on Altera's Cyclone II Development board. Under this model, the ALU content is divided into four distinct modules. These are arithmetic unit except for multiplication and division operations, logic unit, multiplication unit and division unit. User can easily design any size of ALU unit since this approach has the modular nature. Then, this approach was applied to microcomputer architecture design named BZK.SAU.FPGA10.0 instead of the current ALU unit.

Oztekin, Halit; Temurtas, Feyzullah; Gulbag, Ali

16

Cost effective modular unit for cleaning oil and gas field waste water  

SciTech Connect

Problems of environmental control involving conservation of water resources are vital for the development of giant oil and gas condensate fields near Caspian Sea (Russia) characterized by water shortages. One of the urgent tasks of oil production industry is to use all field waste water consisting of underground, processing and rain water. It was necessary to construct a new highly effective equipment which could be used in local waste water treatment. Now we have at our disposal a technology and equipment to meet the requirements to the treated water quality. Thus we have installed a modular unit of 100 m{sup 3}/a day capacity to clean waste water from oil products, suspended matter and other organic pollutants at Orenburg oil and gas condensate field, Russia. The unit provides with a full treatment of produced water and comprises a settling tank with adhesive facility, the number of sorption filters, Trofactor bioreactors and a disinfecting facility. The equipment is fitted into three boxes measuring 9 x 3.2 x 2.7 in each. The equipment is simple in design that enables to save money, time and space. Sorption filters, bioreactors as well as the Trofactor process are a part of know-how. While working on the unit construction we applied well known methods of settling and sorption. The process of mechanic cleaning is undergoing in the following succession: (1) the gravitational separation in a settling tank where the floated film oil products are constantly gathered and the sediment is periodically taken away, (2) the settled water treatment in sorption Filters of a special kind.

Zinberg, M.B.; Nenasheva, M.N.; Gafarov, N.A.

1996-12-31

17

Controlling the Specificity of Modularly Assembled Small Molecules for RNA via Ligand Module Spacing: Targeting the RNAs that Cause Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Myotonic muscular dystrophy types 1 and 2 (DM1 and DM2, respectively) are caused by expansions of repeating nucleotides in non-coding regions of RNA. In DM1, the expansion is an rCUG triplet repeat whereas the DM2 expansion is an rCCUG quadruplet repeat, both of which fold into hairpin structures with periodically repeating internal loops separated by two 5?GC/3?CG base pairs. The sizes of the loops, however, are different: the DM1 repeat forms 1 × 1 nucleotide UU loops while the DM2 repeat forms 2 × 2 nucleotide 5?CU/3?UC loops. DM is caused when the expanded repeats bind the RNA splicing regulator Muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1), thus compromising its function. Therefore, one potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases is to prevent MBNL1 from binding the toxic RNA repeats. Previously, we designed nanomolar inhibitors of the DM2-MBNL1 interaction by modularly assembling 6?-N-5-hexyonate kanamycin A (K) onto a peptoid backbone. The K ligand binds the 2 × 2 pyrimidine-rich internal loops found in the DM2 RNA with high affinity. The best compound identified from that study contains three K modules separated by four propylamine spacing modules and is 20-fold selective over the DM1 RNA. Because the modularly assembled K-containing compounds also bound the DM1 RNA, albeit with lower affinity, and because the loop size is different, we hypothesized that the optimal DM1 RNA binder may display K modules separated by shorter distance between ligand modules. Indeed, the ideal DM1 RNA binder has only two propylamine spacing modules separating the K ligands. Peptoids displaying three and four K modules on a peptoid scaffold bind the DM1 RNA with Kd's of 20 (3-fold selective for DM1 over DM2) and 4 nM (6-fold selective for DM1 over DM2) and inhibit the RNA-protein interaction with IC50's of 40 and 7 nM, respectively. Importantly, by coupling the two studies together, we have determined that appropriate spacing can affect binding selectivity by 60-fold (20- × 3-fold). The trimer and tetramer also bind ?13- and ?63-fold more tightly to DM1 RNAs than does MBNL1. The modularly assembled compounds are cell permeable and non-toxic as determined by flow cytometry. The results establish that for these two systems: (i) a programmable modular assembly approach can provide synthetic ligands for RNA with affinities and specificities that exceed those of natural proteins; and (ii) the spacing of ligand modules can be used to tune specificity for one RNA target over another. PMID:19904940

Lee, Melissa M.; Childs-Disney, Jessica L.; Pushechnikov, Alexei; French, Jonathan M.; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Thornton, Charles A.; Disney, Matthew D.

2009-01-01

18

Examination of Organic Carryover from 2-cm Contactors to Support the Modular CSSX Unit  

SciTech Connect

A bank of four 2-cm centrifugal contactors was operated in countercurrent fashion to help address questions about organic carryover for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The contactors, having weirs sized for strip operation, were used to examine carryover for both strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS). Since only one bank of contactors was available in the short time frame of this work, the organic phase and only one aqueous phase were present in the flow loops at a time. Personnel maintained flowsheet-typical organic phase to aqueous phase (O:A) flow ratios when varying flow rates. Solvent from two different batches were tested with strip solution. In addition, potential mitigations of pH adjustment and coalescing media were examined. The experiment found that organic carryover after decanting averaged 220 ppm by mass with a range of 74 to 417 ppm of Isopar{reg_sign} L for strip effluent (SE)/organic solvent contacts. These values are based on measured modifier. Values were bounded by a value of 95 ppm based upon Isopar{reg_sign} L values as reported. The higher modifier-based numbers are considered more reliable at this time. Carryover of Isopar{reg_sign} L in DSS simulant averaged 77 ppm by mass with a range of 70 to 88 ppm of Isopar{reg_sign} L based on modifier content. The carryover was bounded by a value of 19 ppm based upon Isopar{reg_sign} L values as reported. More work is needed to resolve the discrepancy between modifier and Isopar{reg_sign} L values. The work did not detect organic droplets greater than 18 microns in SE. Strip output contained droplets down to 0.5 micron in size. Droplets in DSS were almost monodisperse by comparison, having a size range 4.7 +/- 1.6 micron in one test and 5.2 +/- 0.8 micron in the second demonstration. Optical microscopy provided qualitative results confirming the integrity of droplet size measurements in this work. Acidic or basic adjustments of aqueous strip solution from pH 3 to 1 and from pH 3 to 11 were not effective in clarifying the aqueous dispersions of organic droplets. Use of a 0.7-micron rated glass fiber filter of 3/4 mm thickness under gravity flow provided significant reduction in organic content and increased clarity. A 2 inch element stack of ''Teflon{reg_sign} Fiber Interceptor-Pak{trademark}'' media from ACS Separations, Inc. was not effective in clarifying DSS simulant.

Nash, Charles A.; Norato, Michael A.; Walker; D. Douglas; Pierce, Robert A.; Eubanks, Ronnye A.; Clark, James D.; Smith, Wilson M. Jr.; Crump, Stephen L.; Nelson, D. Zane; Fink, Samuel D.; Peters, Thomas B.; May, Cecil G.; Herman, David T.; Bolton, Henry L.

2005-04-29

19

The Development of Entrepreneurs through Vocational Education. Introduction to Entrepreneurship. Modularized Instructional Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for first year students in postsecondary technical schools, this curriculum guide, comprising 22 modularized instructional subunits, is designed to create among the students (1) an awareness of the phenomenon of entrepreneurship, (2) motivation for exploring entrepreneurship as a distinct career option, (3) acquaintance with the skills,…

Kalangi, Christopher J.; And Others

20

Public Education in the United States. A Modularized Course. Elementary Education 3010. Secondary Education 3040.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This modularized, self-paced study program in Elementary and Secondary Education for K-12 majors is an evolving course of study designed for responsible students. The course is organized into six modules: Trends and Issues in Contemporary Education, Philosophical and Historical Foundations of Education, Administrative Structure and Financing of…

Lawrence, Joyce V.; Mamola, Claire Z.

21

Tendon-bone attachment unit is formed modularly by a distinct pool of Scx- and Sox9-positive progenitors.  

PubMed

The assembly of the musculoskeletal system requires the formation of an attachment unit between a bone and a tendon. Tendons are often inserted into bone eminences, superstructures that improve the mechanical resilience of the attachment of muscles to the skeleton and facilitate movement. Despite their functional importance, little is known about the development of bone eminences and attachment units. Here, we show that bone eminence cells are descendants of a unique set of progenitors and that superstructures are added onto the developing long bone in a modular fashion. First, we show that bone eminences emerge only after the primary cartilage rudiments have formed. Cell lineage analyses revealed that eminence cells are not descendants of chondrocytes. Moreover, eminence progenitors were specified separately and after chondroprogenitors of the primary cartilage. Fields of Sox9-positive, Scx-positive, Col2a1-negative cells identified at presumable eminence sites confirm the identity and specificity of these progenitors. The loss of eminences in limbs in which Sox9 expression was blocked in Scx-positive cells supports the hypothesis that a distinct pool of Sox9- and Scx-positive progenitors forms these superstructures. We demonstrate that TGF? signaling is necessary for the specification of bone eminence progenitors, whereas the SCX/BMP4 pathway is required for the differentiation of these progenitors to eminence-forming cells. Our findings suggest a modular model for bone development, involving a distinct pool of Sox9- and Scx-positive progenitor cells that form bone eminences under regulation of TGF? and BMP4 signaling. This model offers a new perspective on bone morphogenesis and on attachment unit development during musculoskeletal assembly. PMID:23720048

Blitz, Einat; Sharir, Amnon; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Zelzer, Elazar

2013-07-01

22

Wooden Bridges: UNIDO'S (United Nations Industrial Development Organization's) Prefabricated Modular System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has developed, through a project in Kenya financed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), a unique bridge system suitable for developing countries with or without forest resources...

1983-01-01

23

Modular Nature of Abscisic Acid (ABA) Response Complexes: Composite Promoter Units That Are Necessary and Sufficient for ABA lnduction of Gene Expression in Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modular nature of the abscisic acid response complex (ABRC), the promoter unit necessary and sufficient for ab- scisic acid (ABA) induction of gene expression in barley, is defined in this study. We investigated ABA induction of a barley late gmbrogenesis gbundant (Lea) gene, HVA1, and found that the ABRC of this gene consists of a 10-bp box with an

Qingxi Shen; Pengnian Zhang; Tuan-Hua David

1996-01-01

24

A Graphics Processing Unit Accelerated Motion Correction Algorithm and Modular System for Real-time fMRI  

PubMed Central

Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) has recently gained interest as a possible means to facilitate the learning of certain behaviors. However, rt-fMRI is limited by processing speed and available software, and continued development is needed for rt-fMRI to progress further and become feasible for clinical use. In this work, we present an open-source rt-fMRI system for biofeedback powered by a novel Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) accelerated motion correction strategy as part of the BioImage Suite project (www.bioimagesuite.org). Our system contributes to the development of rt-fMRI by presenting a motion correction algorithm that provides an estimate of motion with essentially no processing delay as well as a modular rt-fMRI system design. Using empirical data from rt-fMRI scans, we assessed the quality of motion correction in this new system. The present algorithm performed comparably to standard (non real-time) offline methods and outperformed other real-time methods based on zero order interpolation of motion parameters. The modular approach to the rt-fMRI system allows the system to be flexible to the experiment and feedback design, a valuable feature for many applications. We illustrate the flexibility of the system by describing several of our ongoing studies. Our hope is that continuing development of open-source rt-fMRI algorithms and software will make this new technology more accessible and adaptable, and will thereby accelerate its application in the clinical and cognitive neurosciences. PMID:23319241

Scheinost, Dustin; Hampson, Michelle; Qiu, Maolin; Bhawnani, Jitendra; Constable, R. Todd; Papademetris, Xenophon

2013-01-01

25

7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Requirements for Modular/Panelized Housing Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...evaluation of manufactured farm service buildings in...Housing Units that Require Factory Inspections. Only... XI. Manufactured Farm Service Buildings. ...ALA). 6. A current factory inspection report...

2010-01-01

26

7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Requirements for Modular/Panelized Housing Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...evaluation of manufactured farm service buildings in...Housing Units that Require Factory Inspections. Only... XI. Manufactured Farm Service Buildings. ...ALA). 6. A current factory inspection report...

2011-01-01

27

7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Requirements for Modular/Panelized Housing Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...evaluation of manufactured farm service buildings in...Housing Units that Require Factory Inspections. Only... XI. Manufactured Farm Service Buildings. ...ALA). 6. A current factory inspection report...

2013-01-01

28

7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Requirements for Modular/Panelized Housing Units  

...UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...evaluation of manufactured farm service buildings in...Housing Units that Require Factory Inspections. Only... XI. Manufactured Farm Service Buildings. ...ALA). 6. A current factory inspection report...

2014-01-01

29

7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Requirements for Modular/Panelized Housing Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...evaluation of manufactured farm service buildings in...Housing Units that Require Factory Inspections. Only... XI. Manufactured Farm Service Buildings. ...ALA). 6. A current factory inspection report...

2012-01-01

30

Feasibility, benefits and challenges of modular construction in high rise development in the United States : a developer's perspective  

E-print Network

Modular construction has long been utilized in the construction of residential and many other commercial product types as a means for potentially quicker construction delivery times. Over the past 5 years this construction ...

Velamati, Sri

2012-01-01

31

The Habitat Demonstration Unit Project: A Modular Instrumentation System for a Deep Space Habitat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is focused on developing human exploration capabilities in low Earth orbit (LEO), expanding to near Earth asteroids (NEA), and finally to Mars. Habitation is a crucial aspect of human exploration, and a current focus of NASA activities. The Habitation Demonstration Unit (HDU) is a project focused on developing an autonomous habitation system that enables human exploration of space by providing engineers and scientists with a test bed to develop, integrate, test, and evaluate habitation systems. A critical feature of the HDU is the instrumentation system, which monitors key subsystems within the habitat. The following paper will discuss the HDU instrumentation system performance and lessons learned during the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RaTS). In addition, this paper will discuss the evolution of the instrumentation system to support the 2011 Deep Space Habitat configuration, the challenges, and the lessons learned of implementing this configuration. In 2010, the HDU was implemented as a pressurized excursion module (PEM) and was tested at NASA s D-RaTS in Arizona [1]. For this initial configuration, the instrumentation system design used features that were successful in previous habitat instrumentation projects, while also considering challenges, and implementing lessons learned [2]. The main feature of the PEM instrumentation system was the use of a standards-based wireless sensor node (WSN), implementing an IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. Many of the instruments were connected to several WSNs, which wirelessly transmitted data to the command and data handling system via a mesh network. The PEM instrumentation system monitored the HDU during field tests at D-RaTS, and the WSN data was later analyzed to understand the performance of this system. In addition, several lessons learned were gained from the field test experience, which fed into the instrumentation design of the next generation of the HDU.

Rojdev, Kristina; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Yim, Hester; Williamsn, Robert M.; Hafermalz, Scott; Wagner, Raymond S.

2011-01-01

32

FusionSeq: a modular framework for finding gene fusions by analyzing paired-end RNA-sequencing data  

PubMed Central

We have developed FusionSeq to identify fusion transcripts from paired-end RNA-sequencing. FusionSeq includes filters to remove spurious candidate fusions with artifacts, such as misalignment or random pairing of transcript fragments, and it ranks candidates according to several statistics. It also has a module to identify exact sequences at breakpoint junctions. FusionSeq detected known and novel fusions in a specially sequenced calibration data set, including eight cancers with and without known rearrangements. PMID:20964841

2010-01-01

33

Mapping of Digitaria streak virus transcripts reveals different RNA species from the same transcription unit.  

PubMed Central

All, except 19 [corrected] bp, of the Digitaria streak virus (DSV) genome is transcribed. Two RNA transcripts (1+ and 2+) are encoded by the virion DNA strand and up to five (1- to 5-) by the complementary DNA strand [corrected]. Detailed mapping of these RNAs has revealed evidence for splicing in one species (RNA 4-), which together with its more abundant unspliced counterpart (RNA 2-) could synthesize both a 30.5 and 41 kd polypeptide from the same transcription unit. This extensive overlapping of spliced and unspliced RNAs could indicate that the initiation and splicing of transcripts is temporally regulated. At least one transcript (RNA 1-) may have a non-translational role. Transcription of the DSV genome shows similarities to some animal DNA viruses, particularly the papovaviruses. Images PMID:2472960

Accotto, G P; Donson, J; Mullineaux, P M

1989-01-01

34

Modular Entanglement  

E-print Network

We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and non-interacting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

Giulia Gualdi; Salvatore M. Giampaolo; Fabrizio Illuminati

2010-08-04

35

Modular Entanglement  

E-print Network

We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting blocks of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent blocks. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and non-interacting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

Gualdi, Giulia; Illuminati, Fabrizio

2010-01-01

36

Different base per unit length ratios exist in single-stranded RNA and single-stranded DNA.  

PubMed Central

A significant difference was found to exist in the number of bases per unit length of single-stranded RNA as compared to single-stranded DNA when single-stranded RNA or DNA molecules of known nucleotide sequence were measured by electron microscopy using a cytochrome spreading technique. Using this technique, single-stranded RNA was found to have 17.5% more bases per unit of length than single-stranded DNA. These ratios were verified using four different denaturing conditions for the RNA: 80% formamide, 80% formamide plus glyoxal, 80% formamide/4M urea and 80% formamide/4M urea plus glyoxal. Molecules ranging in size from 1541 to 5386 nucleotides were examined and the number of bases per unit length was found to vary inversely with micrometer was consistent when RNA and DNA molecules of the same length were compared. Images PMID:6162153

Glass, J; Wertz, G W

1980-01-01

37

Modular, Hierarchical Learning By Artificial Neural Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular and hierarchical approach to supervised learning by artificial neural networks leads to neural networks more structured than neural networks in which all neurons fully interconnected. These networks utilize general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamical effects. The modular organization, sparsity of modular units and connections, and fact that learning is much more circumscribed are all attractive features for designing neural-network hardware. Learning streamlined by imitating some aspects of biological neural networks.

Baldi, Pierre F.; Toomarian, Nikzad

1996-01-01

38

Modular shield  

DOEpatents

A modular system for containing projectiles has a sheet of material including at least a polycarbonate layer held by a metal frame having a straight frame member corresponding to each straight edge of the sheet. Each frame member has a U-shaped shield channel covering and holding a straight edge of the sheet and an adjacent U-shaped clamp channel rigidly held against the shield channel. A flexible gasket separates each sheet edge from its respective shield channel; and each frame member is fastened to each adjacent frame member only by clamps extending between adjacent clamp channels.

Snyder, Keith W. (Sandia Park, NM)

2002-01-01

39

Ecological consistency of SSU rRNA-based operational taxonomic units at a global scale.  

PubMed

Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), usually defined as clusters of similar 16S/18S rRNA sequences, are the most widely used basic diversity units in large-scale characterizations of microbial communities. However, it remains unclear how well the various proposed OTU clustering algorithms approximate 'true' microbial taxa. Here, we explore the ecological consistency of OTUs--based on the assumption that, like true microbial taxa, they should show measurable habitat preferences (niche conservatism). In a global and comprehensive survey of available microbial sequence data, we systematically parse sequence annotations to obtain broad ecological descriptions of sampling sites. Based on these, we observe that sequence-based microbial OTUs generally show high levels of ecological consistency. However, different OTU clustering methods result in marked differences in the strength of this signal. Assuming that ecological consistency can serve as an objective external benchmark for cluster quality, we conclude that hierarchical complete linkage clustering, which provided the most ecologically consistent partitions, should be the default choice for OTU clustering. To our knowledge, this is the first approach to assess cluster quality using an external, biologically meaningful parameter as a benchmark, on a global scale. PMID:24763141

Schmidt, Thomas S B; Matias Rodrigues, João F; von Mering, Christian

2014-04-01

40

Modular Certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airplanes are certified as a whole: there is no established basis for separately certifying some components, particularly software-intensive ones, independently of their specific application in a given airplane. The absence of separate certification inhibits the development of modular components that could be largely "precertified" and used in several different contexts within a single airplane, or across many different airplanes. In this report, we examine the issues in modular certification of software components and propose an approach based on assume-guarantee reasoning. We extend the method from verification to certification by considering behavior in the presence of failures. This exposes the need for partitioning, and separation of assumptions and guarantees into normal and abnormal cases. We then identify three classes of property that must be verified within this framework: safe function, true guarantees, and controlled failure. We identify a particular assume-guarantee proof rule (due to McMillan) that is appropriate to the applications considered, and formally verify its soundness in PVS.

Rushby, John; Miner, Paul S. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

41

RNA transcripts, miRNA-sized fragments and proteins produced from D4Z4 units: new candidates for the pathophysiology of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Deletion of a subset of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeats in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 4q causes facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) when occurring on a specific haplotype of 4qter (4qA161). Several genes have been examined as candidates for causing FSHD, including the DUX4 homeobox gene in the D4Z4 repeat, but none have been definitively shown to cause the disease, nor has the full extent of transcripts from the D4Z4 region been carefully characterized. Using strand-specific RT–PCR, we have identified several sense and antisense transcripts originating from the 4q D4Z4 units in wild-type and FSHD muscle cells. Consistent with prior reports, we find that the DUX4 transcript from the last (most telomeric) D4Z4 unit is polyadenylated and has two introns in its 3-prime untranslated region. In addition, we show that this transcript generates (i) small si/miRNA-sized fragments, (ii) uncapped, polyadenylated 3-prime fragments that encode the conserved C-terminal portion of DUX4 and (iii) capped and polyadenylated mRNAs that contain the double-homeobox domain of DUX4 but splice-out the C-terminal portion. Transfection studies demonstrate that translation initiation at an internal methionine can produce the C-terminal polypeptide and developmental studies show that this peptide inhibits myogenesis at a step between MyoD transcription and the activation of MyoD target genes. Together, we have identified new sense and anti-sense RNA transcripts, novel mRNAs and mi/siRNA-sized RNA fragments generated from the D4Z4 units that are new candidates for the pathophysiology of FSHD. PMID:19359275

Snider, Lauren; Asawachaicharn, Amy; Tyler, Ashlee E.; Geng, Linda N.; Petek, Lisa M.; Maves, Lisa; Miller, Daniel G.; Lemmers, Richard J.L.F.; Winokur, Sara T.; Tawil, Rabi; van der Maarel, Silvere M.; Filippova, Galina N.; Tapscott, Stephen J.

2009-01-01

42

A Distinct Group of Hepacivirus/Pestivirus-Like Internal Ribosomal Entry Sites in Members of Diverse Picornavirus Genera: Evidence for Modular Exchange of Functional Noncoding RNA Elements by Recombination? †  

PubMed Central

The 5? untranslated regions (UTRs) of the RNA genomes of Flaviviridae of the Hepacivirus and Pestivirus genera contain internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) that are unrelated to the two principal classes of IRESs of Picornaviridae. The mechanism of translation initiation on hepacivirus/pestivirus (HP) IRESs, which involves factor-independent binding to ribosomal 40S subunits, also differs fundamentally from initiation on these picornavirus IRESs. Ribosomal binding to HP IRESs requires conserved sequences that form a pseudoknot and the adjacent IIId and IIIe domains; analogous elements do not occur in the two principal groups of picornavirus IRESs. Here, comparative sequence analysis was used to identify a subset of picornaviruses from multiple genera that contain 5? UTR sequences with significant similarities to HP IRESs. They are avian encephalomyelitis virus, duck hepatitis virus 1, duck picornavirus, porcine teschovirus, porcine enterovirus 8, Seneca Valley virus, and simian picornavirus. Their 5? UTRs are predicted to form several structures, in some of which the peripheral elements differ from the corresponding HP IRES elements but in which the core pseudoknot, domain IIId, and domain IIIe elements are all closely related. These findings suggest that HP-like IRESs have been exchanged between unrelated virus families by recombination and support the hypothesis that RNA viruses consist of modular coding and noncoding elements that can exchange and evolve independently. PMID:17392358

Hellen, Christopher U. T.; de Breyne, Sylvain

2007-01-01

43

A distinct group of hepacivirus/pestivirus-like internal ribosomal entry sites in members of diverse picornavirus genera: evidence for modular exchange of functional noncoding RNA elements by recombination.  

PubMed

The 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) of the RNA genomes of Flaviviridae of the Hepacivirus and Pestivirus genera contain internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) that are unrelated to the two principal classes of IRESs of Picornaviridae. The mechanism of translation initiation on hepacivirus/pestivirus (HP) IRESs, which involves factor-independent binding to ribosomal 40S subunits, also differs fundamentally from initiation on these picornavirus IRESs. Ribosomal binding to HP IRESs requires conserved sequences that form a pseudoknot and the adjacent IIId and IIIe domains; analogous elements do not occur in the two principal groups of picornavirus IRESs. Here, comparative sequence analysis was used to identify a subset of picornaviruses from multiple genera that contain 5' UTR sequences with significant similarities to HP IRESs. They are avian encephalomyelitis virus, duck hepatitis virus 1, duck picornavirus, porcine teschovirus, porcine enterovirus 8, Seneca Valley virus, and simian picornavirus. Their 5' UTRs are predicted to form several structures, in some of which the peripheral elements differ from the corresponding HP IRES elements but in which the core pseudoknot, domain IIId, and domain IIIe elements are all closely related. These findings suggest that HP-like IRESs have been exchanged between unrelated virus families by recombination and support the hypothesis that RNA viruses consist of modular coding and noncoding elements that can exchange and evolve independently. PMID:17392358

Hellen, Christopher U T; de Breyne, Sylvain

2007-06-01

44

Modular robot  

DOEpatents

A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

Ferrante, T.A.

1997-11-11

45

Modular robot  

DOEpatents

A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

Ferrante, Todd A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01

46

Portable modular detection system  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

Brennan, James S. (Rodeo, CA); Singh, Anup (Danville, CA); Throckmorton, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA); Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA)

2009-10-13

47

Evolutionary principles of modular gene regulation in yeasts  

E-print Network

Divergence in gene regulation can play a major role in evolution. Here, we used a phylogenetic framework to measure mRNA profiles in 15 yeast species from the phylum Ascomycota and reconstruct the evolution of their modular ...

Thompson, Dawn A.

48

Piecing together modular : understanding the benefits and limitations of modular construction methods for multifamily development  

E-print Network

The primary purpose of this thesis is to explain the benefits and limitations of modular construction as it pertains to primarily wood-frame, multifamily housing in the United States. This thesis attempts to educate the ...

Cameron, Peter J. (Peter Jay)

2007-01-01

49

Controlling RNA self-assembly to form filaments  

PubMed Central

Fundamental control over supra-molecular self-assembly for organization of matter on the nano-scale is a major objective of nanoscience and nanotechnology. ‘RNA tectonics’ is the design of modular RNA units, called tectoRNAs, that can be programmed to self-assemble into novel nano- and meso-scopic architectures of desired size and shape. We report the three-dimensional design of tectoRNAs incorporating modular 4-way junction (4WJ) motifs, hairpin loops and their cognate loop–receptors to create extended, programmable interaction interfaces. Specific and directional RNA–RNA interactions at these interfaces enable conformational, topological and orientational control of tectoRNA self-assembly. The interacting motifs are precisely positioned within the helical arms of the 4WJ to program assembly from only one helical stacking conformation of the 4WJ. TectoRNAs programmed to assemble with orientational compensation produce micrometer-scale RNA filaments through supra-molecular equilibrium polymerization. As visualized by transmission electron microscopy, these RNA filaments resemble actin filaments from the protein world. This work emphasizes the potential of RNA as a scaffold for designing and engineering new controllable biomaterials mimicking modern cytoskeletal proteins. PMID:16522648

Nasalean, Lorena; Baudrey, Stephanie; Leontis, Neocles B.; Jaeger, Luc

2006-01-01

50

Stimuli of differentiation regulate RNA elongation in the transcription units for the major stage-specific antigens of Trypanosoma brucei.  

PubMed Central

In Trypanosoma brucei, the mutually exclusive expression of the major surface antigens, the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) of the bloodstream form and procyclin of the procyclic form, is due to a stage-specific accumulation of the respective mRNAs. Through the targeting of a reporter construct in the procyclin promoter region, we show that independently of any selection pressure, a relatively high level of transcription (approximately 10%) occurs from the procyclin promoter in the bloodstream form. This transcription leads to the production of detectable amounts of polyadenylated mRNAs. However, RNA elongation in the procyclin transcription unit is down-regulated at this stage. Transcription elongation in the procyclin and VSG units is inversely controlled by the combination of factors which cause the differentiation of bloodstream into procyclic forms in vitro. These factors include temperature, citrate/cis-aconitate and the incubation medium. Our results suggest that inverse regulations of primary transcription in the VSG and procyclin units are early events that underly the differentiation of the parasite. Images PMID:7596810

Vanhamme, L; Berberof, M; Le Ray, D; Pays, E

1995-01-01

51

Modular design and construction for nuclear power plant modification projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in modular design and construction techniques make it possible to modularize entire process plants. The modules can be as small as a skid mounted packaged unit or as large as an entire 6 story office building. These techniques are especially useful for construction in remote areas or hostile environments. Because of security, environmental and safety restraints, operating nuclear

G. M. Morton; L. B. Palmer; R. I. Patel; D. L. Shamblin

1989-01-01

52

ToModularize ToModularize?  

E-print Network

degree of modularity in the human brain and numerous reasons why it might have evolved to be that way network models. Here I present a series of simulations of the evolution of such neural systems that show) system. Certainly there is considerable neuropsychological evidence that human (and other animal) brains

Bullinaria, John

53

Modularity Approach Modular Pebble Bed Reactor (MPBR)  

E-print Network

modularity principles to the design, construction and operation of advanced nuclear energy plants · To employ on site rather than construct them as in the past. · To allow for conventional truck and rail shipments MPBR Indirect Cycle with Intermediate Helium to Helium Heat Exchanger Current Design Schematic

54

Construction of an in vivo-regulated U6 snRNA transcription unit as a tool to study U6 function.  

PubMed Central

U6 snRNA is the only spliceosomal snRNA transcribed by RNA polymerase III in yeast. We have constructed a regulated U6 snRNA transcription unit by introducing the binding site for the Escherichia coli lacI repressor protein in the U6 snRNA promoter. GAL-induced expression of lacI protein led to a decrease in U6 snRNA levels and blocked cell growth. lacI dissociation from the promoter, and consequent U6 snRNA transcription, could be induced by addition of IPTG and repression of lacI transcription. To test the usefulness of this system in studying spliceosomal U6 snRNA function, we conditionally expressed U6 snRNAs with a single base substitution in position A51. We demonstrate that expression of the U6-A51 mutations confers a strong dominant negative phenotype as shown by severe reductions in growth rate. In these strains, splicing of endogenous pre-mRNAs was blocked before the second step. PMID:9570323

Luukkonen, B G; Seraphin, B

1998-01-01

55

Modular Design Approach for Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The modular curriculum for agricultural education was developed and refined by teachers and consultants to meet student needs for a more flexible type of curriculum in which the student's occupational goals would form the basis for program planning. The module--a unit of curriculum based on the development of entry level competencies--contains the…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

56

Diversity and Unity of Modularity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the publication of Fodor's (1983) The Modularity of Mind, there have been quite a few discussions of cognitive modularity among cognitive scientists. Generally, in those discussions, modularity means a property of specialized cognitive processes or a domain-specific body of information. In actuality, scholars understand modularity in many…

Seok, Bongrae

2006-01-01

57

Modularization: An Attempt at Collegiate Level in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of a modular approach to learning in a botany unit as compared to the traditional teaching approach in terms of learning efficiency, learning time, and mastery level is reported. Three references are cited. (Author/CHC)

Gabriel, J.; Pillai, J. K.

1981-01-01

58

Modular evolution of the Cetacean vertebral column.  

PubMed

Modular theory predicts that hierarchical developmental processes generate hierarchical phenotypic units that are capable of independent modification. The vertebral column is an overtly modular structure, and its rapid phenotypic transformation in cetacean evolution provides a case study for modularity. Terrestrial mammals have five morphologically discrete vertebral series that are now known to be coincident with Hox gene expression patterns. Here, I present the hypothesis that in living Carnivora and Artiodactyla, and by inference in the terrestrial ancestors of whales, the series are themselves components of larger precaudal and caudal modular units. Column morphology in a series of fossil and living whales is used to predict the type and sequence of developmental changes responsible for modification of that ancestral pattern. Developmental innovations inferred include independent meristic additions to the precaudal column in basal archaeocetes and basilosaurids, stepwise homeotic reduction of the sacral series in protocetids, and dissociation of the caudal series into anterior tail and fluke subunits in basilosaurids. The most dramatic change was the novel association of lumbar and anterior caudal vertebrae in a module that crosses the precaudal/caudal boundary. This large unit is defined by shared patterns of vertebral morphology, count, and size in all living whales (Neoceti). PMID:17501751

Buchholtz, Emily A

2007-01-01

59

Detection of Tritrichomonas foetus by PCR and DNA Enzyme Immunoassay Based on rRNA Gene Unit Sequences  

PubMed Central

Tritrichomonas foetus is the causative agent of bovine tritrichomonosis, a sexually transmitted disease leading to infertility and abortion. Diagnosis is hampered by putative contamination of samples with intestinal or coprophilic trichomonadid protozoa which might be mistaken for T. foetus. Therefore, we developed a PCR test optimized for applicability in routine diagnosis. Amplification is based upon primers TFR3 and TFR4 directed to the rRNA gene units of T. foetus. In order to avoid potential carryover contamination by products of previous amplification reactions, conditions were adapted to the use of the uracil DNA glycosylase system. Furthermore, documentation and interpretation of results were facilitated by including a DNA enzyme immunoassay for the detection of amplification products. Specificity was confirmed with genomic material from different related trichomonadid protozoa. The high sensitivity of the test allowed the detection of a single T. foetus organism in diagnostic culture medium or about 50 parasites per ml of preputial washing fluid. The present methods are thus proposed as (i) confirmatory tests for microscopic diagnosis following diagnostic in vitro cultivation and (ii) a direct T. foetus screening test with diagnostic samples. PMID:9466768

Felleisen, Richard S. J.; Lambelet, Natacha; Bachmann, Philipp; Nicolet, Jacques; Muller, Norbert; Gottstein, Bruno

1998-01-01

60

Symmetric modular torsatron  

DOEpatents

A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

1984-01-01

61

Is the mind really modular?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Fodor titled his (1983) book the Modularity of Mind, he overstated his position. His actual view is that the mind divides into systems some of which are modular and others of which are not. The book would have been more aptly, if less provocatively, called The Modularity of Low-Level Peripheral Systems. High-level perception and cognitive systems are non-modular on

Jesse J. Prinz

62

Uniting the classification of cultured and uncultured bacteria and archaea using 16S rRNA gene sequences.  

PubMed

Publicly available sequence databases of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene, also known as 16S rRNA in bacteria and archaea, are growing rapidly, and the number of entries currently exceeds 4 million. However, a unified classification and nomenclature framework for all bacteria and archaea does not yet exist. In this Analysis article, we propose rational taxonomic boundaries for high taxa of bacteria and archaea on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence identities and suggest a rationale for the circumscription of uncultured taxa that is compatible with the taxonomy of cultured bacteria and archaea. Our analyses show that only nearly complete 16S rRNA sequences give accurate measures of taxonomic diversity. In addition, our analyses suggest that most of the 16S rRNA sequences of the high taxa will be discovered in environmental surveys by the end of the current decade. PMID:25118885

Yarza, Pablo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Pruesse, Elmar; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Whitman, William B; Euzéby, Jean; Amann, Rudolf; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

2014-09-01

63

Modular, Multilayer Perceptron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combination of proposed modular, multilayer perceptron and algorithm for its operation recognizes new objects after relatively brief retraining sessions. (Perceptron is multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network fully connected and trained via back-propagation learning algorithm.) Knowledge pertaining to each object to be recognized resides in subnetwork of full network, therefore not necessary to retrain full network to recognize each new object.

Cheng, Li-Jen; Liu, Tsuen-Hsi

1991-01-01

64

Modularity in robotic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most robotic systems today are designed one at a time, at a high cost of time and money. This wasteful approach has been necessary because the industry has not established a foundation for the continued evolution of intelligent machines. The next generation of robots will have to be generic, versatile machines capable of absorbing new technology rapidly and economically. This approach is demonstrated in the success of the personal computer, which can be upgraded or expanded with new software and hardware at virtually every level. Modularity is perceived as a major opportunity to reduce the 6 to 7 year design cycle time now required for new robotic manipulators, greatly increasing the breadth and speed of diffusion of robotic systems in manufacturing. Modularity and its crucial role in the next generation of intelligent machines are the focus of interest. The main advantages that modularity provides are examined; types of modules needed to create a generic robot are discussed. Structural modules designed by the robotics group at the University of Texas at Austin are examined to demonstrate the advantages of modular design.

Tesar, Delbert; Butler, Michael S.

1989-01-01

65

Modular Mayhem? A Case Study of the Development of the A-Level Science Curriculum in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the costs and benefits of the increased use of modular or unitized qualification designs through a case study of the GCE A-level science curriculum in England. Following a brief review of the development of modular A-levels, the various proposed advantages of modularity--short-term goals and regular feedback, flexibility…

Hayward, Geoff; McNicholl, Jane

2007-01-01

66

Feasibility study for early commercialization of a modular-unit dual fluidized-bed system for converting terrestrial biomass into alternate fuels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The economic and technical feasibility for commercialization of a dual-fluidized bed system for converting terrestrial biomass into alternative fuels was investigated. The preliminary facility produced medium-Btu gas from wood chips. Another task investigated possible uses for synthesis gas as well. A detailed analysis was carried out for the generation of synthesis gas and its conversion to methanol. An analysis of feedstock availability and market potential for woody biomass was also performed. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic aspects were also considered. Feasibility work included application of the Japanese technology to a site-specific biomass application in the US. The plant would use 500 tons/day of wood. The early commercialization of the dual-fluidized bed system depends on a number of factors. Two of the most important considerations are (1) bringing the technology demonstrated at Star Dust '80 to the United States market place and the economic attractiveness of the fuel gas produced as an alternative to the conventional fuels. It has been demonstrated that the dual-fluidized bed system is technically and environmentally suited to the Plattsburgh plant site application. Hence, the obstacle of a commercially demonstrated plant has been overcome. On the other hand, the cost of the fuel gas, $8.24/million Btus (10% ROI) and $12.04/million Btus (20% ROI) is not economically attractive. In order to make this plant economically attractive, several alternatives are available including: (1) building multiple facilities, (2) increasing operating efficiencies, and (3) packaged plants. 91 references, 84 figures, 77 tables. (DMC)

Bailie, R.C.; Anderson, R.J.; Carmack, M.; Doner, D.E.; Wagner, J.A.; Ando, Naoyoshi; Frank, N.W.; Goke, Chikao; Hirayama, Yoshio; Ito, Kanichi

1981-01-01

67

The Click modular router  

Microsoft Academic Search

Click is a new software architecture for building flexible and configurable routers. A Click router is assembled from packet processing modules called which helps an element locate other interesting elements.We demonstrate several working configurations, including an IP router and an Ethernet bridge. These configurations are modular---the IP router has 16 elements on the forwarding path---and easy to extend by adding

Robert Morris; Eddie Kohler; John Jannotti; M. Frans Kaashoek

1999-01-01

68

Modular integrated video system  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) is intended to provide a simple, highly reliable closed circuit television (CCTV) system capable of replacing the IAEA Twin Minolta Film Camera Systems in those safeguards facilities where mains power is readily available, and situations where it is desired to have the CCTV camera separated from the CCTV recording console. This paper describes the MIVS and the Program Plan which is presently being followed for the development, testing, and implementation of the system.

Gaertner, K.J.; Heaysman, B.; Holt, R.; Sonnier, C.

1986-01-01

69

Cranial modularity and sequence heterochrony in mammals.  

PubMed

Heterochrony, the temporal shifting of developmental events relative to each other, requires a degree of autonomy among those processes or structures. Modularity, the division of larger structures or processes into autonomous sets of internally integrated units, is often discussed in relation to the concept of heterochrony. However, the relationship between the developmental modules derived from studies of heterochrony and evolutionary modules, which should be of adaptive importance and relate to the genotype-phenotype map, has not been explicitly studied. I analyzed a series of sectioned and whole cleared-and-stained embryological and neonatal specimens, supplemented with published ontogenetic data, to test the hypothesis that bones within the same phenotypic modules, as determined by morphometric analysis, are developmentally integrated and will display coordinated heterochronic shifts across taxa. Modularity was analyzed in cranial bone ossification sequences of 12 therian mammals. A dataset of 12-18 developmental events was used to assess if modularity in developmental sequences corresponds to six phenotypic modules, derived from a recent morphometric analysis of cranial modularity in mammals. Kendall's tau was used to measure rank correlations, with randomization tests for significance. If modularity in developmental sequences corresponds to observed phenotypic modules, bones within a single phenotypic module should show integration of developmental timing, maintaining the same timing of ossification relative to each other, despite differences in overall ossification sequences across taxa. Analyses did not find any significant conservation of developmental timing within the six phenotypic modules, meaning that bones that are highly integrated in adult morphology are not significantly integrated in developmental timing. PMID:17501752

Goswami, Anjali

2007-01-01

70

New realities of modular construction  

SciTech Connect

Modular construction has both advantages and disadvantages. Advantages are safety, reduction of construction time and faster plant startup time, reduced labor cost, weather friendliness, increased quality and efficiency, simultaneous production capability, testing ease and fewer interruptions to an operating plant. Disadvantages are transportation costs, module size limitations, transportation-accessibility needs, increased engineering effort, and offloading and setting needs. These pros and cons were identified by a Construction Industry Institute (C2) task force established in 1989 to assess modular construction strengths and weaknesses. Objective: develop a decision-support tool to evaluate a project's suitability for modularization. The task force first had to learn what drivers influence modularization and then develop a set of characteristics of the ideal project for modularization. To help in this research, academics from the University of Houston and Purdue University developed MODEX, an expert system which became the decision-support tool. The paper first discusses the myths of modularization and then describes MODEX.

Duty, J.M. Jr. (Bechtel Corp., Houston, TX (United States)); Fisher, D. (Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)); Lewis, W.W. (Pritchard Corp., Overland Park, KS (United States))

1993-12-01

71

Modular antenna design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical design of a modular antenna concept was developed sufficiently to allow manufacture of a working demonstration model of a module, to predict mass properties, and to make performance estimates for antenna reflectors composed of these modules. The primary features of this concept are: (1) each module is an autonomous structural element which can be attached to adjacent modules through a three point connection; (2) the upper surface is a folding hexagonal truss plate mechanism which serves as the supporting structure for a reflective surface; and (3) the entire truss and surface can be folded into a cylindrical envelope in which all truss elements are essentially parallel. The kinematic studies and engineering demonstration model fully verified the deployment kinematics, stowing philosophy, and deployment sequencing for large antenna modules. It was established that such modules can be stowed in packages as small as 25 cm in diameter, using 1.27 cm diameter structural tubes. The development activity indicates that this deployable modular approach towards building large structures in space will support erection of 450 m apertures for operation up to 3 GHz with a single space shuttle flight.

Ribble, J. W.

1981-01-01

72

Modular functions and transcendence questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove results on the transcendence degree of a field generated by numbers connected with the modular function j(\\\\tau ). In particular, we show that \\\\pi and e^\\\\pi are algebraically independent and we prove Bertrand's conjecture on algebraic independence over \\\\mathbb Q of the values at algebraic points of a modular function and its derivatives. Bibtex entry for this abstract

Yu V. Nesterenko

1996-01-01

73

Modularity in Flexible Manufacturing Workcells  

E-print Network

was introduced to machine tools. Soon CNC machine tools became versatile manufacturing machines. Given the proper115 3 Modularity in Flexible Manufacturing Workcells 3.1 Introduction For a workstation without additional work. To facilitate the ability to interchange modular hardware, it is beneficial

Causey, Gregory C.

74

Computational Modularity via Synchronized Lazy Aggregates  

E-print Network

Slivers: Computational Modularity via Synchronized Lazy Aggregates by Franklyn Albin Turbak S: Computational Modularity via Synchronized Lazy Aggregates by Franklyn Albin Turbak Submitted to the Department

Turbak, Franklyn

75

Modular Flooring System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped onto durable, commercially available drywall carts for storage and/or transportation. This method of storage and transportation makes it very convenient and safe when handling large quantities of modules.

Thate, Robert

2012-01-01

76

Modular electronics packaging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.

Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

77

Modular small hydro configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smaller sites (those under 750 kilowatts) which previously were not attractive to develop using equipment intended for application at larger scale sites, were the focal point in the conception of a system which utilizes standard industrial components which are generally available within short procurement times. Such components were integrated into a development scheme for sites having 20 feet to 150 feet of head. The modular small hydro configuration maximizes the use of available components and minimizes modification of existing civil works. A key aspect of the development concept is the use of a vertical turbine multistage pump, used in the reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine. The configuration allows for automated operation and control of the hydroelectric facilities with sufficient flexibility for inclusion of potential hydroelectric sites into dispersed storage and generation (DSG) utility grid systems.

1981-09-01

78

Modular stems in DDH.  

PubMed

The Modulus (Lima-Lto) system has been created on the association of a conical stem and a modular neck in order to address the so called "difficult hip". Modularity can maximize the options for a correct reconstruction in a total hip replacement of the coxofemoral anatomy as well as biomechanics. Modulus should be used in CDH, primary hip arthritis, the sequelae of osteotomies and in each case in which we face a congenital or acquired hip deformity. The Modulus stem has been commonly utilised in association with the Delta cup (Lima-Lto) with the chance to use big diameter heads (32-36 mm) and ceramic on ceramic coupling. Modulus has been used in association with Delta cup since November 2002. 51 patients affected by CDH have been treated. Clinical and radiographic results can be considered very good. The average evaluation based on Merle D'Aubigné schedule is equal to 17.5 with a significant increase in the results with respect to the preoperatory score (with an average score equal to 10). In the light of the above, Modulus should be considered a valuable system to optimize the results of total hip replacement also in those more complex situations with a modified femoral morphology, allowing the restoration of a normal biomechanics in terms of off-set and anteversion with benefit in terms of stability and length of the implant as well as in terms of satisfaction of the patient as far as limb length and ROM are concerned. The association of Modulus with big diameter heads gives a higher guarantee in terms of duration of the implant and restoration of the functionality in young patients with a serious deformity and increased functional demands. PMID:19197896

Benazzo, F; Cuzzocrea, F; Stroppa, S; Ravasi, F; Dalla Pria, P

2007-01-01

79

Effective Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality at Modular Schoolrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The use of modular schoolrooms in the U.S. has increased drastically, with the primary reason being a reduced capital expense commitment. The most common HVAC equipment installations for these rooms are sidewall mounted packaged units, and the basic installation generally provides outdoor air using fixed air inlet louvers. Field tests of a representative room with this setup indicate that

Tom Lawrence; James E. Braun

80

Modularity and the Genotype to Phenotype Map  

E-print Network

Chapter 6 Modularity and the Genotype to Phenotype Map 6.1 Definitions of Modularity The concept [72]. Cognitive scientists often refer to the modularity of mind [48] arguing that the mind fashion, insights into aspects of modularity in cognitive and neurological systems can be as equally

Yao, Xin

81

Engineering precision RNA molecular switches  

PubMed Central

Ligand-specific molecular switches composed of RNA were created by coupling preexisting catalytic and receptor domains via structural bridges. Binding of ligand to the receptor triggers a conformational change within the bridge, and this structural reorganization dictates the activity of the adjoining ribozyme. The modular nature of these tripartite constructs makes possible the rapid construction of precision RNA molecular switches that trigger only in the presence of their corresponding ligand. By using similar enzyme engineering strategies, new RNA switches can be made to operate as designer molecular sensors or as a new class of genetic control elements. PMID:10097080

Soukup, Garrett A.; Breaker, Ronald R.

1999-01-01

82

Contitions for optimal growth of a PSTV-infected potato cell suspension and detection of viroid-complementary longer-than-unit-length RNA in these cells.  

PubMed

A suspension culture from potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV)-infected cells of the wild type potato (Solanum demissum) has been established, which is a suitable model system for studying PSTV replicationin vivo. The conditions for rapid growth of these cells and for permanent extensive viroid biosynthesis within them are described. Biosynthesis of PSTV in the potato cells was demonstrated by(32)P-incorporation into nucleic acids and their subsequent electrophoretic analysis on polyacrylamide gels. Under optimum culture conditions the amount of(32)P-orthophosphate incorporation into PSTV reached 10% of that incorporated into the 2 M LiCl-soluble cellular RNA. (+)PSTV and its complementary form, i.e. (-)PSTV were identified after their electrophoretic separation on polyacrylamide and agarose gels by molecular hybridization. This analysis revealed the presence of six high molecular weight(-)PSTV species, which are possibly multimers of the unit length(+)PSTV molecule consisting of 359 nucleotides. PMID:24318372

Mühlbach, H P; Faustmann, O; Sänger, H L

1983-09-01

83

Emergent spacetime from modular motives  

E-print Network

The program of constructing spacetime geometry from string theoretic modular forms is extended to Calabi-Yau varieties of dimensions two, three, and four, as well as higher rank motives. Modular forms on the worldsheet can be constructed from the geometry of spacetime by computing the L-functions associated to omega motives of Calabi-Yau varieties, generated by their holomorphic $n-$forms via Galois representations. The modular forms that emerge from the omega motive and other motives of the intermediate cohomology are related to characters of the underlying rational conformal field theory. The converse problem of constructing space from string theory proceeds in the class of diagonal theories by determining the motives associated to modular forms in the category of motives with complex multiplication. The emerging picture indicates that the L-function can be interpreted as a map from the geometric category of motives to the category of conformal field theories on the worldsheet.

Rolf Schimmrigk

2008-12-23

84

The evolutionary origins of modularity  

PubMed Central

A central biological question is how natural organisms are so evolvable (capable of quickly adapting to new environments). A key driver of evolvability is the widespread modularity of biological networks—their organization as functional, sparsely connected subunits—but there is no consensus regarding why modularity itself evolved. Although most hypotheses assume indirect selection for evolvability, here we demonstrate that the ubiquitous, direct selection pressure to reduce the cost of connections between network nodes causes the emergence of modular networks. Computational evolution experiments with selection pressures to maximize network performance and minimize connection costs yield networks that are significantly more modular and more evolvable than control experiments that only select for performance. These results will catalyse research in numerous disciplines, such as neuroscience and genetics, and enhance our ability to harness evolution for engineering purposes. PMID:23363632

Clune, Jeff; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Lipson, Hod

2013-01-01

85

RNA self-assembly and RNA nanotechnology.  

PubMed

CONSPECTUS: Nanotechnology's central goal involves the direct control of matter at the molecular nanometer scale to build nanofactories, nanomachines, and other devices for potential applications including electronics, alternative fuels, and medicine. In this regard, the nascent use of nucleic acids as a material to coordinate the precise arrangements of specific molecules marked an important milestone in the relatively recent history of nanotechnology. While DNA served as the pioneer building material in nucleic acid nanotechnology, RNA continues to emerge as viable alternative material with its own distinct advantages for nanoconstruction. Several complementary assembly strategies have been used to build a diverse set of RNA nanostructures having unique structural attributes and the ability to self-assemble in a highly programmable and controlled manner. Of the different strategies, the architectonics approach uniquely endeavors to understand integrated structural RNA architectures through the arrangement of their characteristic structural building blocks. Viewed through this lens, it becomes apparent that nature routinely uses thermodynamically stable, recurrent modular motifs from natural RNA molecules to generate unique and more complex programmable structures. With the design principles found in natural structures, a number of synthetic RNAs have been constructed. The synthetic nanostructures constructed to date have provided, in addition to affording essential insights into RNA design, important platforms to characterize and validate the structural self-folding and assembly properties of RNA modules or building blocks. Furthermore, RNA nanoparticles have shown great promise for applications in nanomedicine and RNA-based therapeutics. Nevertheless, the synthetic RNA architectures achieved thus far consist largely of static, rigid particles that are still far from matching the structural and functional complexity of natural responsive structural elements such as the ribosome, large ribozymes, and riboswitches. Thus, the next step in synthetic RNA design will involve new ways to implement these same types of dynamic and responsive architectures into nanostructures functioning as real nanomachines in and outside the cell. RNA nanotechnology will likely garner broader utility and influence with a greater focus on the interplay between thermodynamic and kinetic influences on RNA self-assembly and using natural RNAs as guiding principles. PMID:24856178

Grabow, Wade W; Jaeger, Luc

2014-06-17

86

Additive Modular Learning in Preemptrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive scientists, AI researchers in particular, have long-recognized the enormous benefits of modularity (e.g., Simon, 1969), as well as the need for self-organi- zation (Samuel, 1967) in creating artifacts whose com- plexity approaches that of human intelligence. And yet these two goals seem almost incompatible, since truly modular systems are usually designed, and systems that truly learn are inherently nonmodular

Gregory M. Saunders; John F. Kolen; Peter J. Angeline; Jordan B. Pollack

1992-01-01

87

Principles of Modular Tumor Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nature is interwoven with communication and is represented and reproduced through communication acts. The central question\\u000a is how may multimodal modularly acting and less toxic therapy approaches, defined as modular therapies, induce an objective\\u000a response or even a continuous complete remission, although single stimulatory or inhibitingly acting drugs neither exert mono-activity\\u000a in the respective metastatic tumor type nor are they

Albrecht Reichle; Gerhard C. Hildebrandt

88

Principles of Modular Tumor Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nature is interwoven with communication and is represented and reproduced through communication acts. The central question\\u000a is how may multimodal modularly acting and less toxic therapy approaches, defined as modular therapies, induce an objective\\u000a response or even a continuous complete remission, although single stimulatory or inhibitingly acting drugs neither exert mono-activity\\u000a in the respective metastatic tumor type nor are they

Albrecht Reichle; Gerhard C. Hildebrandt

2009-01-01

89

Amphibious modular robotic astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the design of a robot that can traverse land, water, as well as quicksand-like mud. The robot is low cost and modular allowing the replacement of a variety of arms suitable for many of the tasks associated with astrobiological exploration. An astrobiologist on a field study will spend most of the time walking around and exploring the site looking for areas of interest which will be tested in situ or sampled for testing offsite. For a robot replicating these tasks, it must be able to locomote in that terrain, sense the interesting features (or provide sensing for teleoperation), and do a variety of manipulation tasks once an area of interest is reached. The configurations for this robot include 10's of modules that can achieve astrobiological tasks such as amphibious locomotion, digging, core sampling, probing, liquid sampling and exploration. This paper also presents results from the first experiments of this platform at Lake Tyrrell, a salt lake in Australia.

Yim, Mark; Shirmohammadi, Babak; Benelli, David

2007-04-01

90

Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator  

SciTech Connect

Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing ~24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during launch vibration. Details analysis indicates that the design offers a substantial improvement in specific power over the present generator of RTGs, using the same heat source modules. There are three copies in the file.

Schock, Alfred

1981-04-03

91

Kernel for modular robot applications: Automatic modeling techniques  

SciTech Connect

A modular robotic system consists of standardized joint and link units that an be assembled into various kinematic configurations for different types of tasks. For the control and simulation of such a system, manual derivation of the kinematic and dynamic models, as well as the error model for kinematic calibration, require tremendous effort, because the models constantly change as the robot geometry is altered after module reconfiguration. This paper presents a frame-work to facilitate the model-generation procedure for the control and simulation of the modular robot system. A graph technique, termed kinematic graphs and realized through assembly incidence matrices (AIM), is introduced to represent the module-assembly sequence and robot geometry. The kinematics and dynamics are formulated based on a local representation of the theory of lie groups and Lie algebras. The automatic model-generation procedure starts with a given assembly graph of the modular robot. Kinematic, dynamic, and error models of the robot are then established, based on the local representations and iterative graph-traversing algorithms. This approach can be applied to a modular robot with both serial and branch-type geometries, and arbitrary degrees of freedom. Furthermore, the AIM of the robot naturally leads to solving the task-oriented optimal configuration problem in modular robots. There is no need to maintain a huge library of robot models, and the footprint of the overall software system can be reduced.

Chen, I.M.; Yeo, S.H.; Chen, G. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). School of Mechanical and production Engineering] [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). School of Mechanical and production Engineering; Yang, G. [Gintic Inst. of Manufacturing Technology (Singapore). Automation Technology Div.] [Gintic Inst. of Manufacturing Technology (Singapore). Automation Technology Div.

1999-02-01

92

Eigenvalue Spectra of Modular Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large variety of dynamical processes that take place on networks can be expressed in terms of the spectral properties of some linear operator which reflects how the dynamical rules depend on the network topology. Often, such spectral features are theoretically obtained by considering only local node properties, such as degree distributions. Many networks, however, possess large-scale modular structures that can drastically influence their spectral characteristics and which are neglected in such simplified descriptions. Here, we obtain in a unified fashion the spectrum of a large family of operators, including the adjacency, Laplacian, and normalized Laplacian matrices, for networks with generic modular structure, in the limit of large degrees. We focus on the conditions necessary for the merging of the isolated eigenvalues with the continuous band of the spectrum, after which the planted modular structure can no longer be easily detected by spectral methods. This is a crucial transition point which determines when a modular structure is strong enough to affect a given dynamical process. We show that this transition happens in general at different points for the different matrices, and hence the detectability threshold can vary significantly, depending on the operator chosen. Equivalently, the sensitivity to the modular structure of the different dynamical processes associated with each matrix will be different, given the same large-scale structure present in the network. Furthermore, we show that, with the exception of the Laplacian matrix, the different transitions coalesce into the same point for the special case where the modules are homogeneous but separate otherwise.

Peixoto, Tiago P.

2013-08-01

93

Towards a sustainable modular robot system for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates multiple perspectives of developing an unmanned robotic system suited for planetary terrains. In this case, the unmanned system consists of unit-modular robots. This type of robot has potential to be developed and maintained as a sustainable multi-robot system while located far from direct human intervention. Some characteristics that make this possible are: the cooperation, communication and connectivity among the robot modules, flexibility of individual robot modules, capability of self-healing in the case of a failed module and the ability to generate multiple gaits by means of reconfiguration. To demonstrate the effects of high flexibility of an individual robot module, multiple modules of a four-degree-of-freedom unit-modular robot were developed. The robot was equipped with a novel connector mechanism that made self-healing possible. Also, design strategies included the use of series elastic actuators for better robot-terrain interaction. In addition, various locomotion gaits were generated and explored using the robot modules, which is essential for a modular robot system to achieve robustness and thus successfully navigate and function in a planetary environment. To investigate multi-robot task completion, a biomimetic cooperative load transportation algorithm was developed and simulated. Also, a liquid motion-inspired theory was developed consisting of a large number of robot modules. This can be used to traverse obstacles that inevitably occur in maneuvering over rough terrains such as in a planetary exploration. Keywords: Modular robot, cooperative robots, biomimetics, planetary exploration, sustainability.

Hossain, S. G. M.

94

Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits.  

PubMed

A key element enabling the microelectronic technology advances of the past decades has been the conceptualization of complex circuits with versatile functionalities as being composed of the proper combination of basic 'lumped' circuit elements (for example, inductors and capacitors). In contrast, modern nanophotonic systems are still far from a similar level of sophistication, partially because of the lack of modularization of their response in terms of basic building blocks. Here we demonstrate the design, assembly and characterization of relatively complex photonic nanocircuits by accurately positioning a number of metallic and dielectric nanoparticles acting as modular lumped elements. The nanoparticle clusters produce the desired spectral response described by simple circuit rules and are shown to be dynamically reconfigurable by modifying the direction or polarization of impinging signals. Our work represents an important step towards extending the powerful modular design tools of electronic circuits into nanophotonic systems. PMID:24871450

Shi, Jinwei; Monticone, Francesco; Elias, Sarah; Wu, Yanwen; Ratchford, Daniel; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

2014-01-01

95

Engineering RNA-binding proteins for biology  

PubMed Central

RNA-binding proteins play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression. Many have modular structures and combine relatively few common domains in various arrangements to recognize RNA sequences and/or structures. Recent progress in engineering the specificity of the PUF class RNA-binding proteins has shown that RNA-binding domains may be combined with various effector or functional domains to regulate the metabolism of targeted RNAs. Designer RNA-binding proteins with tailored sequence specificity will provide valuable tools for biochemical research as well as potential therapeutic applications. In this review, we discuss the suitability of various RNA-binding domains for engineering RNA-binding specificity, based on the structural basis for their recognition. We also compare various protein engineering and design methods applied to RNA-binding proteins, and discuss future applications of these proteins. PMID:23742071

Chen, Yu; Varani, Gabriele

2014-01-01

96

Adaptability Through Modular Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several short articles describe programs utilizing laser/electro-optics technology curriculum materials developed by Technical Education Research Centers (TERC): at undergraduate and graduate levels in universities; in a city college; in continuing education; and in industry. Modules, independent units based on booklets or films, include…

Hull, Daniel M.; And Others

1974-01-01

97

Inherent controllability in modular ALMRs  

SciTech Connect

As part of recent development efforts on advanced reactor designs ANL has proposed the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) concept. The IFR concept is currently being applied to modular sized reactors which would be built in multiple power paks together with an integrated fuel cycle facility. It has been amply demonstrated that the concept as applied to the modular designs has significant advantages in regard to ATWS transients. Attention is now being focussed on determining whether or not those advantages deriving from the traits of the IFR can be translated to the operational/DBA (design basis accident) class of transients. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Sackett, J.I.; Sevy, R.H.; Wei, T.Y.C.

1989-01-01

98

Modular Context-Sensitive Algebraic Speci cations  

E-print Network

and rewriting. In particular, we study the modularity behaviour of context-sensitive term rewriting systems w.r.t. con uence and related uniqueness properties. We show how to extend various modularity results known

Lucas, Salvador

99

Programming language techniques for modular router configurations  

E-print Network

Programming language techniques for modular router configurations Eddie Kohler, Benjie Chen, M about it. The system in question is Click, a modular software router framework [13]. Click routers and other con- ventional programming language techniques. Applied to a router configuration

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

100

Walk modularity and community structure in networks  

E-print Network

Modularity maximization has been one of the most widely used approaches in the last decade for discovering community structure in networks of practical interest in biology, computing, social science, statistical mechanics, and more. Modularity is a quality function that measures the difference between the number of edges found within clusters minus the number of edges one would statistically expect to find based on random chance. We present a natural generalization of modularity based on the difference between the actual and expected number of walks within clusters, which we call walk-modularity. Walk-modularity can be expressed in matrix form, and community detection can be performed by finding leading eigenvectors of the walk-modularity matrix. We demonstrate community detection on both synthetic and real-world networks and find that walk-modularity maximization returns significantly improved results compared to traditional modularity maximization.

Mehrle, David; Harkin, Anthony

2014-01-01

101

To Modularize or Not To Modularize? John A. Bullinaria  

E-print Network

degree of modularity in the human brain and numerous reasons why it might have evolved to be that way network models. Here I present a series of simulations of the evolution of such neural systems that show) system. Certainly there is considerable neuropsychological evidence that human (and other animal) brains

Bullinaria, John

102

Evolution and the Modularity of Mindreading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews Baron-Cohen's study of autism and an explanatory theory called modularity of mindreading, which proposed a domain-specific modular psychological model based on evolutionary, developmental, psychopathological, and neurobiological considerations. Enumerates problems with the modularity approach and emphasized the evolution of domain general…

Moore, Chris

1996-01-01

103

Modularity in Cognition: Framing the Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modularity has been the subject of intense debate in the cognitive sciences for more than 2 decades. In some cases, misunderstandings have impeded conceptual progress. Here the authors identify arguments about modularity that either have been abandoned or were never held by proponents of modular views of the mind. The authors review arguments that…

Barrett, H. Clark; Kurzban, Robert

2006-01-01

104

The Modular Mind and Intrapersonal Communication Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a prior model on modularity of the brain, a new modular model of intrapersonal communication was developed which focuses on brain processing, encompassing both the structures and the functions of those structures in the creation of messages. The modular mind is a bio-social model of communication which presupposes a relationship between…

Stacks, Don W.

105

Modular representations of Hecke algebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

These notes are based on a course given at the EPFL in May 2005. It is concerned with the representation theory of Hecke algebras in the non-semisimple case. We explain the role that these algebras play in the modular representation theory of finite groups of Lie type and survey the recent results which complete the classification of the simple modules.

Meinolf Geck

2005-01-01

106

A Modular Voting Architecture ("Frogs")  

E-print Network

A Modular Voting Architecture ("Frogs") Shuki Bruck (CalTech) David Jefferson (Compaq) Ronald L. Rivest (MIT) (WOTE, August 28, 2001) #12;Outline !Moving from paper " electronic !Voting with frogs !Advantages of frogs !Security !Conclusions #12;What's next in voting? !We propose a practical voting system

Rivest, Ronald L.

107

Mock Modular Mathieu Moonshine Modules  

E-print Network

We construct vertex operator super-algebras which lead to modules for moonshine relations connecting the sporadic simple Mathieu groups M22 and M23, with distinguished mock modular forms. Starting with an orbifold of a free fermion theory, any subgroup of Co_0 that fixes a 3-dimensional subspace of its unique non-trivial 24-dimensional representation commutes with a certain N=4 superconformal algebra. Similarly, any subgroup of Co_0 that fixes a 2-dimensional subspace of the 24-dimensional representation commutes with a certain N=2 superconformal algebra. Through the decomposition of the corresponding twined partition functions into characters of the N=4 (resp. N=2) superconformal algebra, we arrive at mock modular forms which coincide with the graded characters of an infinite-dimensional Z-graded module for the corresponding group. The two Mathieu groups are singled out amongst various other possibilities by the moonshine property: requiring the corresponding mock modular forms to be regular at all cusps inequivalent to the low temperature cusp at i-infinity. Our constructions constitute the first examples of explicitly realized modules underlying moonshine phenomena relating mock modular forms to sporadic simple groups. Modules for other groups, including the sporadic groups of McLaughlin and Higman--Sims, are also discussed.

Miranda C. N. Cheng; Xi Dong; John F. R. Duncan; Sarah Harrison; Shamit Kachru; Timm Wrase

2014-06-20

108

Modular synchronization in complex networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the synchronization transition (ST) of a modified Kuramoto model on two different types of modular complex networks. It is found that the ST depends on the type of intermodular connections. For the network with decentralized (centralized) intermodular connections, the ST occurs at finite coupling constant (behaves abnormally). Such distinct features are found in the yeast protein interaction network

E. Oh; K. Rho; H. Hong; B. Kahng

2005-01-01

109

Induction in a Modular Learner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a theory of inductive learning--Autonomous Induction Theory--a form of induction that takes place within the autonomous and modular representational systems of the language faculty. Argues that Autonomous Induction Theory is constrained enough to be taken seriously as a plausible approach to explaining second language acquisition.…

Carroll, Susanne E.

2002-01-01

110

The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) is being developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for use in facilities where mains power is available and the separation of the Camera and Recording Control Unit is desirable. The system is being developed under the US Program for Technical Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards (POTAS). The MIVS is designed to be a user friendly system allowing operation with minimal effort and training. The system software, through the use of a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and four soft keys, leads the inspector through the setup procedures to accomplish the intended surveillance or maintenance task. Review of surveillance data is accomplished with the use of a Portable Review Station. This Review Station will aid the inspector in the review process and determine the number of missed video scenes during a surveillance period.

Schneider, S. L.; Sonnier, C. S.

111

Assembly of Therapeutic pRNA-siRNA Nanoparticles Using Bipartite Approach  

PubMed Central

The 117-nucleotide (nt) RNA, called the packaging RNA (pRNA) of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor, has been shown to be an efficient vector for the construction of RNA nanoparticles for the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) into specific cancer or viral-infected cells. Currently, chemical synthesis of 117-nt RNA is not feasible commercially. In addition, labeling at specific locations on pRNA requires the understanding of its modular organization. Here, we report multiple approaches for the construction of a functional 117-base pRNA using two synthetic RNA fragments with variable modifications. The resulting bipartite pRNA was fully competent in associating with other interacting pRNAs to form dimers, as demonstrated by the packaging of DNA via the nanomotor and the assembly of phi29 viruses in vitro. The pRNA subunit assembled from bipartite fragments harboring siRNA or receptor-binding ligands were equally competent in assembling into dimers. The subunits carrying different functionalities were able to bind cancer cells specifically, enter the cell, and silence specific genes of interest. The pRNA nanoparticles were subsequently processed by Dicer to release the siRNA embedded within the nanoparticles. The results will pave the way toward the treatment of diseases using synthetic pRNA/siRNA chimeric nanoparticles. PMID:21468002

Shu, Yi; Cinier, Mathieu; Fox, Sejal R; Ben-Johnathan, Nira; Guo, Peixuan

2011-01-01

112

Role of SR protein modular domains in alternative splicing specificity in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SR proteins constitute a family of nuclear phos- phoproteins which are required for constitutive splicing and also influence alternative splicing regulation. They have a modular structure consisting of one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and a C-terminal domain, rich in arginine and serine residues. The functional role of the different domains of SR proteins in constitutive splicing activity

Kathryn Newton; Gavin R. Screaton; Javier F. Cáceres

2000-01-01

113

A Periodic Inventory Model for Stocking Modular Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

e study the benefit obtained by exploiting modular product design in fulfilling exogenous demand for both a complete assembly and its components in a service parts inventory system. Our goal is to reduce overall service system costs by allowing assembly and\\/or disassembly (A\\/D) to occur at some unit cost per A\\/D action. In an extensive set of computational experiments, we

Douglas J. ThomasDonald; P. Warsing

2007-01-01

114

Development of energy efficient modular architectural textile structures. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research program was aimed at the development of energy efficient architecture using textile structures. Design concepts for modular units were developed using cell structures. Roof and wall panels were constructed and evaluated to demonstrate the design concept. Test results indicated tubular fiberglass cell structures could provide thermal insulation R-value well above 2.4. Exploratory study was also carried out to demonstrate the possibility of forming complex shapes for structural architectural applications.

Ko, F.K.; Harris, J.A.; Messinger, A.

1983-05-01

115

The molecular diversity of the 5S rRNA gene in Kengyilia alatavica (Drobov) J.L. Yang, Yen & Baum (Poaceae:Triticeae): potential genomic assignment of different rDNA units.  

PubMed

5S rRNA sequences from several accessions of Kengyilia alatavica, a member of a tribe that includes wheat and wheat relatives, have been amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced. From an evaluation of the aligned sequences, five 5S unit classes have been discerned. One class consists of short units, while the other four contain longer units. BLAST searches of the GenBank database have allowed us to tentatively assign these to classes found in genomes of other species. For example, the short 5S unit class and one long 5S unit class were designated, respectively, "short P1" and "long P1" because of their match with the comparable sequenced 5S rDNA accessions of Agropyron cristatum, a carrier of the P genome. Another unit class, is coined as "long R1", because of its similarity to the units sequenced from Secale cereale and Secale vavilovii, carriers of the R genome. The third unit class was designated "long S1" and is found also in Elytrigia spicata, a carrier of the S genome. Implications of these findings on the possible association of some unit classes with cytological haplome and on concerted evolution are discussed. PMID:9134703

Baum, B R; Bailey, L G

1997-04-01

116

Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor concept  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary conceptual study is made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR). A steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor is proposed for use as a central electric-power station. The MSR concept combines the physics of the classic stellarator confinement topology with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. The physics basis of the design point is described together with supporting magnetics, coil-force, and stress computations. The approach and results presented herein will be modified in the course of ongoing work to form a firmer basis for a detailed conceptual design of the MSR.

Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

1981-08-01

117

Design of modular wireless sensor  

E-print Network

The paper addresses combinatorial approach to design of modular wireless sensor as composition of the sensor element from its component alternatives and aggregation of the obtained solutions into a resultant aggregated solution. A hierarchical model is used for the wireless sensor element. The solving process consists of three stages: (i) multicriteria ranking of design alternatives for system components/parts, (ii) composing the selected design alternatives into composite solution(s) while taking into account ordinal quality of the design alternatives above and their compatibility (this stage is based on Hierarchical Morphological Multicriteria Design - HMMD), and (iii) aggregation of the obtained composite solutions into a resultant aggregated solution(s). A numerical example describes the problem structuring and solving processes for modular alarm wireless sensor element.

Levin, Mark Sh

2012-01-01

118

MOCHA: Modularity in Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new interactive verification environment called M OCHA for the modular verifi- cation of heterogeneous systems. MOCHA differs from many existing model checkers in three significant ways: - For modeling, we replace unstructured state-transition graphs with th e heterogeneous mod- eling framework of reactive modules(AH96). The definition of reactive modules is inspired by formalisms such as Unity (CM88),

Rajeev Alur; Thomas A. Henzinger; Freddy Y. C. Mang; Shaz Qadeer; Sriram K. Rajamani; Serdar Tasiran

1998-01-01

119

Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks.

Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

2013-02-01

120

Multidimensional bioseparation with modular microfluidics  

DOEpatents

A multidimensional chemical separation and analysis system is described including a prototyping platform and modular microfluidic components capable of rapid and convenient assembly, alteration and disassembly of numerous candidate separation systems. Partial or total computer control of the separation system is possible. Single or multiple alternative processing trains can be tested, optimized and/or run in parallel. Examples related to the separation and analysis of human bodily fluids are given.

Chirica, Gabriela S.; Renzi, Ronald F.

2013-08-27

121

Further Physics: Cambridge Modular Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This slender text was written to support the teaching of A- and AS-level physics modules within the Cambridge Modular Science scheme. Its usefulness will not be confined to those courses. The topics addressed are circular motion, gravity, simple harmonic motion, waves, electrostatics, capacitors and d.c. and a.c. circuits. The book lends itself well for use as a student reference. It

Jon Scaife

1997-01-01

122

RNA Crystallization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

2003-01-01

123

Mosaic Evolution of the Basicranium in Homo and its Relation to Modular Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosaic evolution describes different rates of evolutionary change in different body units. Morphologically these units are\\u000a described by more relationships within a unit than between different units which relates mosaic evolution with morphological\\u000a integration and modularity. Recent evidence suggests mosaic evolution at the human basicranium due to different evolutionary\\u000a rates of midline and lateral cranial base morphology but this hypothesis

Markus Bastir; Antonio Rosas

2009-01-01

124

RNA helicases  

PubMed Central

Similar to proteins, RNA molecules must fold into the correct conformation and associate with protein complexes in order to be functional within a cell. RNA helicases rearrange RNA secondary structure and RNA-protein interactions in an ATP-dependent reaction, performing crucial functions in all aspects of RNA metabolism. In prokaryotes, RNA helicase activity is associated with roles in housekeeping functions including RNA turnover, ribosome biogenesis, translation and small RNA metabolism. In addition, RNA helicase expression and/or activity are frequently altered during cellular response to abiotic stress, implying they perform defined roles during cellular adaptation to changes in the growth environment. Specifically, RNA helicases contribute to the formation of cold-adapted ribosomes and RNA degradosomes, implying a role in alleviation of RNA secondary structure stabilization at low temperature. A common emerging theme involves RNA helicases acting as scaffolds for protein-protein interaction and functioning as molecular clamps, holding RNA-protein complexes in specific conformations. This review highlights recent advances in DEAD-box RNA helicase association with cellular response to abiotic stress in prokaryotes. PMID:23093803

Owttrim, George W.

2013-01-01

125

Diatom Adhesive Mucilage Contains Distinct Supramolecular Assemblies of a Single Modular Protein  

PubMed Central

A previous study used atomic force microscopy saw-tooth retraction curves to characterize the adhesive mucilage pads of the diatom Toxarium undulatum. The major mucilage component consisted of adhesive nanofibers (ANFs) made up of modular proteins arranged into cohesive units, each containing a set number of modular proteins aligned in parallel. This study shows that T. undulatum adhesive mucilage is a biocomposite containing four additional adhesive components, including single modular proteins that are likely to be the structural units from which the ANFs are assembled. Two further distinct supramolecular assemblies were observed to coexist with ANFs (ANFs II and III), along with a continuum of single modular proteins through oligomers made up of varying numbers of modular proteins arranged in parallel. All components of the adhesive biocomposite produce a characteristic force spectrum with the same interpeak distance (35.3 ± 0.3 (mean ± SE) nm), suggesting they are derived from discrete supramolecular assemblies of the same modular protein, but they are distinguishable from one another based on the rupture force, persistence length, and interpeak force measured from their saw-tooth curves. PMID:16443662

Dugdale, T. M.; Dagastine, R.; Chiovitti, A.; Wetherbee, R.

2006-01-01

126

Antares: A low cost modular launch vehicle for the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle Antares is a revolutionary concept based on identical modular units, enabling the Antares to efficiently launch communications satellites, as well as heavy payloads, into Earth orbit and beyond. The basic unit of the modular system, a single Antares vehicle, is aimed at launching approximately 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) into low Earth orbit (LEO). When coupled with a standard Centaur upper stage, it is capable of placing 4000 kg (8800 lb) into geosynchronous Earth orbit (GE0). The Antares incorporates a reusable engine, the Dual Mixture Ratio Engine (DMRE), as its propulsive device. This enables Antares to compete and excel in the satellite launch market by dramatically reducing launch costs. Inherent in the design is the capability to attach several of these vehicles together to provide heavy lift capability. Any number of these vehicles can be attached depending on the payload and mission requirements. With a seven-vehicle configuration, the Antares' modular concept provides a heavy lift capability of approximately 70,000 kg (154,000 lb) to LEO. This expandability allows for a wide range of payload options, such as large Earth satellites, Space Station Freedom material, and interplanetary spacecraft, and also offers a significant cost savings over a mixed fleet based on different launch vehicles.

127

The Modular Neural Predictive Coding architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new architecture called the Modular Neural Predictive Coding architecture (Modular NPC). This architecture is used for speech discriminant feature extraction (DFE). We present an application of the modular NPC architecture on phoneme recognition task. The phonemes which are extracted from the Darpa-Timit speech database are: vowels, \\/b\\/-\\/d\\/-\\/g\\/ and \\/p\\/-\\/t\\/-\\/k\\/ phonemes. Comparisons with coding methods (LPC, MFCC, PLP)

M. Chetouani; B. Gas; J. L. Zarader

2002-01-01

128

Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.  

PubMed

In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function-hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology) and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms), our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS) to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its p-value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of "enriched" functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our method using Saccharomyces cerevisiae data from KEGG and MIPS databases and several other computationally derived and curated datasets. The code and additional supplemental files can be obtained from http://code.google.com/p/functional-annotation-of-hierarchical-modularity/ (Accessed 2012 March 13). PMID:22496762

Padmanabhan, Kanchana; Wang, Kuangyu; Samatova, Nagiza F

2012-01-01

129

Modular design attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sequence of single axismodels and a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order are used to reconstruct inaccessible variables pertaining to the modular attitude control of a rigid body flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft. The single axis models consist of two, three, four, and five rigid bodies, each interconnected by a flexible shaft passing through the mass centers of the bodies. Modal damping is added to each model. Reduced state linear observers are developed for synthesizing the inaccessible modal state variables for each modal model.

Chichester, F. D.

1984-01-01

130

Functional Annotation of Hierarchical Modularity  

PubMed Central

In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function–hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology) and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms), our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS) to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of “enriched” functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our method using Saccharomyces cerevisiae data from KEGG and MIPS databases and several other computationally derived and curated datasets. The code and additional supplemental files can be obtained from http://code.google.com/p/functional-annotation-of-hierarchical-modularity/ (Accessed 2012 March 13). PMID:22496762

Padmanabhan, Kanchana; Wang, Kuangyu; Samatova, Nagiza F.

2012-01-01

131

A modular BLSS simulation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for extraterrestrial use will be faced with coordination problems more acute than those in any ecosystem found on Earth. A related problem in BLSS design is providing an interface between the various life support processors, one that will allow for their coordination while still allowing for system expansion. A modular model is presented of a BLSS that interfaces system processors only with the material storage reservoirs, allowing those reservoirs to act as the principal buffers in the system and thus minimizing difficulties with processor coordination. The modular nature of the model allows independent development of the detailed submodels that exist within the model framework. Using this model, BLSS dynamics were investigated under normal conditions and under various failure modes. Partial and complete failures of various components, such as the waste processors or the plants themselves, drive transient responses in the model system, allowing the examination of the effectiveness of the system reservoirs as buffers. The results from simulations help to determine control strategies and BLSS design requirements. An evolved version could be used as an interactive control aid in a future BLSS.

Rummel, John D.; Volk, Tyler

1987-01-01

132

Modular polynomials via isogeny volcanoes  

E-print Network

We present a new algorithm to compute the classical modular polynomial Phi_n in the rings Z[X,Y] and (Z/mZ)[X,Y], for a prime n and any positive integer m. Our approach uses the graph of n-isogenies to efficiently compute Phi_n mod p for many primes p of a suitable form, and then applies the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT). Under the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH), we achieve an expected running time of O(n^3 (log n)^3 log log n), and compute Phi_n mod m using O(n^2 (log n)^2 + n^2 log m) space. We have used the new algorithm to compute Phi_n with n over 5000, and Phi_n mod m with n over 20000. We also consider several modular functions g for which Phi_n^g is smaller than Phi_n, allowing us to handle n over 60000.

Broker, Reinier; Sutherland, Andrew V

2010-01-01

133

Learning modular policies for robotics  

PubMed Central

A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behavior. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithm that is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of these requirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithms that are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that supports co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots. PMID:24966830

Neumann, Gerhard; Daniel, Christian; Paraschos, Alexandros; Kupcsik, Andras; Peters, Jan

2014-01-01

134

Learning modular policies for robotics.  

PubMed

A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behavior. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithm that is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of these requirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithms that are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that supports co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots. PMID:24966830

Neumann, Gerhard; Daniel, Christian; Paraschos, Alexandros; Kupcsik, Andras; Peters, Jan

2014-01-01

135

UNIFORMLY LIPSCHITZIAN MAPPINGS IN MODULAR FUNCTION SPACES  

E-print Network

UNIFORMLY LIPSCHITZIAN MAPPINGS IN MODULAR FUNCTION SPACES T. DOMINGUEZ BENAVIDES, M.A. KHAMSI Words: uniformly Lipschitzian mappings, fixed point, modular functions, 1 #12;2 T. DOMINGUEZ BENAVIDES| and gn() f() for all . By 1A we denote the characteristic function of the set A. #12;4 T. DOMINGUEZ

Khamsi, Mohamed Amine

136

Origin of Modularity in Recombination Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modularity is a well-known phenomenon in biology. Modularity implies a hierarchical character, and is manifested in both phenotypic and genotypic levels. A module is defined, in general, as a component which operates relatively independently of other components of the system. The independence is in both the structural and functional levels. How does modularity originate? Evolvability is a selectable trait and modularity enhances evolvability. Thus, under conditions that select for evolvability, we expect to see the emergence of modularity. We used a spin-glass model to simulate the evolution of genomes. This model captures the interactions between amino acids or epistasis between genes. The evolutions include both sequence evolution and structure evolution. The environment changes and recombination plays an important role in evolution. We will present our result of the emergence of modularity, a symmetry breaking of the system. We will present the dependence of modularity on the amplitude and frequency of environment changing. The crucial role of recombination in the emergence of modularity will be discussed as well.

Sun, Jun; Deem, Michael

2007-03-01

137

A Complementary Modularization for Communication Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current techniques for protocol design focus on modules that encapsulate the protocol engines that execute on different network nodes. While this modularization is invaluable for independent implementation of network elements, we believe it does not adequately support the design, analysis, or evolution of a protocol. In this paper, we propose a complementary modularization that tackles this problem and is driven

Birgit Geppert

2002-01-01

138

An inverse of the modular invariant  

E-print Network

During the last few years of his life, Ramanujan had adamantly tried to invert the modular invariant. Subsequent efforts failed until May 30, 2011 when an explicit closed formula for an inverse was presented at the CCRAS (Moscow, Russia). This very formula, along with some special values of the modular invariant, is given in this paper.

Semjon Adlaj

2011-10-14

139

Modular bootstrap in Liouville field theory  

E-print Network

The modular matrix for the generic 1-point conformal blocks on the torus is expressed in terms of the fusion matrix for the 4-point blocks on the sphere. The modular invariance of the toric 1-point functions in the Liouville field theory with DOZZ structure constants is proved.

Leszek Hadasz; Zbigniew Jaskolski; Paulina Suchanek

2009-11-22

140

Modular injection systems for miniature engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mission requirements for Kinetic Energy Weapons will require miniaturization of current vehicle propulsion systems for future Space Defence Iniative Programs. A modular injection system (MIS) valve is presented which will decrease cost, size and weight of miniaturized storable bipropellant rocket engines and features two poppet-type propellant valve modules pneumatically linked to a pilot solenoid module. A prototype modular injection valve

Mike Cochran

1992-01-01

141

A MODULAR, SCALABLE, ARCHITECTURE FOR UNMANNED VEHICLES  

E-print Network

Architecture for Unmanned Ground Systems (JAUGS) Working Group. Keywords: Architectures, Autonomous Vehicles1 A MODULAR, SCALABLE, ARCHITECTURE FOR UNMANNED VEHICLES David G. Armstrong II, Carl D. Crane III, Florida ABSTRACT: A modular, scalable architecture for use on unmanned vehicles has been developed

Florida, University of

142

A Modular Laser Graphics Projection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WED Enterprises has designed and built a modular projection system for the presentation of animated laser shows. This system was designed specifically for use in Disney theme shows. Its modular design allows it to be adapted to many show situations with simple hardware and software adjustments. The primary goals were superior animation, long life, low maintenance and stand alone operation.

Newswanger, Craig D.

1984-05-01

143

CSE: a modular architecture for computational steering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational steering is the ultimate goal of interactive simulation. Steering enables users to supervise and dynamically control the computation of an ongoing simulation. We describe CSE: a modular architecture for a computational steering environment. The kernel of the architecture is designed to be very simple, flexible and minimalistic. All higher level system functionality is pushed into modular components outside of

Robert van Liere; J. J. van Wijk

1996-01-01

144

Mechanically assisted taper corrosion in modular TKA.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to characterize the prevalence of taper damage in modular TKA components. One hundred ninety-eight modular components were revised after 3.9±4.2 years of implantation. Modular components were evaluated for fretting corrosion using a semi-quantitative 4-point scoring system. Design features and patient information were assessed as predictors of fretting corrosion damage. Mild-to-severe fretting corrosion (score ?2) was observed in 94/101 tapers on the modular femoral components and 90/97 tapers on the modular tibial components. Mixed alloy pairs (p=0.03), taper design (p<0.001), and component type (p=0.02) were associated with taper corrosion. The results from this study supported the hypothesis that there is taper corrosion in TKA. However the clinical implications remain unclear. PMID:24996586

Arnholt, Christina M; MacDonald, Daniel W; Tohfafarosh, Mariya; Gilbert, Jeremy L; Rimnac, Clare M; Kurtz, Steven M; Klein, Gregg; Mont, Michael A; Parvizi, Javad; Cates, Harold E; Lee, Gwo-Chin; Malkani, Arthur; Kraay, Mattheuw

2014-09-01

145

Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment  

SciTech Connect

? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview purposes and is a sampling of advanced SMR concepts, which will be considered as part of the current DOE SMR program but whose estimated deployment time is beyond CAP’s current investment time horizon. Attachment I is the public DOE statement describing the present approach of their SMR Program.

Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

2012-06-01

146

Overland Tidal Power Generation Using Modular Tidal Prism  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring sites with sufficient kinetic energy suitable for tidal power generation with sustained currents > 1 to 2 m/s are relatively rare. Yet sites with greater than 3 to 4 m of tidal range are relatively common around the U.S. coastline. Tidal potential does exist along the shoreline but is mostly distributed, and requires an approach which allows trapping and collection to also be conducted in a distributed manner. In this paper we examine the feasibility of generating sustainable tidal power using multiple nearshore tidal energy collection units and present the Modular Tidal Prism (MTP) basin concept. The proposed approach utilizes available tidal potential by conversion into tidal kinetic energy through cyclic expansion and drainage from shallow modular manufactured overland tidal prisms. A preliminary design and configuration of the modular tidal prism basin including inlet channel configuration and basin dimensions was developed. The unique design was shown to sustain momentum in the penstocks during flooding as well as ebbing tidal cycles. The unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was used to subject the proposed design to a number of sensitivity tests and to optimize the size, shape and configuration of MTP basin for peak power generation capacity. The results show that an artificial modular basin with a reasonable footprint (? 300 acres) has the potential to generate 10 to 20 kw average energy through the operation of a small turbine located near the basin outlet. The potential of generating a total of 500 kw to 1 MW of power through a 20 to 40 MTP basin tidal power farms distributed along the coastline of Puget Sound, Washington, is explored.

Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Copping, Andrea

2010-03-01

147

Spectral Characterization of Hierarchical Network Modularity and Limits of Modularity Detection  

PubMed Central

Many real world networks are reported to have hierarchically modular organization. However, there exists no algorithm-independent metric to characterize hierarchical modularity in a complex system. The main results of the paper are a set of methods to address this problem. First, classical results from random matrix theory are used to derive the spectrum of a typical stochastic block model hierarchical modular network form. Second, it is shown that hierarchical modularity can be fingerprinted using the spectrum of its largest eigenvalues and gaps between clusters of closely spaced eigenvalues that are well separated from the bulk distribution of eigenvalues around the origin. Third, some well-known results on fingerprinting non-hierarchical modularity in networks automatically follow as special cases, threreby unifying these previously fragmented results. Finally, using these spectral results, it is found that the limits of detection of modularity can be empirically established by studying the mean values of the largest eigenvalues and the limits of the bulk distribution of eigenvalues for an ensemble of networks. It is shown that even when modularity and hierarchical modularity are present in a weak form in the network, they are impossible to detect, because some of the leading eigenvalues fall within the bulk distribution. This provides a threshold for the detection of modularity. Eigenvalue distributions of some technological, social, and biological networks are studied, and the implications of detecting hierarchical modularity in real world networks are discussed. PMID:23382895

Sarkar, Somwrita; Henderson, James A.; Robinson, Peter A.

2013-01-01

148

Modular generation of fluorescent phycobiliproteins.  

PubMed

Phycobiliproteins are brightly-fluorescent light-harvesting pigments for photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and red algae. They are also of interest as fluorescent biomarkers, but their heterologous generation in vivo has previously required multiple transformations. We report here a modular approach that requires only two DNA segments. The first codes for the apo-protein. The second codes for fusions capable of chromophore biosynthesis and its covalent attachment to the apo-protein; it contains the genes of heme oxygenase, a bilin reductase, and a chromophore lyase. Phycobiliproteins containing phycoerythrobilin (?(fluor) ~ 560 nm), phycourobilin (?(fluor) ~ 500 nm), phycocyanobilin (?(fluor) ~ 630 nm) or phycoviolobilin (?(fluor) ~ 580 nm) were obtained in high yield in E. coli. This approach facilitates chromophorylation studies of phycobiliproteins, as well as their use for fluorescence labeling based on their high fluorescence. PMID:23545837

Wu, Xian-Jun; Chang, Kun; Luo, Juan; Zhou, Ming; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong

2013-06-01

149

Modular Session Types for Objects  

E-print Network

Session types allow communication protocols to be specified type-theoretically so that protocol implementations can be verified by static type checking. We extend previous work on session types for distributed object-oriented languages in three ways. (1) We attach a session type to a class definition, to specify the possible sequences of method calls. (2) We allow a session type implementation to be modularized, i.e. partitioned into separately-callable methods. (3) We treat session-typed communication channels as objects, integrating their session types with the session types of classes. The result is an elegant unification of communication channels and their session types, distributed OO programming, and a form of typestate supporting non-uniform objects, i.e. objects that dynamically change the set of available methods. We define syntax, operational semantics, a sound type system, and a sound and complete type checking algorithm for a small distributed OO language with structural subtyping. Static typing g...

Gay, Simon J; Ravara, António; Vasconcelos, Vasco Thudichum

2012-01-01

150

Analytical Spectroscopy Using Modular Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the development of three analytical spectroscopy experiments that compare the determination of salicylic acid (SA) content in aspirin tablets. The experiments are based on UV vis, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies and utilize modular spectroscopic components. Students assemble their own instruments, optimize them with respect to signal-to-noise, generate calibration curves, determine the SA content in retail aspirin tablets, and assign features in the respective spectra to functional groups within the active material. Using this approach in the discovery-based setting, the students gain invaluable insight into method-specific parameters, such as instrumental components, sample preparation, and analytical capability. In addition, the students learn the fundamentals of fiber optics and signal processing using the low-cost CCD based spectroscopic components.

Patterson, Brian M.; Danielson, Neil D.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Sommer, André J.

2003-12-01

151

Osmotrophy in modular Ediacara organisms  

PubMed Central

The Ediacara biota include macroscopic, morphologically complex soft-bodied organisms that appear globally in the late Ediacaran Period (575–542 Ma). The physiology, feeding strategies, and functional morphology of the modular Ediacara organisms (rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs) remain debated but are critical for understanding their ecology and phylogeny. Their modular construction triggered numerous hypotheses concerning their likely feeding strategies, ranging from micro-to-macrophagus feeding to photoautotrophy to osmotrophy. Macrophagus feeding in rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs is inconsistent with their lack of oral openings, and photoautotrophy in rangeomorphs is contradicted by their habitats below the photic zone. Here, we combine theoretical models and empirical data to evaluate the feasibility of osmotrophy, which requires high surface area to volume (SA/V) ratios, as a primary feeding strategy of rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs. Although exclusively osmotrophic feeding in modern ecosystems is restricted to microscopic bacteria, this study suggests that (i) fractal branching of rangeomorph modules resulted in SA/V ratios comparable to those observed in modern osmotrophic bacteria, and (ii) rangeomorphs, and particularly erniettomorphs, could have achieved osmotrophic SA/V ratios similar to bacteria, provided their bodies included metabolically inert material. Thus, specific morphological adaptations observed in rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs may have represented strategies for overcoming physiological constraints that typically make osmotrophy prohibitive for macroscopic life forms. These results support the viability of osmotrophic feeding in rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs, help explain their taphonomic peculiarities, and point to the possible importance of earliest macroorganisms for cycling dissolved organic carbon that may have been present in abundance during Ediacaran times. PMID:19706530

Laflamme, Marc; Xiao, Shuhai; Kowalewski, Michal

2009-01-01

152

MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

2001-07-31

153

An a posteriori measure of network modularity  

PubMed Central

Measuring the modularity of networks, and how it deviates from random expectations, important to understand their structure and emerging properties. Several measures exist to assess modularity, which when applied to the same network, can return both different modularity values (i.e. different estimates of how modular the network is) and different module compositions (i.e. different groups of species forming said modules). More importantly, as each optimization method uses a different optimization criterion, there is a need to have an a posteriori measure serving as an equivalent of a goodness-of-fit. In this article, I propose such a measure of modularity, which is simply defined as the ratio of interactions established between members of the same modules vs. members of different modules. I apply this measure to a large dataset of 290 ecological networks representing host–parasite (bipartite) and predator–prey (unipartite) interactions, to show how the results are easy to interpret and present especially to a broad audience not familiar with modularity analyses, but still can reveal new features about modularity and the ways to measure it. PMID:24555062

Poisot, Timothée

2013-01-01

154

Complete RNA inverse folding: computational design of functional hammerhead ribozymes.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology and synthetic biology currently constitute one of the most innovative, interdisciplinary fields of research, poised to radically transform society in the 21st century. This paper concerns the synthetic design of ribonucleic acid molecules, using our recent algorithm, RNAiFold, which can determine all RNA sequences whose minimum free energy secondary structure is a user-specified target structure. Using RNAiFold, we design ten cis-cleaving hammerhead ribozymes, all of which are shown to be functional by a cleavage assay. We additionally use RNAiFold to design a functional cis-cleaving hammerhead as a modular unit of a synthetic larger RNA. Analysis of kinetics on this small set of hammerheads suggests that cleavage rate of computationally designed ribozymes may be correlated with positional entropy, ensemble defect, structural flexibility/rigidity and related measures. Artificial ribozymes have been designed in the past either manually or by SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment); however, this appears to be the first purely computational design and experimental validation of novel functional ribozymes. RNAiFold is available at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/RNAiFold/. PMID:25209235

Dotu, Ivan; Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Slinger, Betty L; Mechery, Vinodh; Meyer, Michelle M; Clote, Peter

2015-02-01

155

Highly modular bow-tie gene circuits with programmable dynamic behaviour.  

PubMed

Synthetic gene circuits often require extensive mutual optimization of their components for successful operation, while modular and programmable design platforms are rare. A possible solution lies in the 'bow-tie' architecture, which stipulates a focal component-a 'knot'-uncoupling circuits' inputs and outputs, simplifying component swapping, and introducing additional layer of control. Here we construct, in cultured human cells, synthetic bow-tie circuits that transduce microRNA inputs into protein outputs with independently programmable logical and dynamic behaviour. The latter is adjusted via two different knot configurations: a transcriptional activator causing the outputs to track input changes reversibly, and a recombinase-based cascade, converting transient inputs into permanent actuation. We characterize the circuits in HEK293 cells, confirming their modularity and scalability, and validate them using endogenous microRNA inputs in additional cell lines. This platform can be used for biotechnological and biomedical applications in vitro, in vivo and potentially in human therapy. PMID:25311543

Prochazka, Laura; Angelici, Bartolomeo; Haefliger, Benjamin; Benenson, Yaakov

2014-01-01

156

A MODULAR ACTUATOR ARCHITECTURE FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Complexes perform numerous hazardous material handling operations within the confines of a glovebox. The DOE is continuing to seek more efficient and safer means of handling these materials inside gloveboxes rather than the conventional, labor-intensive method through lead lined gloves. The use of glovebox automation technology will also be critical to the DOE in its efforts to comply with its mandated ALARA principles in handling the hazardous materials associated with the cleanup process. Operations associated with materials processing in a glovebox are similar to many industrial tasks, but the unique glovebox environment and Plutonium material properties create a unique set of challenges for conventional automation machinery. Such properties include: Low to moderate levels of ionizing radiation, high abrasiveness, corrosiveness, pyrophoric tendencies, rapid dispersal and permeation of environment, diffuses quickly, and possible incompatible material interaction. The glovebox presents the following challenges: existing gloveboxes may not be readily altered or even modified at all, complex mechanical operations for maintenance and repair are difficult or impossible through gloves, failed equipment may not be removed easily or at all. If a broken piece of equipment cannot be bagged-out through a glove port (approximately 216 mm (8 1/2 inch) diameter) it must remain in place. Broken equipment obstructs further operations. If it renders the entire glovebox unusable, a significant volume of waste is generated and an expensive system must be disposed of and replaced. A moderate sized glovebox alone costs between $250,000 and $500,000 and an equipment malfunction, which penetrates the glovebox and exposes the room to Plutonium or other toxic materials, is catastrophic. In addition to the human exposure issues, cleanup can easily run into the millions of dollars. A solution to the issues described above is ARM Automation Inc.'s (ARM) modular robotic manipulator technology developed for DOE EM operations, which addresses many of the issues discussed in the previous section. This manipulator system has the capability of custom configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as materials repackaging. The modular nature and quick connects of this system simplify installations into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. In the field of automation and robotics, a very common element is one used to generate motion for precise positioning of loads. One example of such an automation component would be an individual joint within an industrial robotic manipulator. This component consists of a tightly integrated package containing an electric motor, gear train, output support bearings, position sensors, brake, servo-amplifier and communications controller. Within the context of this paper, this key building block is referred to as an actuator module. With regard to the needs of the EM, [8] and [9] have shown that while each focus area has unique requirements for robotic automation at a system or manipulator level, their requirements at the actuator level are very similar. Thereby, a modular approach to automation which utilizes a small set of versatile actuator modules can be used to construct a broad range of robotic systems and automation cells suited to EM applications. By providing a pre-engineered, pre-integrated motion system to different robotics users within the DOE, new automation systems can be more quickly created without extensive expertise in motion control or the expense of building custom equipment.

None

2001-07-01

157

Generalized epidemic process on modular networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social reinforcement and modular structure are two salient features observed in the spreading of behavior through social contacts. In order to investigate the interplay between these two features, we study the generalized epidemic process on modular networks with equal-sized finite communities and adjustable modularity. Using the analytical approach originally applied to clique-based random networks, we show that the system exhibits a bond-percolation type continuous phase transition for weak social reinforcement, whereas a discontinuous phase transition occurs for sufficiently strong social reinforcement. Our findings are numerically verified using the finite-size scaling analysis and the crossings of the bimodality coefficient.

Chung, Kihong; Baek, Yongjoo; Kim, Daniel; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

2014-05-01

158

Genetic and Environmental Molarity and Modularity of Cognitive Functioning in 2-Year-Old Twins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated genetic and environmental influences on the similarity and differences among five tests of cognitive abilities in 1,958 pairs of same-sex twins born in 1994 in the United Kingdom. Results suggest a developmental trend from modularity to molarity when considered in relation to multivariate genetic results later in life that show that…

Petrill, Stephen A.; Saudino, Kimberly S.; Wilkerson, Bessie; Plomin, Robert

2001-01-01

159

A metabolic network in the evolutionary context: Multiscale structure and modularity  

E-print Network

and their relationship to functional ones, we integrated a metabolic network with evolutionary associations between genesA metabolic network in the evolutionary context: Multiscale structure and modularity Victor Spirin evolutionary building blocks, inde- pendent and easily interchangeable units. An alternative possibil- ity

Mirny, Leonid

160

Computing with Siegel Modular Forms Nathan C. Ryan  

E-print Network

Computing with Siegel Modular Forms Nathan C. Ryan August 8, 2006 Nathan C. Ryan Computing-functions (Fukuda-Komatsu), etc. Nathan C. Ryan Computing with Siegel Modular Forms #12;What's needed for modular and automorphy factor a Fourier expansion Nathan C. Ryan Computing with Siegel Modular Forms #12;An Upper

Stein, William

161

Modularity from fluctuations in random graphs and complex networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which modularity emerges in complex networks are not well understood but recent reports have suggested that modularity may arise from evolutionary selection. We show that finding the modularity of a network is analogous to finding the ground-state energy of a spin system. Moreover, we demonstrate that, due to fluctuations, stochastic network models give rise to modular networks.

Roger Guimerà; Marta Sales-Pardo; Luís A. Nunes Amaral

2004-01-01

162

X-ray structure of the fourth type of archaeal tRNA splicing endonuclease: insights into the evolution of a novel three-unit composition and a unique loop involved in broad substrate specificity  

PubMed Central

Cleavage of introns from precursor transfer RNAs (tRNAs) by tRNA splicing endonuclease (EndA) is essential for tRNA maturation in Archaea and Eukarya. In the past, archaeal EndAs were classified into three types (??2, ?4 and ?2?2) according to subunit composition. Recently, we have identified a fourth type of archaeal EndA from an uncultivated archaeon Candidatus Micrarchaeum acidiphilum, referred to as ARMAN-2, which is deeply branched within Euryarchaea. The ARMAN-2 EndA forms an ?2 homodimer and has broad substrate specificity like the ?2?2 type EndAs found in Crenarchaea and Nanoarchaea. However, the precise architecture of ARMAN-2 EndA was unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of the ?2 homodimer of ARMAN-2 EndA. The structure reveals that the ? protomer is separated into three novel units (?N, ? and ?C) fused by two distinct linkers, although the overall structure of ARMAN-2 EndA is similar to those of the other three types of archaeal EndAs. Structural comparison and mutational analyses reveal that an ARMAN-2 type-specific loop (ASL) is involved in the broad substrate specificity and that K161 in the ASL functions as the RNA recognition site. These findings suggest that the broad substrate specificities of ?2 and ?2?2 EndAs were separately acquired through different evolutionary processes. PMID:22941657

Hirata, Akira; Fujishima, Kosuke; Yamagami, Ryota; Kawamura, Takuya; Banfield, Jillian F.; Kanai, Akio; Hori, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

163

RNA decoys  

PubMed Central

The role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), both short and long ncRNAs, in the regulation of gene expression has become evident in recent years. Non-coding RNA-based regulation is achieved through a variety of mechanisms; some are relatively well-characterized, while others are much less understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous small RNAs, function as master regulators of gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. A notable, recently discovered role for long ncRNAs is that of miRNA decoys, also referred to as target mimics or sponges, in which long ncRNAs carry a short stretch of sequence sharing homology to miRNA-binding sites in endogenous targets. As a consequence, miRNA decoys are able to sequester and inactivate miRNA function. Engineered miRNA decoys are also efficacious and useful tools for studying gene function. We recently demonstrated that the potential of miRNA decoys to inactivate miRNAs in the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana is dependent on the level of sequence complementarity to miRNAs of interest. The flexibility of the miRNA decoy approach in sequence-dependent miRNA inactivation, backbone choice, ability to simultaneously inactivate multiple miRNAs, and more importantly, to achieve a desirable level of miRNA inactivation, makes it a potentially useful tool for crop improvement. This research addendum reports the functional extension of miRNA decoys from model plants to crops. Furthermore, endogenous miRNA decoys, first described in plants, have been proposed to play a significant role in regulating the transcriptome in eukaryotes. Using computational analysis, we have identified numerous endogenous sequences with potential miRNA decoy activity for conserved miRNAs in several plant species. Our data suggest that endogenous miRNA decoys can be widespread in plants and may be a component of the global gene expression regulatory network in plants. PMID:22899065

Banks, Isaac R.; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B. Elizabeth; Heck, Greg R.; Ivashuta, Sergey

2012-01-01

164

CFD Analysis of Modular Thrusters Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effective performance of modular thrusters in an aerospike configuration is difficult to determine. Standard analytical tools are applicable to conventional nozzle shapes, but are limited when applied to an aerospike nozzle (An aerospike nozzle is an ...

R. J. Ungewitter, J. Beck, A. Ketchum

1996-01-01

165

Modular digital holographic fringe data processing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software architecture suitable for reducing holographic fringe data into useful engineering data is developed and tested. The results, along with a detailed description of the proposed architecture for a Modular Digital Fringe Analysis System, are presented.

Downward, J. G.; Vavra, P. C.; Schebor, F. S.; Vest, C. M.

1985-01-01

166

Modular invariance for vertex operator superalgebras  

E-print Network

We generalize Zhu's theorem on modular invariance of characters of vertex operator algebras (VOAs) to the setting of vertex operator superalgebras (VOSAs) with rational, rather than integer, conformal weights. To recover ...

Van Ekeren, Jethro (Jethro William)

2012-01-01

167

MODULAR MODELING OF ENGINEERING SYSTEMS USING  

E-print Network

modification of their internal equations. Modular simulation models have the property that their elements have models are developed using the systematic method of applying Kirchhoff Laws from a network topology (Chua

Radcliffe, Clark J.

168

Modular District Heating System MODiS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MODiS (Modular District Heating System) products were developed during the project for either building an entirely new district heating (DH) system or for renovating and extending an existing system. Good planning of the parts that constitute DH systems, ...

K. Sipilae, A. Ranne, T. Koljonen

2000-01-01

169

Automating modular program verification by refining specifications  

E-print Network

Modular analyses of software systems rely on the specifications of the analyzed modules. In many analysis techniques (e.g. ESC/Java), the specifications have to be provided by users. This puts a considerable burden on users ...

Taghdiri, Mana, 1979-

2008-01-01

170

Honeywell modular automation system computer software documentation  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a Computer Software Docuemntation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-21I.

Cunningham, L.T.

1997-01-20

171

Volkov's Pentagon for the Modular Quantum Dilogarithm  

E-print Network

The new form of pentagon equations suggested by Volkov for the $ q $-exponential on the basis of formal series is derived within the Hilbert space framework for the modular version of the quantum dilogarithm.

Faddeev, L D

2012-01-01

172

Volkov's Pentagon for the Modular Quantum Dilogarithm  

E-print Network

The new form of pentagon equations suggested by Volkov for the $ q $-exponential on the basis of formal series is derived within the Hilbert space framework for the modular version of the quantum dilogarithm.

L. D. Faddeev

2012-01-31

173

Modular Heat Exchanger With Integral Heat Pipe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular heat exchanger with integral heat pipe transports heat from source to Stirling engine. Alternative to heat exchangers depending on integrities of thousands of brazed joints, contains only 40 brazed tubes.

Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

1992-01-01

174

XAUV : modular high maneuverability autonomous underwater vehicle  

E-print Network

The design and construction of a modular test bed autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is analyzed. Although a relatively common stacked-hull design is used, the state of the art is advanced through an aggressive power ...

Walker, Daniel G. (Daniel George)

2009-01-01

175

A 3-d modular gripper design tool  

SciTech Connect

Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line.

Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

1997-01-01

176

Theory for the Emergence of Modularity in Complex Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a theory for the dynamics of modularity in these systems. We find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at long times. In addition, we find a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity at short times. We discuss a number of biological and social systems that can be understood with this framework. The modularity of the protein-protein interaction network increases when yeast are exposed to heat shock, and the modularity of the protein-protein networks in both yeast and E. coli appears to have increased over evolutionary time. Food webs in low-energy, stressful environments are more modular than those in plentiful environments, arid ecologies are more modular during droughts, and foraging of sea otters is more modular when food is limiting. The modularity of social networks changes over time: stock brokers instant messaging networks are more modular under stressful market conditions, criminal networks are more modular under increased police pressure, and world trade network modularity has decreased

Deem, Michael; Park, Jeong-Man

2013-03-01

177

A 3-d modular gripper design tool  

SciTech Connect

Modular fixturing kits are sets of components used for flexible, rapid construction of fixtures. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, each jaw of which is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid-plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, one gains the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed an algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses they have added to the planar algorithm, including a 3-d grasp quality metric based on force information, 3-d geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis. Finally, the authors describe two applications of their code. One of these is an internal application at Sandia, while the other shows a potential use of the code for designing part of an agile assembly line.

Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

1997-02-01

178

Managing in an age of modularity.  

PubMed

Modularity is a familiar principle in the computer industry. Different companies can independently design and produce components, suck as disk drives or operating software, and those modules will fit together into a complex and smoothly functioning product because the module makers obey a given set of design rules. Modularity in manufacturing is already common in many companies. But now a number of them are beginning to extend the approach into the design of their products and services. Modularity in design should tremendously boost the rate of innovation in many industries as it did in the computer industry. As businesses as diverse as auto manufacturing and financial services move toward modular designs, the authors say, competitive dynamics will change enormously. No longer will assemblers control the final product: suppliers of key modules will gain leverage and even take on responsibility for design rules. Companies will compete either by specifying the dominant design rules (as Microsoft does) or by producing excellent modules (as disk drive maker Quantum does). Leaders in a modular industry will control less, so they will have to watch the competitive environment closely for opportunities to link up with other module makers. They will also need to know more: engineering details that seemed trivial at the corporate level may now play a large part in strategic decisions. Leaders will also become knowledge managers internally because they will need to coordinate the efforts of development groups in order to keep them focused on the modular strategies the company is pursuing. PMID:10170333

Baldwin, C Y; Clark, K B

1997-01-01

179

Combustion Power Unit--400: CPU-400.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aerospace technology may have led to a unique basic unit for processing solid wastes and controlling pollution. The Combustion Power Unit--400 (CPU-400) is designed as a turboelectric generator plant that will use municipal solid wastes as fuel. The baseline configuration is a modular unit that is designed to utilize 400 tons of refuse per day…

Combustion Power Co., Palo Alto, CA.

180

Modular Power Converters for PV Applications  

SciTech Connect

This report describes technical opportunities to serve as parts of a technological roadmap for Shoals Technologies Group in power electronics for PV applications. There are many different power converter circuits that can be used for solar inverter applications. The present applications do not take advantage of the potential for using common modules. We envision that the development of a power electronics module could enable higher reliability by being durable and flexible. Modules would have fault current limiting features and detection circuits such that they can limit the current through the module from external faults and can identify and isolate internal faults such that the remaining modules can continue to operate with only minimal disturbance to the utility or customer. Development of a reliable, efficient, low-cost, power electronics module will be a key enabling technology for harnessing more power from solar panels and enable plug and play operation. Power electronics for computer power supplies, communication equipment, and transportation have all targeted reliability and modularity as key requirements and have begun concerted efforts to replace monolithic components with collections of common smart modules. This is happening on several levels including (1) device level with intelligent control, (2) functional module level, and (3) system module. This same effort is needed in power electronics for solar applications. Development of modular units will result in standard power electronic converters that will have a lower installed and operating cost for the overall system. These units will lead to increased adaptability and flexibility of solar inverters. Incorporating autonomous fault current limiting and reconfiguration capabilities into the modules and having redundant modules will lead to a durable converter that can withstand the rigors of solar power generation for more than 30 years. Our vision for the technology roadmap is that there is no need for detailed design of new power converters for each new application or installation. One set of modules and controllers can be pre-developed and the only design question would be how many modules need to be in series or parallel for the specific power requirement. Then, a designer can put the modules together and add the intelligent reconfigurable controller. The controller determines how many modules are connected, but it might also ask for user input for the specific application during setup. The modules include protection against faults and can reset it, if necessary. In case of a power device failure, the controller reconfigures itself to continue limited operation until repair which might be as simple as taking the faulty module out and inserting a new module. The result is cost savings in design, maintenance, repair, and a grid that is more reliable and available. This concept would be a perfect fit for the recently announced funding opportunity announcement (DE-FOA-0000653) on Plug and Play Photovoltaics.

Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

2012-05-01

181

RNA Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is generally believed that an RNA World existed at an early stage in the history of life. During this early period, RNA molecules are seen to be potentially involved in both catalysis and the storage of genetic information. It is widely believed that this RNA World was extensive and therefore a sophisticated nucleic acid replication machinery would presumably predate the translation machinery which would not be needed until later stages in the development of life. This view of an extended RNA World is not necessarily correct. From the point of view of exobiology, the difference in these two views mainly affects the significance of studies of the extent of catalysis possible by RNA- In either case, the origin of the translation machinery and the principles of RNA evolution remain central problems in exobiology. Translation presents several interrelated themes of inquiry for exobiology. First, it is essential, for understanding the very origin of life, how peptides and eventually proteins might have come to be made on the early Earth in a template directed manner. Second, it is necessary to understand how a machinery of similar complexity to that found in the ribosomes of modem organisms came to exist by the time of the last common ancestor (as detected by 16S RRNA sequence studies). Third, the RNAs that comprise the ribosome are themselves likely of very early origin and studies of their history may be very informative about the nature of the RNA World. Moreover, studies of these RNAs will contribute to a better understanding of the potential roles of RNA in early evolution.

1998-01-01

182

Molar and Modular Examples 1 Running head: ENHANCING LEARNING FROM MOLAR AND MODULAR  

E-print Network

that are to be integrated into a to-be- learned schema and therefore have to be processed in working memory s Gerjets, P., Scheiter, K., & Catrambone, R. (2006). Can learning from molar and modular worked examples © Elsevier Ltd. 2006. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2006.02.007 Can Learning from Molar and Modular Worked

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

183

Teleoperated Modular Robots for Lunar Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar system exploration is currently carried out by special purpose robots exquisitely designed for the anticipated tasks. However, all contingencies for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), human habitat preparation, and exploration will be difficult to anticipate. Furthermore, developing the necessary special purpose mechanisms for deployment and other capabilities is difficult and error prone. For example, the Galileo high gain antenna never opened, severely restricting the quantity of data returned by the spacecraft. Also, deployment hardware is used only once. To address these problems, we are developing teleoperated modular robots for lunar missions, including operations in transit from Earth. Teleoperation of lunar systems from Earth involves a three second speed-of-light delay, but experiment suggests that interactive operations are feasible.' Modular robots typically consist of many identical modules that pass power and data between them and can be reconfigured for different tasks providing great flexibility, inherent redundancy and graceful degradation as modules fail. Our design features a number of different hub, link, and joint modules to simplify the individual modules, lower structure cost, and provide specialized capabilities. Modular robots are well suited for space applications because of their extreme flexibility, inherent redundancy, high-density packing, and opportunities for mass production. Simple structural modules can be manufactured from lunar regolith in situ using molds or directed solar sintering. Software to direct and control modular robots is difficult to develop. We have used genetic algorithms to evolve both the morphology and control system for walking modular robots3 We are currently using evolvable system technology to evolve controllers for modular robots in the ISS glove box. Development of lunar modular robots will require software and physical simulators, including regolith simulation, to enable design and test of robot software and hardware, particularly automation software. Ready access to these simulators could provide opportunities for contest-driven development ala RoboCup (http://www.robocup.org/). Licensing of module designs could provide opportunities in the toy market and for spin-off applications.

Globus, Al; Hornby, Greg; Larchev, Greg; Hancher, Matt; Cannon, Howard; Lohn, Jason

2004-01-01

184

The eye as a replicating and diverging, modular developmental unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sparked by new discoveries in developmental genetics, few topics have generated as much debate as eye evolution. This is somewhat surprising because the central controversy is not unique to eyes, but is a general theme of developmental genetics: evolutionarily conserved genes are deployed during the development of highly divergent morphological features. In the case of eyes, this paradox has engendered

Todd H. Oakley

2003-01-01

185

Modular Approach to Instrumental Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To remedy certain deficiencies, an instrument analysis course was reorganized into six one-unit modules: optical spectroscopy, magnetic resonance, separations, electrochemistry, radiochemistry, and computers and interfacing. Selected aspects of the course are discussed. (SK)

Deming, Richard L.; And Others

1982-01-01

186

Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development  

SciTech Connect

Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main tasks was to design and validate new gate drive circuits to provide the capability of high temp operation. The new power stages and controls were later validated through extensive performance, durability and environmental tests. To further validate the design, two power stages and controls were integrated into a grid-tied load bank test fixture, a real application for field-testing. This fixture was designed to test motor drives with PWM output up to 50kW. In the second part of this program the new control topology based on sub-phases control and interphase transformer technology was successfully developed and validated. The main advantage of this technology is to reduce magnetic mass, loss and current ripple. This report summarizes the results of the advanced modular inverter technology development and details: (1) Power stage development and fabrication (2) Power stage validation testing (3) Grid-tied test fixture fabrication and initial testing (4) Interphase transformer technology development

Adam Szczepanek

2006-02-04

187

Modular Rake of Pitot Probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure presents selected views of a modular rake of 17 pitot probes for measuring both transient and steady-state pressures in a supersonic wind tunnel. In addition to pitot tubes visible in the figure, the probe modules contain (1) high-frequency dynamic-pressure transducers connected through wires to remote monitoring circuitry and (2) flow passages that lead to tubes that, in turn, lead to remote steady-state pressure transducers. Prior pitot-probe rakes were fabricated as unitary structures, into which the individual pitot probes were brazed. Repair or replacement of individual probes was difficult, costly, and time-consuming because (1) it was necessary to remove entire rakes in order to unbraze individual malfunctioning probes and (2) the heat of unbrazing a failed probe and of brazing a new probe in place could damage adjacent probes. In contrast, the modules in the present probe are designed to be relatively quickly and easily replaceable with no heating and, in many cases, without need for removal of the entire rake from the wind tunnel. To remove a malfunctioning probe, one first removes a screw-mounted V-cross-section cover that holds the probe and adjacent probes in place. Then one removes a screw-mounted cover plate to gain access to the steady-state pressure tubes and dynamicpressure wires. Next, one disconnects the tube and wires of the affected probe. Finally, one installs a new probe in the reverse of the aforementioned sequence. The wire connections can be made by soldering, but to facilitate removal and installation, they can be made via miniature plugs and sockets. The connections between the probe flow passages and the tubes leading to the remote pressure sensors can be made by use of any of a variety of readily available flexible tubes that can be easily pulled off and slid back on for removal and installation, respectively.

Dunlap, Timothy A.; Henry, Michael W.; Homyk, Raymond P.

2004-01-01

188

MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model -- Three additions to the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package: Alternative storage for the uppermost active cells, Flows in hydrogeologic units, and the Hydraulic-coductivity depth-dependence (KDEP) capability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package is an internal flow package for MODFLOW-2000 that allows the vertical geometry of the system hydrogeology to be defined differently than the definition of model layers. Effective hydraulic properties for the model layers are calculated using the hydraulic properties of the hydrogeologic units. The HUF Package can be used instead of the Block-Centered Flow (BCF) or the Layer Property Flow (LPF) Packages. This report documents three additions to the HUF Package.

Anderman, Evan R.; Hill, Mary C.

2003-01-01

189

Cranial modularity shifts during mammalian evolution.  

PubMed

The mammalian skull has been studied as several separate functional components for decades, but the study of modularity is a more recent, integrative approach toward quantitative examination of independent subsets of highly correlated traits, or modules. Although most studies of modularity focus on developmental and genetic systems, phenotypic modules have been noted in many diverse morphological structures. However, few studies have provided empirical data for comparing modules across higher taxonomic levels, limiting the ability to assess the broader evolutionary significance of modularity. This study uses 18-32 three-dimensional cranial landmarks to analyze phenotypic modularity in 106 mammalian species and demonstrates that cranial modularity is generally conserved in the evolution of therian mammals (marsupials and placentals) but differs between therians and monotremes, the two extant subclasses of Mammalia. Within therians, cluster analyses identify six distinct modules, but only three modules display significant integration in all species. Monotremes display only two highly integrated modules. Specific hypotheses of functional and developmental influences on cranial bones were tested. Theoretical correlation matrices for bones were constructed on the basis of shared function, tissue origin, or mode of ossification, and all three of these models are significantly correlated with observed correlation matrices for the mammalian cranium. PMID:16874636

Goswami, Anjali

2006-08-01

190

Prognostics Health Management for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security is a key national energy priority. Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMR), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts using non-light-water reactor (LWR) coolants such as liquid metal, helium, or liquid salt may provide a longer-term alternative to more conventional LWR-based concepts. The economics of AdvSMRs will be impacted by the reduced economy-of-scale savings when compared to traditional LWRs and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance costs. Therefore, achieving the full benefits of AdvSMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management. In this context, prognostic health management of passive components in AdvSMRs can play a key role in enabling the economic deployment of AdvSMRs. In this paper, the background of AdvSMRs is discussed from which requirements for PHM systems are derived. The particle filter technique is proposed as a prognostics framework for AdvSMR passive components and the suitability of the particle filter technique is illustrated by using it to forecast thermal creep degradation using a physics-of-failure model and based on a combination of types of measurements conceived for passive AdvSMR components.

Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

2013-10-18

191

Montgomery modular multiplication architecture for public key cryptosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel hardware architecture of the coarsely integrated hybrid scanning (CIHS) algorithm which performs Montgomery modular multiplication. The CIHS algorithm integrates the multiplication and reduction steps involved in modular multiplication. When implemented on a Virtex XC2VP50 device, the architecture can perform 128-bit modular multiplication at a data-rate of 160 Mbit\\/s and 256-bit modular multiplication at 216 Mbit\\/s.

Máire McLoone; Ciaran McIvor; John V McCanny

2004-01-01

192

Spontaneous Evolution of Modularity in Neural Networks for Robot Locomotion  

E-print Network

Spontaneous Evolution of Modularity in Neural Networks for Robot Locomotion Christian Schluchter that modularity increases robustness and evolv- ability of neural networks. Hence, modularity has the potential point at- tractors were studied, whereas in experiments on a legged robot networks that settle

Daraio, Chiara

193

The Conceptual and Statistical Relationship between Modularity and Morphological Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modular variation of organismal form during evolution or development can be viewed as the result of dissociated local developmental processes. Whereas studies of modularity often are experimental, morphological integration is a more descriptive concept applying to groups of correlated phenotypic characters. Using simple path models, this paper shows that the classic underlying assumption of modularity (high correlations within modules,

Philipp Mitteroecker; Fred Bookstein

2007-01-01

194

Modular neural predictive coding for discriminative feature extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an architecture called the modular neural predictive coding architecture (Modular NPC). The Modular NPC is used for discriminative feature extraction (DFE). It provides an architecture based on phonetics knowledge applied to phoneme recognition. The phonemes are extracted from the Darpa-Timit speech database. Comparisons with coding methods (LPC, MFCC, PLP) are presented: they put in obviousness an improvement of

M. Chetouani; B. Gas; J. Zarader

2003-01-01

195

Progress in Developing the Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (modular GRS) was proposed by the Stanford Team in 2004. In a modular GRS, the laser beam from the remote the sensor does not illuminate the proof mass directly. The internal measurement from the housing to proof mass is separated from the external interferometry. A double-sided grating further simplifies the structure and may better preserve the

Ke-Xun Sun; Graham Allen; Saps Buchman; Robert L. Byer; John W. Conklin; Dan B. Debra; Dale Gill; Allex Goh; Sei Higuchi; Patrick Lu; Norna A. Robertson; Aaron J. Swank

2006-01-01

196

Understanding the Emergence of Modularity in Neural Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modularity in the human brain remains a controversial issue, with disagreement over the nature of the modules that exist, and why, when, and how they emerge. It is a natural assumption that modularity offers some form of computational advantage, and hence evolution by natural selection has translated those advantages into the kind of modular

Bullinaria, John A.

2007-01-01

197

MPM : a modular package manager Pietro Abate  

E-print Network

order, abort- ing the operation if problems are encountered. Until recently, package managers in FOSSMPM : a modular package manager Pietro Abate abate@pps.jussieu.fr Roberto Di Cosmo roberto-called package managers for the installation and removal of pack- ages on target machines. State

Zacchiroli, Stefano - Laboratoire Preuves, Programmes et Systèmes, Université Paris 7

198

Learning about Complexity with Modular Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Wepresent progress with roBlocks, a reconfigurable modular robotic system for education. Children snap together small, magnetic, heterogeneous modules to create larger, more complex robotic constructions. The design of the system is described and the algorithms that handle data transfer and manipulation are explained. Users tend to begin exploring the system through a series of simple robot patterns but quickly

Eric Schweikardt; Mark D. Gross

2008-01-01

199

Modular Patterns in Second Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of data from the first six months of acquisition of English as a second language by a Japanese five-year-old illustrated the role of modular "chunking" and coupling in the second language acquisition process, apparent in the child's pre-copula and copula referential utterances. (Author/CB)

Rescorla, Leslie; Okuda, Sachiko

1987-01-01

200

ASYMPTOTICALLY NONEXPANSIVE MAPPINGS IN MODULAR FUNCTION SPACES  

E-print Network

ASYMPTOTICALLY NONEXPANSIVE MAPPINGS IN MODULAR FUNCTION SPACES T. DOMINGUEZ-BENAVIDES, M.A. KHAMSI. DOMINGUEZ-BENAVIDES, M.A. KHAMSI AND S. SAMADI Key Words: asymptotically nonexpansive mappings, fixed point such that #12;4 T. DOMINGUEZ-BENAVIDES, M.A. KHAMSI AND S. SAMADI = Kn. By E we denote the linear space of all

Khamsi, Mohamed Amine

201

Design of a modular digital computer system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design tradeoff study is reported for a modular spaceborne computer system that is responsive to many mission types and phases. The computer uses redundancy to maximize reliability, and multiprocessing to maximize processing capacity. Fault detection and recovery features provide optimal reliability.

1973-01-01

202

Modular Test Facility for HTS Insert Coils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final beam cooling stages of a Muon Collider may require DC solenoid magnets with magnetic fields in the range of 40-50 T. In this paper we will present a modular test facility developed to investigate very high fields using double pancake coils made of commercially available 2G HTS materials. The conductor performance is presented, together with magnetic calculations and

V. Lombardo; A. Bartalesi; E. Barzi; M. Lamm; D. Turrioni; A. V. Zlobin

2010-01-01

203

What Symbionts Teach us about Modularity  

PubMed Central

The main goal of Synthetic Biology (SB) is to apply engineering principles to biotechnology in order to make life easier to engineer. These engineering principles include modularity: decoupling of complex systems into smaller, orthogonal sub-systems that can be used in a range of different applications. The successful use of modules in engineering is expected to be reproduced in synthetic biological systems. But the difficulties experienced up to date with SB approaches question the short-term feasibility of designing life. Considering the “engineerable” nature of life, here we discuss the existence of modularity in natural living systems, particularly in symbiotic interactions, and compare the behavior of such systems, with those of engineered modules. We conclude that not only is modularity present but it is also common among living structures, and that symbioses are a new example of module-like sub-systems having high similarity with modularly designed ones. However, we also detect and stress fundamental differences between man-made and biological modules. Both similarities and differences should be taken into account in order to adapt SB design to biological laws. PMID:25023877

Porcar, Manuel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andres

2013-01-01

204

47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...modular transmitter must have their own shielding. The physical crystal and tuning capacitors may be located external to the shielded...Only the radio front end must be shielded. The physical crystal and tuning capacitors may be located external to the...

2011-10-01

205

47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...modular transmitter must have their own shielding. The physical crystal and tuning capacitors may be located external to the shielded...Only the radio front end must be shielded. The physical crystal and tuning capacitors may be located external to the...

2012-10-01

206

47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...modular transmitter must have their own shielding. The physical crystal and tuning capacitors may be located external to the shielded...Only the radio front end must be shielded. The physical crystal and tuning capacitors may be located external to the...

2013-10-01

207

LEGO: A MODULAR ACCELERATOR DESIGN CODE  

Microsoft Academic Search

An object-oriented accelerator design code has been de- signed and implemented in a simple and modular fashion. It contains all major features of its predecessors: TRACY and DESPOT. All physics of single-particle dynamics is implemented based on the Hamiltonian in the local frame of the component. Components can be moved arbitrarily in the three dimensional space. Several symplectic integrators are

Y. Cai; M. Donald; J. Irwin; Y. T. Yan

1998-01-01

208

Modular processes in mind and brain.  

PubMed

One approach to understanding a complex process starts with an attempt to divide it into modules·, sub-processes that are independent in some sense, and have distinct functions. In this paper, I discuss an approach to the modular decomposition of neural and mental processes. Several examples of process decomposition are presented, together with discussion of inferential requirements. Two examples are of well-established and purely behavioural realizations of the approach (signal detection theory applied to discrimination data; the method of additive factors applied to reaction-time data), and lead to the identification of mental modules. Other examples, leading to the identification of modular neural processes, use brain measures, including the fMRI signal, the latencies of electrophysiological events, and their amplitudes. Some measures are pure (reflecting just one process), while others are composite. Two of the examples reveal mental and neural modules that correspond. Attempts to associate brain regions with behaviourally defined processing modules that use a brain manipulation (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) are promising but incomplete. I show why the process-decomposition approach discussed here, in which the criterion for modularity is separate modifiability, is superior for modular decomposition to the more frequently used task comparison procedure (often used in cognitive neuropsychology) and to its associated subtraction method. To demonstrate the limitations of task comparison, I describe the erroneous conclusion to which it has led about sleep deprivation, and the interpretive difficulties in a TMS study. PMID:22185235

Sternberg, Saul

2011-05-01

209

LEGO: a modular accelerator design code  

Microsoft Academic Search

An object-oriented accelerator design code has been designed and implemented in a simple and modular fashion. It contains all major features of its predecessors: TRACY and DESPOT. All physics of single-particle dynamics is implemented based on the Hamiltonian in the local frame of the component. Components can be moved arbitrarily in the three dimensional space. Several symplectic integrators are used

Y. Cai; M. Donald; J. Irwin; Y. T. Yan

1997-01-01

210

Modular avionics for seamless reconfigurable UAS missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated modular avionics (IMA) architecture is a trend in current avionics that employs a partitioned environment in which different avionics functions share a unique computing environment. UAS avionics, especially in small UAS, are usually of less complexity than not the present on airliners, however, in real autonomous UAS, the onboard avionics should control not only the flight and navigation but

Juan López; Pablo Royo; Cristina Barrado; Enric Pastor

2008-01-01

211

New modular power system controller architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper represents a new concept for a modular power system controller (PSC) architecture. It is based on a powerful PSC, distributed I\\/O modules and a highly flexible SW architecture. The communication between the modules and the PSC is done using CAN with sophisticated protocols, which allow plug and play functionality as well as new system functionalities.

R. Scherwey

2004-01-01

212

The modular ALMR (PRISM) fuel cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modular reactor concept, PRISM (power reactor, innovative, small module), originated by General Electric in conjunction with the integral fast reactor (IFR) metal fuel being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is the reference US Department of Energy advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR). The reference ALMR is unique in several ways; for example, it can produce (or breed) substantially more fissile

Thompson

1990-01-01

213

The Reactive Engine for Modular Transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains the design of the second release of the Zen toolkit (5-7). It presents a notion of reactive engine which simulates finite-state machines represented as shared aums (8). We show that it yields a modular interpreter for finite state machines described as local transducers. For instance, in the manner of Berry and Sethi, we define a compiler of

Gérard P. Huet; Benoît Razet

2006-01-01

214

Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

Pires, Craig

2010-01-01

215

Toward a scalable modular robotic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we propose a simple docking method using an onboard camera module. It has two key ideas: one is image processing using a camera module and LEDs equipped on the modules, and the other is a special modular configuration designed for docking, which absorbs positional errors. We also designed a self-reconfiguration sequence to integrate a docked robot into

SATOSHI MURATA; KIYOHARU KAKOMURA; HARUHISA KUROKAWA

2007-01-01

216

Integrated modular propulsion for launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a modular approach to rocket propulsion which offers a versatile method for realizing the goals of low cost, safety, reliability, and ease of operation. It is shown that, using practical modules made up of only 4-6 individual elements, it is possible to achieve thrust levels of 2-3 mln lbf and more, using turbomachinery, thrust chambers, lines, and

William Knuth; Roger Crawford; Ron Litchford

1993-01-01

217

Nucleic acid amplification using modular branched primers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods and compositions expand the options for making primers for use in amplifying nucleic acid segments. The invention eliminates the step of custom synthesis of primers for Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Instead of being custom-synthesized, a primer is replaced by a combination of several oligonucleotide modules selected from a pre-synthesized library. A modular combination of just a few oligonucleotides essentially

Levy Ulanovsky; Mugasimangalam C. Raja

2001-01-01

218

Optimization of modular coils for stellarator fields  

SciTech Connect

Introduction of a non-sinusoidal deformation can enhance the efficacy of modular coils for generating magnetic fields with a built-in rotational transform. Techniques are developed that provide an understanding of how specific deformations affect the harmonic content of the magnetic field and thus the properties of the vacuum configuration. This provides an optimization procedure for coil design.

Chu, T.K.; Furth, H.P.; Johnson, J.L.; Ludescher, C.; Weimer, K.E.

1982-02-01

219

Transforming modular classrooms in California and elsewhere  

SciTech Connect

This paper discussed a market-transformation program to reduce energy use in modular school classrooms, a large part of new construction activities in California's schools. Today's modular classrooms cost more to operate than is necessary to provide effective, comfortable learning conditions for students and teachers. Although past resource acquisition programs have created a demand for efficient products and services, modular classrooms remain poorly differentiated in this respect. The cost-effectiveness of a range of potential energy efficiency measures (EEM's) were evaluated including lighting, alternative HVAC options, and improved envelope features. Viable EEM's were combined in two separate packages. The first includes measures that can easily be implemented and are projected to reduce operating costs by 30%. The second implements a daylighting system, a two-stage evaporative cooler, and radiant heating, resulting in projected annual energy cost savings over 60%. Transforming the market for modular classrooms is accomplished using natural market forces, rather than financial incentives directed at an entire industry. Proactive efforts are focused on the manufacturing industry's change leaders to commercialize energy-efficient products. Lost market share and peer pressure do the heavy lifting of convincing market followers to upgrade their products. Demand for efficient classrooms is increased by educating schools about the new products' financial advantages, comfort enhancements, and environmental benefits. As new products become established in the marketplace, support will be gradually withdrawn. The relevance of this work extends beyond California, given other States' programs to reduce class size, and the Presidents initiative to reduce class size nationally.

Eilert, P.L.; Hoeschele, M.

1998-07-01

220

Modular Reconfigurable Robots in Space Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robots used for tasks in space have strict requirements. Modular reconfigurable robots have a variety of attributes that are advantageous for these conditions including the ability to serve as many tools at once saving weight, packing into compressed forms saving space and having large redundancy to increase robustness. Self-reconfigurable systems can also self-repair as well as automatically adapt to changing

Mark Yim; Kimon Roufas; David Duff; Ying Zhang; Craig Eldershaw; Samuel B. Homans

2003-01-01

221

Modular stellarator reactor conceptual design study  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment.

Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.

1983-01-01

222

A Modular Curriculum in Information Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared under a contract between UNESCO and IFLA (the International Federation of Library Associations), this modular curriculum is intended as a resource from which curricula can be constructed by individual departments of information studies to meet local needs and circumstances. Following an introductory discussion and explanation of the…

Large, J. A.

223

Modular features of motor control and learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of complex motor behaviours has highlighted the role of modular representations both in the planning and in the execution of actions. Recent findings suggest the presence of functional modules within a variety of neural structures. Computational investigations are now addressing the issue of how these modules may act concurrently to generate a wide repertoire of behaviours.

Ferdinando A. Mussa-Ivaldi

1999-01-01

224

Hydration of protein–RNA recognition sites  

PubMed Central

We investigate the role of water molecules in 89 protein–RNA complexes taken from the Protein Data Bank. Those with tRNA and single-stranded RNA are less hydrated than with duplex or ribosomal proteins. Protein–RNA interfaces are hydrated less than protein–DNA interfaces, but more than protein–protein interfaces. Majority of the waters at protein–RNA interfaces makes multiple H-bonds; however, a fraction do not make any. Those making H-bonds have preferences for the polar groups of RNA than its partner protein. The spatial distribution of waters makes interfaces with ribosomal proteins and single-stranded RNA relatively ‘dry’ than interfaces with tRNA and duplex RNA. In contrast to protein–DNA interfaces, mainly due to the presence of the 2?OH, the ribose in protein–RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the phosphate or the bases. The minor groove in protein–RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the major groove, while in protein–DNA interfaces it is reverse. The strands make the highest number of water-mediated H-bonds per unit interface area followed by the helices and the non-regular structures. The preserved waters at protein–RNA interfaces make higher number of H-bonds than the other waters. Preserved waters contribute toward the affinity in protein–RNA recognition and should be carefully treated while engineering protein–RNA interfaces. PMID:25114050

Barik, Amita; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

2014-01-01

225

Modular design in natural and biomimetic soft materials.  

PubMed

Under eons of evolutionary and environmental pressure, biological systems have developed strong and lightweight peptide-based polymeric materials by using the 20 naturally occurring amino acids as principal monomeric units. These materials outperform their man-made counterparts in the following ways: 1) multifunctionality/tunability, 2) adaptability/stimuli-responsiveness, 3) synthesis and processing under ambient and aqueous conditions, and 4) recyclability and biodegradability. The universal design strategy that affords these advanced properties involves "bottom-up" synthesis and modular, hierarchical organization both within and across multiple length-scales. The field of "biomimicry"-elucidating and co-opting nature's basic material design principles and molecular building blocks-is rapidly evolving. This Review describes what has been discovered about the structure and molecular mechanisms of natural polymeric materials, as well as the progress towards synthetic "mimics" of these remarkable systems. PMID:21898722

Kushner, Aaron M; Guan, Zhibin

2011-09-19

226

Viroids: survivors from the RNA world?  

PubMed

Because RNA can be a carrier of genetic information and a biocatalyst, there is a consensus that it emerged before DNA and proteins, which eventually assumed these roles and relegated RNA to intermediate functions. If such a scenario-the so-called RNA world-existed, we might hope to find its relics in our present world. The properties of viroids that make them candidates for being survivors of the RNA world include those expected for primitive RNA replicons: (a) small size imposed by error-prone replication, (b) high G + C content to increase replication fidelity, (c) circular structure for assuring complete replication without genomic tags, (d) structural periodicity for modular assembly into enlarged genomes, (e) lack of protein-coding ability consistent with a ribosome-free habitat, and (f) replication mediated in some by ribozymes, the fingerprint of the RNA world. With the advent of DNA and proteins, those protoviroids lost some abilities and became the plant parasites we now know. PMID:25002087

Flores, Ricardo; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Serra, Pedro; Sanjuán, Rafael; Elena, Santiago F

2014-09-01

227

Overview of the Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor building layout  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the third in a series of four papers, which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. It focuses in particular upon the plant building layout and modular design of the Westinghouse SMR. In the development of small modular reactors, the building layout is an area where the safety of the plant can be improved by applying new design approaches. This paper will present an overview of the Westinghouse SMR building layout and indicate how the design features improve the safety and robustness of the plant. The Westinghouse SMR is designed with no shared systems between individual reactor units. The main buildings inside the security fence are the nuclear island, the rad-waste building, the annex building, and the turbine building. All safety related equipment is located in the nuclear island, which is a seismic class 1 building. To further enhance the safety and robustness of the design, the reactor, containment, and most of the safety related equipment are located below grade on the nuclear island. This reduces the possibility of severe damage from external threats or natural disasters. Two safety related ultimate heat sink (UHS) water tanks that are used for decay heat removal are located above grade, but are redundant and physically separated as far as possible for improved safety. The reactor and containment vessel are located below grade in the center of the nuclear island. The rad-waste and other radioactive systems are located on the bottom floors to limit the radiation exposure to personnel. The Westinghouse SMR safety trains are completely separated into four unconnected quadrants of the building, with access between quadrants only allowed above grade. This is an improvement to conventional reactor design since it prevents failures of multiple trains during floods or fires and other external events. The main control room is located below grade, with a remote shutdown room in a different quadrant. All defense in depth systems are placed on the nuclear island, primarily above grade, while the safety systems are located on lower floors. The economics of the Westinghouse SMR challenges the established approach of large Light Water Reactors (LWR) that utilized the economies of scale to reach economic competitiveness. To serve the market expectation of smaller capital investment and cost competitive energy, a modular design approach is implemented within the Westinghouse SMR. The Westinghouse SMR building layout integrates the three basic design constraints of modularization; transportation, handling and module-joining technology. (authors)

Cronje, J. M. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Centurion (South Africa); Van Wyk, J. J.; Memmott, M. J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

2012-07-01

228

Photovoltaic stand-alone modular systems, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final hardware and system qualification phase of a two part stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system development is covered. The final design incorporated modular, power blocks capable of expanding incrementally from 320 watts to twenty kilowatts (PK). The basic power unit (PU) was nominally rated 1.28 kWp. The controls units, power collection buses and main lugs, electrical protection subsystems, power switching, and load management circuits are housed in a common control enclosure. Photo-voltaic modules are electrically connected in a horizontal daisy-chain method via Amp Solarlok plugs mating with compatible connectors installed on the back side of each photovoltaic module. A pair of channel rails accommodate the mounting of the modules into a frameless panel support structure. Foundations are of a unique planter (tub-like) configuration to allow for world-wide deployment without restriction as to types of soil. One battery string capable of supplying approximately 240 ampere hours nominal of carryover power is specified for each basic power unit. Load prioritization and shedding circuits are included to protect critical loads and selectively shed and defer lower priority or noncritical power demands. The baseline system, operating at approximately 2 1/2 PUs (3.2 kW pk.) was installed and deployed. Qualification was successfully complete in March 1983; since that time, the demonstration system has logged approximately 3000 hours of continuous operation under load without major incident.

Naff, G. J.; Marshall, N. A.

1983-01-01

229

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. In the meanwhile, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 3. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable liquid-rack cooling system in this study. The scope is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures, under various chilled-water supply temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with documented energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Xu, TengFang

2009-05-01

230

New tools for studying integration and modularity.  

PubMed

The study of phenotypic integration concerns the modular nature of organismal phenotypes. The concept provides a rationale for why certain subsets of phenotypic traits show particularly high levels of association over development and/or evolution. The techniques detailed in this report facilitate the generation and testing of hypotheses of phenotypic integration and trait interaction. The approach advocated for exploring patterns of interaction among traits is based on the statistical notion of conditional independence, incorporated in a technique known as graphical modeling. The use of graphical models is illustrated with an application to a well-known biological dataset of fowl skeletal measurements, previously analyzed by Sewall Wright. A definition of phenotypic modularity is given, based on a notion of mutual information, which provides a consistent criterion for recognizing and delimiting integrated subsets of traits and which can be related to standard models of multivariate selection. PMID:11681729

Magwene, P M

2001-09-01

231

Modular, Reconfigurable, High-Energy Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modular, Reconfigurable High-Energy (MRHE) Technology Demonstrator project was to have been a series of ground-based demonstrations to mature critical technologies needed for in-space assembly of a highpower high-voltage modular spacecraft in low Earth orbit, enabling the development of future modular solar-powered exploration cargo-transport vehicles and infrastructure. MRHE was a project in the High Energy Space Systems (HESS) Program, within NASA's Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) Program. NASA participants included Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Glenn Research Center (GRC). Contractor participants were the Boeing Phantom Works in Huntsville, AL, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto, CA, ENTECH, Inc. in Keller, TX, and the University of AL Huntsville (UAH). MRHE's technical objectives were to mature: (a) lightweight, efficient, high-voltage, radiation-resistant solar power generation (SPG) technologies; (b) innovative, lightweight, efficient thermal management systems; (c) efficient, 100kW-class, high-voltage power delivery systems from an SPG to an electric thruster system; (d) autonomous rendezvous and docking technology for in-space assembly of modular, reconfigurable spacecraft; (e) robotic assembly of modular space systems; and (f) modular, reconfigurable distributed avionics technologies. Maturation of these technologies was to be implemented through a series of increasingly-inclusive laboratory demonstrations that would have integrated and demonstrated two systems-of-systems: (a) the autonomous rendezvous and docking of modular spacecraft with deployable structures, robotic assembly, reconfiguration both during assembly and (b) the development and integration of an advanced thermal heat pipe and a high-voltage power delivery system with a representative lightweight high-voltage SPG array. In addition, an integrated simulation testbed would have been developed containing software models representing the technologies being matured in the laboratory demos. The testbed would have also included models for non-MRHE developed subsystems such as electric propulsion, so that end-to-end performance could have been assessed. This paper presents an overview of the MRHE Phase I activities at MSFC and its contractor partners. One of the major Phase I accomplishments is the assembly demonstration in the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center (LMATC) Robot-Satellite facility, in which three robot-satellites successfully demonstrated rendezvous & docking, self-assembly, reconfiguration, adaptable GN&C, deployment, and interfaces between modules. Phase I technology maturation results from ENTECH include material recommendations for radiation hardened Stretched Lens Array (SLA) concentrator lenses, and a design concept and test results for a hi-voltage PV receiver. UAH's accomplishments include Supertube heatpipe test results, which support estimates of thermal conductivities at 30,000 times that of an equivalent silver rod. MSFC performed systems trades and developed a preliminary concept design for a 100kW-class modular reconfigurable solar electric propulsion transport vehicle, and Boeing Phantom Works in Huntsville performed assembly and rendezvous and docking trades. A concept animation video was produced by SAIC, wllich showed rendezvous and docking and SLA-square-rigger deployment in LEO.

Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe

2006-01-01

232

Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

1975-01-01

233

The Modular Helium Reactor for Hydrogen Production  

SciTech Connect

For electricity and hydrogen production, an advanced reactor technology receiving considerable international interest is a modular, passively-safe version of the high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), known in the U.S. as the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR), which operates at a power level of 600 MW(t). For hydrogen production, the concept is referred to as the H2-MHR. Two concepts that make direct use of the MHR high-temperature process heat are being investigated in order to improve the efficiency and economics of hydrogen production. The first concept involves coupling the MHR to the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical water splitting process and is referred to as the SI-Based H2-MHR. The second concept involves coupling the MHR to high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) and is referred to as the HTE-Based H2-MHR.

E. Harvego; M. Richards; A. Shenoy; K. Schultz; L. Brown; M. Fukuie

2006-10-01

234

Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant  

SciTech Connect

A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

1983-07-01

235

Manage modular projects, Part 3--Engineering  

SciTech Connect

Modularization requires a different approach in engineering, not only in terms of layout and design but also with respect to organization, methods and controls. Module terminology. To facilitate project-wide communications, it is desirable to adopt special terminology to clearly identify the modular assemblies and to define their place in the hierarchy of familiar engineering materials and equipment. This seemingly simple identification step will aid materially in segregating those portions of the plant hardware that are included within the scope of the ''other project'' and that need the special attention discussed herein. Typical of such terms and definitions are: Module Subassembly Vendor package and vendor assembly Field assembly. Perseverance in having such definitions adopted throughout the project will pay off in improved communications, clear assignment of responsibilities and more effective execution.

Mullett, T.A.

1984-09-01

236

SMARBot: a modular miniature mobile robot platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniature robots have many advantages over their larger counterparts, such as low cost, low power, and easy to build a large scale team for complex tasks. Heterogeneous multi miniature robots could provide powerful situation awareness capability due to different locomotion capabilities and sensor information. However, it would be expensive and time consuming to develop specific embedded system for different type of robots. In this paper, we propose a generic modular embedded system architecture called SMARbot (Stevens Modular Autonomous Robot), which consists of a set of hardware and software modules that can be configured to construct various types of robot systems. These modules include a high performance microprocessor, a reconfigurable hardware component, wireless communication, and diverse sensor and actuator interfaces. The design of all the modules in electrical subsystem, the selection criteria for module components, and the real-time operating system are described. Some proofs of concept experimental results are also presented.

Meng, Yan; Johnson, Kerry; Simms, Brian; Conforth, Matthew

2008-04-01

237

IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 48, NO. 1, JANUARY 2013 229 A Modular 1 mm Die-Stacked Sensing Platform  

E-print Network

IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 48, NO. 1, JANUARY 2013 229 A Modular 1 mm Die with compatibility to commercial C protocols. A self-adapting power management unit is proposed for efficient battery voltage down conversion for wide range of battery voltages and load current. The power man- agement unit

Dutta, Prabal

238

Modular Approach to Physics: Centripetal Motion Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this simulation, the path of an object in centripetal motion can be followed. The user can add an angular acceleration, and graph the particle's position, velocity, and forces acting on it. The vectors menu offers eight choices plus force components to display a variety of velocity and acceleration vectors. This item is part of a larger collection of physics simulations sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-08-03

239

Global vaccination strategies in Modular Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect of vaccinating networks with different growing strategies, using various techniques that require the complete knowledge of the network. The goal is to restrain the epidemic before it spreads throughout the network and target the few key nodes that will help contain it. Our target networks are chosen to have relatively large modularity index and various immunization techniques are applied to them.

Parousis-Orthodoxou, K. J.; Stamos, M. M.; Vlachos, D. S.

2013-02-01

240

A modular CNF-based SAT solver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state-of-the-art SAT solvers, such as Chaff [11], zChaff [18], BerkMin [5], and Minisat [2] usually share the same core techniques, for instance: the watched literals structures conflict clause recording and non-chronological backtracking. Nevertheless, they generally differ in the elimination of learnt clauses as well as in the decision heuristic. This paper presents a modular CNF-based SAT solver that implements

Bernardo C. Vieira; Fabrício Vivas Andrade; Antônio Otávio Fernandes

2010-01-01

241

Geometric modular representation theory Anthony Henderson  

E-print Network

on which G acts by linear transformations. The modular case, often more difficult to study, is when F has, and the boundary maps F1 Ã?2 - F1 Ã?0 - F1 . Hence dim H(RP2, F) = 1 if char(F) = 2, and 3 if char(F) = 2. A dream: what if there were topological spaces X(), one for each as above, such that dim H(X(), F) = dim L(, F

Henderson, Anthony

242

Modular Approach to Physics: Colliding Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation illustrates conservation of momentum through the collision of two masses. The user can adjust the masses of the planets and observe that they always will collide at their center of mass if they start at rest relative to each other. The momentum and forces on the masses are shown in the illustration and data collected for graphing. This item is part of a larger collection of physics simulations sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-05-20

243

Integrated modular propulsion for launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper proposes a modular approach to rocket propulsion which offers a versatile method for realizing the goals of low cost, safety, reliability, and ease of operation. It is shown that, using practical modules made up of only 4-6 individual elements, it is possible to achieve thrust levels of 2-3 mln lbf and more, using turbomachinery, thrust chambers, lines, and valves about the size of SSME hardware. The approach is illustrated by a LOX/LH2 configuration.

Knuth, William; Crawford, Roger; Litchford, Ron

1993-01-01

244

lazar: a modular predictive toxicology framework.  

PubMed

lazar (lazy structure-activity relationships) is a modular framework for predictive toxicology. Similar to the read across procedure in toxicological risk assessment, lazar creates local QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) models for each compound to be predicted. Model developers can choose between a large variety of algorithms for descriptor calculation and selection, chemical similarity indices, and model building. This paper presents a high level description of the lazar framework and discusses the performance of example classification and regression models. PMID:23761761

Maunz, Andreas; Gütlein, Martin; Rautenberg, Micha; Vorgrimmler, David; Gebele, Denis; Helma, Christoph

2013-01-01

245

RAMS (Risk Analysis - Modular System) methodology  

SciTech Connect

The Risk Analysis - Modular System (RAMS) was developed to serve as a broad scope risk analysis tool for the Risk Assessment of the Hanford Mission (RAHM) studies. The RAHM element provides risk analysis support for Hanford Strategic Analysis and Mission Planning activities. The RAHM also provides risk analysis support for the Hanford 10-Year Plan development activities. The RAMS tool draws from a collection of specifically designed databases and modular risk analysis methodologies and models. RAMS is a flexible modular system that can be focused on targeted risk analysis needs. It is specifically designed to address risks associated with overall strategy, technical alternative, and `what if` questions regarding the Hanford cleanup mission. RAMS is set up to address both near-term and long-term risk issues. Consistency is very important for any comparative risk analysis, and RAMS is designed to efficiently and consistently compare risks and produce risk reduction estimates. There is a wide range of output information that can be generated by RAMS. These outputs can be detailed by individual contaminants, waste forms, transport pathways, exposure scenarios, individuals, populations, etc. However, they can also be in rolled-up form to support high-level strategy decisions.

Stenner, R.D.; Strenge, D.L.; Buck, J.W. [and others

1996-10-01

246

Modularity of a Cambrian ptychoparioid trilobite cranidium.  

PubMed

Modularity of the cranidium of Crassifimbra? metalaspis, a Cambrian ptychoparioid trilobite, is investigated using landmark-based geometric morphometric methods to gain insight into the integration among morphogenetic processes responsible for shaping the head of an ancient arthropod. Of particular interest is the extent to which the structure of phenotypic integration was governed by direct interactions among developmental pathways, because these interactions may generate long-term constraints on evolutionary innovation. A modified two-way ANOVA decomposes cranidial shape variation into components representing symmetric variation among individuals and fluctuating asymmetry (FA). The structure of integration of each of these components is inferred from correlated deviations in shape among nine partitions of the cranidium. Significant correlation among partitions in FA indicates direct interactions among their respective developmental pathways. An a priori hypothesis that modularity was determined by functional association among partitions is not well supported by the among-partition correlation structure for either component of variation. Instead, exploratory analyses reveal that phenotypic integration was strongly influenced by spatially localized morphogenetic controls. Comparison of the structures of the Individuals and FA components of variation reveals that the two share relatively few commonalities: the structure of phenotypic integration was only weakly influenced by direct interactions. The large contribution of parallel variation to phenotypic integration suggests that modularity was unlikely to have imposed a long-term constraint on evolutionary innovation in these early trilobites. PMID:21210946

Webster, Mark; Zelditch, Miriam L

2011-01-01

247

Modular injection systems for miniature engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mission requirements for Kinetic Energy Weapons will require miniaturization of current vehicle propulsion systems for future Space Defence Iniative Programs. A modular injection system (MIS) valve is presented which will decrease cost, size and weight of miniaturized storable bipropellant rocket engines and features two poppet-type propellant valve modules pneumatically linked to a pilot solenoid module. A prototype modular injection valve sized for 100lbf thrust was designed and is being tested to show lower costs, fewer moving parts and a reduction in weight and size. Results show that this valve meets objectives of one-half weight, one-half cost and one-fifth the envelopment of current production valves. Studies indicate that a cruciform configuration of four nominal 100lbf thrust engines can be controlled by four modular injection valve systems in a single housing of less than 1.0 m3. Following further development and correlation of results this concept may be scaled to control four higher thrust engines.

Cochran, Mike

1992-07-01

248

Understanding Modularity in Molecular Networks Requires Dynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The era of genome sequencing has produced long lists of the molecular parts from which cellular machines are constructed. A fundamental goal in systems biology is to understand how cellular behavior emerges from the interaction in time and space of genetically encoded molecular parts, as well as nongenetically encoded small molecules. Networks provide a natural framework for the organization and quantitative representation of all the available data about molecular interactions. The structural and dynamic properties of molecular networks have been the subject of intense research. Despite major advances, bridging network structure to dynamics—and therefore to behavior—remains challenging. A key concept of modern engineering that recurs in the functional analysis of biological networks is modularity. Most approaches to molecular network analysis rely to some extent on the assumption that molecular networks are modular—that is, they are separable and can be studied to some degree in isolation. We describe recent advances in the analysis of modularity in biological networks, focusing on the increasing realization that a dynamic perspective is essential to grouping molecules into modules and determining their collective function.

Roger P. Alexander (Yale University;Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics REV); Philip M. Kim (University of Toronto;Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research REV); Thierry Emonet (Yale University;Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics REV); Mark B. Gerstein (Yale University;Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics REV)

2009-07-28

249

Understanding Modularity in Molecular Networks Requires Dynamics  

PubMed Central

The era of genome sequencing has produced long lists of the molecular parts from which cellular machines are constructed. A fundamental goal in systems biology is to understand how cellular behavior emerges from the interaction in time and space of genetically encoded molecular parts, as well as non-genetically encoded small molecules. Networks provide a natural framework for the organization and quantitative representation of all the available data about molecular interactions. The structural and dynamic properties of molecular networks have been the subject of intense research. Despite major advances, bridging network structure to dynamics – and therefore to behavior – remains challenging. A key concept of modern engineering that recurs in the functional analysis of biological networks is modularity. Most approaches to molecular network analysis rely to some extent on the assumption that molecular networks are modular – that is, they are separable and can be studied to some degree in isolation. We describe recent advances in the analysis of modularity in biological networks, focusing on the increasing realization that a dynamic perspective is essential to grouping molecules into modules and determining their collective function. PMID:19638611

Alexander, Roger P.; Kim, Philip M.; Emonet, Thierry; Gerstein, Mark B.

2014-01-01

250

Relative Importance of Modularity and Other Morphological Attributes on Different Types of Lithic Point Weapons: Assessing Functional Variations  

PubMed Central

The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as “near decomposable units” in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric attributes, and evolving on a modular way. PMID:23094104

Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Charlin, Judith

2012-01-01

251

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 1: Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems  

SciTech Connect

This deliverable is the Final Report for Task 1, Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems, as part of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 1.1 looked into processes and technologies that have been commercially built at both large and small scales, with three technologies, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) of refinery gas oil, Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Expanders, chosen for further investigation. These technologies were chosen due to their applicability relative to other technologies being considered by NREL for future commercial applications, such as indirect gasification and fluidized bed tar cracking. Research in this subject is driven by an interest in the impact that scaling has on the cost and major process unit designs for commercial technologies. Conclusions from the evaluations performed could be applied to other technologies being considered for modular or skid-mounted applications.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01

252

Modularization and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Modularization Task Team  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of the work performed by the Technology Transfer Task Team on Modularization. This work was performed as part of the Technology Transfer work being performed under Department of Energy Contract 54-7WM-335406, between December, 1984 and February, 1985. The purpose of this task team effort was to briefly survey the current use of modularization in the nuclear and non-nuclear industries and to assess and evaluate the techniques available for potential application to nuclear power. A key conclusion of the evaluation was that there was a need for a study to establish guidelines for the future development of Light Water Reactor, High Temperature Gas Reactor and Liquid Metal Reactor plants. The guidelines should identify how modularization can improve construction, maintenance, life extension and decommissioning.

Not Available

1985-06-01

253

Resampling-Based Approaches to Study Variation in Morphological Modularity  

PubMed Central

Modularity has been suggested to be connected to evolvability because a higher degree of independence among parts allows them to evolve as separate units. Recently, the Escoufier RV coefficient has been proposed as a measure of the degree of integration between modules in multivariate morphometric datasets. However, it has been shown, using randomly simulated datasets, that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size. Also, so far there is no statistical test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations. Here, we (1), using a rarefaction analysis, show that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size also in real geometric morphometric datasets; (2) propose a permutation procedure to test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations; (3) show, through simulations, that such a permutation procedure has an appropriate Type I error; (4) suggest that a rarefaction procedure could be used to obtain sample-size-corrected values of the RV coefficient; and (5) propose a nearest-neighbor procedure that could be used when studying the variation of modularity in geographic space. The approaches outlined here, readily extendable to non-morphometric datasets, allow study of the variation in the degree of integration between a priori defined modules. A Java application – that will allow performance of the proposed test using a software with graphical user interface – has also been developed and is available at the Morphometrics at Stony Brook Web page (http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/). PMID:23874956

Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Meyer, Axel

2013-01-01

254

Modularity and predictability in cell signaling and decision making.  

PubMed

Cells make decisions to differentiate, divide, or apoptose based on multiple signals of internal and external origin. These decisions are discrete outputs from dynamic networks comprised of signaling pathways. Yet the validity of this decomposition of regulatory proteins into distinct pathways is unclear because many regulatory proteins are pleiotropic and interact through cross-talk with components of other pathways. In addition to the deterministic complexity of interconnected networks, there is stochastic complexity arising from the fluctuations in concentrations of regulatory molecules. Even within a genetically identical population of cells grown in the same environment, cell-to-cell variations in mRNA and protein concentrations can be as high as 50% in yeast and even higher in mammalian cells. Thus, if everything is connected and stochastic, what hope could we have for a quantitative understanding of cellular decisions? Here we discuss the implications of recent advances in genomics, single-cell, and single-cell genomics technology for network modularity and cellular decisions. On the basis of these recent advances, we argue that most gene expression stochasticity and pathway interconnectivity is nonfunctional and that cellular decisions are likely much more predictable than previously expected. PMID:25368418

Atay, Oguzhan; Skotheim, Jan M

2014-11-01

255

Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity  

PubMed Central

The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure. PMID:24621482

Russo, R.; Herrmann, H. J.; de Arcangelis, L.

2014-01-01

256

Modularity in the Design of Complex Engineering Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, the concept of modularity has caught the attention of engineers, management researchers and corporate\\u000a strategists in a number of industries. When a product or process is “modularized,” the elements of its design are split up\\u000a and assigned to modules according to a formal architecture or plan. From an engineering perspective, a modularization generally\\u000a has three purposes:

Carliss Y. Baldwin; Kim B. Clark

257

Demonstration of a Small Modular Biopower System Using Poultry Litter-Final Report  

SciTech Connect

On-farm conversion of poultry litter into energy is a unique market connected opportunity for commercialization of small modular bioenergy systems. The United States Department of Energy recognized the need in the poultry industry for alternative litter management as an opportunity for bioenergy. The DOE created a relevant topic in the December 2000 release of the small business innovative research (SBIR) grant solicitation. Community Power Corporation responded to this solicitation by proposing the development of a small modular gasification and gas cleanup system to produce separate value streams of clean producer gas and mineral rich solids. This phase II report describes our progress in the development of an on-farm litter to energy system.

John Reardon; Art Lilley

2004-06-15

258

Mammalian skull heterochrony reveals modular evolution and a link between cranial development and brain size  

PubMed Central

The multiple skeletal components of the skull originate asynchronously and their developmental schedule varies across amniotes. Here we present the embryonic ossification sequence of 134 species, covering all major groups of mammals and their close relatives. This comprehensive data set allows reconstruction of the heterochronic and modular evolution of the skull and the condition of the last common ancestor of mammals. We show that the mode of ossification (dermal or endochondral) unites bones into integrated evolutionary modules of heterochronic changes and imposes evolutionary constraints on cranial heterochrony. However, some skull-roof bones, such as the supraoccipital, exhibit evolutionary degrees of freedom in these constraints. Ossification timing of the neurocranium was considerably accelerated during the origin of mammals. Furthermore, association between developmental timing of the supraoccipital and brain size was identified among amniotes. We argue that cranial heterochrony in mammals has occurred in concert with encephalization but within a conserved modular organization. PMID:24704703

Koyabu, Daisuke; Werneburg, Ingmar; Morimoto, Naoki; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Forasiepi, Analia M.; Endo, Hideki; Kimura, Junpei; Ohdachi, Satoshi D.; Truong Son, Nguyen; Sanchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

2014-01-01

259

Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

Harto, Andang Widi

2012-06-01

260

Modular properties of characters of the W3 algebra  

E-print Network

Recently exact formulae and differential equations were found for traces of powers of the zero mode in the W3 algebra. In this paper we investigate their modular properties, in particular we find the exact result for the modular transformations of traces of $W_0^n$ for n = 1, 2, 3, solving exactly the problem studied approximately by Gaberdiel, Hartman and Jin. We also find modular differential equations satisfied by traces with a single $W_0$ inserted, and relate them to differential equations studied by Mathur et al. We find that, remarkably, these all seem to be related to weight 0 modular forms with expansions with non-negative integer coefficients.

Nicholas J. Iles; Gérard M. T. Watts

2014-11-14

261

Spontaneous Emergence of Modularity in a Model of Evolving Individuals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the selective forces that promote the emergence of modularity in nature. We demonstrate the spontaneous emergence of modularity in a population of individuals that evolve in a changing environment. We show that the level of modularity correlates with the rapidity and severity of environmental change. The modularity arises as a synergistic response to the noise in the environment in the presence of horizontal gene transfer. We suggest that the hierarchical structure observed in the natural world may be a broken-symmetry state, which generically results from evolution in a changing environment.

Sun, Jun; Deem, Michael W.

2007-11-01

262

Nuclear Safeguards Considerations For The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)  

SciTech Connect

High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been considered since the 1940s, and have been constructed and demonstrated in the United Kingdom (Dragon), United States (Peach Bottom and Fort Saint Vrain), Japan (HTTR), Germany (AVR and THTR-300), and have been the subject of conceptual studies in Russia (VGM). The attraction to these reactors is that they can use a variety of reactor fuels, including abundant thorium, which upon reprocessing of the spent fuel can produce fissile U-233. Hence, they could extend the stocks of available uranium, provided the fuel is reprocessed. Another attractive attribute is that HTRs typically operate at a much higher temperature than conventional light water reactors (LWRs), because of the use of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coated (TRISO) fuel particles embedded in ceramic graphite. Rather than simply discharge most of the unused heat from the working fluid in the power plant to the environment, engineers have been designing reactors for 40 years to recover this heat and make it available for district heating or chemical conversion plants. Demonstrating high-temperature nuclear energy conversion was the purpose behind Fort Saint Vrain in the United States, THTR-300 in Germany, HTTR in Japan, and HTR-10 and HTR-PM, being built in China. This resulted in nuclear reactors at least 30% or more thermodynamically efficient than conventional LWRs, especially if the waste heat can be effectively utilized in chemical processing plants. A modern variant of high temperature reactors is the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Originally developed in the United States and Germany, it is now being redesigned and marketed by the Republic of South Africa and China. The team examined historical high temperature and high temperature gas reactors (HTR and HTGR) and reviewed safeguards considerations for this reactor. The following is a preliminary report on this topic prepared under the ASA-100 Advanced Safeguards Project in support of the NNSA Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI).

Phillip Casey Durst; David Beddingfield; Brian Boyer; Robert Bean; Michael Collins; Michael Ehinger; David Hanks; David L. Moses; Lee Refalo

2009-10-01

263

Corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks compared to titanium modular necks in a simulator test.  

PubMed

This study compared the corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks with that of titanium alloy modular necks at their junction to titanium-alloy femoral stem. Tests were performed in a dry assembly and two wet assemblies, one contaminated with calf serum and the other contaminated with calf serum and bone particles. Whereas the titanium modular neck tested in the dry assembly showed no signs of corrosion, the titanium modular necks tested in both wet assemblies showed marked depositions and corrosive attacks. By contrast, the tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks showed no traces of corrosion or chemical attack in any of the three assemblies. This study confirms the protective effect of tantalum coating the taper region of cobalt-chromium modular neck components, suggesting that the use of tantalum may reduce the risk of implant failure due to corrosion. PMID:24099841

Dorn, Ulrich; Neumann, Daniel; Frank, Mario

2014-04-01

264

Lightweight composites for modular panelized construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid advances in construction materials technology have enabled civil engineers to achieve impressive gains in the safety, economy, and functionality of structures built to serve the common needs of society. Modular building systems is a fast-growing modern, form of construction gaining recognition for its increased efficiency and ability to apply modern technology to the needs of the market place. In the modular construction technique, a single structural panel can perform a number of functions such as providing thermal insulation, vibration damping, and structural strength. These multifunctional panels can be prefabricated in a manufacturing facility and then transferred to the construction site. A system that uses prefabricated panels for construction is called a "panelized construction system". This study focuses on the development of pre-cast, lightweight, multifunctional sandwich composite panels to be used for panelized construction. Two thermoplastic composite panels are proposed in this study, namely Composite Structural Insulated Panels (CSIPs) for exterior walls, floors and roofs, and Open Core Sandwich composite for multifunctional interior walls of a structure. Special manufacturing techniques are developed for manufacturing these panels. The structural behavior of these panels is analyzed based on various building design codes. Detailed descriptions of the design, cost analysis, manufacturing, finite element modeling and structural testing of these proposed panels are included in this study in the of form five peer-reviewed journal articles. The structural testing of the proposed panels involved in this study included flexural testing, axial compression testing, and low and high velocity impact testing. Based on the current study, the proposed CSIP wall and floor panels were found satisfactory, based on building design codes ASCE-7-05 and ACI-318-05. Joining techniques are proposed in this study for connecting the precast panels on the construction site. Keywords: Modular panelized construction, sandwich composites, composite structural insulated panels (CSIPs).

Vaidya, Amol S.

265

Modular Approach to Physics: Block on Springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet simulates the forces acting on a vertically moving block. The block is supported by springs that, in turn, are resting on a platform. Users control velocity and acceleration, allowing them to learn about the normal force and how to use Newton's Second Law to calculate the normal force on a vertically accelerating object. This item is part of a module that includes a detailed lesson with related problems/solutions, learning outcomes, and instructions for use. This item is part of a larger collection of physics simulations sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-05-20

266

Modular Approach to Physics: Energy and Orbits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a simulation-based activity relating to gravitational potential energy (GPE) as a function of satellite-earth distance. Users may adjust the speed and initial position of a satellite in earth's gravitational field. Visible vectors and energy bar graphs help the learner determine how to apply the law of energy conservation to predict the speed of an object moving in earth's gravitational field. Included in the "Help" section is a detailed lesson plan with suggested supplementary activities. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation-based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-08-15

267

Modular Approach to Physics: Weighted Average  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a multi-exercise module relating to average speed. It contains an interactive Java simulation featuring a car that the user controls for speed. Graphs of instantaneous and average velocities are simultaneously displayed, helping the user to understand the concept of time-weighted average. The lesson plan available through the Help menu explains how to calculate a weighted average, first with two speeds, and then with multiple. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics models sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-08-13

268

Modular functionalization of allenes to aminated stereotriads.  

PubMed

Nitrogen-containing stereotriads, compounds with three adjacent stereodefined carbons, are commonly found in biologically important molecules. However, the preparation of molecules bearing these motifs can be challenging. Herein, we describe a modular oxidation protocol which converts a substituted allene to a triply functionalized amine of the form C-X/C-N/C-Y. The key step employs a Rh-catalyzed intramolecular conversion of the allene to a strained bicyclic methylene aziridine. This reactive intermediate is further elaborated to the target products, often in one reaction vessel and with effective transfer of the axial chirality of the allene to point chirality in the stereotriad. PMID:22708990

Adams, Christopher S; Boralsky, Luke A; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

2012-07-01

269

Language constructs for modular parallel programs  

SciTech Connect

We describe programming language constructs that facilitate the application of modular design techniques in parallel programming. These constructs allow us to isolate resource management and processor scheduling decisions from the specification of individual modules, which can themselves encapsulate design decisions concerned with concurrence, communication, process mapping, and data distribution. This approach permits development of libraries of reusable parallel program components and the reuse of these components in different contexts. In particular, alternative mapping strategies can be explored without modifying other aspects of program logic. We describe how these constructs are incorporated in two practical parallel programming languages, PCN and Fortran M. Compilers have been developed for both languages, allowing experimentation in substantial applications.

Foster, I.

1996-03-01

270

Intelligent subsystem interface for modular hardware system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A single chip application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which provides a flexible, modular interface between a subsystem and a standard system bus. The ASIC includes a microcontroller/microprocessor, a serial interface for connection to the bus, and a variety of communications interface devices available for coupling to the subsystem. A three-bus architecture, utilizing arbitration, provides connectivity within the ASIC and between the ASIC and the subsystem. The communication interface devices include UART (serial), parallel, analog, and external device interface utilizing bus connections paired with device select signals. A low power (sleep) mode is provided as is a processor disable option.

Krening, Douglas N. (Inventor); Lannan, Gregory B. (Inventor); Schneiderwind, Michael J. (Inventor); Schneiderwind, Robert A. (Inventor); Caffrey, Robert T. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

271

The axion mass in modular invariant supergravity  

SciTech Connect

When supersymmetry is broken by condensates with a single condensing gauge group, there is a nonanomalous R-symmetry that prevents the universal axion from acquiring a mass. It has been argued that, in the context of supergravity, higher dimension operators will break this symmetry and may generate an axion mass too large to allow the identification of the universal axion with the QCD axion. We show that such contributions to the axion mass are highly suppressed in a class of models where the effective Lagrangian for gaugino and matter condensation respects modular invariance (T-duality).

Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

2005-02-09

272

Modular radiation detector array and module  

SciTech Connect

A modular radiation detector array which allows improved spatial resolution and facilitates installation and replacement for repair. Each module includes two detachably assembled portions with one portion including a plurality of spaced plates for collimating radiation. The second portion includes a printed circuit board, a semiconductor diode array chip mounted on the printed circuit board, and a plurality of scintillator crystals mounted on the semiconductor chip with each crystal overlying a diode. Signals from the diodes are applied to signal processing means by a cable which is readily connected to and disconnected from the diode array.

Morehouse, C.C.; Shaw, R.H.

1982-07-06

273

Nucleic acid amplification using modular branched primers  

DOEpatents

Methods and compositions expand the options for making primers for use in amplifying nucleic acid segments. The invention eliminates the step of custom synthesis of primers for Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Instead of being custom-synthesized, a primer is replaced by a combination of several oligonucleotide modules selected from a pre-synthesized library. A modular combination of just a few oligonucleotides essentially mimics the performance of a conventional, custom-made primer by matching the sequence of the priming site in the template. Each oligonucleotide module has a segment that matches one of the stretches within the priming site.

Ulanovsky, Levy (Westmont, IL)

2001-01-01

274

Modular Approach to Physics: Angular Velocity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains an interactive simulation for introductory physics students describing different types of motion in term of angular coordinates. It consists of a moving car, a graph of angular velocity vs. time, and real-time values for areal and angular velocity. The path of the car can be a straight line, a circle, or a parabola with the angular motion given relative to a fixed point. This item is part of a larger collection of physics simulations sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-08-03

275

Modular Track System For Positioning Mobile Robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual system for positioning mobile robotic manipulators on large main structure includes modular tracks and ancillary structures assembled easily along with main structure. System, called "tracked robotic location system" (TROLS), originally intended for application to platforms in outer space, but TROLS concept might also prove useful on Earth; for example, to position robots in factories and warehouses. T-cross-section rail keeps mobile robot on track. Bar codes mark locations along track. Each robot equipped with bar-code-recognizing circuitry so it quickly finds way to assigned location.

Miller, Jeff

1995-01-01

276

RNA-Catalyzed RNA Polymerization: Accurate and  

E-print Network

that synthe- sizes first a complement, and then a copy of the ribozyme. If this RNA polymerase were itself, these ribozymes re- semble telomerases more than they resemble the enzymes that replicate RNA and DNA by means

Bartel, David

277

Shifting responsibly: the importance of striatal modularity to reinforcement learning in uncertain environments  

E-print Network

We propose here that the modular organization of the striatum reflects a context-sensitive modular learning architecture in which clustered striosome–matrisome domains participate in modular reinforcement learning (RL). ...

Amemori, Ken-ichi

278

Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model  

E-print Network

Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model. Keywords: Software reliability; Modular Operational Tests; Sample Size Determination; Mathematical Programming #12;Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model

Mazumdar, Mainak

279

RNA 3D Structural Motifs: Definition, Identification, Annotation, and Database Searching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured RNA molecules resemble proteins in the hierarchical organization of their global structures, folding and broad\\u000a range of functions. Structured RNAs are composed of recurrent modular motifs that play specific functional roles. Some motifs\\u000a direct the folding of the RNA or stabilize the folded structure through tertiary interactions. Others bind ligands or proteins\\u000a or catalyze chemical reactions. Therefore, it is

Lorena Nasalean; Jesse Stombaugh; Craig L. Zirbel; Neocles B. Leontis

280

[RNA polymerase ribozymes  

E-print Network

The RNA World is a hypothetical ancient evolutionary era during which RNA was both genome and catalyst. During that time, RNA was the only kind of enzyme yet in existence, and one of its chief duties was the replication ...

Lawrence, Michael S. (Michael Scott), 1975-

2005-01-01

281

ESPRESSO front end: modular opto-mechanical integration for astronomical instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The opto-mechanical conceptual design for the Front-End unit and the calibration unit of the ESPRESSO Spectrograph is described in this paper. The front end system exploits a modular concept. Each FEU receive the beam directly from the relative Telescope Coudé Train and the calibration light from the calibration unit. On the other side the FEU feeds the fibers that carry the light to the spectrograph, corresponding in number and size to the scientific observing modes conceived for Espresso. The selection is made through a Toggling Unit. Purpose of the Front/End is to provide the needed connection between the input signal, i.e. Object light, Sky light, Calibration light, and the given output fiber in any of the foreseen observing modes.

Riva, M.; Aliverti, Matteo; Moschetti, Manuele; Landoni, M.; Dell'Agostino, S.; Pepe, F.; Mégevand, D.; Zerbi, F. M.; Cristiani, S.; Cabral, A.

2014-08-01

282

Theory of force-extension curve for modular proteins and DNA hairpins  

E-print Network

We study a model describing the force-extension curves of modular proteins, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules made out of several single units or monomers. At a mesoscopic level of description, the configuration of the system is given by the elongations of each of the units. The system free energy includes a double-well potential for each unit and an elastic nearest neighbor interaction between them. Minimizing the free energy yields the system equilibrium properties whereas its dynamics is given by (overdamped) Langevin equations for the elongations, in which friction and noise amplitude are related by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Our results, both for the equilibrium and the dynamical situations, include analytical and numerical descriptions of the system force-extension curves under force or length control, and agree very well with actual experiments in biomolecules. Our conclusions also apply to other physical systems comprising a number of metastable units, such as storage systems or semicond...

Bonilla, L L; Prados, A

2014-01-01

283

Mapping of ribosomal RNA transcripts in wheat.  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal RNA transcripts in wheat have been studied by RNA gel blotting and their termini determined from electrophoretic analysis of S1 nuclease-resistant RNA/DNA hybrids and also of hybrids created by primer extension. A major putative transcription initiation site has been localized 1132 base pairs upstream from the 5' end of the 18S RNA sequence. A major putative processing site occurs 640 base pairs from the 5' end of the 18S RNA. Transcripts extending at least 750 base pairs beyond the 3' end of the 25S rRNA sequence into the array of intergenic repeats are present, as are transcripts covering the principal initiation sequence. This suggests that some transcripts extend through the intergenic DNA from one repeat unit into the next. PMID:2535511

Vincentz, M; Flavell, R B

1989-01-01

284

Modular thermal analyzer routine, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modular Thermal Analyzer Routine (MOTAR) is a general thermal analysis routine with strong capabilities for performing thermal analysis of systems containing flowing fluids, fluid system controls (valves, heat exchangers, etc.), life support systems, and thermal radiation situations. Its modular organization permits the analysis of a very wide range of thermal problems for simple problems containing a few conduction nodes to those containing complicated flow and radiation analysis with each problem type being analyzed with peak computational efficiency and maximum ease of use. The organization and programming methods applied to MOTAR achieved a high degree of computer utilization efficiency in terms of computer execution time and storage space required for a given problem. The computer time required to perform a given problem on MOTAR is approximately 40 to 50 percent that required for the currently existing widely used routines. The computer storage requirement for MOTAR is approximately 25 percent more than the most commonly used routines for the most simple problems but the data storage techniques for the more complicated options should save a considerable amount of space.

Oren, J. A.; Phillips, M. A.; Williams, D. R.

1972-01-01

285

Local and distant products from modularity.  

PubMed

In this study, the local and distant distribution of solid and soluble products of corrosion from the head and neck junction of modular femoral total hip prosthetic components were characterized. Particulate corrosion products from retrieved implants and surrounding tissues were analyzed. Serum transport and urinary excretion of metal was measured in correlation with the degree of corrosion at the head and neck junction. Particles of metal oxides, metal chlorides, and chromium phosphate corrosion products were identified on implants of 10 designs from 6 manufacturers. The most abundant solid corrosion product on the implant and within the periprosthetic tissues (size range, < 1-200 micrometers) was an amorphous chromium orthophosphate hydrate-rich material. Serum cobalt and urine chromium concentrations were elevated significantly in patients with implants that had moderate to severe corrosion in comparison with those with no to mild corrosion. Solid corrosion products from modular femoral stems may accelerate articular wear via a 3-body mechanism. Phagocytosable particles of these corrosion products may stimulate macrophage-mediated periprosthetic bone loss. Systemic dissemination of metallic corrosion products raises the issue of systemic toxicity; however, no overt evidence of metal toxicity was observed in this study. PMID:7554654

Jacobs, J J; Urban, R M; Gilbert, J L; Skipor, A K; Black, J; Jasty, M; Galante, J O

1995-10-01

286

Modularity of Directed Networks: Cycle Decomposition Approach  

E-print Network

The problem of decomposing networks into modules (or clusters) has gained much attention in recent years, as it can account for a coarse-grained description of complex systems, often revealing functional subunits of these systems. A variety of module detection algorithms have been proposed, mostly oriented towards finding hard partitionings of undirected networks. Despite the increasing number of fuzzy clustering methods for directed networks, many of these approaches tend to neglect important directional information. In this paper, we present a novel random walk based approach for finding fuzzy partitions of directed, weighted networks, where edge directions play a crucial role in defining how well nodes in a module are interconnected. We will show that cycle decomposition of a random walk process connects the notion of network modules and information transport in a network, leading to a new, symmetric measure of node communication. walk process, for which we will prove that although being time-reversible it inherits all necessary information about directions and modular structure of the original network. Finally, we will use this measure to introduce a communication graph, for which we will show that although being undirected it inherits all necessary information about modular structures from the original network.

Natasa Djurdjevac Conrad; Ralf Banisch; Christof Schütte

2014-07-30

287

The extended use of modular knee endoprostheses.  

PubMed

Modular knee prostheses have been used since the 1980's. Their goal was to offer an alternative to reconstructing large bony defects without using bone grafting. Initially, they were used for reconstruction after resection of tumours about the knee. Their success encouraged their use in the treatment of some failed total knee arthroplasties, with large bony defects and severe ligamentous instability. We have implanted 7 modular knee prostheses between July 2006 and January 2009. There were 4 tumoral cases, 1 case of desarthrodhesis after a Campanacci procedure and two cases of failed total knee arthroplasties. We have achieved encouraging results using these implants with all but one patient surviving at two years after surgery. All the implants were considered to function normally regarding range-of motion, muscle strength and gait. The surgical and medical management of patients with bone sarcomas has advanced greatly during the last 20 years, improving their overall survival. Thus, the surgeons are provided with increased abilities to perform limb-sparing or joint-mobility sparing surgery. PMID:20726303

Orban, H B; Gheorghiu, N; Cristescu, V

2010-01-01

288

Intelligent Control of Modular Robotic Welding Cell  

SciTech Connect

Although robotic machines are routinely used for welding, such machines do not normally incorporate intelligent capabilities. We are studying the general problem of formulating usable levels of intelligence into welding machines. From our perspective, an intelligent machine should: incorporate knowledge of the welding process, know if the process is operating correctly, know if the weld it is making is good or bad, have the ability to learn from its experience to perform welds, and be able to optimize its own performance. To this end, we are researching machine architecture, methods of knowledge representation, decision making and conflict resolution algorithms, methods of learning and optimization, human/machine interfaces, and various sensors. This paper presents work on the machine architecture and the human/machine interface specifically for a robotic, gas metal arc welding cell. Although the machine control problem is normally approached from the perspective of having a central body of control in the machine, we present a design using distributed agents. A prime goal of this work is to develop an architecture for an intelligent machine that will support a modular, plug and play standard. A secondary goal of this work is to formulate a human/machine interface that treats the human as an active agent in the modular structure.

Smartt, Herschel Bernard; Kenney, Kevin Louis; Tolle, Charles Robert

2002-04-01

289

A Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric propulsion technologies promise to revolutionize access to space, opening the door for mission concepts unfeasible by traditional propulsion methods alone. The Hall effect thruster is a relatively high thrust, moderate specific impulse electric propulsion device that belongs to the class of electrostatic thrusters. Hall effect thrusters benefit from an extensive flight history, and offer significant performance and cost advantages when compared to other forms of electric propulsion. Ongoing research on these devices includes the investigation of mechanisms that tend to decrease overall thruster efficiency, as well as the development of new techniques to extend operational lifetimes. This thesis is primarily concerned with the design and construction of a Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster (SMLHET), and its operation on argon propellant gas. Particular attention was addressed at low-cost, modular design principles, that would facilitate simple replacement and modification of key thruster parts such as the magnetic circuit and discharge channel. This capability is intended to facilitate future studies of device physics such as anomalous electron transport and magnetic shielding of the channel walls, that have an impact on thruster performance and life. Preliminary results demonstrate SMLHET running on argon in a manner characteristic of Hall effect thrusters, additionally a power balance method was utilized to estimate thruster performance. It is expected that future thruster studies utilizing heavier though more expensive gases like xenon or krypton, will observe increased efficiency and stability.

Lee, Ty Davis

290

A Modular, Portable Model of Image Fidelity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a persistent need for a trustworthy model of perceptual image fidelity, especially in applications such as image compression and display design. A fidelity model provides a measure of the visual discriminability of two images. Ahumada has previously shown that the existing fidelity models may be categorized according to their inclusion of various canonical properties, such as a contrast sensitivity function, spatial frequency channels, etc. This suggests that research would be aided by the availability of a modular model, in which these components could be easily inserted or removed. A further impediment to research in this area has been that most models are written in low-level languages and are consequently large, non-portable, and difficult to understand, modify, and maintain. We therefore believe research would also be aided by models written in high-level languages. To serve both of these purposes, and to honor our conference host for his lifetime dedication to the problem of image quality. Global brightness and its effect on perceptual image quality. We offer a modular model written in the high-level language Mathematica. We will demonstrate this model and show how it may be modified.

Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

291

Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness  

PubMed Central

Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the ‘core knowledge’ account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research. PMID:22927578

Shettleworth, Sara J.

2012-01-01

292

A Multi-Modular Neutronically Coupled Power Generation System  

E-print Network

The High Temperature Integrated Multi-Modular Thermal Reactor is a small modular reactor that uses an enhanced conductivity BeO-UO2 fuel with supercritical CO2 coolant to drive turbo-machinery in a direct Brayton cycle. The core consists of several...

Patel, Vishal

2012-07-16

293

CryptoBooster: A Recongurable and Modular Cryptographic  

E-print Network

, Reconøguration, FPGA, IDEA. 1 Introduction In this paper we describe a novel cryptographic coprocessorCryptoBooster: A Reconøgurable and Modular Cryptographic Coprocessor Emeka Mosanya 1 , ChristofBooster is a modular and reconøgurable crypto­ graphic coprocessor that takes full advantage of current high

Teuscher, Christof

294

An explicit Schrödinger picture for Aharonov's Modular Variable concept  

E-print Network

We propose to address in a natural manner, the modular variable concept explicitly in a Schr\\"odinger picture. The idea of Modular Variables was introduced in 1969 by Aharonov, Pendleton and Petersen to explain certain non-local properties of quantum mechanics. Our approach to this subject is based on Schwinger's finite quantum kinematics and it's continuous limit.

A. C. Lobo; C. A. Ribeiro

2010-07-09

295

A modular robotic system with applications to space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular robotic systems offer potential advantages as versatile, fault-tolerant, cost-effective platforms for space exploration, but a sufficiently mature system is not yet available. We describe the possible applications of such a system, and present prototype hardware intended as a step in the right direction. We also present elements of an automated design and optimization framework aimed at making modular robots

Matthew D. Hancher; Gregory S. Hornby

2006-01-01

296

A modular description for collimator EGS simulation tasks  

E-print Network

A modular description for collimator EGS simulation tasks geometry in Alessandro Bevilacqua, Dante configuration and camera design in Single Photon Emission studies. Using the EGS code, users must define. In this paper we present a modular description for such geometries. Regions are seen as a basic cell repeated

Lanconelli, Nico

297

MODULARITY AND PRAGMATICS: SOME SIMPLE AND SOME COMPLICATED WAYS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

MODULARITY AND PRAGMATICS: SOME SIMPLE AND SOME COMPLICATED WAYS The modular approach to language in its career of 30 years had alternating and rivaling views regarding the place of pragmatics. A first approach basically is the one outlined by Fodor (1983) that would pack pragmatic aspects of language use under the rubric of the mushy General Problem Solver component of

Csaba Pléh

2000-01-01

298

Modularity and Interface Management: The case of Schindler Elevators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modularity refers to the scheme by which interfaces shared among components in agiven product architecture are standardized and specified to allow for greater reusability and commonality sharing of components among product families. The management of innovation through modular product architecture strategies is gaining increasing importance for firms, not only in practice but also from a theoretical perspective. It is argued

Juliana Hsuan Mikkola

299

Modular Laboratory Courses: An Alternative to a Traditional Laboratory Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our modular laboratory teaching program is characterized by two major features. First, each course is taught independently and not linked with a particular lecture course. Second, each course is designed to be completed within one-half semester or less. The modular organization has allowed incorporation of the latest technology, reduction of class…

Caprette, David R.; Armstrong, Sarah; Beason, K. Beth

2005-01-01

300

A Modular Checker for Multithreaded Programs Cormac Flanagan1  

E-print Network

A Modular Checker for Multithreaded Programs Cormac Flanagan1 , Shaz Qadeer1 , and Sanjit A. Seshia University, Pittsburgh, PA Abstract. Designing multithreaded software systems is prone to errors due Calvin for multithreaded programs. To handle realistic programs, Calvin performs modular checking of each

Seshia, Sanjit A.

301

3 Modularity in Flexible Manufacturing 3.1 Introduction  

E-print Network

tools. Soon CNC machine tools became versatile manufacturing machines. Given the proper computer program123 3 Modularity in Flexible Manufacturing Workcells 3.1 Introduction For a workstation without additional work. To facilitate the ability to interchange modular hardware, it is beneficial

Causey, Gregory C.

302

A Modular Architecture for Computational Steering Robert van Liere  

E-print Network

CSE A Modular Architecture for Computational Steering Robert van Liere Center for Mathematics Research Foundation ECN P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten, The Netherlands Abstract Computational steering the computation of an ongoing simulation. We describe CSE: a modular architecture for a computational steering

Liere, Robert van

303

Modular design and construction techniques for nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modularization has been proposed as a nuclear power plant design-fabrication approach for increasing the quality and reducing the costs of future plants. The work reported describes a methodology for making the modular design and construction process more systematic and efficient. This methodology is applied to both the design and fabrication processes for power plant modules. The design process is enhanced

Christopher W. Lapp; Michael W. Golay

1997-01-01

304

Modular synchronization in complex networks and B. Kahng1  

E-print Network

Modular synchronization in complex networks E. Oh,1 K. Rho,1 H. Hong,2 and B. Kahng1 1 School of modular complex networks. It is found that the ST depends on the type of intermodular connections in such complex networks is a power-law degree distribution, Pd k k- , where degree k is the number of edges

Kahng, Byungnam

305

An Overview of the Safety Case for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Several small modular reactor (SMR) designs emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s in response to lessons learned from the many technical and operational challenges of the large Generation II light-water reactors. After the accident at the Three Mile Island plant in 1979, an ensuing reactor redesign effort spawned the term inherently safe designs, which later evolved into passively safe terminology. Several new designs were engineered to be deliberately small in order to fully exploit the benefits of passive safety. Today, new SMR designs are emerging with a similar philosophy of offering highly robust and resilient designs with increased safety margins. Additionally, because these contemporary designs are being developed subsequent to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack, they incorporate a number of intrinsic design features to further strengthen their safety and security. Several SMR designs are being developed in the United States spanning the full spectrum of reactor technologies, including water-, gas-, and liquid-metal-cooled ones. Despite a number of design differences, most of these designs share a common set of design principles to enhance plant safety and robustness, such as eliminating plant design vulnerabilities where possible, reducing accident probabilities, and mitigating accident consequences. An important consequence of the added resilience provided by these design approaches is that the individual reactor units and the entire plant should be able to survive a broader range of extreme conditions. This will enable them to not only ensure the safety of the general public but also help protect the investment of the owner and continued availability of the power-generating asset. Examples of typical SMR design features and their implications for improved plant safety are given for specific SMR designs being developed in the United States.

Ingersoll, Daniel T [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

306

Distributed control and computation in a parallel modular robotic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New generations of modular and reconfigurable robotic systems with many degrees of freedom can be transformed to achieve different functions, modes of manipulation, and means of mobility resulting in efficient multifunctional systems which adapt to complex environments. The design of modular distributed algorithms and architectures for control of these systems is particularly challenging since kinematic and dynamic performance must be maintained throughout a range of alternative physical reconfigurations. The 'Tetrobot' is a prototype modular system using parallel, variable geometry truss-like mechanisms which can be reconfigured to create moving platforms, walking machines, manipulator arms, a pipe crawler and other devices. Modular algorithms for distributed control and dynamic redundancy resolution of these system will be discussed, and the principles of distributed control for modular systems generalize beyond these specific mechanisms. The resulting Tetrobot system has a range of interesting applications including space robotics, construction, mining, medical, undersea, and flexible manufacturing.

Lee, Woo H.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

1999-08-01

307

Future Concepts for Modular, Intelligent Aerospace Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nasa's resent commitment to Human and Robotic Space Exploration obviates the need for more affordable and sustainable systems and missions. Increased use of modularity and on-board intelligent technologies will enable these lofty goals. To support this new paradigm, an advanced technology program to develop modular, intelligent power management and distribution (PMAD) system technologies is presented. The many benefits to developing and including modular functionality in electrical power components and systems are shown to include lower costs and lower mass for highly reliable systems. The details of several modular technologies being developed by NASA are presented, broken down into hierarchical levels. Modularity at the device level, including the use of power electronic building blocks, is shown to provide benefits in lowering the development time and costs of new power electronic components.

Button, Robert M.; Soeder, James F.

2004-01-01

308

HumanoidModularer open-source-Roboter fr Forschungszwecke Modular open-source humanoid robot for research  

E-print Network

humanoiderroboterkommtinform humanoid ...robotgetsinshape.. Evolutionssprung für humanoide Roboter ... Evolutionary leapHumanoidModularer open-source-Roboter für Forschungszwecke Modular open-source humanoid robot for humanoid robots Kontakt igus® GmbH Martin Raak Product manager robolink® Phone +49-2203-9649-409 mraak

Behnke, Sven

309

Mosaic heterochrony and evolutionary modularity: the trilobite genus Zacanthopsis as a case study.  

PubMed

Logical connections exist between evolutionary modularity and heterochrony, two unifying and structuring themes in the expanding field of evolutionary developmental biology. The former sees complex phenotypes as being made up of semi-independent units of evolutionary transformation; the latter requires such a modular organization of phenotypes to occur in a localized or mosaic fashion. This conceptual relationship is illustrated here by analyzing the evolutionary changes in the cranidial ontogeny of two related species of Cambrian trilobites. With arguments from comparative developmental genetics and functional morphology, we delineate putative evolutionary modules within the cranidium and examine patterns of evolutionary changes in ontogeny at both global and local scales. Results support a case of mosaic heterochrony, that is, a combination of local heterochronies affecting the different parts individuated in the cranidium, leading to the complex pattern of allometric repatterning observed at the global scale. Through this example, we show that recasting morphological analyses of complex phenotypes with a priori knowledge or hypotheses about their organizational and variational properties can significantly improve our interpretation and understanding of evolutionary changes among related taxa, fossil and extant. Such considerations open avenues to investigate the large-scale dynamics of modularity and its role in phenotypic evolution. PMID:22023589

Gerber, Sylvain; Hopkins, Melanie J

2011-11-01

310

Studies on the closed-loop digital control of multi-modular reactors  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the theoretical development and the evaluation via both experiment and simulation of digital methods for the closed-loop control of power, temperature, and steam generator level in multi-modular reactors. The major conclusion of the research reported here is that the technology is currently available to automate many aspects of the operation of multi-modular plants. This will in turn minimize the number of required personnel and thus contain both operating and personnel costs, allow each module to be operated at a different power level thereby staggering the times at which refuelings would be needed, and maintain the competitiveness of US industry relative to foreign vendors who are developing and applying advanced control concepts. The technology described in this report is appropriate to the proposed multi-modular reactor designs and to present-generation pressurized water reactors. Its extension to boiling water reactors is possible provided that the commitment is made to create a real-time model of a BWR. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to the United States Department of Energy (Division of Industry and University Programs, Contract No. DE-FG07-90ER12930.)

Bernard, J.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.); Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.; Meyer, J.E. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

1992-11-01

311

Studies on the closed-loop digital control of multi-modular reactors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the theoretical development and the evaluation via both experiment and simulation of digital methods for the closed-loop control of power, temperature, and steam generator level in multi-modular reactors. The major conclusion of the research reported here is that the technology is currently available to automate many aspects of the operation of multi-modular plants. This will in turn minimize the number of required personnel and thus contain both operating and personnel costs, allow each module to be operated at a different power level thereby staggering the times at which refuelings would be needed, and maintain the competitiveness of US industry relative to foreign vendors who are developing and applying advanced control concepts. The technology described in this report is appropriate to the proposed multi-modular reactor designs and to present-generation pressurized water reactors. Its extension to boiling water reactors is possible provided that the commitment is made to create a real-time model of a BWR. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to the United States Department of Energy (Division of Industry and University Programs, Contract No. DE-FG07-90ER12930.)

Bernard, J.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.; Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.; Meyer, J.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1992-11-01

312

Project Antares: A low cost modular launch vehicle for the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single stage to orbit launch vehicle Antares is based upon the revolutionary concept of modularity, enabling the Antares to efficiently launch communications satellites, as well as heavy payloads, into Earth's orbit and beyond. The basic unit of the modular system, a single Antares vehicle, is aimed at launching approximately 10,000 kg into low Earth orbit (LEO). When coupled with a Centaur upper stage it is capable of placing 3500 kg into geostationary orbit. The Antares incorporates a reusable engine, the Dual Mixture Ratio Engine (DMRE), as its propulsive device. This enables Antares to compete and excel in the satellite launch market by dramatically reducing launch costs. Antares' projected launch costs are $1340 per kg to LEO which offers a tremendous savings over launch vehicles available today. Inherent in the design is the capability to attach several of these vehicles together to provide heavy lift capability. Any number of these vehicles, up to seven, can be attached depending on the payload and mission requirements. With a seven vehicle configuration Antares's modular concept provides a heavy lift capability of approximately 70,000 kg to LEO. This expandability allows for a wider range of payload options such as large Earth satellites, Space Station Freedom support, and interplanetary spacecraft, and also offers a significant cost savings over a mixed fleet based on different launch vehicles.

Aarnio, Steve; Anderson, Hobie; Arzaz, El Mehdi; Bailey, Michelle; Beeghly, Jeff; Cartwright, Curt; Chau, William; Dawdy, Andrew; Detert, Bruce; Ervin, Miles

1991-06-01

313

Variation in the ITS-1 and ITS-2 rRNA genomic regions of Cytauxzoon felis from bobcats and pumas in the eastern United States and comparison with sequences from domestic cats.  

PubMed

Cytauxzoon felis, a tick-borne protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats in the United States. The natural reservoir for this parasite is the bobcat (Lynx rufus), which typically does not develop clinical signs. Although not likely important reservoirs, C. felis has also been detected in pumas (Puma concolor) in Florida and Louisiana. Recent studies suggest that specific genotypes of C. felis that circulate in domestic cats may be associated with variable clinical outcomes and specific spatial locations. In the current study, we investigated the intraspecific variation of the C. felis internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 rRNA regions from 145 wild felids (139 bobcats and six pumas) from 11 states (Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, South Carolina, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania). Unambiguous ITS-1 and ITS-2 data were obtained for 144 and 112 samples, respectively, and both ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences were obtained for 111 (77%) samples. For the ITS-1 region, sequences from 65 samples collected from wild felids were identical to those previously reported in domestic cats, while the other 79 sequences were unique. C. felis from 45 bobcats and one puma had ITS-1 sequences identical to the most common sequence reported from domestic cats. Within the ITS-2 region, sequences from 49 bobcats were identical to those previously reported in domestic cats and 63 sequences were unique (with some occurring in more than one bobcat). The most common ITS-2 sequence from domestic cats was also common in wild felids (31 bobcats and a puma). Samples from three pumas from Florida and two bobcats from Missouri had a 40- or 41-bp insert in the ITS-2 similar to one described previously in a domestic cat from Arkansas. Additionally, a previously undescribed 198- or 199-bp insert was detected in the ITS-2 sequence from four bobcats. Collectively, based on combined ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences, five different genotypes were detected in the wild felids. Genotype ITSa was the most common genotype (11 bobcats and one puma) and fewer numbers of ITSb, ITSe, ITSg, and ITSi were detected in bobcats. These data indicate that, based on ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences, numerous C. felis strains may circulate in wild felids. PMID:22776107

Shock, Barbara C; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Patton, Laura L; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Beringer, Jeff; Grove, Daniel M; Peek, Matt; Butfiloski, Joseph W; Hughes, Daymond W; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Cunningham, Mark W; Brown, Holly M; Peterson, David S; Yabsley, Michael J

2012-11-23

314

RNA Structure: The Long and the Short of it  

SciTech Connect

The database of RNA structure has grown tremendously since the crystal structure analyses of ribosomal subunits in 2000-2001. During the past year, the trend toward determining the structure of large,complex biological RNAs has accelerated, with the analysis of three intact group I introns, A- and B-type ribonuclease P RNAs, a riboswitchsubstrate complex and other structures. The growing database of RNA structures, coupled with efforts directed at the standardization of nomenclature and classification of motifs, has resulted in the identification and characterization of numerous RNA secondary and tertiary structure motifs. Because a large proportion of RNA structure can now be shown to be composed of these recurring structural motifs, a view of RNA as a modular structure built from a combination of these building blocks and tertiary linkers is beginning to emerge. At the same time, however, more detailed analysis of water, metal, ligand and protein binding to RNA is revealing the effect of these moieties on folding and structure formation. The balance between the views of RNA structure either as strictly a construct of preformed building blocks linked in a limited number of ways or as a flexible polymer assuming a global fold influenced by its environment will be the focus of current and future RNA structural biology.

Holbrook, Stephen R.

2005-04-15

315

James (Jim) Watson wearing his RNA Tie Club tieSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jim Watson in Moscow at the International Biochemical Congress, 1961, wearing his RNA Tie Club tie. RNA Tie Club members were united by their ties as well as a desir to understand the role of RNA in protein synthesis.

2008-03-26

316

Comparative modular analysis of gene expression in vertebrate organs  

PubMed Central

Background The degree of conservation of gene expression between homologous organs largely remains an open question. Several recent studies reported some evidence in favor of such conservation. Most studies compute organs' similarity across all orthologous genes, whereas the expression level of many genes are not informative about organ specificity. Results Here, we use a modularization algorithm to overcome this limitation through the identification of inter-species co-modules of organs and genes. We identify such co-modules using mouse and human microarray expression data. They are functionally coherent both in terms of genes and of organs from both organisms. We show that a large proportion of genes belonging to the same co-module are orthologous between mouse and human. Moreover, their zebrafish orthologs also tend to be expressed in the corresponding homologous organs. Notable exceptions to the general pattern of conservation are the testis and the olfactory bulb. Interestingly, some co-modules consist of single organs, while others combine several functionally related organs. For instance, amygdala, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and spinal cord form a clearly discernible unit of expression, both in mouse and human. Conclusions Our study provides a new framework for comparative analysis which will be applicable also to other sets of large-scale phenotypic data collected across different species. PMID:22458817

2012-01-01

317

Rat Ultrasonic Vocalization Shows Features of a Modular Behavior  

PubMed Central

Small units of production, or modules, can be effective building blocks of more complex motor behaviors. Recording underlying movements of vocal production in awake and spontaneously behaving male Sprague Dawley rats interacting with a female, I tested whether the underlying movements of ultrasonic calls can be described by modules. Movements were quantified by laryngeal muscle EMG activity and subglottal pressure changes. A module was defined by uniformity in both larynx movement and pressure pattern that resulted in a specific spectrographic feature. Modules are produced either singly (single module call type) or in combination with a different module (composite call type). Distinct modules were shown to be linearly (re)combined. Additionally, I found that modules produced during the same expiratory phase can be linked with or without a pause in laryngeal activity, the latter creating the spectrographic appearance of two separate calls. Results suggest that combining discrete modules facilitates generation of higher-order patterns, thereby increasing overall complexity of the vocal repertoire. With additional study, modularity and flexible laryngeal–respiratory coordination may prove to be a basal feature of mammalian vocal motor control. PMID:24828641

2014-01-01

318

Modular nature of the polysomatic pyrochlore-murataite series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic analogues of murataite, a very rare mineral—a complex oxide of REE, actinide, Ti, Fe, and other elements,—are of great interest as confinement matrices of radioactive wastes. They are produced by sintering (1200-1300°C) and melting (1500-1600°C) with subsequent crystallization of the melt. Four structural varieties of murataite distinguished by unit-cell parameters have been established by TEM study. All these varieties are derivatives of the fluorite structure designated as murataite 3C, 5C, 7C, and 8C depending on repetition factor of a parameter of the fluorite subcell. The structural features of the synthetic murataite varieties are analyzed in this paper based on data obtained from high-resolution electron microscopy, microdiffraction, and X-ray refinement. The hypothesis of a modular structure of the members of polysomatic pyrochlore-murataite series has been confirmed. At the same time, the structural modules are zero-dimensional rather than two-dimensional as had previously been suggested. The combinations of zero-dimensional modules in 3D space create the entire structural diversity of the polysomatic series.

Laverov, N. P.; Urusov, V. S.; Krivovichev, S. V.; Pakhomova, A. S.; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Yudintsev, S. V.

2011-08-01

319

Embedding triple-modular redundancy into a hypercube architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an embedding of Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) into a binary hypercube. The goal is to improve fault tolerance by masking any single-point faults. Each module of an application task is triplicated and executed in parallel on three nodes of a 2-dimensional subcube (Q2) of the hypercube. Each of these nodes also executes a voter process. The remaining node is used for message passing only. All outputs from the triplicated modules are voted on, and the voting results are transmitted to the appropriate destination. Thus, all interunit messages are also triplicated. We propose an embedding of TMR into a hypercube which can be implemented in a manner transparent to the application program. Subcubes are allocated so that the address space for the TMR units is also a hypercube. Hence, the subcube allocation and intermodule communication schemes are defined to be analogous to the schemes used in the nonredundant system. The embedded system is proven to mask all single-point faults.

Kiskis, Daniel L.; Shin, Kang G.

1988-01-01

320

T7-RNA Polymerase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

T7-RNA Polymerase grown on STS-81. Structure-Function Relationships of RNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent RNA polymerase is the key enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of RNA, a process known as transcription. Principal Investigator's include Dr. Dan Carter, Dr. B.C. Wang, and Dr. John Rose of New Century Pharmaceuticals.

1997-01-01

321

Modular control of varied locomotor tasks in children with incomplete spinal cord injuries  

PubMed Central

A module is a functional unit of the nervous system that specifies functionally relevant patterns of muscle activation. In adults, four to five modules account for muscle activation during walking. Neurological injury alters modular control and is associated with walking impairments. The effect of neurological injury on modular control in children is unknown and may differ from adults due to their immature and developing nervous systems. We examined modular control of locomotor tasks in children with incomplete spinal cord injuries (ISCIs) and control children. Five controls (8.6 ± 2.7 yr of age) and five children with ISCIs (8.6 ± 3.7 yr of age performed treadmill walking, overground walking, pedaling, supine lower extremity flexion/extension, stair climbing, and crawling. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded in bilateral leg muscles. Nonnegative matrix factorization was applied, and the minimum number of modules required to achieve 90% of the “variance accounted for” (VAF) was calculated. On average, 3.5 modules explained muscle activation in the controls, whereas 2.4 modules were required in the children with ISCIs. To determine if control is similar across tasks, the module weightings identified from treadmill walking were used to reconstruct the EMGs from each of the other tasks. This resulted in VAF values exceeding 86% for each child and each locomotor task. Our results suggest that 1) modularity is constrained in children with ISCIs and 2) for each child, similar neural control mechanisms are used across locomotor tasks. These findings suggest that interventions that activate the neuromuscular system to enhance walking also may influence the control of other locomotor tasks. PMID:23761702

Tester, Nicole J.; Kautz, Steven A.; Howland, Dena R.; Clark, David J.; Garvan, Cyndi; Behrman, Andrea L.

2013-01-01

322

Nickel-cadmium batteries for the Modular Power Subsystem. [of Multimission Modular Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nickel-cadmium batteries of 20 and 50 ampere-hour (AH) capacity have been developed and qualified. These batteries provide an energy storage capability of 40 to 150 AH for the Modular Power Subsystem, which is the power source for NASA's Multimission Modular Spacecraft. Battery fabrication is rigidly controlled to assure uniform performance from battery to battery. A unique feature of the battery design is that cells from various manufacturers can be used for battery assembly without modification. Both 20 and 50-AH batteries have been delivered, and an MPS module with three 20-AH batteries is currently operating satisfactorily in low earth orbit. Design characteristics and performance of the batteries are described.

Mueller, V. C.; Webb, D. A.

1980-01-01

323

Dynamics on modular networks with heterogeneous correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a new ensemble of modular random graphs in which degree-degree correlations can be different in each module, and the inter-module connections are defined by the joint degree-degree distribution of nodes for each pair of modules. We present an analytical approach that allows one to analyze several types of binary dynamics operating on such networks, and we illustrate our approach using bond percolation, site percolation, and the Watts threshold model. The new network ensemble generalizes existing models (e.g., the well-known configuration model and Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi networks) by allowing a heterogeneous distribution of degree-degree correlations across modules, which is important for the consideration of nonidentical interacting networks.

Melnik, Sergey; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Gleeson, James P.

2014-06-01

324

Modular electron transfer circuits for synthetic biology  

PubMed Central

Electron transfer is central to a wide range of essential metabolic pathways, from photosynthesis to fermentation. The evolutionary diversity and conservation of proteins that transfer electrons makes these pathways a valuable platform for engineered metabolic circuits in synthetic biology. Rational engineering of electron transfer pathways containing hydrogenases has the potential to lead to industrial scale production of hydrogen as an alternative source of clean fuel and experimental assays for understanding the complex interactions of multiple electron transfer proteins in vivo. We designed and implemented a synthetic hydrogen metabolism circuit in Escherichia coli that creates an electron transfer pathway both orthogonal to and integrated within existing metabolism. The design of such modular electron transfer circuits allows for facile characterization of in vivo system parameters with applications toward further engineering for alternative energy production. PMID:21468209

Agapakis, Christina M

2010-01-01

325

Modularity and the cost of complexity.  

PubMed

In this work we consider the geometrical model of R. A. Fisher, in which individuals are characterized by a number of phenotypic characters under optimizing selection. Recent work on this model by H. A. Orr has demonstrated that as the number of characters increases, there is a significant reduction in the rate of adaptation. Orr has dubbed this a "cost of complexity." Although there is little evidence as to whether such a cost applies in the natural world, we suggest that the prediction is surprising, at least naively. With this in mind, we examine the robustness of Orr's prediction by modifiying the model in various ways that might reduce or remove the cost. In particular, we explore the suggestion that modular pleiotropy, in which mutations affect only a subset of the traits, could play an important role. We conclude that although modifications of the model can mitigate the cost to a limited extent, Orr's finding is robust. PMID:14503615

Welch, John J; Waxman, David

2003-08-01

326

LEGO: A Modular Accelerator Design Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An object-oriented accelerator design code has been designed and implemented in a simple and modular fashion. It contains all major features of its predecessors TRACY and DESPOT. All physics of single-particle dynamics is implemented based on the Hamiltonian in the local frame of the component. Components can be moved arbitrarily in three dimensional space. Several symplectic integrators are used to approximate the integration of the local Hamiltonians. A differential algebra class is introduced to extract a Taylor map up to an arbitrary order. Analysis of optics is done in the same way for both the linear and non-linear cases. Currently the code is used to design and simulate the lattices of the PEP-II. It will be used for the commissioning of the machines as well.

Cai, Y.; Irwin, J.

1997-05-01

327

LEGO: A modular accelerator design code  

SciTech Connect

An object-oriented accelerator design code has been designed and implemented in a simple and modular fashion. It contains all major features of its predecessors: TRACY and DESPOT. All physics of single-particle dynamics is implemented based on the Hamiltonian in the local frame of the component. Components can be moved arbitrarily in the three dimensional space. Several symplectic integrators are used to approximate the integration of the Hamiltonian. A differential algebra class is introduced to extract a Taylor map up to arbitrary order. Analysis of optics is done in the same way both for the linear and nonlinear case. Currently, the code is used to design and simulate the lattices of the PEP-II. It will also be used for the commissioning.

Cai, Y.; Donald, M.; Irwin, J.; Yan, Y. [Stanford Univ., CA (US). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

1997-08-01

328

Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations.

Nichols, Ralph L. (812 Plantation Point Dr., N. Augusta, SC 29841); Widdowson, Mark A. (4204 Havana Ct., Columbia, SC 29206); Mullinex, Harry (10 Cardross La., Columbia, SC 29209); Orne, William H. (12 Martha Ct., Sumter, SC 29150); Looney, Brian B. (1135 Ridgemont Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

1994-01-01

329

Generic small modular reactor plant design.  

SciTech Connect

This report gives an overview of expected design characteristics, concepts, and procedures for small modular reactors. The purpose of this report is to provide those who are interested in reducing the cost and improving the safety of advanced nuclear power plants with a generic design that possesses enough detail in a non-sensitive manner to give merit to their conclusions. The report is focused on light water reactor technology, but does add details on what could be different in a more advanced design (see Appendix). Numerous reactor and facility concepts were used for inspiration (documented in the bibliography). The final design described here is conceptual and does not reflect any proposed concept or sub-systems, thus any details given here are only relevant within this report. This report does not include any design or engineering calculations.

Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Baum, Gregory A.

2012-12-01

330

Modular Approach to Physics: Fletcher's Trolley  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a simulation-based activity relating to tension force and motion with constant acceleration. It displays a block sitting on a table, attached by string to a block hanging off the side. The string is guided over a pulley. The user can control the mass of the blocks and mass of the pulley, view data giving real-time values of speed and time, and view a changing free-body diagram through the cycle of motion. A comprehensive "Help" section provides step-by-step directions for use and detailed lessons for both beginning and intermediate instructional settings. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation-based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-08-15

331

Modular Approach to Physics: Skaters and Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains an interactive simulation on conservation of momentum. Users may choose from two views: a pair of ice skaters pushing off from each other or a model of two blocks exerting a force on each other. The user can adjust the masses of the two objects and observe their velocities, momenta, and kinetic energies as they move away from each other. This resource was developed to enhance understanding of the law of momentum conservation. It includes, the simulation help, a detailed lesson with related problems/solutions, learning outcomes, and instructions for use. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation-based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-05-30

332

Modular synthesis of N-vinyl benzotriazoles.  

PubMed

A modular approach to N1-vinyl benzotriazoles by azide-aryne cycloadditions and Julia-Kocienski reactions is described. Reactions of azidomethyl phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl (PT) sulfide with arynes gave methyl(PT-sulfanyl)-substituted benzotriazoles in 68-89% yields. Oxidation of the sulfides to the sulfones gave the benzotriazole-substituted Julia-Kocienski reagents. Olefination reactions of aldehydes and a ketone with reagents derived from benzyne, 2,3-naphthyne, and 4,5-dimethoxybenzyne precursors proceeded to give various N1-vinyl benzotriazole derivatives. Olefination stereoselectivities are tunable for electron-rich aldehydes, but not for electron-deficient aldehydes and alkanals, where they proceed with good to excellent Z-stereoselectivity. PMID:23915255

Singh, Govindra; Kumar, Rakesh; Swett, Jorge; Zajc, Barbara

2013-08-16

333

Modular, security enclosure and method of assembly  

DOEpatents

A transportable, reusable rapidly assembled and disassembled, resizable modular, security enclosure utilizes a stepped panel construction. Each panel has an inner portion and an outer portion which form joints. A plurality of channels can be affixed to selected joints of the panels. Panels can be affixed to a base member and then affixed to one another by the use of elongated pins extending through the channel joints. Alternatively, the base member can be omitted and the panels themselves can be used as the floor of the enclosure. The pins will extend generally parallel to the joint in which they are located. These elongated pins are readily inserted into and removable from the channels in a predetermined sequence to allow assembly and disassembly of the enclosure. A door constructed from panels is used to close the opening to the enclosure.

Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moyer, John W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01

334

Modular Synthesis of N-Vinyl Benzotriazoles  

PubMed Central

A modular approach to N1-vinyl benzotriazoles by azide–aryne cycloadditions and Julia–Kocienski reactions is described. Reactions of azidomethyl phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl (PT) sulfide with arynes gave methyl(PT-sulfanyl)-substituted benzotriazoles in 68–89% yields. Oxidation of the sulfides to the sulfones gave the benzotriazole-substituted Julia–Kocienski reagents. Olefination reactions of aldehydes and a ketone with reagents derived from benzyne, 2,3-naphthyne, and 4,5-dimethoxybenzyne precursors proceeded to give various N1-vinyl benzotriazole derivatives. Olefination stereoselectivities are tunable for electron-rich aldehydes, but not for electron-deficient aldehydes and alkanals, where they proceed with good to excellent Z-stereoselectivity. PMID:23915255

Singh, Govindra; Kumar, Rakesh; Swett, Jorge; Zajc, Barbara

2014-01-01

335

Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor (MSR) concept  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary conceptual study has been made of the Modulator Stellarator Reactor (MSR) as a stedy-state, ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor. The MSR concept combines the physics of classic stellarator confinement with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4.8-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. Neither an economic analysis nor a detailed conceptual engineering design is presented here, as the primary intent of this scoping study is the elucidation of key physics tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties for the ultimate power-reactor embodiment.

Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

1981-01-01

336

FOAM: the modular adaptive optics framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control software for adaptive optics systems is mostly custom built and very specific in nature. We have developed FOAM, a modular adaptive optics framework for controlling and simulating adaptive optics systems in various environments. Portability is provided both for different control hardware and adaptive optics setups. To achieve this, FOAM is written in C++ and runs on standard CPUs. Furthermore we use standard Unix libraries and compilation procedures and implemented a hardware abstraction layer in FOAM. We have successfully implemented FOAM on the adaptive optics system of ExPo - a high-contrast imaging polarimeter developed at our institute - in the lab and will test it on-sky late June 2012. We also plan to implement FOAM on adaptive optics systems for microscopy and solar adaptive optics. FOAM is available* under the GNU GPL license and is free to be used by anyone.

van Werkhoven, T. I. M.; Homs, L.; Sliepen, G.; Rodenhuis, M.; Keller, C. U.

2012-07-01

337

Human Reliability Analysis for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Because no human reliability analysis (HRA) method was specifically developed for small modular reactors (SMRs), the application of any current HRA method to SMRs represents tradeoffs. A first- generation HRA method like THERP provides clearly defined activity types, but these activity types do not map to the human-system interface or concept of operations confronting SMR operators. A second- generation HRA method like ATHEANA is flexible enough to be used for SMR applications, but there is currently insufficient guidance for the analyst, requiring considerably more first-of-a-kind analyses and extensive SMR expertise in order to complete a quality HRA. Although no current HRA method is optimized to SMRs, it is possible to use existing HRA methods to identify errors, incorporate them as human failure events in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and quantify them. In this paper, we provided preliminary guidance to assist the human reliability analyst and reviewer in understanding how to apply current HRA methods to the domain of SMRs. While it is possible to perform a satisfactory HRA using existing HRA methods, ultimately it is desirable to formally incorporate SMR considerations into the methods. This may require the development of new HRA methods. More practicably, existing methods need to be adapted to incorporate SMRs. Such adaptations may take the form of guidance on the complex mapping between conventional light water reactors and small modular reactors. While many behaviors and activities are shared between current plants and SMRs, the methods must adapt if they are to perform a valid and accurate analysis of plant personnel performance in SMRs.

Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

2012-06-01

338

A Modular Approach to Cardiac Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Functional cardiac tissue was prepared using a modular tissue engineering approach with the goal of creating vascularized tissue. Rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC) were seeded onto submillimeter-sized modules made of type I bovine collagen supplemented with Matrigel™ (25% v/v) embedded with cardiomyocyte (CM)-enriched neonatal rat heart cells and assembled into a contractile, macroporous, sheet-like construct. Modules (without RAEC) cultured in 10% bovine serum (BS) were more contractile and responsive to external stimulus (lower excitation threshold, higher maximum capture rate, and greater en face fractional area changes) than modules cultured in 10% fetal BS. Incorporating 25% Matrigel in the matrix reduced the excitation threshold and increased the fractional area change relative to collagen only modules (without RAEC). A coculture medium, containing 10% BS, low Mg2+ (0.814?mM), and normal glucose (5.5?mM), was used to maintain RAEC junction morphology (VE-cadherin) and CM contractility, although the responsiveness of CM was attenuated with RAEC on the modules. Macroporous, sheet-like module constructs were assembled by partially immobilizing a layer of modules in alginate gel until day 8, with or without RAEC. RAEC/CM module sheets were electrically responsive; however, like modules with RAEC this responsiveness was attenuated relative to CM-only sheets. Muscle bundles coexpressing cardiac troponin I and connexin-43 were evident near the perimeter of modules and at intermodule junctions. These results suggest the potential of the modular approach as a platform for building vascularized cardiac tissue. PMID:20504074

Leung, Brendan M.

2010-01-01

339

Modular hydride beds for mobile applications  

SciTech Connect

Design, construction, initial testing and simple thermal modeling of modular, metal hydride beds have been completed. Originally designed for supplying hydrogen to a fuel cell on a mobile vehicle, the complete bed design consists of 8 modules and is intended for use on the Palm Desert Vehicle (PDV) under development at the Schatz Energy Center, Humbolt State University. Each module contains approximately 2 kg of a commercially available, low temperature, hydride-forming metal alloy. Waste heat from the fuel cell in the form of heated water is used to desorb hydrogen from the alloy for supplying feed hydrogen to the fuel cell. In order to help determine the performance of such a modular bed system, six modules were constructed and tested. The design and construction of the modules is described in detail. Initial testing of the modules both individually and as a group showed that each module can store {approximately} 30 g of hydrogen (at 165 PSIA fill pressure, 17 C), could be filled with hydrogen in 6 minutes at a nominal, 75 standard liters/min (slm) fueling rate, and could supply hydrogen during desorption at rates of 25 slm, the maximum anticipated hydrogen fuel cell input requirement. Tests made of 5 modules as a group indicated that the behavior of the group run in parallel both in fueling and gas delivery could be directly predicted from the corresponding, single module characteristics by using an appropriate scaling factor. Simple thermal modeling of a module as an array of cylindrical, hydride-filled tubes was performed. The predictions of the model are in good agreement with experimental data.

Malinowski, M.E.; Stewart, K.D.

1997-08-01

340

Site Suitability and Hazard Assessment Guide for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Commercial nuclear reactor projects in the U.S. have traditionally employed large light water reactors (LWR) to generate regional supplies of electricity. Although large LWRs have consistently dominated commercial nuclear markets both domestically and abroad, the concept of small modular reactors (SMRs) capable of producing between 30 MW(t) and 900 MW(t) to generating steam for electricity is not new. Nor is the idea of locating small nuclear reactors in close proximity to and in physical connection with industrial processes to provide a long-term source of thermal energy. Growing problems associated continued use of fossil fuels and enhancements in efficiency and safety because of recent advancements in reactor technology suggest that the likelihood of near-term SMR technology(s) deployment at multiple locations within the United States is growing. Many different types of SMR technology are viable for siting in the domestic commercial energy market. However, the potential application of a particular proprietary SMR design will vary according to the target heat end-use application and the site upon which it is proposed to be located. Reactor heat applications most commonly referenced in connection with the SMR market include electric power production, district heating, desalinization, and the supply of thermal energy to various processes that require high temperature over long time periods, or a combination thereof. Indeed, the modular construction, reliability and long operational life purported to be associated with some SMR concepts now being discussed may offer flexibility and benefits no other technology can offer. Effective siting is one of the many early challenges that face a proposed SMR installation project. Site-specific factors dealing with support to facility construction and operation, risks to the plant and the surrounding area, and the consequences subsequent to those risks must be fully identified, analyzed, and possibly mitigated before a license will be granted to construct and operate a nuclear facility. Examples of significant site-related concerns include area geotechnical and geological hazard properties, local climatology and meteorology, water resource availability, the vulnerability of surrounding populations and the environmental to adverse effects in the unlikely event of radionuclide release, the socioeconomic impacts of SMR plant installation and the effects it has on aesthetics, proximity to energy use customers, the topography and area infrastructure that affect plant constructability and security, and concerns related to the transport, installation, operation and decommissioning of major plant components.

Wayne Moe

2013-10-01

341

The Energy Systems Optimization Computer Program /ESOP/ developed for Modular Integrated Utility Systems /MIUS/ analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A significant energy and cost savings can be obtained by integrating various utility services (space heating and cooling, electrical power generation, solid waste disposal, potable water, and waste water treatment) into a single unit which provides buildings or groups of buildings with these services. This paper presents a description of a computer program, called the Energy Systems Optimization Program (ESOP). This program predicts the loads, energy requirements, equipment sizes, and life-cycle costs of alternative methods of meeting these utility requirements. The program has been used extensively for performing energy analyses of Modular Integrated Utility Systems (MIUS).

Ferden, S. L.; Rochelle, W. C.; Stallings, R. D.; Brandli, A. E.; Lively, C. F., Jr.

1974-01-01

342

Initial comparisons of modular-sized, integrated utility systems and conventional systems for several building types  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study of the application of a modular integrated utility system to six typical building types are compared with the application of a conventional utility system to the same facilities. The effects of varying the size and climatic location of the buildings and the size of the powerplants are presented. Construction details of the six building types (garden apartments, a high rise office building, high rise apartments, a shopping center, a high school, and a hospital) and typical site and floor plans are provided. The environmental effects, the unit size determination, and the market potential are discussed. The cost effectiveness of the various design options is not considered.

Benson, H. E.; Monford, L. G., Jr.

1976-01-01

343

Does Habitat Variability Really Promote Metabolic Network Modularity?  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that variability in natural habitats promotes modular organization is widely accepted for cellular networks. However, results of some data analyses and theoretical studies have begun to cast doubt on the impact of habitat variability on modularity in metabolic networks. Therefore, we re-evaluated this hypothesis using statistical data analysis and current metabolic information. We were unable to conclude that an increase in modularity was the result of habitat variability. Although horizontal gene transfer was also considered because it may contribute for survival in a variety of environments, closely related to habitat variability, and is known to be positively correlated with network modularity, such a positive correlation was not concluded in the latest version of metabolic networks. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the previously observed increase in network modularity due to habitat variability and horizontal gene transfer was probably due to a lack of available data on metabolic reactions. Instead, we determined that modularity in metabolic networks is dependent on species growth conditions. These results may not entirely discount the impact of habitat variability and horizontal gene transfer. Rather, they highlight the need for a more suitable definition of habitat variability and a more careful examination of relationships of the network modularity with horizontal gene transfer, habitats, and environments. PMID:23593470

Takemoto, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

344

Communities and bottlenecks: Trees and treelike networks have high modularity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much effort has gone into understanding the modular nature of complex networks. Communities, also known as clusters or modules, are typically considered to be densely interconnected groups of nodes that are only sparsely connected to other groups in the network. Discovering high quality communities is a difficult and important problem in a number of areas. The most popular approach is the objective function known as modularity, used both to discover communities and to measure their strength. To understand the modular structure of networks it is then crucial to know how such functions evaluate different topologies, what features they account for, and what implicit assumptions they may make. We show that trees and treelike networks can have unexpectedly and often arbitrarily high values of modularity. This is surprising since trees are maximally sparse connected graphs and are not typically considered to possess modular structure, yet the nonlocal null model used by modularity assigns low probabilities, and thus high significance, to the densities of these sparse tree communities. We further study the practical performance of popular methods on model trees and on a genealogical data set and find that the discovered communities also have very high modularity, often approaching its maximum value. Statistical tests reveal the communities in trees to be significant, in contrast with known results for partitions of sparse, random graphs.

Bagrow, James P.

2012-06-01

345

Twins, quadruplexes, and more: functional aspects of native and engineered RNA self-assembly in vivo  

PubMed Central

The primacy and power of RNA in governing many processes of life has begun to be more fully appreciated in both the discovery and inventive sciences. A variety of RNA interactions regulate gene expression, and structural self-assembly underlies many of these processes. The understanding sparked by these discoveries has inspired and informed the engineering of novel RNA structures, control elements, and genetic circuits in cells. Many of these engineered systems are built up fundamentally from RNA–RNA interactions, often combining modular, rational design with functional selection and screening. It is therefore useful to review the particular class of RNA-based regulatory mechanisms that rely on RNA self-assembly either through homomeric (self–self) or heteromeric (self–nonself) RNA–RNA interactions. Structures and sequence elements within individual RNAs create a basis for the pairing interactions, and in some instances can even lead to the formation of RNA polymers. Example systems of dimers, multimers, and polymers are reviewed in this article in the context of natural systems, wherein the function and impact of self-assemblies are understood. Following this, a brief overview is presented of specific engineered RNA self-assembly systems implemented in vivo, with lessons learned from both discovery and engineering approaches to RNA–RNA self-assembly. PMID:23914307

Lease, Richard A.; Arluison, Veronique; Lavelle, Christophe

2013-01-01

346

Indoor unit for electric heat pump  

DOEpatents

An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

1984-05-22

347

Sprouts of RNA epigenetics  

PubMed Central

More than 100 structurally distinct RNA modifications have been identified in all kingdoms of life.1 These post-transcriptional modifications are widely present in various RNAs, including ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), etc. We have shown that the methylation of N6-methyladenine (m6A) can be reversed through the discovery of the first RNA demethylase, the human fat mass and obesity-associated protein, FTO, in 2011.2 Most recently, we have identified a new mammalian RNA demethylase, ALKBH5, which is also able to remove the methyl group of m6A from RNA both in vitro and in vivo (Fig. 1A). The ALKBH5 protein colocalizes with nuclear speckles where pre-mRNA processing occurs. This protein is actively involved in mRNA export regulation, in which its demethylation activity seems to play an important role, as well as in RNA synthesis. A knockout of the Alkbh5 gene in mice resulted in impaired male fertility due to compromised spermatogenesis. Importantly, increased m6A levels were observed in mRNA isolated from the Alkbh5-knockout mouse organs compared to those from wild-type littermates. RNA-Seq results indicate aberrant gene expression in spermatogenic cells of the seminoferous tubulus of testes from Alkbh5-deficient mice, thereby showing that the loss of the m6A demethylase influences gene expression, which, in turn, leads to defects in spermatogenesis and increased apoptosis of meiotic cells. Thus, the discovery of FTO and this new RNA demethylase strongly suggests that the methylation of RNA, like DNA and histone modifications, is dynamically regulated and likely to play broad roles in mammalian cells. PMID:23619745

Zheng, Guanqun; Dahl, John Arne; Niu, Yamei; Fu, Ye; Klungland, Arne; Yang, Yun-Gui; He, Chuan

2013-01-01

348

Development of a space universal modular architecture (SUMO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This concept paper proposes that the space community should develop and implement a universal standard for spacecraft modularity - to improve interoperability of spacecraft components. Pursuing a global industry consensus standard for open and modular spacecraft architecture will encourage trade, remove standards-related market barriers, and in the long run increase both value provided to customers and profitability of the space industrial sector. This concept paper sets out: (1) the goals for a SUMO standard and how it will benefit the space community; (2) background on spacecraft modularity and existing related standards; (3) the proposed technical scope of the current standardization effort; and (4) an approach for creating a SUMO standard.

Collins, Bernie F.

349

A Modular Robotic System with Applications to Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular robotic systems offer potential advantages as versatile, fault-tolerant, cost-effective platforms for space exploration, but a sufficiently mature system is not yet available. We describe the possible applications of such a system, and present prototype hardware intended as a step in the right direction. We also present elements of an automated design and optimization framework aimed at making modular robots easier to design and use, and discuss the results of applying the system to a gait optimization problem. Finally, we discuss the potential near-term applications of modular robotics to terrestrial robotics research.

Hancher, Matthew D.; Hornby, Gregory S.

2006-01-01

350

Multi-kilowatt modularized spacecraft power processing system development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of existing information pertaining to spacecraft power processing systems and equipment was accomplished with a view towards applicability to the modularization of multi-kilowatt power processors. Power requirements for future spacecraft were determined from the NASA mission model-shuttle systems payload data study which provided the limits for modular power equipment capabilities. Three power processing systems were compared to evaluation criteria to select the system best suited for modularity. The shunt regulated direct energy transfer system was selected by this analysis for a conceptual design effort which produced equipment specifications, schematics, envelope drawings, and power module configurations.

Andrews, R. E.; Hayden, J. H.; Hedges, R. T.; Rehmann, D. W.

1975-01-01

351

Concerted evolution of the tandemly repeated genes encoding primate U2 small nuclear RNA (the RNU2 locus) does not prevent rapid diversification of the (CT){sub n} {center_dot} (GA){sub n} microsatellite embedded within the U2 repeat unit  

SciTech Connect

The RNU2 locus encoding human U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is organized as a nearly perfect tandem array containing 5 to 22 copies of a 5.8-kb repeat unit. Just downstream of the U2 snRNA gene in each 5.8-kb repeat unit lies a large (CT){sub n}{center_dot}(GA){sub n} dinucleotide repeat (n {approx} 70). This form of genomic organization, in which one repeat is embedded within another, provides an unusual opportunity to study the balance of forces maintaining the homogeneity of both kinds of repeats. Using a combination of field inversion gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction, we have been able to study the CT microsatellites within individual U2 tandem arrays. We find that the CT microsatellites within an RNU2 allele exhibit significant length polymorphism, despite the remarkable homogeneity of the surrounding U2 repeat units. Length polymorphism is due primarily to loss or gain of CT dinucleotide repeats, but other types of deletions, insertions, and substitutions are also frequent. Polymorphism is greatly reduced in regions where pure (CT){sub n} tracts are interrupted by occasional G residues, suggesting that irregularities stabilize both the length and the sequence of the dinucleotide repeat. We further show that the RNU2 loci of other catarrhine primates (gorilla, chimpanzee, ogangutan, and baboon) contain orthologous CT microsatellites; these also exhibit length polymorphism, but are highly divergent from each other. Thus, although the CT microsatellite is evolving far more rapidly than the rest of the U2 repeat unit, it has persisted through multiple speciation events spanning >35 Myr. The persistence of the CT microsatellite, despite polymorphism and rapid evolution, suggests that it might play a functional role in concerted evolution of the RNU2 loci, perhaps as an initiation site for recombination and/or gene conversion. 70 refs., 5 figs.

Liao, D.; Weiner, A.M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)] [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

1995-12-10

352

Factors Driving the Adoption of Increasingly Modular or Increasingly Integrated Forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many systems migrate towards increasing or decreasing modularity, yet no explicit causal models exist to explain this process. This paper builds upon a general theory of modular systems (Schilling 2000), to explain the migration of systems towards or away from increasingly modular forms. It then applies this model to a specific context: the adoption of modular organizational forms. In many

Melissa A. Schilling

2003-01-01

353

Structure and Functional Analysis of the RNA and Viral Phosphoprotein-Binding Domain of Respiratory Syncytial Virus M2-1 Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) protein M2-1 functions as an essential transcriptional cofactor of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complex by increasing polymerase processivity. M2-1 is a modular RNA binding protein that also interacts with the viral phosphoprotein P, another component of the RdRp complex. These binding properties are related to the core region of M2-1 encompassing residues S58 to

Marie-Lise Blondot; Virginie Dubosclard; Jenna Fix; Safa Lassoued; Magali Aumont-Nicaise; François Bontems; Jean-François Eléouët; Christina Sizun

2012-01-01

354

A program for the identification of tRNA-like structures in DNA sequence data.  

PubMed Central

A computer algorithm has been developed which identifies tRNA genes and tRNA-like structures in DNA sequences. The program searches the sequence string for specific base positions that correspond to the invariant and semi-invariant bases found in tRNAs. The tRNA nature of the sequence is confirmed by the presence of complementary base pairing at the tRNA's calculated 5' and 3' ends (which in situ constitutes the amino-acyl stem region). The program achieves greater than 96% accuracy when run against known tRNA sequences in the Genbank database. The program is modular and is readily modified to allow searching either a file or database. The program is written in "C" and operates on a D.E.C. Vax 750. The utility of the algorithm is demonstrated by the identification of a distinctive tRNA structure in an intron of a published bovine hemoglobin gene. PMID:3753778

Marvel, C C

1986-01-01

355

RNA-dependent RNA polymerases in RNA silencing.  

PubMed

RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) synthesize double-stranded RNAs that are processed into small RNAs and mediate gene silencing. Viral RdRPs and cellular RdRPs show little structural homology to each other. Cellular RdRPs play key roles in RNA silencing by producing complementary strands for target RNAs via Dicer-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Although the existence of a functional mammalian homolog of RdRP has long been predicted, traditional approaches to identify such enzymes were unsuccessful. Recently, human telomerase reverse transcriptase, a polymerase closely related to viral RdRPs, has been shown to function as an RdRP and contributes to RNA silencing in vivo. These findings suggest that endogenous small interfering RNAs are produced by several mechanisms in eukaryotes. PMID:21294682

Maida, Yoshiko; Masutomi, Kenkichi

2011-04-01

356

RNA-Catalyzed RNA Ligation on an External RNA Template  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variants of the hc ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes ligation of the 3' end of an RNA substrate to the 5' end of the ribozyme, were utilized to evolve a ribozyme that catalyzes ligation reactions on an external RNA template. The evolved ribozyme catalyzes the joining of an oligonucleotide 3'-hydroxyl to the 5'-triphosphate of an RNA hairpin molecule. The ribozyme can also utilize various substrate sequences, demonstrating a largely sequence-independent mechanism for substrate recognition. The ribozyme also carries out the ligation of two oligonucleotides that are bound at adjacent positions on a complementary template. Finally, it catalyzes addition of mononucleoside '5-triphosphates onto the '3 end of an oligonucleotide primer in a template-dependent manner. The development of ribozymes that catalyze polymerase-type reactions contributes to the notion that an RNA world could have existed during the early history of life on Earth.

McGinness, Kathleen E.; Joyce, Gerald F.

2002-01-01

357

Neuronal RNA granules: a link between RNA localization and stimulation-dependent translation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

RNA granules are a macromolecular structure observed in neurons, where they serve as motile units that translocate mRNAs. Isolated RNA granules are highly enriched in Staufen protein and ultrastructurally contain densely packed clusters of ribosomes. With depolarization, many mRNAs, including those involved in plasticity, rapidly shift from the RNA granule fraction to polysomes. Depolarization reorganizes granules and induces a less compact organization of their ribosomes. RNA granules are not translationally competent, as indicated by the failure to incorporate radioactive amino acids and the absence of eIF4E, 4G, and tRNAs. We concluded that RNA granules are a local storage compartment for mRNAs under translational arrest but are poised for release to actively translated pools. Local release of mRNAs and ribosomes from granules may serve as a macromolecular mechanism linking RNA localization to translation and synaptic plasticity.

Krichevsky, A. M.; Kosik, K. S.

2001-01-01

358

BUILD: A Tool for Maintaining Consistency in Modular Systems  

E-print Network

Build is a tool for keeping modular systems in a consistent state by managing the construction tasks (e.g. compilation, linking, etc.) associated with such systems. It employs a user supplied system model and a ...

Robbins, Richard Elliot

1985-11-01

359

Modular Approach to Physics: Magnitude of the Radial Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial uses a Java simulation to help explain the magnitude of the acceleration in uniform circular motion. This item is part of a larger collection of physics simulations sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-08-03

360

Modularity in design of the MIT Pebble Bed Reactor  

E-print Network

The future of new nuclear power plant construction will depend in large part on the ability of designers to reduce capital, operations, and maintenance costs. One of the methods proposed, is to enhance the modularity of ...

Berte, Marc Vincent, 1977-

2004-01-01

361

International Project Catalog of Modular Integrated Utility Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Project Catalog is a compilation of project descriptions on more than 200 Modular Integrated Utility Systems (MIUS) type of projects being conducted in the participating countries. Each Summary Form includes a description of the project,...

M. H. Nimmo, C. W. Phillips

1978-01-01

362

Fast Machine Code for Modular Multiplication Michael Scott  

E-print Network

Fast Machine Code for Modular Multiplication Michael Scott School of Computer Applications Dublin will be represented to a number base of b=2 w , where w is the wordlength of the computer in bits. This implies

Bernstein, Daniel

363

Extensible Modular Landing Systems for Human Moon and Mars Exploration  

E-print Network

Extensible Modular Landing Systems for Human Moon and Mars Exploration by Wilfried Hofstetter and Proposed Moon and Mars Exploration System architectures...... 27 2.1.1 The Apollo System...................................................................................... 54 3. Moon and Mars System Architectures Point Designs

de Weck, Olivier L.

364

17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...submission and notify the electronic filer by electronic mail. After six business days, the modular submission...document intended to become an electronic filing may be submitted...submitted no more than six business days in advance of...

2010-04-01

365

Intelligent layout for modular design of machine tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modular design has played an important role in design and manufacturing of machine tools. With the fast development of modern industry and the appearance of the computer integrated manufacturing system (CIMS), modular design has been developed aiming at the automatic and intelligent design. It is well known that intelligent layout becomes the bottleneck of intelligent design of mechanical products. In this paper, combined with the scheme design, an intelligent layout design methodology is proposed to solve the modular design of machine tools. The authors analyze the properties of modular design, and present the object-oriented representation of layout design knowledge. The techniques of expert system, redesign based on constraints reasoning, parametric solid modeling, and automatic assembly are studied, and the design model, problem-solving strategy, and system architecture are set up. An example is given for the applications.

Ouyang, Miao-an; Yi, Chuanyun; Li, Cheng-Gang; Zhou, Ji

1995-08-01

366

A LANGUAGE FOR MODULAR SPATIO-TEMPORAL SIMULATION (R824766)  

EPA Science Inventory

Creating an effective environment for collaborative spatio-temporal model development will require computational systems that provide support for the user in three key areas: (1) Support for modular, hierarchical model construction and archiving/linking of simulation modules; (2)...

367

The evolution of modularity in bacterial metabolic networks  

E-print Network

relatively high metabolic network modularity. Third, horizontal gene transfer is an important force specialization and the incorporation of peripheral metabolic reactions. horizontal gene transfer lateral gene include acceleration of gene clustering due to horizontal gene transfer (HGT) (in accordance

Ruppin, Eytan

368

Distributed algorithms for self-disassembly in modular robots  

E-print Network

We developed a modular robotic system that behaves as programmable matter. Specifically, we designed, implemented, and tested a collection of robots that, starting from an amorphous arrangement, can be assembled into ...

Gilpin, Kyle W

2006-01-01

369

MILP formulations for the modularity density maximization problem  

E-print Network

Oct 10, 2014 ... ship, or business ties among Mexican political elite (i.e., presidents and close collaborators) .... Financial support by the SUTD-MIT International Design ... D. Wagner, On modularity clustering, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge.

2014-10-10

370

Retroactivity, modularity, and insulation in synthetic biology circuits  

E-print Network

A central concept in synthetic biology is the reuse of well-characterized modules. Modularity simplifies circuit design by allowing for the decomposition of systems into separate modules for individual construction. Complex ...

Lin, Allen

2011-01-01

371

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Searching for Modular Structure in Complex Phenotypes  

E-print Network

. Nevertheless, network theory is completely absent from the investigation of modularity of complex macroscopic of a complex morphological structure, the mammalian man- dible, in terms of nodes and links. Then

de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

372

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access SMART: scalable and modular augmented reality  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access SMART: scalable and modular augmented reality template for rapid of computer generated models to decision-makers. Augmented Reality (AR) visualization blends real's rapid creation of complex AR visual applications. Introduction Augmented Reality (AR) refers

Kamat, Vineet R.

373

CONGRUENCES VIA MODULAR FORMS ROBERT OSBURN AND BRUNDABAN SAHU  

E-print Network

CONGRUENCES VIA MODULAR FORMS ROBERT OSBURN AND BRUNDABAN SAHU Abstract. We prove two congruences AND BRUNDABAN SAHU The first few terms in the sequence {fn}n0 are 1, 2, 6, 26, 142, 876, 5790, 40020, 285582

Osburn, Robert

374

Design of long span modular bridges for traffic detours  

E-print Network

The oncoming large amount of bridge replacements in the next 10 to 20 years called for a detailed examination of available replacement schemes which can have variable impact on user costs. Detouring traffic with a modular ...

Potapova, Svetlana (Svetlana S.)

2009-01-01

375

Parts & pools: a framework for modular design of synthetic gene circuits.  

PubMed

Published in 2008, Parts & Pools represents one of the first attempts to conceptualize the modular design of bacterial synthetic gene circuits with Standard Biological Parts (DNA segments) and Pools of molecules referred to as common signal carriers (e.g., RNA polymerases and ribosomes). The original framework for modeling bacterial components and designing prokaryotic circuits evolved over the last years and brought, first, to the development of an algorithm for the automatic design of Boolean gene circuits. This is a remarkable achievement since gene digital circuits have a broad range of applications that goes from biosensors for health and environment care to computational devices. More recently, Parts & Pools was enabled to give a proper formal description of eukaryotic biological circuit components. This was possible by employing a rule-based modeling approach, a technique that permits a faithful calculation of all the species and reactions involved in complex systems such as eukaryotic cells and compartments. In this way, Parts & Pools is currently suitable for the visual and modular design of synthetic gene circuits in yeast and mammalian cells too. PMID:25340051

Marchisio, Mario Andrea

2014-01-01

376

Parts & Pools: A Framework for Modular Design of Synthetic Gene Circuits  

PubMed Central

Published in 2008, Parts & Pools represents one of the first attempts to conceptualize the modular design of bacterial synthetic gene circuits with Standard Biological Parts (DNA segments) and Pools of molecules referred to as common signal carriers (e.g., RNA polymerases and ribosomes). The original framework for modeling bacterial components and designing prokaryotic circuits evolved over the last years and brought, first, to the development of an algorithm for the automatic design of Boolean gene circuits. This is a remarkable achievement since gene digital circuits have a broad range of applications that goes from biosensors for health and environment care to computational devices. More recently, Parts & Pools was enabled to give a proper formal description of eukaryotic biological circuit components. This was possible by employing a rule-based modeling approach, a technique that permits a faithful calculation of all the species and reactions involved in complex systems such as eukaryotic cells and compartments. In this way, Parts & Pools is currently suitable for the visual and modular design of synthetic gene circuits in yeast and mammalian cells too. PMID:25340051

Marchisio, Mario Andrea

2014-01-01

377

Rational, modular adaptation of enzyme-free DNA circuits to multiple detection methods  

PubMed Central

Signal amplification is a key component of molecular detection. Enzyme-free signal amplification is especially appealing for the development of low-cost, point-of-care diagnostics. It has been previously shown that enzyme-free DNA circuits with signal-amplification capacity can be designed using a mechanism called ‘catalyzed hairpin assembly’. However, it is unclear whether the efficiency and modularity of such circuits is suitable for multiple analytical applications. We have therefore designed and characterized a simplified DNA circuit based on catalyzed hairpin assembly, and applied it to multiple different analytical formats, including fluorescent, colorimetric, and electrochemical and signaling. By optimizing the design of previous hairpin-based catalytic assemblies we found that our circuit has almost zero background and a high catalytic efficiency, with a kcat value above 1?min?1. The inherent modularity of the circuit allowed us to readily adapt our circuit to detect both RNA and small molecule analytes. Overall, these data demonstrate that catalyzed hairpin assembly is suitable for analyte detection and signal amplification in a ‘plug-and-play’ fashion. PMID:21693555

Li, Bingling; Ellington, Andrew D.; Chen, Xi

2011-01-01

378

POWOW: A Modular, High Power Spacecraft Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robust space infrastructure encompasses a broad range of mission needs along with an imperative to reduce costs of satellites meeting those needs. A critical commodity for science, commercial and civil satellites is power at an affordable cost. The POWOW (POwer WithOut Wires) spacecraft concept was created to provide, at one end of the scale, multi-megawatts of power yet also be composed of modules that can meet spacecraft needs in the kilowatt range. With support from the NASA-sponsored Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology Program, the POWOW spacecraft concept was designed to meet Mars mission needs - while at the same time having elements applicable to a range of other missions. At Mars, the vehicle would reside in an aerosynchronous orbit and beam power to a variety of locations on the surface. It is the purpose of this paper to present the latest concept design results. The Space Power Institute along with four companies: Able Engineering, Inc., Entech, Inc., Primex Aerospace Co., and TECSTAR have produced a modular, power-rich electrically propelled spacecraft design that meets these requirements. In addition, it also meets a range of civil and commercial needs. The spacecraft design is based on multijunction Ill-V solar cells, the new Stretched Lens Aurora (SLA) module, a lightweight array design based on a multiplicity of 8 kW end-of-life subarrays and electric thrusters. The solar cells have excellent radiation resistance and efficiencies above 30%. The SLA has a concentration ratio up to 15x while maintaining an operating temperature of 80 C. The design of the 8 kW array building block will be presented and its applicability to commercial and government missions will be discussed. Electric propulsion options include Hall, MPD and ion thrusters of various power levels and trade studies have been conducted to define the most advantageous options. The present baseline spacecraft design providing 900 kW using technologies expected to be available in 2003 will be described. Areal power densities of nearly 400 W/meters squared at 80 C operating temperatures and wing level specific powers of over 400 W/kg are projected. Details of trip times and payloads to Mars will be presented as well as trade studies of various electric propulsion options. Trip times compare favorably with chemical propulsion options. Because the design is modular, learning curve methodology can be applied to determine expected cost reductions. These results will also be included. This paper has not been presented at a previous meeting.

Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

2000-01-01

379

Modular VO oriented Java EE service deployer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) has produced many standards and recommendations whose aim is to generate an architecture that starts from astrophysical resources, in a general sense, and ends up in deployed consumable services (that are themselves astrophysical resources). Focusing on the Data Access Layer (DAL) system architecture, that these standards define, in the last years a web based application has been developed and maintained at INAF-OATs IA2 (Italian National institute for Astrophysics - Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, Italian center of Astronomical Archives) to try to deploy and manage multiple VO (Virtual Observatory) services in a uniform way: VO-Dance. However a set of criticalities have arisen since when the VO-Dance idea has been produced, plus some major changes underwent and are undergoing at the IVOA DAL layer (and related standards): this urged IA2 to identify a new solution for its own service layer. Keeping on the basic ideas from VO-Dance (simple service configuration, service instantiation at call time and modularity) while switching to different software technologies (e.g. dismissing Java Reflection in favour of Enterprise Java Bean, EJB, based solution), the new solution has been sketched out and tested for feasibility. Here we present the results originating from this test study. The main constraints for this new project come from various fields. A better homogenized solution rising from IVOA DAL standards: for example the new DALI (Data Access Layer Interface) specification that acts as a common interface system for previous and oncoming access protocols. The need for a modular system where each component is based upon a single VO specification allowing services to rely on common capabilities instead of homogenizing them inside service components directly. The search for a scalable system that takes advantage from distributed systems. The constraints find answer in the adopted solutions hereafter sketched. The development of the new system using Java Enterprise technologies can better benefit from existing libraries to build up the single tokens implementing the IVOA standards. Each component can be built from single standards and each deployed service (i.e. service components instantiations) can consume the other components' exposed methods and services without the need of homogenizing them in dedicated libraries. Scalability can be achieved in an easier way by deploying components or sets of services on a distributed environment and using JNDI (Java Naming and Directory Interface) and RMI (Remote Method Invocation) technologies. Single service configuration will not be significantly different from the VO-Dance solution given that Java class instantiation that benefited from Java Reflection will only be moved to Java EJB pooling (and not, e.g. embedded in bundles for subsequent deployment).

Molinaro, Marco; Cepparo, Francesco; De Marco, Marco; Knapic, Cristina; Apollo, Pietro; Smareglia, Riccardo

2014-07-01

380

The R-operator for a modular double  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct the R-operator—the solution of the Yang-Baxter equation acting in the tensor product \\pi _{s_1}\\otimes \\pi _{s_2} of two infinite-dimensional representations of Faddeev’s modular double. This R-operator intertwines the product of two L-operators associated with the modular double and it is built from three basic operators generating the permutation group of four parameters \\mathfrak {S}_4.

Chicherin, D.; Derkachov, S.

2014-03-01

381

On the design of large space deployable modular antenna reflectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The deployment kinematics, stowing philosophy, and deployment sequencing for large deployable antenna modules were verified. Mesh attachment methods compatible with full scale modules were devised. Parametric studies of large modular reflectors established size, mass, and aperture frequency capabilities for these assemblies. Preliminary studies were made devising means of delivering modules to orbit, and once there, of assembling the modules into complete modular antenna reflectors. The basic feasibility of creating mass efficient modules erectable into large structures in space was established.

Ribble, J. W.; Woods, A. A., Jr.

1981-01-01

382

A modular framework for gene set analysis integrating multilevel omics data  

PubMed Central

Modern high-throughput methods allow the investigation of biological functions across multiple ‘omics’ levels. Levels include mRNA and protein expression profiling as well as additional knowledge on, for example, DNA methylation and microRNA regulation. The reason for this interest in multi-omics is that actual cellular responses to different conditions are best explained mechanistically when taking all omics levels into account. To map gene products to their biological functions, public ontologies like Gene Ontology are commonly used. Many methods have been developed to identify terms in an ontology, overrepresented within a set of genes. However, these methods are not able to appropriately deal with any combination of several data types. Here, we propose a new method to analyse integrated data across multiple omics-levels to simultaneously assess their biological meaning. We developed a model-based Bayesian method for inferring interpretable term probabilities in a modular framework. Our Multi-level ONtology Analysis (MONA) algorithm performed significantly better than conventional analyses of individual levels and yields best results even for sophisticated models including mRNA fine-tuning by microRNAs. The MONA framework is flexible enough to allow for different underlying regulatory motifs or ontologies. It is ready-to-use for applied researchers and is available as a standalone application from http://icb.helmholtz-muenchen.de/mona. PMID:23975194

Sass, Steffen; Buettner, Florian; Mueller, Nikola S.; Theis, Fabian J.

2013-01-01

383

Modular robotics overview of the `state of the art`  

SciTech Connect

The design of a robotic arm processing modular components and reconfigurable links is the general goal of a modular robotics development program. The impetus behind the pursuit of modular design is the remote engineering paradigm of improved reliability and availability provided by the ability to remotely maintain and repair a manipulator operating in a hazardous environment by removing and replacing worn or failed modules. Failed components can service off- line and away from hazardous conditions. The desire to reconfigure an arm to perform different tasks is also an important driver for the development of a modular robotic manipulator. In order to bring to fruition a truly modular manipulator, an array of technical challenges must be overcome. These range from basic mechanical and electrical design considerations such as desired kinematics, actuator types, and signal and transmission types and routings, through controls issues such as the need for control algorithms capable of stable free space and contact control, to computer and sensor design issues like consideration of the use of embedded processors and redundant sensors. This report presents a brief overview of the state of the art of technical issues relevant of modular robotic arm design. The focus is on breadth of coverage, rather than depth, in order to provide a reference frame for future development.

Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Hamel, W.R.

1996-08-01

384

Modularity and anti-modularity in networks with arbitrary degree distribution  

PubMed Central

Background Much work in systems biology, but also in the analysis of social network and communication and transport infrastructure, involves an in-depth analysis of local and global properties of those networks, and how these properties relate to the function of the network within the integrated system. Most often, systematic controls for such networks are difficult to obtain, because the features of the network under study are thought to be germane to that function. In most such cases, a surrogate network that carries any or all of the features under consideration, while created artificially and in the absence of any selective pressure relating to the function of the network being studied, would be of considerable interest. Results Here, we present an algorithmic model for growing networks with a broad range of biologically and technologically relevant degree distributions using only a small set of parameters. Specifying network connectivity via an assortativity matrix allows us to grow networks with arbitrary degree distributions and arbitrary modularity. We show that the degree distribution is controlled mainly by the ratio of node to edge addition probabilities, and the probability for node duplication. We compare topological and functional modularity measures, study their dependence on the number and strength of modules, and introduce the concept of anti-modularity: a property of networks in which nodes from one functional group preferentially do not attach to other nodes of that group. We also investigate global properties of networks as a function of the network's growth parameters, such as smallest path length, correlation coefficient, small-world-ness, and the nature of the percolation phase transition. We search the space of networks for those that are most like some well-known biological examples, and analyze the biological significance of the parameters that gave rise to them. Conclusions Growing networks with specified characters (degree distribution and modularity) provides the opportunity to create surrogates for biological and technological networks, and to test hypotheses about the processes that gave rise to them. We find that many celebrated network properties may be a consequence of the way in which these networks grew, rather than a necessary consequence of how they work or function. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Erik van Nimwegen, Teresa Przytycka (nominated by Claus Wilke), and Leonid Mirny. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewer's Comments section. PMID:20459629

2010-01-01

385

Multifunctional RNA nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Our recent advancements in RNA nanotechnology introduced novel nanoscaffolds (nanorings); however, the potential of their use for biomedical applications was never fully revealed. As presented here, besides functionalization with multiple different short interfering RNAs for combinatorial RNA interference (e.g., against multiple HIV-1 genes), nanorings also allow simultaneous embedment of assorted RNA aptamers, fluorescent dyes, proteins, as well as recently developed RNA-DNA hybrids aimed to conditionally activate multiple split functionalities inside cells. PMID:25267559

Afonin, Kirill A; Viard, Mathias; Koyfman, Alexey Y; Martins, Angelica N; Kasprzak, Wojciech K; Panigaj, Martin; Desai, Ravi; Santhanam, Arti; Grabow, Wade W; Jaeger, Luc; Heldman, Eliahu; Reiser, Jakob; Chiu, Wah; Freed, Eric O; Shapiro, Bruce A

2014-10-01

386

Human Reliability Considerations for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to illustrate how the issues can support SMR probabilistic risk analyses and their review by identifying potential human failure events for a subset of the issues. As part of addressing the human contribution to plant risk, human reliability analysis practitioners identify and quantify the human failure events that can negatively impact normal or emergency plant operations. The results illustrated here can be generalized to identify additional human failure events for the issues discussed and can be applied to those issues not discussed in this report.

OHara J. M.; Higgins, H.; DAgostino, A.; Erasmia, L.

2012-01-27

387

Multiplexed modular genetic targeting of quantum dots.  

PubMed

While DNA-directed nanotechnology is now a well-established platform for bioinspired nanoscale assembly in vitro, the direct targeting of various nanomaterials in living biological systems remains a significant challenge. Hybrid biological systems with integrated and targeted nanomaterials may have interesting and exploitable properties, so methods for targeting various nanomaterials to precise biological locations are required. Fluorescence imaging has benefited from the use of nanoparticles with superior optical properties compared to fluorescent organic dyes or fluorescent proteins. While single-particle tracking (SPT) in living cells with genetically encoded proteins is limited to very short trajectories, the high photon output of genetically targeted and multiplexed quantum dots (QDs) would enable long-trajectory analysis of multiple proteins. However, challenges with genetic targeting of QDs limit their application in these experiments. In this report, we establish a modular method for targeting QD nanoparticles selectively to multiple genetically encoded tags by precomplexing QD-streptavidin conjugates with cognate biotinylated hapten molecules. This approach enables labeling and SPT of multiple genetically encoded proteins on living cells at high speed and can label expressed proteins in the cytosol upon microinjection into living cells. While we demonstrate labeling with three distinct QD conjugates, the approach can be extended to other specific hapten-affinity molecule interactions and alternative nanoparticles, enabling precise directed targeting of nanoparticles in living biological systems. PMID:25380615

Saurabh, Saumya; Beck, Lauren E; Maji, Suvrajit; Baty, Catherine J; Wang, Yi; Yan, Qi; Watkins, Simon C; Bruchez, Marcel P

2014-11-25

388

The modular ALMR (PRISM) fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

The modular reactor concept, PRISM (power reactor, innovative, small module), originated by General Electric in conjunction with the integral fast reactor (IFR) metal fuel being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is the reference US Department of Energy advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR). The reference ALMR is unique in several ways; for example, it can produce (or breed) substantially more fissile material than it consumes. It is also unique in that it has the capability to utilize as fuel the long-life radioactive actinides (primarily plutonium, and the minor actinides, neptunium, americium, and curium) present as waste in light water reactor (LWR) spent fuels. This capability provides a means for converting long-life actinide radioactive wastes to elements whose lifetimes and thus storage needs are much shorter, namely, hundreds of years. This could clearly focus and potentially alleviate a controversial aspect (waste disposal) of the nuclear option. While it does not change the need for, or timing of, an initial high-level waste (HLW) repository, the conversion of actinides could change in a dramatic way the time period required for safe storage of nuclear waste and potentially the number and criteria for future repositories. This work considers the potential for utilizing LWR actinides in the ALMR fuel cycle.

Thompson, M.L.

1990-01-01

389

Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (MAPSS) is a graphical simulation environment designed for the development of advanced control algorithms and rapid testing of these algorithms on a generic computational model of a turbofan engine and its control system. MAPSS is a nonlinear, non-real-time simulation comprising a Component Level Model (CLM) module and a Controller-and-Actuator Dynamics (CAD) module. The CLM module simulates the dynamics of engine components at a sampling rate of 2,500 Hz. The controller submodule of the CAD module simulates a digital controller, which has a typical update rate of 50 Hz. The sampling rate for the actuators in the CAD module is the same as that of the CLM. MAPSS provides a graphical user interface that affords easy access to engine-operation, engine-health, and control parameters; is used to enter such input model parameters as power lever angle (PLA), Mach number, and altitude; and can be used to change controller and engine parameters. Output variables are selectable by the user. Output data as well as any changes to constants and other parameters can be saved and reloaded into the GUI later.

Parker, Khary I.; Guo, Ten-Huei

2006-01-01

390

Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations. 3 figures.

Nichols, R.L.; Widdowson, M.A.; Mullinex, H.; Orne, W.H.; Looney, B.B.

1994-03-15

391

Vaccination with messenger RNA (mRNA).  

PubMed

Both DNA and mRNA can be used as vehicles for gene therapy. Because the immune system is naturally activated by foreign nucleic acids thanks to the presence of Toll-like Receptors (TLR) in endosomes (TLR3, 7, and 8 detect exogenous RNA, while TLR9 can detect exogenous DNA), the delivery of foreign nucleic acids usually induces an immune response directed against the encoded protein. Many preclinical and clinical studies were performed using DNA-based experimental vaccines. However, no such products are yet approved for the human population. Meanwhile, the naturally transient and cytosolically active mRNA molecules are seen as a possibly safer and more potent alternative to DNA for gene vaccination. Optimized mRNA (improved for codon usage, stability, antigen-processing characteristics of the encoded protein, etc.) were demonstrated to be potent gene vaccination vehicles when delivered naked, in liposomes, coated on particles or transfected in dendritic cells in vitro. Human clinical trials indicate that the delivery of mRNA naked or transfected in dendritic cells induces the expected antigen-specific immune response. Follow-up efficacy studies are on the way. Meanwhile, mRNA can be produced in large amounts and GMP quality, allowing the further development of mRNA-based therapies. This chapter describes the structure of mRNA, its possible optimizations for immunization purposes, the different methods of delivery used in preclinical studies, and finally the results of clinical trial where mRNA is the active pharmaceutical ingredient of new innovative vaccines. PMID:18071662

Pascolo, Steve

2008-01-01

392

Modular plastic chip for one-shot human papillomavirus diagnostic analysis.  

PubMed

In this article, we report the design and development of a plastic modular chip suitable for one-shot human papillomavirus (HPV) diagnostics, namely detection of the viral presence and relative genotyping, by two sequential steps performed directly on the same device. The device is composed of two modular and disposable plastic units that can be assembled or used separately. The first module is represented by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microreactor that is exploited for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and, thus, is suitable for detecting the presence of virus. The second unit is a PDMS microwell array that allows virus genotyping by a colorimetric assay, based on DNA hybridization technology developed on plastic, requiring simple inspection by the naked eye. The two modules can be easily coupled to reusable hardware, enabling the heating/cooling processes and the real-time detection of HPV. By coupling real-time assay and colorimetric genotyping on the same chip, the assembled device may provide a low-cost tool for HPV diagnostics, thereby favoring the prediction of cancer risk in patients. PMID:19766581

Vecchio, G; Sabella, S; Tagliaferro, L; Menegazzi, P; Di Bello, M P; Brunetti, V; Cingolani, R; Rinaldi, R; Pompa, P P

2010-02-01

393

Modular image acquisition and measurement system with 12-bit pixel-synchronous sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the requirements, design, and results of a modular data acquisition system with a resolution of 12 bits at up to 20 MHz sampling frequency. The modularity enables the analog-digital conversion to be separated from the digital processing/storage. This allows the latest, best performing ADC (analog-digital converter) to be easily integrated into the system by a re-design of only the AD board with the rest of the system unchanged. The converter employed operates at frequencies up to 20 MHz. The complete system produces measured quantization noise figures of -75 dB and integral non-linearity of -72 dB. The unit can sample video or non-video waveforms. For video applications, an active clamping system is used to ensure that the black level is accurately maintained. The framestore is connected externally using a high-speed digital data bus. This facilitates the inclusion of real-time digital processing units. The framestore used is doubly buffered to permit simultaneous acquisition and readout. The store is 8 Mbytes to accommodate HDTV images and has an input data rate of 40 Mbytes per second.

Raynor, Jeffrey M.; Ilar, Daniel; Maag, Roland; Metzler, Peter; Seitz, Peter

1994-05-01

394

The RNA modification database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RNA modification database provides a com- prehensive listing of post-transcriptionally modified nucleosides from RNA and is maintained as an updated version of the initial printed report. Informa- tion provided includes: type(s) of RNA in which found and phylogenetic distribution; common chemical names and symbols; Chemical Abstracts registry numbers and index names; chemical structures; initial literature citations for structural characterization

Pamela F. Crain; James A. Mccloskey

1996-01-01

395

RNA synthetic biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA molecules play important and diverse regulatory roles in the cell by virtue of their interaction with other nucleic acids, proteins and small molecules. Inspired by this natural versatility, researchers have engineered RNA molecules with new biological functions. In the last two years efforts in synthetic biology have produced novel, synthetic RNA components capable of regulating gene expression in vivo

Daniel J Dwyer; James J Collins; Farren J Isaacs

2006-01-01

396

mRNA Splicing Variants: Exploiting Modularity to Outwit Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Systemic cancer therapy has traditionally exploited vulnerabilities in cancer cells, a strategy which has become more precise with the identification and targeting of driver oncogenes. However, persistent tumor growth due to primary (de novo) or secondary (acquired) resistance limits therapeutic efficacy for many patients. Alternative splicing is important for increasing the diversity of the cellular proteome, and is a process frequently de-regulated during cancer development and progression. In cancer cells, diverse splicing alterations have been identified that eliminate protein domains or enzymatic activities required for efficacy of cancer therapies, promote gain of novel signaling functions that circumvent cancer therapies, and uncouple signaling pathways from upstream regulatory points that are blocked by cancer therapies. The mechanisms underlying these splicing changes range from stable alterations in gene sequence/structure to de-regulation of splicing regulatory factors. In this review, the role of splice variants in cancer therapy resistance will be discussed, with examples of how mechanistic understanding of these processes has led to the development of novel strategies for therapy re-sensitization. PMID:23970479

Dehm, Scott M.

2013-01-01

397

Safety approaches for high power modular laser operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 20 years ago, a program was initiated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study the feasibility of using lasers to separate isotopes of uranium and other materials. Of particular interest was the development of a uranium enrichment method for the production of commercial nuclear power reactor fuel to replace current more expensive methods. The Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program progressed to the point where a plant-scale facility to demonstrate commercial feasibility was built and is being tested. The U-AVLIS Program uses copper vapor lasers which pump frequency selective dye lasers to photoionize uranium vapor produced by an electron beam. The selectively ionized isotopes are electrostatically collected. The copper lasers are arranged in oscillator/amplifier chains. The current configuration consists of 12 chains, each with a nominal output of 800 W for a system output in excess of 9 kW. The system requirements are for continuous operation (24 h a day, 7 days a week) and high availability. To meet these requirements, the lasers are designed in a modular form allowing for rapid change-out of the lasers requiring maintenance. Since beginning operation in early 1985, the copper lasers have accumulated over 2 million unit hours at a greater than 90% availability. The dye laser system provides approximately 2.5 kW average power in the visible wavelength range. This large-scale laser system has many safety considerations, including high-power laser beams, high voltage, and large quantities (approximately 3000 gal) of ethanol dye solutions. The Laboratory's safety policy requires that safety controls be designed into any process, equipment, or apparatus in the form of engineering controls. Administrative controls further reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Selected examples of engineering and administrative controls currently being used in the U-AVLIS Program are described.

Handren, R. T.

1993-03-01

398

Genomic RNA constellation of recently emerging serotype G14 equine rotavirus strains in Japan that is highly homologous with prototype G3 and G14 strains previously identified in the United States of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Serotype G14 was once considered to be uncommon among equine rotaviruses. While it sporadically emerged in some parts of\\u000a the world, serotype G14 became the dominant G serotype among rotaviruses detected in foals with diarrhea in Japan in the late\\u000a 1990s. However, it is not known how such recently emerging G14 rotaviruses are related in their overall genomic RNA constellation

T. Nakagomi; H. Tsunemitsu; H. Imagawa; O. Nakagomi

2003-01-01

399

The 5S rRNA gene in wall barley (Hordeum murinum L. sensu lato): sequence variation among repeat units and relationship to the Y haplome in the genus Hordeum (Poaceae: Triticeae).  

PubMed

The molecular diversity of the 5S rDNA units in 13 accessions of wall barley, which include Hordeum murinum, H. leporinum, and H. glaucum, is reported. Our analyses, based on 54 sequenced clones, indicate the presence of two sequence classes not previously seen in other barley species; namely, the long Y1 unit class and the short Y1 unit class. In addition, the accumulation of new sequence information has allowed us to refine previous groups. Using these new results, along with previously published work, we present a summary of all the unit classes described to date and potential correspondences between 5S rDNA unit classes and haplomes identified previously. In H. murinum, we found the long H1 and long X2 unit classes, and in one of six accessions referable to H. glaucum we found the unique short Y1 unit class. Our cladistic analyses, using orthologous sequences, provide support for the current model for the relationships among several species within the Triticeae. PMID:10584308

Baum, B R; Johnson, D A

1999-10-01

400

Vaccination with Messenger RNA (mRNA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both DNA and mRNA can be used as vehicles for gene therapy. Because the immune system is naturally activated by foreign nucleic\\u000a acids thanks to the presence of Toll-like Receptors (TLR) in endosomes (TLR3, 7, and 8 detect exogenous RNA, while TLR9 can\\u000a detect exogenous DNA), the delivery of foreign nucleic acids usually induces an immune response directed against the

Steve Pascolo

401

RNA CATALYSIS: Chemical Diversity in RNA Cleavage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. It was quite a shock when it was first discovered that RNA can perform catalysis, sometimes every bit as efficiently as an enzyme. In his Perspective, Westhof now describes new evidence (Perrotta et al.) that so-called ribozymes can perform base-catalysis without the assistance of a metal ion. In an early world containing only RNA molecules, the possibilities for chemical reactions were wider than we thought.

Eric Westhof (Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS;)

1999-10-01

402

Modular, Cost-Effective, Extensible Avionics Architecture for Secure, Mobile Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current onboard communication architectures are based upon an all-in-one communications management unit. This unit and associated radio systems has regularly been designed as a one-off, proprietary system. As such, it lacks flexibility and cannot adapt easily to new technology, new communication protocols, and new communication links. This paper describes the current avionics communication architecture and provides a historical perspective of the evolution of this system. A new onboard architecture is proposed that allows full use of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies to be integrated in a modular approach thereby enabling a flexible, cost-effective and fully deployable design that can take advantage of ongoing advances in the computer, cryptography, and telecommunications industries.

Ivancic, William D.

2006-01-01

403

Modular, Cost-Effective, Extensible Avionics Architecture for Secure, Mobile Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current onboard communication architectures are based upon an all-in-one communications management unit. This unit and associated radio systems has regularly been designed as a one-off, proprietary system. As such, it lacks flexibility and cannot adapt easily to new technology, new communication protocols, and new communication links. This paper describes the current avionics communication architecture and provides a historical perspective of the evolution of this system. A new onboard architecture is proposed that allows full use of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies to be integrated in a modular approach thereby enabling a flexible, cost-effective and fully deployable design that can take advantage of ongoing advances in the computer, cryptography, and telecommunications industries.

Ivancic, William D.

2007-01-01

404

Vaccination with messenger RNA.  

PubMed

As an alternative to DNA-based vaccines, messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines present additional safety features: no persistence, no integration in the genome, no induction of autoantibodies. Moreover, mRNA which are generated by in vitro transcription, are easy to produce in large amounts and very high purity. This feature facilitates the good manufacturing practices process and guaranties batch-to-batch reproducibility. Vaccination can be achieved by several delivery methods including direct injection of naked mRNA, injection of mRNA encapsulated in liposomes Gene Gun delivery of mRNA loaded on gold beads or in vitro transfection of the mRNA in cells followed by re-injection of the cells into the patients. Two of these technologies are being evaluated in human clinical trials: (1) in vitro mRNA-transfection of dendritic cells to be adoptively transferred and (2) direct injection of globin-stabilized mRNA. This chapter describes the production of mRNA and the preparation of the two types of mRNA-based vaccines tested in humans. PMID:16988444

Pascolo, Steve

2006-01-01

405

An RNA Topoisomerase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synthetic strand of RNA has been designed so that it can adopt two different topological states (a circle and a trefoil knot) when ligated into a cyclic molecule. The RNA knot and circle have been characterized by their behavior in gel electrophoresis and sedimentation experiments. This system allows one to assay for the existence of an RNA topoisomerase, because the two RNA molecules can be interconverted only by a strand passage event. We find that the interconversion of these two species can be catalyzed by Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase III, indicating that this enzyme can act as an RNA topoisomerase. The conversion of circles to knots is accompanied by a small amount of RNA catenane generation. These findings suggest that strand passage must be considered a potential component of the folding and modification of RNA structures.

Wang, Hui; di Gate, Russell J.; Seeman, Nadrian C.

1996-09-01

406

Modular Composition of Gene Transcription Networks  

PubMed Central

Predicting the dynamic behavior of a large network from that of the composing modules is a central problem in systems and synthetic biology. Yet, this predictive ability is still largely missing because modules display context-dependent behavior. One cause of context-dependence is retroactivity, a phenomenon similar to loading that influences in non-trivial ways the dynamic performance of a module upon connection to other modules. Here, we establish an analysis framework for gene transcription networks that explicitly accounts for retroactivity. Specifically, a module's key properties are encoded by three retroactivity matrices: internal, scaling, and mixing retroactivity. All of them have a physical interpretation and can be computed from macroscopic parameters (dissociation constants and promoter concentrations) and from the modules' topology. The internal retroactivity quantifies the effect of intramodular connections on an isolated module's dynamics. The scaling and mixing retroactivity establish how intermodular connections change the dynamics of connected modules. Based on these matrices and on the dynamics of modules in isolation, we can accurately predict how loading will affect the behavior of an arbitrary interconnection of modules. We illustrate implications of internal, scaling, and mixing retroactivity on the performance of recurrent network motifs, including negative autoregulation, combinatorial regulation, two-gene clocks, the toggle switch, and the single-input motif. We further provide a quantitative metric that determines how robust the dynamic behavior of a module is to interconnection with other modules. This metric can be employed both to evaluate the extent of modularity of natural networks and to establish concrete design guidelines to minimize retroactivity between modules in synthetic systems. PMID:24626132

Gyorgy, Andras; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

2014-01-01

407

Modular composition of gene transcription networks.  

PubMed

Predicting the dynamic behavior of a large network from that of the composing modules is a central problem in systems and synthetic biology. Yet, this predictive ability is still largely missing because modules display context-dependent behavior. One cause of context-dependence is retroactivity, a phenomenon similar to loading that influences in non-trivial ways the dynamic performance of a module upon connection to other modules. Here, we establish an analysis framework for gene transcription networks that explicitly accounts for retroactivity. Specifically, a module's key properties are encoded by three retroactivity matrices: internal, scaling, and mixing retroactivity. All of them have a physical interpretation and can be computed from macroscopic parameters (dissociation constants and promoter concentrations) and from the modules' topology. The internal retroactivity quantifies the effect of intramodular connections on an isolated module's dynamics. The scaling and mixing retroactivity establish how intermodular connections change the dynamics of connected modules. Based on these matrices and on the dynamics of modules in isolation, we can accurately predict how loading will affect the behavior of an arbitrary interconnection of modules. We illustrate implications of internal, scaling, and mixing retroactivity on the performance of recurrent network motifs, including negative autoregulation, combinatorial regulation, two-gene clocks, the toggle switch, and the single-input motif. We further provide a quantitative metric that determines how robust the dynamic behavior of a module is to interconnection with other modules. This metric can be employed both to evaluate the extent of modularity of natural networks and to establish concrete design guidelines to minimize retroactivity between modules in synthetic systems. PMID:24626132

Gyorgy, Andras; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

2014-03-01

408

An all RNA hypercycle network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RNA world hypothesis suggests RNA-based catalysis and information storage as the first step in the evolution of life on the Earth. The central process of the RNA world was the replica-tion of RNA, which may have involved the joining of oligonucleotides, perhaps by recombination rather than organization along a linear template. To assist this build-up of information, a hy-percycle may have played a significant role by allowing cooperation between autocatalytic units in a cyclic linkage in such a way that there is a mutual survival and regulated growth of all the units involved (1). Compared to non-coupled self-replicating units, which can only sustain a limited amount of genetic information, the hypercycle allows the maintenance of large amounts of information through cooperation among otherwise competitive units. However, hypercycles have never been empirically demonstrated in the absence of cell-like compartmentalization. In the current work, hypercyclic behavior is demonstrated in the autocatalytic assembly of Azoar-cus group I ribozyme (2). Three different constructs of the Azoarcus ribozyme with different internal guide sequences (IGS) -GUG (canonical), GAG, and GCG -are capable of a min-imal amount of self-assembly when broken into two fragments. Here, self-assembly depends on a mismatch with non-complementary sequences, CGU, CAU and CUU, respectively, to be recognized by IGS via autocatalysis. Yet when all three constructs are present in the same reaction vessel, concomitant assembly of all three is enhanced through an interdependent hy-percyclic reaction network. Analysis of these reactions indicates that each system is capable of guiding its own reproduction weakly, along with providing enhanced catalytic support for the reproduction of one other construct system through matched IGS-tag interactions. Also, when co-incubated with non-interacting (i.e., selfish) yet efficient self-assembly systems, the hypercyclic assembly outcompetes the selfish self-assembly systems, demonstrating the ability of a hypercyclic organization to possess an evolutionary advantage. 1. Eigen, M. and Schuster, P. (1977). The Hypercycle: A principle of natural self-organization. Die Naturwissenschaften 64, 541-565. 2. Hayden, E.J. and Lehman, N. (2006). Self-Assembly of a Group I Intron from inactive oligonucleotide fragments. Chemistry and Biology 13, 909-918.

Vaidya, Nilesh; Lehman, Niles

409

Engineering RNA-protein complexes with different shapes for imaging and therapeutic applications.  

PubMed

Molecular machines composed of RNA–protein (RNP) complexes may expand the fields of molecular robotics, nanomedicine, and synthetic biology. However, constructing and directly visualizing a functional RNP nanostructure to detect and control living cell function remains a challenge. Here we show that RNP nanostructures with modular functions can be designed and visualized at single-RNP resolution in real time. The RNP structural images collected in solution through high-speed atomic force microscopy showed that a single RNP interaction induces a conformational change in the RNA scaffold, which supports the nanostructure formation designed. The specific RNP interaction also improved RNA nanostructure stability in a serum-containing buffer. We developed and visualized functional RNPs (e.g., to detect human cancer cells or knockdown target genes) by attaching a protein or RNA module to the same RNA scaffold of an optimal size. The synthetic RNP architecture may provide alternative materials to detect and control functions in target mammalian cells. PMID:25058166

Osada, Eriko; Suzuki, Yuki; Hidaka, Kumi; Ohno, Hirohisa; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Masayuki Endo; Saito, Hirohide

2014-08-26

410

RNA -RNA Interaction Prediction and Antisense RNA Target Search  

E-print Network

numbers in E.coli as well. Small RNAs have also been artificially constructed to knock-out genes secondary structures of naturally interacting RNA molecules recently observed in E.coli [21]. Figure 2a of interest in humans and other organisms for the purpose of finding out more about their functions. Although

411

Repetitive RNA unwinding by RNA helicase A facilitates RNA annealing.  

PubMed

Helicases contribute to diverse biological processes including replication, transcription and translation. Recent reports suggest that unwinding of some helicases display repetitive activity, yet the functional role of the repetitiveness requires further investigation. Using single-molecule fluorescence assays, we elucidated a unique unwinding mechanism of RNA helicase A (RHA) that entails discrete substeps consisting of binding, activation, unwinding, stalling and reactivation stages. This multi-step process is repeated many times by a single RHA molecule without dissociation, resulting in repetitive unwinding/rewinding cycles. Our kinetic and mutational analysis indicates that the two double stand RNA binding domains at the N-terminus of RHA are responsible for such repetitive unwinding behavior in addition to providing an increased binding affinity to RNA. Further, the repetitive unwinding induces an efficient annealing of a complementary RNA by making the unwound strand more accessible. The complex and unusual mechanism displayed by RHA may help in explaining how the repetitive unwinding of helicases contributes to their biological functions. PMID:24914047

Koh, Hye Ran; Xing, Li; Kleiman, Lawrence; Myong, Sua

2014-01-01

412

Systems analysis for modular vs. multi-beam HIF drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous modeling for HIF drivers concentrated on designs in which 100 or more beams are grouped in an array and accelerated through a common set of induction cores. The total beam energy required by the target is achieved by the combination of final ion energy, current per beam and number of beams. Economic scaling favors a large number of small (˜1 cm diameter) beams. An alternative architecture has now been investigated, which we refer to as a modular driver. In this case, the driver is subdivided into many ( >10) independent accelerators with one or many beams each. A key objective of the modular driver approach is to be able to demonstrate all aspects of the driver (source-to-target) by building a single, lower-cost module compared to a full-scale, multi-beam driver. We consider and compare several design options for the modular driver including single-beam designs with solenoid instead of quadrupole magnets in order to transport the required current per module in a single beam, solenoid/quad combinations, and multi-beam, all-quad designs. The drivers are designed to meet the requirements of the hybrid target, which can accommodate a larger spot size than the distributed radiator target that was used for the Robust Point Design. We compare the multi-beam and modular driver configuration for a variety of assumptions and identify key technology advances needed for the modular design.

Meier, W. R.; Logan, B. G.

2005-05-01

413

Manufacturing Development of the NCSX Modular Coil Windings  

SciTech Connect

The modular coils on the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) present a number of significant engineering challenges due to their complex shapes, requirements for high dimensional accuracy and the high current density required in the modular coils due to space constraints. In order to address these challenges, an R&D program was established to develop the conductor, insulation scheme, manufacturing techniques, and procedures. A prototype winding named Twisted Racetrack Coil (TRC) was of particular importance in dealing with these challenges. The TRC included a complex shaped winding form, conductor, insulation scheme, leads and termination, cooling system and coil clamps typical of the modular coil design. Even though the TRC is smaller in size than a modular coil, its similar complex geometry provided invaluable information in developing the final design, metrology techniques and development of manufacturing procedures. In addition a discussion of the development of the copper rope conductor including "Keystoning" concerns; the epoxy impregnation system (VPI) plus the tooling and equipment required to manufacture the modular coils will be presented.

Chrzanowski JH, Fogarty PJ, Heitzenroeder PJ, Meighan T, Nelson B, Raftopoulos S, Williamson D

2005-09-27

414

Polyadenylated RNA isolated from the archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyadenylated (poly(A)\\/sup +\\/) RNA has been isolated from the halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium by binding, at 4°C, to oligo(dT)-cellulose. H. halobium contains approximately 12 times more poly(A) per unit of RNA than does the methanogenic archaebacterium Methanococcus vannielii. The 3' poly(A) tracts in poly(A)\\/sup +\\/ RNA molecules are approximately twice as long (average length of 20 nucleotides) in H. halobium

J. W. Brown; J. N. Reeve

1986-01-01

415

RNA end-labeling and RNA ligase activities can produce a circular rRNA in whole cell extracts from trypanosomes.  

PubMed Central

We have found two enzymatic activities in whole cell extracts from Trypanosoma brucei; an end-labeling reaction involving a single uridine at the 3' end of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and an RNA ligase activity joining 5' monophosphates to 3' hydroxyl groups. The RNA ligase acts upon one of the small rRNAs (180 nucleotides) from the trypanosome ribosomal repeat unit, forming a circular RNA. The specific circularization of this small rRNA is probably dependent on the secondary structure of the molecule and is not detectable in vivo. Images PMID:2437529

White, T C; Borst, P

1987-01-01

416

Modular health services: a single case study approach to the applicability of modularity to residential mental healthcare  

PubMed Central

Background The Dutch mental healthcare sector has to decrease costs by reducing intramural capacity with one third by 2020 and treating more patients in outpatient care. This transition necessitates enabling patients to become as self-supporting as possible, by customising the residential care they receive to their needs for self-development. Theoretically, modularity might help mental healthcare institutions with this. Modularity entails the decomposition of a healthcare service in parts that can be mixed-and-matched in a variety of ways, and combined form a functional whole. It brings about easier and better configuration, increased transparency and more variety without increasing costs. Aim: this study aims to explore the applicability of the modularity concept to the residential care provided in Assisted Living Facilities (ALFs) of Dutch mental healthcare institutions. Methods A single case study is carried out at the centre for psychosis in Etten-Leur, part of the GGz Breburg IMPACT care group. The design enables in-depth analysis of a case in a specific context. This is considered appropriate since theory concerning healthcare modularity is in an early stage of development. The present study can be considered a pilot case. Data were gathered by means of interviews, observations and documentary analysis. Results At the centre for psychosis, the majority of the residential care can be decomposed in modules, which can be grouped in service bundles and sub-bundles; the service customisation process is sufficiently fit to apply modular thinking; and interfaces for most of the categories are present. Hence, the prerequisites for modular residential care offerings are already largely fulfilled. For not yet fulfilled aspects of these prerequisites, remedies are available. Conclusion The modularity concept seems applicable to the residential care offered by the ALF of the mental healthcare institution under study. For a successful implementation of modularity however, some steps should be taken by the ALF, such as developing a catalogue of modules and a method for the personnel to work with this catalogue in application of the modules. Whether implementation of modular residential care might facilitate the transition from intramural residential care to outpatient care should be the subject of future research. PMID:24886367

2014-01-01

417

Plant Mitochondrial RNA Editing  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   RNA editing affects messenger RNAs and transfer RNAs in plant mitochondria by site-specific exchange of cytidine and uridine\\u000a bases in both seed and nonseed plants. Distribution of the phenomenon among bryophytes has been unclear since RNA editing\\u000a has been detected in some but not all liverworts and mosses. A more detailed understanding of RNA editing in plants required\\u000a extended

Siegfried Steinhauser; Susanne Beckert; Ingrid Capesius; Olaf Malek; Volker Knoop

1999-01-01

418

CFD Analysis of Modular Thrusters Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effective performance of modular thrusters in an aerospike configuration is difficult to determine. Standard analytical tools are applicable to conventional nozzle shapes, but are limited when applied to an aerospike nozzle (An aerospike nozzle is an altitude compensating external nozzle). Three baseline nozzle shapes are derived using standard analytical procedures. The baseline nozzle sizes are restricted to fill a volume envelope. The three shapes are an axi-symmetric round nozzle, a two dimensional planar square exit nozzle, and a super elliptic round to nearly square nozzle. The integrated (thruster/aerospike) performance of the three nozzles is determined through the use of three dimensional viscous computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculation where complex features of the flow field can be accurately captured. The resulting installed performance is then used to evaluate the efficiency of these nozzle shapes for aerospike applications. The determination of effective performance of a thruster nozzle integrated into an aerospike nozzle require the solution of the three dimensional turbulent Navier-Stokes equations. The model used in this study consisted of two zones; one of the upstream thruster cowl surface so freestream conditions can be accurately predicted, and two, the aerospike surface beginning with the thruster outflow and extending to the end of the aerospike surface. The numerical grid consisted of over 120,000 nodes and used symmetry on the thruster centerline and edge. A two species non-reacting chemistry model was used to capture the variation of fluid properties between the hot plume base and freestream air. From the results of the three baseline nozzle aerospike calculations, the effictive performance of the nozzle was determined. The flow fields of these calculations do show some variation between the cases. Recirculation zones on the cowl surface is predicted for the two dimensional planar nozzle and a smaller one for the super elliptic nozzle. The recirculation is caused by the strong pressure gradient between the plume and freestream flows. The axi-symmetric nozzle results indicate recirculation zones on the thruster face. These recirculation zones smooth the pressure gradient between the plume and freestream flow limiting the formation of recirculation on the cowl surface. Thruster to thruster interaction is evident for the axi-symmetric and supper elliptic calculation while the two dimensional planar nozzle did not have any lateral expansion in the nozzle, so thruster to thruster interaction is limited. The integrated performance results, at the altitude choosen, show very little variation between the three thruster shapes. This result allows for nozzle shape determination based on additional considerations (thermal, structural, weight) besides performance.

Ungewitter, Ronald J.; Beck, James; Ketchum, Andrew

1996-01-01

419

A modular framework for biomedical concept recognition  

PubMed Central

Background Concept recognition is an essential task in biomedical information extraction, presenting several complex and unsolved challenges. The development of such solutions is typically performed in an ad-hoc manner or using general information extraction frameworks, which are not optimized for the biomedical domain and normally require the integration of complex external libraries and/or the development of custom tools. Results This article presents Neji, an open source framework optimized for biomedical concept recognition built around four key characteristics: modularity, scalability, speed, and usability. It integrates modules for biomedical natural language processing, such as sentence splitting, tokenization, lemmatization, part-of-speech tagging, chunking and dependency parsing. Concept recognition is provided through dictionary matching and machine learning with normalization methods. Neji also integrates an innovative concept tree implementation, supporting overlapped concept names and respective disambiguation techniques. The most popular input and output formats, namely Pubmed XML, IeXML, CoNLL and A1, are also supported. On top of the built-in functionalities, developers and researchers can implement new processing modules or pipelines, or use the provided command-line interface tool to build their own solutions, applying the most appropriate techniques to identify heterogeneous biomedical concepts. Neji was evaluated against three gold standard corpora with heterogeneous biomedical concepts (CRAFT, AnEM and NCBI disease corpus), achieving high performance results on named entity recognition (F1-measure for overlap matching: species 95%, cell 92%, cellular components 83%, gene and proteins 76%, chemicals 65%, biological processes and molecular functions 63%, disorders 85%, and anatomical entities 82%) and on entity normalization (F1-measure for overlap name matching and correct identifier included in the returned list of identifiers: species 88%, cell 71%, cellular components 72%, gene and proteins 64%, chemicals 53%, and biological processes and molecular functions 40%). Neji provides fast and multi-threaded data processing, annotating up to 1200 sentences/second when using dictionary-based concept identification. Conclusions Considering the provided features and underlying characteristics, we believe that Neji is an important contribution to the biomedical community, streamlining the development of complex concept recognition solutions. Neji is freely available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/neji. PMID:24063607

2013-01-01

420

Mycoviruses, RNA Silencing, and Viral RNA Recombination  

PubMed Central

In contrast to viruses of plants and animals, viruses of fungi, mycoviruses, uniformly lack an extracellular phase to their replication cycle. The persistent, intracellular nature of the mycovirus life cycle presents technical challenges to experimental design. However, these properties, coupled with the relative simplicity and evolutionary position of the fungal host, also provide opportunities for examining fundamental aspects of virus–host interactions from a perspective that is quite different from that pertaining for most plant and animal virus infections. This chapter presents support for this view by describing recent advances in the understanding of antiviral defense responses against one group of mycoviruses for which many of the technical experimental challenges have been overcome, the hypoviruses responsible for hypovirulence of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. The findings reveal new insights into the induction and suppression of RNA silencing as an antiviral defense response and an unexpected role for RNA silencing in viral RNA recombination. PMID:21762820

Nuss, Donald L.

2012-01-01

421

Stratway: A Modular Approach to Strategic Conflict Resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we introduce Stratway, a modular approach to finding long-term strategic resolutions to conflicts between aircraft. The modular approach provides both advantages and disadvantages. Our primary concern is to investigate the implications on the verification of safety-critical properties of a strategic resolution algorithm. By partitioning the problem into verifiable modules much stronger verification claims can be established. Since strategic resolution involves searching for solutions over an enormous state space, Stratway, like most similar algorithms, searches these spaces by applying heuristics, which present especially difficult verification challenges. An advantage of a modular approach is that it makes a clear distinction between the resolution function and the trajectory generation function. This allows the resolution computation to be independent of any particular vehicle. The Stratway algorithm was developed in both Java and C++ and is available through a open source license. Additionally there is a visualization application that is helpful when analyzing and quickly creating conflict scenarios.

Hagen, George E.; Butler, Ricky W.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.

2011-01-01

422

Modular low aspect ratio-high beta torsatron  

DOEpatents

A fusion reactor device in which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low aspect ratio toroid in planes having the cylindrical coordinate relationship .phi.=.phi..sub.i +kz where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and .phi..sub.i is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z=o plane. The device may be described as a modular, high beta torsation whose screw symmetry is pointed along the systems major (z) axis. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a racetrack minor cross section. When vertical field coils and preferably a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic field surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

Sheffield, George V. (Hopewell, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ)

1984-02-07

423

Compact Formulas for the Completed Mock Modular Forms  

E-print Network

In this paper we present a new compact expression of the elliptic genus of SL(2)/U(1)-supercoset theory by making use of the `spectral flow method' of the path-integral evaluation. This new expression is written in a form like a Poincare series with a non-holomorphic Gaussian damping factor, and manifestly shows the modular and spectral flow properties of a real analytic Jacobi form. As a related problem, we present similar compact formulas for the modular completions of various mock modular forms which appear in the representation theory of N=2,4 superconformal algebras. We further discuss the generalization to the cases of arbitrary spin-structures, that is, the world-sheet fermions with twisted boundary conditions parameterized by a continuous parameter. This parameter is naturally identified with the `u-variable' in the Appell-Lerch sum.

Eguchi, Tohru

2014-01-01

424

RNA therapeutics: beyond RNA interference and antisense oligonucleotides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we discuss three RNA-based therapeutic technologies exploiting various oligonucleotides that bind to RNA by base pairing in a sequence-specific manner yet have different mechanisms of action and effects. RNA interference and antisense oligonucleotides downregulate gene expression by inducing enzyme-dependent degradation of targeted mRNA. Steric-blocking oligonucleotides block the access of cellular machinery to pre-mRNA and mRNA without degrading the RNA.

Adrian R. Krainer; Sidney Altman; Ryszard Kole

2012-01-01

425

Spontaneous modular femoral head dissociation complicating total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Modular femoral heads have been used successfully for many years in total hip arthroplasty. Few complications have been reported for the modular Morse taper connection between the femoral head and trunnion of the stem in metal-on-polyethylene bearings. Although there has always been some concern over the potential for fretting, corrosion, and generation of particulate debris at the modular junction, this was not considered a significant clinical problem. More recently, concern has increased because fretting and corrosive debris have resulted in rare cases of pain, adverse local tissue reaction, pseudotumor, and osteolysis. Larger femoral heads, which have gained popularity in total hip arthroplasty, are suspected to increase the potential for local and systemic complications of fretting, corrosion, and generation of metal ions because of greater torque at the modular junction. A less common complication is dissociation of the modular femoral heads. Morse taper dissociation has been reported in the literature, mainly in association with a traumatic event, such as closed reduction of a dislocation or fatigue fracture of the femoral neck of a prosthesis. This report describes 3 cases of spontaneous dissociation of the modular prosthetic femoral head from the trunnion of the same tapered titanium stem because of fretting and wear of the Morse taper in a metal-on-polyethylene bearing. Continued clinical and scientific research on Morse taper junctions is warranted to identify and prioritize implant and surgical factors that lead to this and other types of trunnion failure to minimize complications associated with Morse taper junctions as hip implants and surgical techniques continue to evolve. PMID:24972443

Talmo, Carl T; Sharp, Kinzie G; Malinowska, Magdalena; Bono, James V; Ward, Daniel M; LaReau, Justin

2014-06-01

426

Modular HTGR - a safe nuclear energy option  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States is on a course to preserve the nuclear option via a new generation of advanced reactors. However, before the second nuclear era can be launched successfully, nuclear energy must be perceived as safe, environmentally sound, economically attractive. To gain the necessary political acceptance and public support, the new generation of reactors must exhibit enhanced safety characteristics and

R. A. Dean; W. A. Simon; J. D. Wistrom

1993-01-01

427

Research aspects Modular and custom DAQ with  

E-print Network

/m2 (adjustable) Variable speed cooling fan (0­62mph) Gaseous fuel and hydrogen capable Diesel analysis) FTIR, Mobile Emissions unit Raw and Fast HC and NOx bench Aldehyde bench for alcohol fuels High precision power analyzers (testing and charging) Direct Fuel Flow meter CAN decoding

Kemner, Ken

428

Modularity, quaternion-Kähler spaces, and mirror symmetry  

SciTech Connect

We provide an explicit twistorial construction of quaternion-Kähler manifolds obtained by deformation of c-map spaces and carrying an isometric action of the modular group SL(2,Z). The deformation is not assumed to preserve any continuous isometry and therefore this construction presents a general framework for describing NS5-brane instanton effects in string compactifications with N= 2 supersymmetry. In this context the modular invariant parametrization of twistor lines found in this work yields the complete non-perturbative mirror map between type IIA and type IIB physical fields.

Alexandrov, Sergei; Banerjee, Sibasish [Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France)] [Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France)

2013-10-15

429

Modularity, quaternion-Kähler spaces, and mirror symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide an explicit twistorial construction of quaternion-Kähler manifolds obtained by deformation of c-map spaces and carrying an isometric action of the modular group SL(2,{Z}). The deformation is not assumed to preserve any continuous isometry and therefore this construction presents a general framework for describing NS5-brane instanton effects in string compactifications with N = 2 supersymmetry. In this context the modular invariant parametrization of twistor lines found in this work yields the complete non-perturbative mirror map between type IIA and type IIB physical fields.

Alexandrov, Sergei; Banerjee, Sibasish

2013-10-01

430

The Los Alamos VXI-based modular RF control system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and implementation of the Los Alamos modular RF control system, which provides high-performance feedback and/or feedforward control of RF accelerator cavities. This is a flexible, modular control system which has been realized in the industry-standard VXI cardmodular format. A wide spectrum of system functionality can be accommodated simply by incorporating only those modules and features required for a particular application. The fundamental principles of the design approach are discussed. Details of the VXI implementation are given, including the system architecture and interfaces, performance capabilities, and available features.

Jachim, S.P.; Ziomek, C.; Natter, E.F.; Regan, A.H.; Hill, J.; Eaton, L.; Gutscher, W.D.; Curtin, M.; Denney, P.; Hansberry, E.; Brooks, T.

1993-01-01

431

The Los Alamos VXI-based modular RF control system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and implementation of the Los Alamos modular RF control system, which provides high-performance feedback and/or feedforward control of RF accelerator cavities. This is a flexible, modular control system which has been realized in the industry-standard VXI cardmodular format. A wide spectrum of system functionality can be accommodated simply by incorporating only those modules and features required for a particular application. The fundamental principles of the design approach are discussed. Details of the VXI implementation are given, including the system architecture and interfaces, performance capabilities, and available features.

Jachim, S.P.; Ziomek, C.; Natter, E.F.; Regan, A.H.; Hill, J.; Eaton, L.; Gutscher, W.D.; Curtin, M.; Denney, P.; Hansberry, E.; Brooks, T.

1993-06-01

432

Spanning traceroutes over modular networks and general scaling degree distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the class of networks characterized by modular structure where a sequence of ? Erdös-Renyi random networks of size N?? with random average degrees is joined by links whose structure must remain immaterial. We find that traceroutes spanning the entire macronetwork exhibit scaling degree distributions P(k)˜k-? , where ? depends on how the degrees of the joined clusters are distributed. We thus suggest that yet another mechanism for the dynamic origin of arbitrary power-law degree distributions observed in natural and artificial networks, many of which belong to the range 2???3 , may be found in random processes on modular networks.

Lovison, Alberto; Manzini, Gianmarco; Maritan, Amos; Putti, Mario; Rinaldo, Andrea

2010-03-01

433

Modularity detection in protein-protein interaction networks  

PubMed Central

Background Many recent studies have investigated modularity in biological networks, and its role in functional and structural characterization of constituent biomolecules. A technique that has shown considerable promise in the domain of modularity detection is the Newman and Girvan (NG) algorithm, which relies on the number of shortest-paths across pairs of vertices in the network traversing a given edge, referred to as the betweenness of that edge. The edge with the highest betweenness is iteratively eliminated from the network, with the betweenness of the remaining edges recalculated in every iteration. This generates a complete dendrogram, from which modules are extracted by applying a quality metric called modularity denoted by Q. This exhaustive computation can be prohibitively expensive for large networks such as Protein-Protein Interaction Networks. In this paper, we present a novel optimization to the modularity detection algorithm, in terms of an efficient termination criterion based on a target edge betweenness value, using which the process of iterative edge removal may be terminated. Results We validate the robustness of our approach by applying our algorithm on real-world protein-protein interaction networks of Yeast, C.Elegans and Drosophila, and demonstrate that our algorithm consistently has significant computational gains in terms of reduced runtime, when compared to the NG algorithm. Furthermore, our algorithm produces modules comparable to those from the NG algorithm, qualitatively and quantitatively. We illustrate this using comparison metrics such as module distribution, module membership cardinality, modularity Q, and Jaccard Similarity Coefficient. Conclusions We have presented an optimized approach for efficient modularity detection in networks. The intuition driving our approach is the extraction of holistic measures of centrality from graphs, which are representative of inherent modular structure of the underlying network, and the application of those measures to efficiently guide the modularity detection process. We have empirically evaluated our approach in the specific context of real-world large scale biological networks, and have demonstrated significant savings in computational time while maintaining comparable quality of detected modules. PMID:22206604

2011-01-01

434

Conceptual design studies of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR)  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary conceptual study has been made of the Modular Stellarator reactor (MSR) as a steady-state, ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor. The MSR concept combines the physics of classic stellarator confinement with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4.8-GWT plant based on Alcator transport scalilng and an average beta value of 0.04 in an /L-SCRIPT/. 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11.

Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

1981-01-01

435

Conceptual design studies of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR)  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary conceptual study has been made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR) as a steady-state, ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor. The MSR concept combines the physics of classic stellarator confinment with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4.8-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11.

Miller, R.J.; Krakowski, R.A.

1981-10-01

436

SMART: A modular architecture for robotics and teleoperation  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces SMART: Sandia National Laboratory`s Modular Architecture for Robotics and Teleoperation. SMART is designed to integrate the different slave devices (e.g., large hydraulic arms, mobile manipulators, gantry robots), sensors (e.g., ultra-sonic sensors,force sensors), and input devices, (e.g., track ball,force-reflecting master, autonomous trajectory generators) required for waste management and environmental restoration tasks. The modular architecture allows for rapid synthesis of complex telerobotic systems. This paper introduces some sample modules and illustrates how the modules can be connected to achieve telerobotic behaviors. Examples include autonomous control, impedance control, and enhanced bilateral teleoperation.

Anderson, R.J.

1992-09-01

437

A modular plasmid assembly kit for multigene expression, gene silencing and silencing rescue in plants.  

PubMed

The Golden Gate (GG) modular assembly approach offers a standardized, inexpensive and reliable way to ligate multiple DNA fragments in a pre-defined order in a single-tube reaction. We developed a GG based toolkit for the flexible construction of binary plasmids for transgene expression in plants. Starting from a common set of modules, such as promoters, protein tags and transcribed regions of interest, synthetic genes are assembled, which can be further combined to multigene constructs. As an example, we created T-DNA constructs encoding multiple fluorescent proteins targeted to distinct cellular compartments (nucleus, cytosol, plastids) and demonstrated simultaneous expression of all genes in Nicotiana benthamiana, Lotus japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana. We assembled an RNA interference (RNAi) module for the construction of intron-spliced hairpin RNA constructs and demonstrated silencing of GFP in N. benthamiana. By combination of the silencing construct together with a codon adapted rescue construct into one vector, our system facilitates genetic complementation and thus confirmation of the causative gene responsible for a given RNAi phenotype. As proof of principle, we silenced a destabilized GFP gene (dGFP) and restored GFP fluorescence by expression of a recoded version of dGFP, which was not targeted by the silencing construct. PMID:24551083

Binder, Andreas; Lambert, Jayne; Morbitzer, Robert; Popp, Claudia; Ott, Thomas; Lahaye, Thomas; Parniske, Martin

2014-01-01

438

A Modular Plasmid Assembly Kit for Multigene Expression, Gene Silencing and Silencing Rescue in Plants  

PubMed Central

The Golden Gate (GG) modular assembly approach offers a standardized, inexpensive and reliable way to ligate multiple DNA fragments in a pre-defined order in a single-tube reaction. We developed a GG based toolkit for the flexible construction of binary plasmids for transgene expression in plants. Starting from a common set of modules, such as promoters, protein tags and transcribed regions of interest, synthetic genes are assembled, which can be further combined to multigene constructs. As an example, we created T-DNA constructs encoding multiple fluorescent proteins targeted to distinct cellular compartments (nucleus, cytosol, plastids) and demonstrated simultaneous expression of all genes in Nicotiana benthamiana, Lotus japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana. We assembled an RNA interference (RNAi) module for the construction of intron-spliced hairpin RNA constructs and demonstrated silencing of GFP in N. benthamiana. By combination of the silencing construct together with a codon adapted rescue construct into one vector, our system facilitates genetic complementation and thus confirmation of the causative gene responsible for a given RNAi phenotype. As proof of principle, we silenced a destabilized GFP gene (dGFP) and restored GFP fluorescence by expression of a recoded version of dGFP, which was not targeted by the silencing construct. PMID:24551083

Binder, Andreas; Lambert, Jayne; Morbitzer, Robert; Popp, Claudia; Ott, Thomas; Lahaye, Thomas; Parniske, Martin

2014-01-01

439

Single Adhesive Nanofibers from a Live Diatom Have the Signature Fingerprint of Modular Proteins  

PubMed Central

The adhesive and mechanical properties of a cell-substratum adhesive secreted by live diatom cells were examined in situ using atomic force microscopy. The resulting force curves have a regular saw-tooth pattern, the characteristic fingerprint of modular proteins, and when bridged between tip and surface can repeatedly be stretched and relaxed resulting in precisely overlaying saw-tooth curves (up to ?600 successive cycles). The average rupture force of the peaks is 0.794 ± 0.007 (mean ± SE) nN at a loading rate of 0.8 ?m/s and the average persistence length is 0.026 ± <0.001 (mean ± SE) nm (fit using the worm-like chain model). We propose that we are pulling on single adhesive nanofibers, each a cohesive unit composed of a set number of modular proteins aligned in register. Furthermore, we can observe and differentiate when up to three adhesive nanofibers are pulled based upon multimodal distributions of force and persistence length. The high force required for bond rupture, high extensibility (?1.2 ?m), and the accurate and rapid refolding upon relaxation, together provide strong and flexible properties ideally suited for the cell-substratum adhesion of this fouling diatom and allow us to understand the mechanism responsible for the strength of adhesion. PMID:16169972

Dugdale, T. M.; Dagastine, R.; Chiovitti, A.; Mulvaney, P.; Wetherbee, R.

2005-01-01

440

ELABORATION OF NOT LARGE MOBILE MODULAR INSTALLATION ''AQUA - EXPRESS'' (300 L/H) FOR LRW CLEANING  

SciTech Connect

Mobile modular installation ''Aqua-Express'' is a liquid low level and intermediate level radioactive waste (LL&ILRW) treatment facility, intended for not large research centers and other organizations, which activity causes the formation of a few quantity (up to 500 m3/year) of low and intermediate level radioactive waste water. Mobile modular installation ''Aqua-Express'' has the following features: (1) filtration, sorption and ultrafiltration units are used for LL&ILRW purification; (2) installation ''Aqua-Express'' consists of a cascade of three autonomous aqueous liquid waste-purifying installations; (3) installation ''Aqua-Express'' is a mobile installation; the installation can be transported by car, train, ship, or plane, as well as placed in a standard transport (sea or railway) container; (4) installation ''Aqua-Express'' does not includes any technological equipment for conditioning the secondary radioactive waste. Productivity of the installation ''Aqua-Express'' by purified water depends on composition of the initial liquid waste and makes up to 300 l/h. In present report is described the design of installation ''Aqua-Express'', theory of LRW purification in the installation ''Aqua-Express'' and some results of its use at cleaning real radioactive waters at State unitary enterprise - MosNPO ''Radon''.

Karlin, Yurii; Dmitriev, Sergey; Iljin, Vadim; Ojovan, Mihail; Burcl, Rudolf

2003-02-27

441

A Modular Cloning Toolbox for the Generation of Chloroplast Transformation Vectors  

PubMed Central

Plastid transformation is a powerful tool for basic research, but also for the generation of stable genetically engineered plants producing recombinant proteins at high levels or for metabolic engineering purposes. However, due to the genetic makeup of plastids and the distinct features of the transformation process, vector design, and the use of specific genetic elements, a large set of basic transformation vectors is required, making cloning a tedious and time-consuming effort. Here, we describe the adoption of standardized modular cloning (GoldenBraid) to the design and assembly of the full spectrum of plastid transformation vectors. The modular design of genetic elements allows straightforward and time-efficient build-up of transcriptional units as well as construction of vectors targeting any homologous recombination site of choice. In a three-level assembly process, we established a vector fostering gene expression and formation of griffithsin, a potential viral entry inhibitor and HIV prophylactic, in the plastids of tobacco. Successful transformation as well as transcript and protein production could be shown. In concert with the aforesaid endeavor, a set of modules facilitating plastid transformation was generated, thus augmenting the GoldenBraid toolbox. In short, the work presented in this study enables efficient application of synthetic biology methods to plastid transformation in plants. PMID:25302695

Vafaee, Yavar; Staniek, Agata; Mancheno-Solano, Maria; Warzecha, Heribert

2014-01-01

442

Modularity as a source of new morphological variation in the mandible of hybrid mice  

PubMed Central

Background Hybridization is often seen as a process dampening phenotypic differences accumulated between diverging evolutionary units. For a complex trait comprising several relatively independent modules, hybridization may however simply generate new phenotypes, by combining into a new mosaic modules inherited from each parental groups and parts intermediate with respect to the parental groups. We tested this hypothesis by studying mandible size and shape in a set of first and second generation hybrids resulting from inbred wild-derived laboratory strains documenting two subspecies of house mice, Musmusculus domesticus and Musmusculus musculus. Phenotypic variation of the mandible was divided into nested partitions of developmental, evolutionary and functional modules. Results The size and shape of the modules were differently influenced by hybridization. Some modules seemed to be the result of typical additive effects with hybrids intermediate between parents, some displayed a pattern expected in the case of monogenic dominance, whereas in other modules, hybrids were transgressive. The result is interpreted as the production of novel mandible morphologies. Beyond this modularity, modules in functional interaction tended to display significant covariations. Conclusions Modularity emerges as a source of novel morphological variation by its simple potential to combine different parts of the parental phenotypes into a novel offspring mosaic of modules. This effect is partly counterbalanced by bone remodeling insuring an integration of the mosaic mandible into a functional ensemble, adding a non-genetic component to the production of transgressive phenotypes in hybrids. PMID:22873779

2012-01-01

443

The conceptual design of a robust, compact, modular tokamak reactor based on high-field superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two of the greatest challenges to tokamak reactors are 1) large single-unit cost of each reactor's construction and 2) their susceptibility to disruptions from operation at or above operational limits. We present an attractive tokamak reactor design that substantially lessens these issues by exploiting recent advancements in superconductor (SC) tapes allowing peak field on SC coil > 20 Tesla. A R˜3.3 m, B˜9.2 T, ˜ 500 MW fusion power tokamak provides high fusion gain while avoiding all disruptive operating boundaries (no-wall beta, kink, and density limits). Robust steady-state core scenarios are obtained by exploiting the synergy of high field, compact size and ideal efficiency current drive using high-field side launch of Lower Hybrid waves. The design features a completely modular replacement of internal solid components enabled by the demountability of the coils/tapes and the use of an immersion liquid blanket. This modularity opens up the possibility of using the device as a nuclear component test facility.

Whyte, D. G.; Bonoli, P.; Barnard, H.; Haakonsen, C.; Hartwig, Z.; Kasten, C.; Palmer, T.; Sung, C.; Sutherland, D.; Bromberg, L.; Mangiarotti, F.; Goh, J.; Sorbom, B.; Sierchio, J.; Ball, J.; Greenwald, M.; Olynyk, G.; Minervini, J.

2012-10-01