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1

TectoRNA: modular assembly units for the construction of RNA nano-objects.  

PubMed

Structural information on complex biological RNA molecules can be exploited to design tectoRNAs or artificial modular RNA units that can self-assemble through tertiary interactions thereby forming nanoscale RNA objects. The selective interactions of hairpin tetraloops with their receptors can be used to mediate tectoRNA assembly. Here we report on the modulation of the specificity and the strength of tectoRNA assembly (in the nanomolar to micromolar range) by variation of the length of the RNA subunits, the nature of their interacting motifs and the degree of flexibility of linker regions incorporated into the molecules. The association is also dependent on the concentration of magnesium. Monitoring of tectoRNA assembly by lead(II) cleavage protection indicates that some degree of structural flexibility is required for optimal binding. With tectoRNAs one can compare the binding affinities of different tertiary motifs and quantify the strength of individual interactions. Furthermore, in analogy to the synthons used in organic chemistry to synthesize more complex organic compounds, tectoRNAs form the basic assembly units for constructing complex RNA structures on the nanometer scale. Thus, tectoRNA provides a means for constructing molecular scaffoldings that organize functional modules in three-dimensional space for a wide range of applications. PMID:11139616

Jaeger, L; Westhof, E; Leontis, N B

2001-01-15

2

RNA modularity for synthetic biology  

PubMed Central

RNA molecules are highly modular components that can be used in a variety of contexts for building new metabolic, regulatory and genetic circuits in cells. The majority of synthetic RNA systems to date predominately rely on two-dimensional modularity. However, a better understanding and integration of three-dimensional RNA modularity at structural and functional levels is critical to the development of more complex, functional bio-systems and molecular machines for synthetic biology applications. PMID:24273647

2013-01-01

3

Locomotion With A Unit-Modular Reconfigurable Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unit-modular robot is a robot that is composed of modules that are all identical. Inthis thesis we study the design and control of unit-modular dynamically reconfigurablerobots. This is based upon the design and construction of a robot called Polypod. Wefurther choose statically stable locomotion as the task domain to evaluate the designand control strategy. The result is the creation

Mark Yim

1994-01-01

4

Engineering modular 'ON' RNA switches using biological components.  

PubMed

Riboswitches are cis-acting regulatory elements broadly distributed in bacterial mRNAs that control a wide range of critical metabolic activities. Expression is governed by two distinct domains within the mRNA leader: a sensory 'aptamer domain' and a regulatory 'expression platform'. Riboswitches have also received considerable attention as important tools in synthetic biology because of their conceptually simple structure and the ability to obtain aptamers that bind almost any conceivable small molecule using in vitro selection (referred to as SELEX). In the design of artificial riboswitches, a significant hurdle has been to couple the two domains enabling their efficient communication. We previously demonstrated that biological transcriptional 'OFF' expression platforms are easily coupled to diverse aptamers, both biological and SELEX-derived, using simple design rules. Here, we present two modular transcriptional 'ON' riboswitch expression platforms that are also capable of hosting foreign aptamers. We demonstrate that these biological parts can be used to facilely generate artificial chimeric riboswitches capable of robustly regulating transcription both in vitro and in vivo. We expect that these modular expression platforms will be of great utility for various synthetic biological applications that use RNA-based biosensors. PMID:23999097

Ceres, Pablo; Trausch, Jeremiah J; Batey, Robert T

2013-12-01

5

Engineering modular ‘ON’ RNA switches using biological components  

PubMed Central

Riboswitches are cis-acting regulatory elements broadly distributed in bacterial mRNAs that control a wide range of critical metabolic activities. Expression is governed by two distinct domains within the mRNA leader: a sensory ‘aptamer domain’ and a regulatory ‘expression platform’. Riboswitches have also received considerable attention as important tools in synthetic biology because of their conceptually simple structure and the ability to obtain aptamers that bind almost any conceivable small molecule using in vitro selection (referred to as SELEX). In the design of artificial riboswitches, a significant hurdle has been to couple the two domains enabling their efficient communication. We previously demonstrated that biological transcriptional ‘OFF’ expression platforms are easily coupled to diverse aptamers, both biological and SELEX-derived, using simple design rules. Here, we present two modular transcriptional ‘ON’ riboswitch expression platforms that are also capable of hosting foreign aptamers. We demonstrate that these biological parts can be used to facilely generate artificial chimeric riboswitches capable of robustly regulating transcription both in vitro and in vivo. We expect that these modular expression platforms will be of great utility for various synthetic biological applications that use RNA-based biosensors. PMID:23999097

Ceres, Pablo; Trausch, Jeremiah J.; Batey, Robert T.

2013-01-01

6

Distributed planning and control for modular robots with unit-compressible  

E-print Network

1 Distributed planning and control for modular robots with unit-compressible modules Zack Butler specifications are uncertain. A collection of simple, modular robots endowed with self sensors and collaborate to deploy these within their environment. The robots in such a modular system

7

RNA Graph Partitioning for the Discovery of RNA Modularity: A Novel Application of Graph Partition Algorithm to Biology  

PubMed Central

Graph representations have been widely used to analyze and design various economic, social, military, political, and biological networks. In systems biology, networks of cells and organs are useful for understanding disease and medical treatments and, in structural biology, structures of molecules can be described, including RNA structures. In our RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) framework, we represent RNA structures as tree graphs by translating unpaired regions into vertices and helices into edges. Here we explore the modularity of RNA structures by applying graph partitioning known in graph theory to divide an RNA graph into subgraphs. To our knowledge, this is the first application of graph partitioning to biology, and the results suggest a systematic approach for modular design in general. The graph partitioning algorithms utilize mathematical properties of the Laplacian eigenvector (µ2) corresponding to the second eigenvalues (?2) associated with the topology matrix defining the graph: ?2 describes the overall topology, and the sum of µ2?s components is zero. The three types of algorithms, termed median, sign, and gap cuts, divide a graph by determining nodes of cut by median, zero, and largest gap of µ2?s components, respectively. We apply these algorithms to 45 graphs corresponding to all solved RNA structures up through 11 vertices (?220 nucleotides). While we observe that the median cut divides a graph into two similar-sized subgraphs, the sign and gap cuts partition a graph into two topologically-distinct subgraphs. We find that the gap cut produces the best biologically-relevant partitioning for RNA because it divides RNAs at less stable connections while maintaining junctions intact. The iterative gap cuts suggest basic modules and assembly protocols to design large RNA structures. Our graph substructuring thus suggests a systematic approach to explore the modularity of biological networks. In our applications to RNA structures, subgraphs also suggest design strategies for novel RNA motifs. PMID:25188578

Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

2014-01-01

8

Rational and Modular Design of Potent Ligands Targeting the RNA that Causes Myotonic Dystrophy 2  

PubMed Central

Most ligands targeting RNA are identified through screening a therapeutic target for binding members of a ligand library. A potential alternative way to construct RNA binders is through rational design using information about the RNA motifs ligands prefer to bind. Herein, we describe such an approach to design modularly assembled ligands targeting the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2), a currently untreatable disease. A previous study identified that 6?-N-5-hexynoate kanamycin A (1) prefers to bind 2×2 nucleotide, pyrimidine-rich RNA internal loops. Multiple copies of such loops were found in the RNA hairpin that causes DM2. The 1 ligand was then modularly displayed on a peptoid scaffold with varied number and spacing to target several internal loops simultaneously. Modularly assembled ligands were tested for binding to a series of RNAs and for inhibiting the formation of the toxic DM2 RNA-muscleblind protein (MBNL-1) interaction. The most potent ligand displays three 1 modules, each separated by four spacing submonomers, and inhibits the formation of the RNA-protein complex with an IC50 of 25 nM. This ligand is higher affinity and more specific for binding DM2 RNA than MBNL-1. It binds the DM2 RNA at least 20-times more tightly than related RNAs and 15-fold more tightly than MBNL-1. A related control peptoid displaying 6?-N-5-hexynoate neamine (2) is >100-fold less potent at inhibiting the RNA-protein interaction and binds to DM2 RNA >125-fold more weakly. Uptake studies into a mouse myoblast cell line also show that the most potent ligand is cell permeable. PMID:19348464

Lee, Melissa M.; Pushechnikov, Alexei; Disney, Matthew D.

2009-01-01

9

Structural basis for the modular recognition of single-stranded RNA by PPR proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins represent a large family of sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins that are involved in multiple aspects of RNA metabolism. PPR proteins, which are found in exceptionally large numbers in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of terrestrial plants, recognize single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) in a modular fashion. The maize chloroplast protein PPR10 binds to two similar RNA sequences from the ATPI-ATPH and PSAJ-RPL33 intergenic regions, referred to as ATPH and PSAJ, respectively. By protecting the target RNA elements from 5' or 3' exonucleases, PPR10 defines the corresponding 5' and 3' messenger RNA termini. Despite rigorous functional characterizations, the structural basis of sequence-specific ssRNA recognition by PPR proteins remains to be elucidated. Here we report the crystal structures of PPR10 in RNA-free and RNA-bound states at resolutions of 2.85 and 2.45Å, respectively. In the absence of RNA binding, the nineteen repeats of PPR10 are assembled into a right-handed superhelical spiral. PPR10 forms an antiparallel, intertwined homodimer and exhibits considerable conformational changes upon binding to its target ssRNA, an 18-nucleotide PSAJ element. Six nucleotides of PSAJ are specifically recognized by six corresponding PPR10 repeats following the predicted code. The molecular basis for the specific and modular recognition of RNA bases A, G and U is revealed. The structural elucidation of RNA recognition by PPR proteins provides an important framework for potential biotechnological applications of PPR proteins in RNA-related research areas.

Yin, Ping; Li, Quanxiu; Yan, Chuangye; Liu, Ying; Liu, Junjie; Yu, Feng; Wang, Zheng; Long, Jiafu; He, Jianhua; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jiawei; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Shi, Yigong; Yan, Nieng

2013-12-01

10

Features of Modularly Assembled Compounds That Impart Bioactivity Against an RNA Target  

PubMed Central

Transcriptomes provide a myriad of potential RNAs that could be the targets of therapeutics or chemical genetic probes of function. Cell permeable small molecules, however, generally do not exploit these targets, owing to the difficulty in the design of high affinity, specific small molecules targeting RNA. As part of a general program to study RNA function using small molecules, we designed bioactive, modularly assembled small molecules that target the non-coding expanded RNA repeat that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), r(CUG)exp. Herein, we present a rigorous study to elucidate features in modularly assembled compounds that afford bioactivity. Different modular assembly scaffolds were investigated including polyamines, ?-peptides, ?-peptides, and peptide tertiary amides (PTAs). Based on activity as assessed by improvement of DM1-associated defects, stability against proteases, cellular permeability, and toxicity, we discovered that constrained backbones, namely PTAs, are optimal. Notably, we determined that r(CUG)exp is the target of the optimal PTA in cellular models and that the optimal PTA improves DM1-associated defects in a mouse model. Biophysical analyses were employed to investigate potential sources of bioactivity. These investigations show that modularly assembled compounds have increased residence times on their targets and faster on rates than the RNA-binding modules from which they were derived and faster on rates than the protein that binds r(CUG)exp, the inactivation of which gives rise to DM1-associated defects. These studies provide information about features of small molecules that are programmable for targeting RNA, allowing for the facile optimization of therapeutics or chemical probes against other cellular RNA targets. PMID:24032410

Rzuczek, Suzanne G.; Gao, Yu; Tang, Zhen-Zhi; Thornton, Charles A.; Kodadek, Thomas; Disney, Matthew D.

2013-01-01

11

Human Factors Issues For Multi-Modular Reactor Units  

SciTech Connect

Smaller and multi-modular reactor (MMR) will be highly technologically-advanced systems allowing more system flexibility to reactors configurations (e.g., addition/deletion of reactor units). While the technical and financial advantages of systems may be numerous, MMR presents many human factors challenges that may pose vulnerability to plant safety. An important human factors challenge in MMR operation and performance is the monitoring of data from multiple plants from centralized control rooms where human operators are responsible for interpreting, assessing, and responding to different system’s states and failures (e.g., simultaneously monitoring refueling at one plant while keeping an eye on another plant’s normal operating state). Furthermore, the operational, safety, and performance requirements for MMR can seriously change current staffing models and roles, the mode in which information is displayed, procedures and training to support and guide operators, and risk analysis. For these reasons, addressing human factors concerns in MMR are essential in reducing plant risk.

Tuan Q Tran; Humberto E. Garcia; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Bruce P. Hallbert

2007-08-01

12

Rational Design of Bioactive, Modularly Assembled Aminoglycosides Targeting the RNA that Causes Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused when an expanded r(CUG) repeat (r(CUG)exp) binds the RNA splicing regulator muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1) as well as other proteins. Previously, we reported that modularly assembled small molecules displaying a 6?-N-5-hexynoate kanamycin A RNA-binding module (K) on a peptoid backbone potently inhibit the binding of MBNL1 to r(CUG)exp. However, these parent compounds are not appreciably active in cell-based models of DM1. The lack of potency was traced to suboptimal cellular permeability and localization. To improve these properties, second-generation compounds that are conjugated to a D-Arg9 molecular transporter were synthesized. These modified compounds enter cells in higher concentrations than the parent compounds and are efficacious in cell-based DM1 model systems at low micromolar concentrations. In particular, they improve three defects that are the hallmarks of DM1: a translational defect due to nuclear retention of transcripts containing r(CUG)exp; pre-mRNA splicing defects due to inactivation of MBNL1; and the formation of nuclear foci. The best compound in cell-based studies was tested in a mouse model of DM1. Modest improvement of pre-mRNA splicing defects was observed. These studies suggest that a modular assembly approach can afford bioactive compounds that target RNA. PMID:23130637

Childs-Disney, Jessica L.; Parkesh, Raman; Nakamori, Masayuki; Thornton, Charles A.; Disney, Matthew D.

2012-01-01

13

Modular assembly of designer PUF proteins for specific post-transcriptional regulation of endogenous RNA  

PubMed Central

Background Due to their modular repeat structure, Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor (PUF) proteins are promising candidates for designer RNA-binding protein (RBP) engineering. To further facilitate the application of the PUF domain for the sequence-specific RBP engineering, a rapid cloning approach is desirable that would allow efficient introduction of multiple key amino acid mutations in the protein. Here, we report the implementation of the Golden Gate cloning method for an efficient one-step assembly of a designer PUF domain for RNA specificity engineering. Results We created a repeat module library that is potentially capable of generating a PUF domain with any desired specificity. PUF domains with multiple repeat modifications for the recognition of altered RNA targets were obtained in a one-step assembly reaction, which was found to be highly efficient. The new PUF variants exhibited high in vitro binding efficiencies to cognate RNA sequences, corroborating the applicability of the modular approach for PUF engineering. To demonstrate the application of the PUF domain assembly method for RBP engineering, we fused the PUF domain to a post-transcriptional regulator and observed a sequence-specific reporter and endogenous gene repression in human cell lines. Conclusions The Golden Gate based cloning approach thus should allow greater flexibility and speed in implementing the PUF protein scaffold for engineering designer RBPs, and facilitate its use as a tool in basic and applied biology and medicine. PMID:24581042

2014-01-01

14

KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF MODULAR, TRUSS-BASED MANIPULATOR UNITS  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and Dismantling (D&D) activities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) require a long reach manipulator with a large load capacity. Variable Geometry Trusses (VGTs) are a unique class of mechanical structures which allow the advantages of truss structures for large scale applications to be applied to large robotic manipulators. Individual VGT units may be assembled to create a modular, long-reach, truss-type manipulator. Each module of such a manipulator system is either a static truss section or one of several possible VGT geometries. While many potential applications exist for this technology, the present work is largely motivated by the need for generic robotic systems for remote manipulation. A manipulator system based on VGT modules provides several advantages. The reconfigurable nature of the manipulator system allows it to be adapted on site to unforeseen conditions. The kinematic redundancy of the manipulator enables it to work effectively even in a highly obstructed workspace. The parallel structure of the truss modules enables the manipulator to be withdrawn in the event of a structural failure. Finally, the open framework of the modules provides a clear, protected passageway for control and power cabling, waste conveyance, or other services required at the end effector. As is implied in a truss structure, all primary members of a VGT are ideally loaded in pure tension or compression. This results in an extremely stiff and strong manipulator system with minimal overall weight. Careful design of the joints of a VGT is very important to the overall stiffness and accuracy of the structure, as several links (as many as six) are joined together at each joint. The greatest disadvantage to this approach to manipulator design has traditionally been that the kinematics of VGT structures are complex and poorly understood. This report specifically addresses the kinematics of several possible geometries for the individual VGT units. Equations and solution techniques are developed for solving the "forward" or "direct" and "inverse" kinematic problems for these geometries. The" forward" kinematic problem is that of finding the position and orientation of the distal end of the VGT relative to the proximal end, given the specific displacements of the (linear) actuators. This problem is rarely solvable in closed form. However, powerful iterative algorithms capable of solution in real time on typical modern robot control hardware are presented. The "inverse" kinematic problem is that of finding the required actuator displacements given the position and orientation of the distal end of the VGT relative to the proximal end. For specific VGT geometries, closed-form solutions are presented. For the more general problem, iterative algorithms capable of solution in real time are again derived and presented.

Salerno, R. J.

1994-06-01

15

A Modular Instrumentation System for NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's human spaceflight program is focused on developing technologies to expand the reaches of human exploration and science activities beyond low earth orbit. A critical aspect of living in space or on planetary surfaces is habitation, which provides a safe and comfortable space in which humans can live and work. NASA is seeking out the best option for habitation by exploring several different concepts through the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project. The purpose of this HDU is to develop a fully autonomous habitation system that enables human exploration of space. One critical feature of the HDU project that helps to accomplish its mission of autonomy is the instrumentation system that monitors key subsystems operating within a Habitat configuration. The following paper will discuss previous instrumentation systems used in analog habitat concepts and how the current instrumentation system being implemented on the HDU1-PEM, or pressurized excursion module, is building upon the lessons learned of those previous systems. Additionally, this paper will discuss the benefits and the limitations of implementing a wireless sensor network (WSN) as the basis for data transport in the instrumentation system. Finally, this paper will address the experiences and lessons learned with integration, testing prior to deployment, and field testing at the JSC rock yard. NASA is developing the HDU1-PEM as a step towards a fully autonomous habitation system that enables human exploration of space. To accomplish this purpose, the HDU project is focusing on development, integration, testing, and evaluation of habitation systems. The HDU will be used as a technology pull, testbed, and integration environment in which to advance NASA's understanding of alternative mission architectures, requirements, and operations concepts definition and validation. This project is a multi-year effort. In 2010, the HDU1-PEM will be in a pressurized excursion module configuration, and in 2011 the module will be reconfigured for a pressurized core module configuration. Each year the HDU configurations will undergo testing at NASA's Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RaTS) in Arizona [1]. As part of this project, a modular instrumentation system is developed to meet the monitoring needs of the HDU subsystems and to integrate with the current command and data handling infrastructure that has been developed for the project. The main objective of this study is to provide for the monitoring needs of the HDU. The requirements necessary to meet this objective are developed by working with the subsystem managers of the HDU to understand their monitoring needs. Additionally, the instrumentation system design leverages knowledge and lessons learned from previous studies, such as the inflatable habitat health monitoring system that was deployed in Antarctica [2], the integrated health monitoring system developed for NASA's Microhab [3], and the JSC Lunar Habitat Wireless Testbed to demonstrate a "standardsbased" approach to a wireless instrumentation system [4]. The HDU also requires flexibility in reconfiguration options, and it is necessary to demonstrate and evaluate a modular approach to an instrumentation system. Thus, the instrumentation system is designed in two parts: the primary system employs a standard WSN configuration, and the secondary system employs a wired USB hub. The WSN design provides for reconfiguration or replacement of sensors due to malfunctions or upgrades by using a wireless node that accepts ten instrument inputs and wirelessly transmits the data to the command and data handling system. The USB hub is necessary for those instruments that operate using a wired USB connection, although the design attempts to limit the amount of sensors that need to be wired connections.

Rojdev, Kristina; Kennedy, Kriss; Yim, Hester; Wagner, Raymond S.; Hong, Todd; Studor, George; Delaune, Paul

2010-01-01

16

Distributed planning and control for modular robots with unit-compressible modules  

E-print Network

1 Distributed planning and control for modular robots with unit-compressible modules Zack Butler requires parallel actuation and planning, both for efficiency and independence from a cen- tral controller with two- or three-dimensional unit-compressible mod- ules. We give two versions of the algorithm along

Rus, Daniela

17

Extreme Environment Capable, Modular and Scalable Power Processing Unit for Solar Electric Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is to present a concept of a modular and scalable High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU) capable of operating at temperatures beyond the standard military temperature range. The various extreme environments technologies are also described as the fundamental technology path to this concept. The proposed HTB PPU is intended for power processing in the area of space solar electric propulsion, where reduction of in-space mass and volume are desired, and sometimes even critical, to achieve the goals of future space flight missions. The concept of the HTB PPU can also be applied to other extreme environment applications, such as geothermal and petroleum deep-well drilling, where higher temperature operation is required.

Carr, Gregory A.; Iannello, Christopher J.; Chen, Yuan; Hunter, Don J.; DelCastillo, Linda; Bradley, Arthur T.; Stell, Christopher; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.

2013-01-01

18

Modular pathways for editing non-cognate amino acids by human cytoplasmic leucyl-tRNA synthetase  

PubMed Central

To prevent potential errors in protein synthesis, some aminoacyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetases have evolved editing mechanisms to hydrolyze misactivated amino acids (pre-transfer editing) or misacylated tRNAs (post-transfer editing). Class Ia leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) may misactivate various natural and non-protein amino acids and then mischarge tRNALeu. It is known that the fidelity of prokaryotic LeuRS depends on multiple editing pathways to clear the incorrect intermediates and products in the every step of aminoacylation reaction. Here, we obtained human cytoplasmic LeuRS (hcLeuRS) and tRNALeu (hctRNALeu) with high activity from Escherichia coli overproducing strains to study the synthetic and editing properties of the enzyme. We revealed that hcLeuRS could adjust its editing strategy against different non-cognate amino acids. HcLeuRS edits norvaline predominantly by post-transfer editing; however, it uses mainly pre-transfer editing to edit ?-amino butyrate, although both amino acids can be charged to tRNALeu. Post-transfer editing as a final checkpoint of the reaction was very important to prevent mis-incorporation in vitro. These results provide insight into the modular editing pathways created to prevent genetic code ambiguity by evolution. PMID:20805241

Chen, Xin; Ma, Jing-Jing; Tan, Min; Yao, Peng; Hu, Qing-Hua; Eriani, Gilbert; Wang, En-Duo

2011-01-01

19

Cost effective modular unit for cleaning oil and gas field waste water  

SciTech Connect

Problems of environmental control involving conservation of water resources are vital for the development of giant oil and gas condensate fields near Caspian Sea (Russia) characterized by water shortages. One of the urgent tasks of oil production industry is to use all field waste water consisting of underground, processing and rain water. It was necessary to construct a new highly effective equipment which could be used in local waste water treatment. Now we have at our disposal a technology and equipment to meet the requirements to the treated water quality. Thus we have installed a modular unit of 100 m{sup 3}/a day capacity to clean waste water from oil products, suspended matter and other organic pollutants at Orenburg oil and gas condensate field, Russia. The unit provides with a full treatment of produced water and comprises a settling tank with adhesive facility, the number of sorption filters, Trofactor bioreactors and a disinfecting facility. The equipment is fitted into three boxes measuring 9 x 3.2 x 2.7 in each. The equipment is simple in design that enables to save money, time and space. Sorption filters, bioreactors as well as the Trofactor process are a part of know-how. While working on the unit construction we applied well known methods of settling and sorption. The process of mechanic cleaning is undergoing in the following succession: (1) the gravitational separation in a settling tank where the floated film oil products are constantly gathered and the sediment is periodically taken away, (2) the settled water treatment in sorption Filters of a special kind.

Zinberg, M.B.; Nenasheva, M.N.; Gafarov, N.A.

1996-12-31

20

Life Extension Program for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit at Savannah River Site - 13179  

SciTech Connect

Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. Currently, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the CSSX process are deployed in the (ARP)/Modular CSSX Unit (MCU), to process salt waste for permanent disposition. The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. The original plant was permitted for a three year design life; however, given the successful operation of the plant, a life extension program was completed to continue operations. The program included detailed engineering analyses of the life-expectancy of passive and active components, resulting in component replacement and/or maintenance and monitoring program improvements. The program also included a review of the operations and resulted in a series of operational improvements. Since the improvements have been made, an accelerated processing rate has been demonstrated. In addition, plans for instituting a next-generation solvent are in place and will enhance the decontamination factors. (author)

Samadi, Azadeh [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

21

Controlling the Specificity of Modularly Assembled Small Molecules for RNA via Ligand Module Spacing: Targeting the RNAs that Cause Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Myotonic muscular dystrophy types 1 and 2 (DM1 and DM2, respectively) are caused by expansions of repeating nucleotides in non-coding regions of RNA. In DM1, the expansion is an rCUG triplet repeat whereas the DM2 expansion is an rCCUG quadruplet repeat, both of which fold into hairpin structures with periodically repeating internal loops separated by two 5?GC/3?CG base pairs. The sizes of the loops, however, are different: the DM1 repeat forms 1 × 1 nucleotide UU loops while the DM2 repeat forms 2 × 2 nucleotide 5?CU/3?UC loops. DM is caused when the expanded repeats bind the RNA splicing regulator Muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1), thus compromising its function. Therefore, one potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases is to prevent MBNL1 from binding the toxic RNA repeats. Previously, we designed nanomolar inhibitors of the DM2-MBNL1 interaction by modularly assembling 6?-N-5-hexyonate kanamycin A (K) onto a peptoid backbone. The K ligand binds the 2 × 2 pyrimidine-rich internal loops found in the DM2 RNA with high affinity. The best compound identified from that study contains three K modules separated by four propylamine spacing modules and is 20-fold selective over the DM1 RNA. Because the modularly assembled K-containing compounds also bound the DM1 RNA, albeit with lower affinity, and because the loop size is different, we hypothesized that the optimal DM1 RNA binder may display K modules separated by shorter distance between ligand modules. Indeed, the ideal DM1 RNA binder has only two propylamine spacing modules separating the K ligands. Peptoids displaying three and four K modules on a peptoid scaffold bind the DM1 RNA with Kd's of 20 (3-fold selective for DM1 over DM2) and 4 nM (6-fold selective for DM1 over DM2) and inhibit the RNA-protein interaction with IC50's of 40 and 7 nM, respectively. Importantly, by coupling the two studies together, we have determined that appropriate spacing can affect binding selectivity by 60-fold (20- × 3-fold). The trimer and tetramer also bind ?13- and ?63-fold more tightly to DM1 RNAs than does MBNL1. The modularly assembled compounds are cell permeable and non-toxic as determined by flow cytometry. The results establish that for these two systems: (i) a programmable modular assembly approach can provide synthetic ligands for RNA with affinities and specificities that exceed those of natural proteins; and (ii) the spacing of ligand modules can be used to tune specificity for one RNA target over another. PMID:19904940

Lee, Melissa M.; Childs-Disney, Jessica L.; Pushechnikov, Alexei; French, Jonathan M.; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Thornton, Charles A.; Disney, Matthew D.

2009-01-01

22

Modularized learning of genetic interaction networks from biological annotations and mRNA expression data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Inferring the genetic interaction mechanism using Bayesian networks has recently drawn increasing attention due to its well-established theoretical foundation and statistical robustness. However, the relative insufficiency of experiments with respect to the number of genes leads to many false positive inferences. Results: We propose a novel method to infer genetic networks by alleviating the shortage of available mRNA expression

Phil Hyoun Lee; Doheon Lee

2005-01-01

23

MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System (DCS). In order to provide user friendly software for the process personnel, the software was broken down into just a few software modules. These software modules are the Application Window, Detector Selection, Detector Configuration Settings, Background Counting, and Routine Data Acquisition. Instructions for using the software have been included in a user's manual that is appended to this report. The work presented in this report meets all of the requirements set forth in the project task plan to design and implement gamma ray monitors for the MCU. Additional setup and testing of the system will be required when it implemented in the process.

Casella, V

2005-12-15

24

Waste and Solvent Composition Limits for Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU)  

SciTech Connect

This study examined waste feed and solvent limits for the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) currently being designed and built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove cesium from highly alkaline radioactive waste. The study involved proposing ranges for 12 waste feed components (i.e., Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, OH{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, F{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and AlO{sub 2}{sup -}) through a compilation of SRS waste data. Statistical design methods were used to generate numerous wastes with varying compositions from the proposed ranges. An Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) model called SXFIT was used to predict the cesium extraction distribution coefficients (D-values) between the organic (solvent) phase and the aqueous waste phase using the waste component concentrations as inputs. The D-values from the SXFIT model were used as input along with MCU base case process parameters to a SASSE (Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction) model to calculate final cesium concentrations for the MCU. The SASSE model was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The SXFIT D-value and the waste component concentration data were used to develop a handier alternative model (neural network model) to the SXFIT model that predicts D-values within 15% of the SXFIT D-values. Both the SXFIT and the neural network model revealed the following. The solvent extractant concentration ratios are approximately equal to the corresponding D-value ratios; a useful feature that could be used to predict extraction D-values when the extractant concentration in the solvent changes in the MCU operation. Also, potassium is the only waste component out of the 12 that shows a distinct relationship with the cesium extraction D-values; an indication of potassium's competition with cesium in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. A waste feed acceptance model suitable for assessing wastes within relatively wide ranges of D-values (0.6-40) and initial cesium-137 concentrations (0.2-12.8 Ci/gal) has been developed from the SASSE outputs. The waste feed acceptance model is an equation involving initial cesium-137 concentration and D-value that results in a final cesium-137 concentration of 0.1 Ci/gal, the target concentration for the MCU. For example, the waste feed acceptance model shows the minimum acceptable extraction D-value based on MCU base conditions is 5.73. The waste feed acceptance model is defined by a simple linear relationship for extraction D-values {ge} 7. This facilitates quicker calculations. For a given extraction D-value, final cesium-137 concentration (C{sub f}) and initial cesium-137 concentration (C{sub 0}) are linearly related; while for a given C{sub 0}, log (C{sub f}) and log (extraction D-value) are linear with a slope of -1.43. These two relationships allow one to quickly calculate C{sub f} at other MCU conditions without resorting to the SASSE model. The SASSE runs indicate that broad changes in the MCU process parameters for the extraction, scrub and strip stages (i.e., flow rate, temperature, fraction of interstage carryover, total liquid volume per contactor stage, and efficiency per contactor stage) will not result in C{sub f} exceeding target, at least for the MCU base conditions.

Adu-Wusu, Kofi; Waler, Douglas D.; Edwards, Thomas B

2005-05-26

25

The start site of the Acanthamoeba castellanii ribosomal RNA transcription unit.  

PubMed

The 39S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor has been isolated from Acanthamoeba castellanii. In vitro capping of the isolated RNA verified that it is the primary transcript and identified the 5' nucleotide as pppA. The position of the 5' coding nucleotide on the rRNA repeat unit sequence was identified using Northern blot, R-loop, and S1 nuclease mapping techniques. Dinucleotide priming of an in vitro transcription system stalled because of low initiating nucleotide concentration revealed that ApA maximally stimulates initiation of transcription. All of these results show that the underlined A in the sequence 5'-TATATATAAAGGGAC (RNA-like strand) coincides with the 5' nucleotide of the primary transcript. This identification is compatible with in vitro transcription experiments mapping the promoter for this transcription unit. The initiation sequences of rRNA genes from 14 species are compared, and a weak consensus for the initiator derived: [Formula; see text]. PMID:1617304

Perna, P J; Harris, G H; Iida, C T; Kownin, P; Bugren, S; Paule, M R

1992-01-01

26

Modular robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular reconfigurable robots-experimental systems made by interconnecting multiple, simple, similar units-can perform shape shifting. A robot made up of a chain of simple hinge joints could shape itself into a loop and move by rolling like a self-propelled tank tread; then break open the loop to form a serpentine configuration and slither under or over obstacles; and then rearrange its

M. Yim; Ying Zhang; D. Duff

2002-01-01

27

The modular approach based on functional components division for modular reconfigurable walking robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular robot generally is composed of a few standard modular units with standards ports, electrical hardware with common interface, software and control algorithms, etc. Utilizing these modules we can rapidly restructure other modular reconfigurable robot similar to the building block principle. This paper present the modular design methodology based on functional components division to develop the modular reconfigurable walking robot,

Lei Jingtao; Wang Tianmiao; He Yongling

2009-01-01

28

Modular feed-forward active noise control units for ventilation ducts.  

PubMed

This paper presents theoretical and experimental work on feed-forward active noise control for a ventilation duct. In particular three single channel control arrangements are investigated: (a) A classical widespread-mid-span configuration, where the control loudspeakers are located approximately half way through the duct and the reference and error microphones are placed close to inlet and outlet duct sections, respectively; (b) a compact-mid-span configuration, where both the reference and error microphones are moved close to the control loudspeakers to form a self-contained control unit, and (c) a compact-outlet configuration where the self-contained control unit is moved to the duct outlet. The two compact configurations offer self-evident practical installation and operation advantages. Moreover, the paper shows that they are characterized by much simpler control filters, which can be effectively implemented on modern audio digital signal processing boards and produce similar control performance to the classical widespread configuration. PMID:25480054

Gardonio, P; Rohlfing, J

2014-12-01

29

Distributed Motion Planning for 3D Modular Robots with Unit-Compressible Modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-reconfigurable robots are versatile systems consisting of large numbers of independent modules. Effective use of these systems requires parallel actuation and planning, both for efficiency and independence from a central controller. This paper presents the PacMan algorithm, a technique for distributed actuation and planning. This algorithm works on systems with two- or three-dimensional unit-compressible modules. We give a simplified version

Zack Butler; Daniela Rus

30

Distributed Planning and Control for Modular Robots with Unit-Compressible Modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-recongurable robots are versatile systems consisting of large numbers of independent modules. Eectiv e use of these systems requires parallel actuation and planning, both for eciency and independence from a central controller. This paper presents the PacMan algorithm, a technique for distributed actuation and planning for systems with two- or three-dimensional unit-compressible modules. We give two versions of the algorithm

Zack J. Butler; Daniella Rus

2003-01-01

31

The Modular Resource Center: integrated units for the study of the anatomical sciences in a problem-based curriculum.  

PubMed

The Modular Resource Center (MRC) at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was created in 1993 as a way to provide visual resources in support of a newly implemented problem-based curriculum in which the anatomical sciences are taught primarily in the first tutorial-based course, The Animal Body. Over two dozen modules have been created specifically in support of this course, whereas additional modules have been created in support of other basic science courses. The basic unit of organization of the MRC is a module presented in a carrel that provides students a way to study, either alone or in groups, a given topic. The topic is presented through a script and an integrated set of anatomical materials including plastinated dissected specimens, vascular casts, skeletal preparations, models, radiographs, histological slides, and photo- and electron micrographs. The key feature of this resource center is that it is not a museum; rather it is more analogous to an interactive library, that can be used for reference, study, and review, not only by veterinary students but also by faculty, interns, residents, and undergraduates. A unique aspect is that all materials have been made by veterinary students working with faculty during the summer. Although started as a resource in support of a tutorial-based curriculum, the MRC has evolved over a decade into an anatomy resource that would be highly valued in any curricular format. PMID:12467082

Mizer, Linda A; Farnum, Cornelia E; Schenck, Pamela D

2002-12-15

32

Mapping of Digitaria streak virus transcripts reveals different RNA species from the same transcription unit.  

PubMed Central

All, except 19 [corrected] bp, of the Digitaria streak virus (DSV) genome is transcribed. Two RNA transcripts (1+ and 2+) are encoded by the virion DNA strand and up to five (1- to 5-) by the complementary DNA strand [corrected]. Detailed mapping of these RNAs has revealed evidence for splicing in one species (RNA 4-), which together with its more abundant unspliced counterpart (RNA 2-) could synthesize both a 30.5 and 41 kd polypeptide from the same transcription unit. This extensive overlapping of spliced and unspliced RNAs could indicate that the initiation and splicing of transcripts is temporally regulated. At least one transcript (RNA 1-) may have a non-translational role. Transcription of the DSV genome shows similarities to some animal DNA viruses, particularly the papovaviruses. Images PMID:2472960

Accotto, G P; Donson, J; Mullineaux, P M

1989-01-01

33

Feasibility, benefits and challenges of modular construction in high rise development in the United States : a developer's perspective  

E-print Network

Modular construction has long been utilized in the construction of residential and many other commercial product types as a means for potentially quicker construction delivery times. Over the past 5 years this construction ...

Velamati, Sri

2012-01-01

34

The Habitat Demonstration Unit Project: A Modular Instrumentation System for a Deep Space Habitat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is focused on developing human exploration capabilities in low Earth orbit (LEO), expanding to near Earth asteroids (NEA), and finally to Mars. Habitation is a crucial aspect of human exploration, and a current focus of NASA activities. The Habitation Demonstration Unit (HDU) is a project focused on developing an autonomous habitation system that enables human exploration of space by providing engineers and scientists with a test bed to develop, integrate, test, and evaluate habitation systems. A critical feature of the HDU is the instrumentation system, which monitors key subsystems within the habitat. The following paper will discuss the HDU instrumentation system performance and lessons learned during the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RaTS). In addition, this paper will discuss the evolution of the instrumentation system to support the 2011 Deep Space Habitat configuration, the challenges, and the lessons learned of implementing this configuration. In 2010, the HDU was implemented as a pressurized excursion module (PEM) and was tested at NASA s D-RaTS in Arizona [1]. For this initial configuration, the instrumentation system design used features that were successful in previous habitat instrumentation projects, while also considering challenges, and implementing lessons learned [2]. The main feature of the PEM instrumentation system was the use of a standards-based wireless sensor node (WSN), implementing an IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. Many of the instruments were connected to several WSNs, which wirelessly transmitted data to the command and data handling system via a mesh network. The PEM instrumentation system monitored the HDU during field tests at D-RaTS, and the WSN data was later analyzed to understand the performance of this system. In addition, several lessons learned were gained from the field test experience, which fed into the instrumentation design of the next generation of the HDU.

Rojdev, Kristina; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Yim, Hester; Williamsn, Robert M.; Hafermalz, Scott; Wagner, Raymond S.

2011-01-01

35

Documentation of a computer program to simulate transient leakage from confining units using the modular finite-difference, ground-water flow model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transient leakage into or out of a compressible fine-grained confining unit results from ground- water storage changes within the unit. The computer program described in this report provides a new method of simulating transient leakage using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite- difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW). The new program is referred to as the Transient- Leakage Package. The Transient-Leakage Package solves integrodifferential equations that describe flow across the upper and lower boundaries of confining units. For each confining unit, vertical hydraulic conductivity, thickness, and specific storage are specified in input arrays. These properties can vary from cell to cell and the confining unit need not be present at all locations in the grid; however, the confining units must be bounded above and below by model layers in which head is calculated or specified. The package was used in an example problem to simulate drawdown around a pumping well in a system with two aquifers separated by a confining unit. For drawdown values in excess of 1 centimeter, the solution using the new package closely matched an exact analytical solution. The problem also was simulated without the new package by using a separate model layer to represent the confining unit. That simulation was refined by using two model layers to represent the confining unit. The simulation using the Transient-Leakage Package was faster and more accurate than either of the simulations using model layers to represent the confining unit.

Leake, S.A.; Leahy, P.P.; Navoy, A.S.

1994-01-01

36

RNA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

Darnell, James E., Jr.

1985-01-01

37

RNA polymerase III transcriptional units are interspersed among human non-alpha-globin genes.  

PubMed Central

Cloned human DNA fragments containing globin genes are transcribed in vitro to form discrete RNA species. One transcription unit is located approximately 1500 base pairs upstream from the G-gamma-globin gene. This transcript is partially homologous to a polymerase III template located approximately 1000 base pairs upstream from the delta-globin gene and to DNA located a short distance downstream from the beta-globin gene. Images PMID:388428

Duncan, C; Biro, P A; Choudary, P V; Elder, J T; Wang, R R; Forget, B G; de Riel, J K; Weissman, S M

1979-01-01

38

RNA tectonics (tectoRNA) for RNA nanostructure design and its application in synthetic biology.  

PubMed

RNA molecules are versatile biomaterials that act not only as DNA-like genetic materials but also have diverse functions in regulation of cellular biosystems. RNA is capable of regulating gene expression by sequence-specific hybridization. This feature allows the design of RNA-based artificial gene regulators (riboregulators). RNA can also build complex two-dimensional (2D) and 3D nanostructures, which afford protein-like functions and make RNA an attractive material for nanobiotechnology. RNA tectonics is a methodology in RNA nanobiotechnology for the design and construction of RNA nanostructures/nanoobjects through controlled self-assembly of modular RNA units (tectoRNAs). RNA nanostructures designed according to the concept of RNA tectonics are also attractive as tools in synthetic biology, but in vivo RNA tectonics is still in the early stages. This review presents a summary of the achievements of RNA tectonics and its related researches in vitro, and also introduces recent developments that facilitated the use of RNA nanostructures in bacterial cells. PMID:23836522

Ishikawa, Junya; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya

2013-01-01

39

Identification of Mammalian microRNA Host Genes and Transcription Units  

PubMed Central

To derive a global perspective on the transcription of microRNAs (miRNAs) in mammals, we annotated the genomic position and context of this class of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the human and mouse genomes. Of the 232 known mammalian miRNAs, we found that 161 overlap with 123 defined transcription units (TUs). We identified miRNAs within introns of 90 protein-coding genes with a broad spectrum of molecular functions, and in both introns and exons of 66 mRNA-like noncoding RNAs (mlncRNAs). In addition, novel families of miRNAs based on host gene identity were identified. The transcription patterns of all miRNA host genes were curated from a variety of sources illustrating spatial, temporal, and physiological regulation of miRNA expression. These findings strongly suggest that miRNAs are transcribed in parallel with their host transcripts, and that the two different transcription classes of miRNAs (`exonic' and `intronic') identified here may require slightly different mechanisms of biogenesis. PMID:15364901

Rodriguez, Antony; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Ashurst, Jennifer L.; Bradley, Allan

2004-01-01

40

Modular Entanglement  

E-print Network

We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting blocks of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent blocks. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and non-interacting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

Gualdi, Giulia; Illuminati, Fabrizio

2010-01-01

41

Modular entanglement.  

PubMed

We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing. PMID:21405382

Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio

2011-02-01

42

Modular Entanglement  

E-print Network

We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and non-interacting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

Giulia Gualdi; Salvatore M. Giampaolo; Fabrizio Illuminati

2010-11-28

43

The human ribosomal RNA genes: structure and organization of the complete repeating unit.  

PubMed

The complete repeating unit of the human ribosomal RNA gene has been reconstructed by the cloning of approximately 27 kilobases (kb) of non-transcribed spacer. The structure of this tandemly repeated gene can now be studied in its entirety. We report the analysis of spacer DNA by molecular cloning and its organization in the genome by Southern transfer analysis. These studies reveal both length and sequence variation of the spacer. Sequence variations are distributed throughout the spacer while the length variations exist near the 5' end of the transcript and just beyond the 3' end. The human spacer shares extensive homology with primates but little with other mammals. Within the primates the degree of homology reflects the rapid evolutionary changes characteristic of the primate group. PMID:3015766

Sylvester, J E; Whiteman, D A; Podolsky, R; Pozsgay, J M; Respess, J; Schmickel, R D

1986-07-01

44

Configuration independent kinematics for modular robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular robotic system consists of standardized joint and link units that can be assembled into a number of different kinematic configurations. This paper describes the design and kinematic issues of a newly developed modular robot aimed for assembly tasks. All modules are designed as cubic units. There are connecting interfaces, termed connecting ports, on all faces of the cubes

I-Ming Chen; Guilin Yang

1996-01-01

45

LNA units present in the (2'-OMe)-RNA strand stabilize parallel duplexes (2'-OMe)-RNA/[All-RP-PS]-DNA and parallel triplexes (2'-OMe)-RNA/[All-RP-PS]-DNA/RNA. An improved tool for the inhibition of reverse transcription.  

PubMed

Homopurine phosphorothioate analogs of DNA, possessing all phosphorus atoms of RP configuration ([All-RP-PS]-DNA), when interact with appropriate complementary RNA or (2'-OMe)-RNA templates, form parallel triplexes or parallel duplexes of very high thermodynamic stability. The present results show that T-LNA or 5-Me-C-LNA units introduced into the parallel Hoogsteen-paired (2'-OMe)-RNA strands (up to four units in the oligomers of 9 or 12 nt in length) stabilize these parallel complexes. At neutral pH, dodecameric parallel duplexes have Tm values of 62-68 °C, which are by 4-10 °C higher than Tm for the reference duplex (with no LNA units present), while for the corresponding triplexes, Tm values exceeded 85 °C. For nonameric parallel duplexes, melting temperatures of 38-62 °C were found and (2'-OMe)-RNA oligomers containing 5-Me-C-LNA units stabilized the complexes more efficiently than the T-LNA containing congeners. In both series the stability of the parallel complexes increased with an increasing number of LNA units present. The same trend was observed in experiments of reverse transcription RNA?DNA (using AMV RT reverse transcriptase) where the formation of parallel triplexes (consisting of an RNA template, [All-RP-PS]-DNA nonamer and Hoogsteen-paired (2'-OMe)-RNA strands containing the LNA units) led to the efficient inhibition of the process. Under the best conditions checked (four 5-Me-C-LNA units, three-fold excess over the RNA template) the inhibition was 94% effective, compared to 71% inhibition observed in the reference system with the Hoogsteen-paired (2'-OMe)-RNA strand carrying no LNA units. This kind of complexation may "arrest" harmful RNA oligomers (e.g., viral RNA or mRNA of unwanted proteins) and, beneficially, exclude them from enzymatic processes, otherwise leading to viral or genetic diseases. PMID:25564351

Maciaszek, Anna; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Janicka, Magdalena; Tomaszewska-Antczak, Agnieszka; Sobczak, Milena; Miko?ajczyk, Barbara; Guga, Piotr

2015-02-10

46

Ecological Consistency of SSU rRNA-Based Operational Taxonomic Units at a Global Scale  

PubMed Central

Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), usually defined as clusters of similar 16S/18S rRNA sequences, are the most widely used basic diversity units in large-scale characterizations of microbial communities. However, it remains unclear how well the various proposed OTU clustering algorithms approximate ‘true’ microbial taxa. Here, we explore the ecological consistency of OTUs – based on the assumption that, like true microbial taxa, they should show measurable habitat preferences (niche conservatism). In a global and comprehensive survey of available microbial sequence data, we systematically parse sequence annotations to obtain broad ecological descriptions of sampling sites. Based on these, we observe that sequence-based microbial OTUs generally show high levels of ecological consistency. However, different OTU clustering methods result in marked differences in the strength of this signal. Assuming that ecological consistency can serve as an objective external benchmark for cluster quality, we conclude that hierarchical complete linkage clustering, which provided the most ecologically consistent partitions, should be the default choice for OTU clustering. To our knowledge, this is the first approach to assess cluster quality using an external, biologically meaningful parameter as a benchmark, on a global scale. PMID:24763141

Schmidt, Thomas S. B.; Matias Rodrigues, João F.; von Mering, Christian

2014-01-01

47

Modular, Hierarchical Learning By Artificial Neural Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular and hierarchical approach to supervised learning by artificial neural networks leads to neural networks more structured than neural networks in which all neurons fully interconnected. These networks utilize general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamical effects. The modular organization, sparsity of modular units and connections, and fact that learning is much more circumscribed are all attractive features for designing neural-network hardware. Learning streamlined by imitating some aspects of biological neural networks.

Baldi, Pierre F.; Toomarian, Nikzad

1996-01-01

48

Distributed Goal Recognition Algorithms for Modular Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular robots are systems composed of a number of inde- pendent units that can be reconfigured to fit the task at hand. When the modules are computationally independent, they form a large distributed system with no central controller. In this paper, we are concerned with the ability of such modular robots to easily recognize the achievement (or lack thereof) of

Zack J. Butler; Robert Fitch; Daniela Rus; Yuhang Wang

2002-01-01

49

Rate-Constrained Modular Predictive Residual Vector Quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates a novel modular image coding paradigm using residual vector quantization (RVQ) with memory that incorporates a modular neural network vector predictor in the feedback loop. A modular neural network predictor consists of several expert networks, where each expert network is optimized for predicting a particular class of data, and an integrating unit that mixes the outputs of

Syed A. Rizvi; Lin-cheng Wang; Nasser M. Nasrabadi

1997-01-01

50

Linear Reconfiguration of Cube-Style Modular Robots$  

E-print Network

Linear Reconfiguration of Cube-Style Modular Robots$ Greg Aloupisa , S´ebastien Collettea,1. Key words: self-reconfiguring modular robots, cubical units, in-place reconfiguration, lattice, 2008 #12;1. Introduction A self-reconfiguring modular robot consists of a large number of indepen- dent

Wuhrer, Stefanie

51

Efficient Reconfiguration of Lattice-Based Modular Robots  

E-print Network

1 Efficient Reconfiguration of Lattice-Based Modular Robots Greg Aloupis Nadia Benbernou Mirela, Canada Abstract-- Modular robots consist of many small units that attach together and can perform local to two other modular robots: M-TRAN and Molecube. The common requirement, for each robot type

Aloupis, Greg

52

Modular shield  

DOEpatents

A modular system for containing projectiles has a sheet of material including at least a polycarbonate layer held by a metal frame having a straight frame member corresponding to each straight edge of the sheet. Each frame member has a U-shaped shield channel covering and holding a straight edge of the sheet and an adjacent U-shaped clamp channel rigidly held against the shield channel. A flexible gasket separates each sheet edge from its respective shield channel; and each frame member is fastened to each adjacent frame member only by clamps extending between adjacent clamp channels.

Snyder, Keith W. (Sandia Park, NM)

2002-01-01

53

Donor-Acceptor-Donor Modular Small Organic Molecules Based on the Naphthalene Diimide Acceptor Unit for Solution-Processable Photovoltaic Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two novel solution-processable small organic molecules, 4,9-bis(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-2,7-dioctylbenzo[3,8]phenanthroline-1,3,6,8(2 H,7 H)-tetraone ( S6) and 4,9-bis(benzo[ b]thiophen-2-yl)-2,7-dioctylbenzo[3,8]phenanthroline-1,3,6,8 (2 H,7 H)-tetraone ( S7), have been successfully designed, synthesized, characterized, and applied in solution-processable photovoltaic devices. S6 and S7 contain a common electron-accepting moiety, naphthalene diimide (NDI), with different electron-donating moieties, triphenylamine ( S6) and benzothiophene ( S7), and are based on a donor-acceptor-donor structure. S7 was isolated as black, rod-shaped crystals. Its triclinic structure was determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD): space group , Z = 2, a = 9.434(5) Å, b = 14.460(7) Å, c = 15.359(8) Å, ? = 67.256(9) degrees, ? = 80.356(11) degrees, ? = 76.618(10) degrees, at 150 Kelvin (K), R = 0.073. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra revealed that use of triphenylamine donor functionality with the NDI acceptor unit resulted in an enhanced intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) transition and reduction of the optical band gap compared with the benzothiophene analogue. Solution-processable inverted bulk heterojunction devices with the structure indium tin oxide/zinc oxide (30 nm)/active layer/molybdenum trioxide (10 nm)/silver (100 nm) were fabricated with S6 and S7 as donors and (6,6)-phenyl C70-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) as acceptor. Power conversion efficiencies of 0.22% for S6/PC70BM and 0.10% for S7/PC70BM were achieved for the preliminary photovoltaic devices under simulated AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm-2). This paper reports donor-acceptor-donor modular small organic molecules, with NDI as central accepting unit, that have been screened for use in solution-processable inverted photovoltaic devices.

Patil, Hemlata; Gupta, Akhil; Bilic, Ante; Jackson, Sam Leslie; Latham, Kay; Bhosale, Sheshanath V.

2014-09-01

54

75 FR 63198 - In the Matter of Certain Connecting Devices (“Quick Clamps”) for Use With Modular Compressed Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Quick Clamps'') for Use With Modular Compressed Air Conditioning Units, Including Filters, Regulators, and Lubricators...importation of certain devices for modular compressed air conditioning units and the FRL units they connect by reason...

2010-10-14

55

76 FR 13661 - In the Matter of Certain Connecting Devices (“Quick Clamps”) for Use With Modular Compressed Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Quick Clamps'') for Use With Modular Compressed Air Conditioning Units, Including Filters, Regulators, and Lubricators...importation of certain devices for modular compressed air conditioning units and the FRL units they connect by reason...

2011-03-14

56

Design of a modular motorcycle windshield wiper  

E-print Network

Motorcycle windshield wipers are essentially non-existent in the United States. Customer and market research reveals a demand for such a product. This paper explores the product viability of a modular motorcycle windshield ...

Boyd, Robert Allen Michael

2010-01-01

57

Modular Robotics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) is a subsidiary of Xerox Corporation. One of its most intriguing areas of study is "modular reconfigurable robotics," which is a technology that allows a robot to take itself apart and put itself back together again in a new form. This lets the robot customize its design for a given task. Several different models of robots have been constructed at the PARC, and this Web site describes how they were built and how they function. There is a large collection of video clips that show each of the robots in operation, including one of a robot riding a tricycle. Two Java simulation programs can be downloaded that demonstrate the control systems of two of the PARC models. A long list of publication titles with abstracts is given, and the full text is available for a few of them.

58

DWPF Flowsheet Studies with Simulants to Determine Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit Solvent Partitioning and Verify Actinide Removal Process Incorporation Strategy  

SciTech Connect

The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) facility and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) are scheduled to begin processing salt waste in fiscal year 2007. A portion of the streams generated in the salt processing facilities will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to be incorporated in the glass matrix. Before the streams are introduced, a combination of impact analyses and research and development studies must be performed to quantify the impacts on DWPF processing. The Process Science & Engineering (PS&E) section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing. Simulant Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet studies have been performed using previous composition and projected volume estimates for the ARP sludge/monosodium titanate (MST) stream. Due to changes in the flammability control strategy for DWPF for salt processing, the incorporation strategy for ARP has changed and additional ARP flowsheet tests were necessary to validate the new processing strategy. The last round of ARP testing included the incorporation of the MCU stream and identified potential processing issues with the MCU solvent. The identified issues included the potential carry-over and accumulation of the MCU solvent components in the CPC condensers and in the recycle stream to the Tank Farm. Therefore, DWPF requested SRNL to perform additional MCU flowsheet studies to better quantify the organic distribution in the CPC vessels. The previous MCU testing used a Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) simulant since it was anticipated that both of these facilities would begin salt processing during SB4 processing. The same sludge simulant recipe was used in this round of ARP and MCU testing to minimize the number of changes between the two phases of testing so a better comparison could be made. ARP and MCU stream simulants were made for this phase of testing. The ARP stream represented the sludge/MST stream from Appendix E of the material balance provided by Subosits. The MCU stream represented the ''Maximum Volume'' case from the material balances provided by Campbell. The latest DWPF processing plan involves adding the ARP stream to the sludge at boiling in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). This would be accomplished before the SRAT receipt sample is taken and SRAT processing is initiated. The MCU stream will be added at boiling during the normal reflux phase of the SRAT cycle. The SRAT cycle will be considered complete once the MCU stream has been added. SRNL replicated this processing strategy in this testing.

Herman, C

2006-04-21

59

Modular robot  

DOEpatents

A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

Ferrante, Todd A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01

60

Modular robot  

DOEpatents

A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

Ferrante, T.A.

1997-11-11

61

Evolutionary principles of modular gene regulation in yeasts  

E-print Network

Divergence in gene regulation can play a major role in evolution. Here, we used a phylogenetic framework to measure mRNA profiles in 15 yeast species from the phylum Ascomycota and reconstruct the evolution of their modular ...

Thompson, Dawn A.

62

Piecing together modular : understanding the benefits and limitations of modular construction methods for multifamily development  

E-print Network

The primary purpose of this thesis is to explain the benefits and limitations of modular construction as it pertains to primarily wood-frame, multifamily housing in the United States. This thesis attempts to educate the ...

Cameron, Peter J. (Peter Jay)

2007-01-01

63

Portable modular detection system  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

Brennan, James S. (Rodeo, CA); Singh, Anup (Danville, CA); Throckmorton, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA); Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA)

2009-10-13

64

Avian Pneumovirus (APV) RNA from Wild and Sentinel Birds in the United States Has Genetic Homology with RNA from APV Isolates from Domestic Turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nasal turbinates or swabs were collected from wild ducks, geese, owls, sparrows, swallows, and starlings and from sentinel ducks placed next to turkey farms experiencing avian pneumovirus (APV) infections and were analyzed for APV genome and infectious particles. APV RNA was detected in samples examined from geese, sparrows, and starlings. APV RNA and antibodies were also detected in two different

HYUN-JIN SHIN; M. KARIUKI NJENGA; BRIAN MCCOMB; DAVID A. HALVORSON; KAKAMBI V. NAGARAJA

2000-01-01

65

Modular decomposition of protein-protein interaction networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce an algorithmic method, termed modular decomposition, that defines the organization of protein-interaction networks as a hierarchy of nested modules. Modular decomposition derives the logical rules of how to combine proteins into the actual functional complexes by identifying groups of proteins acting as a single unit (sub-complexes) and those that can be alternatively exchanged in a set of similar

Julien Gagneur; Roland Krause; Tewis Bouwmeester; Georg Casari

2004-01-01

66

Modularity and Specialized Learning: Reexamining Behavior-Based Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

and relationships. 1. Introduction Behavior-based artificial intelligence (BBAI) is one of the best-known modularModularity and Specialized Learning: Reexamining Behavior-Based Artificial Intelligence Joanna J. Bryson Artificial models of natural Intelligence University of Bath, BA2 7AY, United Kingdom J

Bryson, Joanna J.

67

Finite Group Modular Data  

E-print Network

In a remarkable variety of contexts appears the modular data associated to finite groups. And yet, compared to the well-understood affine algebra modular data, the general properties of this finite group modular data has been poorly explored. In this paper we undergo such a study. We identify some senses in which the finite group data is similar to, and different from, the affine data. We also consider the data arising from a cohomological twist, and write down, explicitly in terms of quantities associated directly with the finite group, the modular S and T matrices for a general twist, for what appears to be the first time in print.

A. Coste; T. Gannon; Ph. Ruelle

2000-02-18

68

Stranded Whole Transcriptome RNA-Seq for All RNA Types.  

PubMed

Stranded whole transcriptome RNA-Seq described in this unit captures quantitative expression data for all types of RNA including, but not limited to, miRNA (microRNA), piRNA (Piwi-interacting RNA), snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA), lincRNA (large non-coding intergenic RNA), SRP RNA (signal recognition particle RNA), tRNA (transfer RNA), mtRNA (mitochondrial RNA), and mRNA (messenger RNA). The size and nature of these types of RNA are irrelevant to the approach described here. Barcoded libraries for multiplexing on the Illumina platform are generated with this approach but it can be applied to other platforms with a few modifications. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25599667

Miller, David F B; Yan, Pearlly X; Fang, Fang; Buechlein, Aaron; Ford, James B; Tang, Haixu; Huang, Tim H; Burow, Matthew E; Liu, Yunlong; Rusch, Douglas B; Nephew, Kenneth P

2015-01-01

69

Modular Buildings Buying Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that child care program directors who are expanding their programs or opening new child care centers investigate the possibility of renting, leasing, or purchasing a modular building. Discusses the advantages of modular buildings over conventional building construction or rented space in an occupied building. Provides information about…

Morris, Susan

1991-01-01

70

Triple modular redundancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In computing, triple modular redundancy (TMR) is a fault tolerant form of N-modular redundancy, in which three systems perform a process and that result is processed by a voting system to produce a single output. If any one of the three systems fails, the other two systems can correct and mask the fault. If the voter fails then the complete

Wikipedia

2007-01-01

71

Determining Task Optimal Modular Robot Assembly Configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

.A "modular" robotic system consists of standardizedjoint and link units that can be assembled into a numberof different kinematic configurations in order tomeet different task requirements. Given a predeterminedset of modules, this paper considers the problemof finding an "optimal" module assembly configurationfor a specific task. We formulate the solutionas a discrete optimization procedure. The formulationis based on an assembly incidence

I-ming Chen; Joel W. Burdick

1995-01-01

72

Modular redundant number systems  

SciTech Connect

With the increased use of public key cryptography, faster modular multiplication has become an important cryptographic issue. Almost all public key cryptography, including most elliptic curve systems, use modular multiplication. Modular multiplication, particularly for the large public key modulii, is very slow. Increasing the speed of modular multiplication is almost synonymous with increasing the speed of public key cryptography. There are two parts to modular multiplication: multiplication and modular reduction. Though there are fast methods for multiplying and fast methods for doing modular reduction, they do not mix well. Most fast techniques require integers to be in a special form. These special forms are not related and converting from one form to another is more costly than using the standard techniques. To this date it has been better to use the fast modular reduction technique coupled with standard multiplication. Standard modular reduction is much more costly than standard multiplication. Fast modular reduction (Montgomery`s method) reduces the reduction cost to approximately that of a standard multiply. Of the fast multiplication techniques, the redundant number system technique (RNS) is one of the most popular. It is simple, converting a large convolution (multiply) into many smaller independent ones. Not only do redundant number systems increase speed, but the independent parts allow for parallelization. RNS form implies working modulo another constant. Depending on the relationship between these two constants; reduction OR division may be possible, but not both. This paper describes a new technique using ideas from both Montgomery`s method and RNS. It avoids the formula problem and allows fast reduction and multiplication. Since RNS form is used throughout, it also allows the entire process to be parallelized.

NONE

1998-05-31

73

Modularity Approach Modular Pebble Bed Reactor (MPBR)  

E-print Network

­ System Enclosure integrated into modules · ASME Code compliant ­ Thermal expansion limitations ­ Code · On--line Refueling #12;4/23/03 MIT NED MPBR Reference Plant Modular Pebble Bed Reactor Thermal Power°C 126.7kg/s Circulator HPT 52.8MW Precooler Inventory control Bypass Valve Intercooler IHX

74

Detecting complex network modularity by dynamical clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on cluster desynchronization properties of phase oscillators, we introduce an efficient method for the detection and identification of modules in complex networks. The performance of the algorithm is tested on computer generated and real-world networks whose modular structure is already known or has been studied by means of other methods. The algorithm attains a high level of precision, especially when the modular units are very mixed and hardly detectable by the other methods, with a computational effort O(KN) on a generic graph with N nodes and K links.

Boccaletti, S.; Ivanchenko, M.; Latora, V.; Pluchino, A.; Rapisarda, A.

2007-04-01

75

Alpha-amanitin-resistant transcription units in trypanosomes: a comparison of promoter sequences for a VSG gene expression site and for the ribosomal RNA genes.  

PubMed Central

Transcription of the predominant surface antigen genes in Trypanosoma brucei is unusual in its resistance to the RNA polymerase inhibitor alpha-amanitin, a property typical for rDNA transcription in eukaryotes. Transcription of most other protein-coding genes in trypanosomes is sensitive to alpha-amanitin. To investigate whether RNA polymerase I, the polymerase that transcribes rRNA genes, can give rise to functional mRNAs in trypanosomes, we have fused the putative promoter of the T.brucei rRNA genes to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene and determined CAT activity after transient expression of chimeric constructs in procyclic trypanosomes. We show here that the rRNA promoter yields the same high CAT activity as the promoters for the two predominant surface antigen genes of trypanosomes, the Variant-specific Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) gene of bloodstream trypanosomes and the procyclin gene of insect-form trypanosomes, both of which are also transcribed by an alpha-amanitin-insensitive RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase I of trypanosomes seems therefore able to synthesize pre-mRNAs that are effectively processed into translatable mRNAs. Dissection of the promoter segments showed the minimal elements for a VSG gene expression site promoter to be confined to a segment of -60 to +77 bp, overlapping the most 5' putative transcription start sites as determined in vivo by RNase protection experiments. For the ribosomal promoter region a segment of -258 to +200 bp relative to the putative transcription start site was sufficient for maximal CAT activity. There is a precise requirement for specific nucleotides at the rRNA transcription start site. We detect no homology between the sequences required for promoter function of the three alpha-amanitin-resistant transcription units, rRNA, VSG and procyclin (parp) genes. This suggests that the sequence-specific recognition of these promoters either occurs by common factors detecting sequence homologies that escape us, or by separate factors that bind to different DNA sequences but interact with a common alpha-amanitin-resistant RNA polymerase. PMID:1923801

Zomerdijk, J C; Kieft, R; Shiels, P G; Borst, P

1991-01-01

76

MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model -Documentation of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package for the groundwater modeling computer program MODFLOW-2000. The HUF Package is an alternative internal flow package that allows the vertical geometry of the system hydrogeology to be defined explicitly within the model using hydrogeologic units that can be different than the definition of the model layers. The HUF Package works with all the processes of MODFLOW-2000. For the Ground-Water Flow Process, the HUF Package calculates effective hydraulic properties for the model layers based on the hydraulic properties of the hydrogeologic units, which are defined by the user using parameters. The hydraulic properties are used to calculate the conductance coefficients and other terms needed to solve the ground-water flow equation. The sensitivity of the model to the parameters defined within the HUF Package input file can be calculated using the Sensitivity Process, using observations defined with the Observation Process. Optimal values of the parameters can be estimated by using the Parameter-Estimation Process. The HUF Package is nearly identical to the Layer-Property Flow (LPF) Package, the major difference being the definition of the vertical geometry of the system hydrogeology. Use of the HUF Package is illustrated in two test cases, which also serve to verify the performance of the package by showing that the Parameter-Estimation Process produces the true parameter values when exact observations are used.

Anderman, E.R.; Hill, M.C.

2000-01-01

77

A Modular PMAD System for Small Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current trends in satellite design are focused on developing small, reliable, and inexpensive spacecraft. To that end, a modular power management and distribution system (PMAD) is proposed which will help transition the aerospace industry towards an assembly line approach to building spacecraft. The modular system is based on an innovative DC voltage boost converter called the Series Connected Boost Regulator (SCBR). The SCBR uses existing DC-DC converters and adds a unique series connection. This simple modification provides the SCBR topology with many advantages over existing boost converters. Efficiencies of 94-98%, power densities above 1,000 We/kg, and inherent fault tolerance are just a few of the characteristics presented. Limitations of the SCBR technology are presented, and it is shown that the SCBR makes an ideal photovoltaic array regulator. A modular design based on the series connected boost unit is outlined and functional descriptions of the components are given.

Button, Robert M.

1998-01-01

78

Homologues, Natural Kinds and the Evolution of Modularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The fact that phenotypic evolution can be studied on a character by characterbasis suggests that the body is composed of locally integrated units. Theseunits can be considered as modular parts of the body which integrate functionallyrelated characters into units of evolutionary transformation. These units may eitheremerge spontaneously by self-organization, or may be the product of natural selection.A selection scenario

GÜNTER P. WAGNER

1996-01-01

79

Modular tokamak magnetic system  

DOEpatents

A modular tokamak system comprised of a plurality of interlocking moldules. Each module is comprised of a vacuum vessel section, a toroidal field coil, moldular saddle coils which generate a poloidal magnetic field and ohmic heating coils.

Yang, Tien-Fang (Wayland, MA)

1988-01-01

80

RNA-RNA SELEX.  

PubMed

Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) protocol is a valuable technique to identify RNA aptamers interacting with RNA structural motifs. RNA aptamers are mainly resolved with affinity column chromatography and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Here, we describe the separation of the RNA aptamers binding to an RNA stem-loop target with affinity chromatography using the column attached the target RNA and nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to obtain a single predominant RNA aptamer family. PMID:25352135

Cho, B

2015-01-01

81

Design and Analysis of a Modular Cnc System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recent focus of manufacturing research has been in the development of unmanned machining systems. Modular Computer Numerical\\u000a Control (CNC) units, which control and monitor many tightly coupled machining tasks, are required. This article describes\\u000a the detailed engineering design and analysis of a modular, research CNC system for a milling machine. Continuous and discrete\\u000a transfer functions of a feed drive servo

Y. Altintas

82

Design and Kinematic Analysis of Modular Reconfigurable Parallel Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular parallel robotic system consists of a collection of individual standard units that can be assembled into various robot configurations for a diversity of task requirements. This paper is focused on the design and kinematic analysis of modular reconfigurable parallel robots. A set of fundamental modules is considered. A local frame representation of the product-of-exponentials (POE) formula, i.e., the

Guilin Yangt; I-Ming Chent; Wee Kiat Lim; Song Huat Yeo

1999-01-01

83

Symmetric modular torsatron  

DOEpatents

A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

1984-01-01

84

Modular optical detector system  

DOEpatents

A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

Horn, Brent A. (Livermore, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2006-02-14

85

Self Evolving Modular Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel modular network called the Self-Evolving Modular Network (SEEM). The SEEM has a modular network architecture with a graph structure and these following advantages: (1) new modules are added incrementally to allow the network to adapt in a self-organizing manner, and (2) graph's paths are formed based on the relationships between the models represented by modules. The SEEM is expected to be applicable to evolving functions of an autonomous robot in a self-organizing manner through interaction with the robot's environment and categorizing large-scale information. This paper presents the architecture and an algorithm for the SEEM. Moreover, performance characteristic and effectiveness of the network are shown by simulations using cubic functions and a set of 3D-objects.

Tokunaga, Kazuhiro; Kawabata, Nobuyuki; Furukawa, Tetsuo

86

Criteria for software modularization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A central issue in programming practice involves determining the appropriate size and information content of a software module. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of two widely used criteria for software modularization, strength and size, in reducing fault rate and development cost. Data from 453 FORTRAN modules developed by professional programmers were analyzed. The results indicated that module strength is a good criterion with respect to fault rate, whereas arbitrary module size limitations inhibit programmer productivity. This analysis is a first step toward defining empirically based standards for software modularization.

Card, David N.; Page, Gerald T.; Mcgarry, Frank E.

1985-01-01

87

Modular biowaste monitoring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Modular Biowaste Monitoring System Program was to generate and evaluate hardware for supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs. An initial conceptual design effort established requirements and defined an overall modular system for the collection, measurement, sampling and storage of urine and feces biowastes. This conceptual design effort was followed by the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a flight prototype model urine collection, volume measurement and sampling capability. No operational or performance deficiencies were uncovered as a result of the performance evaluation tests.

Fogal, G. L.

1975-01-01

88

Three Dimensional Stochastic Reconfiguration of Modular Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we introduce one simulated and two physical three-dimensional stochastic modular robot systems, all capable of self-assembly and self-reconfiguration. We assume that indi- vidual units can only draw power when attached to the growing structure, and have no means of actuation. Instead they are subject to random motion induced by the surrounding medium when unattached. We present a simulation environment

Paul White; Viktor Zykov; Josh C. Bongard; Hod Lipson

2005-01-01

89

Design and Control of the Modular Robot System: TOMMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Toshiba Modular Manipulator System, TOMMS, consists of joint modules, link modules, and a control unit with a joystick. A manipulator with 3-DOF is assembled using three joint modules and optional link modules into any desired configuration and shape, for example, a horizontal type and vertical type. The assembled manipulator is connected to the control unit, and the position of

Takafumi Matsumaru

1995-01-01

90

Advanced Modular Power Approach to Affordable, Supportable Space Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies of missions to the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) indicate that these missions often involve several distinct separately launched vehicles that must ultimately be integrated together in-flight and operate as one unit. Therefore, it is important to see these vehicles as elements of a larger segmented spacecraft rather than separate spacecraft flying in formation. The evolution of large multi-vehicle exploration architecture creates the need (and opportunity) to establish a global power architecture that is common across all vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is aimed at establishing the modular power system architecture that will enable power systems to be built from a common set of modular building blocks. The project is developing, demonstrating and evaluating key modular power technologies that are expected to minimize non-recurring development costs, reduce recurring integration costs, as well as, mission operational and support costs. Further, modular power is expected to enhance mission flexibility, vehicle reliability, scalability and overall mission supportability. The AMPS project not only supports multi-vehicle architectures but should enable multi-mission capability as well. The AMPS technology development involves near term demonstrations involving developmental prototype vehicles and field demonstrations. These operational demonstrations not only serve as a means of evaluating modular technology but also provide feedback to developers that assure that they progress toward truly flexible and operationally supportable modular power architecture.

Oeftering, Richard C.; Kimnach, Greg L.; Fincannon, James; Mckissock,, Barbara I.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Wong, Edmond

2013-01-01

91

Molecular Analysis of the 18S rRNA Gene of Cryptosporidium Parasites from Patients with or without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections Living in Kenya, Malawi, Brazil, the United Kingdom, and Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 840-bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene was used to identify Cryptosporidium spp. recovered from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected patients from Kenya, Malawi, Brazil, the United King- dom, and Vietnam. Initial identification was by Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining. Confirmation was by nested PCR, targeting the most polymorphic region of the 18S rRNA gene. Genotyping was by restriction endonuclease

Wangeci Gatei; Julie Greensill; Richard W. Ashford; Luis E. Cuevas; Christopher M. Parry; Nigel A. Cunliffe; Nicholas J. Beeching; C. Anthony Hart

2003-01-01

92

Modular area surveillance system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the implementation of a modular, decentralized surveillance system which incorporates a range of sensors including TV cameras, ultra-sonic and IR devices, and optical barriers. The key features of the approach are fault tolerance, modularity, and scalability, which are achieved through the use of a Decentralized Kalman Filter (DKF) as the main data association and tracking technique, and Dempster- Schafer evidential reasoning as the basis for combining estimates of target identity from the various sensors. The surveillance system is able to track multiple objects from multiple sensors, and can provide estimates of target identity fused over time. Results are communicated to the user through a graphical interface implemented under X Windows, which supports the designation of 'exclusion zones' where the user can specify conditions for the triggering of an alarm.

Greenway, Phil

1994-07-01

93

SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Small Explorer (SMEX) missions have typically had three years between mission definition and launch. This short schedule has posed significant challenges with respect to solar array design and procurement. Typically, the solar panel geometry is frozen prior to going out with a procurement. However, with the SMEX schedule, it has been virtually impossible to freeze the geometry in time to avoid scheduling problems with integrating the solar panels to the spacecraft. A modular solar array architecture was developed to alleviate this problem. This approach involves procuring sufficient modules for multiple missions and assembling the modules onto a solar array framework that is unique to each mission. The modular approach removes the solar array from the critical path of the SMEX integration and testing schedule. It also reduces the cost per unit area of the solar arrays and facilitates the inclusion of experiments involving new solar cell or panel technologies in the SMEX missions.

Lyons, John W.; Day, John (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

94

Scalable and Modular Algorithms for Floating-Point Matrix Multiplication on FPGAs  

E-print Network

. The processing elements(PEs) used in our algorithms are modular so that floating-point units can be easilyScalable and Modular Algorithms for Floating-Point Matrix Multiplication on FPGAs Ling Zhuo computations. In this paper, we propose two FPGA-based algorithms for floating-point matrix multiplication

Prasanna, Viktor K.

95

Reconfiguration of Cube-Style Modular Robots Using O(log n) Parallel Moves  

E-print Network

Reconfiguration of Cube-Style Modular Robots Using O(log n) Parallel Moves Greg Aloupis1 , S simple units. 1 Introduction In this paper, we consider homogeneous self-reconfiguring modular robots com, stefanie.wuhrer@gmail.com Abstract. We consider a model of reconfigurable robot, introduced and prototyped

Demaine, Erik

96

Robust Modular Inverse Kinematics for Gesture Imitation in an Upper-Body Humanoid Robot  

E-print Network

Robust Modular Inverse Kinematics for Gesture Imitation in an Upper-Body Humanoid Robot Keng Peng of computing the joint angles for an upper body humanoid robot correspond- ing to task space motion data from units, and solve the inverse kinematics in a modular fashion based on the derivative of the inverse

Huang, Zhiyong

97

SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the most part, Goddard solar arrays have been custom designs that are unique to each mission. The solar panel design has been frozen prior to issuing an RFP for their procurement. There has typically been 6-9 months between RFP release and contract award, followed by an additional 24 months for performance of the contract. For Small Explorer (SMEX) missions, with three years between mission definition and launch, this has been a significant problem. The SMEX solar panels have been sufficiently small that the contract performance period has been reduced to 12-15 months. The bulk of this time is used up in the final design definition and fabrication of flight solar cell assemblies. Even so, it has been virtually impossible to have the spacecraft design at a level of maturity sufficient to freeze the solar panel geometry and release the RFP in time to avoid schedule problems with integrating the solar panels to the spacecraft. With that in mind, the SMEX-Lite project team developed a modular architecture for the assembly of solar arrays to greatly reduce the cost and schedule associated with the development of a mission- specific solar array. In the modular architecture, solar cells are fabricated onto small substrate panels. This modular panel (approximately 8.5" x 17" in this case) becomes the building block for constructing solar arrays for multiple missions with varying power requirements and geometrical arrangements. The mechanical framework that holds these modules together as a solar array is the only mission-unique design, changing in size and shape as required for each mission. There are several advantages to this approach. First, the typical solar array development cycle requires a mission unique design, procurement, and qualification including a custom qualification panel. With the modular architecture, a single qualification of the SMEX-Lite modules and the associated mechanical framework in a typical configuration provided a qualification by similarity to multiple missions. It then becomes possible to procure solar array modules in advance of mission definition and respond quickly and inexpensively to a selected mission's unique requirements. The solar array modular architecture allows the procurement of solar array modules before the array geometry has been frozen. This reduces the effect of procurement lead-time on the mission integration and test flow by as much as 50%. Second, by spreading the non-recurring costs over multiple missions, the cost per unit area is also reduced. In the case of the SMEX-Lite procurement, this reduction was by about one third of the cost per unit area compared to previous SMEX mission-unique procurements. Third, the modular architecture greatly facilitates the infusion of new solar cell technologies into flight programs as these technologies become available. New solar cell technologies need only be fabricated onto a standard-sized module to be incorporated into the next available mission. The modular solar array can be flown in a mixed configuration with some new and some standard cell technologies. Since each module has its own wiring terminals, the array can be arranged as desired electrically with little impact to cost and schedule. The solar array modular architecture does impose some additional constraints on systems and subsystem engineers. First, they must work with discrete solar array modules rather than size the array to fit exactly within an available envelope. The array area is constrained to an integer multiple of the module area. Second, the modular design is optimized for space radiation and thermal environments not greatly different from a typical SMEX LEO environment. For example, a mission with a highly elliptical orbit (e.g., Polar, SMEX/FAST) would require thicker coverglasses to protect the solar cells from the more intense radiation environment.

Lyons, John

2002-01-01

98

Fitness and structure landscapes for pre-miRNA processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processing from pre-miRNA to mature miRNA in plants involves a mechanism, which depends on an extended stem in the secondary structure of the pre-miRNA. Here, we show how natural selection acts on this secondary structure to produce evolutionary conservation of the processing mechanism together with modularity of the pre-miRNA molecules, making this molecular function independent of others. Our main results are: 1. Selection on miRNA processing can be described by a fitness landscape which depends directly on the secondary structure of the pre-miRNA. 2. This fitness landscape predicts the divergence of the phenotype between orthologous pre-miRNA molecules from different species. 3. Actual pre-miRNA structures are modular: their phenotype is significantly less affected by deleterious mutations in the remainder of the molecule than for random RNA molecules.

Bundschuh, Ralf; de Meaux, Juliette; Lassig, Michael

2011-03-01

99

Modular Containerless Processing Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modular Containerless Processing Facility (MCPF) of the Space Station Freedom, being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is described. The MCPF will be capable of positioning, manipulating, and performing processing operations on samples completely free of container walls. It will be comprised of a host facility and a series of interchangeable plug-in modules. Initial iterations of MCPF modules will be flown on the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory (USML) series of Shuttle flights. The Drop Physics Module schedualed to fly on USML-1 in March 1992 is also considered.

Morrison, Andrew D.

1990-01-01

100

Modular gamma systems  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear safeguards requires sensitive, easily operated instruments for rapid inspection of personnel and vehicles to ensure that no uranium or plutonium is being diverted. Two portable gamma-ray detection systems have been developed. The Modular Gamma System (MGS) is very sensitive and two or more systems can be connected for even better performance. The multiunit configuration can be deployed by motor vehicle for search of large areas too extensive to search on foot. The Programmable Rate Monitor (PRM) is less sensitive but much smaller and therefore is more suitable for search of vehicles, personnel, or smaller areas. The PRM is programmable, which implements measurement and alarm algorithms for individual applications.

Millegan, D.R.; Nixon, K.V.

1982-01-01

101

Modular decomposition and transitive orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A module of an undirected graph is a set X of nodes such for each node x not in X, either every member of X is adjacent to x, or no member of X is adjacent to x. There is a canonical linear-space representation for the modules of a graph, called the modular decomposition. Closely related to modular decomposition

Ross M. Mcconnell; Jeremy P. Spinrad

1999-01-01

102

Modular antenna design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical design of a modular antenna concept was developed sufficiently to allow manufacture of a working demonstration model of a module, to predict mass properties, and to make performance estimates for antenna reflectors composed of these modules. The primary features of this concept are: (1) each module is an autonomous structural element which can be attached to adjacent modules through a three point connection; (2) the upper surface is a folding hexagonal truss plate mechanism which serves as the supporting structure for a reflective surface; and (3) the entire truss and surface can be folded into a cylindrical envelope in which all truss elements are essentially parallel. The kinematic studies and engineering demonstration model fully verified the deployment kinematics, stowing philosophy, and deployment sequencing for large antenna modules. It was established that such modules can be stowed in packages as small as 25 cm in diameter, using 1.27 cm diameter structural tubes. The development activity indicates that this deployable modular approach towards building large structures in space will support erection of 450 m apertures for operation up to 3 GHz with a single space shuttle flight.

Ribble, J. W.

1981-01-01

103

Modular reflector concept study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of space erecting a 100 meter paraboloidal radio frequency reflector by joining a number of individually deployed structural modules. Three module design concepts were considered: (1) the deployable cell module (DCM); (2) the modular paraboloidal erectable truss antenna (Mod-PETA); and (3) the modular erectable truss antenna (META). With the space shuttle (STS) as the launch system, the methodology of packaging and stowing in the orbiter, and of dispensing, deploying and joining, in orbit, were studied and the necessary support equipment identified. The structural performance of the completed reflectors was evaluated and their overall operational capability and feasibility were evaluated and compared. The potential of the three concepts to maintain stable shape in the space environment was determined. Their ability to operate at radio frequencies of 1 GHz and higher was assessed assuming the reflector surface to consist of a number of flat, hexagonal facets. A parametric study was performed to determine figure degradation as a function of reflector size, flat facet size, and f/D ratio.

Vaughan, D. H.

1981-01-01

104

Terpene Biosynthesis: Modularity Rules  

PubMed Central

Terpenes are the largest class of small molecule natural products on Earth, and the most abundant by mass. Here, we summarize recent developments in elucidating the structure and function of the proteins involved in their biosynthesis. There are 6 main building blocks or modules (?,?,?,?,? and ?) that make up the structures of these enzymes: the ?? and ?? head-to-tail trans-prenyl transferases that produce trans-isoprenoid diphosphates from C5 precursors; the ? head-to-head prenyl transferases that convert these diphosphates into the tri-and tetra-terpene precursors of sterols, hopanoids and carotenoids; the ?? di- and tri-terpene synthases; the ? head-to-tail cis-prenyl transferases that produce the cis-isoprenoid diphosphates involved in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, and finally the ?, ?? and ??? terpene synthases that produce plant terpenes, with many of these modular enzymes having originated from ancestral ? and ? domain proteins. We also review progress in determining the structure and function of the two 4Fe-4S reductases involved in formation of the C5 diphosphates in many bacteria, where again, highly modular structures are found. PMID:22105807

Oldfield, Eric; Lin, Fu-Yang

2013-01-01

105

The dawn of the RNA World: Toward functional complexity through ligation of random RNA oligomers  

PubMed Central

A main unsolved problem in the RNA World scenario for the origin of life is how a template-dependent RNA polymerase ribozyme emerged from short RNA oligomers obtained by random polymerization on mineral surfaces. A number of computational studies have shown that the structural repertoire yielded by that process is dominated by topologically simple structures, notably hairpin-like ones. A fraction of these could display RNA ligase activity and catalyze the assembly of larger, eventually functional RNA molecules retaining their previous modular structure: molecular complexity increases but template replication is absent. This allows us to build up a stepwise model of ligation-based, modular evolution that could pave the way to the emergence of a ribozyme with RNA replicase activity, step at which information-driven Darwinian evolution would be triggered. PMID:19318464

Briones, Carlos; Stich, Michael; Manrubia, Susanna C.

2009-01-01

106

Development of energy efficient modular architectural textile structures. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research program was aimed at the development of energy efficient architecture using textile structures. Design concepts for modular units were developed using cell structures. Roof and wall panels were constructed and evaluated to demonstrate the design concept. Test results indicated tubular fiberglass cell structures could provide thermal insulation R-value well above 2.4. Exploratory study was also carried out to

F. K. Ko; J. A. Harris; A. Messinger

1983-01-01

107

A Modular Surgical Robotic System for Image Guided Percutaneous Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a robotic system for precise needle ins- ertion under radiological guidance for surgical interventions and for deli- very of therapy. It is extremely compact and is compatible with portable X-ray units and computer tomography scanners. The system presents a modular structure comprising a global positioning module, a miniature robotic module, and a radiolucent needle driver module. This

Dan Stoianovici; Louis L. Whitcomb; James H. Anderson; Russell H. Taylor; Louis R. Kavoussi

1998-01-01

108

Kernel for Modular Robot Applications: Automatic Modeling Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular robotic system consists of standardized joint and link units that can be assembled into various kinematic configurations for different types of tasks. For the control and simulation of such a system, manual derivation of the kinematic and dynamic models, as well as the error model for kinematic calibration, require tremendous effort, because the models constantly change as the

I-ming Chen; Song Huat Yeo; Guang Chen; Guilin Yang

1999-01-01

109

The principal mRNA nuclear export factor NXF1:NXT1 forms a symmetric binding platform that facilitates export of retroviral CTE-RNA.  

PubMed

The NXF1:NXT1 complex (also known as TAP:p15) is a general mRNA nuclear export factor that is conserved from yeast to humans. NXF1 is a modular protein constructed from four domains (RRM, LRR, NTF2-like and UBA domains). It is currently unclear how NXF1:NXT1 binds transcripts and whether there is higher organization of the NXF1 domains. We report here the 3.4 Å resolution crystal structure of the first three domains of human NXF1 together with NXT1 that has two copies of the complex in the asymmetric unit arranged to form an intimate domain-swapped dimer. In this dimer, the linkers between the NXF1 LRR and NTF2-like domains interact with NXT1, generating a 2-fold symmetric platform in which the RNA-binding RRM, LRR and NTF2-like domains are arranged on one face. In addition to bulk transcripts, NXF1:NXT1 also facilitates the export of unspliced retroviral genomic RNA from simple type-D retroviruses such as SRV-1 that contain a constitutive transport element (CTE), a cis-acting 2-fold symmetric RNA stem-loop motif. Complementary structural, biochemical and cellular techniques indicated that the formation of a symmetric RNA binding platform generated by dimerization of NXF1:NXT1 facilitates the recognition of CTE-RNA and promotes its nuclear export. PMID:25628361

Aibara, Shintaro; Katahira, Jun; Valkov, Eugene; Stewart, Murray

2015-02-18

110

Modular Flooring System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped onto durable, commercially available drywall carts for storage and/or transportation. This method of storage and transportation makes it very convenient and safe when handling large quantities of modules.

Thate, Robert

2012-01-01

111

Assessing and Improving Methods Used in Operational Taxonomic Unit-Based Approaches for 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis ? †  

PubMed Central

In spite of technical advances that have provided increases in orders of magnitude in sequencing coverage, microbial ecologists still grapple with how to interpret the genetic diversity represented by the 16S rRNA gene. Two widely used approaches put sequences into bins based on either their similarity to reference sequences (i.e., phylotyping) or their similarity to other sequences in the community (i.e., operational taxonomic units [OTUs]). In the present study, we investigate three issues related to the interpretation and implementation of OTU-based methods. First, we confirm the conventional wisdom that it is impossible to create an accurate distance-based threshold for defining taxonomic levels and instead advocate for a consensus-based method of classifying OTUs. Second, using a taxonomic-independent approach, we show that the average neighbor clustering algorithm produces more robust OTUs than other hierarchical and heuristic clustering algorithms. Third, we demonstrate several steps to reduce the computational burden of forming OTUs without sacrificing the robustness of the OTU assignment. Finally, by blending these solutions, we propose a new heuristic that has a minimal effect on the robustness of OTUs and significantly reduces the necessary time and memory requirements. The ability to quickly and accurately assign sequences to OTUs and then obtain taxonomic information for those OTUs will greatly improve OTU-based analyses and overcome many of the challenges encountered with phylotype-based methods. PMID:21421784

Schloss, Patrick D.; Westcott, Sarah L.

2011-01-01

112

Modularity in Cognition: Framing the Debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modularity has been the subject of intense debate in the cognitive sciences for more than 2 decades. In some cases, misunderstandings have impeded conceptual progress. Here the authors identify arguments about modularity that either have been abandoned or were never held by proponents of modular views of the mind. The authors review arguments that purport to undermine modularity, with particular

H. Clark Barrett; Robert Kurzban

2006-01-01

113

Modular error embedding  

DOEpatents

A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data containing noise in the low-order bits. The method applies to digital data representing analog signals, for example digital images. The method reduces the error introduced by other methods that replace the low-order bits with auxiliary information. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user through use of a digital key. The modular error embedding method includes a process to permute the order in which the host data values are processed. The method doubles the amount of auxiliary information that can be added to host data values, in comparison with bit-replacement methods for high bit-rate coding. The invention preserves human perception of the meaning and content of the host data, permitting the addition of auxiliary data in the amount of 50% or greater of the original host data.

Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Ettinger, J. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

114

Modular electronics packaging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.

Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

115

Modular arctic structures system  

SciTech Connect

A modular and floatable offshore exploration and production platform system for use in shallow arctic waters is disclosed. A concrete base member is floated to the exploration or production site, and ballated into a predredged cavity. The cavity and base are sized to provide a stable horizontal base 30 feet below the mean water/ice plane. An exploration or production platform having a massive steel base is floated to the site and ballasted into position on the base. Together, the platform, base and ballast provide a massive gravity structure that is capable of resisting large ice and wave forces that impinge on the structure. The steel platform has a sloping hourglass profile to deflect horizontal ice loads vertically, and convert the horizontal load to a vertical tensile stress, which assists in breaking the ice as it advances toward the structure.

Reusswig, G. H.

1984-12-04

116

Engineering RNA-binding proteins for biology  

PubMed Central

RNA-binding proteins play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression. Many have modular structures and combine relatively few common domains in various arrangements to recognize RNA sequences and/or structures. Recent progress in engineering the specificity of the PUF class RNA-binding proteins has shown that RNA-binding domains may be combined with various effector or functional domains to regulate the metabolism of targeted RNAs. Designer RNA-binding proteins with tailored sequence specificity will provide valuable tools for biochemical research as well as potential therapeutic applications. In this review, we discuss the suitability of various RNA-binding domains for engineering RNA-binding specificity, based on the structural basis for their recognition. We also compare various protein engineering and design methods applied to RNA-binding proteins, and discuss future applications of these proteins. PMID:23742071

Chen, Yu; Varani, Gabriele

2014-01-01

117

Structural mechanisms of RNA recognition: sequence-specific and non-specific RNA-binding proteins and the Cas9-RNA-DNA complex.  

PubMed

RNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in RNA processing and function as regulators of gene expression. Recent studies have defined the structural basis for RNA recognition by diverse RNA-binding motifs. While many RNA-binding proteins recognize RNA sequence non-specifically by associating with 5' or 3' RNA ends, sequence-specific recognition by RNA-binding proteins is typically achieved by combining multiple modular domains to form complex binding surfaces. In this review, we present examples of structures from different classes of RNA-binding proteins, identify the mechanisms utilized by them to target specific RNAs, and describe structural principles of how protein-protein interactions affect RNA recognition specificity. We also highlight the structural mechanism of sequence-dependent and -independent interactions in the Cas9-RNA-DNA complex. PMID:25432705

Ban, Ting; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

2014-11-29

118

FPGA Implementation of Highly Modular Fast Universal Discrete Transforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an FPGA implementation of highly modular universal discrete transforms. The implementation relies upon the unified discrete Fourier Hartley transform (UDFHT), based on which essential sinusoidal transforms including discrete Fourier transform (DFT), discrete Hartley transform (DHT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete sine transform (DST) can be realized. It employs a reconfigurable, scalable and modular architecture that consists of a memory-based FFT processor equipped with pre- and post-processing units. Besides, a pipelining technique is exploited to seamlessly harmonize the operation between each sub-module. Experimental results based on Xilinx Virtex-II Pro are given to examine the performance of the proposed UDFHT implementation. Two practical applications are also shown to demonstrate the flexibility and modularity of the proposed work.

Potipantong, Panan; Sirisuk, Phaophak; Oraintara, Soontorn; Worapishet, Apisak

119

Resilience of modular complex networks  

E-print Network

Complex networks often have a modular structure, where a number of tightly- connected groups of nodes (modules) have relatively few interconnections. Modularity had been shown to have an important effect on the evolution and stability of biological networks, on the scalability and efficiency of large-scale infrastructure, and the development of economic and social systems. An analytical framework for understanding modularity and its effects on network vulnerability is still missing. Through recent advances in the understanding of multilayer networks, however, it is now possible to develop a theoretical framework to systematically study this critical issue. Here we study, analytically and numerically, the resilience of modular networks under attacks on interconnected nodes, which exhibit high betweenness values and are often more exposed to failure. Our model provides new understandings into the feedback between structure and function in real world systems, and consequently has important implications as divers...

Shai, Saray; Kenett, Yoed N; Faust, Miriam; Dobson, Simon; Havlin, Shlomo

2014-01-01

120

RNA Interference in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

RNAi has become an essential tool in C. elegans research. This unit describes procedures for RNAi in C. elegans by microinjecting with dsRNA, feeding with bacteria expressing dsRNA, and soaking in dsRNA solution, as well as high-throughput methods for RNAi-based screens. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25559107

Conte, Darryl; MacNeil, Lesley T; Walhout, Albertha J M; Mello, Craig C

2015-01-01

121

Kernel for modular robot applications: Automatic modeling techniques  

SciTech Connect

A modular robotic system consists of standardized joint and link units that an be assembled into various kinematic configurations for different types of tasks. For the control and simulation of such a system, manual derivation of the kinematic and dynamic models, as well as the error model for kinematic calibration, require tremendous effort, because the models constantly change as the robot geometry is altered after module reconfiguration. This paper presents a frame-work to facilitate the model-generation procedure for the control and simulation of the modular robot system. A graph technique, termed kinematic graphs and realized through assembly incidence matrices (AIM), is introduced to represent the module-assembly sequence and robot geometry. The kinematics and dynamics are formulated based on a local representation of the theory of lie groups and Lie algebras. The automatic model-generation procedure starts with a given assembly graph of the modular robot. Kinematic, dynamic, and error models of the robot are then established, based on the local representations and iterative graph-traversing algorithms. This approach can be applied to a modular robot with both serial and branch-type geometries, and arbitrary degrees of freedom. Furthermore, the AIM of the robot naturally leads to solving the task-oriented optimal configuration problem in modular robots. There is no need to maintain a huge library of robot models, and the footprint of the overall software system can be reduced.

Chen, I.M.; Yeo, S.H.; Chen, G. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). School of Mechanical and production Engineering] [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). School of Mechanical and production Engineering; Yang, G. [Gintic Inst. of Manufacturing Technology (Singapore). Automation Technology Div.] [Gintic Inst. of Manufacturing Technology (Singapore). Automation Technology Div.

1999-02-01

122

Modular designs highlight several new rigs  

SciTech Connect

A new platform drilling rig for offshore Trinidad and two new land rigs for the former Soviet Union feature the latest in drilling and construction technology and modular components for quick rig up/rig down. The Sundowner 801 was mock-up tested in Galveston, TX, a few weeks ago in preparation for its load-out to the Dolphin field offshore Trinidad. Two other new units, UNOC 500 DE series land rigs, were recently constructed and mock-up tested in Ekaterinburg, Russia, for upcoming exploratory work for RAO Gazprom, a large natural gas producer in Russia. These rigs are unique in that they were constructed from new components made both in the US and in Russia. The paper describes all three units.

Rappold, K.

1995-12-04

123

The molecular diversity of the 5S rRNA gene in Kengyilia alatavica (Drobov) J.L. Yang, Yen & Baum (Poaceae:Triticeae): potential genomic assignment of different rDNA units.  

PubMed

5S rRNA sequences from several accessions of Kengyilia alatavica, a member of a tribe that includes wheat and wheat relatives, have been amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced. From an evaluation of the aligned sequences, five 5S unit classes have been discerned. One class consists of short units, while the other four contain longer units. BLAST searches of the GenBank database have allowed us to tentatively assign these to classes found in genomes of other species. For example, the short 5S unit class and one long 5S unit class were designated, respectively, "short P1" and "long P1" because of their match with the comparable sequenced 5S rDNA accessions of Agropyron cristatum, a carrier of the P genome. Another unit class, is coined as "long R1", because of its similarity to the units sequenced from Secale cereale and Secale vavilovii, carriers of the R genome. The third unit class was designated "long S1" and is found also in Elytrigia spicata, a carrier of the S genome. Implications of these findings on the possible association of some unit classes with cytological haplome and on concerted evolution are discussed. PMID:9134703

Baum, B R; Bailey, L G

1997-04-01

124

Modular Training Systems and Strategies: An International Meeting (Washington, D.C., May 11-12, 1992).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains materials from a conference to discuss modular approaches to curriculum design. The materials from the United States and five other countries address both national skills standards and modular systems of training delivery. An introduction provides brief summaries of the conference materials and the agenda. "National…

American Society for Training and Development, Alexandria, VA.

125

Scalable and Modular Algorithms for Floating-Point Matrix Multiplication on Ling Zhuo and Viktor K. Prasanna  

E-print Network

. The processing elements(PEs) used in our algo- rithms are modular so that floating-point units can be easilyScalable and Modular Algorithms for Floating-Point Matrix Multiplication on FPGAs £ Ling Zhuo, we propose two FPGA-based algorithms for floating-point matrix multiplication, a fundamental kernel

Prasanna, Viktor K.

126

RNA Interference  

MedlinePLUS

NIGMS Home > News & Meetings > Extras > RNAi RNA Interference Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is RNA interference? RNA interference (RNAi) is a natural process that cells ...

127

Towards a sustainable modular robot system for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates multiple perspectives of developing an unmanned robotic system suited for planetary terrains. In this case, the unmanned system consists of unit-modular robots. This type of robot has potential to be developed and maintained as a sustainable multi-robot system while located far from direct human intervention. Some characteristics that make this possible are: the cooperation, communication and connectivity among the robot modules, flexibility of individual robot modules, capability of self-healing in the case of a failed module and the ability to generate multiple gaits by means of reconfiguration. To demonstrate the effects of high flexibility of an individual robot module, multiple modules of a four-degree-of-freedom unit-modular robot were developed. The robot was equipped with a novel connector mechanism that made self-healing possible. Also, design strategies included the use of series elastic actuators for better robot-terrain interaction. In addition, various locomotion gaits were generated and explored using the robot modules, which is essential for a modular robot system to achieve robustness and thus successfully navigate and function in a planetary environment. To investigate multi-robot task completion, a biomimetic cooperative load transportation algorithm was developed and simulated. Also, a liquid motion-inspired theory was developed consisting of a large number of robot modules. This can be used to traverse obstacles that inevitably occur in maneuvering over rough terrains such as in a planetary exploration. Keywords: Modular robot, cooperative robots, biomimetics, planetary exploration, sustainability.

Hossain, S. G. M.

128

A novel strategy to design binding molecules harnessing the modular nature of repeat proteins.  

PubMed

Repeat proteins, such as ankyrin or leucine-rich repeat proteins, are ubiquitous binding molecules, which occur, unlike antibodies, intra- and extracellularly. Their unique modular architecture features repeating structural units (repeats), which stack together to form elongated repeat domains displaying variable and modular target-binding surfaces. Based on this modularity, we developed a novel strategy to generate combinatorial libraries of polypeptides with highly diversified binding specificities. This strategy includes the consensus design of self-compatible repeats displaying variable surface residues and their random assembly into repeat domains. We envision that such repeat protein libraries will be highly valuable sources for novel binding molecules especially suitable for intracellular applications. PMID:12650916

Forrer, Patrik; Stumpp, Michael T; Binz, H Kaspar; Plückthun, Andreas

2003-03-27

129

A neural network with modular hierarchical learning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention provides a new hierarchical approach for supervised neural learning of time dependent trajectories. The modular hierarchical methodology leads to architectures which are more structured than fully interconnected networks. The networks utilize a general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamic effects. The advantages include the sparsity of units and connections, the modular organization. A further advantage is that the learning is much more circumscribed learning than in fully interconnected systems. The present invention is embodied by a neural network including a plurality of neural modules each having a pre-established performance capability wherein each neural module has an output outputting present results of the performance capability and an input for changing the present results of the performance capabilitiy. For pattern recognition applications, the performance capability may be an oscillation capability producing a repeating wave pattern as the present results. In the preferred embodiment, each of the plurality of neural modules includes a pre-established capability portion and a performance adjustment portion connected to control the pre-established capability portion.

Baldi, Pierre F. (inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (inventor)

1994-01-01

130

Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits.  

PubMed

A key element enabling the microelectronic technology advances of the past decades has been the conceptualization of complex circuits with versatile functionalities as being composed of the proper combination of basic 'lumped' circuit elements (for example, inductors and capacitors). In contrast, modern nanophotonic systems are still far from a similar level of sophistication, partially because of the lack of modularization of their response in terms of basic building blocks. Here we demonstrate the design, assembly and characterization of relatively complex photonic nanocircuits by accurately positioning a number of metallic and dielectric nanoparticles acting as modular lumped elements. The nanoparticle clusters produce the desired spectral response described by simple circuit rules and are shown to be dynamically reconfigurable by modifying the direction or polarization of impinging signals. Our work represents an important step towards extending the powerful modular design tools of electronic circuits into nanophotonic systems. PMID:24871450

Shi, Jinwei; Monticone, Francesco; Elias, Sarah; Wu, Yanwen; Ratchford, Daniel; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

2014-01-01

131

47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.  

...modular transmitter must have buffered modulation/data inputs (if such inputs are...conditions of excessive data rates or over-modulation. (iii) The modular transmitter...minimum signaling amplitude, buffered modulation/data inputs, or power...

2014-10-01

132

Inherent controllability in modular ALMRs  

SciTech Connect

As part of recent development efforts on advanced reactor designs ANL has proposed the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) concept. The IFR concept is currently being applied to modular sized reactors which would be built in multiple power paks together with an integrated fuel cycle facility. It has been amply demonstrated that the concept as applied to the modular designs has significant advantages in regard to ATWS transients. Attention is now being focussed on determining whether or not those advantages deriving from the traits of the IFR can be translated to the operational/DBA (design basis accident) class of transients. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Sackett, J.I.; Sevy, R.H.; Wei, T.Y.C.

1989-01-01

133

VIDEO SENSOR BRICK FOR MODULAR ROBOTICS  

E-print Network

VIDEO SENSOR BRICK FOR MODULAR ROBOTICS PILOT (Project In Lieu of Thesis) Presented for the Master develops the hardware requirements and software techniques as a Video Sensor Brick for modular robotics. The Video Sensor Brick is completely modular in design developed to be mounted on a robotic platform

Abidi, Mongi A.

134

Emergence of Functional Modularity in Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin and structural and functional significance of modular design in organisms represent an important issue debated in many different disciplines. To be eventually successful in clarifying the evolutionary mechanisms underpinning the emergence of modular design in complex organisms, one should be able to cover all different levels of biological hierarchy. Specifically, one should be able to investigate modularity at

Raffaele Calabretta; Stefano Nolfi; Domenico Parisi; Günter P. Wagner

1998-01-01

135

Distributed replication algorithms for selfreconfiguring modular robots  

E-print Network

Distributed replication algorithms for self­reconfiguring modular robots Zack Butler , Satoshi Abstract. Self­reconfiguring modular robots have ability to reform themselves a wide variety different self­reconfiguring modular robots allow division locomo­ two three dimensional systems as recombination

Butler, Zack

136

Online optimization of modular robot locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive locomotion in unstructured and unpredictable environments is one of the most advertised features of modular robots in the literature. Autonomous modular robots are expected to adapt in the face of a dynamic environment, unexpected tasks and\\/or module failures. There are two levels of adaptation: within a static configuration, a chain-type modular robot can adapt its locomotion gait using its

Daniel MARBACH; Auke Jan IJSPEERT

2005-01-01

137

Obstacle Avoidance for Redundant Nonholonomic Mobile Modular  

E-print Network

mobile modular manipulators. On the basis of mod- ular robot concept, an integrated dynamic modeling potential function is devised [4]. As for investigations on modular robots or mobile manipulators, backObstacle Avoidance for Redundant Nonholonomic Mobile Modular Manipulators via Neural Fuzzy

Li, Yangmin

138

Design of a Modular Self-Recon£gurable Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the development of modu- lar self-recon£gurable robots. A survey of existing modular robots is given. Some limitations of homo- geneous designs and connection mechanisms are discussed. Therefore, we propose a heterogeneous self-recon£gurable robot with genderless, fail-safe connecting mechanisms. We initially design three basic types (joint, power and special units) of mod- ule.

Pakpong Jantapremjit; David Austin

2001-01-01

139

Control and Monitoring System for Modular Wireless Robot  

E-print Network

We introduce our concept on the modular wireless robot consisting of three main modules : main unit, data acquisition and data processing modules. We have developed a generic prototype with an integrated control and monitoring system to enhance its flexibility, and to enable simple operation through a web-based interface accessible wirelessly. In present paper, we focus on the microcontroller based hardware to enable data acquisition and remote mechanical control.

Firmansyah, I; Handoko, L T

2007-01-01

140

The modular integrated video system (MIVS)  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) is being developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for use in facilities where mains power is available and the separation of the Camera and Recording Control Unit is desirable. The system is being developed under the US Program for Technical Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards (POTAS). The MIVS is designed to be a user-friendly system, allowing operation with minimal effort and training. The system software, through the use of a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and four soft keys, leads the inspector through the setup procedures to accomplish the intended surveillance or maintenance task. Review of surveillance data is accomplished with the use of a Portable Review Station. This Review Station will aid the inspector in the review process and determine the number of missed video scenes during a surveillance period.

Schneider, S.L.; Sonnier, C.S.

1987-07-01

141

MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model -- Documentation of the Model-Layer Variable-Direction Horizontal Anisotropy (LVDA) capability of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) package  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents the model-layer variable-direction horizontal anisotropy (LVDA) capability of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package of MODFLOW-2000. The LVDA capability allows the principal directions of horizontal anisotropy to be different than the model-grid row and column directions, and for the directions to vary on a cell-by-cell basis within model layers. The HUF Package calculates effective hydraulic properties for model grid cells based on hydraulic properties of hydrogeologic units with thicknesses defined independently of the model layers. These hydraulic properties include, among other characteristics, hydraulic conductivity and a horizontal anisotropy ratio. Using the LVDA capability, horizontal anisotropy direction is defined for model grid cells within which one or more hydrogeologic units may occur. For each grid cell, the HUF Package calculates the effective horizontal hydraulic conductivity along the primary direction of anisotropy using the hydrogeologic-unit hydraulic conductivities, and calculates the effective horizontal hydraulic conductivity along the orthogonal anisotropy direction using the effective primary direction hydraulic conductivities and horizontal anisotropy ratios. The direction assigned to the model layer effective primary hydraulic conductivity is specified using a new data set defined by the LVDA capability, when active, to calculate coefficients needed to solve the ground-water flow equation. Use of the LVDA capability is illustrated in four simulation examples, which also serve to verify hydraulic heads, advective-travel paths, and sensitivities calculated using the LVDA capability. This version of the LVDA capability defines variable-direction horizontal anisotropy using model layers, not the hydrogeologic units defined by the HUF Package. This difference needs to be taken into account when designing model layers and hydrogeologic units to produce simulations that accurately represent a given field problem. This might be a reason, for example, to make model layer boundaries coincide with hydrogeologic-unit boundaries in all or part of a model grid.

Anderman, Evan R.; Kipp, K.L.; Hill, Mary C.; Valstar, Johan; Neupauer, R.M.

2002-01-01

142

Spreadsheet Investigations in Modular Arithmetic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular arithm etic has sometimes been regarded as a bit of a curiosity, at least by those unfamiliar with its importance to both abstract algebra and number theory, and with its numerous applications. However, with the ubiquity of fast digital computers, and the need for reliable digital security systems such as RSA, knowledge of this important branch of mathematics is

Steve Sugden

143

A Modular Voting Architecture ("Frogs")  

E-print Network

A Modular Voting Architecture ("Frogs") Shuki Bruck (CalTech) David Jefferson (Compaq) Ronald L. Rivest (MIT) (WOTE, August 28, 2001) #12;Outline !Moving from paper " electronic !Voting with frogs !Advantages of frogs !Security !Conclusions #12;What's next in voting? !We propose a practical voting system

Rivest, Ronald L.

144

Teaching Creation: A Modular Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article describes a modular approach to teaching Genesis 1-3 that values depth over breadth even in an introductory class. The module allows students to learn about the text and its original context by orienting discussion around contemporary issues of practical concern. Specifically, the creation-evolution debates provide an…

Bosworth, David A.

2007-01-01

145

Modular gravitational reference sensor development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (MGRS) is targeted as a next generation core instrument for both space gravitational wave detection and an array of other precision gravitational experiments in space. The objectives of the NASA funded program are to gain a system perspective of the MGRS, to develop key component technologies, and to establish important test platforms. Our original program

Ke-Xun Sun; Saps Buchman; Robert Byer; Dan DeBra; John Goebel; Graham Allen; John W. Conklin; Domenico Gerardi; Sei Higuchi; Nick Leindecker; Patrick Lu; Aaron Swank; Edgar Torres; Martin Trittler

2009-01-01

146

RNA isolation from mammalian samples.  

PubMed

RNA can be extracted from cultured cells, peripheral blood, bone marrow, plasma, serum, body fluids, and fresh or frozen tissues. RNA can also be extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Methods for RNA extraction can be divided into three groups: phenol/chloroform extraction, silica spin-column absorption, and isopycnic gradient centrifugation. Two different RNA isolation procedures are described in this unit. The first basic protocol describes a one-step isolation involving monophasic lysis with guanidine isothiocyanate and phenol followed by chloroform extraction. The second basic protocol describes a silica-column separation method for RNA isolation. PMID:23821441

Liu, Ximeng; Harada, Shuko

2013-07-01

147

Quasispecies theory for evolution of modularity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a quasispecies theory for the dynamics of modularity in populations of these systems. We show how the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment can be computed. We derive a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity and use it to derive a relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity. We also find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state. Finally, we compare our predictions to simulations of protein evolution and find them to be consistent.

Park, Jeong-Man; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Deem, Michael W.

2015-01-01

148

An artificial PPR scaffold for programmable RNA recognition.  

PubMed

Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins control diverse aspects of RNA metabolism in eukaryotic cells. Although recent computational and structural studies have provided insights into RNA recognition by PPR proteins, their highly insoluble nature and inconsistencies between predicted and observed modes of RNA binding have restricted our understanding of their biological functions and their use as tools. Here we use a consensus design strategy to create artificial PPR domains that are structurally robust and can be programmed for sequence-specific RNA binding. The atomic structures of these artificial PPR domains elucidate the structural basis for their stability and modelling of RNA-protein interactions provides mechanistic insights into the importance of RNA-binding residues and suggests modes of PPR-RNA association. The modular mode of RNA binding by PPR proteins holds great promise for the engineering of new tools to target RNA and to understand the mechanisms of gene regulation by natural PPR proteins. PMID:25517350

Coquille, Sandrine; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Chia, Tiongsun; Rajappa, Lional; Lingford, James P; Razif, Muhammad F M; Thore, Stéphane; Rackham, Oliver

2014-01-01

149

Multi-purpose modular plug and play architecture for space systems: Design, integration and testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design and integration of a modular architecture for a versatile, reconfigurable and re-adaptable space vehicle is presented with application to a small rover. To gain modularity, both at system and subsystem level, attention has been paid to the selection of interfaces and of an adequate data and power bus. A modular system, based on CAN and SpaceWire data communication bus, has been designed and a first level of distributed intelligence has been achieved using PIC micro-controllers in each subsystem. The modules have been designed with the same mechanical interface to obtain a 2D repetitive pattern. In order to test this architecture aboard a rover, some basic sub-systems, such as the power control unit, the battery control unit, the engine control unit and a PC104-based computer have been integrated and preliminarily tested.

Pitterà, T.; D'Errico, M.

2011-09-01

150

Diatom Adhesive Mucilage Contains Distinct Supramolecular Assemblies of a Single Modular Protein  

PubMed Central

A previous study used atomic force microscopy saw-tooth retraction curves to characterize the adhesive mucilage pads of the diatom Toxarium undulatum. The major mucilage component consisted of adhesive nanofibers (ANFs) made up of modular proteins arranged into cohesive units, each containing a set number of modular proteins aligned in parallel. This study shows that T. undulatum adhesive mucilage is a biocomposite containing four additional adhesive components, including single modular proteins that are likely to be the structural units from which the ANFs are assembled. Two further distinct supramolecular assemblies were observed to coexist with ANFs (ANFs II and III), along with a continuum of single modular proteins through oligomers made up of varying numbers of modular proteins arranged in parallel. All components of the adhesive biocomposite produce a characteristic force spectrum with the same interpeak distance (35.3 ± 0.3 (mean ± SE) nm), suggesting they are derived from discrete supramolecular assemblies of the same modular protein, but they are distinguishable from one another based on the rupture force, persistence length, and interpeak force measured from their saw-tooth curves. PMID:16443662

Dugdale, T. M.; Dagastine, R.; Chiovitti, A.; Wetherbee, R.

2006-01-01

151

Revision hip arthroplasty with a modular cementless stem: mid-term follow up.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing volume of revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) being performed in the United States, there are few studies reporting mid-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of modular fully porous-coated femoral stems. We retrospectively studied a consecutive series of patients who underwent revision THA with a modular extensively porous-coated femoral component at a single institution and by a single surgeon. The final study group included 54 hips (52 patients) followed for an average of 84 months. Ten-year survival rates with revision for any reason and revision for femoral loosening as endpoints were 94% and 100%, respectively. No complications regarding the modular junction were encountered. Of the 50 hips with adequate radiographs, all showed proximal ingrowth and 42 (84%) had both proximal and distal ingrowth. The modular, fully porous-coated femoral stem studied demonstrated excellent survivorship and bone ingrowth at mid-term follow up. PMID:23114191

Jibodh, Stefan R; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Anthony, Shawn G; Malchau, Henrik; Dempsey, Kyle E; Estok, Daniel M

2013-08-01

152

Antares: A low cost modular launch vehicle for the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle Antares is a revolutionary concept based on identical modular units, enabling the Antares to efficiently launch communications satellites, as well as heavy payloads, into Earth orbit and beyond. The basic unit of the modular system, a single Antares vehicle, is aimed at launching approximately 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) into low Earth orbit (LEO). When coupled with a standard Centaur upper stage, it is capable of placing 4000 kg (8800 lb) into geosynchronous Earth orbit (GE0). The Antares incorporates a reusable engine, the Dual Mixture Ratio Engine (DMRE), as its propulsive device. This enables Antares to compete and excel in the satellite launch market by dramatically reducing launch costs. Inherent in the design is the capability to attach several of these vehicles together to provide heavy lift capability. Any number of these vehicles can be attached depending on the payload and mission requirements. With a seven-vehicle configuration, the Antares' modular concept provides a heavy lift capability of approximately 70,000 kg (154,000 lb) to LEO. This expandability allows for a wide range of payload options, such as large Earth satellites, Space Station Freedom material, and interplanetary spacecraft, and also offers a significant cost savings over a mixed fleet based on different launch vehicles.

1991-01-01

153

Modular Inflation and the Curvaton  

SciTech Connect

Supersymmetric Peccei-Quinn models which provide a suitable candidate for the curvaton field are studied. These models also solve the {mu} problem, while generating the Peccei-Quinn scale dynamically. The curvaton is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson corresponding to an angular degree of freedom orthogonal to the axion. Its order parameter increases substantially following a phase transition during inflation.s results in a drastic amplification of the curvaton perturbations. Consequently, these models are able to accommodate low-scale inflation with Hubble parameter at the TeV scale such as modular inflation. We find that modular inflation with the orthogonal axion as curvaton can indeed account for the observations for natural values of the parameters. In particular, the spectral index can easily be made adequately lower than unity in accord with the recent data.

Lazarides, George [Physics Division, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

2007-01-12

154

Modularity in DL-Lite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a formal framework for modular ontologies by analysing four notions of conservative extension and their applications in refining, re-using, merging, and segment- ing ontologies. For two members of the DL-Lite family of description logics, we prove important meta-properties of these notions such as robustness under joins, vocabulary extensions, and iterated import of ontologies. The computational complexity of the

Roman Kontchakov; Frank Wolter; Michael Zakharyaschev

2007-01-01

155

Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks.

Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

2013-02-01

156

Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks

Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

2014-01-01

157

CAMAC modular programmable function generator  

SciTech Connect

A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

1980-12-01

158

The TOTEM modular trigger system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5?s. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated

M. G. Bagliesi; M. Berretti; R. Cecchi; V. Greco; S. Lami; G. Latino; E. Oliveri; E. Pedreschi; A. Scribano; F. Spinella; N. Turini

2010-01-01

159

MOCHA: Modularity in Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new interactive verification environment called M OCHA for the modular verifi- cation of heterogeneous systems. MOCHA differs from many existing model checkers in three significant ways: - For modeling, we replace unstructured state-transition graphs with th e heterogeneous mod- eling framework of reactive modules(AH96). The definition of reactive modules is inspired by formalisms such as Unity (CM88),

Rajeev Alur; Thomas A. Henzinger; Freddy Y. C. Mang; Shaz Qadeer; Sriram K. Rajamani; Serdar Tasiran

1998-01-01

160

X-ray structure of the fourth type of archaeal tRNA splicing endonuclease: insights into the evolution of a novel three-unit composition and a unique loop involved in broad substrate specificity  

PubMed Central

Cleavage of introns from precursor transfer RNAs (tRNAs) by tRNA splicing endonuclease (EndA) is essential for tRNA maturation in Archaea and Eukarya. In the past, archaeal EndAs were classified into three types (??2, ?4 and ?2?2) according to subunit composition. Recently, we have identified a fourth type of archaeal EndA from an uncultivated archaeon Candidatus Micrarchaeum acidiphilum, referred to as ARMAN-2, which is deeply branched within Euryarchaea. The ARMAN-2 EndA forms an ?2 homodimer and has broad substrate specificity like the ?2?2 type EndAs found in Crenarchaea and Nanoarchaea. However, the precise architecture of ARMAN-2 EndA was unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of the ?2 homodimer of ARMAN-2 EndA. The structure reveals that the ? protomer is separated into three novel units (?N, ? and ?C) fused by two distinct linkers, although the overall structure of ARMAN-2 EndA is similar to those of the other three types of archaeal EndAs. Structural comparison and mutational analyses reveal that an ARMAN-2 type-specific loop (ASL) is involved in the broad substrate specificity and that K161 in the ASL functions as the RNA recognition site. These findings suggest that the broad substrate specificities of ?2 and ?2?2 EndAs were separately acquired through different evolutionary processes. PMID:22941657

Hirata, Akira; Fujishima, Kosuke; Yamagami, Ryota; Kawamura, Takuya; Banfield, Jillian F.; Kanai, Akio; Hori, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

161

Microcontroller-based System for Modular Networked Robot  

E-print Network

A prototype of modular networked robot for autonomous monitoring works with full control over web through wireless connection has been developed. The robot is equipped with a particular set of built-in analyzing tools and appropriate censors, depending on its main purposes, to enable self-independent and real-time data acquisition and processing. The paper is focused on the microcontroller-based system to realize the modularity. The whole system is divided into three modules : main unit, data acquisition and data processing, while the analyzed results and all aspects of control and monitoring systems are fully accessible over an integrated web-interface. This concept leads to some unique features : enhancing flexibility due to enabling partial replacement of the modules according to user needs, easy access over web for remote users, and low development and maintenance cost due to software dominated components.

Firmansyah, I; Hermanto, B; Handoko, L T

2008-01-01

162

Role of a non-natural beta-C-nucleotide unit in DNA as a template for DNA and RNA syntheses and as a substrate for nucleolytic digestion.  

PubMed

A non-natural beta-C-nucleoside bearing a 3,4-dibenzyloxyphenyl group as a nucleobase (X) was synthesized and incorporated into a 34-mer oligomer with the sequence 5'-dTTTTTAAAAAAXATATAGCAGCGACATGTCACCG-3'. This synthetic oligonucleotide was examined for template activity in the enzymatic syntheses of DNA by the Klenow fragments of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I and the recombinant DNA polymerase I, and in the synthesis of RNA by the E. coli RNA polymerase core enzyme. As a result, the template-directed polymerization of both DNA and RNA was precisely terminated at the position of X. The X-containing oligonucleotide was also tested for digestion by an exonuclease, Exo III nuclease (Exo III), and an endonuclease, Mung Bean nuclease (MB). The results indicate that the artificial nucleobase X acts as a terminator for digestion by Exo III, whereas the site X becomes susceptible to digestion by MB. These findings provide a useful tool for the size control of products in the synthesis and degradation of nucleic acids. PMID:13678792

Aketani, Saeko; Tanaka, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira; Cao, Honghua; Tengeiji, Atsushi; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

2003-09-01

163

Modular construction of mammalian gene circuits using TALE transcriptional repressors.  

PubMed

An important goal of synthetic biology is the rational design and predictable implementation of synthetic gene circuits using standardized and interchangeable parts. However, engineering of complex circuits in mammalian cells is currently limited by the availability of well-characterized and orthogonal transcriptional repressors. Here, we introduce a library of 26 reversible transcription activator-like effector repressors (TALERs) that bind newly designed hybrid promoters and exert transcriptional repression through steric hindrance of key transcriptional initiation elements. We demonstrate that using the input-output transfer curves of our TALERs enables accurate prediction of the behavior of modularly assembled TALER cascade and switch circuits. We also show that TALER switches using feedback regulation exhibit improved accuracy for microRNA-based HeLa cancer cell classification versus HEK293 cells. Our TALER library is a valuable toolkit for modular engineering of synthetic circuits, enabling programmable manipulation of mammalian cells and helping elucidate design principles of coupled transcriptional and microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. PMID:25643171

Li, Yinqing; Jiang, Yun; Chen, He; Liao, Weixi; Li, Zhihua; Weiss, Ron; Xie, Zhen

2015-03-01

164

RNA radiolabeling.  

PubMed

Radioactive end-labeling is useful for visualizing and allowing the detection of nucleic acids at trace concentrations. Radioactive end-labeling can be carried out on RNA, DNA, or other modified nucleic acids. For RNA, the uses of end-labeling extend beyond simple detection of the intact RNA. A number of RNA molecules studied by biologists form three-dimensional structures in solution, and many of the techniques used to study these structures depend on the ability to visualize the RNA after fragmentation. Labeling at either the 5'- or 3'-end serves as a gateway into these structural analysis techniques (see Structural Analysis of RNA Backbone Using In-Line Probing), and protocols for these labeling procedures are described below (for a nonradiactive labeling protocol, see Fluorescently Labeling Synthetic RNAs). PMID:24034326

Porecha, Rishi; Herschlag, Daniel

2013-01-01

165

RNA interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conserved biological response to double-stranded RNA, known variously as RNA interference (RNAi) or post-transcriptional gene silencing, mediates resistance to both endogenous parasitic and exogenous pathogenic nucleic acids, and regulates the expression of protein-coding genes. RNAi has been cultivated as a means to manipulate gene expression experimentally and to probe gene function on a whole-genome scale.

Gregory J. Hannon

2002-01-01

166

RNA helicases  

PubMed Central

RNA helicases serve multiple roles at the virus-host interface. In some situations, RNA helicases are essential host factors to promote viral replication; however, in other cases they serve as a cellular sensor to trigger the antiviral state in response to viral infection. All family members share the conserved ATP-dependent catalytic core linked to different substrate recognition and protein-protein interaction domains. These flanking domains can be shuffled between different helicases to achieve functional diversity. This review summarizes recent studies, This review summarizes recent studies of RNA helicases in virus biology. First, RNA helicases are catalysts of progressive RNA-protein rearrangements that begin at gene transcription and culminate in release of infectious virus. Second, RNA helicases can act as a scaffold for alternative protein-protein interactions that can defeat the antiviral state. The mounting fundamental understanding of RNA helicases is being used to develop selective and efficacious drugs against human and animal pathogens. The analysis of RNA helicases in virus model systems continues to provide insights into virology, cell biology and immunology and has provided fresh perspective to continue unraveling the complexity of virus-host interactions. PMID:21173576

Ranji, Arnaz

2010-01-01

167

Vector-valued modular functions for the modular group and the hypergeometric equation  

E-print Network

A general theory of vector-valued modular functions, holomorphic in the upper half-plane, is presented for finite dimensional representations of the modular group. This also provides a description of vector-valued modular forms of arbitrary half-integer weight. It is shown that the space of these modular functions is spanned, as a module over the polynomials in J, by the columns of a matrix that satisfies an abstract hypergeometric equation, providing a simple solution of the Riemann-Hilbert problem for representations of the modular group. Restrictions on the coefficients of this differential equation implied by analyticity are discussed, and an inversion formula is presented that allows the determination of an arbitrary vector-valued modular function from its singular behavior. Questions of rationality and positivity of expansion coefficients are addressed. Closed expressions for the number of vector-valued modular forms of half-integer weight are given, and the general theory is illustrated on simple examples.

P. Bantay; T. Gannon

2007-05-17

168

An inverse of the modular invariant  

E-print Network

During the last few years of his life, Ramanujan had adamantly tried to invert the modular invariant. Subsequent efforts failed until May 30, 2011 when an explicit closed formula for an inverse was presented at the CCRAS (Moscow, Russia). This very formula, along with some special values of the modular invariant, is given in this paper.

Semjon Adlaj

2011-10-14

169

Conformal characters and the modular representation  

E-print Network

A general procedure is presented to determine, given any suitable representation of the modular group, the characters of all possible Rational Conformal Field Theories whose associated modular representation is the given one. The relevant ideas and methods are illustrated on two non-trivial examples: the Yang-Lee and the Ising models.

P. Bantay; T. Gannon

2005-12-01

170

On Classification of Modular Tensor Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We classify all unitary modular tensor categories (UMTCs) of rank ? 4. There are a total of 35 UMTCs of rank ? 4 up to ribbon\\u000a tensor equivalence. Since the distinction between the modular S-matrix S and ?S has both topological and physical significance, so in our convention there are a total of 70 UMTCs of rank ? 4. In particular,

Eric Rowell; Richard Stong; Zhenghan Wang

2009-01-01

171

Modular Construction: The Wave of the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modular construction of school buildings offers speed of construction, with 100 percent contractor responsibility for the completed structures. Under negotiated terms, modular projects can be purchased outright or through long-term leasing arrangements that provide ownership at the end of the lease period. (MLF)

Savage, Chuck

1989-01-01

172

Automatic locomotion pattern generation for modular robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locomotion is considered as most basic function of robots. In the case of ordinary robots, they are not needed to change locomotion pattern because their configurations are constant. For self-reconfigurable modular robots, since they can change their configurations, locomotion patterns must be prepared in advance and changed by each configuration. There are two types of locomotion used for modular robots.

Akiya Kamimura; Haruhisa Kurokawa; Eiichi Yoshida; Kohji Tomita; Satoshi Murata; Shigeru Kokaji

2003-01-01

173

Cartesian coordinate control for redundant modular robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on the kinematic control of redundant modular robots for trajectory tracing. Based on the geometric numerical inverse kinematic algorithm developed for modular robots, a new online control method is presented. In this method, the inverse kinematic solution can be optimized through constructing a weighted matrix. Following this approach, some fundamental interpolation algorithms are proposed for Cartesian space

Weihai Chen; I-Ming Chen; Wee Kiat Lim; Guilin Yang

2000-01-01

174

Distributed Task Negotiation in Modular Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular robots are a class of robotic systems that consist of many autonomous modules. Each module includes a set of sensors, actuators, and computational resources. Examples of modular robots are (self-) reconfigurable robots (1) (2) (3), and etc. Driven by the local information received from their sensors, multiple modules may simultaneously initiate tasks that are competing even conflicting with one

Behnam Salemi; Peter Will; Wei-Min Shen

2003-01-01

175

Automatic Configuration Recognition Methods in Modular Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing useful modular robot configurations composed of hundreds of modules is a significant challenge. Matching a new modular robot configuration to a library of known configurations is essential in identifying and applying control schemes. We present three different algorithms to address the problem of (a) matching and (b) mapping new robot configu- rations onto a library of known configurations. The

Michael Park; Sachin Chitta; Alex Teichman; Mark Yim

2008-01-01

176

Highly modular bow-tie gene circuits with programmable dynamic behaviour.  

PubMed

Synthetic gene circuits often require extensive mutual optimization of their components for successful operation, while modular and programmable design platforms are rare. A possible solution lies in the 'bow-tie' architecture, which stipulates a focal component-a 'knot'-uncoupling circuits' inputs and outputs, simplifying component swapping, and introducing additional layer of control. Here we construct, in cultured human cells, synthetic bow-tie circuits that transduce microRNA inputs into protein outputs with independently programmable logical and dynamic behaviour. The latter is adjusted via two different knot configurations: a transcriptional activator causing the outputs to track input changes reversibly, and a recombinase-based cascade, converting transient inputs into permanent actuation. We characterize the circuits in HEK293 cells, confirming their modularity and scalability, and validate them using endogenous microRNA inputs in additional cell lines. This platform can be used for biotechnological and biomedical applications in vitro, in vivo and potentially in human therapy. PMID:25311543

Prochazka, Laura; Angelici, Bartolomeo; Haefliger, Benjamin; Benenson, Yaakov

2014-01-01

177

Mechanically assisted taper corrosion in modular TKA.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to characterize the prevalence of taper damage in modular TKA components. One hundred ninety-eight modular components were revised after 3.9±4.2 years of implantation. Modular components were evaluated for fretting corrosion using a semi-quantitative 4-point scoring system. Design features and patient information were assessed as predictors of fretting corrosion damage. Mild-to-severe fretting corrosion (score ?2) was observed in 94/101 tapers on the modular femoral components and 90/97 tapers on the modular tibial components. Mixed alloy pairs (p=0.03), taper design (p<0.001), and component type (p=0.02) were associated with taper corrosion. The results from this study supported the hypothesis that there is taper corrosion in TKA. However the clinical implications remain unclear. PMID:24996586

Arnholt, Christina M; MacDonald, Daniel W; Tohfafarosh, Mariya; Gilbert, Jeremy L; Rimnac, Clare M; Kurtz, Steven M; Klein, Gregg; Mont, Michael A; Parvizi, Javad; Cates, Harold E; Lee, Gwo-Chin; Malkani, Arthur; Kraay, Mattheuw

2014-09-01

178

Modularity and community detection in bipartite networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modularity of a network quantifies the extent, relative to a null model network, to which vertices cluster into community groups. We define a null model appropriate for bipartite networks, and use it to define a bipartite modularity. The bipartite modularity is presented in terms of a modularity matrix B ; some key properties of the eigenspectrum of B are identified and used to describe an algorithm for identifying modules in bipartite networks. The algorithm is based on the idea that the modules in the two parts of the network are dependent, with each part mutually being used to induce the vertices for the other part into the modules. We apply the algorithm to real-world network data, showing that the algorithm successfully identifies the modular structure of bipartite networks.

Barber, Michael J.

2007-12-01

179

Overland Tidal Power Generation Using Modular Tidal Prism  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring sites with sufficient kinetic energy suitable for tidal power generation with sustained currents > 1 to 2 m/s are relatively rare. Yet sites with greater than 3 to 4 m of tidal range are relatively common around the U.S. coastline. Tidal potential does exist along the shoreline but is mostly distributed, and requires an approach which allows trapping and collection to also be conducted in a distributed manner. In this paper we examine the feasibility of generating sustainable tidal power using multiple nearshore tidal energy collection units and present the Modular Tidal Prism (MTP) basin concept. The proposed approach utilizes available tidal potential by conversion into tidal kinetic energy through cyclic expansion and drainage from shallow modular manufactured overland tidal prisms. A preliminary design and configuration of the modular tidal prism basin including inlet channel configuration and basin dimensions was developed. The unique design was shown to sustain momentum in the penstocks during flooding as well as ebbing tidal cycles. The unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was used to subject the proposed design to a number of sensitivity tests and to optimize the size, shape and configuration of MTP basin for peak power generation capacity. The results show that an artificial modular basin with a reasonable footprint (? 300 acres) has the potential to generate 10 to 20 kw average energy through the operation of a small turbine located near the basin outlet. The potential of generating a total of 500 kw to 1 MW of power through a 20 to 40 MTP basin tidal power farms distributed along the coastline of Puget Sound, Washington, is explored.

Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Copping, Andrea

2010-03-01

180

Learning modular policies for robotics.  

PubMed

A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behavior. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithm that is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of these requirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithms that are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that supports co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots. PMID:24966830

Neumann, Gerhard; Daniel, Christian; Paraschos, Alexandros; Kupcsik, Andras; Peters, Jan

2014-01-01

181

Learning modular policies for robotics  

PubMed Central

A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behavior. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithm that is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of these requirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithms that are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that supports co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots. PMID:24966830

Neumann, Gerhard; Daniel, Christian; Paraschos, Alexandros; Kupcsik, Andras; Peters, Jan

2014-01-01

182

Modular polynomials via isogeny volcanoes  

E-print Network

We present a new algorithm to compute the classical modular polynomial Phi_n in the rings Z[X,Y] and (Z/mZ)[X,Y], for a prime n and any positive integer m. Our approach uses the graph of n-isogenies to efficiently compute Phi_n mod p for many primes p of a suitable form, and then applies the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT). Under the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH), we achieve an expected running time of O(n^3 (log n)^3 log log n), and compute Phi_n mod m using O(n^2 (log n)^2 + n^2 log m) space. We have used the new algorithm to compute Phi_n with n over 5000, and Phi_n mod m with n over 20000. We also consider several modular functions g for which Phi_n^g is smaller than Phi_n, allowing us to handle n over 60000.

Broker, Reinier; Sutherland, Andrew V

2010-01-01

183

A modular BLSS simulation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for extraterrestrial use will be faced with coordination problems more acute than those in any ecosystem found on Earth. A related problem in BLSS design is providing an interface between the various life support processors, one that will allow for their coordination while still allowing for system expansion. A modular model is presented of a BLSS that interfaces system processors only with the material storage reservoirs, allowing those reservoirs to act as the principal buffers in the system and thus minimizing difficulties with processor coordination. The modular nature of the model allows independent development of the detailed submodels that exist within the model framework. Using this model, BLSS dynamics were investigated under normal conditions and under various failure modes. Partial and complete failures of various components, such as the waste processors or the plants themselves, drive transient responses in the model system, allowing the examination of the effectiveness of the system reservoirs as buffers. The results from simulations help to determine control strategies and BLSS design requirements. An evolved version could be used as an interactive control aid in a future BLSS.

Rummel, John D.; Volk, Tyler

1987-01-01

184

Hardware for Accelerating N-Modular Redundant Systems for High-Reliability Computing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hardware unit has been designed that reduces the cost, in terms of performance and power consumption, for implementing N-modular redundancy (NMR) in a multiprocessor device. The innovation monitors transactions to memory, and calculates a form of sumcheck on-the-fly, thereby relieving the processors of calculating the sumcheck in software

Dobbs, Carl, Sr.

2012-01-01

185

ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia 1107 The interest in both modular simulation and alternative  

E-print Network

hourly build- ing energy simulation programs developed in the United States in the past, BLAST (Building. At the same time, the U.S. Department of Energy has released its new building energy simulation program, EnergyPlus. Its integration of a modular HVAC simulation within the framework of a comprehensive building

186

Atomic force microscopy reveals the mechanical design of a modular protein  

E-print Network

of natural adhe- sives, cell adhesion proteins, and muscle proteins. The fundamental unit of elastic proteins­4) and in muscle con- traction (5­9). A remarkable feature of these proteins is their tandem modular construction. For example, the giant muscle protein titin is composed of several hundred Ig and fibronectin type III (Fn

Fernandez, Julio M.

187

Enumerating the NonIsomorphic Assembly Configurations of Modular Robotic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular robotic system consists of standardized joint and link units that can be assembled into a number of different kinematic configu rations to meet various task requirements. Owing to typical symme tries in module design, different assembly configurations may lead to robotic structures that are geometrically identical, or isomorphic. This paper focuses on the problem of enumerating the set

I.-Ming Chen; Joel W. Burdick

1998-01-01

188

Structuring Intelligence: The Role of Hierarchy, Modularity and Learning in Generating Intelligent  

E-print Network

with an efficiency that no single representation could provide. And animal-like intelligence does require variedStructuring Intelligence: The Role of Hierarchy, Modularity and Learning in Generating Intelligent Behaviour Joanna J. Bryson Artificial models of natural Intelligence University of Bath, United Kingdom

Bryson, Joanna J.

189

The stereochemistry of complex polyketide biosynthesis by modular polyketide synthases.  

PubMed

Polyketides are a diverse class of medically important natural products whose biosynthesis is catalysed by polyketide synthases (PKSs), in a fashion highly analogous to fatty acid biosynthesis. In modular PKSs, the polyketide chain is assembled by the successive condensation of activated carboxylic acid-derived units, where chain extension occurs with the intermediates remaining covalently bound to the enzyme, with the growing polyketide tethered to an acyl carrier domain (ACP). Carboxylated acyl-CoA precursors serve as activated donors that are selected by the acyltransferase domain (AT) providing extender units that are added to the growing chain by condensation catalysed by the ketosynthase domain (KS). The action of ketoreductase (KR), dehydratase (DH), and enoylreductase (ER) activities can result in unreduced, partially reduced, or fully reduced centres within the polyketide chain depending on which of these enzymes are present and active. The PKS-catalysed assembly process generates stereochemical diversity, because carbon-carbon double bonds may have either cis- or trans- geometry, and because of the chirality of centres bearing hydroxyl groups (where they are retained) and branching methyl groups (the latter arising from use of propionate extender units). This review shall cover the studies that have determined the stereochemistry in many of the reactions involved in polyketide biosynthesis by modular PKSs. PMID:21775938

Kwan, David H; Schulz, Frank

2011-01-01

190

Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the existing beam port configuration of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) was designed to test and validate the code package in its entirety, as well as its modules separately. The selected physics code, TORT, and the requisite data such as source distribution, cross-sections, and angular quadratures were comprehensively tested with these computational models. The modular feature and the parallel performance of the code package were also examined using these computational models. Another outcome of these computational models is to provide the necessary background information for determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The first mission of the code package was completed successfully by determining the optimal tank shape which was sought for the current beam tube configuration and two new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The performance of the new beam tube configurations and the current beam tube configuration were evaluated with the new optimal tank shapes determined by MOZAIK. Furthermore, the performance of the code package with the two different optimization strategies were analyzed showing that while GA is capable of achieving higher thermal beam intensity for a given beam tube setup, Min-max produces an optimal shape that is more amenable to machining and manufacturing. The optimal D2O moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK with the current beam port configuration improves the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam port exit end by 9.5%. Similarly, the new tangential beam port configuration (beam port near the core interface) with the optimal moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK improves the thermal neutron beam intensity by a factor of 1.4 compared to the existing beam port configuration (with the existing D2O moderator tank). Another new beam port configuration, radial beam tube configuration, with the optimal moderator tank shape increases the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam tube exit by a factor of 1.8. All these results

Bekar, Kursat B.

191

Modular, high power, variable R dynamic electrical load simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a previously developed basic variable R load simulator was entended to increase its power dissipation and transient handling capabilities. The delivered units satisfy all design requirements, and provides for a high power, modular simulation capability uniquely suited to the simulation of complex load responses. In addition to presenting conclusions and recommendations and pertinent background information, the report covers program accomplishments; describes the simulator basic circuits, transfer characteristic, protective features, assembly, and specifications; indicates the results of simulator evaluation, including burn-in and acceptance testing; provides acceptance test data; and summarizes the monthly progress reports.

Joncas, K. P.

1974-01-01

192

Modular Countermine Payload for Small Robots  

SciTech Connect

Payloads for small robotic platforms have historically been designed and implemented as platform and task specific solutions. A consequence of this approach is that payloads cannot be deployed on different robotic platforms without substantial re-engineering efforts. To address this issue, we developed a modular countermine payload that is designed from the ground-up to be platform agnostic. The payload consists of the multi-mission payload controller unit (PCU) coupled with the configurable mission specific threat detection, navigation and marking payloads. The multi-mission PCU has all the common electronics to control and interface to all the payloads. It also contains the embedded processor that can be used to run the navigational and control software. The PCU has a very flexible robot interface which can be configured to interface to various robot platforms. The threat detection payload consists of a two axis sweeping arm and the detector. The navigation payload consists of several perception sensors that are used for terrain mapping, obstacle detection and navigation. Finally, the marking payload consists of a dual-color paint marking system. Through the multi-mission PCU, all these payloads are packaged in a platform agnostic way to allow deployment on multiple robotic platforms, including Talon and Packbot.

Herman Herman; Doug Few; Roelof Versteeg; Jean-Sebastien Valois; Jeff McMahill; Michael Licitra; Edward Henciak

2010-04-01

193

Modular countermine payload for small robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Payloads for small robotic platforms have historically been designed and implemented as platform and task specific solutions. A consequence of this approach is that payloads cannot be deployed on different robotic platforms without substantial re-engineering efforts. To address this issue, we developed a modular countermine payload that is designed from the ground-up to be platform agnostic. The payload consists of the multi-mission payload controller unit (PCU) coupled with the configurable mission specific threat detection, navigation and marking payloads. The multi-mission PCU has all the common electronics to control and interface to all the payloads. It also contains the embedded processor that can be used to run the navigational and control software. The PCU has a very flexible robot interface which can be configured to interface to various robot platforms. The threat detection payload consists of a two axis sweeping arm and the detector. The navigation payload consists of several perception sensors that are used for terrain mapping, obstacle detection and navigation. Finally, the marking payload consists of a dual-color paint marking system. Through the multimission PCU, all these payloads are packaged in a platform agnostic way to allow deployment on multiple robotic platforms, including Talon and Packbot.

Herman, Herman; Few, Doug; Versteeg, Roelof; Valois, Jean-Sebastien; McMahill, Jeff; Licitra, Michael; Henciak, Edward

2010-04-01

194

Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment  

SciTech Connect

? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview purposes and is a sampling of advanced SMR concepts, which will be considered as part of the current DOE SMR program but whose estimated deployment time is beyond CAP’s current investment time horizon. Attachment I is the public DOE statement describing the present approach of their SMR Program.

Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

2012-06-01

195

Modularized CRISPR/dCas9 Effector Toolkit for Target-Specific Gene Regulation.  

PubMed

The ability to control mammalian genes in a synergistic mode using synthetic transcription factors is highly desirable in fields of tissue engineering, stem cell reprogramming and fundamental research. In this study, we developed a standardized toolkit utilizing an engineered CRISPR/Cas9 system that enables customizable gene regulation in mammalian cells. The RNA-guided dCas9 protein was implemented as a programmable transcriptional activator or repressor device, including targeting of endogenous loci. For facile assembly of single or multiple CRISPR RNAs, our toolkit comprises a modular RNAimer plasmid, which encodes the required noncoding RNA components. PMID:25524106

Agne, Michael; Blank, Ilona; Emhardt, Alica J; Gäbelein, Christoph G; Gawlas, Fenja; Gillich, Nadine; Gonschorek, Patrick; Juretschke, Thomas J; Krämer, Stefan D; Louis, Natalie; Müller, Anne; Rudorf, Alina; Schäfer, Lisa M; Scheidmann, Manuel C; Schmunk, Lisa J; Schwenk, Philipp M; Stammnitz, Maximilian R; Warmer, Philipp M; Weber, Wilfried; Fischer, Adrian; Kaufmann, Beate; Wagner, Hanna J; Radziwill, Gerald

2014-12-19

196

Performance of modularity maximization in practical contexts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although widely used in practice, the behavior and accuracy of the popular module identification technique called modularity maximization is not well understood in practical contexts. Here, we present a broad characterization of its performance in such situations. First, we revisit and clarify the resolution limit phenomenon for modularity maximization. Second, we show that the modularity function Q exhibits extreme degeneracies: it typically admits an exponential number of distinct high-scoring solutions and typically lacks a clear global maximum. Third, we derive the limiting behavior of the maximum modularity Qmax for one model of infinitely modular networks, showing that it depends strongly both on the size of the network and on the number of modules it contains. Finally, using three real-world metabolic networks as examples, we show that the degenerate solutions can fundamentally disagree on many, but not all, partition properties such as the composition of the largest modules and the distribution of module sizes. These results imply that the output of any modularity maximization procedure should be interpreted cautiously in scientific contexts. They also explain why many heuristics are often successful at finding high-scoring partitions in practice and why different heuristics can disagree on the modular structure of the same network. We conclude by discussing avenues for mitigating some of these behaviors, such as combining information from many degenerate solutions or using generative models.

Good, Benjamin H.; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Clauset, Aaron

2010-04-01

197

Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity  

SciTech Connect

The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is being the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the NP-hard class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining invariant its modularity. This size reduction allows the heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the Extremal Optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernandez, A.; Gomez, S.

2008-12-24

198

A MODULAR ACTUATOR ARCHITECTURE FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Complexes perform numerous hazardous material handling operations within the confines of a glovebox. The DOE is continuing to seek more efficient and safer means of handling these materials inside gloveboxes rather than the conventional, labor-intensive method through lead lined gloves. The use of glovebox automation technology will also be critical to the DOE in its efforts to comply with its mandated ALARA principles in handling the hazardous materials associated with the cleanup process. Operations associated with materials processing in a glovebox are similar to many industrial tasks, but the unique glovebox environment and Plutonium material properties create a unique set of challenges for conventional automation machinery. Such properties include: Low to moderate levels of ionizing radiation, high abrasiveness, corrosiveness, pyrophoric tendencies, rapid dispersal and permeation of environment, diffuses quickly, and possible incompatible material interaction. The glovebox presents the following challenges: existing gloveboxes may not be readily altered or even modified at all, complex mechanical operations for maintenance and repair are difficult or impossible through gloves, failed equipment may not be removed easily or at all. If a broken piece of equipment cannot be bagged-out through a glove port (approximately 216 mm (8 1/2 inch) diameter) it must remain in place. Broken equipment obstructs further operations. If it renders the entire glovebox unusable, a significant volume of waste is generated and an expensive system must be disposed of and replaced. A moderate sized glovebox alone costs between $250,000 and $500,000 and an equipment malfunction, which penetrates the glovebox and exposes the room to Plutonium or other toxic materials, is catastrophic. In addition to the human exposure issues, cleanup can easily run into the millions of dollars. A solution to the issues described above is ARM Automation Inc.'s (ARM) modular robotic manipulator technology developed for DOE EM operations, which addresses many of the issues discussed in the previous section. This manipulator system has the capability of custom configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as materials repackaging. The modular nature and quick connects of this system simplify installations into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. In the field of automation and robotics, a very common element is one used to generate motion for precise positioning of loads. One example of such an automation component would be an individual joint within an industrial robotic manipulator. This component consists of a tightly integrated package containing an electric motor, gear train, output support bearings, position sensors, brake, servo-amplifier and communications controller. Within the context of this paper, this key building block is referred to as an actuator module. With regard to the needs of the EM, [8] and [9] have shown that while each focus area has unique requirements for robotic automation at a system or manipulator level, their requirements at the actuator level are very similar. Thereby, a modular approach to automation which utilizes a small set of versatile actuator modules can be used to construct a broad range of robotic systems and automation cells suited to EM applications. By providing a pre-engineered, pre-integrated motion system to different robotics users within the DOE, new automation systems can be more quickly created without extensive expertise in motion control or the expense of building custom equipment.

None

2001-07-01

199

An Integrated Software-based Solution for Modular and Self-independent Networked Robot  

E-print Network

An integrated software-based solution for a modular and self-independent networked robot is introduced. The wirelessly operatable robot has been developed mainly for autonomous monitoring works with full control over web. The integrated software solution covers three components : a) the digital signal processing unit for data retrieval and monitoring system; b) the externally executable codes for control system; and c) the web programming for interfacing the end-users with the robot. It is argued that this integrated software-based approach is crucial to realize a flexible, modular and low development cost mobile monitoring apparatus.

Firmansyah, I; Hermanto, B; Handoko, L T

2008-01-01

200

Dynamics and Control for Nonholonomic Mobile Modular Manipulators  

E-print Network

of new types of robots without redesign and remanufacturing. Traditionally, modular manipulators to increase workspace of the entire robot. Building up the dynamic model for a nonholonomic mobile modular smooth time behaviour. #12;Li, Y., Liu, Y. In related work on modular robots, the modular robot concept

Li, Yangmin

201

BESST: A Miniature, Modular Radiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new radiometer assembly has been developed that incorporates modular design principles in order to provide flexibility and versatility. The assembly, shown in Figure 1, is made up of six modules plus a central cubical frame. A small thermal imaging detector is used to determine the temperature of remote objects. To improve the accuracy of the temperature reading, frequent calibration is required. The detector must view known temperature targets before viewing the remote object. Calibration is achieved by using a motorized fold mirror to select the desired scene the detector views. The motor steps the fold mirror through several positions, which allows the detector to view the calibration targets or the remote object. The details, features, and benefits of the radiometer are described in this paper.

Warden, Robert; Good, William; Baldwin-Stevens, Erik

2010-01-01

202

Modular generation of fluorescent phycobiliproteins.  

PubMed

Phycobiliproteins are brightly-fluorescent light-harvesting pigments for photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and red algae. They are also of interest as fluorescent biomarkers, but their heterologous generation in vivo has previously required multiple transformations. We report here a modular approach that requires only two DNA segments. The first codes for the apo-protein. The second codes for fusions capable of chromophore biosynthesis and its covalent attachment to the apo-protein; it contains the genes of heme oxygenase, a bilin reductase, and a chromophore lyase. Phycobiliproteins containing phycoerythrobilin (?(fluor) ~ 560 nm), phycourobilin (?(fluor) ~ 500 nm), phycocyanobilin (?(fluor) ~ 630 nm) or phycoviolobilin (?(fluor) ~ 580 nm) were obtained in high yield in E. coli. This approach facilitates chromophorylation studies of phycobiliproteins, as well as their use for fluorescence labeling based on their high fluorescence. PMID:23545837

Wu, Xian-Jun; Chang, Kun; Luo, Juan; Zhou, Ming; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong

2013-06-01

203

Analytical Spectroscopy Using Modular Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the development of three analytical spectroscopy experiments that compare the determination of salicylic acid (SA) content in aspirin tablets. The experiments are based on UV vis, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies and utilize modular spectroscopic components. Students assemble their own instruments, optimize them with respect to signal-to-noise, generate calibration curves, determine the SA content in retail aspirin tablets, and assign features in the respective spectra to functional groups within the active material. Using this approach in the discovery-based setting, the students gain invaluable insight into method-specific parameters, such as instrumental components, sample preparation, and analytical capability. In addition, the students learn the fundamentals of fiber optics and signal processing using the low-cost CCD based spectroscopic components.

Patterson, Brian M.; Danielson, Neil D.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Sommer, André J.

2003-12-01

204

Modular construction of dynamic nucleodendrimers.  

PubMed

Isoguanosine-containing dendritic small molecules self-assemble into decameric nucleodendrimers as observed by 1D?NMR spectroscopy, 2D?DOSY, and mass spectrometry. In particular, apolar building blocks readily form pentameric structures in acetonitrile while the presence of alkali metals promotes the formation of stable decameric assemblies with a preference for cesium ions. Remarkably, co-incubation of guanosine and isoguanosine-containing nucleodendrons results in the formation of decameric structures in absence of added salts. Further analysis of the mixture indicated that guanosine derivatives facilitate the formation, but are not involved in decameric structures; a process reminiscent of molecular crowding. This molecular system provides a powerful canvas for the rapid and modular assembly of polyfunctional dendritic macromolecules. PMID:24700537

Abet, Valentina; Evans, Robert; Guibbal, Florian; Caldarelli, Stefano; Rodriguez, Raphaël

2014-05-01

205

MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

2001-07-31

206

Osmotrophy in modular Ediacara organisms  

PubMed Central

The Ediacara biota include macroscopic, morphologically complex soft-bodied organisms that appear globally in the late Ediacaran Period (575–542 Ma). The physiology, feeding strategies, and functional morphology of the modular Ediacara organisms (rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs) remain debated but are critical for understanding their ecology and phylogeny. Their modular construction triggered numerous hypotheses concerning their likely feeding strategies, ranging from micro-to-macrophagus feeding to photoautotrophy to osmotrophy. Macrophagus feeding in rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs is inconsistent with their lack of oral openings, and photoautotrophy in rangeomorphs is contradicted by their habitats below the photic zone. Here, we combine theoretical models and empirical data to evaluate the feasibility of osmotrophy, which requires high surface area to volume (SA/V) ratios, as a primary feeding strategy of rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs. Although exclusively osmotrophic feeding in modern ecosystems is restricted to microscopic bacteria, this study suggests that (i) fractal branching of rangeomorph modules resulted in SA/V ratios comparable to those observed in modern osmotrophic bacteria, and (ii) rangeomorphs, and particularly erniettomorphs, could have achieved osmotrophic SA/V ratios similar to bacteria, provided their bodies included metabolically inert material. Thus, specific morphological adaptations observed in rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs may have represented strategies for overcoming physiological constraints that typically make osmotrophy prohibitive for macroscopic life forms. These results support the viability of osmotrophic feeding in rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs, help explain their taphonomic peculiarities, and point to the possible importance of earliest macroorganisms for cycling dissolved organic carbon that may have been present in abundance during Ediacaran times. PMID:19706530

Laflamme, Marc; Xiao, Shuhai; Kowalewski, Micha?

2009-01-01

207

Generalized epidemic process on modular networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social reinforcement and modular structure are two salient features observed in the spreading of behavior through social contacts. In order to investigate the interplay between these two features, we study the generalized epidemic process on modular networks with equal-sized finite communities and adjustable modularity. Using the analytical approach originally applied to clique-based random networks, we show that the system exhibits a bond-percolation type continuous phase transition for weak social reinforcement, whereas a discontinuous phase transition occurs for sufficiently strong social reinforcement. Our findings are numerically verified using the finite-size scaling analysis and the crossings of the bimodality coefficient.

Chung, Kihong; Baek, Yongjoo; Kim, Daniel; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

2014-05-01

208

A Modular Approach to Redundant Robot Control  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a modular approach for computing redundant robot kinematics. First some conventional redundant control methods are presented and shown to be `passive control laws`, i.e. they can be represented by a network consisting of passive elements. These networks are then put into modular form by applying scattering operator techniques. Additional subnetwork modules can then be added to further shape the motion. Modules for obstacle detection, joint limit avoidance, proximity sensing, and for imposing nonlinear velocity constraints are presented. The resulting redundant robot control system is modular, flexible and robust.

Anderson, R.J.

1997-12-01

209

Generalized epidemic process on modular networks.  

PubMed

Social reinforcement and modular structure are two salient features observed in the spreading of behavior through social contacts. In order to investigate the interplay between these two features, we study the generalized epidemic process on modular networks with equal-sized finite communities and adjustable modularity. Using the analytical approach originally applied to clique-based random networks, we show that the system exhibits a bond-percolation type continuous phase transition for weak social reinforcement, whereas a discontinuous phase transition occurs for sufficiently strong social reinforcement. Our findings are numerically verified using the finite-size scaling analysis and the crossings of the bimodality coefficient. PMID:25353848

Chung, Kihong; Baek, Yongjoo; Kim, Daniel; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

2014-05-01

210

The Modular Organization of Protein Interactions in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli serves as an excellent model for the study of fundamental cellular processes such as metabolism, signalling and gene expression. Understanding the function and organization of proteins within these processes is an important step towards a ‘systems’ view of E. coli. Integrating experimental and computational interaction data, we present a reliable network of 3,989 functional interactions between 1,941 E. coli proteins (?45% of its proteome). These were combined with a recently generated set of 3,888 high-quality physical interactions between 918 proteins and clustered to reveal 316 discrete modules. In addition to known protein complexes (e.g., RNA and DNA polymerases), we identified modules that represent biochemical pathways (e.g., nitrate regulation and cell wall biosynthesis) as well as batteries of functionally and evolutionarily related processes. To aid the interpretation of modular relationships, several case examples are presented, including both well characterized and novel biochemical systems. Together these data provide a global view of the modular organization of the E. coli proteome and yield unique insights into structural and evolutionary relationships in bacterial networks. PMID:19798435

Peregrín-Alvarez, José M.; Xiong, Xuejian; Su, Chong; Parkinson, John

2009-01-01

211

MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model -- Three additions to the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package: Alternative storage for the uppermost active cells, Flows in hydrogeologic units, and the Hydraulic-coductivity depth-dependence (KDEP) capability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package is an internal flow package for MODFLOW-2000 that allows the vertical geometry of the system hydrogeology to be defined differently than the definition of model layers. Effective hydraulic properties for the model layers are calculated using the hydraulic properties of the hydrogeologic units. The HUF Package can be used instead of the Block-Centered Flow (BCF) or the Layer Property Flow (LPF) Packages. This report documents three additions to the HUF Package.

Anderman, Evan R.; Hill, Mary C.

2003-01-01

212

Shifting Responsibly: The Importance of Striatal Modularity to Reinforcement Learning in Uncertain Environments  

PubMed Central

We propose here that the modular organization of the striatum reflects a context-sensitive modular learning architecture in which clustered striosome–matrisome domains participate in modular reinforcement learning (RL). Based on anatomical and physiological evidence, it has been suggested that the modular organization of the striatum could represent a learning architecture. There is not, however, a coherent view of how such a learning architecture could relate to the organization of striatal outputs into the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia, nor a clear formulation of how such a modular architecture relates to the RL functions attributed to the striatum. Here, we hypothesize that striosome–matrisome modules not only learn to bias behavior toward specific actions, as in standard RL, but also learn to assess their own relevance to the environmental context and modulate their own learning and activity on this basis. We further hypothesize that the contextual relevance or “responsibility” of modules is determined by errors in predictions of environmental features and that such responsibility is assigned by striosomes and conveyed to matrisomes via local circuit interneurons. To examine these hypotheses and to identify the general requirements for realizing this architecture in the nervous system, we developed a simple modular RL model. We then constructed a network model of basal ganglia circuitry that includes these modules and the direct and indirect pathways. Based on simple assumptions, this model suggests that while the direct pathway may promote actions based on striatal action values, the indirect pathway may act as a gating network that facilitates or suppresses behavioral modules on the basis of striatal responsibility signals. Our modeling functionally unites the modular compartmental organization of the striatum with the direct–indirect pathway divisions of the basal ganglia, a step that we suggest will have important clinical implications. PMID:21660099

Amemori, Ken-ichi; Gibb, Leif G.; Graybiel, Ann M.

2011-01-01

213

Evolutionary principles of modular gene regulation in yeasts  

PubMed Central

Divergence in gene regulation can play a major role in evolution. Here, we used a phylogenetic framework to measure mRNA profiles in 15 yeast species from the phylum Ascomycota and reconstruct the evolution of their modular regulatory programs along a time course of growth on glucose over 300 million years. We found that modules have diverged proportionally to phylogenetic distance, with prominent changes in gene regulation accompanying changes in lifestyle and ploidy, especially in carbon metabolism. Paralogs have significantly contributed to regulatory divergence, typically within a very short window from their duplication. Paralogs from a whole genome duplication (WGD) event have a uniquely substantial contribution that extends over a longer span. Similar patterns occur when considering the evolution of the heat shock regulatory program measured in eight of the species, suggesting that these are general evolutionary principles. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00603.001 PMID:23795289

Thompson, Dawn A; Roy, Sushmita; Chan, Michelle; Styczynsky, Mark P; Pfiffner, Jenna; French, Courtney; Socha, Amanda; Thielke, Anne; Napolitano, Sara; Muller, Paul; Kellis, Manolis; Konieczka, Jay H; Wapinski, Ilan; Regev, Aviv

2013-01-01

214

Recognition of duplex RNA by the deaminase domain of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR2.  

PubMed

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) hydrolytically deaminate adenosines (A) in a wide variety of duplex RNAs and misregulation of editing is correlated with human disease. However, our understanding of reaction selectivity is limited. ADARs are modular enzymes with multiple double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs) and a catalytic domain. While dsRBD binding is understood, little is known about ADAR catalytic domain/RNA interactions. Here we use a recently discovered RNA substrate that is rapidly deaminated by the isolated human ADAR2 deaminase domain (hADAR2-D) to probe these interactions. We introduced the nucleoside analog 8-azanebularine (8-azaN) into this RNA (and derived constructs) to mechanistically trap the protein-RNA complex without catalytic turnover for EMSA and ribonuclease footprinting analyses. EMSA showed that hADAR2-D requires duplex RNA and is sensitive to 2'-deoxy substitution at nucleotides opposite the editing site, the local sequence and 8-azaN nucleotide positioning on the duplex. Ribonuclease V1 footprinting shows that hADAR2-D protects ?23 nt on the edited strand around the editing site in an asymmetric fashion (?18 nt on the 5' side and ?5 nt on the 3' side). These studies provide a deeper understanding of the ADAR catalytic domain-RNA interaction and new tools for biophysical analysis of ADAR-RNA complexes. PMID:25564529

Phelps, Kelly J; Tran, Kiet; Eifler, Tristan; Erickson, Anna I; Fisher, Andrew J; Beal, Peter A

2015-01-30

215

Theory for the Emergence of Modularity in Complex Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a theory for the dynamics of modularity in these systems. We find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at long times. In addition, we find a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity at short times. We discuss a number of biological and social systems that can be understood with this framework. The modularity of the protein-protein interaction network increases when yeast are exposed to heat shock, and the modularity of the protein-protein networks in both yeast and E. coli appears to have increased over evolutionary time. Food webs in low-energy, stressful environments are more modular than those in plentiful environments, arid ecologies are more modular during droughts, and foraging of sea otters is more modular when food is limiting. The modularity of social networks changes over time: stock brokers instant messaging networks are more modular under stressful market conditions, criminal networks are more modular under increased police pressure, and world trade network modularity has decreased

Deem, Michael; Park, Jeong-Man

2013-03-01

216

Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

Hassani, V.

2000-06-18

217

Modular Heat Exchanger With Integral Heat Pipe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular heat exchanger with integral heat pipe transports heat from source to Stirling engine. Alternative to heat exchangers depending on integrities of thousands of brazed joints, contains only 40 brazed tubes.

Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

1992-01-01

218

Modular biowaste monitoring system conceptual design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the study was to define requirements and generate a conceptual design for a Modular Biowaste Monitoring System for specifically supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs.

Fogal, G. L.

1974-01-01

219

Modular digital holographic fringe data processing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software architecture suitable for reducing holographic fringe data into useful engineering data is developed and tested. The results, along with a detailed description of the proposed architecture for a Modular Digital Fringe Analysis System, are presented.

Downward, J. G.; Vavra, P. C.; Schebor, F. S.; Vest, C. M.

1985-01-01

220

Honeywell modular automation system computer software documentation  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a Computer Software Docuemntation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-21I.

Cunningham, L.T.

1997-01-20

221

XAUV : modular high maneuverability autonomous underwater vehicle  

E-print Network

The design and construction of a modular test bed autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is analyzed. Although a relatively common stacked-hull design is used, the state of the art is advanced through an aggressive power ...

Walker, Daniel G. (Daniel George)

2009-01-01

222

COMPONENT VERSION IN MODULAR TOTAL HIP REVISION  

PubMed Central

Morphologic changes of the proximal femur make revision total hip arthroplasty challenging. Metaphyseal retroversion and diaphyseal varus are common in this scenario. Twenty-one total hip revisions using a modular femoral prosthesis were examined by obtaining three radiographs (A/P, surgical lateral, and true lateral of the femur) to assemble CAD models for determining the range of modular component positioning. An average of femoral neck anteversion was observed. Seventeen of 21 cases (81%) had retroverted metaphyseal segments (?23.2°+/?17.4°) and/or varus stems (?32.1°+/?13.0°). Neck anteversion averaged 21.4°(+/?10.0°). One of 21 cases (5%) resulted in component orientation similar to a non-modular prosthesis. Modular components provide options to accommodate proximal femoral remodeling not afforded by monobloc stems in total hip revision surgery. PMID:19742077

Kopec, Michael A.; Pemberton, Aaron; Milbrandt, Joseph C.; Allan, Gordon

2009-01-01

223

Modular invariance for vertex operator superalgebras  

E-print Network

We generalize Zhu's theorem on modular invariance of characters of vertex operator algebras (VOAs) to the setting of vertex operator superalgebras (VOSAs) with rational, rather than integer, conformal weights. To recover ...

Van Ekeren, Jethro (Jethro William)

2012-01-01

224

In Search of the Biological Significance of Modular Structures in Protein Networks  

PubMed Central

Many complex networks such as computer and social networks exhibit modular structures, where links between nodes are much denser within modules than between modules. It is widely believed that cellular networks are also modular, reflecting the relative independence and coherence of different functional units in a cell. While many authors have claimed that observations from the yeast protein–protein interaction (PPI) network support the above hypothesis, the observed structural modularity may be an artifact because the current PPI data include interactions inferred from protein complexes through approaches that create modules (e.g., assigning pairwise interactions among all proteins in a complex). Here we analyze the yeast PPI network including protein complexes (PIC network) and excluding complexes (PEC network). We find that both PIC and PEC networks show a significantly greater structural modularity than that of randomly rewired networks. Nonetheless, there is little evidence that the structural modules correspond to functional units, particularly in the PEC network. More disturbingly, there is no evolutionary conservation among yeast, fly, and nematode modules at either the whole-module or protein-pair level. Neither is there a correlation between the evolutionary or phylogenetic conservation of a protein and the extent of its participation in various modules. Using computer simulation, we demonstrate that a higher-than-expected modularity can arise during network growth through a simple model of gene duplication, without natural selection for modularity. Taken together, our results suggest the intriguing possibility that the structural modules in the PPI network originated as an evolutionary byproduct without biological significance. PMID:17542644

Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Jianzhi

2007-01-01

225

Optimal Network Modularity for Information Diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the impact of community structure on information diffusion with the linear threshold model. Our results demonstrate that modular structure may have counterintuitive effects on information diffusion when social reinforcement is present. We show that strong communities can facilitate global diffusion by enhancing local, intracommunity spreading. Using both analytic approaches and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the existence of an optimal network modularity, where global diffusion requires the minimal number of early adopters.

Nematzadeh, Azadeh; Ferrara, Emilio; Flammini, Alessandro; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

2014-08-01

226

Concerns with modularity in total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Modularity is being diversified in total hip prostheses to increase surgical latitude in optimizing implant fixation and adjusting hip biomechanics. However, several problems have been clearly identified with implant modularity. First generation metal-backed acetabular components have shown deficiencies in the locking mechanism, the congruency and extent of polyethylene liner support, and polyethylene thickness, all of which have been implicated in accelerated polyethylene wear and failure. Evidence of screw motion against the metal backing, release of particulate material, and focal osteolysis have also been observed. At the head/neck junction evidence of corrosion and fretting has been documented with both similar-metal and mixed-metal taper combinations. Femoral prostheses with other sites of modularity present additional concerns with regard to mechanical integrity and generation of particulate debris by fretting. The modular junctions of three hip prostheses, the S-ROM, Infinity, and RMHS, were subjected to wet environment high cycle mechanical testing in a worst-case loading scenario. Preliminary results at relatively low loads up to three times body weight indicated gross stability of the modular junctions with evidence of minor fretting damage. Analysis of water solutions surrounding the modular junctions after ten to 20 million loading cycles yielded counts of one to three micron sized particles totalling several hundred thousand to several million. It is unknown what quantity of particulate material is sufficient to cause macrophage-mediated osteolysis or whether the debris from modular junctions can cause third-body wear of the articulating surfaces. Modular hip prostheses should be examined under stringent test conditions in order to characterize their fretting behavior and establish their mechanical limitations. PMID:8118986

Bobyn, J D; Tanzer, M; Krygier, J J; Dujovne, A R; Brooks, C E

1994-01-01

227

A 3-d modular gripper design tool  

SciTech Connect

Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line.

Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

1997-01-01

228

PolyBot: A Modular Reconfigurable Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular, self-reconfigurable robots show the promise of great versatility, robustness and low cost. The paper presents examples and issues in realizing those promises. PolyBot is a modular, self-reconfigurable system that is being used to explore the hardware reality of a robot with a large number of interchangeable modules. PolyBot has demonstrated the versatility promise, by implementing locomotion over a variety

Mark Yim; David G. Duff; Kimon D. Roufas

2000-01-01

229

Adaptive Coupled Oscillators for Modular Robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research we physically built several robotics modules that are able to self-discover a connection topology which allows them to generate a coordinated behavior as an integrated modular robot. We consider that this self-configurability of hardware module can potentially simplify the costly designing process of complicated robots and at the same time improve the resiliency of modular robots in the face of internal and external changes.

Hartono, Pitoyo; Nakane, Aito

230

Modular Power Converters for PV Applications  

SciTech Connect

This report describes technical opportunities to serve as parts of a technological roadmap for Shoals Technologies Group in power electronics for PV applications. There are many different power converter circuits that can be used for solar inverter applications. The present applications do not take advantage of the potential for using common modules. We envision that the development of a power electronics module could enable higher reliability by being durable and flexible. Modules would have fault current limiting features and detection circuits such that they can limit the current through the module from external faults and can identify and isolate internal faults such that the remaining modules can continue to operate with only minimal disturbance to the utility or customer. Development of a reliable, efficient, low-cost, power electronics module will be a key enabling technology for harnessing more power from solar panels and enable plug and play operation. Power electronics for computer power supplies, communication equipment, and transportation have all targeted reliability and modularity as key requirements and have begun concerted efforts to replace monolithic components with collections of common smart modules. This is happening on several levels including (1) device level with intelligent control, (2) functional module level, and (3) system module. This same effort is needed in power electronics for solar applications. Development of modular units will result in standard power electronic converters that will have a lower installed and operating cost for the overall system. These units will lead to increased adaptability and flexibility of solar inverters. Incorporating autonomous fault current limiting and reconfiguration capabilities into the modules and having redundant modules will lead to a durable converter that can withstand the rigors of solar power generation for more than 30 years. Our vision for the technology roadmap is that there is no need for detailed design of new power converters for each new application or installation. One set of modules and controllers can be pre-developed and the only design question would be how many modules need to be in series or parallel for the specific power requirement. Then, a designer can put the modules together and add the intelligent reconfigurable controller. The controller determines how many modules are connected, but it might also ask for user input for the specific application during setup. The modules include protection against faults and can reset it, if necessary. In case of a power device failure, the controller reconfigures itself to continue limited operation until repair which might be as simple as taking the faulty module out and inserting a new module. The result is cost savings in design, maintenance, repair, and a grid that is more reliable and available. This concept would be a perfect fit for the recently announced funding opportunity announcement (DE-FOA-0000653) on Plug and Play Photovoltaics.

Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

2012-05-01

231

Modular Wideband Active Vibration Absorber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of space experiments with previous missions shows a common theme. Some of the recent experiments are based on the scientific fundamentals of instruments of prior years. However, the main distinguishing characteristic is the embodiment of advances in engineering and manufacturing in order to extract clearer and sharper images and extend the limits of measurement. One area of importance to future missions is providing vibration free observation platforms at acceptable costs. It has been shown by researchers that vibration problems cannot be eliminated by passive isolation techniques alone. Therefore, various organizations have conducted research in the area of combining active and passive vibration control techniques. The essence of this paper is to present progress in what is believed to be a new concept in this arena. It is based on the notion that if one active element in a vibration transmission path can provide a reasonable vibration attenuation, two active elements in series may provide more control options and better results. The paper presents the functions of a modular split shaft linear actuator developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and University of Massachusetts Lowell. It discusses some of the control possibilities facilitated by the device. Some preliminary findings and problems are also discussed.

Zewari, Wahid; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Smith, David R.

1999-01-01

232

Figure 1. Recurrent modular network architecture Recurrent modular network architecture for sea ice  

E-print Network

Figure 1. Recurrent modular network architecture Recurrent modular network architecture for sea ice of SAR images of sea ice. Additionally to the local image information the algorithm uses spatial context images of sea ice in the Marginal Ice Zone. I. INTRODUCTION Following the Marr's paradigm, the different

Toussaint, Marc

233

Teleoperated Modular Robots for Lunar Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar system exploration is currently carried out by special purpose robots exquisitely designed for the anticipated tasks. However, all contingencies for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), human habitat preparation, and exploration will be difficult to anticipate. Furthermore, developing the necessary special purpose mechanisms for deployment and other capabilities is difficult and error prone. For example, the Galileo high gain antenna never opened, severely restricting the quantity of data returned by the spacecraft. Also, deployment hardware is used only once. To address these problems, we are developing teleoperated modular robots for lunar missions, including operations in transit from Earth. Teleoperation of lunar systems from Earth involves a three second speed-of-light delay, but experiment suggests that interactive operations are feasible.' Modular robots typically consist of many identical modules that pass power and data between them and can be reconfigured for different tasks providing great flexibility, inherent redundancy and graceful degradation as modules fail. Our design features a number of different hub, link, and joint modules to simplify the individual modules, lower structure cost, and provide specialized capabilities. Modular robots are well suited for space applications because of their extreme flexibility, inherent redundancy, high-density packing, and opportunities for mass production. Simple structural modules can be manufactured from lunar regolith in situ using molds or directed solar sintering. Software to direct and control modular robots is difficult to develop. We have used genetic algorithms to evolve both the morphology and control system for walking modular robots3 We are currently using evolvable system technology to evolve controllers for modular robots in the ISS glove box. Development of lunar modular robots will require software and physical simulators, including regolith simulation, to enable design and test of robot software and hardware, particularly automation software. Ready access to these simulators could provide opportunities for contest-driven development ala RoboCup (http://www.robocup.org/). Licensing of module designs could provide opportunities in the toy market and for spin-off applications.

Globus, Al; Hornby, Greg; Larchev, Greg; Hancher, Matt; Cannon, Howard; Lohn, Jason

2004-01-01

234

Endomorphisms on half-sided modular inclusions  

SciTech Connect

In algebraic quantum field theory we consider nets of von Neumann algebras indexed over regions of the space time. Wiesbrock [''Conformal quantum field theory and half-sided modular inclusions of von Neumann algebras,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 537-543 (1993)] has shown that strongly additive nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle are in correspondence with standard half-sided modular inclusions. We show that a finite index endomorphism on a half-sided modular inclusion extends to a finite index endomorphism on the corresponding net of von Neumann algebras on the circle. Moreover, we present another approach to encoding endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle into half-sided modular inclusions. There is a natural way to associate a weight to a Moebius covariant endomorphism. The properties of this weight have been studied by Bertozzini et al. [''Covariant sectors with infinite dimension and positivity of the energy,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 471-492 (1998)]. In this paper we show the converse, namely, how to associate a Moebius covariant endomorphism to a given weight under certain assumptions, thus obtaining a correspondence between a class of weights on a half-sided modular inclusion and a subclass of the Moebius covariant endomorphisms on the associated net of von Neumann algebras. This allows us to treat Moebius covariant endomorphisms in terms of weights on half-sided modular inclusions. As our aim is to provide a framework for treating endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras in terms of the apparently simpler objects of weights on half-sided modular inclusions, we lastly give some basic results for manipulations with such weights.

Svegstrup, Rolf Dyre [Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8914 (Japan)

2006-12-15

235

Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development  

SciTech Connect

Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main tasks was to design and validate new gate drive circuits to provide the capability of high temp operation. The new power stages and controls were later validated through extensive performance, durability and environmental tests. To further validate the design, two power stages and controls were integrated into a grid-tied load bank test fixture, a real application for field-testing. This fixture was designed to test motor drives with PWM output up to 50kW. In the second part of this program the new control topology based on sub-phases control and interphase transformer technology was successfully developed and validated. The main advantage of this technology is to reduce magnetic mass, loss and current ripple. This report summarizes the results of the advanced modular inverter technology development and details: (1) Power stage development and fabrication (2) Power stage validation testing (3) Grid-tied test fixture fabrication and initial testing (4) Interphase transformer technology development

Adam Szczepanek

2006-02-04

236

Modular Manufacturing Simulator: Users Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modular Manufacturing Simulator (MMS) has been developed for the beginning user of computer simulations. Consequently, the MMS cannot model complex systems that require branching and convergence logic. Once a user becomes more proficient in computer simulation and wants to add more complexity, the user is encouraged to use one of the many available commercial simulation systems. The (MMS) is based on the SSE5 that was developed in the early 1990's by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A recent survey by MSFC indicated that the simulator has been a major contributor to the economic impact of the MSFC technology transfer program. Many manufacturers have requested additional features for the SSE5. Consequently, the following features have been added to the MMS that are not available in the SSE5: runs under Windows, print option for both input parameters and output statistics, operator can be fixed at a station or assigned to a group of stations, operator movement based on time limit, part limit, or work-in-process (WIP) limit at next station. The movement options for a moveable operators are: go to station with largest WIP, rabbit chase where operator moves in circular sequence between stations, and push/pull where operator moves back and forth between stations. This user's manual contains the necessary information for installing the MMS on a PC, a description of the various MMS commands, and the solutions to a number of sample problems using the MMS. Also included in the beginning of this report is a brief discussion of technology transfer.

1997-01-01

237

Anatomical networks reveal the musculoskeletal modularity of the human head.  

PubMed

Mosaic evolution is a key mechanism that promotes robustness and evolvability in living beings. For the human head, to have a modular organization would imply that each phenotypic module could grow and function semi-independently. Delimiting the boundaries of head modules, and even assessing their existence, is essential to understand human evolution. Here we provide the first study of the human head using anatomical network analysis (AnNA), offering the most complete overview of the modularity of the head to date. Our analysis integrates the many biological dependences that tie hard and soft tissues together, arising as a consequence of development, growth, stresses and loads, and motion. We created an anatomical network model of the human head, where nodes represent anatomical units and links represent their physical articulations. The analysis of the human head network uncovers the presence of 10 musculoskeletal modules, deep-rooted in these biological dependences, of developmental and evolutionary significance. In sum, this study uncovers new anatomical and functional modules of the human head using a novel quantitative method that enables a more comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary anatomy of our lineage, including the evolution of facial expression and facial asymmetry. PMID:25656958

Esteve-Altava, Borja; Diogo, Rui; Smith, Christopher; Boughner, Julia C; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

2015-01-01

238

Prognostics Health Management for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security is a key national energy priority. Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMR), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts using non-light-water reactor (LWR) coolants such as liquid metal, helium, or liquid salt may provide a longer-term alternative to more conventional LWR-based concepts. The economics of AdvSMRs will be impacted by the reduced economy-of-scale savings when compared to traditional LWRs and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance costs. Therefore, achieving the full benefits of AdvSMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management. In this context, prognostic health management of passive components in AdvSMRs can play a key role in enabling the economic deployment of AdvSMRs. In this paper, the background of AdvSMRs is discussed from which requirements for PHM systems are derived. The particle filter technique is proposed as a prognostics framework for AdvSMR passive components and the suitability of the particle filter technique is illustrated by using it to forecast thermal creep degradation using a physics-of-failure model and based on a combination of types of measurements conceived for passive AdvSMR components.

Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

2013-10-18

239

A TAXONOMY OF MODULAR GRIME IN DESIGN PATTERNS Travis Steven Schanz  

E-print Network

A TAXONOMY OF MODULAR GRIME IN DESIGN PATTERNS by Travis Steven Schanz A thesis submitted .......................................................................................21 3. MODULAR GRIME TAXONOMY .........................

Dyer, Bill

240

Dielectrophoretic manipulation of ribosomal RNA  

PubMed Central

The manipulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) extracted from E. coli cells by dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been demonstrated over the range of 3 kHz–50 MHz using interdigitated microelectrodes. Quantitative measurement using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of the time dependent collection indicated a positive DEP response characterized by a plateau between 3 kHz and 1 MHz followed by a decrease in response at higher frequencies. Negative DEP was observed above 9 MHz. The positive DEP response below 1 MHz is described by the Clausius–Mossotti model and corresponds to an induced dipole moment of 3300 D with a polarizability of 7.8×10?32 F m2. The negative DEP response above 9 MHz indicates that the rRNA molecules exhibit a net moment of ?250 D, to give an effective permittivity value of 78.5 ?0, close to that of the aqueous suspending medium, and a relatively small surface conductance value of ?0.1 nS. This suggests that our rRNA samples have a fairly open structure accessible to the surrounding water molecules, with counterions strongly bound to the charged phosphate groups in the rRNA backbone. These results are the first demonstration of DEP for fast capture and release of rRNA units, opening new opportunities for rRNA-based biosensing devices. PMID:21799722

Giraud, Gerard; Pethig, Ronald; Schulze, Holger; Henihan, Grace; Terry, Jonathan G.; Menachery, Anoop; Ciani, Ilenia; Corrigan, Damion; Campbell, Colin J.; Mount, Andrew R.; Ghazal, Peter; Walton, Anthony J.; Crain, Jason; Bachmann, Till T.

2011-01-01

241

A modular integrated platform for microsensor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modular self-contained modular platform is described, for easy integration with micro sensors and other sensor elements. The platform is designed to be physically robust and suitable for harsh environments. The platform features switch able power modes, signal processing capabilities and extensive I/O for sensor and external device communications, data download and transmission. The modular design allows flexible implementation of required functionality depending on the particular application and also provides flexibility for packaging solutions. Two practical applications of the platform are presented to demonstrate its use. Firstly a variety of human exercise activities are investigated using accelerometers. Secondly a weather station made up of environmental sensors using off the shelf and prototype sensors is described. Both of these applications differ greatly in their operational requirements. These implementations demonstrate the adaptability of the platform for different applications.

James, Daniel A.; Davey, Neil P.; Gourdeas, Leon

2004-03-01

242

Self-assembly, modularity, and physical complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a quantitative measure of physical complexity, based on the amount of information required to build a given physical structure through self-assembly. Our procedure can be adapted to any given geometry, and thus, to any given type of physical structure that can be divided into building blocks. We illustrate our approach using self-assembling polyominoes, and demonstrate the breadth of its potential applications by quantifying the physical complexity of molecules and protein complexes. This measure is particularly well suited for the detection of symmetry and modularity in the underlying structure, and allows for a quantitative definition of structural modularity. Furthermore we use our approach to show that symmetric and modular structures are favored in biological self-assembly, for example in protein complexes. Lastly, we also introduce the notions of joint, mutual and conditional complexity, which provide a useful quantitative measure of the difference between physical structures.

Ahnert, S. E.; Johnston, I. G.; Fink, T. M. A.; Doye, J. P. K.; Louis, A. A.

2010-08-01

243

Modular cell biology: retroactivity and insulation Domitilla Del Vecchio1,  

E-print Network

Modular cell biology: retroactivity and insulation Domitilla Del Vecchio1, *, Alexander J Ninfa2 a remarkable insulation property, due to the fast timescales of the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation: computational methods; metabolic and regulatory networks Keywords: feedback; insulation; modularity; singular

Sontag, Eduardo

244

Dynamics of overlapping structures in modular networks.  

PubMed

Modularity is a fundamental feature of real networks, being intimately bounded to their functionality, i.e., to their capability of performing parallel tasks in a coordinated way. Although the modular structure of real graphs has been intensively studied, very little is known on the interactions between functional modules of a graph. Here, we present a general method based on synchronization of networking oscillators, that is able to detect overlapping structures in multimodular environments. We furthermore report the full analytical and theoretical description on the relationship between the overlapping dynamics and the underlying network topology. The method is illustrated by means of a series of applications. PMID:20866697

Almendral, J A; Leyva, I; Li, D; Sendiña-Nadal, I; Havlin, S; Boccaletti, S

2010-07-01

245

Value centric approach to target system modularization using multi-attribute tradespace exploration and network measures of component modularity  

E-print Network

Deciding where to modularize a system can have long-term impact on that systems value over its entire lifecycle. The modularity of a system can impact the systems flexibility, evolvability, scalability, mass, costs, and ...

Roark, Henry H., III

2012-01-01

246

Status of the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy)  

E-print Network

Status of the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) http://www.messyinterface.org ACCENT Workshop, June 2729, 2005 Oslo, Norway Patrick Jöckel #12;The Modular Earth Submodel System Why did we invent Applications with ECHAM5/MESSy) This presentation ... #12;The Modular Earth Submodel System General Circulation

Haak, Hein

247

Distributed replication algorithms for self-reconfiguring modular robots  

E-print Network

Distributed replication algorithms for self-reconfiguring modular robots Zack Butler , Satoshi Japan Abstract. Self-reconfiguring modular robots have the ability to reform themselves into a wide-reconfiguring modular robots that allow division and locomo- tion in two and three dimensional systems as well

Butler, Zack

248

Programming Modular Robots with Locally Distributed Predicates Michael De Rosa  

E-print Network

Programming Modular Robots with Locally Distributed Predicates Michael De Rosa Seth Goldstein Peter-- We present a high-level language for programming modular robotic systems, based on locally common, but diverse, modular robotic tasks. I. INTRODUCTION There are a significant number of challenges

Goldstein, Seth Copen

249

Autonomous Adaptation to Simultaneous Unexpected Changes in Modular Robots  

E-print Network

Autonomous Adaptation to Simultaneous Unexpected Changes in Modular Robots Nadeesha Ranasinghe@isi.edu Abstract-- To accomplish tasks in the real world, a robot (especially a modular and self-reconfigurable one/configurations in the environment. Failures, faults and reconfiguration that commonly occur in modular robots result in simultaneous

Shen, Wei-Min

250

Self-Reconfiguration Using Graph Grammars for Modular Robotics  

E-print Network

Self-Reconfiguration Using Graph Grammars for Modular Robotics Daniel Pickem Magnus Egerstedt: In this paper, we apply graph grammars to self-reconfigurable modular robots and present a method to reconfigure. INTRODUCTION Modular robotics is the assembly of simple individual modules into a larger, functional robot

Egerstedt, Magnus

251

Efficient Reconfiguration of Lattice-Based Modular Robots  

E-print Network

Efficient Reconfiguration of Lattice-Based Modular Robots Greg Aloupisa , Nadia Benbernoub , Mirela University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6 Canada Abstract Modular robots consist of many, one can achieve a recon- figuration of the global shape of a robot. The term modular comes from

Wuhrer, Stefanie

252

Linear Reconfiguration of Cube-Style Modular Robots Greg Aloupis  

E-print Network

Linear Reconfiguration of Cube-Style Modular Robots Greg Aloupis S´ebastien Collette Mirela Damian uncertainty of environmental models and/or task specifications, self-reconfiguring modular robots have. Self- reconfiguring modular robots are self sufficient systems that cannot only change their shape

Demaine, Erik

253

RNA Chaperones and the RNA Folding Problem*  

E-print Network

are referred to as "protein chaperones." In keeping with the accepted definition of protein chaperones, RNA influenced the nature of RNA/protein interactions in biology. The origin of this view is outlined as follows strongly favored over competing structures. RNA-binding proteins can help solve both RNA folding problems

Herschlag, Dan

254

RNA?Directed rna polymerases of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report in 1971 by Comuet and Astier?Manifacier that Chinese cabbage contains an active RNA?dependent RNA polymerase has been extended to all plants studied. This has met with much opposition because the central dogma of molecular biology requires no replication mechanism for RNA. Only upon RNA virus infection are such enzymes needed, and it was generally believed that these were

Albert Van Kammen

1986-01-01

255

Modular design in natural and biomimetic soft materials.  

PubMed

Under eons of evolutionary and environmental pressure, biological systems have developed strong and lightweight peptide-based polymeric materials by using the 20 naturally occurring amino acids as principal monomeric units. These materials outperform their man-made counterparts in the following ways: 1) multifunctionality/tunability, 2) adaptability/stimuli-responsiveness, 3) synthesis and processing under ambient and aqueous conditions, and 4) recyclability and biodegradability. The universal design strategy that affords these advanced properties involves "bottom-up" synthesis and modular, hierarchical organization both within and across multiple length-scales. The field of "biomimicry"-elucidating and co-opting nature's basic material design principles and molecular building blocks-is rapidly evolving. This Review describes what has been discovered about the structure and molecular mechanisms of natural polymeric materials, as well as the progress towards synthetic "mimics" of these remarkable systems. PMID:21898722

Kushner, Aaron M; Guan, Zhibin

2011-09-19

256

Modularisation: Aspects of the Debate in Germany and the United Kingdom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes four theme articles: "Some Remarks on Modular Training in the Federal Republic of Germany" (Zedler); "Modular Initial and Continuing Education and Training: A Comparative Survey of the Education System in the United Kingdom and Germany" (Hammer); "Modules in Vocational Training" (Wiegand); and "Modularisation and Qualification Reform in…

Zedler, Reinhard; And Others

1996-01-01

257

Safeguards and security considerations for a modular treatment system for plutonium residue stabilization  

SciTech Connect

Five sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear complex have significant amounts of plutonium residues. The DOE has begun programs for stabilization of these materials, but the existing facilities, infrastructure, and technical capacity are inadequate for the task. Additionally, sufficient funding is not available to enable all the facilities to meet current standards that are required for the facilities to be able to treat the residues. At the request of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, a team was assembled to study the feasibility of using modular systems to stabilize plutonium-bearing residues. This feasibility team prepared a basis document using typical residue profiles and fact sheets that documented treatment activities and operational programs that were required. From this basis document, a design team prepared a preconceptual design and a cost and schedule estimate for a stand-alone modular system to treat the residues. The modular treatment system was designed to be broken into functional units (modules) that are individually packaged and portable. These modules were designed to consider all operational phases including safeguards and security. This discussion will present the safeguards and security considerations and techniques that were identified for the modular treatment system.

Wilkey, D.D.; Zack, N.R.; Zygmunt, S.J. Jr.

1998-12-31

258

Enumerating the non-isomorphic assembly configurations of modular robotic systems  

SciTech Connect

A modular robotic system consists of standardized joint and link units that can be assembled into a number of different kinematic configurations to meet various task requirements. Owing to typical symmetries in module design, different assembly configurations may lead to robotic structures that are geometrically identical, or isomorphic. This paper focuses on the problem of enumerating the set of kinematically distinct modular robot assembly configurations from a given set of modules. The authors first consider how to enumerate the nonisomorphic (or geometrically unique) assembly configurations of a modular robotic system. The scheme is based on a novel representation of a modular robot assembly configuration as an assembly incidence matrix (AIM). Equivalence relations based on symmetries in module geometry and graph isomorphisms are defined on the AIMs. An enumeration algorithm to generate nonisomorphic assembly configurations based on this equivalence relation is proposed. They then present an algorithm to identify the kinematically equivalent robots. The application of these two algorithms will result in the set of kinematically unique assembly configurations. Examples demonstrate that this method is a significant improvement over a brute-force enumeration process.

Chen, I.M. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). School of Mechanical and Production Engineering; Burdick, J.W. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1998-07-01

259

Automatic Modularization by Speciation Paul Darwen  

E-print Network

algorithms is not new, no effort has been made towards using a speciated population as a complete modular system. We harness the specialized expertise in the species of an entire population, rather than a single by improving co­evolutionary game learning. Following earlier researchers, we learn to play iterated prisoner

Pollack, Jordan B.

260

A robust and modular synthesis of ynamides.  

PubMed

A flexible, modular ynamide synthesis is reported that uses trichloroethene as an inexpensive two carbon synthon. A wide range of amides and electrophiles can be converted to the corresponding ynamides, importantly including acyclic carbamates, hindered amides, and aryl amides. This method thus overcomes many of the limitations of other approaches to this useful functionality. PMID:25374291

Mansfield, Steven J; Campbell, Craig D; Jones, Michael W; Anderson, Edward A

2014-11-01

261

Modular Scheduling and Modern Foreign Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of the modular scheduling practices in the foreign language programs of the White Bear Lake, Minnesota secondary schools includes information on its general design, advantages, and problems. Following discussions of arrangements for scheduling, student-teacher contact time, classroom activities, more individualized instruction,…

Hibbard, Allen

1969-01-01

262

Modular Ontological Warehouse for Adaptative Information Search  

E-print Network

system, such as search engine, automatic text classification system, content management system, etcModular Ontological Warehouse for Adaptative Information Search Nesrine Ben Mustapha1,2 , Marie are focusing on improving the accuracy in search- ing and managing information (especially text data), because

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

263

Smart Memories: a modular reconfigurable architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in VLSI technology scaling demand that future comput- ing devices be narrowly focused to achieve high performance and high efficiency, yet also target the high volumes and low costs of widely applicable general purpose designs. To address these conflicting requirements, we propose a modular reconfig- urable architecture called Smart Memories, targeted at com- puting needs in the 0.1?m technology

Ken Mai; Tim Paaske; Nuwan Jayasena; Ron Ho; William J. Dally; Mark Horowitz

2000-01-01

264

Modular arithmetic weight and cyclic shifting.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This note shows that the modular arithmetic weight of an integer is invariant to the cyclic shifts of its radix-2 form. This result leads to a reduced search for the minimum weight codeword in a cyclic AN-code as well as to a better understanding of previous work.

Hartman, W. F.

1972-01-01

265

Modular polynomial arithmetic in partial fraction decomposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Algorithms for general partial fraction decomposition are obtained by using modular polynomial arithmetic. An algorithm is presented to compute inverses modulo a power of a polynomial in terms of inverses modulo that polynomial. This algorithm is used to make an improvement in the Kung-Tong partial fraction decomposition algorithm.

Abdali, S. K.; Caviness, B. F.; Pridor, A.

1977-01-01

266

Modular product architecture for productivity enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aims of this article are to introduce a modularization framework and a method for the formation of modules. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A methodological framework is presented to guide designers and engineers in the formation and selection of suitable modules in developing customized products. Detailed explanations of the framework are presented theoretically. This framework interacts with different product development

A. H. M. Shamsuzzoha

2011-01-01

267

1 INTRODUCTION The modular finitedifference groundwater flow  

E-print Network

1 INTRODUCTION The modular finite­difference ground­water flow model (MODFLOW) developed by the U­dimensional ground­water systems (McDonald & Harbaugh, 1988, Harbaugh & McDonald, 1996). MOC3D is a solute is optimal for advection­ dominated systems, which are typical of many field problems involving ground­water

Russell, Thomas F.

268

Propagation of uncertainty in modular measurement systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for designing modular instrumentation systems and software frameworks that inherently propagate measurement uncertainty according to current international best-practice. The method uses a mathematical procedure that is equivalent to the 'Law of Propagation of Uncertainty' presented in the \\

Blair Hall

2005-01-01

269

Cognitive Science 311: Modularity Spring Semester, 2005  

E-print Network

Cognitive Science 311: Modularity Spring Semester, 2005 Monday, 3:10 to 6:10 p.m., Blodget 109 robotics Overgaard Huffman Tasher Schumacher 21 Feb 1. Psychological & developmental evidence for M Marson. Methodologic & connectionist arguments against M Glick Tortell 2. Is M hypothesis based on faulty methodology

Long Jr., John H.

270

Modular Rocket Engine Control Software (MRECS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modular Rocket Engine Control Software (MRECS) Program is a technology demonstration effort designed to advance the state-of-the-art in launch vehicle propulsion systems. Its emphasis is on developing and demonstrating a modular software architecture for a generic, advanced engine control system that will result in lower software maintenance (operations) costs. It effectively accommodates software requirements changes that occur due to hardware. technology upgrades and engine development testing. Ground rules directed by MSFC were to optimize modularity and implement the software in the Ada programming language. MRECS system software and the software development environment utilize Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) products. This paper presents the objectives and benefits of the program. The software architecture, design, and development environment are described. MRECS tasks are defined and timing relationships given. Major accomplishment are listed. MRECS offers benefits to a wide variety of advanced technology programs in the areas of modular software, architecture, reuse software, and reduced software reverification time related to software changes. Currently, the program is focused on supporting MSFC in accomplishing a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) hot-fire test at Stennis Space Center and the Low Cost Boost Technology (LCBT) Program.

Tarrant, Charlie; Crook, Jerry

1997-01-01

271

A Modular Hierarchical Behavior-Based Architecture  

E-print Network

it performed on par with a human operator. 1 Introduction Briefly, our behavior system is a modular a lower layer decides the best direction in which to move to accomplish this task. By behavior-based, we mean that the system is decomposed into behaviors, each of which accomplishes a specific task

Veloso, Manuela M.

272

Modular Building Institute 2002 Educational Showcase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Some articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Re-Educating Schools" (Chuck Savage); (2) "Tax-Exempt Financing for Public Schools" (John Kennedy); (3) "Help Us Rebuild America" (Michael Roman); (4) "Case…

Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

273

Conservation of software science parameters across modularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current results in software science research provide a potentially powerful tool for software engineering management. Software science parameters including time required to write a program and program length can be estimated from parameters available at the time of program design specification. The application of these results to modularized programs is not straightforward since the derived parameters are nonlinear in vocabulary

Lawrence Hunter; Jose C. Ingojo

1977-01-01

274

Design of a modular digital computer system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design tradeoff study is reported for a modular spaceborne computer system that is responsive to many mission types and phases. The computer uses redundancy to maximize reliability, and multiprocessing to maximize processing capacity. Fault detection and recovery features provide optimal reliability.

1973-01-01

275

Mechanisms of failure of modular prostheses.  

PubMed

The expectations of wear and longevity of total hip components are based in large part on Charnley's early work. The evolution of the total hip from the one-piece, all-polyethylene acetabular component and fixed-head femoral component to the myriad of parts that comprise many of today's total hip designs has brought with it an array of potential mechanisms for failure that were not present in the earlier design. The risk/benefit ratio of these new designs may need to be reevaluated based on the additional mechanisms for failure that they provide. One hundred eleven acetabular hip prostheses and 139 femoral prostheses, all of modular configuration, retrieved by surgeons in the field, and sent for histologic examination, were analyzed for this study. A number of component characteristics were found to be correlated to early failure. These included acetabular designs with thin polyethylene bearings, poor fixation of the polyethylene to the metal shell, and geometries that permitted a moment to be applied to the bearing insert, tending to cause it to rotate in the metal shell. Modular femoral components were observed to be susceptible to corrosion, with titanium-alloy stems mated to cast cobalt-alloy heads at greatest risk attributable to a galvanic effect. All modular connections of femoral and acetabular components are at risk for disassociation and fretting; therefore, clever design and precision machining are necessary to produce prostheses in which the benefits of modularity exceed the risks. PMID:1446428

Collier, J P; Mayor, M B; Jensen, R E; Surprenant, V A; Surprenant, H P; McNamar, J L; Belec, L

1992-12-01

276

What Symbionts Teach us about Modularity  

PubMed Central

The main goal of Synthetic Biology (SB) is to apply engineering principles to biotechnology in order to make life easier to engineer. These engineering principles include modularity: decoupling of complex systems into smaller, orthogonal sub-systems that can be used in a range of different applications. The successful use of modules in engineering is expected to be reproduced in synthetic biological systems. But the difficulties experienced up to date with SB approaches question the short-term feasibility of designing life. Considering the “engineerable” nature of life, here we discuss the existence of modularity in natural living systems, particularly in symbiotic interactions, and compare the behavior of such systems, with those of engineered modules. We conclude that not only is modularity present but it is also common among living structures, and that symbioses are a new example of module-like sub-systems having high similarity with modularly designed ones. However, we also detect and stress fundamental differences between man-made and biological modules. Both similarities and differences should be taken into account in order to adapt SB design to biological laws. PMID:25023877

Porcar, Manuel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

2013-01-01

277

Modular Building Institute 2001 Educational Showcase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Some articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "An Architect's Perspective: Convincing a Skeptic" (Robert M. Iamello); (2) "66 Portables for San Mateo High" (Steven Williams); (3) "Case Study: Charter Schools"…

Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

278

Modular verification of software components in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new methodology for automatic verification of C programs against finite state machine specifications. Our approach is compositional, naturally enabling us to decompose the verification of large software system into subproblems of manageable complexity. The decomposition reflects the modularity in the software design. We use weak simulation as the notion of conformance between the program and its specification.

Sagar Chaki; Edmund M. Clarke; Alex Groce; Somesh Jha; Helmut Veith

2003-01-01

279

Modular Robot Motion Planning Using Similarity Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order for a modular self-reconfigurable robotic system to autonomously change from its current state to a desired one, it is critical to have a cost function (or metric) that reflects the effort required to reconfigure. A reconfiguration sequence can consist of single module motions, or the motion of a “branch” of modules. For single module motions, the minimization of

Chih-Jung Chiang; Gregory S. Chirikjian

2001-01-01

280

Motion simulation of a modular robotic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel modular robotic system that has the capability of both reconfiguration and robotic motion. A simulator has been developed to graphically design the system configuration, the reconfiguration process and motion of a cluster of the modules. Examples of the processes programmed by a human operator and generated automatically are presented

Haruhisa KUROKAWA; Kohji TOMITA; Eiichi YOSHIDA; Satoshi MURATA; Shigeru KOKAJI

2000-01-01

281

Modular Reconfigurable Robots in Space Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robots used for tasks in space have strict requirements. Modular reconfigurable robots have a variety of attributes that are advantageous for these conditions including the ability to serve as many tools at once saving weight, packing into compressed forms saving space and having large redundancy to increase robustness. Self-reconfigurable systems can also self-repair as well as automatically adapt to changing

Mark Yim; Kimon Roufas; David Duff; Ying Zhang; Craig Eldershaw; Samuel B. Homans

2003-01-01

282

TETROBOT modular robotics: prototype and experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

TETROBOT is a modular system for the design, implementation, and control of a class of highly redundant parallel robotic mechanisms. This paper describes new experimental results based on evaluation of prototype configurations with up to 18 nodes, 48 links and 15 actuators. TETROBOT is an actuated robotic structure which may be reassembled into many different configurations while still being controlled

Gregory J. Hamlin; Arthur C. Sanderson

1996-01-01

283

Neurofuzzy control of modular and reconfigurable robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the concept of modular and reconfigurable robotics emerged as a means for flexible and versatile automation. This concept allows for the execution of many complex tasks that cannot be performed by fixed-configuration manipulators. Nevertheless, reconfigurable robots introduce a challenging level of complexity to the problem of design of controllers that can handle a wide range of robot

William W. Melek; Andrew A. Goldenberg

2003-01-01

284

Useful metrics for modular robot motion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the problem of dynamic self-reconfiguration of a class of modular robotic systems referred to as metamorphic systems is examined. A metamorphic robotic system is a collection of mechatronic modules, each of which has the ability to connect, disconnect, and climb over adjacent modules. We examine the near-optimal reconfiguration of a metamorphic robot from an arbitrary initial configuration

Amit Pamecha; Imme Ebert-Uphoff; Gregory S. Chirikjian

1997-01-01

285

Dynamic Rolling for a Modular Loop Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconfigurable modular robots have the ability to use differ ent gaits and configurations to perform various tasks. A roll ing gait is the fastest currently implemented gait available for tra versal over level ground and shows dramatic improvements in efficiency. In this work, we analyze and implement a sensor-based feedback controller to achieve dynamic rolling for a loop robot. The

Jimmy Sastra; Sachin Chitta; Mark Yim

2006-01-01

286

Limbless Conforming Gaits with Modular Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimentation using the PolyBot modular robot of two limbless gaits which conform to environment. A conforming loop gait is low profile and traverses over a variety of obstacles where the ratio of the height of the obstacle to robot is up to 1.3. A concertina snake gait is capable of negotiating narrow passages (for example a width

Mark Yim; Craig Eldershaw; Ying Zhang; David Duff

2004-01-01

287

Spectral Characterization of Hierarchical Modularity in Product Architectures.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of the architectural modularity of products and systems, existing modularity metrics or algorithms do not account for overlapping and hierarchically embedded modules. This paper presents a graph theoretic spectral approach to characterize the degree of modular hierarchical-overlapping organization in the architecture of products and complex engineered systems. It is shown that the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of a product architecture graph can reveal layers of hidden modular or hierarchical modular organization that are not immediately visible in the predefined architectural description. We use the approach to analyze and discuss several design, management, and system resilience implications for complex engineered systems. PMID:24895491

Sarkar, Somwrita; Dong, Andy; Henderson, James A; Robinson, P A

2014-01-01

288

A fixed point theorem for contractions in modular metric spaces  

E-print Network

The notion of a (metric) modular on an arbitrary set and the corresponding modular space, more general than a metric space, were introduced and studied recently by the author [V. V. Chistyakov, Metric modulars and their application, Dokl. Math. 73(1) (2006) 32-35, and Modular metric spaces, I: Basic concepts, Nonlinear Anal. 72(1) (2010) 1-14]. In this paper we establish a fixed point theorem for contractive maps in modular spaces. It is related to contracting rather ``generalized average velocities'' than metric distances, and the successive approximations of fixed points converge to the fixed points in a weaker sense as compared to the metric convergence.

Chistyakov, Vyacheslav V

2011-01-01

289

Triggering of RNA Interference with RNA-RNA, RNA-DNA, and DNA-RNA Nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Control over cellular delivery of different functionalities and their synchronized activation is a challenging task. We report several RNA and RNA/DNA-based nanoparticles designed to conditionally activate the RNA interference in various human cells. These nanoparticles allow precise control over their formulation, stability in blood serum, and activation of multiple functionalities. Importantly, interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine activation assays indicate the significantly lower responses for DNA nanoparticles compared to the RNA counterparts, suggesting greater potential of these molecules for therapeutic use. PMID:25521794

Afonin, Kirill A; Viard, Mathias; Kagiampakis, Ioannis; Case, Christopher L; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Hofmann, Jen; Vrzak, Ashlee; Kireeva, Maria; Kasprzak, Wojciech K; KewalRamani, Vineet N; Shapiro, Bruce A

2015-01-27

290

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. In the meanwhile, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 3. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable liquid-rack cooling system in this study. The scope is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures, under various chilled-water supply temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with documented energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Xu, TengFang

2009-05-01

291

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Overhead Cooling Systems In Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. Naturally, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has, in the meanwhile, created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants' input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 1. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable overhead cooling system. The system was tested in a hot/cold aisle environment without separation, or containment or the hot or cold aisles. The scope of this report is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with a concurrent research study to document the energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Xu, TengFang T.

2009-05-01

292

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Cooling Systems with Hot Aisle Containment in Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. Naturally, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has, in the meanwhile, created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 2. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable pair of chilled water cooling modules that were tested in a hot/cold aisle environment with hot aisle containment. The scope of this report is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with a concurrent research study to document the energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Adams, Barbara J

2009-05-01

293

Development of modularity in the neural activity of children's brains.  

PubMed

We study how modularity of the human brain changes as children develop into adults. Theory suggests that modularity can enhance the response function of a networked system subject to changing external stimuli. Thus, greater cognitive performance might be achieved for more modular neural activity, and modularity might likely increase as children develop. The value of modularity calculated from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is observed to increase during childhood development and peak in young adulthood. Head motion is deconvolved from the fMRI data, and it is shown that the dependence of modularity on age is independent of the magnitude of head motion. A model is presented to illustrate how modularity can provide greater cognitive performance at short times, i.e. task switching. A fitness function is extracted from the model. Quasispecies theory is used to predict how the average modularity evolves with age, illustrating the increase of modularity during development from children to adults that arises from selection for rapid cognitive function in young adults. Experiments exploring the effect of modularity on cognitive performance are suggested. Modularity may be a potential biomarker for injury, rehabilitation, or disease. PMID:25619207

Chen, Man; Deem, Michael W

2015-01-01

294

Photovoltaic stand-alone modular systems, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final hardware and system qualification phase of a two part stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system development is covered. The final design incorporated modular, power blocks capable of expanding incrementally from 320 watts to twenty kilowatts (PK). The basic power unit (PU) was nominally rated 1.28 kWp. The controls units, power collection buses and main lugs, electrical protection subsystems, power switching, and load management circuits are housed in a common control enclosure. Photo-voltaic modules are electrically connected in a horizontal daisy-chain method via Amp Solarlok plugs mating with compatible connectors installed on the back side of each photovoltaic module. A pair of channel rails accommodate the mounting of the modules into a frameless panel support structure. Foundations are of a unique planter (tub-like) configuration to allow for world-wide deployment without restriction as to types of soil. One battery string capable of supplying approximately 240 ampere hours nominal of carryover power is specified for each basic power unit. Load prioritization and shedding circuits are included to protect critical loads and selectively shed and defer lower priority or noncritical power demands. The baseline system, operating at approximately 2 1/2 PUs (3.2 kW pk.) was installed and deployed. Qualification was successfully complete in March 1983; since that time, the demonstration system has logged approximately 3000 hours of continuous operation under load without major incident.

Naff, G. J.; Marshall, N. A.

1983-01-01

295

Implicit Contractive Mappings in Modular Metric and Fuzzy Metric Spaces  

PubMed Central

The notion of modular metric spaces being a natural generalization of classical modulars over linear spaces like Lebesgue, Orlicz, Musielak-Orlicz, Lorentz, Orlicz-Lorentz, and Calderon-Lozanovskii spaces was recently introduced. In this paper we investigate the existence of fixed points of generalized ?-admissible modular contractive mappings in modular metric spaces. As applications, we derive some new fixed point theorems in partially ordered modular metric spaces, Suzuki type fixed point theorems in modular metric spaces and new fixed point theorems for integral contractions. In last section, we develop an important relation between fuzzy metric and modular metric and deduce certain new fixed point results in triangular fuzzy metric spaces. Moreover, some examples are provided here to illustrate the usability of the obtained results. PMID:25003157

Hussain, N.; Salimi, P.

2014-01-01

296

James (Jim) Watson wearing his RNA Tie Club tieSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jim Watson in Moscow at the International Biochemical Congress, 1961, wearing his RNA Tie Club tie. RNA Tie Club members were united by their ties as well as a desir to understand the role of RNA in protein synthesis.

2008-03-26

297

Overview of the Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor building layout  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the third in a series of four papers, which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. It focuses in particular upon the plant building layout and modular design of the Westinghouse SMR. In the development of small modular reactors, the building layout is an area where the safety of the plant can be improved by applying new design approaches. This paper will present an overview of the Westinghouse SMR building layout and indicate how the design features improve the safety and robustness of the plant. The Westinghouse SMR is designed with no shared systems between individual reactor units. The main buildings inside the security fence are the nuclear island, the rad-waste building, the annex building, and the turbine building. All safety related equipment is located in the nuclear island, which is a seismic class 1 building. To further enhance the safety and robustness of the design, the reactor, containment, and most of the safety related equipment are located below grade on the nuclear island. This reduces the possibility of severe damage from external threats or natural disasters. Two safety related ultimate heat sink (UHS) water tanks that are used for decay heat removal are located above grade, but are redundant and physically separated as far as possible for improved safety. The reactor and containment vessel are located below grade in the center of the nuclear island. The rad-waste and other radioactive systems are located on the bottom floors to limit the radiation exposure to personnel. The Westinghouse SMR safety trains are completely separated into four unconnected quadrants of the building, with access between quadrants only allowed above grade. This is an improvement to conventional reactor design since it prevents failures of multiple trains during floods or fires and other external events. The main control room is located below grade, with a remote shutdown room in a different quadrant. All defense in depth systems are placed on the nuclear island, primarily above grade, while the safety systems are located on lower floors. The economics of the Westinghouse SMR challenges the established approach of large Light Water Reactors (LWR) that utilized the economies of scale to reach economic competitiveness. To serve the market expectation of smaller capital investment and cost competitive energy, a modular design approach is implemented within the Westinghouse SMR. The Westinghouse SMR building layout integrates the three basic design constraints of modularization; transportation, handling and module-joining technology. (authors)

Cronje, J. M. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Centurion (South Africa); Van Wyk, J. J.; Memmott, M. J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

2012-07-01

298

RNA as an Enzyme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews current findings that explain RNA's function as an enzyme in addition to being an informational molecule. Highlights recent research efforts and notes changes in the information base on RNA activity. Includes models and diagrams of RNA activity. (ML)

Cech, Thomas R.

1986-01-01

299

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 1: Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems  

SciTech Connect

This deliverable is the Final Report for Task 1, Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems, as part of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 1.1 looked into processes and technologies that have been commercially built at both large and small scales, with three technologies, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) of refinery gas oil, Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Expanders, chosen for further investigation. These technologies were chosen due to their applicability relative to other technologies being considered by NREL for future commercial applications, such as indirect gasification and fluidized bed tar cracking. Research in this subject is driven by an interest in the impact that scaling has on the cost and major process unit designs for commercial technologies. Conclusions from the evaluations performed could be applied to other technologies being considered for modular or skid-mounted applications.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01

300

Variation in the ITS-1 and ITS-2 rRNA genomic regions of Cytauxzoon felis from bobcats and pumas in the eastern United States and comparison with sequences from domestic cats.  

PubMed

Cytauxzoon felis, a tick-borne protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats in the United States. The natural reservoir for this parasite is the bobcat (Lynx rufus), which typically does not develop clinical signs. Although not likely important reservoirs, C. felis has also been detected in pumas (Puma concolor) in Florida and Louisiana. Recent studies suggest that specific genotypes of C. felis that circulate in domestic cats may be associated with variable clinical outcomes and specific spatial locations. In the current study, we investigated the intraspecific variation of the C. felis internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 rRNA regions from 145 wild felids (139 bobcats and six pumas) from 11 states (Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, South Carolina, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania). Unambiguous ITS-1 and ITS-2 data were obtained for 144 and 112 samples, respectively, and both ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences were obtained for 111 (77%) samples. For the ITS-1 region, sequences from 65 samples collected from wild felids were identical to those previously reported in domestic cats, while the other 79 sequences were unique. C. felis from 45 bobcats and one puma had ITS-1 sequences identical to the most common sequence reported from domestic cats. Within the ITS-2 region, sequences from 49 bobcats were identical to those previously reported in domestic cats and 63 sequences were unique (with some occurring in more than one bobcat). The most common ITS-2 sequence from domestic cats was also common in wild felids (31 bobcats and a puma). Samples from three pumas from Florida and two bobcats from Missouri had a 40- or 41-bp insert in the ITS-2 similar to one described previously in a domestic cat from Arkansas. Additionally, a previously undescribed 198- or 199-bp insert was detected in the ITS-2 sequence from four bobcats. Collectively, based on combined ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences, five different genotypes were detected in the wild felids. Genotype ITSa was the most common genotype (11 bobcats and one puma) and fewer numbers of ITSb, ITSe, ITSg, and ITSi were detected in bobcats. These data indicate that, based on ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences, numerous C. felis strains may circulate in wild felids. PMID:22776107

Shock, Barbara C; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Patton, Laura L; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Beringer, Jeff; Grove, Daniel M; Peek, Matt; Butfiloski, Joseph W; Hughes, Daymond W; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Cunningham, Mark W; Brown, Holly M; Peterson, David S; Yabsley, Michael J

2012-11-23

301

Indoor unit for electric heat pump  

DOEpatents

An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

1984-05-22

302

Small RNA in Legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Legumes (Fabaceae) are major crops for food and fodder production worldwide. They have the ability to develop nitrogen-fixing\\u000a root nodules in symbiosis with soil bacteria of the Rhizobium genus. Plant small RNA (sRNA) from 20 to 24 nt, either microRNA (miRNA) or short interfering RNA (siRNA), negatively regulate\\u000a the expression of specific target genes, at transcriptional or posttranscriptional levels, and

Ghazanfar Abbas Khan; Elodie Hudik; Céline Sorin; Caroline Hartmann; Martin Crespi; Christine Lelandais-Brière

303

A diagnostic expert system for aircraft generator control unit (GCU)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modular VSCF (variable-speed constant-frequency) generator families are described as using standard modules to reduce the maintenance cost and to improve the product's testability. A general diagnostic expert system shell that guides troubleshooting and modules or line replaceable units (LRUs) is introduced. An application of the diagnostic system to a particular LRU, the generator control unit (GCU) is reported. The

Ting-Long Ho; Robert A. Bayles; Bruce L. Havlicsek

1988-01-01

304

A diagnostic expert system for aircraft generator control unit (GCU)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modular VSCF (variable-speed constant-frequency) generator families are described as using standard modules to reduce the maintenance cost and to improve the product's testability. A general diagnostic expert system shell that guides troubleshooting of modules or line replaceable units (LRUs) is introduced. An application of the diagnostic system to a particular LRU, the generator control unit (GCU) is reported. The

Ting-Long Ho; Robert A. Bayles; Bruce L. Havlicsek

1988-01-01

305

RNA-Catalyzed RNA Polymerization: Accurate and  

E-print Network

the type of polymerization needed for RNA replication. The ribozyme uses nucleoside triphosphates of the appeal of this hypothesis comes from the realization that ribozymes would have been far easier], replication of a ribozyme requires only a single macromolecular activity: an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Bartel, David

306

Modular through-tubing casing gun  

SciTech Connect

A novel and improved form of through-tubing perforating assembly conformable for use in various types of cased well bores having particular application in those in which a tubing string is positioned within the cased well bore and where extremely high pressures are encountered at the bottom of the well. A plurality of shaped charges are mounted in a modular carrier comprised of a plurality of generally tubular members interconnected in end-to-end relation to one another, each tubular member having an internal cavity defining a horizontally directed seating portion for supporting one of the shaped charges therein. An end cap is disposed at the lower end of the modular carrier, and a blasting cord extends continuously through the tubular members across one end of the shaped charges for detonating the charges when positioned opposite to that part of the formation to be perforated.

Ibsen, B. G.

1985-03-05

307

Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

1975-01-01

308

Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant  

SciTech Connect

A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

1983-07-01

309

A comparison of modular tapered versus modular cylindrical stems for complex femoral revisions.  

PubMed

The effect of distal geometry in modular stems in revision THA remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare femoral revisions with modular tapered versus modular cylindrical stems in high-grade defects. A multicenter review of 105 femoral revisions with Paprosky III/IV defects using modular titanium stems (61 tapered; 44 cylindrical) was performed with an average follow-up of 5 years. Demographic data was comparable between groups. The tapered group had more IIIB and IV defects (51% vs. 20%; P < .01). The failure rate for component osseointegration was 1.6% in the tapered group and 15.9% in the cylindrical group (P = <.01). The rate of femoral component re-revision for any reason was 4.9% in the tapered group and 22.7% in the cylindrical group (P = .013). Modular tapered stems were associated with lower rates of stem failure and improved bone ongrowth compared to cylindrical stems despite being used in femurs with greater defects. PMID:24034509

2013-09-01

310

Modularity and predictability in cell signaling and decision making  

PubMed Central

Cells make decisions to differentiate, divide, or apoptose based on multiple signals of internal and external origin. These decisions are discrete outputs from dynamic networks comprised of signaling pathways. Yet the validity of this decomposition of regulatory proteins into distinct pathways is unclear because many regulatory proteins are pleiotropic and interact through cross-talk with components of other pathways. In addition to the deterministic complexity of interconnected networks, there is stochastic complexity arising from the fluctuations in concentrations of regulatory molecules. Even within a genetically identical population of cells grown in the same environment, cell-to-cell variations in mRNA and protein concentrations can be as high as 50% in yeast and even higher in mammalian cells. Thus, if everything is connected and stochastic, what hope could we have for a quantitative understanding of cellular decisions? Here we discuss the implications of recent advances in genomics, single-cell, and single-cell genomics technology for network modularity and cellular decisions. On the basis of these recent advances, we argue that most gene expression stochasticity and pathway interconnectivity is nonfunctional and that cellular decisions are likely much more predictable than previously expected. PMID:25368418

Atay, Oguzhan; Skotheim, Jan M.

2014-01-01

311

The ZEBRA activation domain: modular organization and mechanism of action.  

PubMed Central

An RNA polymerase II activator often contains several regions that contribute to its potency, an organization ostensibly analogous to the modular architecture of promoters and enhancers. The regulatory significance of this parallel organization has not been systematically explored. We considered this problem by examining the activation domain of the Epstein-Barr virus transactivator ZEBRA. We performed our experiments in vitro so that the activator concentrations, stabilities, and affinities for DNA could be monitored. ZEBRA and various amino-terminal deletion derivatives, expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli, were assayed in a HeLa cell nuclear extract for the ability to activate model reporter templates bearing one, three, five, and seven upstream ZEBRA binding sites. Our data show that ZEBRA contains four modules that contribute to its potency in vitro. The modules operate interchangeably with promoter sites to determine the transcriptional response such that the loss of modules can be compensated for by increasing promoter sites. Potassium permanganate footprinting was used to show that transcriptional stimulation is a consequence of the activator's ability to promote preinitiation complex assembly. Kinetic measurements of transcription complex assembly in a reconstituted system indicate that ZEBRA promotes formation of a subcomplex requiring the TFIIA and TFIID fractions, where TFIIA acts as an antirepressor. We propose a model in which the concentration of DNA-bound activation modules in the vicinity of the gene initiates synergistic transcription complex assembly. Images PMID:8413294

Chi, T; Carey, M

1993-01-01

312

Modular test facility for HTS insert coils  

SciTech Connect

The final beam cooling stages of a Muon Collider may require DC solenoid magnets with magnetic fields in the range of 40-50 T. In this paper we will present a modular test facility developed for the purpose of investigating very high field levels with available 2G HTS superconducting materials. Performance of available conductors is presented, together with magnetic calculations and evaluation of Lorentz forces distribution on the HTS coils. Finally a test of a double pancake coil is presented.

Lombardo, V; Bartalesi, A.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

2009-10-01

313

Couplings and spectra in modular inflation  

SciTech Connect

We analyze how the spectrum of perturbations produced in a multicomponent modular inflation model proposed by Kadota and Stewart depends on couplings between the two moduli. Although some simple direct couplings give essentially the same results as the original model, dn/dlnk{proportional_to}n-1, simple indirect couplings produce a power law spectrum, n-1=constant, which can naturally be close to scale invariant.

Park, Wan-Il; Stewart, Ewan D. [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-01-15

314

Modular architecture for robotics and teleoperation  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for modularization and discretization of real-time robot, telerobot and teleoperation systems using passive, network based control laws. Modules consist of network one-ports and two-ports. Wave variables and position information are passed between modules. The behavior of each module is decomposed into uncoupled linear-time-invariant, and coupled, nonlinear memoryless elements and then are separately discretized.

Anderson, Robert J. (11908 Ibex Ave., N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

1996-12-03

315

Modular tubular solar energy collector apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disclosure relates to a modular form of solar energy collector apparatus in which several double-wall glass tube collectors, each with vacuum jacket, depend from opposite sides of an elongated manifold. The manifold includes split halves of foamed polymer insulation and rigid fiberglass reinforced skin thereon, assembled about closed-looped, serpentine liquid carrying tubes preferably of metal or glass in U-tube

Nugent

1978-01-01

316

Distinguishing Exponent Digits by Observing Modular Subtractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse timing variations in an implementation of modular multiplication which has certain standard characteristics. This\\u000a shows that squarings and multiplications behave differently when averaged over a number of random observations. Since power\\u000a analysis can reveal such data, secret RSA exponents can be deduced if a standard square and multiply exponentiation algorithm\\u000a is used. No knowledge of the modulus or

Colin D. Walter; Susan Thompson

2001-01-01

317

Global vaccination strategies in Modular Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect of vaccinating networks with different growing strategies, using various techniques that require the complete knowledge of the network. The goal is to restrain the epidemic before it spreads throughout the network and target the few key nodes that will help contain it. Our target networks are chosen to have relatively large modularity index and various immunization techniques are applied to them.

Parousis-Orthodoxou, K. J.; Stamos, M. M.; Vlachos, D. S.

2013-02-01

318

Modular Approach to Physics: Colliding Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation illustrates conservation of momentum through the collision of two masses. The user can adjust the masses of the planets and observe that they always will collide at their center of mass if they start at rest relative to each other. The momentum and forces on the masses are shown in the illustration and data collected for graphing. This item is part of a larger collection of physics simulations sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-05-20

319

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOEpatents

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01

320

Modular Habitats Comprising Rigid and Inflatable Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular, lightweight, fully equipped buildings comprising hybrids of rigid and inflatable structures can be assembled on Earth and then transported to and deployed on the Moon for use as habitats. Modified versions of these buildings could also prove useful on Earth as shelters that can be rapidly and easily erected in emergency situations and/or extreme environments: examples include shelters for hurricane relief and for Antarctic exploration.

Kennedy, Kriss J.

2010-01-01

321

Design of a modular snake robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Many factors such as size, power, and weight constrain,the design,of modular,snake,robots. Meeting these constraints requires,implementing,a complex,mechanical,and electrical architecture. Here we present our solution, which involves the construction,of sixteen aluminum,modules,and creation of the Super Servo, a modified hobby servo. To create the Super Servo, we have replaced the electronics in a hobby servo, adding such components as sensors to monitor current

Cornell Wright III; Aaron Johnson; Aaron Peck; Zachary Mccord; Allison Naaktgeboren; Philip Gianfortoni; Manuel Gonzalez-rivero; Ross Hatton; Howie Choset

2007-01-01

322

lazar: a modular predictive toxicology framework  

PubMed Central

lazar (lazy structure–activity relationships) is a modular framework for predictive toxicology. Similar to the read across procedure in toxicological risk assessment, lazar creates local QSAR (quantitative structure–activity relationship) models for each compound to be predicted. Model developers can choose between a large variety of algorithms for descriptor calculation and selection, chemical similarity indices, and model building. This paper presents a high level description of the lazar framework and discusses the performance of example classification and regression models. PMID:23761761

Maunz, Andreas; Gütlein, Martin; Rautenberg, Micha; Vorgrimmler, David; Gebele, Denis; Helma, Christoph

2013-01-01

323

Modular Approach to Physics: Planetary Motion 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet simulates the motion of a single planet around a star. The user can alter the eccentricity and semi-major axis of the orbit, and the velocity of the star relative to a fixed background. The applet can show the acceleration of the planet, and its velocity relative to a stationary observer, or relative to the star. This item is part of a larger collection of physics simulations sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-05-20

324

Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

Harto, Andang Widi

2012-06-01

325

Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system  

SciTech Connect

Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

Harto, Andang Widi [Engineering Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

2012-06-06

326

Topological Strings And (Almost) Modular Forms  

SciTech Connect

The B-model topological string theory on a Calabi-Yau threefold X has a symmetry group {Lambda}, generated by monodromies of the periods of X. This acts on the topological string wave function in a natural way, governed by the quantum mechanics of the phase space H{sup 3}(X). We show that, depending on the choice of polarization, the genus g topological string amplitude is either a holomorphic quasi-modular form or an almost holomorphic modular form of weight 0 under {Lambda}. Moreover, at each genus, certain combinations of genus g amplitudes are both modular and holomorphic. We illustrate this for the local Calabi-Yau manifolds giving rise to Seiberg-Witten gauge theories in four dimensions and local IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 1} x IP{sub 1}. As a byproduct, we also obtain a simple way of relating the topological string amplitudes near different points in the moduli space, which we use to give predictions for Gromov-Witten invariants of the orbifold C{sub 3}/ZZ{sub 3}.

Aganagic, Mina; Bouchard, Vincent; Klemm, Albrecht

2007-05-04

327

A modular approach to linear uncertainty analysis.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a methodology to simplify the uncertainty analysis of large-scale problems where many outputs and/or inputs are of interest. The modular uncertainty technique presented here can be utilized to analyze the results spanning a wide range of engineering problems with constant sensitivities within parameter uncertainty bounds. The proposed modular approach provides the same results as the traditional propagation of errors methodology with fewer conceptual steps allowing for a relatively straightforward implementation of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis effort. The structure of the modular technique allows easy integration into most experimental/modeling programs or data acquisition systems. The proposed methodology also provides correlation information between all outputs, thus providing information not easily obtained using the traditional uncertainty process based on analyzing one data reduction equation (DRE)/model at a time. Finally, the paper presents a straightforward methodology to obtain the covariance matrix for the input variables using uncorrelated elemental sources of systematic uncertainties along with uncorrelated sources corresponding to random uncertainties. PMID:19942216

Weathers, J B; Luck, R; Weathers, J W

2010-01-01

328

MACOP modular architecture with control primitives  

PubMed Central

Walking, catching a ball and reaching are all tasks in which humans and animals exhibit advanced motor skills. Findings in biological research concerning motor control suggest a modular control hierarchy which combines movement/motor primitives into complex and natural movements. Engineers inspire their research on these findings in the quest for adaptive and skillful control for robots. In this work we propose a modular architecture with control primitives (MACOP) which uses a set of controllers, where each controller becomes specialized in a subregion of its joint and task-space. Instead of having a single controller being used in this subregion [such as MOSAIC (modular selection and identification for control) on which MACOP is inspired], MACOP relates more to the idea of continuously mixing a limited set of primitive controllers. By enforcing a set of desired properties on the mixing mechanism, a mixture of primitives emerges unsupervised which successfully solves the control task. We evaluate MACOP on a numerical model of a robot arm by training it to generate desired trajectories. We investigate how the tracking performance is affected by the number of controllers in MACOP and examine how the individual controllers and their generated control primitives contribute to solving the task. Furthermore, we show how MACOP compensates for the dynamic effects caused by a fixed control rate and the inertia of the robot. PMID:23888140

Waegeman, Tim; Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin

2013-01-01

329

MACOP modular architecture with control primitives.  

PubMed

Walking, catching a ball and reaching are all tasks in which humans and animals exhibit advanced motor skills. Findings in biological research concerning motor control suggest a modular control hierarchy which combines movement/motor primitives into complex and natural movements. Engineers inspire their research on these findings in the quest for adaptive and skillful control for robots. In this work we propose a modular architecture with control primitives (MACOP) which uses a set of controllers, where each controller becomes specialized in a subregion of its joint and task-space. Instead of having a single controller being used in this subregion [such as MOSAIC (modular selection and identification for control) on which MACOP is inspired], MACOP relates more to the idea of continuously mixing a limited set of primitive controllers. By enforcing a set of desired properties on the mixing mechanism, a mixture of primitives emerges unsupervised which successfully solves the control task. We evaluate MACOP on a numerical model of a robot arm by training it to generate desired trajectories. We investigate how the tracking performance is affected by the number of controllers in MACOP and examine how the individual controllers and their generated control primitives contribute to solving the task. Furthermore, we show how MACOP compensates for the dynamic effects caused by a fixed control rate and the inertia of the robot. PMID:23888140

Waegeman, Tim; Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin

2013-01-01

330

Small Molecule-Mediated Cleavage of RNA in Living Cells  

PubMed Central

Antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) control gene expression by triggering the degradation of a mRNA via recruitment of RNase H or the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), respectively.[1] These approaches are hampered, however, by the poor cellular permeability of oligonucleotides. A small molecule approach to cleave RNA targets could obviate uptake issues. Several compounds can induce RNA cleavage in vitro,[2] however, to the best of our knowledge no small molecules have been previously described to cleave RNA in living cells. Herein, we describe the development of a potentially general approach to design small molecules that specifically cleave an RNA in a living cell, affecting biological function. Specifically, a designed, modularly assembled small molecule that binds the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1)[3] was appended with a moiety that generates hydroxyl radicals upon irradiation. Cleavage of the transcript improves DM1-associated defects in cell culture, and compounds are non-toxic at an efficacious dose as determined by a MTT viability assay. This approach may allow for the site-specific cleavage and inactivation of other cellular RNAs.[4] Compounds that bind to and cleave RNA have the potential to serve as chemical genetics probes of function or lead therapeutics with spatial and temporal control. PMID:23280953

Guan, Lirui

2013-01-01

331

Concerted evolution of the tandemly repeated genes encoding primate U2 small nuclear RNA (the RNU2 locus) does not prevent rapid diversification of the (CT){sub n} {center_dot} (GA){sub n} microsatellite embedded within the U2 repeat unit  

SciTech Connect

The RNU2 locus encoding human U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is organized as a nearly perfect tandem array containing 5 to 22 copies of a 5.8-kb repeat unit. Just downstream of the U2 snRNA gene in each 5.8-kb repeat unit lies a large (CT){sub n}{center_dot}(GA){sub n} dinucleotide repeat (n {approx} 70). This form of genomic organization, in which one repeat is embedded within another, provides an unusual opportunity to study the balance of forces maintaining the homogeneity of both kinds of repeats. Using a combination of field inversion gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction, we have been able to study the CT microsatellites within individual U2 tandem arrays. We find that the CT microsatellites within an RNU2 allele exhibit significant length polymorphism, despite the remarkable homogeneity of the surrounding U2 repeat units. Length polymorphism is due primarily to loss or gain of CT dinucleotide repeats, but other types of deletions, insertions, and substitutions are also frequent. Polymorphism is greatly reduced in regions where pure (CT){sub n} tracts are interrupted by occasional G residues, suggesting that irregularities stabilize both the length and the sequence of the dinucleotide repeat. We further show that the RNU2 loci of other catarrhine primates (gorilla, chimpanzee, ogangutan, and baboon) contain orthologous CT microsatellites; these also exhibit length polymorphism, but are highly divergent from each other. Thus, although the CT microsatellite is evolving far more rapidly than the rest of the U2 repeat unit, it has persisted through multiple speciation events spanning >35 Myr. The persistence of the CT microsatellite, despite polymorphism and rapid evolution, suggests that it might play a functional role in concerted evolution of the RNU2 loci, perhaps as an initiation site for recombination and/or gene conversion. 70 refs., 5 figs.

Liao, D.; Weiner, A.M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)] [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

1995-12-10

332

Modularized construction of general integrated circuits on individual carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

While constructing general integrated circuits (ICs) with field-effect transistors (FETs) built on individual CNTs is among few viable ways to build ICs with small dimension and high performance that can be compared with that of state-of-the-art Si based ICs, this has not been demonstrated owing to the absence of valid and well-tolerant fabrication method. Here we demonstrate a modularized method for constructing general ICs on individual CNTs with different electric properties. A pass-transistor-logic style 8-transistor (8-T) unit is built, demonstrated as a multifunctional function generator with good tolerance to inhomogeneity in the CNTs used and used as a building block for constructing general ICs. As an example, an 8-bits BUS system that is widely used to transfer data between different systems in a computer is constructed. This is the most complicated IC fabricated on individual CNTs to date, containing 46 FETs built on six individual semiconducting CNTs. The 8-T unit provides a good basis for constructing complex ICs to explore the potential and limits of CNT ICs given the current imperfection in available CNT materials and may also be developed into a universal and efficient way for constructing general ICs on ideal CNT materials in the future. PMID:24796796

Pei, Tian; Zhang, Panpan; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qiu, Chenguang; Liang, Shibo; Yang, Yingjun; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

2014-06-11

333

Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure.

Russo, R.; Herrmann, H. J.; de Arcangelis, L.

2014-03-01

334

Automatic locomotion design and experiments for a Modular robotic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design method and experiments for whole-body locomotion by a modular robot. There are two types of locomotion for modular robots: a repeating self-reconfiguration and whole-body motion such as walking or crawling. For whole-body locomotion, designing a control method is more difficult than for ordinary robots because a modular robotic system can form various configurations, each of

Akiya Kamimura; Haruhisa Kurokawa; Eiichi Yoshida; Satoshi Murata; Kohji Tomita; Shigeru Kokaji

2005-01-01

335

Theory of force-extension curve for modular proteins and DNA hairpins  

E-print Network

We study a model describing the force-extension curves of modular proteins, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules made out of several single units or monomers. At a mesoscopic level of description, the configuration of the system is given by the elongations of each of the units. The system free energy includes a double-well potential for each unit and an elastic nearest neighbor interaction between them. Minimizing the free energy yields the system equilibrium properties whereas its dynamics is given by (overdamped) Langevin equations for the elongations, in which friction and noise amplitude are related by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Our results, both for the equilibrium and the dynamical situations, include analytical and numerical descriptions of the system force-extension curves under force or length control, and agree very well with actual experiments in biomolecules. Our conclusions also apply to other physical systems comprising a number of metastable units, such as storage systems or semicond...

Bonilla, L L; Prados, A

2014-01-01

336

The theory of vector-modular forms for the modular group  

E-print Network

We explain the basic ideas, describe with proofs the main results, and demonstrate the effectiveness, of an evolving theory of vector-valued modular forms (vvmf). To keep the exposition concrete, we restrict here to the special case of the modular group. Among other things,we construct vvmf for arbitrary multipliers, solve the Mittag-Leffler problem here, establish Serre duality and find a dimension formula for holomorphic vvmf, all in far greater generality than has been done elsewhere. More important, the new ideas involved are sufficiently simple and robust that this entire theory extends directly to any genus-0 Fuchsian group.

Terry Gannon

2013-10-16

337

Unimodal sequences and quantum and mock modular forms  

PubMed Central

We show that the rank generating function U(t; q) for strongly unimodal sequences lies at the interface of quantum modular forms and mock modular forms. We use U(-1; q) to obtain a quantum modular form which is “dual” to the quantum form Zagier constructed from Kontsevich’s “strange” function F(q). As a result, we obtain a new representation for a certain generating function for L-values. The series U(i; q) = U(-i; q) is a mock modular form, and we use this fact to obtain new congruences for certain enumerative functions.

Bryson, Jennifer; Ono, Ken; Pitman, Sarah; Rhoades, Robert C.

2012-01-01

338

Corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks compared to titanium modular necks in a simulator test.  

PubMed

This study compared the corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks with that of titanium alloy modular necks at their junction to titanium-alloy femoral stem. Tests were performed in a dry assembly and two wet assemblies, one contaminated with calf serum and the other contaminated with calf serum and bone particles. Whereas the titanium modular neck tested in the dry assembly showed no signs of corrosion, the titanium modular necks tested in both wet assemblies showed marked depositions and corrosive attacks. By contrast, the tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks showed no traces of corrosion or chemical attack in any of the three assemblies. This study confirms the protective effect of tantalum coating the taper region of cobalt-chromium modular neck components, suggesting that the use of tantalum may reduce the risk of implant failure due to corrosion. PMID:24099841

Dorn, Ulrich; Neumann, Daniel; Frank, Mario

2014-04-01

339

RNA Silencing in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a RNA silencing-related mechanisms have been documented in almost all living organisms and RNA silencing is now used as board\\u000a term to describe the vast array of related processes involving RNA–RNA, RNA–DNA, RNA–protein or protein–protein interactions\\u000a that ultimately result in the repression of gene expression. In plants, the parallel RNA silencing pathways have evolved to\\u000a extraordinary levels of complexity and diversity,

A. Eamens; S. J. Curtin; P. M. Waterhouse

340

The CMS Modular Track Finder boards, MTF6 and MTF7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To accommodate the increase in energy and luminosity of the upgraded LHC, the CMS Endcap Muon Level 1 Trigger system has to be significantly modified. To provide the best track reconstruction, the Trigger system must now import all available trigger primitives generated by Cathode Strip Chambers and by other regional subsystems, such as Resistive Plate Chambers. In addition to massive input bandwidth, this also requires a significant increase in logic and memory resources. To satisfy these requirements, a new Sector Processor unit for muon track finding is being designed. This unit follows the micro-TCA standard recently adopted by CMS. It consists of three modules. The Core Logic module houses the large FPGA that contains the processing logic and multi-gigabit serial links for data exchange. The Optical module contains optical receivers and transmitters; it communicates with the Core Logic module via a custom backplane section. The Look-Up Table module contains a large amount of low-latency memory that is used to assign the final transverse momentum of the muon candidate tracks. The name of the unitModular Track Finder — reflects the modular approach used in the design. Presented here are the details of the hardware design of the prototype unit based on Xilinx's Virtex-6 FPGA family, MTF6, as well as results of the conducted tests. Also presented are plans for the pre-production prototype based on the Virtex-7 FPGA family, MTF7.

Acosta, D.; Brown, G.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Furic, I.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Madorsky, A.; Matveev, M.; Padley, P.; Rank, D.; Reeves, C.; Scurlock, B.; Wang, S.

2013-12-01

341

Shifting responsibly: the importance of striatal modularity to reinforcement learning in uncertain environments  

E-print Network

We propose here that the modular organization of the striatum reflects a context-sensitive modular learning architecture in which clustered striosome–matrisome domains participate in modular reinforcement learning (RL). ...

Amemori, Ken-ichi

342

Community structure of non-coding RNA interaction network.  

PubMed

Rapid technological advances have shown that the ratio of non-protein coding genes rises to 98.5% in humans, suggesting that current knowledge on genetic information processing might be largely incomplete. It implies that protein-coding sequences only represent a small fraction of cellular transcriptional information. Here, we examine the community structure of the network defined by functional interactions between non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and proteins related bio-macromolecules (PRMs) using a two-fold approach: modularity in bipartite network and k-clique community detection. First, the high modularity scores as well as the distribution of community sizes showing a scaling-law revealed manifestly non-random features. Second, the k-clique sub-graphs and overlaps show that the identified communities of the ncRNA molecules of H. sapiens can potentially be associated with certain functions. These findings highlight the complex modular structure of ncRNA interactions and its possible regulatory roles in the cell. PMID:23545211

Nacher, Jose C

2013-01-01

343

RNA Secondary Structure Analysis Using RNAstructure.  

PubMed

RNAstructure is a user-friendly program for the prediction and analysis of RNA secondary structure. It is available as a Web server, as a program with a graphical user interface, or as a set of command-line tools. The programs are available for Microsoft Windows, Macintosh OS X, or Linux. This unit provides protocols for RNA secondary structure prediction (using the Web server or the graphical user interface) and prediction of high-affinity oligonucleotide biding sites to a structured RNA target (using the graphical user interface). Curr. Protoc. Bioinform. 46:12.6.1-12.6.25. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24939127

Mathews, David H

2014-01-01

344

Synthetic biology devices and circuits for RNA-based 'smart vaccines': a propositional review.  

PubMed

Nucleic acid vaccines have been gaining attention as an alternative to the standard attenuated pathogen or protein based vaccine. However, an unrealized advantage of using such DNA or RNA based vaccination modalities is the ability to program within these nucleic acids regulatory devices that would provide an immunologist with the power to control the production of antigens and adjuvants in a desirable manner by administering small molecule drugs as chemical triggers. Advances in synthetic biology have resulted in the creation of highly predictable and modular genetic parts and devices that can be composed into synthetic gene circuits with complex behaviors. With the recent advent of modified RNA gene delivery methods and developments in the RNA replicon platform, we foresee a future in which mammalian synthetic biologists will create genetic circuits encoded exclusively on RNA. Here, we review the current repertoire of devices used in RNA synthetic biology and propose how programmable 'smart vaccines' will revolutionize the field of RNA vaccination. PMID:25566800

Andries, Oliwia; Kitada, Tasuku; Bodner, Katie; Sanders, Niek N; Weiss, Ron

2015-02-01

345

Modular Methods in CoCoA What are modular methods?  

E-print Network

on the back of an envelope, you might calculate the sum or product of two (small) polynomials, and you would. But the long division could be costly if f and g are large. A much quicker partial test would be to see whether modular methods are probabilistic: that is, the answer computed may be correct only with a certain

Robbiano, Lorenzo

346

Characterization of tectoRNA assembly with cationic conjugated polymers.  

PubMed

Association between RNAs with preprogrammed molecular recognition units can be quantified by using cationic, water-soluble conjugated polymers. The method uses a fluorophore-labeled probe RNA (RNA-F*), which is treated with a target structure (RNA-T). Heterodimer formation, (RNA-T/RNA-F*), increases the total negative charge on the F*-bearing macromolecule and reduces the number of negatively charged molecules (relative to unbound RNA-T+ RNA-F*). On the basis of electrostatic interactions, we anticipated more effective binding between CCP and (RNAT/RNA-F*), a reduction of the average CCP- - -F* distance, and more effective FRET upon excitation of the conjugated polymer. The resulting signals benefit from the optical amplification characteristic of emissive conjugated polymers. Solution dissociation constants can be determined by monitoring F* intensity changes as a function of [RNA-F*] and the ratio: [I(T) - I(NB)]/I(NB), where I(T) and I(NB) are the F* intensities in the presence of the target RNA (RNA-T) and a nonbinding RNA (RNA-NB), respectively, while keeping the concentration of the conjugated polymer constant. By focusing on [I(T) - I(NB)]/I(NB) as a function of RNA concentration, one can detect the concentration range wherein increased fluorescence is the result of dimerization. PMID:15053575

Liu, Bin; Baudrey, Stéphanie; Jaeger, Luc; Bazan, Guillermo C

2004-04-01

347

An RNA folding motif: GNRA tetraloop-receptor interactions.  

PubMed

Nearly two decades after Westhof and Michel first proposed that RNA tetraloops may interact with distal helices, tetraloop–receptor interactions have been recognized as ubiquitous elements of RNA tertiary structure. The unique architecture of GNRA tetraloops (N=any nucleotide, R=purine) enables interaction with a variety of receptors, e.g., helical minor grooves and asymmetric internal loops. The most common example of the latter is the GAAA tetraloop–11 nt tetraloop receptor motif. Biophysical characterization of this motif provided evidence for the modularity of RNA structure, with applications spanning improved crystallization methods to RNA tectonics. In this review, we identify and compare types of GNRA tetraloop–receptor interactions. Then we explore the abundance of structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic information on the frequently occurring and most widely studied GAAA tetraloop–11 nt receptor motif. Studies of this interaction have revealed powerful paradigms for structural assembly of RNA, as well as providing new insights into the roles of cations, transition states and protein chaperones in RNA folding pathways. However, further research will clearly be necessary to characterize other tetraloop–receptor and long-range tertiary binding interactions in detail – an important milestone in the quantitative prediction of free energy landscapes for RNA folding. PMID:23915736

Fiore, Julie L; Nesbitt, David J

2013-08-01

348

Imaging Total Stations - Modular and Integrated Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keywords: 3D-Metrology, Engineering Geodesy, Digital Image Processing Initialized in 2009, the Institute for Spatial Information and Surveying Technology i3mainz, Mainz University of Applied Sciences, forces research towards modular concepts for imaging total stations. On the one hand, this research is driven by the successful setup of high precision imaging motor theodolites in the near past, on the other hand it is pushed by the actual introduction of integrated imaging total stations to the positioning market by the manufacturers Topcon and Trimble. Modular concepts for imaging total stations are manufacturer independent to a large extent and consist of a particular combination of accessory hardware, software and algorithmic procedures. The hardware part consists mainly of an interchangeable eyepiece adapter offering opportunities for digital imaging and motorized focus control. An easy assembly and disassembly in the field is possible allowing the user to switch between the classical and the imaging use of a robotic total station. The software part primarily has to ensure hardware control, but several level of algorithmic support might be added and have to be distinguished. Algorithmic procedures allow to reach several levels of calibration concerning the geometry of the external digital camera and the total station. We deliver insight in our recent developments and quality characteristics. Both the modular and the integrated approach seem to have its individual strengths and weaknesses. Therefore we expect that both approaches might point at different target applications. Our aim is a better understanding of appropriate applications for robotic imaging total stations. First results are presented. Stefan Hauth, Martin Schlüter i3mainz - Institut für Raumbezogene Informations- und Messtechnik FH Mainz University of Applied Sciences Lucy-Hillebrand-Straße 2, 55128 Mainz, Germany

Hauth, Stefan; Schlüter, Martin

2010-05-01

349

Lightweight composites for modular panelized construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid advances in construction materials technology have enabled civil engineers to achieve impressive gains in the safety, economy, and functionality of structures built to serve the common needs of society. Modular building systems is a fast-growing modern, form of construction gaining recognition for its increased efficiency and ability to apply modern technology to the needs of the market place. In the modular construction technique, a single structural panel can perform a number of functions such as providing thermal insulation, vibration damping, and structural strength. These multifunctional panels can be prefabricated in a manufacturing facility and then transferred to the construction site. A system that uses prefabricated panels for construction is called a "panelized construction system". This study focuses on the development of pre-cast, lightweight, multifunctional sandwich composite panels to be used for panelized construction. Two thermoplastic composite panels are proposed in this study, namely Composite Structural Insulated Panels (CSIPs) for exterior walls, floors and roofs, and Open Core Sandwich composite for multifunctional interior walls of a structure. Special manufacturing techniques are developed for manufacturing these panels. The structural behavior of these panels is analyzed based on various building design codes. Detailed descriptions of the design, cost analysis, manufacturing, finite element modeling and structural testing of these proposed panels are included in this study in the of form five peer-reviewed journal articles. The structural testing of the proposed panels involved in this study included flexural testing, axial compression testing, and low and high velocity impact testing. Based on the current study, the proposed CSIP wall and floor panels were found satisfactory, based on building design codes ASCE-7-05 and ACI-318-05. Joining techniques are proposed in this study for connecting the precast panels on the construction site. Keywords: Modular panelized construction, sandwich composites, composite structural insulated panels (CSIPs).

Vaidya, Amol S.

350

Modular Approach to Physics: Weighted Average  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a multi-exercise module relating to average speed. It contains an interactive Java simulation featuring a car that the user controls for speed. Graphs of instantaneous and average velocities are simultaneously displayed, helping the user to understand the concept of time-weighted average. The lesson plan available through the Help menu explains how to calculate a weighted average, first with two speeds, and then with multiple. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics models sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-08-13

351

Testing programs for the Multimission Modular Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) provides a standard spacecraft bus to a user for a variety of space missions ranging from near-earth to synchronous orbits. The present paper describes the philosophy behind the MMS module test program and discusses the implementation of the test program. It is concluded that the MMS module test program provides an effective and comprehensive customer buy-off at the subsystem contractor's plant, is an optimum approach for checkout of the subsystems prior to use for on-orbit servicing in the Shuttle Cargo Bay, and is a cost-effective technique for environmental testing.

Greenwell, T. J.

1978-01-01

352

Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This CSWD describes hardware and PFP developed software for control of stabilization furnaces. The Honeywell software can generate configuration reports for the developed control software. These reports are described in the following section and are attached as addendum's. This plan applies to PFP Engineering Manager, Thermal Stabilization Cognizant Engineers, and the Shift Technical Advisors responsible for the Honeywell MAS software/hardware and administration of the Honeywell System.

STUBBS, A.M.

2000-12-04

353

Automorphism Modular Invariants of Current Algebras  

E-print Network

We consider those two-dimensional rational conformal field theories (RCFTs) whose chiral algebras, when maximally extended, are isomorphic to the current algebra formed from some affine non-twisted Kac--Moody algebra at fixed level. In this case the partition function is specified by an automorphism of the fusion ring and corresponding symmetry of the Kac--Peterson modular matrices. We classify all such partition functions when the underlying finite-dimensional Lie algebra is simple. This gives all possible spectra for this class of RCFTs. While accomplishing this, we also find the primary fields with second smallest quantum dimension.

T. Gannon; P. Ruelle; M. Walton

1995-03-21

354

Nucleic acid amplification using modular branched primers  

DOEpatents

Methods and compositions expand the options for making primers for use in amplifying nucleic acid segments. The invention eliminates the step of custom synthesis of primers for Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Instead of being custom-synthesized, a primer is replaced by a combination of several oligonucleotide modules selected from a pre-synthesized library. A modular combination of just a few oligonucleotides essentially mimics the performance of a conventional, custom-made primer by matching the sequence of the priming site in the template. Each oligonucleotide module has a segment that matches one of the stretches within the priming site.

Ulanovsky, Levy (Westmont, IL)

2001-01-01

355

Modular, Parallel Pulse-Shaping Filter Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Novel architectures based on parallel subconvolution frequency-domain filtering methods have been developed for modular processing rate reduction of discrete-time pulse-shaping filters. Such pulse-shaping is desirable and often necessary to obtain bandwidth efficiency in very-high-rate wireless communications systems. In principle, this processing could be implemented in very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. Whereas other approaches to digital pulse-shaping are based primarily on time-domain processing concepts, the theory and design rules of the architectures presented here are founded on frequency-domain processing that has advantages in certain systems.

Gray, Andrew A.

2003-01-01

356

Modular Track System For Positioning Mobile Robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual system for positioning mobile robotic manipulators on large main structure includes modular tracks and ancillary structures assembled easily along with main structure. System, called "tracked robotic location system" (TROLS), originally intended for application to platforms in outer space, but TROLS concept might also prove useful on Earth; for example, to position robots in factories and warehouses. T-cross-section rail keeps mobile robot on track. Bar codes mark locations along track. Each robot equipped with bar-code-recognizing circuitry so it quickly finds way to assigned location.

Miller, Jeff

1995-01-01

357

Intelligent subsystem interface for modular hardware system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A single chip application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which provides a flexible, modular interface between a subsystem and a standard system bus. The ASIC includes a microcontroller/microprocessor, a serial interface for connection to the bus, and a variety of communications interface devices available for coupling to the subsystem. A three-bus architecture, utilizing arbitration, provides connectivity within the ASIC and between the ASIC and the subsystem. The communication interface devices include UART (serial), parallel, analog, and external device interface utilizing bus connections paired with device select signals. A low power (sleep) mode is provided as is a processor disable option.

Krening, Douglas N. (Inventor); Lannan, Gregory B. (Inventor); Schneiderwind, Michael J. (Inventor); Schneiderwind, Robert A. (Inventor); Caffrey, Robert T. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

358

Project Antares: A low cost modular launch vehicle for the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The single stage to orbit launch vehicle Antares is based upon the revolutionary concept of modularity, enabling the Antares to efficiently launch communications satellites, as well as heavy payloads, into Earth's orbit and beyond. The basic unit of the modular system, a single Antares vehicle, is aimed at launching approximately 10,000 kg into low Earth orbit (LEO). When coupled with a Centaur upper stage it is capable of placing 3500 kg into geostationary orbit. The Antares incorporates a reusable engine, the Dual Mixture Ratio Engine (DMRE), as its propulsive device. This enables Antares to compete and excel in the satellite launch market by dramatically reducing launch costs. Antares' projected launch costs are $1340 per kg to LEO which offers a tremendous savings over launch vehicles available today. Inherent in the design is the capability to attach several of these vehicles together to provide heavy lift capability. Any number of these vehicles, up to seven, can be attached depending on the payload and mission requirements. With a seven vehicle configuration Antares's modular concept provides a heavy lift capability of approximately 70,000 kg to LEO. This expandability allows for a wider range of payload options such as large Earth satellites, Space Station Freedom support, and interplanetary spacecraft, and also offers a significant cost savings over a mixed fleet based on different launch vehicles.

Aarnio, Steve; Anderson, Hobie; Arzaz, El Mehdi; Bailey, Michelle; Beeghly, Jeff; Cartwright, Curt; Chau, William; Dawdy, Andrew; Detert, Bruce; Ervin, Miles

1991-01-01

359

Generating Specialized Interpreters for Modular Structural Operational Semantics  

E-print Network

Poulsen and Peter D. Mosses Department of Computer Science, Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK cscbp@swansea.ac.uk, p.d.mosses@swansea.ac.uk Abstract. Modular Structural Operational Semantics (MSOS) is a vari- ant auxiliary entities requires reformulating existing rules. #12;2 C. Bach Poulsen and P. D. Mosses Modular SOS

Grant, P. W.

360

Modular Permanent Magnet Machine with Fault Tolerant Capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular permanent magnet machines are gaining popularity due to their simple stator construction and machine winding fabrication. In this paper, a multiphase modular permanent magnet machine is proposed to obtain a robust drive system with the feature of fault tolerant capability. By making use of concentric winding on each module, the stator winding structure is simplified with benefit of less

Wen Ouyang; T.A. Lipo

2009-01-01

361

Modular Covariance and the Algebraic PCT/Spin-Statistics Theorem  

E-print Network

In the theory of nets of observable algebras, the modular operators associated with wedge regions are expected to have a natural geometric action, a generalization of the Bisognano-Wichmann condition for nets associated with Poincare-covariant fields. Here many possible such modular covariance conditions are discussed (in spacetime of at least three dimensions), including several conditions previously proposed and known to imply versions of the PCT and spin-statistics theorems. The logical relations between these conditions are explored: for example, it is shown that most of them are equivalent, and that all of them follow from appropriate commutation relations for the modular automorphisms alone. These results allow us to reduce the study of modular covariance to the case of systems describing non-interacting particles. Given finitely many Poincare-covariant non-interacting particles of any given mass, it is shown that modular covariance and wedge duality must hold, and the modular operators for wedge regions must have the Bisognano-Wichmann form, so that the usual free fields are the only possibility. For models describing interacting particles, it is shown that if they have a complete scattering interpretation in terms of such non-interacting particles, then again modular covariance and wedge duality must hold, and the modular operators for wedge regions must have the Bisognano-Wichmann form, so that wedge duality and the PCT and spin-statistics theorems must hold.

D. R. Davidson

1995-11-29

362

VMCrypt -Modular Software Architecture for Scalable Secure Computation  

E-print Network

-preserving face recognition [7, 26, 22], fingerprint matching [1, 8], and DNA processing [13]. Yao's GarbledVMCrypt - Modular Software Architecture for Scalable Secure Computation Lior Malka Jonathan Katz on efficiency and automation aspects of secure computation, in this paper we focus on software modularity

363

Dense and Switched Modular Primitives for Bond Graph Model Design  

E-print Network

Dense and Switched Modular Primitives for Bond Graph Model Design Kisung Seo1 , Zhun Fan1 , Jianjun suggests dense and switched modular primitives for a bond-graph-based GP design framework that automatically synthesizes designs for multi-domain, lumped parameter dynamic systems. A set of primitives

Fernandez, Thomas

364

Toward Infusing Modular and Reflective Design Learning throughout the Curriculum  

E-print Network

Toward Infusing Modular and Reflective Design Learning throughout the Curriculum John C. Georgas intervention that cen- ters on the widespread infusion of design learning throughout the curriculum using: An emphasis on broadly infusing design learning through the curriculum using modular design challenges

Georgas, John

365

CryptoBooster: A Recongurable and Modular Cryptographic  

E-print Network

, Reconøguration, FPGA, IDEA. 1 Introduction In this paper we describe a novel cryptographic coprocessorCryptoBooster: A Reconøgurable and Modular Cryptographic Coprocessor Emeka Mosanya 1 , ChristofBooster is a modular and reconøgurable crypto­ graphic coprocessor that takes full advantage of current high

Teuscher, Christof

366

Toward a Product System Modularity Construct: Literature Review and Reconceptualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product modularity has been discussed in engineering and management literature for over forty years. During this time span, definitions and views on the meaning of product modularity proliferated to the extent that it is difficult to understand the essential traits of the concept. While definitional ambiguity is often a byproduct of academic debate, it hinders the advancement of scientific knowledge

Fabrizio Salvador

2007-01-01

367

A preliminary investigation into evolving modular finite state machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary programming was proposed more than thirty five years ago for generating artificial intelligence. The original experiments consisted of evolving populations of finite state machines (FSMs) for prediction, identification, and control. Since then, all of the studies with FSMs and evolutionary programming have been limited to the evolution of strictly non-modular FSMs. In this study, a modular FSM architecture is

Kumar Chellapilla; David Czarnecki

1999-01-01

368

Modularity for Java and How OSGi Can Help  

E-print Network

Modularity for Java and How OSGi Can Help DECOR October 28th , 2004 Richard S. Hall #12;Software environment #12;Focus of my research Popularized by Java because of its simple dynamic code loading mechanisms of modularity mechanism The Java world has many frameworks and systems reinventing this wheel e.g., component

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

369

Limits to Modularity: Reflections on Recent Developments in Chip Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on “modularity” has made an important contribution to the study of technical change and economic institutions. It demonstrates that progress in the division of labor in design (technical modularity) has created new opportunities for the organization of firms beyond vertical integration, by fostering vertical specialization in both manufacturing and innovation. However, a small, but growing revisionist literature contends that

Dieter Ernst

2005-01-01

370

Modular network evolution under selection for robustness to noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real networks often exhibit modularity, which is defined as the degree to which a network can be decomposed into several subnetworks. The question of how a modular network arises is still open to discussion. The leading hypothesis is that high modularity evolves under multiple goals, which are decomposable to subproblems, as well as under the evolutionary constraint that selection prefers sparse links in a network. In the present study, we investigate an alternative evolutionary constraint entailing increased robustness to noise. To examine this, we present noise-interfused network models involving an analytically solvable linear system and biologically inspired nonlinear systems. The models demonstrate that it is possible to evolve a modular network under both modularly changing goal orientations and enhancing robustness to noise, thereby reducing sensitivity to noise. By performing theoretical analyses of linear systems, it is shown that the evolutionary constraint enforces the establishment of well-balanced noise sensitivities of multiple noise sources and leads to a modular network underlying a modular structure in goals. Moreover, computer simulations confirm that the presented mechanisms of modular network evolution are robust to variations of nonlinearity in network functions. Our findings suggest a positive role for the presence of noise in network evolution.

Ikemoto, Yusuke; Sekiyama, Kosuke

2014-04-01

371

Modularity and Specialized Learning: Reexamining Behavior-Based Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

if it is tightly focused. Adaptation is only worth the risks inherent in changing a complicated intelligence suitable to particular adaptive tasks faced by the agent. Modularity can couple these specialized learning. Contemporary multi- agent systems (MAS) are fully modular, but overlook the progress made by BBAI in organizing

Bryson, Joanna J.

372

On locally nite modular lattice varieties of nite height  

E-print Network

On locally #12;nite modular lattice varieties of #12;nite height Christian Herrmann and Anvar Key words: Lattice variety, modular lattice, Finite Height Conjecture 1 Introduction Theorem 1 For any natural number, h, there are only #12;nitely many va- rieties which are of height #20; h in the lattice

Haller-Dintelmann, Robert

373

Modular Self-Reconfigurable Robot Systems [Grand Challenges of Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of modular self-reconfigurable robotic systems addresses the design, fabrication, motion planning, and control of autonomous kinematic machines with variable morphology. Modular self-reconfigurable systems have the promise of making significant technological advances to the field of robotics in general. Their promise of high versatility, high value, and high robustness may lead to a radical change in automation. Currently, a

Mark Yim; Wei-Min Shen; Behnam Salemi; Daniela Rus; Mark Moll; Hod Lipson; Eric Klavins; GREGORY S. CHIRIKJIAN

2007-01-01

374

Software architecture for modular self-reconfigurable robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular, self-reconfigurable robots show the promise of great versatility, robustness and low cost. However, programming such robots for specific tasks, with hundreds of modules and each of which with multiple actuators and sensors, can be tedious and error-prone. The extreme versatility of the modular systems requires a new paradigm in programming. We present a software architecture for this type of

Ying Zhang; Kimon D. Roufas; Mark Yim

2001-01-01

375

Dynamic rolling locomotion and control of modular robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly redundant modular robots may undergo large shape changes which significantly affect the geometry and dynamics of the robot. In these motions, the shape change may induce a tipping or rolling behavior of the robot. The paper describes the dynamic modeling, locomotion planning, control and simulation of such rolling motions for the Tetrobot modular robots. The motion is described by

Woo Ho Lee; Arthur C. Sanderson

2002-01-01

376

Kinematic Design of Modular Reconfigurable InParallel Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the kinematic design issues of a modular reconfigurable parallel robot. Two types of robot modules, the fixed-dimension joint modules and the variable dimension link modules that can be custom-designed rapidly, are used to facilitate the complex design effort. Module selection and robot configuration enumeration are discussed. The kinematic analysis of modular parallel robots is based on a

Guilin Yang; I-ming Chen; Wee Kiat Lim; Song Huat Yeo

2001-01-01

377

Spontaneous Evolution of Modularity in Neural Networks for Robot Locomotion  

E-print Network

Spontaneous Evolution of Modularity in Neural Networks for Robot Locomotion Christian Schluchter based on their influence on robot behavior. It was found that modularity emerged when selecting Submitted for the degree of MSc ETH in Robotics, Systems and Control Supervisors: Prof. Dr. Josh C. Bongard

Daraio, Chiara

378

Development of a low-cost modular pole climbing robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the design and development work on a modular pole climbing robot. Modularity was achieved by ensuring similar repeated structures can be coupled and controlled in almost similar fashion. The design considers the rudimentary aspect of climbing and adopts grasp-push-grasp motion arrangement. The resulting design consists of two grippers for grasping and two central arms for climbing

Zaidi Mohd. Ripin; Tan Beng Soon; A. B. Abdullah; Zahurin Samad

2000-01-01

379

A Modular Neurocontroller for Creative Mobile Autonomous Robots  

E-print Network

A Modular Neurocontroller for Creative Mobile Autonomous Robots Learning by Temporal Difference, Mobile Autonomous Robots, Temporal Difference Learning, Modular Neu- rocontrollers, Creativity Machines@cosy.sbg.ac.at Abstract ­ One of the most prominent research goals in the field of mobile autonomous robots is to create

Mayer, Helmut A.

380

Modular Reconfigurable Robots, An Approach To Urban Search and Rescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular, self-reconfigurable robots show the promise of great versatility, robustness and low cost which are all elements for a successful urban search and rescue (USAR) system. This paper presents examples and issues in realizing those promises. PolyBot is a modular, self- reconfigurable system that is being used to explore the hardware reality of a robot with a large number of

Mark Yim; David G. Duff; Kimon Roufas

2000-01-01

381

Motion Planning for a Self-Reconfigurable Modular Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses motion planning of a homogeneous modular robotic system. The modules have self-reconfiguration capability so that a group of the mod- ules can construct a robotic structure generating dynamic motion. Motion planning for self-reconfiguration is not straightforward because the modular structure allows many combinatorial configurations, and also the proposed module has only two de- grees of freedom. We

Eiichi Yoshida; Satoshi Murata; Akiya Kamimura; Kohji Tomita; Haruhisa Kurokawa; Shigeru Kokaji

2000-01-01

382

Modular and Generic Control Software System for Scalable Automation  

E-print Network

Modular and Generic Control Software System for Scalable Automation Christian Brecher, Martin automation tasks, a wide range of equipment (e.g. Sensors, Robots, Actuators) has to be integrated within Springer (Ed.) (2012) 263-270" DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-11598-1_31 #12;2 Modular and Generic Control

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

Modularity, individuality, and evo-devo in butterfly wings  

E-print Network

characteristic properties and differentiate from each other during evolution. The patterns of color on butterflyModularity, individuality, and evo-devo in butterfly wings Patri´cia Beldade*, Kees Koops, and Paul selection to explore the modular organization of butterfly wing patterns and the extent to which

Beldade, Patrícia

384

Z-score-based modularity for community detection in networks  

E-print Network

Identifying community structure in networks is an issue of particular interest in network science. The modularity introduced by Newman and Girvan [Phys. Rev. E 69, 026113 (2004)] is the most popular quality function for community detection in networks. In this study, we identify a problem in the concept of modularity and suggest a solution to overcome this problem. Specifically, we obtain a new quality function for community detection. We refer to the function as Z-modularity because it measures the Z-score of a given division with respect to the fraction of the number of edges within communities. Our theoretical analysis shows that Z-modularity mitigates the resolution limit of the original modularity in certain cases. Computational experiments using both artificial networks and well-known real-world networks demonstrate the validity and reliability of the proposed quality function.

Miyauchi, Atsushi

2015-01-01

385

Composite material impregnation unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This memorandum presents an introduction to the NASA multi-purpose prepregging unit which is now installed and fully operational at the Langley Research Center in the Polymeric Materials Branch. A description of the various impregnation methods that are available to the prepregger are presented. Machine operating details and protocol are provided for its various modes of operation. These include, where appropriate, the related equations for predicting the desired prepreg specifications. Also, as the prepregger is modular in its construction, each individual section is described and discussed. Safety concerns are an important factor and a chapter has been included that highlights the major safety features. Initial experiences and observations for fiber impregnation are described. These first observations have given great insight into the areas of future work that need to be addressed. Future memorandums will focus on these individual processes and their related problems.

Wilkinson, S. P.; Marchello, J. M.; Johnston, N. J.

1993-01-01

386

Video Surveillance Unit  

SciTech Connect

The Video Surveillance Unit (VSU) has been designed to provide a flexible, easy to operate video surveillance and recording capability for permanent rack-mounted installations. The system consists of a single rack-mountable chassis and a camera enclosure. The chassis contains two 8 mm video recorders, a color monitor, system controller board, a video authentication verifier module (VAVM) and a universal power supply. A separate camera housing contains a solid state camera and a video authentication processor module (VAPM). Through changes in the firmware in the system, the recorders can be commanded to record at the same time, on alternate time cycle, or sequentially. Each recorder is capable of storing up to 26,000 scenes consisting of 6 to 8 video frames. The firmware can be changed to provide fewer recording with more frames per scene. The modular video authentication system provides verification of the integrity of the video transmission line between the camera and the recording chassis. 5 figs.

Martinez, R.L.; Johnson, C.S.

1990-01-01

387

Modular thermal analyzer routine, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modular Thermal Analyzer Routine (MOTAR) is a general thermal analysis routine with strong capabilities for performing thermal analysis of systems containing flowing fluids, fluid system controls (valves, heat exchangers, etc.), life support systems, and thermal radiation situations. Its modular organization permits the analysis of a very wide range of thermal problems for simple problems containing a few conduction nodes to those containing complicated flow and radiation analysis with each problem type being analyzed with peak computational efficiency and maximum ease of use. The organization and programming methods applied to MOTAR achieved a high degree of computer utilization efficiency in terms of computer execution time and storage space required for a given problem. The computer time required to perform a given problem on MOTAR is approximately 40 to 50 percent that required for the currently existing widely used routines. The computer storage requirement for MOTAR is approximately 25 percent more than the most commonly used routines for the most simple problems but the data storage techniques for the more complicated options should save a considerable amount of space.

Oren, J. A.; Phillips, M. A.; Williams, D. R.

1972-01-01

388

Recent ARC developments: Through modularity to interoperability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware introduced by NorduGrid is one of the basic Grid solutions used by scientists worldwide. While being well-proven in daily use by a wide variety of scientific applications at large-scale infrastructures like the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) and smaller scale projects, production ARC of today is still largely based on conventional Grid technologies and custom interfaces introduced a decade ago. In order to guarantee sustainability, true cross-system portability and standards-compliance based interoperability, the ARC community undertakes a massive effort of implementing modular Web Service (WS) approach into the middleware. With support from the EU KnowARC project, new components were introduced and the existing key ARC services got extended with WS technology based standard-compliant interfaces following a service-oriented architecture. Such components include the hosting environment framework, the resource-coupled execution service, the re-engineered client library, the self-healing storage solution and the peer-to-peer information system, to name a few. Gradual introduction of these new services and client tools into the production middleware releases is carried out together with NDGF and thus ensures a smooth transition to the next generation Grid middleware. Standard interfaces and modularity of the new component design are essential for ARC contributions to the planned Universal Middleware Distribution of the European Grid Initiative.

Smirnova, O.; Cameron, D.; Dóbé, P.; Ellert, M.; Frågåt, T.; Grønager, M.; Johansson, D.; Jönemo, J.; Kleist, J.; Ko?an, M.; Konstantinov, A.; Kónya, B.; Márton, I.; Möller, S.; Mohn, B.; Nagy, Zs; Nilsen, J. K.; Ould Saada, F.; Qiang, W.; Read, A.; Rosendahl, P.; Roczei, G.; Savko, M.; Skou Andersen, M.; Stefán, P.; Szalai, F.; Taga, A.; Toor, S. Z.; Wäänänen, A.

2010-04-01

389

A Modular, Portable Model of Image Fidelity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a persistent need for a trustworthy model of perceptual image fidelity, especially in applications such as image compression and display design. A fidelity model provides a measure of the visual discriminability of two images. Ahumada has previously shown that the existing fidelity models may be categorized according to their inclusion of various canonical properties, such as a contrast sensitivity function, spatial frequency channels, etc. This suggests that research would be aided by the availability of a modular model, in which these components could be easily inserted or removed. A further impediment to research in this area has been that most models are written in low-level languages and are consequently large, non-portable, and difficult to understand, modify, and maintain. We therefore believe research would also be aided by models written in high-level languages. To serve both of these purposes, and to honor our conference host for his lifetime dedication to the problem of image quality. Global brightness and its effect on perceptual image quality. We offer a modular model written in the high-level language Mathematica. We will demonstrate this model and show how it may be modified.

Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

390

Intelligent Control of Modular Robotic Welding Cell  

SciTech Connect

Although robotic machines are routinely used for welding, such machines do not normally incorporate intelligent capabilities. We are studying the general problem of formulating usable levels of intelligence into welding machines. From our perspective, an intelligent machine should: incorporate knowledge of the welding process, know if the process is operating correctly, know if the weld it is making is good or bad, have the ability to learn from its experience to perform welds, and be able to optimize its own performance. To this end, we are researching machine architecture, methods of knowledge representation, decision making and conflict resolution algorithms, methods of learning and optimization, human/machine interfaces, and various sensors. This paper presents work on the machine architecture and the human/machine interface specifically for a robotic, gas metal arc welding cell. Although the machine control problem is normally approached from the perspective of having a central body of control in the machine, we present a design using distributed agents. A prime goal of this work is to develop an architecture for an intelligent machine that will support a modular, plug and play standard. A secondary goal of this work is to formulate a human/machine interface that treats the human as an active agent in the modular structure.

Smartt, Herschel Bernard; Kenney, Kevin Louis; Tolle, Charles Robert

2002-04-01

391

On Fusion Algebras and Modular Matrices  

E-print Network

We consider the fusion algebras arising in e.g. Wess-Zumino-Witten conformal field theories, affine Kac-Moody algebras at positive integer level, and quantum groups at roots of unity. Using properties of the modular matrix $S$, we find small sets of primary fields (equivalently, sets of highest weights) which can be identified with the variables of a polynomial realization of the $A_r$ fusion algebra at level $k$. We prove that for many choices of rank $r$ and level $k$, the number of these variables is the minimum possible, and we conjecture that it is in fact minimal for most $r$ and $k$. We also find new, systematic sources of zeros in the modular matrix $S$. In addition, we obtain a formula relating the entries of $S$ at fixed points, to entries of $S$ at smaller ranks and levels. Finally, we identify the number fields generated over the rationals by the entries of $S$, and by the fusion (Verlinde) eigenvalues.

T. Gannon; M. A. Walton

1997-09-26

392

Modular control of fusion power heating applications  

SciTech Connect

This work is motivated by the growing demand for auxiliary heating on small and large machines worldwide. Numerous present and planned RF experiments (EBW, Lower Hybrid, ICRF, and ECH) are increasingly complex systems. The operational challenges are indicative of a need for components of real-time control that can be implemented with a moderate amount of effort in a time- and cost-effective fashion. Such a system will improve experimental efficiency, enhance experimental quality, and expedite technological advancements. The modular architecture of this control-suite serves multiple purposes. It facilitates construction on various scales from single to multiple controller systems. It enables expandability of control from basic to complex via the addition of modules with varying functionalities. It simplifies the control implementation process by reducing layers of software and electronic development. While conceived with fusion applications in mind, this suite has the potential to serve a broad range of scientific and industrial applications. During the Phase-I research effort we established the overall feasibility of this modular control-suite concept. We developed the fundamental modules needed to implement open-loop active-control and demonstrated their use on a microwave power deposition experiment.

Demers, D. R.

2012-08-24

393

RNA-Catalyzed RNA Ligation on an External RNA Template  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variants of the hc ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes ligation of the 3' end of an RNA substrate to the 5' end of the ribozyme, were utilized to evolve a ribozyme that catalyzes ligation reactions on an external RNA template. The evolved ribozyme catalyzes the joining of an oligonucleotide 3'-hydroxyl to the 5'-triphosphate of an RNA hairpin molecule. The ribozyme can also utilize various substrate sequences, demonstrating a largely sequence-independent mechanism for substrate recognition. The ribozyme also carries out the ligation of two oligonucleotides that are bound at adjacent positions on a complementary template. Finally, it catalyzes addition of mononucleoside '5-triphosphates onto the '3 end of an oligonucleotide primer in a template-dependent manner. The development of ribozymes that catalyze polymerase-type reactions contributes to the notion that an RNA world could have existed during the early history of life on Earth.

McGinness, Kathleen E.; Joyce, Gerald F.

2002-01-01

394

Initial comparisons of modular-sized, integrated utility systems and conventional systems for several building types  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study of the application of a modular integrated utility system to six typical building types are compared with the application of a conventional utility system to the same facilities. The effects of varying the size and climatic location of the buildings and the size of the powerplants are presented. Construction details of the six building types (garden apartments, a high rise office building, high rise apartments, a shopping center, a high school, and a hospital) and typical site and floor plans are provided. The environmental effects, the unit size determination, and the market potential are discussed. The cost effectiveness of the various design options is not considered.

Benson, H. E.; Monford, L. G., Jr.

1976-01-01

395

The Energy Systems Optimization Computer Program /ESOP/ developed for Modular Integrated Utility Systems /MIUS/ analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A significant energy and cost savings can be obtained by integrating various utility services (space heating and cooling, electrical power generation, solid waste disposal, potable water, and waste water treatment) into a single unit which provides buildings or groups of buildings with these services. This paper presents a description of a computer program, called the Energy Systems Optimization Program (ESOP). This program predicts the loads, energy requirements, equipment sizes, and life-cycle costs of alternative methods of meeting these utility requirements. The program has been used extensively for performing energy analyses of Modular Integrated Utility Systems (MIUS).

Ferden, S. L.; Rochelle, W. C.; Stallings, R. D.; Brandli, A. E.; Lively, C. F., Jr.

1974-01-01

396

A modular and programmable development platform for capsule endoscopy system.  

PubMed

The state-of-the-art capsule endoscopy (CE) technology offers painless examination for the patients and the ability to examine the interior of the gastrointestinal tract by a noninvasive procedure for the gastroenterologists. In this work, a modular and flexible CE development system platform consisting of a miniature field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronic capsule, a microcontroller based portable data recorder unit and computer software is designed and developed. Due to the flexible and reprogrammable nature of the system, various image processing and compression algorithms can be tested in the design without requiring any hardware change. The designed capsule prototype supports various imaging modes including white light imaging (WLI) and narrow band imaging (NBI), and communicates with the data recorder in full duplex fashion, which enables configuring the image size and imaging mode in real time during examination. A low complexity image compressor based on a novel color-space is implemented inside the capsule to reduce the amount of RF transmission data. The data recorder contains graphical LCD for real time image viewing and SD cards for storing image data. Data can be uploaded to a computer or Smartphone by SD card, USB interface or by wireless Bluetooth link. Computer software is developed that decompresses and reconstructs images. The fabricated capsule PCBs have a diameter of 16 mm. An ex-vivo animal testing has also been conducted to validate the results. PMID:24859846

Khan, Tareq Hasan; Shrestha, Ravi; Wahid, Khan A

2014-06-01

397

Numerical and experimental characterization of a novel modular passive micromixer.  

PubMed

This paper reports a new low-cost passive microfluidic mixer design, based on a replication of identical mixing units composed of microchannels with variable curvature (clothoid) geometry. The micromixer presents a compact and modular architecture that can be easily fabricated using a simple and reliable fabrication process. The particular clothoid-based geometry enhances the mixing by inducing transversal secondary flows and recirculation effects. The role of the relevant fluid mechanics mechanisms promoting the mixing in this geometry were analysed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 to 110. A measure of mixing potency was quantitatively evaluated by calculating mixing efficiency, while a measure of particle dispersion was assessed through the lacunarity index. The results show that the secondary flow arrangement and recirculation effects are able to provide a mixing efficiency equal to 80 % at Reynolds number above 70. In addition, the analysis of particles distribution promotes the lacunarity as powerful tool to quantify the dispersion of fluid particles and, in turn, the overall mixing. On fabricated micromixer prototypes the microscopic-Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (?LIF) technique was applied to characterize mixing. The experimental results confirmed the mixing potency of the microdevice. PMID:22711456

Pennella, Francesco; Rossi, Massimiliano; Ripandelli, Simone; Rasponi, Marco; Mastrangelo, Francesco; Deriu, Marco A; Ridolfi, Luca; Kähler, Christian J; Morbiducci, Umberto

2012-10-01

398

MODULARITY: aosd.12Chairs' Welcome It is our great pleasure to welcome you to Modularity: aosd.12, the premiere international  

E-print Network

iii MODULARITY: aosd.12­Chairs' Welcome It is our great pleasure to welcome you to Modularity: aosd rigor applied in peer review of putative research results. Reviewers assessed works in terms of research of data, and correct characterization of work in relation to existing knowledge. Papers submitted

Weske, Mathias

399

Computing the modular curves Xsp(13), Xns(13) and XA4(13) using modular symbols in Sage  

E-print Network

Computing the modular curves Xsp(13), Xns(13) and XA4(13) using modular symbols in Sage J. E. Cremona, B. S. Banwait August 16, 2013 Abstract This document is an annotated version of a Sage script.decomposition() 1 #12;The number of simple new summands is 10 and their dimensions are sage: [c.dimension() for c

Cremona, John

400

Online unit checklist Unit code______________ Unit title_____________________________  

E-print Network

Online unit checklist Unit code______________ Unit title_____________________________ Teaching are provided Resources for this unit - textbook listed including 13 digit ISBN number other references online/WebCT, Lectopia, ECMS, Wimba/Live Classroom all weblinks work Study schedule ­ no dates in session column day

401

Site Suitability and Hazard Assessment Guide for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Commercial nuclear reactor projects in the U.S. have traditionally employed large light water reactors (LWR) to generate regional supplies of electricity. Although large LWRs have consistently dominated commercial nuclear markets both domestically and abroad, the concept of small modular reactors (SMRs) capable of producing between 30 MW(t) and 900 MW(t) to generating steam for electricity is not new. Nor is the idea of locating small nuclear reactors in close proximity to and in physical connection with industrial processes to provide a long-term source of thermal energy. Growing problems associated continued use of fossil fuels and enhancements in efficiency and safety because of recent advancements in reactor technology suggest that the likelihood of near-term SMR technology(s) deployment at multiple locations within the United States is growing. Many different types of SMR technology are viable for siting in the domestic commercial energy market. However, the potential application of a particular proprietary SMR design will vary according to the target heat end-use application and the site upon which it is proposed to be located. Reactor heat applications most commonly referenced in connection with the SMR market include electric power production, district heating, desalinization, and the supply of thermal energy to various processes that require high temperature over long time periods, or a combination thereof. Indeed, the modular construction, reliability and long operational life purported to be associated with some SMR concepts now being discussed may offer flexibility and benefits no other technology can offer. Effective siting is one of the many early challenges that face a proposed SMR installation project. Site-specific factors dealing with support to facility construction and operation, risks to the plant and the surrounding area, and the consequences subsequent to those risks must be fully identified, analyzed, and possibly mitigated before a license will be granted to construct and operate a nuclear facility. Examples of significant site-related concerns include area geotechnical and geological hazard properties, local climatology and meteorology, water resource availability, the vulnerability of surrounding populations and the environmental to adverse effects in the unlikely event of radionuclide release, the socioeconomic impacts of SMR plant installation and the effects it has on aesthetics, proximity to energy use customers, the topography and area infrastructure that affect plant constructability and security, and concerns related to the transport, installation, operation and decommissioning of major plant components.

Wayne Moe

2013-10-01

402

Portable calibration instrument of hemodialysis unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of meeting the rapid development of blood purification in China, improve the level of blood purification treatment, and get rid of the plight of the foreign technology monopolization to promise patients' medical safety, a parameter-calibrator for the hemodialysis unit, which can detect simultaneously multi-parameter, is designed. The instrument includes a loop, which connects to the hemodialysis unit. Sensors are in the loop in series, so that the dialysis can flow through this loop and the sensors can acquisitive data of various parameters. In order to facilitate detection and carrying, the integrated circuit part modularly based on the ultralow-power microcontrollers,TI MSP430 is designed. High-performance and small-packaged components are used to establish a modular, high-precision, multi-functional, portable system. The functions and the key technical indexes of the instrument have reached the level of products abroad.

Jin, Liang-bing; Li, Dong-sheng; Chen, Ai-jun

2013-01-01

403

Determining modular organization of protein interaction networks by maximizing modularity density  

PubMed Central

Background With ever increasing amount of available data on biological networks, modeling and understanding the structure of these large networks is an important problem with profound biological implications. Cellular functions and biochemical events are coordinately carried out by groups of proteins interacting each other in biological modules. Identifying of such modules in protein interaction networks is very important for understanding the structure and function of these fundamental cellular networks. Therefore, developing an effective computational method to uncover biological modules should be highly challenging and indispensable. Results The purpose of this study is to introduce a new quantitative measure modularity density into the field of biomolecular networks and develop new algorithms for detecting functional modules in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Specifically, we adopt the simulated annealing (SA) to maximize the modularity density and evaluate its efficiency on simulated networks. In order to address the computational complexity of SA procedure, we devise a spectral method for optimizing the index and apply it to a yeast PPI network. Conclusions Our analysis of detected modules by the present method suggests that most of these modules have well biological significance in context of protein complexes. Comparison with the MCL and the modularity based methods shows the efficiency of our method. PMID:20840724

2010-01-01

404

Self-Adapting Modular Robotics: A Generalized Distributed Consensus Chih-Han Yu  

E-print Network

Self-Adapting Modular Robotics: A Generalized Distributed Consensus Framework Chih-Han Yu chyu simple sensing and actions. Modular robots with similar properties can potentially achieve self for self- adaptation tasks in modular robotics. We demonstrate that a variety of modular robotic systems

Napp, Nils

405

Analysis on the Interaction between the Nonholonomic Mobile Modular Robot and the Environment  

E-print Network

Analysis on the Interaction between the Nonholonomic Mobile Modular Robot and the Environment modular robot (MMR) which is composed of the mobile platform and the modular manipulator. The mobile robot of the proposed method. Index Terms-- Dynamics control, Mobile modular robot, Tactile sensor, Force-torque sensor

Li, Yangmin

406

A modular object-oriented framework for hierarchical multi-resolution robot simulation  

E-print Network

A modular object-oriented framework for hierarchical multi- resolution robot simulation Sanghoon of RSTATION, an object-oriented, modular robot simulator with hierarchi- cal analysis capabilities. Modularity, are not specialized for robot design. As a result these packages lack features such as modular design and hierarchical

Treuille, Adrien

407

Modular, security enclosure and method of assembly  

DOEpatents

A transportable, reusable rapidly assembled and disassembled, resizable modular, security enclosure utilizes a stepped panel construction. Each panel has an inner portion and an outer portion which form joints. A plurality of channels can be affixed to selected joints of the panels. Panels can be affixed to a base member and then affixed to one another by the use of elongated pins extending through the channel joints. Alternatively, the base member can be omitted and the panels themselves can be used as the floor of the enclosure. The pins will extend generally parallel to the joint in which they are located. These elongated pins are readily inserted into and removable from the channels in a predetermined sequence to allow assembly and disassembly of the enclosure. A door constructed from panels is used to close the opening to the enclosure.

Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moyer, John W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01

408

Modular synthesis of oxazolines and their derivatives.  

PubMed

A class of modular oxazolines and their derivatives 1-5 were synthesized with moderate to excellent yields using a simple one-pot method; 4 x 3 bis-oxazolines were obtained, as expected, from each of the three reactions of 1,4-dicyanobenzene, 1,3-dicyanobenzene, and 1,2-dicyanobenzene with optically active amino alcohols in chlorobenzene under dry, anaerobic conditions. ZnCl(2) was used as a Lewis acid catalyst. Direct condensation of 1, 2-bis(cyanomethyl) benzene or 2-cyanophenylacetonitrile did not yield the target products, but two series of novel compounds (4 and 5) were isolated and their structures were confirmed by X-Ray analysis. All products (1-5) were characterized by NMR, IR, and MS. PMID:19138088

Mei, Luo; Hai, Zhang Jia; Jie, Sun; Ming, Zhou Shi; Hao, Yin; Liang, Hu Ke

2009-03-01

409

Dynamics on modular networks with heterogeneous correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a new ensemble of modular random graphs in which degree-degree correlations can be different in each module, and the inter-module connections are defined by the joint degree-degree distribution of nodes for each pair of modules. We present an analytical approach that allows one to analyze several types of binary dynamics operating on such networks, and we illustrate our approach using bond percolation, site percolation, and the Watts threshold model. The new network ensemble generalizes existing models (e.g., the well-known configuration model and Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi networks) by allowing a heterogeneous distribution of degree-degree correlations across modules, which is important for the consideration of nonidentical interacting networks.

Melnik, Sergey; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Gleeson, James P.

2014-06-01

410

Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations.

Nichols, Ralph L. (812 Plantation Point Dr., N. Augusta, SC 29841); Widdowson, Mark A. (4204 Havana Ct., Columbia, SC 29206); Mullinex, Harry (10 Cardross La., Columbia, SC 29209); Orne, William H. (12 Martha Ct., Sumter, SC 29150); Looney, Brian B. (1135 Ridgemont Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

1994-01-01

411

Modularized TGFbeta-Smad Signaling Pathway  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathway is a prominent regulatory signaling pathway controlling various important cellular processes. It can be induced by several factors, including ionizing radiation. It is regulated by Smads in a negative feedback loop through promoting increases in the regulatory Smads in the cell nucleus, and subsequent expression of inhibitory Smad, Smad7 to form a ubiquitin ligase with Smurf targeting active TGF receptors for degradation. In this work, we proposed a mathematical model to study the radiation-induced Smad-regulated TGF signaling pathway. By modularization, we are able to analyze each module (subsystem) and recover the nonlinear dynamics of the entire network system. Meanwhile the excitability, a common feature observed in the biological systems, along the TGF signaling pathway is discussed by mathematical analysis and numerical simulation.

Li, Yongfeng; Wang, M.; Carra, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.

2011-01-01

412

Modular Approach to Physics: Skaters and Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains an interactive simulation on conservation of momentum. Users may choose from two views: a pair of ice skaters pushing off from each other or a model of two blocks exerting a force on each other. The user can adjust the masses of the two objects and observe their velocities, momenta, and kinetic energies as they move away from each other. This resource was developed to enhance understanding of the law of momentum conservation. It includes, the simulation help, a detailed lesson with related problems/solutions, learning outcomes, and instructions for use. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation-based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-05-30

413

Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL): Stereochemical modules  

PubMed Central

Background In our previous papers we introduced the Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL) for providing a linear representation of chemical information. A subsequent development was the MCDL Java Chemical Structure Editor which is capable of drawing chemical structures from linear representations and generating MCDL descriptors from structures. Results In this paper we present MCDL modules and accompanying software that incorporate unique representation of molecular stereochemistry based on Cahn-Ingold-Prelog and Fischer ideas in constructing stereoisomer descriptors. The paper also contains additional discussions regarding canonical representation of stereochemical isomers, and brief algorithm descriptions of the open source LINDES, Java applet, and Open Babel MCDL processing module software packages. Conclusions Testing of the upgraded MCDL Java Chemical Structure Editor on compounds taken from several large and diverse chemical databases demonstrated satisfactory performance for storage and processing of stereochemical information in MCDL format. PMID:21276272

2011-01-01

414

RSA and its Correctness through Modular Arithmetic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ensure the security to the applications of business, the business sectors use Public Key Cryptographic Systems (PKCS). An RSA system generally belongs to the category of PKCS for both encryption and authentication. This paper describes an introduction to RSA through encryption and decryption schemes, mathematical background which includes theorems to combine modular equations and correctness of RSA. In short, this paper explains some of the maths concepts that RSA is based on, and then provides a complete proof that RSA works correctly. We can proof the correctness of RSA through combined process of encryption and decryption based on the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) and Euler theorem. However, there is no mathematical proof that RSA is secure, everyone takes that on trust!.

Meelu, Punita; Malik, Sitender

2010-11-01

415

Dynamics on modular networks with heterogeneous correlations  

SciTech Connect

We develop a new ensemble of modular random graphs in which degree-degree correlations can be different in each module, and the inter-module connections are defined by the joint degree-degree distribution of nodes for each pair of modules. We present an analytical approach that allows one to analyze several types of binary dynamics operating on such networks, and we illustrate our approach using bond percolation, site percolation, and the Watts threshold model. The new network ensemble generalizes existing models (e.g., the well-known configuration model and Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi networks) by allowing a heterogeneous distribution of degree-degree correlations across modules, which is important for the consideration of nonidentical interacting networks.

Melnik, Sergey [MACSI, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick (Ireland) [MACSI, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick (Ireland); Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Porter, Mason A. [Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom) [Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Mucha, Peter J. [Department of Mathematics, Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3250 (United States) [Department of Mathematics, Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3250 (United States); Institute for Advanced Materials, Nanoscience and Technology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3216 (United States); Gleeson, James P. [MACSI, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick (Ireland)] [MACSI, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick (Ireland)

2014-06-15

416

Introducing a modular activity monitoring system.  

PubMed

In this paper, the idea of a modular activity monitoring system is introduced. By using different combinations of the system's three modules, different functionality becomes available: 1) a coarse intensity estimation of physical activities 2) different features based on HR-data and 3) the recognition of basic activities and postures. 3D-accelerometers--placed on lower arm, chest and foot--and a heart rate monitor were used as sensors. A dataset with 8 subjects and 14 different activities was recorded to evaluate the performance of the system. The overall performance on the intensity estimation task, relying on the chest-worn accelerometer and the HR-monitor, was 94.37%. The overall performance on the activity recognition task, using all three accelerometer placements and the HR-monitor, was 90.65%. This paper also gives an analysis of the importance of different accelerometer placements and the importance of a HR-monitor for both tasks. PMID:22255614

Reiss, Attila; Stricker, Didier

2011-01-01

417

Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system  

DOEpatents

A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); McInnes, Ian D. (San Jose, CA); Massey, John V. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

418

Kahler stabilized, modular invariant heterotic string models  

SciTech Connect

We review the theory and phenomenology of effective supergravity theories based on orbifold compactifications of the weakly-coupled heterotic string. In particular, we consider theories in which the four-dimensional theory displays target space modular invariance and where the dilatonic mode undergoes Kahler stabilization. A self-contained exposition of effective Lagrangian approaches to gaugino condensation and heterotic string theory is presented, leading to the development of the models of Binétruy, Gaillard and Wu. Various aspects of the phenomenology of this class of models are considered. These include issues of supersymmetry breaking and superpartner spectra, the role of anomalous U(1) factors, issues of flavor and R-parity conservation, collider signatures, axion physics, and early universe cosmology. For the vast majority of phenomenological considerations the theories reviewed here compare quite favorably to other string-derived models in the literature. Theoretical objections to the framework and directions for further research are identified and discussed.

Gaillard, Mary K.; Gaillard, Mary K.; Nelson, Brent D.

2007-03-19

419

The modular nature of trustworthiness detection.  

PubMed

The capacity to trust wisely is a critical facilitator of success and prosperity, and it has been conjectured that people of higher intelligence are better able to detect signs of untrustworthiness from potential partners. In contrast, this article reports five trust game studies suggesting that reading trustworthiness of the faces of strangers is a modular process. Trustworthiness detection from faces is independent of general intelligence (Study 1) and effortless (Study 2). Pictures that include nonfacial features such as hair and clothing impair trustworthiness detection (Study 3) by increasing reliance on conscious judgments (Study 4), but people largely prefer to make decisions from this sort of pictures (Study 5). In sum, trustworthiness detection in an economic interaction is a genuine and effortless ability, possessed in equal amount by people of all cognitive capacities, but whose impenetrability leads to inaccurate conscious judgments and inappropriate informational preferences. PMID:22686638

Bonnefon, Jean-François; Hopfensitz, Astrid; De Neys, Wim

2013-02-01

420

Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL): Stereochemical modules  

SciTech Connect

In our previous papers we introduced the Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL) for providing a linear representation of chemical information. A subsequent development was the MCDL Java Chemical Structure Editor which is capable of drawing chemical structures from linear representations and generating MCDL descriptors from structures. In this paper we present MCDL modules and accompanying software that incorporate unique representation of molecular stereochemistry based on Cahn-Ingold-Prelog and Fischer ideas in constructing stereoisomer descriptors. The paper also contains additional discussions regarding canonical representation of stereochemical isomers, and brief algorithm descriptions of the open source LINDES, Java applet, and Open Babel MCDL processing module software packages. Testing of the upgraded MCDL Java Chemical Structure Editor on compounds taken from several large and diverse chemical databases demonstrated satisfactory performance for storage and processing of stereochemical information in MCDL format.

Gakh, Andrei A [ORNL; Burnett, Michael N [ORNL; Trepalin, Sergei V. [Institute Physiologically Active Compouds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Yarkov, Alexander V [Institute Physiologically Active Compouds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

2011-01-01

421

Modularizing Spatial Ontologies for Assisted Living Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assisted living systems are intended to support daily-life activities in user homes by automatizing and monitoring behavior of the environment while interacting with the user in a non-intrusive way. The knowledge base of such systems therefore has to define thematically different aspects of the environment mostly related to space, such as basic spatial floor plan information, pieces of technical equipment in the environment and their functions and spatial ranges, activities users can perform, entities that occur in the environment, etc. In this paper, we present thematically different ontologies, each of which describing environmental aspects from a particular perspective. The resulting modular structure allows the selection of application-specific ontologies as necessary. This hides information and reduces complexity in terms of the represented spatial knowledge and reasoning practicability. We motivate and present the different spatial ontologies applied to an ambient assisted living application.

Hois, Joana

422

FOAM: the modular adaptive optics framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control software for adaptive optics systems is mostly custom built and very specific in nature. We have developed FOAM, a modular adaptive optics framework for controlling and simulating adaptive optics systems in various environments. Portability is provided both for different control hardware and adaptive optics setups. To achieve this, FOAM is written in C++ and runs on standard CPUs. Furthermore we use standard Unix libraries and compilation procedures and implemented a hardware abstraction layer in FOAM. We have successfully implemented FOAM on the adaptive optics system of ExPo - a high-contrast imaging polarimeter developed at our institute - in the lab and will test it on-sky late June 2012. We also plan to implement FOAM on adaptive optics systems for microscopy and solar adaptive optics. FOAM is available* under the GNU GPL license and is free to be used by anyone.

van Werkhoven, T. I. M.; Homs, L.; Sliepen, G.; Rodenhuis, M.; Keller, C. U.

2012-07-01

423

Research on a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulator System  

SciTech Connect

Research has been conducted on developing the theoretical basis and the technology for a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulation System (RMMS). Unlike a conventional manipulator which has a fixed configuration, the RMMS consists of a set of interchangeable modules that can be rapidly assembled into a system of manipulators with appropriate configurations depending on the specific task requirement. For effective development and use of such a versatile and flexible system a program of theoretical and experimental research has been pursued aimed at developing the basis for next generation of autonomous manipulator systems. The RMMS concept extends the idea of autonomy from sensor-based to configuration based autonomy. One of the important components is the development of design methodologies for mapping tasks into manipulator configurations and for automatic generation of manipulator specific algorithms (e.g., kinematics and dynamics) in order to make the hardware transparent to the user.(JDB)

Khosla, P.K.; Kanade, T.

1992-01-01

424

Quadruped robots' modular trajectories: Stability issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pinto, Santos, Rocha and Matos [13, 12] study a CPG model for the generation of modular trajectories of quadruped robots. They consider that each movement is composed of two types of primitives: rhythmic and discrete. The rhythmic primitive models the periodic patterns and the discrete primitive is inserted as a perturbation of those patterns. In this paper we begin to tackle numerically the problem of the stability of that mathematical model. We observe that if the discrete part is inserted in all limbs, with equal values, and as an offset of the rhythmic part, the obtained gait is stable and has the same spatial and spatio-temporal symmetry groups as the purely rhythmic gait, differing only on the value of the offset.

Pinto, Carla M. A.

2012-09-01

425

Modularized evolution in archaeal methanogens phylogenetic forest.  

PubMed

Methanogens are methane-producing archaea that plays a key role in the global carbon cycle. To date, the evolutionary history of methanogens and closely related nonmethanogen species remains unresolved among studies conducted upon different genetic markers, attributing to horizontal gene transfers (HGTs). With an effort to decipher both congruent and conflicting evolutionary events, reconstruction of coevolved gene clusters and hierarchical structure in the archaeal methanogen phylogenetic forest, comprehensive evolution, and network analyses were performed upon 3,694 gene families from 41 methanogens and 33 closely related archaea. Our results show that 1) greater than 50% of genes are in topological dissonance with others; 2) the prevalent interorder HGTs, even for core genes, in methanogen genomes led to their scrambled phylogenetic relationships; 3) most methanogenesis-related genes have experienced at least one HGT; 4) greater than 20% of the genes in methanogen genomes were transferred horizontally from other archaea, with genes involved in cell-wall synthesis and defense system having been transferred most frequently; 5) the coevolution network contains seven statistically robust modules, wherein the central module has the highest average node strength and comprises a majority of the core genes; 6) different coevolutionary module genes boomed in different time and evolutionary lineage, constructing diversified pan-genome structures; 7) the modularized evolution is also closely related to the vertical evolution signals and the HGT rate of the genes. Overall, this study presented a modularized phylogenetic forest that describes a combination of complicated vertical and nonvertical evolutionary processes for methanogenic archaeal species. PMID:25502908

Li, Jun; Wong, Chi-Fat; Wong, Mabel Ting; Huang, He; Leung, Frederick C

2014-01-01

426

Modular System to Enable Extravehicular Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to perform extravehicular activity (EVA), both human and robotic, has been identified as a key component to space missions to support such operations as assembly and maintenance of space system (e.g. construction and maintenance of the International Space Station), and unscheduled activities to repair an element of the transportation and habitation systems that can only be accessed externally and via unpressurized areas. In order to make human transportation beyond lower earth orbit (BLEO) practical, efficiencies must be incorporated into the integrated transportation systems to reduce system mass and operational complexity. Affordability is also a key aspect to be considered in space system development; this could be achieved through commonality, modularity and component reuse. Another key aspect identified for the EVA system was the ability to produce flight worthy hardware quickly to support early missions and near Earth technology demonstrations. This paper details a conceptual architecture for a modular extravehicular activity system (MEVAS) that would meet these stated needs for EVA capability that is affordable, and that could be produced relatively quickly. Operational concepts were developed to elaborate on the defined needs and define the key capabilities, operational and design constraints, and general timelines. The operational concept lead to a high level design concept for a module that interfaces with various space transportation elements and contains the hardware and systems required to support human and telerobotic EVA; the module would not be self-propelled and would rely on an interfacing element for consumable resources. The conceptual architecture was then compared to EVA Systems used in the Shuttle Orbiter, on the International Space Station to develop high level design concepts that incorporate opportunities for cost savings through hardware reuse, and quick production through the use of existing technologies and hardware designs. An upgrade option was included to make use of the developing suitport technologies.

Sargusingh, Miriam J.

2011-01-01

427

Modular hydride beds for mobile applications  

SciTech Connect

Design, construction, initial testing and simple thermal modeling of modular, metal hydride beds have been completed. Originally designed for supplying hydrogen to a fuel cell on a mobile vehicle, the complete bed design consists of 8 modules and is intended for use on the Palm Desert Vehicle (PDV) under development at the Schatz Energy Center, Humbolt State University. Each module contains approximately 2 kg of a commercially available, low temperature, hydride-forming metal alloy. Waste heat from the fuel cell in the form of heated water is used to desorb hydrogen from the alloy for supplying feed hydrogen to the fuel cell. In order to help determine the performance of such a modular bed system, six modules were constructed and tested. The design and construction of the modules is described in detail. Initial testing of the modules both individually and as a group showed that each module can store {approximately} 30 g of hydrogen (at 165 PSIA fill pressure, 17 C), could be filled with hydrogen in 6 minutes at a nominal, 75 standard liters/min (slm) fueling rate, and could supply hydrogen during desorption at rates of 25 slm, the maximum anticipated hydrogen fuel cell input requirement. Tests made of 5 modules as a group indicated that the behavior of the group run in parallel both in fueling and gas delivery could be directly predicted from the corresponding, single module characteristics by using an appropriate scaling factor. Simple thermal modeling of a module as an array of cylindrical, hydride-filled tubes was performed. The predictions of the model are in good agreement with experimental data.

Malinowski, M.E.; Stewart, K.D.

1997-08-01

428

Modular System to Enable Extravehicular Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to perform extravehicular activity (EVA), both human and robotic, has been identified as a key component to space missions to support such operations as assembly and maintenance of space systems (e.g. construction and maintenance of the International Space Station), and unscheduled activities to repair an element of the transportation and habitation systems that can only be accessed externally and via unpressurized areas. In order to make human transportation beyond lower Earth orbit (LEO) practical, efficiencies must be incorporated into the integrated transportation systems to reduce system mass and operational complexity. Affordability is also a key aspect to be considered in space system development; this could be achieved through commonality, modularity and component reuse. Another key aspect identified for the EVA system was the ability to produce flight worthy hardware quickly to support early missions and near Earth technology demonstrations. This paper details a conceptual architecture for a modular EVA system that would meet these stated needs for EVA capability that is affordable, and that could be produced relatively quickly. Operational concepts were developed to elaborate on the defined needs, and to define the key capabilities, operational and design constraints, and general timelines. The operational concept lead to a high level design concept for a module that interfaces with various space transportation elements and contains the hardware and systems required to support human and telerobotic EVA; the module would not be self-propelled and would rely on an interfacing element for consumable resources. The conceptual architecture was then compared to EVA Systems used in the Space Shuttle Orbiter, on the International Space Station to develop high level design concepts that incorporate opportunities for cost savings through hardware reuse, and quick production through the use of existing technologies and hardware designs. An upgrade option was included to make use of the developing suit port technologies.

Sargusingh, Miriam J.

2012-01-01

429

Human Reliability Analysis for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Because no human reliability analysis (HRA) method was specifically developed for small modular reactors (SMRs), the application of any current HRA method to SMRs represents tradeoffs. A first- generation HRA method like THERP provides clearly defined activity types, but these activity types do not map to the human-system interface or concept of operations confronting SMR operators. A second- generation HRA method like ATHEANA is flexible enough to be used for SMR applications, but there is currently insufficient guidance for the analyst, requiring considerably more first-of-a-kind analyses and extensive SMR expertise in order to complete a quality HRA. Although no current HRA method is optimized to SMRs, it is possible to use existing HRA methods to identify errors, incorporate them as human failure events in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and quantify them. In this paper, we provided preliminary guidance to assist the human reliability analyst and reviewer in understanding how to apply current HRA methods to the domain of SMRs. While it is possible to perform a satisfactory HRA using existing HRA methods, ultimately it is desirable to formally incorporate SMR considerations into the methods. This may require the development of new HRA methods. More practicably, existing methods need to be adapted to incorporate SMRs. Such adaptations may take the form of guidance on the complex mapping between conventional light water reactors and small modular reactors. While many behaviors and activities are shared between current plants and SMRs, the methods must adapt if they are to perform a valid and accurate analysis of plant personnel performance in SMRs.

Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

2012-06-01

430

Hydrogen Production Using the Modular Helium Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The high-temperature characteristics of the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) make it a strong candidate for the production of hydrogen using either thermochemical or high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) processes. Using heat from the MHR to drive a Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical hydrogen process has been the subject of a DOE sponsored Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (NERI) project lead by General Atomics, with participation from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Texas A&M University. While the focus of much of the initial work was on the S-I thermochemical production of hydrogen, recent activities have also included development of a preconceptual design for an integral HTE hydrogen production plant driven by the process heat and electricity produced by a 600 MWt MHR. This paper describes RELAP5-3D analyses performed to evaluate alternative primary system cooling configurations for the MHR to minimize peak reactor vessel and core temperatures while achieving core helium outlet temperatures in the range of 900 oC to 1000 oC, needed for the efficient production of hydrogen using either the S-I thermochemical or HTE process. The cooling schemes investigated are intended to ensure peak fuel temperatures do not exceed specified limits under normal or transient upset conditions, and that reactor vessel temperatures do not exceed ASME code limits for steady-state or transient conditions using standard LWR vessel materials. Preconceptual designs for both an S-I thermochemical and HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a 600 MWt MHR at helium outlet temperatures in the range of 900 oC to 1000 oC are described and compared. An initial SAPHIRE model to evaluate the reliability, maintainablility, and availability of the S-I hydrogen production plant is also discussed, and plans for future assessments of conceptual designs for both a S-I thermochemical and HTE hydrogen production plant coupled to a 600 MWt modular helium reactor are described.

E. A. Harvego; S. M. Reza; M. Richards; A. Shenoy

2005-05-01

431

Development and analysis of modular uniaxial leg adapter.  

PubMed

The adapters of modular prostheses are the structural components mostly likely to fail during the use of prostheses because of the high forces and moments occurring during the human gait. In this study, structural performance of a modular uniaxial leg adapter during gait is analysed utilizing computer software. By analysing the results, the relevant product was redesigned in order to prevent possible failures. Subsequently, the developed modular uniaxial leg adapter was tested in accordance with ISO 10328 in order to ensure the safety of the design. Further, the test results are compared with a finite element analysis to evaluate the performance of the numerical analysis. PMID:17365881

Dincel, Ozan; Gursel, K Turgut; Yildiz, Hasan

2007-03-01

432

Compact formulas for the completed mock modular forms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a new compact expression of the elliptic genus of SL(2)/U(1)-supercoset theory by making use of the `spectral flow method' of the pathintegral evaluation. This new expression is written in a form like a Poincaré series with a non-holomorphic Gaussian damping factor, and manifestly shows the modular and spectral flow properties of a real analytic Jacobi form. As a related problem, we present similar compact formulas for the modular completions of various mock modular forms which appear in the representation theory of superconformal algebras.

Eguchi, Tohru; Sugawara, Yuji

2014-11-01

433

Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability  

DOEpatents

A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

2014-12-09

434

Vaccination with Messenger RNA (mRNA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both DNA and mRNA can be used as vehicles for gene therapy. Because the immune system is naturally activated by foreign nucleic\\u000a acids thanks to the presence of Toll-like Receptors (TLR) in endosomes (TLR3, 7, and 8 detect exogenous RNA, while TLR9 can\\u000a detect exogenous DNA), the delivery of foreign nucleic acids usually induces an immune response directed against the

Steve Pascolo

435

Rational, modular adaptation of enzyme-free DNA circuits to multiple detection methods  

PubMed Central

Signal amplification is a key component of molecular detection. Enzyme-free signal amplification is especially appealing for the development of low-cost, point-of-care diagnostics. It has been previously shown that enzyme-free DNA circuits with signal-amplification capacity can be designed using a mechanism called ‘catalyzed hairpin assembly’. However, it is unclear whether the efficiency and modularity of such circuits is suitable for multiple analytical applications. We have therefore designed and characterized a simplified DNA circuit based on catalyzed hairpin assembly, and applied it to multiple different analytical formats, including fluorescent, colorimetric, and electrochemical and signaling. By optimizing the design of previous hairpin-based catalytic assemblies we found that our circuit has almost zero background and a high catalytic efficiency, with a kcat value above 1?min?1. The inherent modularity of the circuit allowed us to readily adapt our circuit to detect both RNA and small molecule analytes. Overall, these data demonstrate that catalyzed hairpin assembly is suitable for analyte detection and signal amplification in a ‘plug-and-play’ fashion. PMID:21693555

Li, Bingling; Ellington, Andrew D.; Chen, Xi

2011-01-01

436

Parts & Pools: A Framework for Modular Design of Synthetic Gene Circuits  

PubMed Central

Published in 2008, Parts & Pools represents one of the first attempts to conceptualize the modular design of bacterial synthetic gene circuits with Standard Biological Parts (DNA segments) and Pools of molecules referred to as common signal carriers (e.g., RNA polymerases and ribosomes). The original framework for modeling bacterial components and designing prokaryotic circuits evolved over the last years and brought, first, to the development of an algorithm for the automatic design of Boolean gene circuits. This is a remarkable achievement since gene digital circuits have a broad range of applications that goes from biosensors for health and environment care to computational devices. More recently, Parts & Pools was enabled to give a proper formal description of eukaryotic biological circuit components. This was possible by employing a rule-based modeling approach, a technique that permits a faithful calculation of all the species and reactions involved in complex systems such as eukaryotic cells and compartments. In this way, Parts & Pools is currently suitable for the visual and modular design of synthetic gene circuits in yeast and mammalian cells too. PMID:25340051

Marchisio, Mario Andrea

2014-01-01

437

RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

438

Modular design of synthetic gene circuits with biological parts and pools.  

PubMed

Synthetic gene circuits can be designed in an electronic fashion by displaying their basic components-Standard Biological Parts and Pools of molecules-on the computer screen and connecting them with hypothetical wires. This procedure, achieved by our add-on for the software ProMoT, was successfully applied to bacterial circuits. Recently, we have extended this design-methodology to eukaryotic cells. Here, highly complex components such as promoters and Pools of mRNA contain hundreds of species and reactions whose calculation demands a rule-based modeling approach. We showed how to build such complex modules via the joint employment of the software BioNetGen (rule-based modeling) and ProMoT (modularization). In this chapter, we illustrate how to utilize our computational tool for synthetic biology with the in silico implementation of a simple eukaryotic gene circuit that performs the logic AND operation. PMID:25487096

Marchisio, Mario Andrea

2015-01-01

439

Low-leakage modular regenerators for gas-turbine engines  

SciTech Connect

One of the significant problems plaguing regenerator designs is seal leakage resulting in a reduction of thermal efficiency. This paper describes the preliminary design and analysis of a new regenerative heat-exchanger concept, called a modular regenerator, that promises to provide improved seal-leakage performance. The modular regenerator concept consists of a ceramic-honeycomb matrix discretized into rectangular blocks, called modules. Separating the matrix into modules substantially reduces the transverse sealing lengths and substantially increases the longitudinal sealing lengths as compared with typical rotary designs. Potential applications can range from small gas-turbine engines for automotive applications to large stationary gas turbines for industrial power generation. Descriptions of two types of modular regenerators are presented including sealing concepts. Results of seal leakage analysis for typical modular regenerators sized for a small gas-turbine engine (120 kW) predict leakage rates under one percent for most seal-clearance heights.

Kluka, J.A. [Pratt and Whitney, Middletown, CT (United States); Wilson, D.G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1998-04-01

440

Retroactivity, modularity, and insulation in synthetic biology circuits  

E-print Network

A central concept in synthetic biology is the reuse of well-characterized modules. Modularity simplifies circuit design by allowing for the decomposition of systems into separate modules for individual construction. Complex ...

Lin, Allen

2011-01-01

441

A modular attachment mechanism for software network evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modular attachment mechanism of software network evolution is presented in this paper. Compared with the previous models, our treatment of object-oriented software system as a network of modularity is inherently more realistic. To acquire incoming and outgoing links in directed networks when new nodes attach to the existing network, a new definition of asymmetric probabilities is given. Based on this, modular attachment instead of single node attachment in the previous models is then adopted. The proposed mechanism is demonstrated to be able to generate networks with features of power-law, small-world, and modularity, which represents more realistic properties of actual software networks. This work therefore contributes to a more accurate understanding of the evolutionary mechanism of software systems. What is more, explorations of the effects of various software development principles on the structure of software systems have been carried out, which are expected to be beneficial to the software engineering practices.

Li, Hui; Zhao, Hai; Cai, Wei; Xu, Jiu-Qiang; Ai, Jun

2013-05-01

442

A LANGUAGE FOR MODULAR SPATIO-TEMPORAL SIMULATION (R824766)  

EPA Science Inventory

Creating an effective environment for collaborative spatio-temporal model development will require computational systems that provide support for the user in three key areas: (1) Support for modular, hierarchical model construction and archiving/linking of simulation modules; (2)...

443

Modularity and Commonality Research: Past Developments and Future Opportunities  

E-print Network

Research on modularity and commonality has grown substantially over the past 15 years. Searching 36 journals over more than the past 35 years, I identify over 160 references in the engineering and management literature ...

Fixson, Sebastian K.

2007-04-20

444

Reformulation of a locally optimal heuristic for modularity maximization  

E-print Network

the number of variables and constraints. Computation results are reported for a series of real-world problems possible modularity). The model is a quadratic integer programming one, with a convex relaxation. The only the integral

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

445

17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.  

...submission and notify the electronic filer by electronic mail. After six business days, the modular submission...document intended to become an electronic filing may be submitted...submitted no more than six business days in advance of...

2014-04-01

446

17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...submission and notify the electronic filer by electronic mail. After six business days, the modular submission...document intended to become an electronic filing may be submitted...submitted no more than six business days in advance of...

2012-04-01

447

17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...submission and notify the electronic filer by electronic mail. After six business days, the modular submission...document intended to become an electronic filing may be submitted...submitted no more than six business days in advance of...

2011-04-01

448

17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...submission and notify the electronic filer by electronic mail. After six business days, the modular submission...document intended to become an electronic filing may be submitted...submitted no more than six business days in advance of...

2010-04-01

449

17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...submission and notify the electronic filer by electronic mail. After six business days, the modular submission...document intended to become an electronic filing may be submitted...submitted no more than six business days in advance of...

2013-04-01

450

Modularity in design of the MIT Pebble Bed Reactor  

E-print Network

The future of new nuclear power plant construction will depend in large part on the ability of designers to reduce capital, operations, and maintenance costs. One of the methods proposed, is to enhance the modularity of ...

Berte, Marc Vincent, 1977-

2004-01-01

451

Modular ‘Click-in-Emulsion’ Bone-Targeted Nanogels  

E-print Network

A new class of nanogel demonstrates modular biodistribution and affinity for bone. Nanogels, ~70 nm in diameter and synthesized via an astoichiometric click-chemistry in-emulsion method, controllably display residual, free ...

Heller, Daniel A.

452

MILP formulations for the modularity density maximization problem  

E-print Network

Oct 10, 2014 ... In the last years this topic has been studied by many researchers, ... this paper we focus on a recent measure, called modularity density, which ...... multidisciplinary physics, chemistry, biology, and ecology) and the presence.

2014-10-10

453

Extensible Modular Landing Systems for Human Moon and Mars Exploration  

E-print Network

Extensible Modular Landing Systems for Human Moon and Mars Exploration by Wilfried Hofstetter and Proposed Moon and Mars Exploration System architectures...... 27 2.1.1 The Apollo System...................................................................................... 54 3. Moon and Mars System Architectures Point Designs

de Weck, Olivier L.

454

Modular robotic applications in nuclear power plant maintenance  

SciTech Connect

General-purpose factory automation robots have experienced limited use in nuclear maintenance and hazardous-environment work spaces due to demanding requirements on size, weight, mobility and adaptability. Robotic systems in nuclear power plants are frequently custom designed to meet specific space and performance requirements. Examples of these custom configurations include Framatome Technologies COBRA{trademark} Steam Generator Manipulator and URSULA{trademark} Reactor Vessel Inspection Manipulator. The use of custom robots in nuclear plants has been limited because of the lead time and expense associated with custom design. Developments in modular robotics and advanced robot control software coupled with more powerful low-cost computers, however, are helping to reduce the cost and schedule for deploying custom robots. A modular robotic system allows custom robot configurations to be implemented using standard (modular) joints and adaptable controllers. This paper discusses Framatome Technologies (FTI) current and planned developments in the area of modular robot system design.

Glass, S.W.; Ranson, C.C. [Framatome Technologies, Lynchburg, VA (United States); Reinholtz, C.F.; Calkins, J.M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1996-10-01

455

Low-leakage modular regenerators for gas-turbine engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the significant problems plaguing regenerator designs is seal leakage resulting in a reduction of thermal efficiency. This paper describes the preliminary design and analysis of a new regenerative heat-exchanger concept, called a modular regenerator, that promises to provide improved seal-leakage performance. The modular regenerator concept consists of a ceramic-honeycomb matrix discretized into rectangular blocks, called modules. Separating the

J. A. Kluka; D. G. Wilson

1998-01-01

456

Modular neck prostheses in DDH patients: 11-year results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Total hip replacement in developmental dysplasia of the hip is a demanding procedure and usually requires dedicated devices\\u000a and special surgical techniques. Nevertheless, the described techniques have shown variable outcomes. The aim of this study\\u000a was to assess the 11-year outcomes of an off-the-shelf modular neck prosthesis in dysplastic patients and to evaluate the\\u000a ability of the modular neck system

Francesco Traina; Marcello De Fine; Enrico Tassinari; Alessandra Sudanese; Pierina Paola Calderoni; Aldo Toni

2011-01-01

457

The Classification of Affine SU(3) Modular Invariant Partition Functions  

E-print Network

A complete classification of the WZNW modular invariant partition functions is known for very few affine algebras and levels, the most significant being all levels of SU(2), and level 1 of all simple algebras. In this paper we solve the classification problem for SU(3) modular invariant partition functions. Our approach will also be applicable to other affine Lie algebras, and we include some preliminary work in that direction, including a sketch of a new proof for SU(2).

Terry Gannon

1992-12-09

458

Modular Invariants and Twisted Equivariant K-theory  

E-print Network

Freed-Hopkins-Teleman expressed the Verlinde algebra as twisted equivariant K-theory. We study how to recover the full system (fusion algebra of defect lines), nimrep (cylindrical partition function), etc of modular invariant partition functions of conformal field theories associated to loop groups. We work out several examples corresponding to conformal embeddings and orbifolds. We identify a new aspect of the A-D-E pattern of SU(2) modular invariants.

David E. Evans; Terry Gannon

2008-07-23

459

Modular Trough Power Plant Cycle and Systems Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes an analysis to reduce the cost of power production from modular concentrating solar power plants through a relatively new and exciting concept that merges two mature technologies to produce distributed modular electric power in the range of 500 to 1,500 kWe. These are the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant and the concentrating solar parabolic (CSP) trough technologies that have been developed independent of each other over many years.

Price, H.; Hassani, V.

2002-01-01

460

SMART: A Modular Architecture for Robotics and Teleoperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SMART (Sequential Modular Architecture for Robotics and Teleoperation) is introduced. SMART is designed to integrate the different slave devices (e.g., large hydraulic arms, mobile manipulators, gantry robots), sensors (e.g., ultrasonic sensors, force sensors) and input devices, (e.g., space ball, force-reflecting master, autonomous trajectory generators) required for waste management and environmental restoration tasks. The modular architecture allows for rapid synthesis of

Robert J. Anderson

1993-01-01

461

Evolution of PolyBot: A Modular Reconfigurable Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular, self-reconfigurable robots show the promise of great versatility, robustness and low cost. This paper presents examples and issues in realizing those promises. PolyBot is a modular, self-reconfigurable system that is being used to explore the hardware reality of a robot with a large number of interchangeable modules. Three generations of PolyBot have been built over the last three years

David G. Duff; Mark Yim; Kimon Roufas

2001-01-01

462

Modular, Cost-Effective, Extensible Avionics Architecture for Secure, Mobile Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current onboard communication architectures are based upon an all-in-one communications management unit. This unit and associated radio systems has regularly been designed as a one-off, proprietary system. As such, it lacks flexibility and cannot adapt easily to new technology, new communication protocols, and new communication links. This paper describes the current avionics communication architecture and provides a historical perspective of the evolution of this system. A new onboard architecture is proposed that allows full use of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies to be integrated in a modular approach thereby enabling a flexible, cost-effective and fully deployable design that can take advantage of ongoing advances in the computer, cryptography, and telecommunications industries.

Ivancic, William D.

2007-01-01

463

Modular, Cost-Effective, Extensible Avionics Architecture for Secure, Mobile Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current onboard communication architectures are based upon an all-in-one communications management unit. This unit and associated radio systems has regularly been designed as a one-off, proprietary system. As such, it lacks flexibility and cannot adapt easily to new technology, new communication protocols, and new communication links. This paper describes the current avionics communication architecture and provides a historical perspective of the evolution of this system. A new onboard architecture is proposed that allows full use of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies to be integrated in a modular approach thereby enabling a flexible, cost-effective and fully deployable design that can take advantage of ongoing advances in the computer, cryptography, and telecommunications industries.

Ivancic, William D.

2006-01-01

464

Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams.

Noah, Karl S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sayer, Raymond L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01

465

pRNA  

PubMed Central

Promoter-associated RNAs (pRNAs) are a family of ~90–100 nt-long divergent RNAs overlapping the promoter of the rRNA (rDNA) operon. pRNA transcripts interact with TIP5, a component of the chromatin remodeling complex NoRC, which recruits enzymes for heterochromatin formation and mediates silencing of rRNA genes. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of pRNA homologs, including different versions per species, as result of in silico studies in available metazoan genome assemblies. Comparative sequence analysis and secondary structure prediction ended up in two possible secondary structures, which let us assume a possible dual function of pRNAs for regulation of rRNA operons. Furthermore, we validated parts of our computational predictions experimentally by RT-PCR and sequencing. A representative seed alignment of the pRNA family, annotated with possible secondary structures was released to the Rfam database. PMID:24440945

Wehner, Stefanie; Dörrich, Anja K; Ciba, Philipp; Wilde, Annegret; Marz, Manja

2014-01-01

466

RNA Crosslinking Methods  

PubMed Central

RNA–RNA crosslinking provides a rapid means of obtaining evidence for the proximity of functional groups in structurally complex RNAs and ribonucleoproteins. Such evidence can be used to provide a physical context for interpreting structural information from other biochemical and biophysical methods and for the design of further experiments. The identification of crosslinks that accurately reflect the native conformation of the RNA of interest is strongly dependent on the position of the crosslinking agent, the conditions of the crosslinking reaction, and the method for mapping the crosslink position. Here, we provide an overview of protocols and experimental considerations for RNA–RNA cross-linking with the most commonly used long- and short-range photoaffinity reagents. Specifically, we describe the merits and strategies for random and site-specific incorporation of these reagents into RNA, the crosslinking reaction and isolation of crosslinked products, the mapping crosslinked sites, and assessment of the crosslinking data. PMID:20946768

Harris, Michael E.; Christian, Eric L.

2011-01-01

467

RNA-modifying enzymes.  

PubMed

A bewildering number of post-transcriptional modifications are introduced into cellular RNAs by enzymes that are often conserved among archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. The modifications range from those with well-understood functions, such as tRNA aminoacylation, to widespread but more mysterious ones, such as pseudouridylation. Recent structure determinations have included two types of RNA nucleobase modifying enzyme: pseudouridine synthases and tRNA guanine transglycosylases. PMID:12581659

Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

2003-02-01

468

Plant Mitochondrial RNA Editing  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   RNA editing affects messenger RNAs and transfer RNAs in plant mitochondria by site-specific exchange of cytidine and uridine\\u000a bases in both seed and nonseed plants. Distribution of the phenomenon among bryophytes has been unclear since RNA editing\\u000a has been detected in some but not all liverworts and mosses. A more detailed understanding of RNA editing in plants required\\u000a extended

Siegfried Steinhauser; Susanne Beckert; Ingrid Capesius; Olaf Malek; Volker Knoop

1999-01-01

469

Modular robotics overview of the `state of the art`  

SciTech Connect

The design of a robotic arm processing modular components and reconfigurable links is the general goal of a modular robotics development program. The impetus behind the pursuit of modular design is the remote engineering paradigm of improved reliability and availability provided by the ability to remotely maintain and repair a manipulator operating in a hazardous environment by removing and replacing worn or failed modules. Failed components can service off- line and away from hazardous conditions. The desire to reconfigure an arm to perform different tasks is also an important driver for the development of a modular robotic manipulator. In order to bring to fruition a truly modular manipulator, an array of technical challenges must be overcome. These range from basic mechanical and electrical design considerations such as desired kinematics, actuator types, and signal and transmission types and routings, through controls issues such as the need for control algorithms capable of stable free space and contact control, to computer and sensor design issues like consideration of the use of embedded processors and redundant sensors. This report presents a brief overview of the state of the art of technical issues relevant of modular robotic arm design. The focus is on breadth of coverage, rather than depth, in order to provide a reference frame for future development.

Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Hamel, W.R.

1996-08-01

470

Sequence-Structure Relations of Single RNA Molecules and Cofolded RNA Complexes  

E-print Network

in a flow reactor RNA-RNA interaction by co-folding two RNA molecules #12;Relation between RNA sequences in a flow reactor RNA-RNA interaction by co-folding two RNA molecules #12;Relation between RNA sequences in a flow reactor RNA-RNA interaction by co-folding two RNA molecules #12;RNA sequence to structure mapping

Wien, Universität

471

Safety approaches for high power modular laser operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 20 years ago, a program was initiated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study the feasibility of using lasers to separate isotopes of uranium and other materials. Of particular interest was the development of a uranium enrichment method for the production of commercial nuclear power reactor fuel to replace current more expensive methods. The Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program progressed to the point where a plant-scale facility to demonstrate commercial feasibility was built and is being tested. The U-AVLIS Program uses copper vapor lasers which pump frequency selective dye lasers to photoionize uranium vapor produced by an electron beam. The selectively ionized isotopes are electrostatically collected. The copper lasers are arranged in oscillator/amplifier chains. The current configuration consists of 12 chains, each with a nominal output of 800 W for a system output in excess of 9 kW. The system requirements are for continuous operation (24 h a day, 7 days a week) and high availability. To meet these requirements, the lasers are designed in a modular form allowing for rapid change-out of the lasers requiring maintenance. Since beginning operation in early 1985, the copper lasers have accumulated over 2 million unit hours at a greater than 90% availability. The dye laser system provides approximately 2.5 kW average power in the visible wavelength range. This large-scale laser system has many safety considerations, including high-power laser beams, high voltage, and large quantities (approximately 3000 gal) of ethanol dye solutions. The Laboratory's safety policy requires that safety controls be designed into any process, equipment, or apparatus in the form of engineering controls. Administrative controls further reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Selected examples of engineering and administrative controls currently being used in the U-AVLIS Program are described.

Handren,