Sample records for rna modular units

  1. Modular weapon control unit

    SciTech Connect

    Boccabella, M.F.; McGovney, G.N.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the Modular Weapon Control Unit (MWCU) program was to design and develop a reconfigurable weapon controller (programmer/sequencer) that can be adapted to different weapon systems based on the particular requirements for that system. Programmers from previous systems are conceptually the same and perform similar tasks. Because of this commonality and the amount of re-engineering necessary with the advent of every new design, the idea of a modular, adaptable system has emerged. Also, the controller can be used in more than one application for a specific weapon system. Functionality has been divided into a Processor Module (PM) and an Input/Output Module (IOM). The PM will handle all operations that require calculations, memory, and timing. The IOM will handle interfaces to the rest of the system, input level shifting, output drive capability, and detection of interrupt conditions. Configuration flexibility is achieved in two ways. First, the operation of the PM is determined by a surface mount Read-Only Memory (ROM). Other surface-mount components can be added or neglected as necessary for functionality. Second, IOMs consist of configurable input buffers, configurable output drivers, and configurable interrupt generation. Further, these modules can be added singly or in groups to a Processor Module to achieve the required I/O configuration. The culmination of this LDRD was the building of both Processor Module and Input/Output Module. The MWCU was chosen as a test system to evaluate Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology, desirable for high component density and good thermal characteristics.

  2. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450 Section...Detecting Systems § 181.450 Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1)...

  3. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450 Section...Detecting Systems § 181.450 Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1)...

  4. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450 Section...Detecting Systems § 181.450 Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1)...

  5. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450 Section...Detecting Systems § 181.450 Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1)...

  6. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450 Section...Detecting Systems § 181.450 Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1)...

  7. Pentatricopeptide repeats: modular blocks for building RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Filipovska, Aleksandra; Rackham, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins control diverse aspects of RNA metabolism across the eukaryotic domain. Recent computational and structural studies have provided new insights into how they recognize RNA, and show that the recognition is sequence-specific and modular. The modular code for RNA-binding by PPR proteins holds great promise for the engineering of new tools to target RNA and identifying RNAs bound by natural PPR proteins. PMID:23635770

  8. Locomotion With A Unit-Modular Reconfigurable Robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Yim

    1994-01-01

    A unit-modular robot is a robot that is composed of modules that are all identical. Inthis thesis we study the design and control of unit-modular dynamically reconfigurablerobots. This is based upon the design and construction of a robot called Polypod. Wefurther choose statically stable locomotion as the task domain to evaluate the designand control strategy. The result is the creation

  9. 45 CFR 1309.32 - Statement of procurement procedure for modular units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Statement of procurement procedure for modular units. 1309.32 Section 1309...MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Modular Units § 1309.32 Statement of procurement procedure for modular units. (a) An application for...

  10. 45 CFR 1309.34 - Costs of installation of modular unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Costs of installation of modular unit. 1309.34 Section 1309.34...PURCHASE, MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Modular Units § 1309.34 Costs of installation of modular unit. Consistent with the cost...

  11. 45 CFR 1309.32 - Statement of procurement procedure for modular units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Statement of procurement procedure for modular units. 1309.32 Section 1309...MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Modular Units § 1309.32 Statement of procurement procedure for modular units. (a) An application for...

  12. 45 CFR 1309.34 - Costs of installation of modular unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Costs of installation of modular unit. 1309.34 Section 1309.34...PURCHASE, MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Modular Units § 1309.34 Costs of installation of modular unit. Consistent with the cost...

  13. 45 CFR 1309.32 - Statement of procurement procedure for modular units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Statement of procurement procedure for modular units. 1309.32 Section 1309...MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Modular Units § 1309.32 Statement of procurement procedure for modular units. (a) An application for...

  14. 45 CFR 1309.32 - Statement of procurement procedure for modular units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Statement of procurement procedure for modular units. 1309.32 Section 1309...MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Modular Units § 1309.32 Statement of procurement procedure for modular units. (a) An application for...

  15. 45 CFR 1309.32 - Statement of procurement procedure for modular units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Statement of procurement procedure for modular units. 1309.32 Section 1309...MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Modular Units § 1309.32 Statement of procurement procedure for modular units. (a) An application for...

  16. A modular strategy for engineering orthogonal chimeric RNA transcription regulators

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Melissa K.; Lucks, Julius B.

    2013-01-01

    Antisense RNA transcription attenuators are a key component of the synthetic biology toolbox, with their ability to serve as building blocks for both signal integration logic circuits and transcriptional cascades. However, a central challenge to building more sophisticated RNA genetic circuitry is creating larger families of orthogonal attenuators that function independently of each other. Here, we overcome this challenge by developing a modular strategy to create chimeric fusions between the engineered transcriptional attenuator from plasmid pT181 and natural antisense RNA translational regulators. Using in vivo gene expression assays in Escherichia coli, we demonstrate our ability to create chimeric attenuators by fusing sequences from five different translational regulators. Mutagenesis of these functional attenuators allowed us to create a total of 11 new chimeric attenutaors. A comprehensive orthogonality test of these culminated in a 7 × 7 matrix of mutually orthogonal regulators. A comparison between all chimeras tested led to design principles that will facilitate further engineering of orthogonal RNA transcription regulators, and may help elucidate general principles of non-coding RNA regulation. We anticipate that our strategy will accelerate the development of even larger families of orthogonal RNA transcription regulators, and thus create breakthroughs in our ability to construct increasingly sophisticated RNA genetic circuitry. PMID:23761434

  17. 65. Modular bed storage unit, safety belt at left center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Modular bed storage unit, safety belt at left center, north side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  18. RTRACS: a modularized RNA-dependent RNA transcription system with high programmability.

    PubMed

    Ayukawa, Shotaro; Takinoue, Masahiro; Kiga, Daisuke

    2011-12-20

    Creating artificial biological systems is an important research endeavor. Each success contributes to synthetic biology and adds to our understanding of the functioning of the biomachinery of life. In the construction of large, complex systems, a modular approach simplifies the design process: a multilayered system can be prepared by integrating simple modules. With the concept of modularity, a variety of synthetic biological systems have been constructed, both in vivo and in vitro. But to properly develop systems with desired functions that integrate multiple modules, researchers need accurate mathematical models. In this Account, we review the development of a modularized artificial biological system known as RTRACS (reverse transcription and transcription-based autonomous computing system). In addition to modularity, model-guided predictability is an important feature of RTRACS. RTRACS has been developed as an in vitro artificial biological system through the assembly of RNA, DNA, and enzymes. A fundamental module of RTRACS receives an input RNA with a specific sequence and returns an output RNA with another specific sequence programmed in the main body, which is composed of DNA and enzymes. The conversion of the input RNA to the output RNA is achieved through a series of programmed reactions performed by the components assembled in the module. Through the substitution of a subset of components, a module that performs the AND operation was constructed. Other logical operations could be constructed with RTRACS modules. An integration of RTRACS modules has allowed the theoretical design of more complex functions, such as oscillation. The operations of these RTRACS modules were readily predicted with a numerical simulation based on a mathematical model using realistic parameters. RTRACS has the potential to model highly complex systems that function like a living cell. RTRACS was designed to be integrated with other molecules or molecular devices, for example, aptazymes, cell-free expression systems, and liposomes. For the integration of these new modules, the quantitative controls of each module based on the numerical simulation will be instructive. The capabilities of RTRACS promise to provide models of complex biomolecular systems that are able to detect the environment, assess the situation, and react to overcome the situation. Such a smart biomolecular system could be useful in many applications, such as drug delivery systems. PMID:22011083

  19. Kinetic tiles: modular construction units for interactive kinetic surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyunjung Kim; Woohun Lee

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate Kinetic Tiles, modular con-struction units for Interactive Kinetic Surfaces (IKSs). We aimed to design Kinetic Tiles to be accessible and available so that users can construct IKSs easily and rapidly. The components of Kinetic Tiles are inexpensive and easily available. In addition, the use of magnetic force enables the separation of the surface material and actuators

  20. Impact of a modular play unit on staff behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Spreat

    1987-01-01

    Severely and profoundly retarded children were provided with access to a modular play unit (PUSH) that contained six different response-activated devices. During these access periods, staff tended to interact with the children more frequently. In addition, the character of the staff-to-client interactions shifted from Neutral\\/Instructional to Positive. Results were replicated on two different sides of a residential living unit.

  1. Proton beam scanning modular unit for a nuclear microprobe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Sayko; A. G. Ponomarev; S. N. Mordyk; V. M. Eremenko; I. N. Lyfar; A. I. Mihajlichenko; S. N. Abramovich; Yu. I. Vinogradov; A. G. Zvenigorodsky; E. V. Zimin

    2007-01-01

    General ideas underlying the design of a proton beam scanning modular unit intended for a nuclear microprobe consisting of\\u000a a ferromagnetic x-y scanning system and a dynamic power supply are described. For an H+ ion energy of 14 MeV, the unit provides a rectangular scanning raster with a linear size of 300 ?m on the target and a minimal\\u000a point-to-point

  2. 7 CFR 1924.8 - Development work for modular/panelized housing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Development work for modular/panelized housing units. 1924.8...Development § 1924.8 Development work for modular/panelized housing units. (a) Exhibit...subpart applies to all loans involving modular/panelized housing units....

  3. 7 CFR 1924.8 - Development work for modular/panelized housing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Development work for modular/panelized housing units. 1924.8...Development § 1924.8 Development work for modular/panelized housing units. (a) Exhibit...subpart applies to all loans involving modular/panelized housing units....

  4. 7 CFR 1924.8 - Development work for modular/panelized housing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 true Development work for modular/panelized housing units. 1924.8...Development § 1924.8 Development work for modular/panelized housing units. (a) Exhibit...subpart applies to all loans involving modular/panelized housing units....

  5. 7 CFR 1924.8 - Development work for modular/panelized housing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Development work for modular/panelized housing units. 1924.8...Development § 1924.8 Development work for modular/panelized housing units. (a) Exhibit...subpart applies to all loans involving modular/panelized housing units....

  6. Structural basis for the modular recognition of single-stranded RNA by PPR proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ping; Li, Quanxiu; Yan, Chuangye; Liu, Ying; Liu, Junjie; Yu, Feng; Wang, Zheng; Long, Jiafu; He, Jianhua; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jiawei; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Shi, Yigong; Yan, Nieng

    2013-12-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins represent a large family of sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins that are involved in multiple aspects of RNA metabolism. PPR proteins, which are found in exceptionally large numbers in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of terrestrial plants, recognize single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) in a modular fashion. The maize chloroplast protein PPR10 binds to two similar RNA sequences from the ATPI-ATPH and PSAJ-RPL33 intergenic regions, referred to as ATPH and PSAJ, respectively. By protecting the target RNA elements from 5' or 3' exonucleases, PPR10 defines the corresponding 5' and 3' messenger RNA termini. Despite rigorous functional characterizations, the structural basis of sequence-specific ssRNA recognition by PPR proteins remains to be elucidated. Here we report the crystal structures of PPR10 in RNA-free and RNA-bound states at resolutions of 2.85 and 2.45Å, respectively. In the absence of RNA binding, the nineteen repeats of PPR10 are assembled into a right-handed superhelical spiral. PPR10 forms an antiparallel, intertwined homodimer and exhibits considerable conformational changes upon binding to its target ssRNA, an 18-nucleotide PSAJ element. Six nucleotides of PSAJ are specifically recognized by six corresponding PPR10 repeats following the predicted code. The molecular basis for the specific and modular recognition of RNA bases A, G and U is revealed. The structural elucidation of RNA recognition by PPR proteins provides an important framework for potential biotechnological applications of PPR proteins in RNA-related research areas.

  7. CRISPR-Mediated Modular RNA-Guided Regulation

    E-print Network

    Lim, Wendell

    . The CRISPR- associated catalytically inactive dCas9 protein offers a general platform for RNA-guided DNA targeting. Here, we show that fusion of dCas9 to effector domains with distinct regulatory functions enables of deliv- ery determined solely by a coexpressed short guide (sg)RNA. Coupling of dCas9

  8. Features of Modularly Assembled Compounds That Impart Bioactivity Against an RNA Target

    PubMed Central

    Rzuczek, Suzanne G.; Gao, Yu; Tang, Zhen-Zhi; Thornton, Charles A.; Kodadek, Thomas; Disney, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptomes provide a myriad of potential RNAs that could be the targets of therapeutics or chemical genetic probes of function. Cell permeable small molecules, however, generally do not exploit these targets, owing to the difficulty in the design of high affinity, specific small molecules targeting RNA. As part of a general program to study RNA function using small molecules, we designed bioactive, modularly assembled small molecules that target the non-coding expanded RNA repeat that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), r(CUG)exp. Herein, we present a rigorous study to elucidate features in modularly assembled compounds that afford bioactivity. Different modular assembly scaffolds were investigated including polyamines, ?-peptides, ?-peptides, and peptide tertiary amides (PTAs). Based on activity as assessed by improvement of DM1-associated defects, stability against proteases, cellular permeability, and toxicity, we discovered that constrained backbones, namely PTAs, are optimal. Notably, we determined that r(CUG)exp is the target of the optimal PTA in cellular models and that the optimal PTA improves DM1-associated defects in a mouse model. Biophysical analyses were employed to investigate potential sources of bioactivity. These investigations show that modularly assembled compounds have increased residence times on their targets and faster on rates than the RNA-binding modules from which they were derived and faster on rates than the protein that binds r(CUG)exp, the inactivation of which gives rise to DM1-associated defects. These studies provide information about features of small molecules that are programmable for targeting RNA, allowing for the facile optimization of therapeutics or chemical probes against other cellular RNA targets. PMID:24032410

  9. Rational Design of Bioactive, Modularly Assembled Aminoglycosides Targeting the RNA that Causes Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Childs-Disney, Jessica L.; Parkesh, Raman; Nakamori, Masayuki; Thornton, Charles A.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused when an expanded r(CUG) repeat (r(CUG)exp) binds the RNA splicing regulator muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1) as well as other proteins. Previously, we reported that modularly assembled small molecules displaying a 6?-N-5-hexynoate kanamycin A RNA-binding module (K) on a peptoid backbone potently inhibit the binding of MBNL1 to r(CUG)exp. However, these parent compounds are not appreciably active in cell-based models of DM1. The lack of potency was traced to suboptimal cellular permeability and localization. To improve these properties, second-generation compounds that are conjugated to a D-Arg9 molecular transporter were synthesized. These modified compounds enter cells in higher concentrations than the parent compounds and are efficacious in cell-based DM1 model systems at low micromolar concentrations. In particular, they improve three defects that are the hallmarks of DM1: a translational defect due to nuclear retention of transcripts containing r(CUG)exp; pre-mRNA splicing defects due to inactivation of MBNL1; and the formation of nuclear foci. The best compound in cell-based studies was tested in a mouse model of DM1. Modest improvement of pre-mRNA splicing defects was observed. These studies suggest that a modular assembly approach can afford bioactive compounds that target RNA. PMID:23130637

  10. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF MODULAR, TRUSS-BASED MANIPULATOR UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Salerno, R. J.

    1994-06-01

    Decontamination and Dismantling (D&D) activities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) require a long reach manipulator with a large load capacity. Variable Geometry Trusses (VGTs) are a unique class of mechanical structures which allow the advantages of truss structures for large scale applications to be applied to large robotic manipulators. Individual VGT units may be assembled to create a modular, long-reach, truss-type manipulator. Each module of such a manipulator system is either a static truss section or one of several possible VGT geometries. While many potential applications exist for this technology, the present work is largely motivated by the need for generic robotic systems for remote manipulation. A manipulator system based on VGT modules provides several advantages. The reconfigurable nature of the manipulator system allows it to be adapted on site to unforeseen conditions. The kinematic redundancy of the manipulator enables it to work effectively even in a highly obstructed workspace. The parallel structure of the truss modules enables the manipulator to be withdrawn in the event of a structural failure. Finally, the open framework of the modules provides a clear, protected passageway for control and power cabling, waste conveyance, or other services required at the end effector. As is implied in a truss structure, all primary members of a VGT are ideally loaded in pure tension or compression. This results in an extremely stiff and strong manipulator system with minimal overall weight. Careful design of the joints of a VGT is very important to the overall stiffness and accuracy of the structure, as several links (as many as six) are joined together at each joint. The greatest disadvantage to this approach to manipulator design has traditionally been that the kinematics of VGT structures are complex and poorly understood. This report specifically addresses the kinematics of several possible geometries for the individual VGT units. Equations and solution techniques are developed for solving the "forward" or "direct" and "inverse" kinematic problems for these geometries. The" forward" kinematic problem is that of finding the position and orientation of the distal end of the VGT relative to the proximal end, given the specific displacements of the (linear) actuators. This problem is rarely solvable in closed form. However, powerful iterative algorithms capable of solution in real time on typical modern robot control hardware are presented. The "inverse" kinematic problem is that of finding the required actuator displacements given the position and orientation of the distal end of the VGT relative to the proximal end. For specific VGT geometries, closed-form solutions are presented. For the more general problem, iterative algorithms capable of solution in real time are again derived and presented.

  11. CRISPR-Mediated Modular RNA-Guided Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Luke A.; Larson, Matthew H.; Morsut, Leonardo; Liu, Zairan; Brar, Gloria A.; Torres, Sandra E.; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Brandman, Onn; Whitehead, Evan H.; Doudna, Jennifer A.; Lim, Wendell A.; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Qi, Lei S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The genetic interrogation and reprogramming of cells requires methods for robust and precise targeting of genes for expression or repression. The CRISPR-associated catalytically inactive dCas9 protein offers a general platform for RNA-guided DNA targeting. Here we show that fusion of dCas9 to effector domains with distinct regulatory functions enables stable and efficient transcriptional repression or activation in human and yeast cells with the site of delivey determined solely by a co-expressed short guide (sg)RNA. Coupling of dCas9 to a transcriptional repressor domain can robustly silence expression of multiple endogenous genes RNA-seq analysis indicates that CRISPR interference (CRISPRi)-mediated transcriptional repression is highly specific. Our results establish that the CRISPR system can be used as a modular and flexible DNA-binding platform for the recruitment of proteins to a target DNA sequence and reveal the potential of CRISPRi as a general tool for the precise regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. PMID:23849981

  12. Self containment, a property of modular RNA structures, distinguishes microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miler T; Kim, Junhyong

    2008-01-01

    RNA molecules will tend to adopt a folded conformation through the pairing of bases on a single strand; the resulting so-called secondary structure is critical to the function of many types of RNA. The secondary structure of a particular substring of functional RNA may depend on its surrounding sequence. Yet, some RNAs such as microRNAs retain their specific structures during biogenesis, which involves extraction of the substructure from a larger structural context, while other functional RNAs may be composed of a fusion of independent substructures. Such observations raise the question of whether particular functional RNA substructures may be selected for invariance of secondary structure to their surrounding nucleotide context. We define the property of self containment to be the tendency for an RNA sequence to robustly adopt the same optimal secondary structure regardless of whether it exists in isolation or is a substring of a longer sequence of arbitrary nucleotide content. We measured degree of self containment using a scoring method we call the self-containment index and found that miRNA stem loops exhibit high self containment, consistent with the requirement for structural invariance imposed by the miRNA biogenesis pathway, while most other structured RNAs do not. Further analysis revealed a trend toward higher self containment among clustered and conserved miRNAs, suggesting that high self containment may be a characteristic of novel miRNAs acquiring new genomic contexts. We found that miRNAs display significantly enhanced self containment compared to other functional RNAs, but we also found a trend toward natural selection for self containment in most functional RNA classes. We suggest that self containment arises out of selection for robustness against perturbations, invariance during biogenesis, and modular composition of structural function. Analysis of self containment will be important for both annotation and design of functional RNAs. A Python implementation and Web interface to calculate the self-containment index are available at http://kim.bio.upenn.edu/software/. PMID:18725951

  13. Examination of Organic Carryover from 2-cm Contactors to Support the Modular CSSX Unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Nash; Michael A. Norato; D. Douglas Walker; D. Douglas; Robert A. Pierce; Ronnye A. Eubanks; James D. Clark; Wilson M. Jr. Smith; Stephen L. Crump; D. Zane Nelson; Samuel D. Fink; Thomas B. Peters; Cecil G. May; David T. Herman; Henry L. Bolton

    2005-01-01

    A bank of four 2-cm centrifugal contactors was operated in countercurrent fashion to help address questions about organic carryover for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The contactors, having weirs sized for strip operation, were used to examine carryover for both strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS). Since only one bank of contactors was available

  14. Connection of modular steel beam precast slab units with cast-in-place closure pour slabs

    E-print Network

    Brush, Natalie Camille

    2005-02-17

    CONNECTION OF MODULAR STEEL BEAM PRECAST SLAB UNITS WITH CAST-IN-PLACE CLOSURE POUR SLABS A Thesis by NATALIE CAMILLE BRUSH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... by NATALIE CAMILLE BRUSH Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by...

  15. Performance Evaluation of a Modular Detector Unit for X-Ray Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhe; Tang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xinzeng; Deng, Mingliang; Hu, Guangshu; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    A research prototype CT scanner is currently under development in our lab. One of the key components in this project is the CT detector. This paper describes the design and performance evaluation of the modular CT detector unit for our proposed scanner. It consists of a Photodiode Array Assembly which captures irradiating X-ray photons and converts the energy into electrical current, and a mini Data Acquisition System which performs current integration and converts the analog signal into digital samples. The detector unit can be easily tiled together to form a CT detector. Experiments were conducted to characterize the detector performance both at the single unit level and system level. The noise level, linearity and uniformity of the proposed detector unit were reported and initial imaging studies were also presented which demonstrated the potential application of the proposed detector unit in actual CT scanners. PMID:23598502

  16. Modular RNA architecture revealed by computational analysis of existing pseudoknots and

    E-print Network

    Schlick, Tamar

    al. (7) is the occurrence of the box H/ACA motif of snoRNA in telomerase RNA, indicating a functional relation- ship between these RNAs; human telomerase RNA (hTR) H/ACA domain is essential for h the H/ACA snoRNA motif is sub- stituted for the hTR H/ACA domain in human telomerase. As the repertoire

  17. Domain ChIRP reveals the modularity of long noncoding RNA architecture, chromatin interactions, and function

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Jeffrey J; Chu, Ci; Akhtar, Asifa; Chang, Howard Y

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the functional domain architecture of long RNA molecules, mainly because of a relative paucity of suitable methods to analyze RNA function at a domain level. Here we describe domain-specific chromatin isolation by RNA purification (dChIRP), a scalable technique to dissect pairwise RNA-RNA, RNA-protein, and RNA-chromatin interactions in living cells. dChIRP of roX1, a lncRNA essential for Drosophila X-chromosome dosage compensation, reveals a “three-fingered hand” ribonucleoprotein topology. Each RNA finger binds chromatin and the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL) protein complex, and can individually rescue male lethality in roX-null flies, thus defining a minimal RNA domain for chromosome-wide dosage compensation. dChIRP improves RNA genomic localization signal by >20-fold relative to previous techniques, and these binding sites are correlated with chromosome conformation data, indicating that most roX-bound loci cluster in a nuclear territory. These results suggest dChIRP can reveal lncRNA architecture and function with new precision and sensitivity. PMID:24997788

  18. Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2012-01-17

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

  19. Solar heating in the Los Alamos Mobile/Modular Home Unit no. 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedstrom, J. C.; Moore, S. W.

    1982-04-01

    Mobile/Modular Home Unit No. 1 National Laboratory has an active system that incorporates 340 sq ft of flat black, single glazed, flat plate air heating collectors mounted at a 60 tilt on the south wall. The thermal storage is in 1536 pint jars of water. Data acquisition was accomplished with a Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3050 system controlled with a HP 9825 desk top calculator. The solar energy system has provided about 70% of the heating requirements of the house each season. Although the active solar energy system provides a major fraction of the space and domestic hot water requirements, the yearly total energy supplied is low. This is primarily because the house load is lower than expected because of passive gains and internal heat generation. Low performance is also the result of a low storage mass and several possible uncontrolled air leaks.

  20. Extreme Environment Capable, Modular and Scalable Power Processing Unit for Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Gregory A.; Iannello, Christopher J.; Chen, Yuan; Hunter, Don J.; Del Castillo, Linda; Bradley, Arthur T.; Stell, Christopher; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to present a concept of a modular and scalable High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU) capable of operating at temperatures beyond the standard military temperature range. The various extreme environments technologies are also described as the fundamental technology path to this concept. The proposed HTB PPU is intended for power processing in the area of space solar electric propulsion, where the reduction of in-space mass and volume are desired, and sometimes even critical, to achieve the goals of future space flight missions. The concept of the HTB PPU can also be applied to other extreme environment applications, such as geothermal and petroleum deep-well drilling, where higher temperature operation is required.

  1. A Modular Approach to Arithmetic and Logic Unit Design on a Reconfigurable Hardware Platform for Educational Purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oztekin, Halit; Temurtas, Feyzullah; Gulbag, Ali

    The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) design is one of the important topics in Computer Architecture and Organization course in Computer and Electrical Engineering departments. There are ALU designs that have non-modular nature to be used as an educational tool. As the programmable logic technology has developed rapidly, it is feasible that ALU design based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is implemented in this course. In this paper, we have adopted the modular approach to ALU design based on FPGA. All the modules in the ALU design are realized using schematic structure on Altera's Cyclone II Development board. Under this model, the ALU content is divided into four distinct modules. These are arithmetic unit except for multiplication and division operations, logic unit, multiplication unit and division unit. User can easily design any size of ALU unit since this approach has the modular nature. Then, this approach was applied to microcomputer architecture design named BZK.SAU.FPGA10.0 instead of the current ALU unit.

  2. CRISPR-mediated modular RNA-guided regulation of transcription in eukaryotes | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The genetic interrogation and reprogramming of cells requires methods for robust and precise targeting of genes for expression or repression. The CRISPR-associated catalytically inactive dCas9 protein offers a general platform for RNA-guided DNA targeting. Here, we show that fusion of dCas9 to effector domains with distinct regulatory functions enables stable and efficient transcriptional repression or activation in human and yeast cells, with the site of delivery determined solely by a coexpressed short guide (sg)RNA.

  3. CRISPR-mediated modular RNA-guided regulation of transcription in eukaryotes

    Cancer.gov

    The genetic interrogation and reprogramming of cells requires methods for robust and precise targeting of genes for expression or repression. The CRISPR-associated catalytically inactive dCas9 protein offers a general platform for RNA-guided DNA targeting. Here, we show that fusion of dCas9 to effector domains with distinct regulatory functions enables stable and efficient transcriptional repression or activation in human and yeast cells, with the site of delivery determined solely by a coexpressed short guide (sg)RNA.

  4. Modularized learning of genetic interaction networks from biological annotations and mRNA expression data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phil Hyoun Lee; Doheon Lee

    2005-01-01

    Motivation: Inferring the genetic interaction mechanism using Bayesian networks has recently drawn increasing attention due to its well-established theoretical foundation and statistical robustness. However, the relative insufficiency of experiments with respect to the number of genes leads to many false positive inferences. Results: We propose a novel method to infer genetic networks by alleviating the shortage of available mRNA expression

  5. Cost effective modular unit for cleaning oil and gas field waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Zinberg, M.B.; Nenasheva, M.N.; Gafarov, N.A.

    1996-12-31

    Problems of environmental control involving conservation of water resources are vital for the development of giant oil and gas condensate fields near Caspian Sea (Russia) characterized by water shortages. One of the urgent tasks of oil production industry is to use all field waste water consisting of underground, processing and rain water. It was necessary to construct a new highly effective equipment which could be used in local waste water treatment. Now we have at our disposal a technology and equipment to meet the requirements to the treated water quality. Thus we have installed a modular unit of 100 m{sup 3}/a day capacity to clean waste water from oil products, suspended matter and other organic pollutants at Orenburg oil and gas condensate field, Russia. The unit provides with a full treatment of produced water and comprises a settling tank with adhesive facility, the number of sorption filters, Trofactor bioreactors and a disinfecting facility. The equipment is fitted into three boxes measuring 9 x 3.2 x 2.7 in each. The equipment is simple in design that enables to save money, time and space. Sorption filters, bioreactors as well as the Trofactor process are a part of know-how. While working on the unit construction we applied well known methods of settling and sorption. The process of mechanic cleaning is undergoing in the following succession: (1) the gravitational separation in a settling tank where the floated film oil products are constantly gathered and the sediment is periodically taken away, (2) the settled water treatment in sorption Filters of a special kind.

  6. 7 CFR 1924.8 - Development work for modular/panelized housing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Development work for modular/panelized housing...HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...Development § 1924.8 Development work for modular/panelized housing...certification that the onsite work complies with drawings,...

  7. Life extension program for the modular caustic side solvent extraction unit at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Samadi-Dezfouli, Azadeh

    2012-11-14

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. At SRS, the CSSX process is deployed in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. Coalescers and decanters process the Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) and Strip Effluent (SE) streams to allow recovery and reuse of the organic solvent and to limit the quantity of solvent transferred to the downstream facilities. MCU is operated in series with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) which removes strontium and actinides from salt waste utilizing monosodium titanate. ARP and MCU were developed and implemented as interim salt processing until future processing technology, the CSSX-based Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), is operational. SWPF is slated to come on-line in October 2014. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU process, however, was reached in April 2011. Nevertheless, most of the individual process components are capable of operating longer. An evaluation determined ARP/MCU can operate until 2015 before major equipment failure is expected. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU Life Extension (ARP/MCU LE) program will bridge the gap between current ARP/MCU operations and the start of SWPF operation. The ARP/MCU LE program introduces no new technologies. As a portion of this program, a Next Generation Solvent (NGS) and corresponding flowsheet are being developed to provide a major performance enhancement at MCU. This paper discusses all the modifications performed in the facility to support the ARP/MCU Life Extension. It will also discuss the next generation chemistry, including NGS and new stripping chemistry, which will increase cesium removal efficiency in MCU. Possible implementation of the NGS chemistry in MCU accomplishes two objectives. MCU serves as a demonstration facility for improved flowsheet deployment at SWPF; operating with NGS and boric acid validates improved cesium removal performance and increased throughput as well as confirms Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) ability to vitrify waste streams containing boron. NGS implementation at MCU also aids the ARP/MCU LE operation, mitigating the impacts of delays and sustaining operations until other technology is able to come on-line.

  8. The ribosomal RNA transcription unit of Entamoeba invadens: accumulation of unprocessed pre-rRNA and a long non coding RNA during encystation.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Sandeep; Singh, Nishant; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2013-01-01

    The ribosomal RNA genes in Entamoeba spp. are located on extrachromosomal circular molecules. Unlike model organisms where rRNA transcription stops during growth stress, Entamoeba histolytica continues transcription; but unprocessed pre-rRNA accumulates during stress, along with a novel class of circular transcripts from the 5'-external transcribed spacer (ETS). To determine the fate of rRNA transcription during stage conversion between trophozoite to cyst we analyzed Entamoeba invadens, a model system for differentiation studies in Entamoeba. We characterized the complete rDNA transcription unit by mapping the ends of pre-rRNA and mature rRNAs. The 3' end of mature 28S rRNA was located 321 nt downstream of the end predicted by sequence homology with E. histolytica. The major processing sites were mapped in external and internal transcribed spacers. The promoter located within 146 nt upstream of 5' ETS was used to transcribe the pre-rRNA. On the other hand, a second promoter located at the 3' end of 28S rDNA was used to transcribe almost the entire intergenic spacer into a long non coding (nc) RNA (>10 kb). Interestingly we found that the levels of pre-rRNA and long ncRNA, measured by northern hybridization, decreased initially in cells shifted to encystation medium, after which they began to increase and reached high levels by 72 h when mature cysts were formed. Unlike E. histolytica, no circular transcripts were found in E. invadens. E. histolytica and E. invadens express fundamentally different ncRNAs from the rDNA locus, which may reflect their adaptation to different hosts (human and reptiles, respectively). This is the first description of rDNA organization and transcription in E. invadens, and provides the framework for further studies on regulation of rRNA synthesis during cyst formation. PMID:24200639

  9. Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OHara J. M; J. Higgins; A. DAgostino

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to

  10. Design of a Modular 5-kW Power Processing Unit for the Next-Generation 40-cm Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Bond, Thomas; Okada, Don; Pyter, Janusz; Wiseman, Steve

    2002-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a 5/10-kW ion engine for a broad range of mission applications. Simultaneously, a 5-kW breadboard poster processing unit is being designed and fabricated. The design includes a beam supply consisting of four 1.1 kW power modules connected in parallel, equally sharing the output current. A novel phase-shifted/pulse-width-modulated dual full-bridge topology was chosen for its soft-switching characteristics. The proposed modular approach allows scalability to higher powers as well as the possibility of implementing an N+1 redundant beam supply. Efficiencies in excess of 96% were measured during testing of a breadboard beam power module. A specific mass of 3.0 kg/kW is expected for a flight PRO. This represents a 50% reduction from the state of the art NSTAR power processor.

  11. An in vitro-selected RNA receptor for the GAAC loop: modular receptor for non-GNRA-type tetraloop.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Junya; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya

    2013-04-01

    Although artificial RNA motifs that can functionally replace the GNRA/receptor interaction, a class of RNA-RNA interacting motifs, were isolated from RNA libraries and used to generate designer RNA structures, receptors for non-GNRA tetraloops have not been found in nature or selected from RNA libraries. In this study, we report successful isolation of a receptor motif interacting with GAAC, a non-GNRA tetraloop, from randomized sequences embedded in a catalytic RNA. Biochemical characterization of the GAAC/receptor interacting motif within three structural contexts showed its binding affinity, selectivity and structural autonomy. The motif has binding affinity comparable with that of a GNRA/receptor, selectivity orthogonal to GNRA/receptors and structural autonomy even in a large RNA context. These features would be advantageous for usage of the motif as a building block for designer RNAs. The isolated motif can also be used as a query sequence to search for unidentified naturally occurring GANC receptor motifs. PMID:23382175

  12. An in vitro-selected RNA receptor for the GAAC loop: modular receptor for non–GNRA-type tetraloop

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Junya; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya

    2013-01-01

    Although artificial RNA motifs that can functionally replace the GNRA/receptor interaction, a class of RNA–RNA interacting motifs, were isolated from RNA libraries and used to generate designer RNA structures, receptors for non-GNRA tetraloops have not been found in nature or selected from RNA libraries. In this study, we report successful isolation of a receptor motif interacting with GAAC, a non-GNRA tetraloop, from randomized sequences embedded in a catalytic RNA. Biochemical characterization of the GAAC/receptor interacting motif within three structural contexts showed its binding affinity, selectivity and structural autonomy. The motif has binding affinity comparable with that of a GNRA/receptor, selectivity orthogonal to GNRA/receptors and structural autonomy even in a large RNA context. These features would be advantageous for usage of the motif as a building block for designer RNAs. The isolated motif can also be used as a query sequence to search for unidentified naturally occurring GANC receptor motifs. PMID:23382175

  13. RNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

  14. A modular method for the extraction of DNA and RNA, and the separation of DNA pools from diverse environmental sample types.

    PubMed

    Lever, Mark A; Torti, Andrea; Eickenbusch, Philip; Michaud, Alexander B; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2015-01-01

    A method for the extraction of nucleic acids from a wide range of environmental samples was developed. This method consists of several modules, which can be individually modified to maximize yields in extractions of DNA and RNA or separations of DNA pools. Modules were designed based on elaborate tests, in which permutations of all nucleic acid extraction steps were compared. The final modular protocol is suitable for extractions from igneous rock, air, water, and sediments. Sediments range from high-biomass, organic rich coastal samples to samples from the most oligotrophic region of the world's oceans and the deepest borehole ever studied by scientific ocean drilling. Extraction yields of DNA and RNA are higher than with widely used commercial kits, indicating an advantage to optimizing extraction procedures to match specific sample characteristics. The ability to separate soluble extracellular DNA pools without cell lysis from intracellular and particle-complexed DNA pools may enable new insights into the cycling and preservation of DNA in environmental samples in the future. A general protocol is outlined, along with recommendations for optimizing this general protocol for specific sample types and research goals. PMID:26042110

  15. A modular method for the extraction of DNA and RNA, and the separation of DNA pools from diverse environmental sample types

    PubMed Central

    Lever, Mark A.; Torti, Andrea; Eickenbusch, Philip; Michaud, Alexander B.; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2015-01-01

    A method for the extraction of nucleic acids from a wide range of environmental samples was developed. This method consists of several modules, which can be individually modified to maximize yields in extractions of DNA and RNA or separations of DNA pools. Modules were designed based on elaborate tests, in which permutations of all nucleic acid extraction steps were compared. The final modular protocol is suitable for extractions from igneous rock, air, water, and sediments. Sediments range from high-biomass, organic rich coastal samples to samples from the most oligotrophic region of the world's oceans and the deepest borehole ever studied by scientific ocean drilling. Extraction yields of DNA and RNA are higher than with widely used commercial kits, indicating an advantage to optimizing extraction procedures to match specific sample characteristics. The ability to separate soluble extracellular DNA pools without cell lysis from intracellular and particle-complexed DNA pools may enable new insights into the cycling and preservation of DNA in environmental samples in the future. A general protocol is outlined, along with recommendations for optimizing this general protocol for specific sample types and research goals. PMID:26042110

  16. Connection of modular steel beam precast slab units with cast-in-place closure pour slabs 

    E-print Network

    Brush, Natalie Camille

    2005-02-17

    -field formwork and lengthy traffic closures. The Texas Department of Transportation proposes a new method of constructing jointless bridges using prefabricated girder-and-deck units connected on-site with cast-in-place closure pours. This new system will expedite...

  17. Modular 5-kW Power-Processing Unit Being Developed for the Next-Generation Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Bond, Thomas H.; Okada, Don; Phelps, Keith; Pyter, Janusz; Wiseman, Steve

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a 5- to 10-kW ion engine for a broad range of mission applications. Simultaneously, a 5-kW breadboard power-processing unit (PPU) is being designed and fabricated by Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices, Torrance, California, under contract with Glenn. The beam supply, which processes up to 90 percent of the power into this unit, consists of four 1.1-kW power modules connected in parallel, equally sharing the output current. The modular design allows scalability to higher powers as well as the possibility of implementing an N + 1 redundant beam supply. A novel phaseshifted/pulse-width-modulated, dual full-bridge topology was chosen for this module design for its efficient switching characteristics. A breadboard version of the beam power supply module was assembled. Efficiencies ranging between 91.6 and 96.9 percent were measured for an input voltage range of 80 to 160 V, an output voltage range of 800 to 1500 V, and output powers from 0.3 to 1.0 kW. This beam supply could result in a PPU with a total efficiency between 93 and 95 percent at a nominal input voltage of 100 V. This is up to a 4-percent improvement over the state-of-the-art PPU used for the Deep Space 1 mission. A flight-packaged PPU is expected to weigh no more than 15 kg, which represents a 50-percent reduction in specific mass from the Deep Space 1 design. This will make 5-kW ion propulsion very attractive for many planetary missions.

  18. Feasibility, benefits and challenges of modular construction in high rise development in the United States : a developer's perspective

    E-print Network

    Velamati, Sri

    2012-01-01

    Modular construction has long been utilized in the construction of residential and many other commercial product types as a means for potentially quicker construction delivery times. Over the past 5 years this construction ...

  19. The Habitat Demonstration Unit Project: A Modular Instrumentation System for a Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Yim, Hester; Williamsn, Robert M.; Hafermalz, Scott; Wagner, Raymond S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is focused on developing human exploration capabilities in low Earth orbit (LEO), expanding to near Earth asteroids (NEA), and finally to Mars. Habitation is a crucial aspect of human exploration, and a current focus of NASA activities. The Habitation Demonstration Unit (HDU) is a project focused on developing an autonomous habitation system that enables human exploration of space by providing engineers and scientists with a test bed to develop, integrate, test, and evaluate habitation systems. A critical feature of the HDU is the instrumentation system, which monitors key subsystems within the habitat. The following paper will discuss the HDU instrumentation system performance and lessons learned during the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RaTS). In addition, this paper will discuss the evolution of the instrumentation system to support the 2011 Deep Space Habitat configuration, the challenges, and the lessons learned of implementing this configuration. In 2010, the HDU was implemented as a pressurized excursion module (PEM) and was tested at NASA s D-RaTS in Arizona [1]. For this initial configuration, the instrumentation system design used features that were successful in previous habitat instrumentation projects, while also considering challenges, and implementing lessons learned [2]. The main feature of the PEM instrumentation system was the use of a standards-based wireless sensor node (WSN), implementing an IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. Many of the instruments were connected to several WSNs, which wirelessly transmitted data to the command and data handling system via a mesh network. The PEM instrumentation system monitored the HDU during field tests at D-RaTS, and the WSN data was later analyzed to understand the performance of this system. In addition, several lessons learned were gained from the field test experience, which fed into the instrumentation design of the next generation of the HDU.

  20. Documentation of a computer program to simulate transient leakage from confining units using the modular finite-difference, ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, S.A.; Leahy, P.P.; Navoy, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    Transient leakage into or out of a compressible fine-grained confining unit results from ground- water storage changes within the unit. The computer program described in this report provides a new method of simulating transient leakage using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite- difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW). The new program is referred to as the Transient- Leakage Package. The Transient-Leakage Package solves integrodifferential equations that describe flow across the upper and lower boundaries of confining units. For each confining unit, vertical hydraulic conductivity, thickness, and specific storage are specified in input arrays. These properties can vary from cell to cell and the confining unit need not be present at all locations in the grid; however, the confining units must be bounded above and below by model layers in which head is calculated or specified. The package was used in an example problem to simulate drawdown around a pumping well in a system with two aquifers separated by a confining unit. For drawdown values in excess of 1 centimeter, the solution using the new package closely matched an exact analytical solution. The problem also was simulated without the new package by using a separate model layer to represent the confining unit. That simulation was refined by using two model layers to represent the confining unit. The simulation using the Transient-Leakage Package was faster and more accurate than either of the simulations using model layers to represent the confining unit.

  1. Modular Arithmetic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-01-01

    In this lesson, students learn about modular arithmetic and how to apply it in real world situations involving remainders. Students are introduced to modular notation (# mod #) and learn how to perform modular arithmetic. Lists of prerequisites, suggested lesson outlines and links to individual activities and to worksheets and discussions are included.

  2. Thermal development of modular outdoor cabinets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Cosley; M. P. Garcia; L. K. Grzesik; J. Webster; M. J. Marongiu

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the design, development, testing and evaluation of the thermal management system for modular outdoor telecommunication power supply equipment cabinets. A dual cooling unit option allows the cabinet to support variable internal design temperatures. Moreover, battery compartments were also designed to be modular, and their thermal management achieved by designing small compact heat exchangers. The modular

  3. MODULAR REPRESENTATIONS FOR MODULAR TOWERS. Darren Semmen

    E-print Network

    Fried, Michael

    MODULAR REPRESENTATIONS FOR MODULAR TOWERS. by Darren Semmen Contents 1. The universal p. Asymptotics of the p-Frattini modules Mn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5. Modular towers modular representation theory, the key tool being a categorical equivalence due to Gruenberg

  4. LNA units present in the (2'-OMe)-RNA strand stabilize parallel duplexes (2'-OMe)-RNA/[All-R(P)-PS]-DNA and parallel triplexes (2'-OMe)-RNA/[All-R(P)-PS]-DNA/RNA. An improved tool for the inhibition of reverse transcription.

    PubMed

    Maciaszek, Anna; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Janicka, Magdalena; Tomaszewska-Antczak, Agnieszka; Sobczak, Milena; Miko?ajczyk, Barbara; Guga, Piotr

    2015-02-28

    Homopurine phosphorothioate analogs of DNA, possessing all phosphorus atoms of RP configuration ([All-RP-PS]-DNA), when interact with appropriate complementary RNA or (2'-OMe)-RNA templates, form parallel triplexes or parallel duplexes of very high thermodynamic stability. The present results show that T-LNA or 5-Me-C-LNA units introduced into the parallel Hoogsteen-paired (2'-OMe)-RNA strands (up to four units in the oligomers of 9 or 12 nt in length) stabilize these parallel complexes. At neutral pH, dodecameric parallel duplexes have Tm values of 62-68 °C, which are by 4-10 °C higher than Tm for the reference duplex (with no LNA units present), while for the corresponding triplexes, Tm values exceeded 85 °C. For nonameric parallel duplexes, melting temperatures of 38-62 °C were found and (2'-OMe)-RNA oligomers containing 5-Me-C-LNA units stabilized the complexes more efficiently than the T-LNA containing congeners. In both series the stability of the parallel complexes increased with an increasing number of LNA units present. The same trend was observed in experiments of reverse transcription RNA?DNA (using AMV RT reverse transcriptase) where the formation of parallel triplexes (consisting of an RNA template, [All-RP-PS]-DNA nonamer and Hoogsteen-paired (2'-OMe)-RNA strands containing the LNA units) led to the efficient inhibition of the process. Under the best conditions checked (four 5-Me-C-LNA units, three-fold excess over the RNA template) the inhibition was 94% effective, compared to 71% inhibition observed in the reference system with the Hoogsteen-paired (2'-OMe)-RNA strand carrying no LNA units. This kind of complexation may "arrest" harmful RNA oligomers (e.g., viral RNA or mRNA of unwanted proteins) and, beneficially, exclude them from enzymatic processes, otherwise leading to viral or genetic diseases. PMID:25564351

  5. Ecological Consistency of SSU rRNA-Based Operational Taxonomic Units at a Global Scale

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Thomas S. B.; Matias Rodrigues, João F.; von Mering, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), usually defined as clusters of similar 16S/18S rRNA sequences, are the most widely used basic diversity units in large-scale characterizations of microbial communities. However, it remains unclear how well the various proposed OTU clustering algorithms approximate ‘true’ microbial taxa. Here, we explore the ecological consistency of OTUs – based on the assumption that, like true microbial taxa, they should show measurable habitat preferences (niche conservatism). In a global and comprehensive survey of available microbial sequence data, we systematically parse sequence annotations to obtain broad ecological descriptions of sampling sites. Based on these, we observe that sequence-based microbial OTUs generally show high levels of ecological consistency. However, different OTU clustering methods result in marked differences in the strength of this signal. Assuming that ecological consistency can serve as an objective external benchmark for cluster quality, we conclude that hierarchical complete linkage clustering, which provided the most ecologically consistent partitions, should be the default choice for OTU clustering. To our knowledge, this is the first approach to assess cluster quality using an external, biologically meaningful parameter as a benchmark, on a global scale. PMID:24763141

  6. Modular Entanglement

    E-print Network

    Gualdi, Giulia; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting blocks of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent blocks. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and non-interacting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

  7. Modular Entanglement

    E-print Network

    Giulia Gualdi; Salvatore M. Giampaolo; Fabrizio Illuminati

    2010-11-28

    We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and non-interacting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

  8. Modular entanglement.

    PubMed

    Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2011-02-01

    We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing. PMID:21405382

  9. RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND STRIP EFFLUENT COALESCER ELEMENTS FROM RADIOACTIVE OPERATIONS OF THE MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-28

    The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of {approx}24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

  10. SIPS: A small modular process unit for the in-tank pretreatment of high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, M.; Powell, J.; Barletta, R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    As a result of the U.S. weapons production program, there are now hundreds of large tanks containing highly radioactive wastes. Safe disposal of these wastes requires their processing and separations into a small volume of highly radioactive waste (HLW) and a much larger volume of low-level waste (LLW). The HLW waste would then be vitrified and transported to a geologic repository. To date, the principal approach proposed for the separation envisions a large, centralized process facility. The small in-tank processing system (SIPS) is a proposed new, small modular concept for the in-tank processing and separation of wastes into HLW and LLW output streams suitable for vitrification. Instead of pumping the retrieved tank wastes as a solid/liquid slurry over long distances to a centralized process facility, SIPS would employ a small process module, typically {approximately}1 m in diameter and 4 m long, which would be inserted into the tank. Over a period of {approx} 6 months, the module would process the solid/liquid materials in the tank, producing separated liquid HLW and liquid LLW output streams that are pumped away in two small-diameter ({approx}3-cm outside diameter) pipes. The SIPS module would be serviced by five auxiliary small pipes - a water feed pipe, a water feed pipe containing micron-size ferromagnetic particles, a nitric acid ({approx}3 M) feed pipe, and input/out pipes to hydraulically load/unload ion exchange beads.

  11. Click modular router Click Modular Router

    E-print Network

    Click modular router Pag. 1 Click Modular Router: A Brief Introduction Andrea Bianco, Robert Birke partly taken from Bart Braem ­ Michael Voorhaen: Click Modular Router Concepts What is Click? · Click processing features) · Key idea ­ Modular architecture: a click router is built from small components, named

  12. Development of a portable, modular unit for the optimization of ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Meng-Wei

    Due to the stringent rules requiring ultra-low sulfur content in diesel fuels, it is necessary to develop alternative methods of desulfurization of fossil fuel derived oil, such as diesel. Current technology is not sufficient to solve this problem. Ultrasound applied to oxidative desulfurization which combined three complementary techniques: ultrasonication, phase transfer catalysis (PTC) and transition metal catalyzed oxidation, has accomplished high sulfur removal in a short contact time at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. This research has successfully demonstrated that the higher oxidation efficiency of BT to BTO and free of any by-products by using tetraoctylammonium fluoride as phase transfer agent. The oxidation rate of BT to BTO increased with increasing the carbon chain length of QAS cations. Under the same length of carbon chain, the oxidation rate of BT to BTO increased with decreasing the molecular size of QAS anions. Moreover, for diesel fuels containing various levels of sulfur content, UAOD process followed by solvent extraction has demonstrated that the sulfur reduction can reach above 95 % removal efficiency or final sulfur content below 15 ppm in mild condition. For large-scale commercial production, this research has successfully developed and operated a continuous desulfurization unit, which consists of a sonoractor, an RF amplifier, a function generator, a pretreatment tank, and a pipeline system. A single unit only needed 2' x 4' x 1' space for installation. The results indicated that the remarkable 92% removal efficiency for the sulfur in marine logistic diesel, even at a treatment rate as high as 25 lb/hour which is approximately 2 barrels per day. Therefore, this sonoreactor demonstrated the feasibility of large-scale operation even in a relatively small installation with low capital investment and maintenance cost. It also ensures the safety considerations by operating with diluted hydrogen peroxide under ambient temperature and pressure.

  13. Babesia bovis: Transcriptional analysis of rRNA gene unit expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complex life cycle of Babesia bovis includes erythrocytic stages in the bovine host and other stages occurring inside its common tick vector Rhipicephalus microplus. In related apicomplexa, changing environmental conditions affect the expression of ribosomal RNA, but it remained unknown whether ...

  14. Design of a modular motorcycle windshield wiper

    E-print Network

    Boyd, Robert Allen Michael

    2010-01-01

    Motorcycle windshield wipers are essentially non-existent in the United States. Customer and market research reveals a demand for such a product. This paper explores the product viability of a modular motorcycle windshield ...

  15. Modular shield

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Keith W. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A modular system for containing projectiles has a sheet of material including at least a polycarbonate layer held by a metal frame having a straight frame member corresponding to each straight edge of the sheet. Each frame member has a U-shaped shield channel covering and holding a straight edge of the sheet and an adjacent U-shaped clamp channel rigidly held against the shield channel. A flexible gasket separates each sheet edge from its respective shield channel; and each frame member is fastened to each adjacent frame member only by clamps extending between adjacent clamp channels.

  16. Modularity Approach Modular Pebble Bed Reactor (MPBR)

    E-print Network

    · On--line Refueling #12;4/23/03 MIT NED MPBR Reference Plant Modular Pebble Bed Reactor Thermal Power4/23/03 MIT NED MPBR Modularity Approach of the Modular Pebble Bed Reactor (MPBR) Marc Berte Professor Andrew Kadak Massachusetts Institute of Technology Nuclear Engineering Department Nuclear Energy

  17. Molecular characterization and in situ mRNA localization of the neural recognition molecule J1-160/180: a modular structure similar to tenascin

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The oligodendrocyte-derived extracellular matrix glycoprotein J1- 160/180 is a recognition molecule expressed exclusively in the central nervous system. J1-160/180 has been shown to be adhesive for astrocytes and repellent towards neurons and growth cones. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of J1-160/180 in the rat. The predicted amino acid sequence showed a structural architecture very similar to tenascin: a cysteine-rich amino terminal region is followed by 4.5 epidermal growth factor-like repeats, 9 fibronectin type III homologous repeats and a domain homologous to fibrinogen. Sequence comparison analysis revealed highest homology of rat J1-160/180 to mouse tenascin and chicken restrictin with a similarity of 66% and 85%, respectively. The J1-160/180-coding mRNA is derived from a single copy gene. Using the polymerase chain reaction we could show that two J1-160/180 isoforms are generated by alternative splicing of the sixth fibronectin type III homologous repeat. Localization of J1-160/180 mRNA by in situ hybridization in the cerebellum, hippocampus and olfactory bulb confirmed the expression of J1-160/180 by oligodendrocytes with a peak of transcription at 7-14 d after birth, indicating a functional role during myelination. In addition, J1-160/180-specific RNA was found in a small subset of neurons in all three structures of the CNS analyzed. These neurons continue to express J1-160/180 in the adult. PMID:7679676

  18. The modular high-temperature reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Reutler; G. H. Lohnert

    1983-01-01

    Nearly all problems encountered in large high-temperature reactor power plants with respect to design and safety are related to the mere physical size of a larger reactor core. Our analyses show that it is feasible to subdivide a larger reactor core into modular units, analogous to the common practice of using several smaller units instead of one large unit. In

  19. Modular Robotics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) is a subsidiary of Xerox Corporation. One of its most intriguing areas of study is "modular reconfigurable robotics," which is a technology that allows a robot to take itself apart and put itself back together again in a new form. This lets the robot customize its design for a given task. Several different models of robots have been constructed at the PARC, and this Web site describes how they were built and how they function. There is a large collection of video clips that show each of the robots in operation, including one of a robot riding a tricycle. Two Java simulation programs can be downloaded that demonstrate the control systems of two of the PARC models. A long list of publication titles with abstracts is given, and the full text is available for a few of them.

  20. Piecing together modular : understanding the benefits and limitations of modular construction methods for multifamily development

    E-print Network

    Cameron, Peter J. (Peter Jay)

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this thesis is to explain the benefits and limitations of modular construction as it pertains to primarily wood-frame, multifamily housing in the United States. This thesis attempts to educate the ...

  1. Spectra of Modular Random Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guler Ergun; R. Kuehn

    2009-01-01

    We compute spectra of symmetric random matrices defined on graphs exhibiting a modular structure. Modules are initially introduced as fully connected sub-units of a graph. By contrast, inter-module connectivity is taken to be incomplete. Two different types of inter-module connectivity are considered, one where the number of intermodule connections per-node diverges, and one where this number remains finite in the

  2. Modularity and cognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max Coltheart

    1999-01-01

    Modularity is a concept central to cognitive science, and Fodor’s analysis of cognitive modularity in his book The Modularity Of Mind has been widely influential – but also widely misunderstood. It is often claimed that the possession of some or other system-property is a necessary condition for that system to be modular in Fodor’s sense, but Fodor made it clear

  3. Modular Integrated Energy Systems

    E-print Network

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Modular Integrated Energy Systems Prepared for: Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008­April 2005 Honeywell #12;Modular Integrated Energy Systems Task 6 Field Monitoring Interim Report Period chiller. The key goals of the project are: · Develop a set of "reference" CAD-based IES modular system

  4. Modular Integrated Energy Systems

    E-print Network

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Honeywell Modular Integrated Energy Systems Task 6 Field Monitoring Interim Report Period Covered 55418 Fax: (612) 951-7438 #12;Modular Integrated Energy Systems Task 6 Field Monitoring Interim Report modular system designs, · Develop a supervisory control system having on-line optimization, · Develop

  5. Modular Integrated Energy Systems

    E-print Network

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Modular Integrated Energy Systems Prepared for: Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008­December 2004 Honeywell #12;Modular Integrated Energy Systems Task 6 Field Monitoring Interim Report Period: · Develop a set of "reference" CAD-based IES modular system designs, · Develop a supervisory control system

  6. Analysis of strand-specific RNA-seq data using machine learning reveals the structures of transcription units in Clostridium thermocellum

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Wen-Chi; Ma, Qin; Yang, Shihui; Cao, Sha; Klingeman, Dawn M.; Brown, Steven D.; Xu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Identification of transcription units (TUs) encoded in a bacterial genome is essential to elucidation of transcriptional regulation of the organism. To gain a detailed understanding of the dynamically composed TU structures, we have used four strand-specific RNA-seq (ssRNA-seq) datasets collected under two experimental conditions to derive the genomic TU organization of Clostridium thermocellum using a machine-learning approach. Our method accurately predicted the genomic boundaries of individual TUs based on two sets of parameters measuring the RNA-seq expression patterns across the genome: expression-level continuity and variance. A total of 2590 distinct TUs are predicted based on the four RNA-seq datasets. Among the predicted TUs, 44% have multiple genes. We assessed our prediction method on an independent set of RNA-seq data with longer reads. The evaluation confirmed the high quality of the predicted TUs. Functional enrichment analyses on a selected subset of the predicted TUs revealed interesting biology. To demonstrate the generality of the prediction method, we have also applied the method to RNA-seq data collected on Escherichia coli and achieved high prediction accuracies. The TU prediction program named SeqTU is publicly available at https://code.google.com/p/seqtu/. We expect that the predicted TUs can serve as the baseline information for studying transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation in C. thermocellum and other bacteria. PMID:25765651

  7. Analysis of strand-specific RNA-seq data using machine learning reveals the structures of transcription units in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Chi; Ma, Qin; Yang, Shihui; Cao, Sha; Klingeman, Dawn M; Brown, Steven D; Xu, Ying

    2015-05-26

    Identification of transcription units (TUs) encoded in a bacterial genome is essential to elucidation of transcriptional regulation of the organism. To gain a detailed understanding of the dynamically composed TU structures, we have used four strand-specific RNA-seq (ssRNA-seq) datasets collected under two experimental conditions to derive the genomic TU organization of Clostridium thermocellum using a machine-learning approach. Our method accurately predicted the genomic boundaries of individual TUs based on two sets of parameters measuring the RNA-seq expression patterns across the genome: expression-level continuity and variance. A total of 2590 distinct TUs are predicted based on the four RNA-seq datasets. Among the predicted TUs, 44% have multiple genes. We assessed our prediction method on an independent set of RNA-seq data with longer reads. The evaluation confirmed the high quality of the predicted TUs. Functional enrichment analyses on a selected subset of the predicted TUs revealed interesting biology. To demonstrate the generality of the prediction method, we have also applied the method to RNA-seq data collected on Escherichia coli and achieved high prediction accuracies. The TU prediction program named SeqTU is publicly available at https://code.google.com/p/seqtu/. We expect that the predicted TUs can serve as the baseline information for studying transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation in C. thermocellum and other bacteria. PMID:25765651

  8. Manufactured Housing--The Modular Home in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindt, Roger P.

    This report deals principally with modular homes (permanently sited structures) although it also presents some recent information on mobile homes. In 1976, modular home construction companies were surveyed in Texas and across the United States to assess the extent of their construction activity and market penetration and to gather some insight…

  9. ASSESSMENT OF SMALL AND MODULAR REACTOR NUCLEAR FUEL COST 

    E-print Network

    Pannier, Christopher 1992-

    2012-05-03

    Économique des Réacteurs SD Separative Duty SC Separative Capacity SMART System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor SMR Small or Modular Reactor SWU Separative Work Unit U3O8 Natural Uranium (Pitchblende) UF6 Uranium Hexafluoride vii US-APWR US... FIGURE Page 1 Uranium Price Indicators ....................................................................................... 3 2 Price of Uranium .................................................................................................. 20...

  10. Modular invariance and entanglement entropy

    E-print Network

    Lokhande, Sagar Fakirchand

    2015-01-01

    We study the Renyi and entanglement entropies for free 2d CFT's at finite temperature and finite size, with emphasis on their properties under modular transformations of the torus. We address the issue of summing over fermion spin structures in the replica trick, and show that the relation between entanglement and thermal entropy determines two different ways to perform this sum in the limits of small and large interval. Both answers are modular invariant upto an overall factor that can be removed by a normalisation. Our results are compared with those for a free boson at unit radius in the two limits and complete agreement is found, supporting the view that entanglement respects Bose-Fermi duality. We extend our computations to multiple free Dirac fermions having correlated spin structures, dual to free bosons on the Spin(2d) weight lattice.

  11. Modular classes revisited

    E-print Network

    Janusz Grabowski

    2014-08-29

    We present a graded-geometric approach to modular classes of Lie algebroids and their generalizations, introducing in this setting an idea of relative modular class of a Dirac structure for a certain type of Courant algebroids, called projectable. This novel approach puts several concepts related to Poisson geometry and its generalizations in a new light and simplifies proofs. It gives, in particular, a nice geometric interpretation of modular classes of twisted-Poisson structures on Lie algebroids.

  12. A modular PMAD system for small spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    Current trends in satellite design are focused on developing small, reliable, and inexpensive spacecraft. To that end, a modular power management and distribution system (PMAD) is proposed which will help transition the aerospace industry towards an assembly line approach to building spacecraft. The modular system is based on an innovative DC voltage boost converter called the Series Connected Boost Unit (SCBU). The SCBU uses existing DC-DC converters and adds a unique series connection. This simple modification provides the SCBU topology with many advantages over existing boost converters. Efficiencies of 94-98%, power densities above 1,000 We/kg, and inherent fault tolerance are just a few of the characteristics presented. Limitations of the SCBU technology are presented, and it is shown that the SCBU makes an ideal photovoltaic array regulator. A modular design based on the series connected boost unit is outlined and functional descriptions of the components are given.

  13. Modularization: An Attempt at Collegiate Level in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, J.; Pillai, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    The effectiveness of a modular approach to learning in a botany unit as compared to the traditional teaching approach in terms of learning efficiency, learning time, and mastery level is reported. Three references are cited. (Author/CHC)

  14. Phylogenetic Diversity of Ultraplankton Plastid Small-Subunit rRNA Genes Recovered in Environmental Nucleic Acid Samples from the Pacific and Atlantic Coasts of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rappé, Michael S.; Suzuki, Marcelino T.; Vergin, Kevin L.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of marine phytoplankton diversity is uncertain in many respects because, like bacteria, these organisms sometimes lack defining morphological characteristics and can be a challenge to grow in culture. Here, we report the recovery of phylogenetically diverse plastid small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene (rDNA) clones from natural plankton populations collected in the Pacific Ocean off the mouth of Yaquina Bay, Oreg. (OCS clones), and from the eastern continental shelf of the United States off Cape Hatteras, N.C. (OM clones). SSU rRNA gene clone libraries were prepared by amplifying rDNAs from nucleic acids isolated from plankton samples and cloning them into plasmid vectors. The PCR primers used for amplification reactions were designed to be specific for bacterial SSU rRNA genes; however, plastid genes have a common phylogenetic origin with bacteria and were common in both SSU rRNA gene clone libraries. A combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, nucleic acid sequencing, and taxon-specific oligonucleotide probe hybridizations revealed that 54 of the 116 OCS gene clones were of plastid origin. Collectively, clones from the OCS and OM libraries formed at least eight unique lineages within the plastid radiation, including gene lineages related to the classes Bacillariophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Chrysophyceae, and Prasinophyceae; for a number of unique clones, no close phylogenetic neighbors could be identified with confidence. Only a group of two OCS rRNA gene clones showed close identity to the plastid SSU rRNA gene sequence of a cultured organism [Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) Hay and Mohler; 99.8% similar]. The remaining clones could not be identified to the genus or species level. Although cryptic species are not as prevalent among phytoplankton as they are among their bacterial counterparts, this genetic survey nonetheless uncovered significant new information about phytoplankton diversity. PMID:9435081

  15. Determining Task Optimal Modular Robot Assembly Configurations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I-ming Chen; Joel W. Burdick

    1995-01-01

    .A "modular" robotic system consists of standardizedjoint and link units that can be assembled into a numberof different kinematic configurations in order tomeet different task requirements. Given a predeterminedset of modules, this paper considers the problemof finding an "optimal" module assembly configurationfor a specific task. We formulate the solutionas a discrete optimization procedure. The formulationis based on an assembly incidence

  16. Retrospect on Modular Organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Williams

    1986-01-01

    Modularity is a new term, but some associated ideas have been with us for a long time. Animals like bryozoans, traditionally recognized as colonial, would all be considered modular at this meeting. It has also been realized for a long time that reproduction can be asexual and produce individuals that differ only from developmental asynchrony or environmental effects. The concept

  17. Modular intelligent sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Fuess, D.A.

    1993-06-17

    This paper describes a sensor system architecture suitable for application in systems intended for battery powered unattended use. The modularity concept addresses the logical interconnects between modules, the electrical interconnects between modules, and a system for the generalization of data to permit modular processing.

  18. Systolic Modular Multiplication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin D. Walter

    1993-01-01

    A systolic array for modular multiplication is presented using the ideally suited algorithm of P.L. Montgomery (1985). Throughput is one modular multiplication every clock cycle, with a latency of 2n+2 cycles for multiplicands having n digits. Its main use would be where many consecutive multiplications are done, as in RSA cryptosystems.

  19. Emergent feature modularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Márcio Ribeiro; Humberto Pacheco; Leopoldo Teixeira; Paulo Borba

    2010-01-01

    Virtual Separation of Concerns reduces the drawbacks of implementing product line variability with preprocessors. Developers can focus on certain features and hide others of no interest. However, these features eventually share elements between them, which might break feature modularization, since modifications in a feature result in problems for another. We present the concept of emergent feature modularization, which aims to

  20. Modular Inverse Algorithms without Multiplications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laszlo Hars

    2004-01-01

    the basic left-shift, right-shift and shifting Euclidean modular inverse algorithms are presented with new optimization tricks. These algorithms are based on the corresponding extended GCD algorithms, but only one multiplicator, the modular inverse is computed. On many computational platforms, for operand lengths used in cryptography, the fastest modular inverse algorithms need about twice the modular multiplication time, or even less.

  1. A design perspective on modularity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André van der Hoek; Nicolas Lopez

    2011-01-01

    Modularity is essential to software development. Without it, large software systems simply could not be realized. Designers typically strive to achieve a high degree of modularity by separating different concerns over different modules, a process called modularization. Modularity, however, is but one of the goals that the designer has. Furthermore, design does not just take place when the designer decides

  2. A Modular PMAD System for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Current trends in satellite design are focused on developing small, reliable, and inexpensive spacecraft. To that end, a modular power management and distribution system (PMAD) is proposed which will help transition the aerospace industry towards an assembly line approach to building spacecraft. The modular system is based on an innovative DC voltage boost converter called the Series Connected Boost Regulator (SCBR). The SCBR uses existing DC-DC converters and adds a unique series connection. This simple modification provides the SCBR topology with many advantages over existing boost converters. Efficiencies of 94-98%, power densities above 1,000 We/kg, and inherent fault tolerance are just a few of the characteristics presented. Limitations of the SCBR technology are presented, and it is shown that the SCBR makes an ideal photovoltaic array regulator. A modular design based on the series connected boost unit is outlined and functional descriptions of the components are given.

  3. Modular Chemistry:  Secondary Building Units as a Basis for the Design of Highly Porous and Robust Metal?Organic Carboxylate Frameworks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Eddaoudi; David B. Moler; Hailian Li; Banglin Chen; Theresa M. Reineke; OMAR M. YAGHI

    2001-01-01

    Secondary building units (SBUs) are molecular complexes and cluster entities in which ligand coordination modes and metal coordination environments can be utilized in the transformation of these fragments into extended porous networks using polytopic linkers (1,4-benzenedicarboxylate, 1,3,5,7-adamantanetetracarboxyl- ate, etc.). Consideration of the geometric and chemical attributes of the SBUs and linkers leads to prediction of the framework topology, and in

  4. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model -Documentation of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderman, E.R.; Hill, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package for the groundwater modeling computer program MODFLOW-2000. The HUF Package is an alternative internal flow package that allows the vertical geometry of the system hydrogeology to be defined explicitly within the model using hydrogeologic units that can be different than the definition of the model layers. The HUF Package works with all the processes of MODFLOW-2000. For the Ground-Water Flow Process, the HUF Package calculates effective hydraulic properties for the model layers based on the hydraulic properties of the hydrogeologic units, which are defined by the user using parameters. The hydraulic properties are used to calculate the conductance coefficients and other terms needed to solve the ground-water flow equation. The sensitivity of the model to the parameters defined within the HUF Package input file can be calculated using the Sensitivity Process, using observations defined with the Observation Process. Optimal values of the parameters can be estimated by using the Parameter-Estimation Process. The HUF Package is nearly identical to the Layer-Property Flow (LPF) Package, the major difference being the definition of the vertical geometry of the system hydrogeology. Use of the HUF Package is illustrated in two test cases, which also serve to verify the performance of the package by showing that the Parameter-Estimation Process produces the true parameter values when exact observations are used.

  5. Modular tokamak magnetic system

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Tien-Fang (Wayland, MA)

    1988-01-01

    A modular tokamak system comprised of a plurality of interlocking moldules. Each module is comprised of a vacuum vessel section, a toroidal field coil, moldular saddle coils which generate a poloidal magnetic field and ohmic heating coils.

  6. Modular Theory by example

    E-print Network

    Fernando Lledó

    2009-01-08

    The present article contains a short introduction to Modular Theory for von Neumann algebras with a cyclic and separating vector. It includes the formulation of the central result in this area, the Tomita-Takesaki theorem, and several of its consequences. We illustrate this theory through several elementary examples. We also present more elaborate examples and compute modular objects for a discrete crossed product and for the algebra of canonical anticommutation relations (CAR-algebra) in a Fock representation.

  7. Generalizing Modular Logic Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Viegas Damásio

    2014-01-01

    Even though modularity has been studied extensively in conventional logic programming, there are few approaches on how to incorporate modularity into Answer Set Programming, a prominent rule-based declarative programming paradigm. A major approach is Oikarinnen and Janhunen’s Gaifman-Shapiro-style architecture of program modules, which provides the composition of program modules. Their module theorem properly strengthens Lifschitz and Turner’s splitting set theorem

  8. A revised replication cycle for viroids: The role of longer than unit length RNA in viroid replication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Ishikawa; Tetsuo Meshil; Takeshi Ohno; Yoshimi Okada; Teruo Sano; Ichiro Ueda; Eishiro Shikata

    1984-01-01

    Longer than unit length plus and minus strand RNAs were detected in hop stunt viroid (HSV) infected cucumber leaf tissues by Northern blot hybridization analysis using strand-specific probes. To elucidate the role of these longer than unit length RNAs in the viroid replication cycle, we synthesized tandemly repeated plus and minus strand HSV RNAs in vitro from cloned HSV cDNA

  9. Fitness and structure landscapes for pre-miRNA processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundschuh, Ralf; de Meaux, Juliette; Lassig, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The processing from pre-miRNA to mature miRNA in plants involves a mechanism, which depends on an extended stem in the secondary structure of the pre-miRNA. Here, we show how natural selection acts on this secondary structure to produce evolutionary conservation of the processing mechanism together with modularity of the pre-miRNA molecules, making this molecular function independent of others. Our main results are: 1. Selection on miRNA processing can be described by a fitness landscape which depends directly on the secondary structure of the pre-miRNA. 2. This fitness landscape predicts the divergence of the phenotype between orthologous pre-miRNA molecules from different species. 3. Actual pre-miRNA structures are modular: their phenotype is significantly less affected by deleterious mutations in the remainder of the molecule than for random RNA molecules.

  10. Modular biowaste monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the Modular Biowaste Monitoring System Program was to generate and evaluate hardware for supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs. An initial conceptual design effort established requirements and defined an overall modular system for the collection, measurement, sampling and storage of urine and feces biowastes. This conceptual design effort was followed by the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a flight prototype model urine collection, volume measurement and sampling capability. No operational or performance deficiencies were uncovered as a result of the performance evaluation tests.

  11. Polynomial Modular Frobenius Manifolds

    E-print Network

    Ewan Morrison; Ian A. B. Strachan

    2011-10-18

    The moduli space of Frobenius manifolds carries a natural involutive symmetry, and a distinguished class - so-called modular Frobenius manifolds - lie at the fixed points of this symmetry. In this paper a classification of semi-simple modular Frobenius manifolds which are polynomial in all but one of the variables is begun, and completed for three and four dimensional manifolds. The resulting examples may also be obtained from higher dimensional manifolds by a process of folding. The relationship of these results with orbifold quantum cohomology is also discussed.

  12. RNA self-assembly and RNA nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Grabow, Wade W; Jaeger, Luc

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: Nanotechnology's central goal involves the direct control of matter at the molecular nanometer scale to build nanofactories, nanomachines, and other devices for potential applications including electronics, alternative fuels, and medicine. In this regard, the nascent use of nucleic acids as a material to coordinate the precise arrangements of specific molecules marked an important milestone in the relatively recent history of nanotechnology. While DNA served as the pioneer building material in nucleic acid nanotechnology, RNA continues to emerge as viable alternative material with its own distinct advantages for nanoconstruction. Several complementary assembly strategies have been used to build a diverse set of RNA nanostructures having unique structural attributes and the ability to self-assemble in a highly programmable and controlled manner. Of the different strategies, the architectonics approach uniquely endeavors to understand integrated structural RNA architectures through the arrangement of their characteristic structural building blocks. Viewed through this lens, it becomes apparent that nature routinely uses thermodynamically stable, recurrent modular motifs from natural RNA molecules to generate unique and more complex programmable structures. With the design principles found in natural structures, a number of synthetic RNAs have been constructed. The synthetic nanostructures constructed to date have provided, in addition to affording essential insights into RNA design, important platforms to characterize and validate the structural self-folding and assembly properties of RNA modules or building blocks. Furthermore, RNA nanoparticles have shown great promise for applications in nanomedicine and RNA-based therapeutics. Nevertheless, the synthetic RNA architectures achieved thus far consist largely of static, rigid particles that are still far from matching the structural and functional complexity of natural responsive structural elements such as the ribosome, large ribozymes, and riboswitches. Thus, the next step in synthetic RNA design will involve new ways to implement these same types of dynamic and responsive architectures into nanostructures functioning as real nanomachines in and outside the cell. RNA nanotechnology will likely garner broader utility and influence with a greater focus on the interplay between thermodynamic and kinetic influences on RNA self-assembly and using natural RNAs as guiding principles. PMID:24856178

  13. Modular Instruction: A Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donald, Janet Gail

    Issues and illustrative material are presented from a project evaluating modular courses at McGill University from 1972 to 1976, with the overall intent of aiding instructors to produce instructional modules. Questions related to the nature of modular instruction at McGill, how modular instruction developed, and how it operates are examined.…

  14. The Evolution of Modular Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Explores how the myths of modular construction for schools began; also discusses the advances made in steel and modular construction. The major advantages of using permanent modular construction for schools are highlighted, including its rapid construction, use of standard building materials, financial flexibility, and durability. (GR)

  15. Advanced Modular Power Approach to Affordable, Supportable Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Kimnach, Greg L.; Fincannon, James; Mckissock,, Barbara I.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Wong, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of missions to the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) indicate that these missions often involve several distinct separately launched vehicles that must ultimately be integrated together in-flight and operate as one unit. Therefore, it is important to see these vehicles as elements of a larger segmented spacecraft rather than separate spacecraft flying in formation. The evolution of large multi-vehicle exploration architecture creates the need (and opportunity) to establish a global power architecture that is common across all vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is aimed at establishing the modular power system architecture that will enable power systems to be built from a common set of modular building blocks. The project is developing, demonstrating and evaluating key modular power technologies that are expected to minimize non-recurring development costs, reduce recurring integration costs, as well as, mission operational and support costs. Further, modular power is expected to enhance mission flexibility, vehicle reliability, scalability and overall mission supportability. The AMPS project not only supports multi-vehicle architectures but should enable multi-mission capability as well. The AMPS technology development involves near term demonstrations involving developmental prototype vehicles and field demonstrations. These operational demonstrations not only serve as a means of evaluating modular technology but also provide feedback to developers that assure that they progress toward truly flexible and operationally supportable modular power architecture.

  16. Modularity in robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, Delbert; Butler, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Most robotic systems today are designed one at a time, at a high cost of time and money. This wasteful approach has been necessary because the industry has not established a foundation for the continued evolution of intelligent machines. The next generation of robots will have to be generic, versatile machines capable of absorbing new technology rapidly and economically. This approach is demonstrated in the success of the personal computer, which can be upgraded or expanded with new software and hardware at virtually every level. Modularity is perceived as a major opportunity to reduce the 6 to 7 year design cycle time now required for new robotic manipulators, greatly increasing the breadth and speed of diffusion of robotic systems in manufacturing. Modularity and its crucial role in the next generation of intelligent machines are the focus of interest. The main advantages that modularity provides are examined; types of modules needed to create a generic robot are discussed. Structural modules designed by the robotics group at the University of Texas at Austin are examined to demonstrate the advantages of modular design.

  17. Modular hydroelectric power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diggs

    1977-01-01

    A modular hydroelectric power plant which converts energy of water flowing in a stream into electric power is described. The plant comprises a plurality of modules which are removably mounted on piers embedded in a river or stream bed. Each module comprises a turbine over which water flows to rotate the turbine, and turbine rotation is converted into power by

  18. MODULAR HPSG VLADO KESELJ

    E-print Network

    Keselj, Vlado

    3G1, Canada Abstract We present a detailed description of the modu- lar Head-driven Phrase Structure, and it is described for context-free grammars (CFG), this is the first at- tempt of defining modularity for HPSGs. We domains, and their unifying use over the Internet. This is a promising application in the context

  19. Towards feature modularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Márcio Ribeiro; Paulo Borba

    2010-01-01

    Virtual Separation of Concerns was introduced as a way to reduce drawbacks of implementing product line variability with preprocessors. Developers can focus on certain features and hide others of no interest. However, features eventually share elements, which might break feature modularity, since modifications in a feature result in problems for another. In this thesis we propose the concept of emergent

  20. Modular fuel cell assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dyer

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a modular fuel cell assembly. It comprises n fuel cells, where n is a positive integer having a value of at least 2, each of the cells including a first electrode arrangement and a second electrode arrangement separated by an in contact with a solid-electrolyte body, wherein the first electrode arrangement is permeable to a fuel and

  1. The dawn of the RNA World: Toward functional complexity through ligation of random RNA oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Briones, Carlos; Stich, Michael; Manrubia, Susanna C.

    2009-01-01

    A main unsolved problem in the RNA World scenario for the origin of life is how a template-dependent RNA polymerase ribozyme emerged from short RNA oligomers obtained by random polymerization on mineral surfaces. A number of computational studies have shown that the structural repertoire yielded by that process is dominated by topologically simple structures, notably hairpin-like ones. A fraction of these could display RNA ligase activity and catalyze the assembly of larger, eventually functional RNA molecules retaining their previous modular structure: molecular complexity increases but template replication is absent. This allows us to build up a stepwise model of ligation-based, modular evolution that could pave the way to the emergence of a ribozyme with RNA replicase activity, step at which information-driven Darwinian evolution would be triggered. PMID:19318464

  2. Parallel stage modular rankine cycle turbine with improved control

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, U.

    1985-08-27

    The turbine of a Rankine cycle power plant has a plurality of modular units constituting turbine to which vaporized working fluid from a boiler is supplied in parallel through respective adjustable throttle valves. Exhaust vapor is removed from the modular units in parallel; and the load on the turbine is controlled by controlling the operation of each throttle valve such that, under any load condition, only one throttle valve at a time is adjusted and all of the others are either fully open or fully closed.

  3. [A new modular system for respiratory therapy].

    PubMed

    Wendt, M

    1983-08-01

    Diversification of respiratory therapy into humidification and secretolysis, oxygen therapy, augmentation of FRC, substitution of the work of breathing and changing inspiratory gas distribution is the basis of a modular device system. The basic unit of the modular system consists of an oxygen-air-mixer, a flow module and an emergency O2-supply for resuscitation bags. The system is preferably attached to the wall rail system and the modules locked into each other. The main advantages are: Reduction in the number of devices around the patient's bed, comprehensive setup; reduction of required storage capacity; cost reduction; easy integration at low cost of new therapeutical procedures; quick and easy change of therapy whilst maintaining basic parameters constant. PMID:6579860

  4. Modular Towers Construction and Diophantine Questions

    E-print Network

    Fried, Michael

    Modular Towers Construction and Diophantine Questions Pierre D`ebes Abstract. Modular towers|). The tower of modular curves X1 (pn ) (n>0) is the original example: the group G is then the dihedral group Dp. There are diophantine conjectures on modular towers, inspired by modular curves: the spirit

  5. Structural mechanisms of RNA recognition: sequence-specific and non-specific RNA-binding proteins and the Cas9-RNA-DNA complex.

    PubMed

    Ban, Ting; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2015-03-01

    RNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in RNA processing and function as regulators of gene expression. Recent studies have defined the structural basis for RNA recognition by diverse RNA-binding motifs. While many RNA-binding proteins recognize RNA sequence non-specifically by associating with 5' or 3' RNA ends, sequence-specific recognition by RNA-binding proteins is typically achieved by combining multiple modular domains to form complex binding surfaces. In this review, we present examples of structures from different classes of RNA-binding proteins, identify the mechanisms utilized by them to target specific RNAs, and describe structural principles of how protein-protein interactions affect RNA recognition specificity. We also highlight the structural mechanism of sequence-dependent and -independent interactions in the Cas9-RNA-DNA complex. PMID:25432705

  6. The Click modular router

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Morris; Eddie Kohler; John Jannotti; M. Frans Kaashoek

    1999-01-01

    Click is a new software architecture for building flexible and configurable routers. A Click router is assembled from packet processing modules called which helps an element locate other interesting elements.We demonstrate several working configurations, including an IP router and an Ethernet bridge. These configurations are modular---the IP router has 16 elements on the forwarding path---and easy to extend by adding

  7. Modular integrated video system

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.J.; Heaysman, B.; Holt, R.; Sonnier, C.

    1986-01-01

    The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) is intended to provide a simple, highly reliable closed circuit television (CCTV) system capable of replacing the IAEA Twin Minolta Film Camera Systems in those safeguards facilities where mains power is readily available, and situations where it is desired to have the CCTV camera separated from the CCTV recording console. This paper describes the MIVS and the Program Plan which is presently being followed for the development, testing, and implementation of the system.

  8. A MODULAR APPROACH TO ADDRESSING MODEL

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Keith

    A MODULAR APPROACH TO ADDRESSING MODEL DESIGN, SCALE, AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION ISSUES Sensitivity Analysis GENERIC MODULAR SYSTEM STRUCTURE (toolbox) Visualization and Analysis #12;#12;LEVELS OF MODULAR DESIGN · PROCESS · MODEL · FULLY COUPLED MODELS · LOOSELY COUPLED MODELS · RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

  9. Developing Modular and Adaptable Courseware Using TeachML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehner, Frank; Lorz, Alexander

    This paper presents the use of an XML grammar for two complementary projects--CHAMELEON (Cooperative Hypermedia Adaptive MultimEdia Learning Objects) and EIT (Enabling Informal Teamwork). Areas of applications are modular courseware documents and the collaborative authoring process of didactical units. A number of requirements for a suitable…

  10. Motor pattern deletions and modular organization of turtle spinal cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S. G. Stein

    2008-01-01

    The turtle spinal cord contains a central pattern generator (CPG) that produces rhythmic hindlimb motor patterns during a rostral scratch. This review describes evidence in support of the hypothesis that the turtle rostral scratch CPG has a modular structure similar to that described in the Unit-Burst-Generator hypothesis for cat locomotion by Grillner. During normal rostral scratch in turtle, activity bursts

  11. Modularity – the Basis for Product and Factory Reengineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnar Erixon; Alex von Yxkull; Anders Arnström

    1996-01-01

    “Products in the Product” (Modules) and “Factories in the Factory” (Assembly Module Workshops) has proved to be an excellent basis for continuous renewal and concurrent development of the manufacturing system. Modularity based on the use of “module drivers” enables the set up of independent assembly units for each module that can be precisely adapted to the requirements of the actual

  12. Multimission modular spacecraft (MMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falkenhayn, Edward, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the design requirements for the low-cost standard spacecraft development which has come to be known as the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS). The paper presents the wide range of launch configurations of the MMS users, the population of programs using the MMS, and the cost effectiveness of the MMS concept. The paper addresses the in-orbit serviceability of the design as demonstrated by the successful SMM repair, and the recent selection of MMS for the Explorer Platform, which features in-orbit payload exchanges.

  13. Modular space station facilities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The modular space station will operate as a general purpose laboratory (GPL). In addition, the space station will be able to support many attached or free-flying research and application modules that would be dedicated to specific projects like astronomy or earth observations. The GPL primary functions have been organized into functional laboratories including an electrical/electronics laboratory, a mechanical sciences laboratory, an experiment and test isolation laboratory, a hard data process facility, a data evaluation facility, an optical sciences laboratory, a biomedical and biosciences laboratory, and an experiment/secondary command and control center.

  14. Development of modular electrical systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armen Zakarian; Gary J. Rushton

    2001-01-01

    Modular systems provide the ability to achieve product variety through the combination and standardization of components. A methodology that combines system modeling, integration analysis, and optimization techniques for development of modular systems is presented. The approach optimizes integration and interactions of system elements and creates functional and physical modules for the electrical system. The Hatley\\/Pirbhai methodology (1987) is used for

  15. MODULAR DECOMPOSITION OF BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2002-01-01

    Modular decomposition is a thoroughly investigated topic in many areas such as switching theory, reliability theory, game theory and graph theory. Most appli- cations can be formulated in the framework of Boolean functions. In this paper we give a uni_ed treatment of modular decomposition of Boolean functions based on the idea of generalized Shannon decomposition. Furthermore, we discuss some new

  16. Modular Decomposition of Boolean Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cor Bioch

    2002-01-01

    Modular decomposition is a thoroughly investigated topic in many areas suchas switching theory, reliability theory, game theory and graph theory. Most appli-cations can be formulated in the framework of Boolean functions. In this paperwe give a uni_ed treatment of modular decomposition of Boolean functions basedon the idea of generalized Shannon decomposition. Furthermore, we discuss somenew results on the complexity of

  17. Modular power converter having fluid cooled support

    DOEpatents

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-09-06

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  18. Modular power converter having fluid cooled support

    SciTech Connect

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-12-06

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  19. Modular dynamics in diamonds

    E-print Network

    Romeo Brunetti; Valter Moretti

    2010-09-25

    We investigate the relation between the actions of Tomita-Takesaki modular operators for local von Neumann algebras in the vacuum for free massive and massless bosons in four dimensional Minkowskian spacetime. In particular, we prove a long-standing conjecture that says that the generators of the mentioned actions differ by a pseudo-differential operator of order zero. To get that, one needs a careful analysis of the interplay of the theories in the bulk and at the boundary of double cones (a.k.a. diamonds). After introducing some technicalities, we prove the crucial result that the vacuum state for massive bosons in the bulk of a double cone restricts to a KMS state at its boundary, and that the restriction of the algebra at the boundary does not depend anymore on the mass. The origin of such result lies in a careful treatment of classical Cauchy and Goursat problems for the Klein-Gordon equation as well as the application of known general mathematical techniques, concerning the interplay of algebraic structures related with the bulk and algebraic structures related with the boundary of the double cone, arising from quantum field theories in curved spacetime. Our procedure gives explicit formulas for the modular group and its generator in terms of integral operators acting on symplectic space of solutions of massive Klein-Gordon Cauchy problem.

  20. Modular reflector concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of space erecting a 100 meter paraboloidal radio frequency reflector by joining a number of individually deployed structural modules. Three module design concepts were considered: (1) the deployable cell module (DCM); (2) the modular paraboloidal erectable truss antenna (Mod-PETA); and (3) the modular erectable truss antenna (META). With the space shuttle (STS) as the launch system, the methodology of packaging and stowing in the orbiter, and of dispensing, deploying and joining, in orbit, were studied and the necessary support equipment identified. The structural performance of the completed reflectors was evaluated and their overall operational capability and feasibility were evaluated and compared. The potential of the three concepts to maintain stable shape in the space environment was determined. Their ability to operate at radio frequencies of 1 GHz and higher was assessed assuming the reflector surface to consist of a number of flat, hexagonal facets. A parametric study was performed to determine figure degradation as a function of reflector size, flat facet size, and f/D ratio.

  1. The molecular diversity of the 5S rRNA gene in Kengyilia alatavica (Drobov) J.L. Yang, Yen & Baum (Poaceae:Triticeae): potential genomic assignment of different rDNA units.

    PubMed

    Baum, B R; Bailey, L G

    1997-04-01

    5S rRNA sequences from several accessions of Kengyilia alatavica, a member of a tribe that includes wheat and wheat relatives, have been amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced. From an evaluation of the aligned sequences, five 5S unit classes have been discerned. One class consists of short units, while the other four contain longer units. BLAST searches of the GenBank database have allowed us to tentatively assign these to classes found in genomes of other species. For example, the short 5S unit class and one long 5S unit class were designated, respectively, "short P1" and "long P1" because of their match with the comparable sequenced 5S rDNA accessions of Agropyron cristatum, a carrier of the P genome. Another unit class, is coined as "long R1", because of its similarity to the units sequenced from Secale cereale and Secale vavilovii, carriers of the R genome. The third unit class was designated "long S1" and is found also in Elytrigia spicata, a carrier of the S genome. Implications of these findings on the possible association of some unit classes with cytological haplome and on concerted evolution are discussed. PMID:9134703

  2. Quadratic Forms Elliptic Curves Modular Forms Elliptic Curves vs. Modular Forms Langlands My stuff Quadratic forms, elliptic curves, and modular

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Quadratic Forms Elliptic Curves Modular Forms Elliptic Curves vs. Modular Forms Langlands My stuff. Modular Forms Langlands My stuff Some very classical number theory Number of ways a number N can. Modular Forms Langlands My stuff Three quadratic forms(1) P(x, y, u, v) P(x, y, u, v) = x2 + xy + 3y2 + u2

  3. RNA genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, E.; Holland, J.J.; Ahlquist, P.

    1988-01-01

    These three volumes comprise reference on RNA genomes. The replication, mutation, recombination-assortment, and extreme evolutionary variability of RNA viruses and related RNA replicons is emphasized. The replication mechanisms of positive, negative, and double-stranded RNA viruses of animals and plants are featured.

  4. Photovoltaic stand-alone modular systems, phase 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Naff; N. A. Marshall

    1983-01-01

    The final hardware and system qualification phase of a two part stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system development is covered. The final design incorporated modular, power blocks capable of expanding incrementally from 320 watts to twenty kilowatts (PK). The basic power unit (PU) was nominally rated 1.28 kWp. The controls units, power collection buses and main lugs, electrical protection subsystems, power switching,

  5. Photovoltaic stand-alone modular systems. Phase 2. Final Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Naff; N. A. Marshall

    1983-01-01

    The final hardware and system qualification phase of a two part stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system development is covered. The final design incorporated modular, power blocks capable of expanding incrementally from 320 watts to twenty kilowatts (PK). The basic power unit (PU) was nominally rated 1.28 kWp. The controls units, power collection buses and main lugs, electrical protection subsystems, power switching,

  6. A modular DNA origami-based enzyme cascade nanoreactor.

    PubMed

    Linko, Veikko; Eerikäinen, Marika; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2015-03-28

    In this communication, we present a nanoscale reactor assembled from tuneable and spatially addressable tubular DNA origami units. We can controllably combine separate origami units equipped with glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and demonstrate efficient GOx/HRP enzyme cascade reaction inside the tube. The reactor could be utilized as a nanoscale diagnostic tool, and modularity of the proposed system would further enable more complex reactions. PMID:25594847

  7. From modular invariants to graphs: the modular splitting method

    E-print Network

    E. Isasi; Gil Schieber

    2007-06-01

    We start with a given modular invariant M of a two dimensional su(n)_k conformal field theory (CFT) and present a general method for solving the Ocneanu modular splitting equation and then determine, in a step-by-step explicit construction, 1) the generalized partition functions corresponding to the introduction of boundary conditions and defect lines; 2) the quantum symmetries of the higher ADE graph G associated to the initial modular invariant M. Notice that one does not suppose here that the graph G is already known, since it appears as a by-product of the calculations. We analyze several su(3)_k exceptional cases at levels 5 and 9.

  8. Modular ITT -Module A Modular ITT Module A| 1 | Version 1

    E-print Network

    Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12 Forestry Commission West timetable, quoting the contract reference number stated above. If we #12;Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT your identity will remain confidential. This ITT is a modular document and you will only be supplied

  9. Modular ITT -Module A Modular ITT Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12

    E-print Network

    Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12 Central England Forest note we do not accept fax or email copies. #12;Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 2 will remain confidential. This ITT is a modular document and you will only be supplied with the modules

  10. Modular ITT -Module A Modular ITT Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12

    E-print Network

    Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12 Design & Interpretation, quoting the contract reference number stated above. If we consider any #12;Modular ITT - Module A Modular your identity will remain confidential. This ITT is a modular document and you will only be supplied

  11. Modular ITT -Module A Modular ITT Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12

    E-print Network

    Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12 IFOS C/o Northern Research is relevant to all interested parties, we will circulate #12;Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 2 will remain confidential. This ITT is a modular document and you will only be supplied with the modules

  12. Modular ITT -Module A Modular ITT Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12

    E-print Network

    Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12 Forest Research potential tenderers, although your identity will remain confidential. #12;Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 2 | Version 1 09/02/12 This ITT is a modular document and you will only be supplied

  13. Modular ITT Module D Modular ITT Module D Version 1 16/02/2012

    E-print Network

    Modular ITT ­ Module D Modular ITT ­ Module D Version 1 16/02/2012 Module D ­ Health & Safety with the instructions set out in the document `Modular ITT Module A'. Failure to `Pass' this module will constitute other enforcement body responsible for protecting the environment #12;Modular ITT ­ Module D Modular ITT

  14. Modular ITT -Module A Modular ITT Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12

    E-print Network

    Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12 Westonbirt, The National tenderers, although your identity will remain confidential. This ITT is a modular document and you will only labelled A to D. (See table on Page 3 of this ITT) #12;Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 2

  15. Modular ITT -Module A Modular ITT Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12

    E-print Network

    Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12 West England Forest District will remain confidential. This ITT is a modular document and you will only be supplied with the modules will not apply. #12;Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 2 | Version 1 09/02/12 ii. You must accept our

  16. Modular ITT -Module A Modular ITT Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12

    E-print Network

    Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12 West England Forest District for our own use. #12;Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 2 | Version 1 09/02/12 Please send all your identity will remain confidential. This ITT is a modular document and you will only be supplied

  17. Modular ITT -Module A Modular ITT Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12

    E-print Network

    Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12 Information Services Forestry potential tenderers, although your identity will remain confidential. This ITT is a modular document and you as detailed in the Evaluation Matrix within this ITT document. #12;Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module

  18. RNA helicases

    PubMed Central

    Owttrim, George W.

    2013-01-01

    Similar to proteins, RNA molecules must fold into the correct conformation and associate with protein complexes in order to be functional within a cell. RNA helicases rearrange RNA secondary structure and RNA-protein interactions in an ATP-dependent reaction, performing crucial functions in all aspects of RNA metabolism. In prokaryotes, RNA helicase activity is associated with roles in housekeeping functions including RNA turnover, ribosome biogenesis, translation and small RNA metabolism. In addition, RNA helicase expression and/or activity are frequently altered during cellular response to abiotic stress, implying they perform defined roles during cellular adaptation to changes in the growth environment. Specifically, RNA helicases contribute to the formation of cold-adapted ribosomes and RNA degradosomes, implying a role in alleviation of RNA secondary structure stabilization at low temperature. A common emerging theme involves RNA helicases acting as scaffolds for protein-protein interaction and functioning as molecular clamps, holding RNA-protein complexes in specific conformations. This review highlights recent advances in DEAD-box RNA helicase association with cellular response to abiotic stress in prokaryotes. PMID:23093803

  19. Modular Flooring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thate, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped onto durable, commercially available drywall carts for storage and/or transportation. This method of storage and transportation makes it very convenient and safe when handling large quantities of modules.

  20. Product modularity: measures and design methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Gershenson; G. J. Prasad; Y. Zhang

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of existing research on measures of product modularity and methods to achieve modularity in product design. Discussions of the development of modular products have increased in recent years. The research activity into the development of modularity measures and methods has also increased. These measures and methods vary considerably in purpose and process. Some are highly

  1. Modular Tissue Engineering: Engineering Biological Tissues from the Bottom Up

    PubMed Central

    Nichol, Jason W.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Tissue engineering creates biological tissues that aim to improve the function of diseased or damaged tissues. To enhance the function of engineered tissues there is a need to generate structures that mimic the intricate architecture and complexity of native organs and tissues. With the desire to create more complex tissues with features such as developed and functional microvasculature, cell binding motifs and tissue specific morphology, tissue engineering techniques are beginning to focus on building modular microtissues with repeated functional units. The emerging field known as modular tissue engineering focuses on fabricating tissue building blocks with specific microarchitectural features and using these modular units to engineer biological tissues from the bottom up. In this review we will examine the promise and shortcomings of “bottom-up” approaches to creating engineered biological tissues. Specifically, we will survey the current techniques for controlling cell aggregation, proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition, as well as approaches to generating shape-controlled tissue modules. We will then highlight techniques utilized to create macroscale engineered biological tissues from modular microscale units. PMID:20179781

  2. Modular small hydro configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Smaller sites (those under 750 kilowatts) which previously were not attractive to develop using equipment intended for application at larger scale sites, were the focal point in the conception of a system which utilizes standard industrial components which are generally available within short procurement times. Such components were integrated into a development scheme for sites having 20 feet to 150 feet of head. The modular small hydro configuration maximizes the use of available components and minimizes modification of existing civil works. A key aspect of the development concept is the use of a vertical turbine multistage pump, used in the reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine. The configuration allows for automated operation and control of the hydroelectric facilities with sufficient flexibility for inclusion of potential hydroelectric sites into dispersed storage and generation (DSG) utility grid systems.

  3. Modular error embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Ettinger, J. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data containing noise in the low-order bits. The method applies to digital data representing analog signals, for example digital images. The method reduces the error introduced by other methods that replace the low-order bits with auxiliary information. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user through use of a digital key. The modular error embedding method includes a process to permute the order in which the host data values are processed. The method doubles the amount of auxiliary information that can be added to host data values, in comparison with bit-replacement methods for high bit-rate coding. The invention preserves human perception of the meaning and content of the host data, permitting the addition of auxiliary data in the amount of 50% or greater of the original host data.

  4. Modular Integrated Video System

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.L.

    1989-10-01

    The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) was developed to provide a replacement surveillance system for the IAEA's Twin Minolta Film Camera System. This task was sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS). This is the final report describing the development, testing, and production of the MIVS. It begins with the generation of a Program Plan identifying the principal steps necessary for the development of a highly reliable, quality surveillance system. Among these steps were the generation of the functional specifications and the certification test plan. These documents describe prototype development and demonstration, Class III production, environmental testing, reliability testing, field commissioning, and commercial manufacturer selection. Data accumulated from the various steps of the Program Plan are presented in this final report. 10 figs.

  5. Endomorphisms and Modular Theory of 2-Graph C*-Algebras

    E-print Network

    Yang, Dilian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we initiate the study of endomorphisms and modular theory of the graph C*-algebras $\\O_{\\theta}$of a 2-graph $\\Fth$ on a single vertex. We prove that there is a semigroup isomorphism between unital endomorphisms of $\\O_{\\theta}$ and its unitary pairs with a \\textit{twisted property}. We characterize when endomorphisms preserve the fixed point algebra $\\fF$ of the gauge automorphisms and its canonical masa $\\fD$. Some other properties of endomorphisms are also investigated. As far as the modular theory of $\\O_{\\theta}$ is concerned, we show that the algebraic *-algebra generated by the generators of $\\O_{\\theta}$ with the inner product induced from a distinguished state $\\omega$ is a modular Hilbert algebra. Consequently, we obtain that the von Neumann algebra $\\pi(\\O_{\\theta})''$ generated by the GNS representation of $\\omega$ is an AFD factor of type III$_1$, provided $\\frac{\\ln m}{\\ln n}\

  6. Fast Quantum Modular Exponentiation Architecture for Shor's Factorization Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Archimedes Pavlidis; Dimitris Gizopoulos

    2013-11-04

    We present a novel and efficient in terms of circuit depth design for Shor's quantum factorization algorithm. The circuit effectively utilizes a diverse set of adders based on the quantum Fourier transform (QFT) Draper's adders to build more complex arithmetic blocks: quantum multiplier/accumulators by constants and quantum dividers by constants. These arithmetic blocks are effectively architected into a generic modular quantum multiplier which is the fundamental block for modular exponentiation circuit, the most computational intensive part of Shor's algorithm. The proposed modular exponentiation circuit has a depth of about $2000n^{2}$ and requires $9n+2$ qubits, where $n$ is the number of bits of the classical number to be factored. The total quantum cost of the proposed design is $1600n^{3}$. The circuit depth can be further decreased by more than three times if the approximate QFT implementation of each adder unit is exploited.

  7. Modular designs highlight several new rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Rappold, K.

    1995-12-04

    A new platform drilling rig for offshore Trinidad and two new land rigs for the former Soviet Union feature the latest in drilling and construction technology and modular components for quick rig up/rig down. The Sundowner 801 was mock-up tested in Galveston, TX, a few weeks ago in preparation for its load-out to the Dolphin field offshore Trinidad. Two other new units, UNOC 500 DE series land rigs, were recently constructed and mock-up tested in Ekaterinburg, Russia, for upcoming exploratory work for RAO Gazprom, a large natural gas producer in Russia. These rigs are unique in that they were constructed from new components made both in the US and in Russia. The paper describes all three units.

  8. Modular Structures and Landau Levels

    E-print Network

    Fabio Bagarello

    2010-12-07

    We review some recent results concerning Landau levels and Tomita-Takesaki modular theory. We also extend the general framework behind this to quasi *-algebras, to take into account the possible appearance of unbounded observables.

  9. Modular embedded system design for mechatronic education 2010 IEEE\\/ASME international conference on mechatronic and embedded systems and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Nursal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a modular embedded system for mechatronics education is presented. Four types of control boards are manufactured and related software is developed at board and PC level. A modular approach is adopted which is composed of units that can also work in a stand-alone manner. PC platform facilitates high-level usage of these cards whereas it is possible to

  10. Human cytoplasmic isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase: selective divergence of the anticodon-binding domain and acquisition of a new structural unit.

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, K; Suzuki, N; Shigesada, K; Namba, Y; Schimmel, P; Noda, T

    1994-01-01

    We show here that the class I human cytoplasmic isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase is an exceptionally large polypeptide (1266 aa) which, unlike its homologues in lower eukaryotes and prokaryotes, has a third domain of two repeats of an approximately 90-aa sequence appended to its C-terminal end. While extracts of Escherichia coli do not aminoacrylate mammalian tRNA with isoleucine, expression of the cloned human gene in E. coli results in charging of the mammalian tRNA substrate. The appended third domain is dispensable for detection of this aminoacylation activity and may be needed for assembly of a multisynthetase complex in mammalian cells. Alignment of the sequences of the remaining two domains shared by isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases from E. coli to human reveals a much greater selective pressure on the domain needed for tRNA acceptor helix interactions and catalysis than on the domain needed for interactions with the anticodon. This result may have implications for the historical development of an operational RNA code for amino acids. Images PMID:8052601

  11. Modular Approach to Spintronics.

    PubMed

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics. PMID:26066079

  12. Modular authentication systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.S.; Hale, W.R.; Mangan, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Authentication system are required in situations where it is not necessary to protect the contents of the information but to verify the transfer of the information. The Modular Video Authentication System (MVAS) has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide authentication of video signals in already-wired systems. The video authentication technique uses similar microprocessor circuitry at the transmission point, and at the receiving point, to select sample points from the video images for comparison. If a significantly different image was substituted, the comparison would fail at a number of points and the video image would not be authenticated. A similar system has been developed by Sandia for authenticating digital data transmissions. This system is used to determine whether any data alternation or substitution has occurred between the point of the data transmission and the point of the data reception. As with the MVAS, authentication equipment is required at both the transmission and receiving locations for the system operation. This paper describes both the video authentication system and the digital data authentication system, how authentication is accomplished, and how the systems interface with existing hardware. 3 figs.

  13. Modular Approach to Spintronics

    PubMed Central

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics. PMID:26066079

  14. Atomic force microscopy reveals the mechanical design of a modular protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongbin; Oberhauser, Andres F.; Fowler, Susan B.; Clarke, Jane; Fernandez, Julio M.

    2000-06-01

    Tandem modular proteins underlie the elasticity of natural adhesives, cell adhesion proteins, and muscle proteins. The fundamental unit of elastic proteins is their individually folded modules. Here, we use protein engineering to construct multimodular proteins composed of Ig modules of different mechanical strength. We examine the mechanical properties of the resulting tandem modular proteins by using single protein atomic force microscopy. We show that by combining modules of known mechanical strength, we can generate proteins with novel elastic properties. Our experiments reveal the simple mechanical design of modular proteins and open the way for the engineering of elastic proteins with defined mechanical properties, which can be used in tissue and fiber engineering.

  15. A Scalable Architecture for Modular Multiplication Based on

    E-print Network

    A Scalable Architecture for Modular Multiplication Based on Montgomery's Algorithm Alexandre F architecture for the computation of modular multiplication, based on the Montgomery multiplication (MM or bandwidth requirement. Index Terms--Cryptography, Montgomery multiplication, modular multiplication, modular

  16. A neural network with modular hierarchical learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Pierre F. (inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention provides a new hierarchical approach for supervised neural learning of time dependent trajectories. The modular hierarchical methodology leads to architectures which are more structured than fully interconnected networks. The networks utilize a general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamic effects. The advantages include the sparsity of units and connections, the modular organization. A further advantage is that the learning is much more circumscribed learning than in fully interconnected systems. The present invention is embodied by a neural network including a plurality of neural modules each having a pre-established performance capability wherein each neural module has an output outputting present results of the performance capability and an input for changing the present results of the performance capabilitiy. For pattern recognition applications, the performance capability may be an oscillation capability producing a repeating wave pattern as the present results. In the preferred embodiment, each of the plurality of neural modules includes a pre-established capability portion and a performance adjustment portion connected to control the pre-established capability portion.

  17. Modular hybrid plasma reactor and related systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Grandy, Jon D.; Detering, Brent A.

    2010-06-22

    A device, method and system for generating a plasma is disclosed wherein an electrical arc is established and the movement of the electrical arc is selectively controlled. In one example, modular units are coupled to one another to collectively define a chamber. Each modular unit may include an electrode and a cathode spaced apart and configured to generate an arc therebetween. A device, such as a magnetic or electromagnetic device, may be used to selectively control the movement of the arc about a longitudinal axis of the chamber. The arcs of individual modules may be individually controlled so as to exhibit similar or dissimilar motions about the longitudinal axis of the chamber. In another embodiment, an inlet structure may be used to selectively define the flow path of matter introduced into the chamber such that it travels in a substantially circular or helical path within the chamber.

  18. Modular ITT -Module A Modular ITT Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12

    E-print Network

    Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12 North England Forest District confidential. This ITT is a modular document and you will only be supplied with the modules that are required be governed by English Law and the Forestry Commission's Standard Terms and Conditions of #12;Modular ITT

  19. Modular ITT -Module A Modular ITT Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12

    E-print Network

    Modular ITT - Module A Modular ITT ­ Module A| 1 | Version 1 09/02/12 North England Forest District tenderers, although your identity will remain confidential. This ITT is a modular document and you will only in the Evaluation Matrix within this ITT document. You must follow these instructions: #12;Modular ITT - Module

  20. Invertible Program Restructurings for Continuing Modular Maintenance

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Invertible Program Restructurings for Continuing Modular Maintenance Julien Cohen ASCOLA team (EMN in main- tenance with invertible program transformations. We illustrate this on the typical Expression problems with our approach. Keywords-modular maintenance; restructuring; invertible pro- gram

  1. Programming language techniques for modular router configurations

    E-print Network

    Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    Programming language techniques for modular router configurations Eddie Kohler, Benjie Chen, M about it. The system in question is Click, a modular software router framework [13]. Click routers and other con- ventional programming language techniques. Applied to a router configuration

  2. Striking Bimodal Methylation of the Repeat Unit of the Tandem Array Encoding Human U2 snRNA (the RNU2 Locus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chong Jiang; Daiqing Liao

    1999-01-01

    The genes encoding human U2 small nuclear RNA are arrayed in tandem (the RNU2 locus) and have undergone concerted evolution for >35 Myr. Tandem organization of repetitive sequences may facilitate recombination that underlies concerted evolution, but could risk instability. Since DNA methylation plays a crucial role in genome stability, we investigated the methylation status of the RNU2 locus to understand

  3. Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinwei; Monticone, Francesco; Elias, Sarah; Wu, Yanwen; Ratchford, Daniel; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A key element enabling the microelectronic technology advances of the past decades has been the conceptualization of complex circuits with versatile functionalities as being composed of the proper combination of basic 'lumped' circuit elements (for example, inductors and capacitors). In contrast, modern nanophotonic systems are still far from a similar level of sophistication, partially because of the lack of modularization of their response in terms of basic building blocks. Here we demonstrate the design, assembly and characterization of relatively complex photonic nanocircuits by accurately positioning a number of metallic and dielectric nanoparticles acting as modular lumped elements. The nanoparticle clusters produce the desired spectral response described by simple circuit rules and are shown to be dynamically reconfigurable by modifying the direction or polarization of impinging signals. Our work represents an important step towards extending the powerful modular design tools of electronic circuits into nanophotonic systems. PMID:24871450

  4. Endomorphisms and Modular Theory of 2Graph C*-Algebras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilian Yang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we initiate the study of endomorphisms and modular theory of the graph C*-algebras $\\\\O_{\\\\theta}$of a 2-graph $\\\\Fth$ on a single vertex. We prove that there is a semigroup isomorphism between unital endomorphisms of $\\\\O_{\\\\theta}$ and its unitary pairs with a \\\\textit{twisted property}. We characterize when endomorphisms preserve the fixed point algebra $\\\\fF$ of the gauge automorphisms and

  5. PASCAR: Long burning small modular reactor based on natural circulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sungyeol Choi; Jae-Hyun Cho; Moo-Hoon Bae; Jun Lim; Dina Puspitarini; Ji Hoon Jeun; Han-Gyu Joo; Il Soon Hwang

    2011-01-01

    PASCAR is a 100MWt\\/35MWe lead–bismuth-cooled small modular reactor which requires no on-site refueling and well suits to be used as a distributed power source in either a single unit or a cluster for electricity, heat supply, and desalination. This paper includes both steady-state and transient performance evaluations for neutronics and thermal–hydraulics. Through design optimization studies for minimizing a burn-up reactivity

  6. Development of energy efficient modular architectural textile structures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, F.K.; Harris, J.A.; Messinger, A.

    1983-05-01

    This research program was aimed at the development of energy efficient architecture using textile structures. Design concepts for modular units were developed using cell structures. Roof and wall panels were constructed and evaluated to demonstrate the design concept. Test results indicated tubular fiberglass cell structures could provide thermal insulation R-value well above 2.4. Exploratory study was also carried out to demonstrate the possibility of forming complex shapes for structural architectural applications.

  7. Intelligent field devices in factory automation - modular structures into manufacturing cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Schneider

    2003-01-01

    The decentralization based on intelligent field devices allows new structures in factory automation. Modular production lines become possible because the processing of sensor and actor data isn't carried out by a central controller in a cabinet anymore but with small intelligent units directly in the machine itself. If these modules form a unit from the mechanics, the automation devices and

  8. The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS)

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.L.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) is being developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for use in facilities where mains power is available and the separation of the Camera and Recording Control Unit is desirable. The system is being developed under the US Program for Technical Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards (POTAS). The MIVS is designed to be a user friendly system allowing operation with minimal effort and training. The system software, through the use of a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and four soft keys, leads the inspector through the setup procedures to accomplish the intended surveillance or maintenance task. Review of surveillance data is accomplished with the use of a Portable Review Station. This Review Station will aid the inspector in the review process and determine the number of missed video scenes during a surveillance period.

  9. The modular integrated video system (MIVS)

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.L.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1987-07-01

    The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) is being developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for use in facilities where mains power is available and the separation of the Camera and Recording Control Unit is desirable. The system is being developed under the US Program for Technical Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards (POTAS). The MIVS is designed to be a user-friendly system, allowing operation with minimal effort and training. The system software, through the use of a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and four soft keys, leads the inspector through the setup procedures to accomplish the intended surveillance or maintenance task. Review of surveillance data is accomplished with the use of a Portable Review Station. This Review Station will aid the inspector in the review process and determine the number of missed video scenes during a surveillance period.

  10. Modular radioisotope AMTEC power system

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, R.K.; Hunt, T.K.; Ivanenok, J.F.; Pantolin, J.E.; Butkiewicz, D.A. (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 4667 Freedom Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 (United States))

    1993-01-10

    The Alakli Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) technology is extremely amenable to a modular configuration. Several modular designs have been proposed for coupling to the radioisotope general purpose heat source (GPHS). Current AMTEC cell designs, producing approximately 5 W at over 20% efficiency, can be integrated into a radioisotope heated module that provides 10--28 per 250 W[sub th] GPHS. The mass of these modules is approximately 4 kg. The cell design used in this concept is under development. The first generation model has already been operated for one year. Smaller, higher efficiency cells are now being fabricated.

  11. Siegel modular forms and representations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahdi Asgari; Ralf Schmidt

    2001-01-01

    :   This paper explicitly describes the procedure of associating an automorphic representation of PGSp(2n,?) with a Siegel modular form of degree n for the full modular group ?\\u000a \\u000a n\\u000a \\u000a =Sp(2n,?), generalizing the well-known procedure for n=1. This will show that the so-called “standard” and ldquo;spinor”L-functions associated with such forms are obtained as Langlands L-functions. The theory of Euler products, developed

  12. Modular differential equations for characters of RCFT

    E-print Network

    Peter Bantay

    2010-05-12

    We discuss methods, based on the theory of vector-valued modular forms, to determine all modular differential equations satisfied by the conformal characters of RCFT; these modular equations are related to the null vector relations of the operator algebra. Besides describing effective algorithmic procedures, we illustrate our methods on an explicit example.

  13. The Modular Mind and Intrapersonal Communication Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Don W.

    Based on a prior model on modularity of the brain, a new modular model of intrapersonal communication was developed which focuses on brain processing, encompassing both the structures and the functions of those structures in the creation of messages. The modular mind is a bio-social model of communication which presupposes a relationship between…

  14. C. elegans noncoding RNA genes S.L. Stricklin1

    E-print Network

    Eddy, Sean

    . Ribosomal RNAs The 18S, 5.8S, and 26S subunits of rRNA are transcribed by RNA polymerase I from a 7.2 kb rDNA rDNA repeat units as queries, one copy of the 18S/5.8S/26S rRNA repeat unit is represented approximately 1300 genes that are known to produce functional noncoding RNA (ncRNA) transcripts, as opposed to m

  15. A complex network of RNA-RNA interactions controls subgenomic mRNA transcription in a tombusvirus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han-Xin; White, K Andrew

    2004-08-18

    Eukaryotic (+)-strand RNA viruses utilize a wide variety of gene expression strategies to achieve regulated production of their viral proteins. A common mechanism used by many is to transcribe viral subgenomic (sg) mRNAs. Transcription of sg mRNA2 in tombusviruses allows for expression of the p19 suppressor of gene silencing and p22 movement proteins. We have investigated the mechanism of transcription of this sg mRNA in Tomato bushy stunt virus and have determined that this process is facilitated by no less than three different RNA modules that are located throughout the viral genome. These RNA units perform distinct tasks and function via long-distance RNA-RNA interactions. Systematic deconstruction of the RNA network and analysis of related RNA promoter elements allowed us to identify fundamental properties necessary for productive sg mRNA2 transcription. Collectively, our results (i) establish specific roles for the different RNA components of a multipartite RNA-based control system, (ii) support a premature termination mechanism for tombusvirus sg mRNA transcription and (iii) reveal a close mechanistic relationship between sg mRNA transcription, viral RNA replication and RNA recombination. PMID:15282544

  16. Datalog, units and information hiding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Foto N. Afrati; Isambo Karali; Theodoros Mitakos

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the introduction of structured units in datalog. Thisallows modularity and information hiding. Units are divided into a public and a privatepart. This structure calls for new composition operators which are defined here. Theseoperators express various forms of inheritance including the common ones in the objectoriented framework.1 IntroductionIn object oriented databases, encapsulation and inheritance are major

  17. Reflective Modular Neural Network Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Muhlenbein

    1992-01-01

    Many of the current artificial neural network systems have serious limitations, concerning accessibility,flexibility, scaling and reliability. In order to go some way to removing these we suggesta reflective neural network architecture. In such an architecture, the modular structure is themost important element. The building-block elements are called "minos\\

  18. Tomita-Takesaki Modular Theory

    E-print Network

    Stephen J. Summers

    2005-11-09

    We provide an brief overview of Tomita-Takesaki modular theory and some of its applications to mathematical physics. This is an article commissioned by the Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics, edited by J.-P. Francoise, G. Naber and T.S. Tsun, to be published by the Elsevier publishing house.

  19. Modular HPSG Vlado Ke selj

    E-print Network

    Keselj, Vlado

    , ON N2L 3G1, Canada, vkeselj@cs.uwaterloo.ca, http://www.cs.uwaterloo.ca/~vkeselj Abstract. We present of modular- ity is known in the area of programming languages, and it is described for context-free grammars domains, and their unifying use over the Internet. This is a promising application in the context

  20. A Modular Voting Architecture ("Frogs")

    E-print Network

    Rivest, Ronald L.

    A Modular Voting Architecture ("Frogs") Shuki Bruck (CalTech) David Jefferson (Compaq) Ronald L. Rivest (MIT) (WOTE, August 28, 2001) #12;Outline !Moving from paper " electronic !Voting with frogs !Advantages of frogs !Security !Conclusions #12;What's next in voting? !We propose a practical voting system

  1. Modular axial grooved heat pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Koch; H. Kreeb; M. Perdu

    1976-01-01

    A modular axial grooved heat pipe system operable between 100 and 400 K was developed. Accent was placed on typical space application problems such as assembly of two heat pipes (interface problems), circular heat pipes, construction of radiators, long life behavior, and cryogenic heat pipes. Results of performance tests on this heat pipe system designed for a space radiator to

  2. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model -- Documentation of the Model-Layer Variable-Direction Horizontal Anisotropy (LVDA) capability of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderman, Evan R.; Kipp, K.L.; Hill, Mary C.; Valstar, Johan; Neupauer, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    This report documents the model-layer variable-direction horizontal anisotropy (LVDA) capability of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package of MODFLOW-2000. The LVDA capability allows the principal directions of horizontal anisotropy to be different than the model-grid row and column directions, and for the directions to vary on a cell-by-cell basis within model layers. The HUF Package calculates effective hydraulic properties for model grid cells based on hydraulic properties of hydrogeologic units with thicknesses defined independently of the model layers. These hydraulic properties include, among other characteristics, hydraulic conductivity and a horizontal anisotropy ratio. Using the LVDA capability, horizontal anisotropy direction is defined for model grid cells within which one or more hydrogeologic units may occur. For each grid cell, the HUF Package calculates the effective horizontal hydraulic conductivity along the primary direction of anisotropy using the hydrogeologic-unit hydraulic conductivities, and calculates the effective horizontal hydraulic conductivity along the orthogonal anisotropy direction using the effective primary direction hydraulic conductivities and horizontal anisotropy ratios. The direction assigned to the model layer effective primary hydraulic conductivity is specified using a new data set defined by the LVDA capability, when active, to calculate coefficients needed to solve the ground-water flow equation. Use of the LVDA capability is illustrated in four simulation examples, which also serve to verify hydraulic heads, advective-travel paths, and sensitivities calculated using the LVDA capability. This version of the LVDA capability defines variable-direction horizontal anisotropy using model layers, not the hydrogeologic units defined by the HUF Package. This difference needs to be taken into account when designing model layers and hydrogeologic units to produce simulations that accurately represent a given field problem. This might be a reason, for example, to make model layer boundaries coincide with hydrogeologic-unit boundaries in all or part of a model grid.

  3. Validation of a wireless modular monitoring system for structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Jerome P.; Law, Kincho H.; Kiremidjian, Anne S.; Carryer, John E.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Partridge, Aaron; Sundararajan, Arvind

    2002-06-01

    A wireless sensing unit for use in a Wireless Modular Monitoring System (WiMMS) has been designed and constructed. Drawing upon advanced technological developments in the areas of wireless communications, low-power microprocessors and micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS) sensing transducers, the wireless sensing unit represents a high-performance yet low-cost solution to monitoring the short-term and long-term performance of structures. A sophisticated reduced instruction set computer (RISC) microcontroller is placed at the core of the unit to accommodate on-board computations, measurement filtering and data interrogation algorithms. The functionality of the wireless sensing unit is validated through various experiments involving multiple sensing transducers interfaced to the sensing unit. In particular, MEMS-based accelerometers are used as the primary sensing transducer in this study's validation experiments. A five degree of freedom scaled test structure mounted upon a shaking table is employed for system validation.

  4. Quasispecies Theory for Evolution of Modularity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Man; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a quasispecies theory for the dynamics of modularity in populations of these systems. We show how the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment can be computed. We derive a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity and use it to derive a relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity. We also find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state. Finally, we compare our predictions to simulations of protein evolution and find them to be consistent. PMID:25679649

  5. Antares: A low cost modular launch vehicle for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle Antares is a revolutionary concept based on identical modular units, enabling the Antares to efficiently launch communications satellites, as well as heavy payloads, into Earth orbit and beyond. The basic unit of the modular system, a single Antares vehicle, is aimed at launching approximately 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) into low Earth orbit (LEO). When coupled with a standard Centaur upper stage, it is capable of placing 4000 kg (8800 lb) into geosynchronous Earth orbit (GE0). The Antares incorporates a reusable engine, the Dual Mixture Ratio Engine (DMRE), as its propulsive device. This enables Antares to compete and excel in the satellite launch market by dramatically reducing launch costs. Inherent in the design is the capability to attach several of these vehicles together to provide heavy lift capability. Any number of these vehicles can be attached depending on the payload and mission requirements. With a seven-vehicle configuration, the Antares' modular concept provides a heavy lift capability of approximately 70,000 kg (154,000 lb) to LEO. This expandability allows for a wide range of payload options, such as large Earth satellites, Space Station Freedom material, and interplanetary spacecraft, and also offers a significant cost savings over a mixed fleet based on different launch vehicles.

  6. Estimation of inter-modular connectivity from the local field potentials in a hierarchical modular network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xue-Mei; Kim, Won Sup; Hwang, Dong-Uk; Han, Seung Kee

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method of estimating inter-modular connectivity in a hierarchical modular network. The method is based on an analysis of inverse phase synchronization applied to the local field potentials on a hierarchical modular network of phase oscillators. For a strong-coupling strength, the inverse phase synchronization index of the local field potentials for two modules depends linearly on the corresponding inter-modular connectivity defined as the number of links connecting the modules. The method might enable us to estimate the inter-modular connectivity in various complex systems from the inverse phase synchronization index of the mesoscopic modular activities.

  7. Modular construction of mammalian gene circuits using TALE transcriptional repressors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinqing; Jiang, Yun; Chen, He; Liao, Weixi; Li, Zhihua; Weiss, Ron; Xie, Zhen

    2015-03-01

    An important goal of synthetic biology is the rational design and predictable implementation of synthetic gene circuits using standardized and interchangeable parts. However, engineering of complex circuits in mammalian cells is currently limited by the availability of well-characterized and orthogonal transcriptional repressors. Here, we introduce a library of 26 reversible transcription activator-like effector repressors (TALERs) that bind newly designed hybrid promoters and exert transcriptional repression through steric hindrance of key transcriptional initiation elements. We demonstrate that using the input-output transfer curves of our TALERs enables accurate prediction of the behavior of modularly assembled TALER cascade and switch circuits. We also show that TALER switches using feedback regulation exhibit improved accuracy for microRNA-based HeLa cancer cell classification versus HEK293 cells. Our TALER library is a valuable toolkit for modular engineering of synthetic circuits, enabling programmable manipulation of mammalian cells and helping elucidate design principles of coupled transcriptional and microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. PMID:25643171

  8. Assessment of Microbial Diversity in Four Southwestern United States Soils by 16S rRNA Gene Terminal Restriction Fragment Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, John; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of terminal restriction fragment (T-RFLP or TRF) profiles of 16S rRNA genes to provide useful information about the relative diversity of complex microbial communities was investigated by comparison with other methods. Four soil communities representing two pinyon rhizosphere and two between-tree (interspace) soil environments were compared by analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and culture collections (Dunbar et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:1662–1669, 1998) and by analysis of 16S rDNA TRF profiles of community DNA. The TRF method was able to differentiate the four communities in a manner consistent with previous comparisons of the communities by analysis of 16S rDNA clone libraries. TRF profiles were not useful for calculating and comparing traditional community richness or evenness values among the four soil environments. Statistics calculated from RsaI, HhaI, HaeIII, and MspI profiles of each community were inconsistent, and the combined data were not significantly different between samples. The detection sensitivity of the method was tested. In standard PCRs, a seeded population comprising 0.1 to 1% of the total community could be detected. The combined results demonstrate that TRF analysis is an excellent method for rapidly comparing the relationships between bacterial communities in environmental samples. However, for highly complex communities, the method appears unable to provide classical measures of relative community diversity. PMID:10877790

  9. IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 48, NO. 1, JANUARY 2013 229 A Modular 1 mm Die-Stacked Sensing Platform

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabal

    with compatibility to commercial C protocols. A self-adapting power management unit is proposed for efficient batteryIEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 48, NO. 1, JANUARY 2013 229 A Modular 1 mm Die is proposed. The sensor platform benefits from modularity by allowing the addition/re- moval of IC layers

  10. A modular cloning system for standardized assembly of multigene constructs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ernst; Engler, Carola; Gruetzner, Ramona; Werner, Stefan; Marillonnet, Sylvestre

    2011-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize biotechnology through the design of organisms with novel phenotypes useful for medicine, agriculture and industry. However, a limiting factor is the ability of current methods to assemble complex DNA molecules encoding multiple genetic elements in various predefined arrangements. We present here a hierarchical modular cloning system that allows the creation at will and with high efficiency of any eukaryotic multigene construct, starting from libraries of defined and validated basic modules containing regulatory and coding sequences. This system is based on the ability of type IIS restriction enzymes to assemble multiple DNA fragments in a defined linear order. We constructed a 33 kb DNA molecule containing 11 transcription units made from 44 individual basic modules in only three successive cloning steps. This modular cloning (MoClo) system can be readily automated and will be extremely useful for applications such as gene stacking and metabolic engineering. PMID:21364738

  11. Combustion Power Unit--400: CPU-400.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combustion Power Co., Palo Alto, CA.

    Aerospace technology may have led to a unique basic unit for processing solid wastes and controlling pollution. The Combustion Power Unit--400 (CPU-400) is designed as a turboelectric generator plant that will use municipal solid wastes as fuel. The baseline configuration is a modular unit that is designed to utilize 400 tons of refuse per day…

  12. Modular inflation and the curvaton

    E-print Network

    George Lazarides

    2006-09-12

    Supersymmetric Peccei-Quinn models which provide a suitable candidate for the curvaton field are studied. These models also solve the mu problem, while generating the Peccei-Quinn scale dynamically. The curvaton is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson corresponding to an angular degree of freedom orthogonal to the axion. Its order parameter increases substantially following a phase transition during inflation. This results in a drastic amplification of the curvaton perturbations. Consequently, these models are able to accommodate low-scale inflation with Hubble parameter at the TeV scale such as modular inflation. We find that modular inflation with the orthogonal axion as curvaton can indeed account for the observations for natural values of the parameters. In particular, the spectral index can easily be made adequately lower than unity in accord with the recent data.

  13. MODULAR ANALYTICS: A New Approach to Automation in the Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Zahur; Blanckaert, Norbert J. C.; Chan, Daniel W.; Dubois, Jeffrey A.; Golaz, Olivier; Mensi, Noury; Keller, Franz; Stolz, Herbert; Klingler, Karl; Marocchi, Alessandro; Prencipe, Lorenzo; McLawhon, Ronald W.; Nilsen, Olaug L.; Oellerich, Michael; Luthe, Hilmar; Orsonneau, Jean-Luc; Richeux, Gérard; Recio, Fernando; Roldan, Esther; Rymo, Lars; Wicktorsson, Anne-Charlotte; Welch, Shirley L.; Wieland, Heinrich; Grawitz, Andrea Busse; Mitsumaki, Hiroshi; McGovern, Margaret; Ng, Katherine; Stockmann, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    MODULAR ANALYTICS (Roche Diagnostics) (MODULAR ANALYTICS, Elecsys and Cobas Integra are trademarks of a member of the Roche Group) represents a new approach to automation for the clinical chemistry laboratory. It consists of a control unit, a core unit with a bidirectional multitrack rack transportation system, and three distinct kinds of analytical modules: an ISE module, a P800 module (44 photometric tests, throughput of up to 800 tests/h), and a D2400 module (16 photometric tests, throughput up to 2400 tests/h). MODULAR ANALYTICS allows customised configurations for various laboratory workloads. The performance and practicability of MODULAR ANALYTICS were evaluated in an international multicentre study at 16 sites. Studies included precision, accuracy, analytical range, carry-over, and workflow assessment. More than 700 000 results were obtained during the course of the study. Median between-day CVs were typically less than 3% for clinical chemistries and less than 6% for homogeneous immunoassays. Median recoveries for nearly all standardised reference materials were within 5% of assigned values. Method comparisons versus current existing routine instrumentation were clinically acceptable in all cases. During the workflow studies, the work from three to four single workstations was transferred to MODULAR ANALYTICS, which offered over 100 possible methods, with reduction in sample splitting, handling errors, and turnaround time. Typical sample processing time on MODULAR ANALYTICS was less than 30 minutes, an improvement from the current laboratory systems. By combining multiple analytic units in flexible ways, MODULAR ANALYTICS met diverse laboratory needs and offered improvement in workflow over current laboratory situations. It increased overall efficiency while maintaining (or improving) quality. PMID:18924721

  14. MOCHA: Modularity in Model Checking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeev Alur; Thomas A. Henzinger; Freddy Y. C. Mang; Shaz Qadeer; Sriram K. Rajamani; Serdar Tasiran

    1998-01-01

    We describe a new interactive verification environment called M OCHA for the modular verifi- cation of heterogeneous systems. MOCHA differs from many existing model checkers in three significant ways: - For modeling, we replace unstructured state-transition graphs with th e heterogeneous mod- eling framework of reactive modules(AH96). The definition of reactive modules is inspired by formalisms such as Unity (CM88),

  15. Modular integrated video system (MIVS) review station

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    An unattended video surveillance unit, the Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS), has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for International Safeguards use. An important support element of this system is a semi-automatic Review Station. Four component modules, including an 8 mm video tape recorder, a 4-inch video monitor, a power supply and control electronics utilizing a liquid crystal display (LCD) are mounted in a suitcase for probability. The unit communicates through the interactive, menu-driven LCD and may be operated on facility power through the world. During surveillance, the MIVS records video information at specified time intervals, while also inserting consecutive scene numbers and tamper event information. Using either of two available modes of operation, the Review Station reads the inserted information and counts the number of missed scenes and/or tamper events encountered on the tapes, and reports this to the user on the LCD. At the end of a review session, the system will summarize the results of the review, stop the recorder, and advise the user of the completion of the review. In addition, the Review Station will check for any video loss on the tape.

  16. Modular ITT for Works Module A Modular ITT for Works Module A | 1 | Version 1 09/02/12

    E-print Network

    Modular ITT for Works ­ Module A Modular ITT for Works ­ Module A | 1 | Version 1 09/02/12 Forestry will remain confidential. This ITT is a modular document and you will only be supplied with the modules document. #12;Modular ITT for Works ­ Module A Modular ITT for Works ­ Module A | 2 | Version 1 09

  17. Recognition of duplex RNA by the deaminase domain of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR2

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Kelly J.; Tran, Kiet; Eifler, Tristan; Erickson, Anna I.; Fisher, Andrew J.; Beal, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) hydrolytically deaminate adenosines (A) in a wide variety of duplex RNAs and misregulation of editing is correlated with human disease. However, our understanding of reaction selectivity is limited. ADARs are modular enzymes with multiple double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs) and a catalytic domain. While dsRBD binding is understood, little is known about ADAR catalytic domain/RNA interactions. Here we use a recently discovered RNA substrate that is rapidly deaminated by the isolated human ADAR2 deaminase domain (hADAR2-D) to probe these interactions. We introduced the nucleoside analog 8-azanebularine (8-azaN) into this RNA (and derived constructs) to mechanistically trap the protein–RNA complex without catalytic turnover for EMSA and ribonuclease footprinting analyses. EMSA showed that hADAR2-D requires duplex RNA and is sensitive to 2?-deoxy substitution at nucleotides opposite the editing site, the local sequence and 8-azaN nucleotide positioning on the duplex. Ribonuclease V1 footprinting shows that hADAR2-D protects ?23 nt on the edited strand around the editing site in an asymmetric fashion (?18 nt on the 5? side and ?5 nt on the 3? side). These studies provide a deeper understanding of the ADAR catalytic domain–RNA interaction and new tools for biophysical analysis of ADAR–RNA complexes. PMID:25564529

  18. Cyclic modular beta-sheets.

    PubMed

    Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S

    2007-03-01

    The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (modular beta-sheets 1a, 1b, and 1f each have a phenylalanine directly across from Hao, suggesting that cyclic modular beta-sheets containing aromatic residues across from Hao are better folded. PMID:17295482

  19. Rank-finiteness for modular categories

    E-print Network

    Paul Bruillard; Siu-Hung Ng; Eric C. Rowell; Zhenghan Wang

    2015-05-27

    We prove a rank-finiteness conjecture for modular categories: up to equivalence, there are only finitely many modular categories of any fixed rank. Our technical advance is a generalization of the Cauchy theorem in group theory to the context of spherical fusion categories. For a modular category $\\mathcal{C}$ with $N=ord(T)$, the order of the modular $T$-matrix, the Cauchy theorem says that the set of primes dividing the global quantum dimension $D^2$ in the Dedekind domain $\\mathbb{Z}[e^{\\frac{2\\pi i}{N}}]$ is identical to that of $N$.

  20. Modular Stratification and Magic Sets for Datalog Programs with Negation

    E-print Network

    Ross, Kenneth A.

    Modular Stratification and Magic Sets for Datalog Programs with Negation Kenneth A. Ross \\Lambda A class of ``modularly stratified'' logic programs is defined. Modular stratification generalizes stratification and local stratification, while allowing programs that are not expressible as stratified programs

  1. 17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modular submissions and segmented filings. ...FILINGS Edgar Functions § 232.501 Modular submissions and segmented filings. ...inclusion in an electronic filing: (a) Modular submissions. (1) One or more...

  2. 17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Modular submissions and segmented filings. ...FILINGS Edgar Functions § 232.501 Modular submissions and segmented filings. ...inclusion in an electronic filing: (a) Modular submissions. (1) One or more...

  3. 17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Modular submissions and segmented filings. ...FILINGS Edgar Functions § 232.501 Modular submissions and segmented filings. ...inclusion in an electronic filing: (a) Modular submissions. (1) One or more...

  4. 17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Modular submissions and segmented filings. ...FILINGS Edgar Functions § 232.501 Modular submissions and segmented filings. ...inclusion in an electronic filing: (a) Modular submissions. (1) One or more...

  5. 17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Modular submissions and segmented filings. ...FILINGS Edgar Functions § 232.501 Modular submissions and segmented filings. ...inclusion in an electronic filing: (a) Modular submissions. (1) One or more...

  6. Systematic discovery of Xist RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ci; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Flynn, Ryan A; Bharadwaj, Maheetha; Calabrese, J Mauro; Magnuson, Terry; Heard, Edith; Chang, Howard Y

    2015-04-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function with associated proteins to effect complex structural and regulatory outcomes. To reveal the composition and dynamics of specific noncoding RNA-protein complexes (RNPs) in vivo, we developed comprehensive identification of RNA binding proteins by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS). ChIRP-MS analysis of four ncRNAs captures key protein interactors, including a U1-specific link to the 3' RNA processing machinery. Xist, an essential lncRNA for X chromosome inactivation (XCI), interacts with 81 proteins from chromatin modification, nuclear matrix, and RNA remodeling pathways. The Xist RNA-protein particle assembles in two steps coupled with the transition from pluripotency to differentiation. Specific interactors include HnrnpK, which participates in Xist-mediated gene silencing and histone modifications but not Xist localization, and Drosophila Split ends homolog Spen, which interacts via the A-repeat domain of Xist and is required for gene silencing. Thus, Xist lncRNA engages with proteins in a modular and developmentally controlled manner to coordinate chromatin spreading and silencing. PMID:25843628

  7. Self-assembling RNA square.

    PubMed

    Dibrov, Sergey M; McLean, Jaime; Parsons, Jerod; Hermann, Thomas

    2011-04-19

    The three-dimensional structures of noncoding RNA molecules reveal recurring architectural motifs that have been exploited for the design of artificial RNA nanomaterials. Programmed assembly of RNA nanoobjects from autonomously folding tetraloop-receptor complexes as well as junction motifs has been achieved previously through sequence-directed hybridization of complex sets of long oligonucleotides. Due to size and complexity, structural characterization of artificial RNA nanoobjects has been limited to low-resolution microscopy studies. Here we present the design, construction, and crystal structure determination at 2.2 ? of the smallest yet square-shaped nanoobject made entirely of double-stranded RNA. The RNA square is comprised of 100 residues and self-assembles from four copies each of two oligonucleotides of 10 and 15 bases length. Despite the high symmetry on the level of secondary structure, the three-dimensional architecture of the square is asymmetric, with all four corners adopting distinct folding patterns. We demonstrate the programmed self-assembly of RNA squares from complex mixtures of corner units and establish a concept to exploit the RNA square as a combinatorial nanoscale platform. PMID:21464284

  8. Design and construction of a modular gamma camera

    SciTech Connect

    Milster, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    An alternative to the standard gamma-camera design is described that is flexible enough to be used in a wide variety of applications. The new modular design consists of a small gamma camera that is optically and electronically independent from other units. The theoretical and experimental investigation of this report focuses on the design and construction of the modular cameras. Each modular camera is, in essence, a small Anger camera. Components of each module include a scintillation crystal, a light guide, and an array of four photomultiplier tubes. Instead of an analog processing network, each module utilizes fast digital circuitry that includes direct analog-to-digital conversion of the photomultiplier signals, a lookup table that maps detector responses to position estimates of the scintillation flashes in the crystal, and an image memory that accumulates the position estimates and forms an image of the radiation incident on the faceplate of the camera. The contents of the lookup table are determined from the statistical properties of the detected signals as a function of scintillation position. Experiments are described in which best estimates of position are found by processing data collected from an array of point-source positions in contact with the crystal.

  9. The Role of Instrumentation and Controls Technology in Enabling Deployment of Small Modular Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dwight A Clayton; Richard Thomas Wood

    2010-01-01

    The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) will provide the United States with another economically viable energy option, diversify the available nuclear power alternatives for the country, and enhance U.S. economic competitiveness by ensuring a domestic capability to supply demonstrated reactor technology to a growing global market for clean and affordable energy sources. Smaller nuclear power plants match the

  10. The Role of Instrumentation and Control Technology in Enabling Deployment of Small Modular Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dwight A Clayton; Richard Thomas Wood

    2011-01-01

    The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) will provide the United States with another economically viable energy option, diversify the available nuclear power alternatives for the country, and enhance U.S. economic competitiveness by ensuring a domestic capability to supply demonstrated reactor technology to a growing global market for clean and affordable energy sources. Smaller nuclear power plants match the

  11. Enumerating the NonIsomorphic Assembly Configurations of Modular Robotic Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I.-Ming Chen; Joel W. Burdick

    1998-01-01

    A modular robotic system consists of standardized joint and link units that can be assembled into a number of different kinematic configu rations to meet various task requirements. Owing to typical symme tries in module design, different assembly configurations may lead to robotic structures that are geometrically identical, or isomorphic. This paper focuses on the problem of enumerating the set

  12. Hardware for Accelerating N-Modular Redundant Systems for High-Reliability Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobbs, Carl, Sr.

    2012-01-01

    A hardware unit has been designed that reduces the cost, in terms of performance and power consumption, for implementing N-modular redundancy (NMR) in a multiprocessor device. The innovation monitors transactions to memory, and calculates a form of sumcheck on-the-fly, thereby relieving the processors of calculating the sumcheck in software

  13. Experimental Study of Active Vibration Suppression Structure Using Modular Control Patch*

    E-print Network

    Experimental Study of Active Vibration Suppression Structure Using Modular Control Patch* Gangbing results of vibration suppressicln of a flexible structure using a miniaturized digital controller, called for the United States Air Force for future space vibration control. In this research, the MCP is used

  14. THE WATER, ENERGY, AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODEL (WEBMOD): A TOPMODEL APPLICATION DEVELOPED WITHIN THE MODULAR MODELING SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. T. Webb; Joshua I. Linard; Michael E. Wieczorek

    2004-01-01

    WEBMOD simulates hydrologic fluxes and solute concentrations using process modules coupled within the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Modular Modeling System (MMS). For example, the hydrologic fluxes are simulated using routines developed for the USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System, the National Weather Service Hydro-17 snow model, and TOPMODEL, a topography-based hydrological model. PHREEQC, a low- temperature aqueous geochemical model, was

  15. Modular design attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    A sequence of single axismodels and a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order are used to reconstruct inaccessible variables pertaining to the modular attitude control of a rigid body flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft. The single axis models consist of two, three, four, and five rigid bodies, each interconnected by a flexible shaft passing through the mass centers of the bodies. Modal damping is added to each model. Reduced state linear observers are developed for synthesizing the inaccessible modal state variables for each modal model.

  16. Models of Modular Inflation and Their Phenomenological Consequences

    E-print Network

    Ido Ben-Dayan; Ram Brustein; Senarath P. de Alwis

    2008-02-21

    We study models of modular inflation of the form expected to arise from low energy effective actions of superstring theories. We argue on general grounds that the most likely models of modular slow-roll inflation are small field models in which the inflaton moves about a Planck distance from an extremum of the potential. We then focus on models in which the inflaton is the bosonic component of a single (complex) chiral superfield and explain the generic difficulties in designing small field models of modular inflation. We then show that if the Kaehler potential (KP) of the inflaton is logarithmic as in perturbative string theories, then it is not possible to satisfy the slow-roll conditions for any superpotential. We find that if the corrections to the KP are large enough so it can be approximated by a canonical KP in the vicinity of the extremum, then viable slow-roll inflation is possible. In this case, several parameters have to be tuned to a fraction of a percent. We give a prescription for designing successful small field supergravity models of inflation when the KP is canonical and calculate the slow-roll parameters from the superpotential parameters. Our results strengthen the case for models in which the moduli slowly roll about a Planck distance from a relatively high scale extremum that is located in the vicinity of the central region of moduli space units. Generic models of this class predict a red spectrum of scalar perturbations and negligible spectral index running. They also predict a characteristic suppression of tensor perturbations despite the high scale of inflation. Consequently, a detection of primordial tensor anisotropies or spectral index running in cosmic microwave background observations in the foreseeable future will rule out this entire class of modular inflation models.

  17. SMASH: Modular Security for Mobile Agents

    E-print Network

    Julien, Christine

    application that could benefit from secure mobile agents focuses on collecting and comparing eventsSMASH: Modular Security for Mobile Agents TR-UTEDGE-2006-007 Adam Pridgen Christine Julien © Copyright 2006 The University of Texas at Austin #12;SMASH: Modular Security for Mobile Agents Adam Pridgen

  18. Origin of Modularity in Recombination Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun; Deem, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Modularity is a well-known phenomenon in biology. Modularity implies a hierarchical character, and is manifested in both phenotypic and genotypic levels. A module is defined, in general, as a component which operates relatively independently of other components of the system. The independence is in both the structural and functional levels. How does modularity originate? Evolvability is a selectable trait and modularity enhances evolvability. Thus, under conditions that select for evolvability, we expect to see the emergence of modularity. We used a spin-glass model to simulate the evolution of genomes. This model captures the interactions between amino acids or epistasis between genes. The evolutions include both sequence evolution and structure evolution. The environment changes and recombination plays an important role in evolution. We will present our result of the emergence of modularity, a symmetry breaking of the system. We will present the dependence of modularity on the amplitude and frequency of environment changing. The crucial role of recombination in the emergence of modularity will be discussed as well.

  19. Modular Dynamic Simulation of Wheeled Mobile Robots

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Alonzo

    Modular Dynamic Simulation of Wheeled Mobile Robots Neal Seegmiller and Alonzo Kelly Abstract This paper presents a modular method for 3D dynamic simulation of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs). Our method simulation of wheeled mo- bile robots (WMRs). Here, "dynamic simulation" means a second-order physics- based

  20. Modular Building Institute 2000 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. The articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Elementary K-8 Modular Courtyard"; (2) "School District #33, Chilliwack, BC"; (3) "New Elementary School for Briarwood, NY"; (4) "Addition to Queens Intermediate…

  1. Teachers' Perceptions of Modular Technology Education Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kara S.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' perceptions concerning the modular technology approach to teaching technology education in Georgia. The study addressed the following basic research question: What do teachers in Georgia perceive to be the main advantages and drawbacks to teaching technology education in a modular environment…

  2. Modular bootstrap in Liouville field theory

    E-print Network

    Leszek Hadasz; Zbigniew Jaskolski; Paulina Suchanek

    2009-11-22

    The modular matrix for the generic 1-point conformal blocks on the torus is expressed in terms of the fusion matrix for the 4-point blocks on the sphere. The modular invariance of the toric 1-point functions in the Liouville field theory with DOZZ structure constants is proved.

  3. Modular Multiplication using Redundant Digit Division

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Modular Multiplication using Redundant Digit Division Ping Tak Peter Tang Intel Corporation 2200 multiplication, ABR-1 mod N, instead of modular multiplication, AB mod N, even the former re- quires some transformational overheads. This is so because a state-of-the-art Montgomery multiplication implementa- tion has

  4. A MODULAR, SCALABLE, ARCHITECTURE FOR UNMANNED VEHICLES

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    1 A MODULAR, SCALABLE, ARCHITECTURE FOR UNMANNED VEHICLES David G. Armstrong II, Carl D. Crane III, Florida ABSTRACT: A modular, scalable architecture for use on unmanned vehicles has been developed continued addition of modules (scale), and the goal of moving toward a standard architecture for autonomous

  5. VIDEO SENSOR BRICK FOR MODULAR ROBOTICS

    E-print Network

    Abidi, Mongi A.

    VIDEO SENSOR BRICK FOR MODULAR ROBOTICS PILOT (Project In Lieu of Thesis) Presented for the Master airport surveillance, harbor surveillance, continuous monitoring of any suspicious situation, as well develops the hardware requirements and software techniques as a Video Sensor Brick for modular robotics

  6. MoNA—The Modular Neutron Array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Luther; T. Baumann; M. Thoennessen; J. Brown; P. Deyoung; J. Finck; J. Hinnefeld; R. Howes; K. Kemper; P. Pancella; G. Peaslee; W. Rogers; S. Tabor

    2003-01-01

    The Modular Neutron Array (MoNA), a highly efficient time-of-flight neutron detector, is being constructed for use at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The modular design of the detector provides significant flexibility and allows the bulk of the assembly and testing to be done by undergraduates at nine of the schools participating in the project.

  7. Modular classes of skew algebroid relations

    E-print Network

    Janusz Grabowski

    2011-08-11

    Skew algebroid is a natural generalization of the concept of Lie algebroid. In this paper, for a skew algebroid E, its modular class mod(E) is defined in the classical as well as in the supergeometric formulation. It is proved that there is a homogeneous nowhere-vanishing 1-density on E* which is invariant with respect to all Hamiltonian vector fields if and only if E is modular, i.e. mod(E)=0. Further, relative modular class of a subalgebroid is introduced and studied together with its application to holonomy, as well as modular class of a skew algebroid relation. These notions provide, in particular, a unified approach to the concepts of a modular class of a Lie algebroid morphism and that of a Poisson map.

  8. Modular Forms and Three Loop Superstring Amplitudes

    E-print Network

    Sergio L. Cacciatori; Francesco Dalla Piazza; Bert van Geemen

    2008-04-03

    We study a proposal of D'Hoker and Phong for the chiral superstring measure for genus three. A minor modification of the constraints they impose on certain Siegel modular forms leads to a unique solution. We reduce the problem of finding these modular forms, which depend on an even spin structure, to finding a modular form of weight 8 on a certain subgroup of the modular group. An explicit formula for this form, as a polynomial in the even theta constants, is given. We checked that our result is consistent with the vanishing of the cosmological constant. We also verified a conjecture of D'Hoker and Phong on modular forms in genus 3 and 4 using results of Igusa.

  9. Mechanically assisted taper corrosion in modular TKA.

    PubMed

    Arnholt, Christina M; MacDonald, Daniel W; Tohfafarosh, Mariya; Gilbert, Jeremy L; Rimnac, Clare M; Kurtz, Steven M; Klein, Gregg; Mont, Michael A; Parvizi, Javad; Cates, Harold E; Lee, Gwo-Chin; Malkani, Arthur; Kraay, Mattheuw

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the prevalence of taper damage in modular TKA components. One hundred ninety-eight modular components were revised after 3.9±4.2 years of implantation. Modular components were evaluated for fretting corrosion using a semi-quantitative 4-point scoring system. Design features and patient information were assessed as predictors of fretting corrosion damage. Mild-to-severe fretting corrosion (score ?2) was observed in 94/101 tapers on the modular femoral components and 90/97 tapers on the modular tibial components. Mixed alloy pairs (p=0.03), taper design (p<0.001), and component type (p=0.02) were associated with taper corrosion. The results from this study supported the hypothesis that there is taper corrosion in TKA. However the clinical implications remain unclear. PMID:24996586

  10. Modular Countermine Payload for Small Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Herman Herman; Doug Few; Roelof Versteeg; Jean-Sebastien Valois; Jeff McMahill; Michael Licitra; Edward Henciak

    2010-04-01

    Payloads for small robotic platforms have historically been designed and implemented as platform and task specific solutions. A consequence of this approach is that payloads cannot be deployed on different robotic platforms without substantial re-engineering efforts. To address this issue, we developed a modular countermine payload that is designed from the ground-up to be platform agnostic. The payload consists of the multi-mission payload controller unit (PCU) coupled with the configurable mission specific threat detection, navigation and marking payloads. The multi-mission PCU has all the common electronics to control and interface to all the payloads. It also contains the embedded processor that can be used to run the navigational and control software. The PCU has a very flexible robot interface which can be configured to interface to various robot platforms. The threat detection payload consists of a two axis sweeping arm and the detector. The navigation payload consists of several perception sensors that are used for terrain mapping, obstacle detection and navigation. Finally, the marking payload consists of a dual-color paint marking system. Through the multi-mission PCU, all these payloads are packaged in a platform agnostic way to allow deployment on multiple robotic platforms, including Talon and Packbot.

  11. R772 Dispatch RNA interference: It's a small RNA world

    E-print Network

    Moss, Eric G.

    are also united in that they were discovered and characterized primarily in the nematode Caenorhabditis of a specific gene was first developed using C. elegans and has been termed RNA interference, or RNAi [4]. RNAi in culture [5­7]. An important advance was made when RNAi was shown to involve the generation of small RNAs

  12. Synthesis and Labeling of RNA In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao; Yu, Yi-Tao

    2013-01-01

    This unit discusses several methods for generating large amounts of uniformly labeled, end-labeled, and site-specifically labeled RNAs in vitro. The methods involve a number of experimental procedures, including RNA transcription, 5? dephosphorylation and rephosphorylation, 3? terminal nucleotide addition (via ligation), site-specific RNase H cleavage directed by 2?-O-methyl RNA-DNA chimeras, and 2-piece splint ligation. The applications of these RNA radiolabeling approaches are also discussed. PMID:23547015

  13. Learning modular policies for robotics

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Gerhard; Daniel, Christian; Paraschos, Alexandros; Kupcsik, Andras; Peters, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behavior. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithm that is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of these requirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithms that are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that supports co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots. PMID:24966830

  14. A modular BLSS simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    A bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for extraterrestrial use will be faced with coordination problems more acute than those in any ecosystem found on Earth. A related problem in BLSS design is providing an interface between the various life support processors, one that will allow for their coordination while still allowing for system expansion. A modular model is presented of a BLSS that interfaces system processors only with the material storage reservoirs, allowing those reservoirs to act as the principal buffers in the system and thus minimizing difficulties with processor coordination. The modular nature of the model allows independent development of the detailed submodels that exist within the model framework. Using this model, BLSS dynamics were investigated under normal conditions and under various failure modes. Partial and complete failures of various components, such as the waste processors or the plants themselves, drive transient responses in the model system, allowing the examination of the effectiveness of the system reservoirs as buffers. The results from simulations help to determine control strategies and BLSS design requirements. An evolved version could be used as an interactive control aid in a future BLSS.

  15. Compact stellarators with modular coils.

    PubMed

    Garabedian, P R

    2000-07-18

    Compact stellarator designs with modular coils and only two or three field periods are now available; these designs have both good stability and quasiaxial symmetry providing adequate transport for a magnetic fusion reactor. If the bootstrap current assumes theoretically predicted values a three field period configuration is optimal, but if that net current turns out to be lower, a device with two periods and just 12 modular coils might be better. There are also attractive designs with quasihelical symmetry and four or five periods whose properties depend less on the bootstrap current. Good performance requires that there be a satisfactory magnetic well in the vacuum field, which is a property lacking in a stellarator-tokamak hybrid that has been proposed for a proof of principle experiment. In this paper, we present an analysis of stability for these configurations that is based on a mountain pass theorem asserting that, if two solutions of the problem of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium can be found, then there has to be an unstable solution. We compare results of our theory of equilibrium, stability, and transport with recently announced measurements from the large LHD experiment in Japan. PMID:10899993

  16. Compact stellarators with modular coils

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2000-01-01

    Compact stellarator designs with modular coils and only two or three field periods are now available; these designs have both good stability and quasiaxial symmetry providing adequate transport for a magnetic fusion reactor. If the bootstrap current assumes theoretically predicted values a three field period configuration is optimal, but if that net current turns out to be lower, a device with two periods and just 12 modular coils might be better. There are also attractive designs with quasihelical symmetry and four or five periods whose properties depend less on the bootstrap current. Good performance requires that there be a satisfactory magnetic well in the vacuum field, which is a property lacking in a stellarator-tokamak hybrid that has been proposed for a proof of principle experiment. In this paper, we present an analysis of stability for these configurations that is based on a mountain pass theorem asserting that, if two solutions of the problem of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium can be found, then there has to be an unstable solution. We compare results of our theory of equilibrium, stability, and transport with recently announced measurements from the large LHD experiment in Japan. PMID:10899993

  17. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the existing beam port configuration of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) was designed to test and validate the code package in its entirety, as well as its modules separately. The selected physics code, TORT, and the requisite data such as source distribution, cross-sections, and angular quadratures were comprehensively tested with these computational models. The modular feature and the parallel performance of the code package were also examined using these computational models. Another outcome of these computational models is to provide the necessary background information for determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The first mission of the code package was completed successfully by determining the optimal tank shape which was sought for the current beam tube configuration and two new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The performance of the new beam tube configurations and the current beam tube configuration were evaluated with the new optimal tank shapes determined by MOZAIK. Furthermore, the performance of the code package with the two different optimization strategies were analyzed showing that while GA is capable of achieving higher thermal beam intensity for a given beam tube setup, Min-max produces an optimal shape that is more amenable to machining and manufacturing. The optimal D2O moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK with the current beam port configuration improves the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam port exit end by 9.5%. Similarly, the new tangential beam port configuration (beam port near the core interface) with the optimal moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK improves the thermal neutron beam intensity by a factor of 1.4 compared to the existing beam port configuration (with the existing D2O moderator tank). Another new beam port configuration, radial beam tube configuration, with the optimal moderator tank shape increases the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam tube exit by a factor of 1.8. All these results

  18. Evolutionary principles of modular gene regulation in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Dawn A; Roy, Sushmita; Chan, Michelle; Styczynsky, Mark P; Pfiffner, Jenna; French, Courtney; Socha, Amanda; Thielke, Anne; Napolitano, Sara; Muller, Paul; Kellis, Manolis; Konieczka, Jay H; Wapinski, Ilan; Regev, Aviv

    2013-01-01

    Divergence in gene regulation can play a major role in evolution. Here, we used a phylogenetic framework to measure mRNA profiles in 15 yeast species from the phylum Ascomycota and reconstruct the evolution of their modular regulatory programs along a time course of growth on glucose over 300 million years. We found that modules have diverged proportionally to phylogenetic distance, with prominent changes in gene regulation accompanying changes in lifestyle and ploidy, especially in carbon metabolism. Paralogs have significantly contributed to regulatory divergence, typically within a very short window from their duplication. Paralogs from a whole genome duplication (WGD) event have a uniquely substantial contribution that extends over a longer span. Similar patterns occur when considering the evolution of the heat shock regulatory program measured in eight of the species, suggesting that these are general evolutionary principles. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00603.001 PMID:23795289

  19. A MODULAR ACTUATOR ARCHITECTURE FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2001-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Complexes perform numerous hazardous material handling operations within the confines of a glovebox. The DOE is continuing to seek more efficient and safer means of handling these materials inside gloveboxes rather than the conventional, labor-intensive method through lead lined gloves. The use of glovebox automation technology will also be critical to the DOE in its efforts to comply with its mandated ALARA principles in handling the hazardous materials associated with the cleanup process. Operations associated with materials processing in a glovebox are similar to many industrial tasks, but the unique glovebox environment and Plutonium material properties create a unique set of challenges for conventional automation machinery. Such properties include: Low to moderate levels of ionizing radiation, high abrasiveness, corrosiveness, pyrophoric tendencies, rapid dispersal and permeation of environment, diffuses quickly, and possible incompatible material interaction. The glovebox presents the following challenges: existing gloveboxes may not be readily altered or even modified at all, complex mechanical operations for maintenance and repair are difficult or impossible through gloves, failed equipment may not be removed easily or at all. If a broken piece of equipment cannot be bagged-out through a glove port (approximately 216 mm (8 1/2 inch) diameter) it must remain in place. Broken equipment obstructs further operations. If it renders the entire glovebox unusable, a significant volume of waste is generated and an expensive system must be disposed of and replaced. A moderate sized glovebox alone costs between $250,000 and $500,000 and an equipment malfunction, which penetrates the glovebox and exposes the room to Plutonium or other toxic materials, is catastrophic. In addition to the human exposure issues, cleanup can easily run into the millions of dollars. A solution to the issues described above is ARM Automation Inc.'s (ARM) modular robotic manipulator technology developed for DOE EM operations, which addresses many of the issues discussed in the previous section. This manipulator system has the capability of custom configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as materials repackaging. The modular nature and quick connects of this system simplify installations into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. In the field of automation and robotics, a very common element is one used to generate motion for precise positioning of loads. One example of such an automation component would be an individual joint within an industrial robotic manipulator. This component consists of a tightly integrated package containing an electric motor, gear train, output support bearings, position sensors, brake, servo-amplifier and communications controller. Within the context of this paper, this key building block is referred to as an actuator module. With regard to the needs of the EM, [8] and [9] have shown that while each focus area has unique requirements for robotic automation at a system or manipulator level, their requirements at the actuator level are very similar. Thereby, a modular approach to automation which utilizes a small set of versatile actuator modules can be used to construct a broad range of robotic systems and automation cells suited to EM applications. By providing a pre-engineered, pre-integrated motion system to different robotics users within the DOE, new automation systems can be more quickly created without extensive expertise in motion control or the expense of building custom equipment.

  20. Modular stratification and magic sets for DATALOG programs with negation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth A. Ross

    1990-01-01

    We propose a class of programs, called modularly stratified programs that have several attractive properties. Modular stratification generalizes stratification and local stratification, while allowing programs that are not expressible by stratified programs. For modularly stratified programs the well-founded semantics coincides with the stable model semantics, and makes every ground literal true or false. Modularly stratified programs are all weakly stratified,

  1. Biological metaphors and the design of modular artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Egbert J. W. Boers; Herman Kuiper

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis, a method is proposed with which good modular artificial neural network structures can be found automatically using a computer program. A number of biological metaphors are incorporated in the method. It will be argued that modular artificial neural networks have a better performance than their non-modular counterparts. The human brain can also be seen as a modular

  2. An a posteriori measure of network modularity.

    PubMed

    Poisot, Timothée

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the modularity of networks, and how it deviates from random expectations, important to understand their structure and emerging properties. Several measures exist to assess modularity, which when applied to the same network, can return both different modularity values (i.e. different estimates of how modular the network is) and different module compositions (i.e. different groups of species forming said modules). More importantly, as each optimization method uses a different optimization criterion, there is a need to have an a posteriori measure serving as an equivalent of a goodness-of-fit. In this article, I propose such a measure of modularity, which is simply defined as the ratio of interactions established between members of the same modules vs. members of different modules. I apply this measure to a large dataset of 290 ecological networks representing host-parasite (bipartite) and predator-prey (unipartite) interactions, to show how the results are easy to interpret and present especially to a broad audience not familiar with modularity analyses, but still can reveal new features about modularity and the ways to measure it. PMID:24555062

  3. An a posteriori measure of network modularity

    PubMed Central

    Poisot, Timothée

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the modularity of networks, and how it deviates from random expectations, important to understand their structure and emerging properties. Several measures exist to assess modularity, which when applied to the same network, can return both different modularity values (i.e. different estimates of how modular the network is) and different module compositions (i.e. different groups of species forming said modules). More importantly, as each optimization method uses a different optimization criterion, there is a need to have an a posteriori measure serving as an equivalent of a goodness-of-fit. In this article, I propose such a measure of modularity, which is simply defined as the ratio of interactions established between members of the same modules vs. members of different modules. I apply this measure to a large dataset of 290 ecological networks representing host–parasite (bipartite) and predator–prey (unipartite) interactions, to show how the results are easy to interpret and present especially to a broad audience not familiar with modularity analyses, but still can reveal new features about modularity and the ways to measure it. PMID:24555062

  4. Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernández, A.; Gómez, S.

    2007-06-01

    The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the non-deterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining their modularity. This size reduction allows use of heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the extremal optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

  5. Shifting Responsibly: The Importance of Striatal Modularity to Reinforcement Learning in Uncertain Environments

    PubMed Central

    Amemori, Ken-ichi; Gibb, Leif G.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose here that the modular organization of the striatum reflects a context-sensitive modular learning architecture in which clustered striosome–matrisome domains participate in modular reinforcement learning (RL). Based on anatomical and physiological evidence, it has been suggested that the modular organization of the striatum could represent a learning architecture. There is not, however, a coherent view of how such a learning architecture could relate to the organization of striatal outputs into the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia, nor a clear formulation of how such a modular architecture relates to the RL functions attributed to the striatum. Here, we hypothesize that striosome–matrisome modules not only learn to bias behavior toward specific actions, as in standard RL, but also learn to assess their own relevance to the environmental context and modulate their own learning and activity on this basis. We further hypothesize that the contextual relevance or “responsibility” of modules is determined by errors in predictions of environmental features and that such responsibility is assigned by striosomes and conveyed to matrisomes via local circuit interneurons. To examine these hypotheses and to identify the general requirements for realizing this architecture in the nervous system, we developed a simple modular RL model. We then constructed a network model of basal ganglia circuitry that includes these modules and the direct and indirect pathways. Based on simple assumptions, this model suggests that while the direct pathway may promote actions based on striatal action values, the indirect pathway may act as a gating network that facilitates or suppresses behavioral modules on the basis of striatal responsibility signals. Our modeling functionally unites the modular compartmental organization of the striatum with the direct–indirect pathway divisions of the basal ganglia, a step that we suggest will have important clinical implications. PMID:21660099

  6. Modular generation of fluorescent phycobiliproteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Jun; Chang, Kun; Luo, Juan; Zhou, Ming; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong

    2013-06-01

    Phycobiliproteins are brightly-fluorescent light-harvesting pigments for photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and red algae. They are also of interest as fluorescent biomarkers, but their heterologous generation in vivo has previously required multiple transformations. We report here a modular approach that requires only two DNA segments. The first codes for the apo-protein. The second codes for fusions capable of chromophore biosynthesis and its covalent attachment to the apo-protein; it contains the genes of heme oxygenase, a bilin reductase, and a chromophore lyase. Phycobiliproteins containing phycoerythrobilin (?(fluor) ~ 560 nm), phycourobilin (?(fluor) ~ 500 nm), phycocyanobilin (?(fluor) ~ 630 nm) or phycoviolobilin (?(fluor) ~ 580 nm) were obtained in high yield in E. coli. This approach facilitates chromophorylation studies of phycobiliproteins, as well as their use for fluorescence labeling based on their high fluorescence. PMID:23545837

  7. Quantum search with modular variables

    E-print Network

    A. Ketterer; T. Douce; A. Keller; T. Coudreau; P. Milman

    2014-07-04

    We give a dimension independent formulation of the quantum search algorithm introduced in [L. K. Grover, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 79}, 325 (1997)]. This algorithm provides a quadratic gain when compared to its classical counterpart by manipulating quantum two--level systems, qubits. We show that this gain, already known to be optimal, is preserved, irrespectively of the dimension of the system used to encode quantum information. This is shown by adapting the protocol to Hilbert spaces of any dimension using the same sequence of operations/logical gates as its original qubit formulation. Our results are detailed and illustrated for a system described by continuous variables, where qubits can be encoded in infinitely many distinct states using the modular variable formalism.

  8. The Gravity Duals of Modular Hamiltonians

    E-print Network

    Daniel L. Jafferis; S. Josephine Suh

    2014-12-29

    In this work, we investigate modular Hamiltonians defined with respect to arbitrary spatial regions in quantum field theory states which have semi-classical gravity duals. We find prescriptions in the gravity dual for calculating the action of the modular Hamiltonian on its defining state, including its dual metric, and also on small excitations around the state. Curiously, use of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy formula leads us to the conclusion that the modular Hamiltonian, which in the quantum field theory acts only in the causal completion of the region, does not commute with bulk operators whose entire gauge-invariant description is space-like to the causal completion of the region.

  9. Generalized Fuzzy Torus and its Modular Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreivogl, Paul; Steinacker, Harold

    2013-10-01

    We consider a generalization of the basic fuzzy torus to a fuzzy torus with non-trivial modular parameter, based on a finite matrix algebra. We discuss the modular properties of this fuzzy torus, and compute the matrix Laplacian for a scalar field. In the semi-classical limit, the generalized fuzzy torus can be used to approximate a generic commutative torus represented by two generic vectors in the complex plane, with generic modular parameter ?. The effective classical geometry and the spectrum of the Laplacian are correctly reproduced in the limit. The spectrum of a matrix Dirac operator is also computed.

  10. A Modular Approach to Redundant Robot Control

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a modular approach for computing redundant robot kinematics. First some conventional redundant control methods are presented and shown to be `passive control laws`, i.e. they can be represented by a network consisting of passive elements. These networks are then put into modular form by applying scattering operator techniques. Additional subnetwork modules can then be added to further shape the motion. Modules for obstacle detection, joint limit avoidance, proximity sensing, and for imposing nonlinear velocity constraints are presented. The resulting redundant robot control system is modular, flexible and robust.

  11. HumanoidModularer open-source-Roboter fr Forschungszwecke Modular open-source humanoid robot for research

    E-print Network

    Behnke, Sven

    HumanoidModularer open-source-Roboter für Forschungszwecke Modular open-source humanoid robot;Modular, Open-Source-Hard-/Software zu Forschungszwecken, mittelgroß, 3D-gedruckt. G Höhe: 90cm, Gewicht Inertialsensoren G Lithium-Polymer-Akku G ROS-basierte Software Modular, open-source hard- and software

  12. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model -- Three additions to the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package: Alternative storage for the uppermost active cells, Flows in hydrogeologic units, and the Hydraulic-coductivity depth-dependence (KDEP) capability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderman, Evan R.; Hill, Mary C.

    2003-01-01

    The Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package is an internal flow package for MODFLOW-2000 that allows the vertical geometry of the system hydrogeology to be defined differently than the definition of model layers. Effective hydraulic properties for the model layers are calculated using the hydraulic properties of the hydrogeologic units. The HUF Package can be used instead of the Block-Centered Flow (BCF) or the Layer Property Flow (LPF) Packages. This report documents three additions to the HUF Package.

  13. XAUV : modular high maneuverability autonomous underwater vehicle

    E-print Network

    Walker, Daniel G. (Daniel George)

    2009-01-01

    The design and construction of a modular test bed autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is analyzed. Although a relatively common stacked-hull design is used, the state of the art is advanced through an aggressive power ...

  14. Honeywell modular automation system computer software documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, L.T.

    1997-01-20

    This document provides a Computer Software Docuemntation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-21I.

  15. Modular invariance for vertex operator superalgebras

    E-print Network

    Van Ekeren, Jethro (Jethro William)

    2012-01-01

    We generalize Zhu's theorem on modular invariance of characters of vertex operator algebras (VOAs) to the setting of vertex operator superalgebras (VOSAs) with rational, rather than integer, conformal weights. To recover ...

  16. Modular invariance and 3D gravitational instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brotz, Thorsten; Ortiz, Miguel E.; Ritz, Adam

    1999-09-01

    We study the modular transformation properties of Euclidean solutions of 3D gravity whose asymptotic geometry has the topology of a torus. These solutions represent saddle points of the grand canonical partition function with an important example being the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole, and their properties under modular transformations are inherited from the boundary conformal field theory encoding the asymptotic dynamics. Within the Chern-Simons formulation, classical solutions are characterized by specific holonomies describing the wrapping of the gauge field around cycles of the torus. We find that, provided these holonomies transform in an appropriate manner, there exists an associated modular invariant grand canonical partition function and that the spectrum of saddle points naturally includes a thermal bath in AdS3 as discussed by Maldacena and Strominger. Indeed, certain modular transformations can naturally be described within classical bulk dynamics as mapping between different foliations with a ``time'' coordinate along different cycles of the asymptotic torus.

  17. Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hassani, V.

    2000-06-18

    This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

  18. Modular solar-heating system - design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinton, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    Compilation contains design, performance, and hardware specifications in sufficient detail to fabricate or procure materials and install, operate, and maintain complete modular solar heating and hot water system for single family size dwellings.

  19. Modular, Intelligent Power Systems for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert

    2006-01-01

    NASA's new Space Exploration Initiative demands that vehicles, habitats, and rovers achieve unprecedented levels of reliability, safety, effectiveness, and affordability. Modular and intelligent electrical power systems are critical to achieving those goals. Modular electrical power systems naturally increase reliability and safety through built-in fault tolerance. These modular systems also enable standardization across a multitude of systems, thereby greatly increasing affordability of the programs. Various technologies being developed to support this new paradigm for space power systems will be presented. Examples include the use of digital control in power electronics to enable better performance and advanced modularity functions such as distributed, master-less control and series input power conversion. Also, digital control and robust communication enables new levels of power system control, stability, fault detection, and health management. Summary results from recent development efforts are presented along with expected future technology development needs required to support NASA's ambitious space exploration goals.

  20. The Modular Structure of Protein Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hernán D. Rozenfeld; Diego Rybski; Shlomo Havlin; Hernán A. Makse

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of the human protein homology network (H-PHN) has led to a complex network that exhibits a surprisingly high level of modularity. Topologically, the H-PHN presents well connected groups (conformed by proteins of similar aminoacid structure) and weak connectivities between the groups. Here, we perform an empirical study of the H-PHN to characterize the degree of modularity in terms

  1. PolyBot: A Modular Reconfigurable Robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Yim; David G. Duff; Kimon D. Roufas

    2000-01-01

    Modular, self-reconfigurable robots show the promise of great versatility, robustness and low cost. The paper presents examples and issues in realizing those promises. PolyBot is a modular, self-reconfigurable system that is being used to explore the hardware reality of a robot with a large number of interchangeable modules. PolyBot has demonstrated the versatility promise, by implementing locomotion over a variety

  2. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line.

  3. A new way to see RNA

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Kevin S.; Humphris, Elisabeth L.; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2015-01-01

    Unlike proteins, the RNA backbone has numerous degrees of freedom (eight, if one counts the sugar pucker), making RNA modeling, structure building and prediction a multidimensional problem of exceptionally high complexity. And yet RNA tertiary structures are not infinite in their structural morphology; rather, they are built from a limited set of discrete units. In order to reduce the dimensionality of the RNA backbone in a physically reasonable way, a shorthand notation was created that reduced the RNA backbone torsion angles to two (? and ?, analogous to ? and ? in proteins). When these torsion angles are calculated for nucleotides in a crystallographic database and plotted against one another, one obtains a plot analogous to a Ramachandran plot (the ?/? plot), with highly populated and unpopulated regions. Nucleotides that occupy proximal positions on the plot have identical structures and are found in the same units of tertiary structure. In this review, we describe the statistical validation of the ?/? formalism and the exploration of features within the ?/? plot. We also describe the application of the ?/? formalism in RNA motif discovery, structural comparison, RNA structure building and tertiary structure prediction. More than a tool, however, the ?/? formalism has provided new insights into RNA structure itself, revealing its fundamental components and the factors underlying RNA architectural form. PMID:21729350

  4. Time Motion Study for Modular Caustic Solvent Extraction Unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facilities (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is used to process high-level radioactive waste from the Tank Farm into borosilicate glass to reduce the mobility of the radionuclides and has processed and vitrified nuclear wastes into canisters for long-term disposal since FY96. All wastes vitrified to date in DWPF are ''sludge only'' wastes. The old

  5. The Vienna RNA Websuite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas R. Gruber; Ronny Lorenz; Stephan H. F. Bernhart; Richard Neuböck; Ivo L. Hofacker

    2008-01-01

    The Vienna RNA Websuite is a comprehensive col- lection of tools for folding, design and analysis of RNA sequences. It provides a web interface to the most commonly used programs of the Vienna RNA package. Among them, we find folding of single and aligned sequences, prediction of RNA-RNA interac- tions, and design of sequences with a given struc- ture. Additionally,

  6. Putting Non-coding RNA on Display with CRISPR.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Jones, Matthew F; Lal, Ashish; Lu, Timothy K

    2015-07-16

    In a recent issue of Nature Methods, Shechner et al. (2015) reported the development of CRISPR Display (CRISP-Disp), which is a sophisticated, flexible, modular, and multiplexable platform for targeting different types of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) to genomic loci. CRISP-Disp will facilitate synthetic-biology applications and enable the elucidation of ncRNA functions. PMID:26186289

  7. Purification of radiolabeled RNA products using denaturing gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Hironori; Yu, Yi-Tao

    2014-01-01

    This unit discusses a basic method for purification of radiolabeled RNAs using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The method consists of a number of experimental procedures, including total RNA preparation from yeast cells, isolation of a specific RNA from total yeast RNA, RNA 3' terminal labeling using nucleotide (5’[32P]pCp) addition (via ligation), denaturing (8 M urea) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and RNA extraction from the gel slice. Key points for achieving good electrophoretic separation of RNA are also discussed. PMID:24510465

  8. Figure 1. Recurrent modular network architecture Recurrent modular network architecture for sea ice

    E-print Network

    Toussaint, Marc

    Figure 1. Recurrent modular network architecture Recurrent modular network architecture for sea ice of SAR images of sea ice. Additionally to the local image information the algorithm uses spatial context images of sea ice in the Marginal Ice Zone. I. INTRODUCTION Following the Marr's paradigm, the different

  9. Efficient architectures for implementing montgomery modular multiplication and RSA modular exponentiation on reconfigurable logic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Daly; William P. Marnane

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a review of some existing architectures for the implementation of Montgomery modular multiplication and exponentiation on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). Some new architectures are presented, including a pipelined architecture exploiting the maximum carry chain length of the FPGA which is used to implement the modular exponentiation operation required for RSA encryption and decryption. Speed and area

  10. Modular Modeling System Model Builder

    SciTech Connect

    McKim, C.S.; Matthews, M.T. [Framatome Technologies, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The latest release of the Modular Modeling System (MMS) Model Builder adds still more time-saving features to an already powerful MMS dynamic-simulation tool set. The Model Builder takes advantage of 32-bit architecture within the Microsoft Windows 95/NT{trademark} Operating Systems to better integrate a mature library of power-plant components. In addition, the MMS Library of components can now be modified and extended with a new tool named MMS CompGen{trademark}. The MMS Model Builder allows the user to quickly build a graphical schematic representation for a plant by selecting from a library of predefined power plant components to dynamically simulate their operation. In addition, each component has a calculation subroutine stored in a dynamic-link library (DLL), which facilitates the determination of a steady-state condition and performance of routine calculations for the component. These calculations, termed auto-parameterization, help avoid repetitive and often tedious hand calculations for model initialization. In striving to meet the needs for large models and increase user productivity, the MMS Model Builder has been completely revamped to make power plant model creation and maintainability easier and more efficient.

  11. Modular multiaperatures for light sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzo, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    Process involves electroplating multiaperature masks as unit, eliminating alinement and assembly difficulties previously encountered. Technique may be applied to masks in automated and surveillance light systems, when precise, wide angle field of view is needed.

  12. Modular Approach to Instrumental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, Richard L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    To remedy certain deficiencies, an instrument analysis course was reorganized into six one-unit modules: optical spectroscopy, magnetic resonance, separations, electrochemistry, radiochemistry, and computers and interfacing. Selected aspects of the course are discussed. (SK)

  13. RNA as an Enzyme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Thomas R.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews current findings that explain RNA's function as an enzyme in addition to being an informational molecule. Highlights recent research efforts and notes changes in the information base on RNA activity. Includes models and diagrams of RNA activity. (ML)

  14. [RNA polymerase ribozymes

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Michael S. (Michael Scott), 1975-

    2005-01-01

    The RNA World is a hypothetical ancient evolutionary era during which RNA was both genome and catalyst. During that time, RNA was the only kind of enzyme yet in existence, and one of its chief duties was the replication ...

  15. Teleoperated Modular Robots for Lunar Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Hornby, Greg; Larchev, Greg; Hancher, Matt; Cannon, Howard; Lohn, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Solar system exploration is currently carried out by special purpose robots exquisitely designed for the anticipated tasks. However, all contingencies for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), human habitat preparation, and exploration will be difficult to anticipate. Furthermore, developing the necessary special purpose mechanisms for deployment and other capabilities is difficult and error prone. For example, the Galileo high gain antenna never opened, severely restricting the quantity of data returned by the spacecraft. Also, deployment hardware is used only once. To address these problems, we are developing teleoperated modular robots for lunar missions, including operations in transit from Earth. Teleoperation of lunar systems from Earth involves a three second speed-of-light delay, but experiment suggests that interactive operations are feasible.' Modular robots typically consist of many identical modules that pass power and data between them and can be reconfigured for different tasks providing great flexibility, inherent redundancy and graceful degradation as modules fail. Our design features a number of different hub, link, and joint modules to simplify the individual modules, lower structure cost, and provide specialized capabilities. Modular robots are well suited for space applications because of their extreme flexibility, inherent redundancy, high-density packing, and opportunities for mass production. Simple structural modules can be manufactured from lunar regolith in situ using molds or directed solar sintering. Software to direct and control modular robots is difficult to develop. We have used genetic algorithms to evolve both the morphology and control system for walking modular robots3 We are currently using evolvable system technology to evolve controllers for modular robots in the ISS glove box. Development of lunar modular robots will require software and physical simulators, including regolith simulation, to enable design and test of robot software and hardware, particularly automation software. Ready access to these simulators could provide opportunities for contest-driven development ala RoboCup (http://www.robocup.org/). Licensing of module designs could provide opportunities in the toy market and for spin-off applications.

  16. A TAXONOMY OF MODULAR GRIME IN DESIGN PATTERNS Travis Steven Schanz

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    A TAXONOMY OF MODULAR GRIME IN DESIGN PATTERNS by Travis Steven Schanz A thesis submitted .......................................................................................21 3. MODULAR GRIME TAXONOMY .........................

  17. Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Szczepanek

    2006-02-04

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main tasks was to design and validate new gate drive circuits to provide the capability of high temp operation. The new power stages and controls were later validated through extensive performance, durability and environmental tests. To further validate the design, two power stages and controls were integrated into a grid-tied load bank test fixture, a real application for field-testing. This fixture was designed to test motor drives with PWM output up to 50kW. In the second part of this program the new control topology based on sub-phases control and interphase transformer technology was successfully developed and validated. The main advantage of this technology is to reduce magnetic mass, loss and current ripple. This report summarizes the results of the advanced modular inverter technology development and details: (1) Power stage development and fabrication (2) Power stage validation testing (3) Grid-tied test fixture fabrication and initial testing (4) Interphase transformer technology development

  18. Branched modular primers in DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Mugasimangalam, R.C.; Shmulevitz, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Weisman Institute, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Structural Biology; Ramanathan, V. [Weismann Institute, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Structural Biology] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The need to synthesize new sequencing primers, such as in primer walking, can be eliminated by assembling modular primers from oligonucleotide modules selected from presynthesized libraries. Our earlier modular primers consisted of 5-mers, 6-mers or 7-mers, annealing to the template contiguously with each other. Here we introduce a novel {open_quotes}branched{close_quotes} type of modular primer with a distinctly different specificity mechanism. The concept of a {open_quotes}branched{close_quotes} primer involves modules that are physically linked by annealing to each other as well as to the target, forming a branched structure of the 3-way junction type. While contiguous modular primers are made specific by the preference of the polymerase for longer primer, branched primers, in contrast, owe their specificity to cooperative annealing of their modules to the intended site on the template. This cooperativity of annealing to the template is provided by mutually complementary segments in the two modules that bind each other. Thus the primer-template complex is no longer limited to linear sequences, but acquires another, second dimension giving the modular primer new functionality.

  19. Developing a Modular Hydrogeology Ontology Extending the SWEET Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, A.; Babaie, H. A.

    2005-12-01

    Reengineering upper-level ontologies to make them useful for specific domains can be achieved using modular software development techniques. The challenge of manipulating complex and general, upper-level ontologies can be overcome by using ontology development tools for the purpose of analysis and design of new concepts and extension of existing concepts. As a use case representing this approach we present the reengineering of NASA's Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies to include part of the hydrogeology concepts. We have maintained the modular design of the SWEET ontologies for maximum extensibility and reusability. The modular reengineering of the SWEET ontologies to include hydrogeology domain involved the following steps: (1): Identify the terms and concepts relevant to the hydrogeology domain through scenarios, competency questions, and interviews with domain experts. (2): Establish the inter-relationships between concepts (e.g., vadose zone = unsaturated zone). (3): Identify the dependent concepts, such as physical properties or units, and determine their relationships to external concepts. (4): Download the OWL files from SWEET, and save them on local systems for editing. (5): Use ontology editing tools like SWOOP and Protege to analyze the structure of the existing OWL files. (6): Add new domain concepts as new classes in the OWL files, or as subclasses of already existing classes in the SWEET ontologies. The step involved changing the relationships (properties) and/or adding new relationships where they were required in the domain. Sometimes the entire structure of the existing concepts needed to be changed to represent the domain concept more meaningfully. (7): Test the consistency of concepts using appropriate tools (e.g., Protege, which uses the Racer reasoner to check consistency of concepts). (8) Add individuals to the new concepts to test the modified ontologies. We present an example of a simple RDQL query to test and demonstrate the new hydrogeology ontology. Our work shows that SWEET ontologies can successfully be extended and reused by other Earth science domains without losing their modular structure.

  20. Modular Manufacturing Simulator: Users Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Modular Manufacturing Simulator (MMS) has been developed for the beginning user of computer simulations. Consequently, the MMS cannot model complex systems that require branching and convergence logic. Once a user becomes more proficient in computer simulation and wants to add more complexity, the user is encouraged to use one of the many available commercial simulation systems. The (MMS) is based on the SSE5 that was developed in the early 1990's by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A recent survey by MSFC indicated that the simulator has been a major contributor to the economic impact of the MSFC technology transfer program. Many manufacturers have requested additional features for the SSE5. Consequently, the following features have been added to the MMS that are not available in the SSE5: runs under Windows, print option for both input parameters and output statistics, operator can be fixed at a station or assigned to a group of stations, operator movement based on time limit, part limit, or work-in-process (WIP) limit at next station. The movement options for a moveable operators are: go to station with largest WIP, rabbit chase where operator moves in circular sequence between stations, and push/pull where operator moves back and forth between stations. This user's manual contains the necessary information for installing the MMS on a PC, a description of the various MMS commands, and the solutions to a number of sample problems using the MMS. Also included in the beginning of this report is a brief discussion of technology transfer.

  1. Multipartite Modular Multiplication Pascal Giorgi, Laurent Imbert, Thomas Izard

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Multipartite Modular Multiplication Pascal Giorgi, Laurent Imbert, Thomas Izard The authors arithmetic operations. In this paper we gener- alize the bipartite modular multiplication method of Kaihara and Takagi. We present a multipartite multiplication. We carefully analyze its asymptotic complexity

  2. Poster Abstract: Modular Communication Protocols for Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    do not propose a modular scheduler or memory management. The remainder is structured as followsPoster Abstract: Modular Communication Protocols for Sensor Networks Olaf Landsiedel Jó Ágila Bitsch Katharina Denkinger Klaus Wehrle Protocol Engineering and Distributed Systems Group University

  3. A Genomic Map of Viroid RNA Motifs Critical for Replication and Systemic Trafficking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuehua Zhong; Anthony J. Archual; Amy A. Amin; B. Ding

    2008-01-01

    RNA replication and systemic trafficking play significant roles in developmental regulation and host-pathogen interactions. Viroids are the simplest noncoding eukaryotic RNA pathogens and genetic units that are capable of autonomous replication and systemic trafficking and offer excellent models to investigate the role of RNA structures in these processes. Like other RNAs, the predicted secondary structure of a viroid RNA contains

  4. Benefit\\/cost framework for evaluating modular energy storage : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Eyer; Susan M. Schoenung

    2008-01-01

    The work documented in this report represents another step in the ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study uses updated cost and performance information for modular energy storage (MES) developed for this study to evaluate

  5. The modular (twin) gradient coil—high resolution, high contrast, diffusion weighted EPI at 1.0 Tesla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R Harvey

    1999-01-01

    The modular (twin) gradient coil is a novel and effective approach to obtaining flexible and high power gradient performance without (i) peripheral nerve stimulation and (ii) the need for resonant or expensive high voltage gradient power supply units (PSU). This whole-body gradient system contains, on the same former, two independent sets of gradient coils, the conventional coil set and the

  6. An Integrated Modular Avionics Development Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoofs, T.; Santos, S.; Tatibana, C.; Anjos, J.; Rufino, J.; Windsor, J.

    2009-05-01

    The ARINC 653 standard has taken a leading role within the aeronautical industry in the development of safety-critical systems based upon the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) concept. The related cost savings in reduced integration, verification and validation effort has raised interest in the European space industry for developing a spacecraft IMA approach and for the definition of an ARINC 653-for-Space software framework. As part of this process, it is necessary to establish an effective way to develop, test and analyse on-board applications without having access to the final IMA target platform for all engineers. Target platforms are usually extremely expensive considering hardware and software prices as well as training costs. This paper describes the architecture of an Integrated Modular Avionics Development Environment (IMADE) based on the Linux Operating System and the ARINC 653 simulator for Modular On-Board Applications that was developed by Skysoft Portugal, S.A. In cooperation with ESA, 2007-2008.

  7. Modular system for data acquisition and control of experiments with digital output.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Mauro F; Deza, Roberto R

    2010-11-01

    In the present work, the design of an efficient, modular, and scalable data acquisition and control system is described. It consists of an array of microcontrollers and memories, which feed a single concentrating unit whose information can be accessed by means of a universal series bus (USB) interface to be processed later on. Signal levels can be controlled through a set of digital potentiometers. This system is ideal for experiments with a large number of digital outputs. PMID:21133489

  8. Modular Apparatus and Method for Attaching Multiple Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for attaching sensors and electronics is disclosed. The modular apparatus includes a square recess including a plurality of cavities and a reference cavity such that a pressure sensor can be connected to the modular apparatus. The modular apparatus also includes at least one voltage input hole and at least one voltage output hole operably connected to each of the plurality of cavities such that voltage can be applied to the pressure sensor and received from the pressure sensor.

  9. Modular Action on the Massive Algebra

    E-print Network

    Timor Saffary

    2005-12-14

    The subject of this thesis is the modular group of automorphisms acting on the massive algebra of local observables having their support in bounded open subsets of Minkowski space. After a compact introduction to micro-local analysis and the theory of one-parameter groups of automorphisms, which are used exensively throughout the investigation, we are concerned with modular theory and its consequences in mathematics, e.g., Connes' cocycle theorem and classification of type III factors and Jones' index theory, as well as in physics, e.g., the determination of local von Neumann algebras to be hyperfinite factors of type III_1, the formulation of thermodynamic equilibrium states for infinite-dimensional quantum systems (KMS states) and the discovery of modular action as geometric transformations. However, our main focus are its applications in physics, in particular the modular action as Lorentz boosts on the Rindler wedge, as dilations on the forward light cone and as conformal mappings on the double cone. Subsequently, their most important implications in local quantum physics are discussed. The purpose of this thesis is to shed more light on the transition from the known massless modular action to the wanted massive one in the case of double cones. First of all the infinitesimal generator of the massive modular group is investigated, especially some assumptions on its structure are verified explicitly for the first time for two concrete examples. Then, two strategies for the calculation of group itself are discussed. Some formalisms and results from operator theory and the method of second quantisation used in this thesis are made available in the appendix.

  10. Installation of orthogonality to the interface that assembles two modular domains in the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takahiro; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya

    2014-04-01

    Two modular elements (P5abc and ?P5) in the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme can be separated physically to generate a two-piece ribozyme derivative consisting of a separately prepared P5abc (P5 RNA) and the rest of the intron (?P5 RNA). Molecular recognition in the interface assembling P5 RNA and ?P5 RNA is strong and specific, and the catalytic ability of the two-piece ribozyme is comparable to that of the parent unimolecular ribozyme. We designed alternative P14 (L5c-L2) interacting modules participating in the assembly of P5 and ?P5 and investigated their ability in the context of complex formation of the two-piece ribozyme and in vivo splicing of the unimolecular intron ribozyme. Combined use of alternative P14 and L5b-P6 interacting modules provided robust orthogonality to the P5/?P5 assembly interface of the bimolecular complex. PMID:24216461

  11. Side-by-Side Thermal Tests of Modular Offices: A Validation Study of the STEM Method

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Balcomb, J.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Barker, G.; Subbarao, K.

    2001-01-11

    Two modular office units were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to establish each unit's thermal performance. The two units were nearly identical in appearance, but one was built with structural insulating panels (SIP), and the other was built using standard frame construction. The primary objective of these tests was to compare the thermal performance of buildings using SIP and standard frame construction. Both units were tested under carefully controlled steady-state conditions in the NREL large-scale environmental enclosure. They were then moved outdoors where Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) tests were performed, and long-term heating and cooling energy use was measured. A secondary objective was to evaluate the accuracy of the NREL STEM method by comparing the results of outdoor STEM tests to steady-state indoor test results. STEM is a method developed by NREL to determine key thermal parameters of a building in-situ, based on a 3-day test sequence. The indoor test facility also provided the opportunity to investigate the phenomenon of infiltration heat recovery in a real building, under carefully controlled conditions, to evaluate the stability of the concentration decay method of tracer gas-based infiltration monitoring, and to compare the blower-door method with the tracer-gas technique in determining infiltration.This project was a cooperative effort with the Structural Insulated Panel Association, the Modular Building Institute, All-American Modular (AAM, the manufacturer of the units), and GE Capitol (the owner of the units). Richard Harmon, the president of AAM, requested NREL's assistance in exploring the feasibility of converting his manufacturing process to SIP construction. His engineering staff needed to assess which comfort and energy benefits might be associated with this new technology. AAM manufactured the two units, and NREL tested the modules for 8 months.

  12. A Modular Sensorized Mat for Monitoring Infant Posture

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Marco; Cecchi, Francesca; Bonaccorso, Filippo; Branciforte, Marco; Dario, Paolo; Vitiello, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel sensorized mat for monitoring infant's posture through the measure of pressure maps. The pressure-sensitive mat is based on an optoelectronic technology developed in the last few years at Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna: a soft silicone skin cover, which constitutes the mat, participates in the transduction principle and provides the mat with compliance. The device has a modular structure (with a minimum of one and a maximum of six sub-modules, and a total surface area of about 1 m2) that enables dimensional adaptation of the pressure-sensitive area to different specific applications. The system consists of on-board electronics for data collection, pre-elaboration, and transmission to a remote computing unit for analysis and posture classification. In this work we present a complete description of the sensing apparatus along with its experimental characterization and validation with five healthy infants. PMID:24385029

  13. Non-modular polyketide synthases in myxobacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Müller, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Myxobacteria are prolific producers of a wide variety of secondary metabolites. The vast majority of these compounds are complex polyketides which are biosynthesised by multimodular polyketide synthases (PKSs). In contrast, few myxobacterial metabolites isolated to date are derived from non-modular PKSs, in particular type III PKSs. This review reports our progress on the characterisation of type III PKSs in myxobacteria. We also summarize current knowledge on bacterial type III PKSs, with a special focus on the evolutionary relationship between plant and bacterial enzymes. The biosynthesis of a quinoline alkaloid in Stigmatella aurantiaca by a non-modular PKS is also discussed. PMID:19586645

  14. Applications for a modularized spectrum analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, G.; Angelo, F.; Brown, O.; Rausch, R.; Schmidt, A.

    1985-01-01

    The functions of instruments needed by production-line test supervisors can differ greatly from the functions required by a designer. The present investigation is concerned with a modular measurement system which makes it possible for the user to select and combine the modular test components needed for a given individual test problem. The considered measurement system can, therefore, provide economic, flexible solutions for diverse measurement needs. The available components permit manual and automatic spectrum analysis in the frequency region from 100 Hz to 325 GHz. Attention is given to module division and multiple conversation, system design applications, microwave links and satellite tests, production-line applications, and surveillance at a distance.

  15. Origins and evolution of viruses of eukaryotes: The ultimate modularity.

    PubMed

    Koonin, Eugene V; Dolja, Valerian V; Krupovic, Mart

    2015-05-01

    Viruses and other selfish genetic elements are dominant entities in the biosphere, with respect to both physical abundance and genetic diversity. Various selfish elements parasitize on all cellular life forms. The relative abundances of different classes of viruses are dramatically different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, the great majority of viruses possess double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, with a substantial minority of single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses and only limited presence of RNA viruses. In contrast, in eukaryotes, RNA viruses account for the majority of the virome diversity although ssDNA and dsDNA viruses are common as well. Phylogenomic analysis yields tangible clues for the origins of major classes of eukaryotic viruses and in particular their likely roots in prokaryotes. Specifically, the ancestral genome of positive-strand RNA viruses of eukaryotes might have been assembled de novo from genes derived from prokaryotic retroelements and bacteria although a primordial origin of this class of viruses cannot be ruled out. Different groups of double-stranded RNA viruses derive either from dsRNA bacteriophages or from positive-strand RNA viruses. The eukaryotic ssDNA viruses apparently evolved via a fusion of genes from prokaryotic rolling circle-replicating plasmids and positive-strand RNA viruses. Different families of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses appear to have originated from specific groups of bacteriophages on at least two independent occasions. Polintons, the largest known eukaryotic transposons, predicted to also form virus particles, most likely, were the evolutionary intermediates between bacterial tectiviruses and several groups of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses including the proposed order "Megavirales" that unites diverse families of large and giant viruses. Strikingly, evolution of all classes of eukaryotic viruses appears to have involved fusion between structural and replicative gene modules derived from different sources along with additional acquisitions of diverse genes. PMID:25771806

  16. Value centric approach to target system modularization using multi-attribute tradespace exploration and network measures of component modularity

    E-print Network

    Roark, Henry H., III

    2012-01-01

    Deciding where to modularize a system can have long-term impact on that systems value over its entire lifecycle. The modularity of a system can impact the systems flexibility, evolvability, scalability, mass, costs, and ...

  17. Managing modular product design: Critical factors and a managerial guide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. W. Lau

    2009-01-01

    Modular product design is commonly adopted by global manufacturers to accelerate product innovation. Many researchers have explored the importance of modular product design, its design methods and its effects on product performance. However, a few empirical studies explicitly examine how to coordinate modular product design in a managerial way. This paper addresses this issue by conducting multiple case studies with

  18. 24 CFR 3282.12 - Excluded structures-modular homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Excluded structures-modular homes. 3282.12 Section 3282.12... § 3282.12 Excluded structures—modular homes. (a) The purpose of this...Construction and Safety Standards Act under which modular homes may be excluded from...

  19. 24 CFR 3282.12 - Excluded structures-modular homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Excluded structures-modular homes. 3282.12 Section 3282.12... § 3282.12 Excluded structures—modular homes. (a) The purpose of this...Construction and Safety Standards Act under which modular homes may be excluded from...

  20. Decentralized Modular Control of Concurrent Discrete Event Systems

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    Decentralized Modular Control of Concurrent Discrete Event Systems Changyan Zhou, Ratnesh Kumar, and Ramavarapu S. Sreenivas Abstract-- The paper studies decentralized modular control of concurrent discrete event systems that are composed of multiple interacting modules. A modular supervisor consists of a set

  1. A Modular Checker for Multithreaded Programs Cormac Flanagan1

    E-print Network

    Seshia, Sanjit A.

    A Modular Checker for Multithreaded Programs Cormac Flanagan1 , Shaz Qadeer1 , and Sanjit A. Seshia Calvin for multithreaded programs. To handle realistic programs, Calvin performs modular checking of each scalability is to use modularity, i.e., to analyze each component of the system separately using

  2. 24 CFR 3282.12 - Excluded structures-modular homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Excluded structures-modular homes. 3282.12 Section 3282.12... § 3282.12 Excluded structures—modular homes. (a) The purpose of this...Construction and Safety Standards Act under which modular homes may be excluded from...

  3. Modular Exponentiation Algorithm Analysis for Energy Consumption and Performance

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Lin

    Modular Exponentiation Algorithm Analysis for Energy Consumption and Performance Lin Zhong lzhong@princeton.edu Technical Report CE-01-ZJL Dept. of Electrical Engineering Princeton University Abstract Modular modular exponentiation is implemented in the essence of most algorithms. The basic building blocks are 1

  4. Modular Power Architectures for Microgrid Clusters Invited Paper

    E-print Network

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Modular Power Architectures for Microgrid Clusters ­ Invited Paper ­ Hengwei Lin1 , Chengxi Liu1 and insecurity in microgrids systems, and to propose a generic modular concept which is conceived from that the end-user is the basis for the geographical deployment. Meanwhile, a modular user-oriented approach

  5. A Readiness Model To Implement Modular Scheduling, 1971-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Ronald P.

    This study was part of the ERDC's overall program of evaluation of various aspects of modular scheduling in its member schools. A readiness model to implement modular scheduling was developed, based on a review of the literature on modular scheduling and on practices and theoretical aspects of change and its implications. The model was tested by…

  6. Development of smart actuator for leight-weight modular robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Jin Lee; Min-Kyu Park; Seok-Jo Go

    2010-01-01

    This paper is dealing with a smart actuator for a modular robot. Modular robot means that robot has modular actuator in each axis. Smart actuator consists of harmonic reducer, servo motor, electric brake, multi-turns absolute encoder, drive, network board. All of them are hollow shaft type module. The robot which is linked to the smart actuator with EtherCAT and SPI

  7. Path to Market for Compact Modular Fusion Power Cores

    E-print Network

    Path to Market for Compact Modular Fusion Power Cores S. Woodruff, J. K. Baerny, N. Mattor, J. E distant' Solution: making fusion systems compact and modular opens path to market #12;12/13/11 3 Outline fusion systems compact and modular opens path to market #12;12/13/11 4 CT Lead CT Lead ICC special

  8. The complexity of modular decomposition of Boolean functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan C. Bioch

    2005-01-01

    Modular decomposition is a thoroughly investigated topic in many areas such as switching theory, reliability theory, game theory and graph theory. We propose an O(mn)-algorithm for the recognition of a modular set of a monotone Boolean function f with m prime implicants and n variables. Using this result we show that the computation of the modular closure of a set

  9. The Vienna RNA Websuite

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Andreas R.; Lorenz, Ronny; Bernhart, Stephan H.; Neuböck, Richard; Hofacker, Ivo L.

    2008-01-01

    The Vienna RNA Websuite is a comprehensive collection of tools for folding, design and analysis of RNA sequences. It provides a web interface to the most commonly used programs of the Vienna RNA package. Among them, we find folding of single and aligned sequences, prediction of RNA–RNA interactions, and design of sequences with a given structure. Additionally, we provide analysis of folding landscapes using the barriers program and structural RNA alignments using LocARNA. The web server together with software packages for download is freely accessible at http://rna.tbi.univie.ac.at/. PMID:18424795

  10. Enumerating the non-isomorphic assembly configurations of modular robotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I.M. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). School of Mechanical and Production Engineering; Burdick, J.W. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-07-01

    A modular robotic system consists of standardized joint and link units that can be assembled into a number of different kinematic configurations to meet various task requirements. Owing to typical symmetries in module design, different assembly configurations may lead to robotic structures that are geometrically identical, or isomorphic. This paper focuses on the problem of enumerating the set of kinematically distinct modular robot assembly configurations from a given set of modules. The authors first consider how to enumerate the nonisomorphic (or geometrically unique) assembly configurations of a modular robotic system. The scheme is based on a novel representation of a modular robot assembly configuration as an assembly incidence matrix (AIM). Equivalence relations based on symmetries in module geometry and graph isomorphisms are defined on the AIMs. An enumeration algorithm to generate nonisomorphic assembly configurations based on this equivalence relation is proposed. They then present an algorithm to identify the kinematically equivalent robots. The application of these two algorithms will result in the set of kinematically unique assembly configurations. Examples demonstrate that this method is a significant improvement over a brute-force enumeration process.

  11. Performance Evaluation for a Modular, Scalable Passive Cooling System in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, TengFang

    2009-05-01

    Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. In the meanwhile, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has created significant opportunities for precision cooling to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected passive, modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 4. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a passive, modular, scalable liquid cooling system in this study. The scope is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit corresponding to various server loads and inlet air temperatures, under various chilled-water supply temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with documented energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

  12. Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, TengFang

    2009-05-01

    Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. In the meanwhile, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 3. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable liquid-rack cooling system in this study. The scope is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures, under various chilled-water supply temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with documented energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

  13. Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Cooling Systems with Hot Aisle Containment in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Barbara J

    2009-05-01

    Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. Naturally, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has, in the meanwhile, created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 2. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable pair of chilled water cooling modules that were tested in a hot/cold aisle environment with hot aisle containment. The scope of this report is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with a concurrent research study to document the energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

  14. Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Overhead Cooling Systems In Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, TengFang T.

    2009-05-01

    Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. Naturally, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has, in the meanwhile, created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants' input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 1. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable overhead cooling system. The system was tested in a hot/cold aisle environment without separation, or containment or the hot or cold aisles. The scope of this report is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with a concurrent research study to document the energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

  15. Design of a modular digital computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A Central Control Element (CCE) module which controls the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular System (ARMS) and allows both redundant processing and multi-computing in the same computer with real time mode switching, is discussed. The same hardware is used for either reliability enhancement, speed enhancement, or for a combination of both.

  16. Lightweight composites for modular panelized construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amol S. Vaidya

    2009-01-01

    Rapid advances in construction materials technology have enabled civil engineers to achieve impressive gains in the safety, economy, and functionality of structures built to serve the common needs of society. Modular building systems is a fast-growing modern, form of construction gaining recognition for its increased efficiency and ability to apply modern technology to the needs of the market place. In

  17. On Modular Design of Field Robotic Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shane Farritor; Steven Dubowsky

    2001-01-01

    Robots are needed to perform important field tasks such as hazardous material clean-up, nuclear site inspection, and space exploration. Unfortunately their use is not widespread due to their long development times and high costs. To make them practical, a modular design approach is proposed. Prefabricated modules are rapidly assembled to give a low-cost system for a specific task.

  18. On Modular Design of Field Robotic Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shane Farritor; Steven Dubowsky

    2001-01-01

    Robots are needed to perform important field tasks such as hazardous material clean-up, nuclear site inspection, and space exploration. Unfortunately their use is not widespread due to their long development times and high costs. To make them practical, a modular design approach is proposed. Prefabricated modules are rapidly assembled to give a low-cost system for a specific task. In this

  19. A Modular Metrics for Folk Verse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Kiparsky

    Taking modularity a step further, I argue here that the composer and performer of a song con- structs a match between three tiers of rhythmic structure: linguistic prominence, poetic meter, and musical rhythm. They are organized along similar principles, as hierarchies of alternating promi- nence representable by trees or grids. But they are autonomous, in the sense that a text

  20. The modular ALMR (PRISM) fuel cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thompson

    1990-01-01

    The modular reactor concept, PRISM (power reactor, innovative, small module), originated by General Electric in conjunction with the integral fast reactor (IFR) metal fuel being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is the reference US Department of Energy advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR). The reference ALMR is unique in several ways; for example, it can produce (or breed) substantially more fissile

  1. Human Reliability Considerations for Small Modular Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OHara J. M; H. Higgins; A. DAgostino; L. Erasmia

    2012-01-01

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process

  2. A Case for Small Modular Fast Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoon I. CHANG; Mamoru KONOMURA; Pierre LO PINTO

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a 50MWe Small Modular Fast Reactor (SMFR) design that has been developed jointly by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as an international collaborative effort. Key design innovations include a metallic fueled core with 30-year lifetime and supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle.

  3. WASH-DOWN MODULAR PUMP DRIVES

    E-print Network

    Kleinfeld, David

    WASH-DOWN MODULAR PUMP DRIVES Model Nos. 7552-70 7552-75 ® ® WARRANTY Use only MASTERFLEX precision tubing with MASTERFLEX pumps to ensure optimum performance. Use of other tubing may void applicable/S® compati- ble pump head provide variable-flow fluid transfer. The motor and controller can be mounted

  4. A robust and modular synthesis of ynamides.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Steven J; Campbell, Craig D; Jones, Michael W; Anderson, Edward A

    2015-02-25

    A flexible, modular ynamide synthesis is reported that uses trichloroethene as an inexpensive two carbon synthon. A wide range of amides and electrophiles can be converted to the corresponding ynamides, importantly including acyclic carbamates, hindered amides, and aryl amides. This method thus overcomes many of the limitations of other approaches to this useful functionality. PMID:25374291

  5. Smart Memories: a modular reconfigurable architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Mai; Tim Paaske; Nuwan Jayasena; Ron Ho; William J. Dally; Mark Horowitz

    2000-01-01

    Trends in VLSI technology scaling demand that future comput- ing devices be narrowly focused to achieve high performance and high efficiency, yet also target the high volumes and low costs of widely applicable general purpose designs. To address these conflicting requirements, we propose a modular reconfig- urable architecture called Smart Memories, targeted at com- puting needs in the 0.1?m technology

  6. Quality Improvement in the Modular Housing Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad K. Elshennawy; Michael A. Mullens; PE Isabelina Nahmens

    Continuous improvement is a reflection of the culture of a company whose goal is to respond to the needs of its customers. It may not only result in better customer satisfaction, but in increased productivity, profitability and employee satisfaction. This paper presents a study of how a continuous improvement- based quality management system might be implemented in the modular housing

  7. Modular verification of software components in C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sagar Chaki; Edmund M. Clarke; Alex Groce; Somesh Jha; Helmut Veith

    2003-01-01

    We present a new methodology for automatic verification of C programs against finite state machine specifications. Our approach is compositional, naturally enabling us to decompose the verification of large software system into subproblems of manageable complexity. The decomposition reflects the modularity in the software design. We use weak simulation as the notion of conformance between the program and its specification.

  8. Useful metrics for modular robot motion planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Pamecha; Imme Ebert-Uphoff; Gregory S. Chirikjian

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the problem of dynamic self-reconfiguration of a class of modular robotic systems referred to as metamorphic systems is examined. A metamorphic robotic system is a collection of mechatronic modules, each of which has the ability to connect, disconnect, and climb over adjacent modules. We examine the near-optimal reconfiguration of a metamorphic robot from an arbitrary initial configuration

  9. Hardware Implementation of Montgomery's Modular Multiplication Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen E. Eldridge; Colin D. Walter

    1993-01-01

    Hardware is described for implementing the fast modular multiplication algorithm developed by P.L. Montgomery (1985). Comparison with previous techniques shows that this algorithm is up to twice as fast as the best currently available and is more suitable for alternative architectures. The gain in speed arises from the faster clock that results from simpler combinational logic

  10. Automatic Definition of Modular Neural Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Gruau

    1994-01-01

    This article illustrates an artificial developmental system that is a computationally efficient technique for the automatic generation of complex artificial neural networks (ANNs). The artificial developmental system can develop a graph grammar into a modular ANN made of a combination of simpler subnetworks. A genetic algorithm is used to evolve coded grammars that generate ANNs for controlling six-legged robot locomotion.

  11. Modular features of motor control and learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferdinando A. Mussa-Ivaldi

    1999-01-01

    The study of complex motor behaviours has highlighted the role of modular representations both in the planning and in the execution of actions. Recent findings suggest the presence of functional modules within a variety of neural structures. Computational investigations are now addressing the issue of how these modules may act concurrently to generate a wide repertoire of behaviours.

  12. Modular data centers: how to design them?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kashi Venkatesh Vishwanath; Albert Greenberg; Daniel A. Reed

    2009-01-01

    There has been a recent interest in modularized shipping containers as the building block for data centers. However, there are no published results on the different design tradeoffs it offers. In this paper we investigate a model where such a container is never serviced during its deployment lifetime, say 3 years, for hardware faults. Instead, the hardware is over-provisioned in

  13. Is the Human Mind Massively Modular?

    E-print Network

    Samuels, Richard

    CHAPTER T H R E E Is the Human Mind Massively Modular? Richard Samuels Introduction: Minds as Mechanisms Among the most pervasive and fundamental assumptions in cognitive science is that the human mind (or mind-brain) is a mechanism of some sort: a physical device com- posed of functionally specifiable

  14. Non-modular polyketide synthases in myxobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanyan Li; Rolf Müller

    2009-01-01

    Myxobacteria are prolific producers of a wide variety of secondary metabolites. The vast majority of these compounds are complex polyketides which are biosynthesised by multimodular polyketide synthases (PKSs). In contrast, few myxobacterial metabolites isolated to date are derived from non-modular PKSs, in particular type III PKSs. This review reports our progress on the characterisation of type III PKSs in myxobacteria.

  15. Modularity Aspects of Disjunctive Stable Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomi Janhunen; Emilia Oikarinen; Hans Tompits; Stefan Woltran

    2007-01-01

    Practically all programming languages allow the programmer to split a program into several modules which brings along several advantages in software development. In this paper, we are interested in the area of answer-set programming where fully declarative and nonmonotonic languages are applied. In this context, obtaining a modular structure for programs is by no means straightforward since the output of

  16. Modular Security Proofs for Key Agreement Protocols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Kudlaand; Kenneth G. Paterson

    2005-01-01

    The security of key agreement protocols has traditionally been notoriously hard to establish. In this paper we present a modu- lar approach to the construction of proofs of security for a large class of key agreement protocols. By following a modular approach to proof construction, we hope to enable simpler and less error-prone analysis and proof generation for such key

  17. MILS virtualization for Integrated Modular Avionics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kleidermacher; Mike Wolf

    2008-01-01

    Integrated modular avionics (IMA) is driving computer systems to manage and protect increasingly high value and complex information and applications across the aircraft. Virtualization is a promising emerging technology in avionics systems as a mechanism for consolidating disparate operating environments and functions onto a single computer. However, from a security perspective, commercial virtualization solutions add to the already fertile attack

  18. A Modular Curriculum in Information Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, J. A.

    Prepared under a contract between UNESCO and IFLA (the International Federation of Library Associations), this modular curriculum is intended as a resource from which curricula can be constructed by individual departments of information studies to meet local needs and circumstances. Following an introductory discussion and explanation of the…

  19. Sensitivity analysis of modular dynamic fault trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Ou; Joanne Bechta Dugan

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic fault tree analysis, as currently supported by the Galileo software package, provides an effective means for assessing the reliability of embedded computer-based systems. Dynamic fault trees extend traditional fault trees by defining special gates to capture sequential and functional dependency characteristics. A modular approach to the solution of dynamic fault trees effectively applies Binary Decision Diagram (BOD) and Markov

  20. Designing modular architectures in the framework AKIRA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Pezzulo; Gianguglielmo Calvi

    2007-01-01

    AKIRA is an open source framework designed for parallel, asynchronous and distributed computation, on the basis of some general architectural principles which are inspired by modular organization in biological systems. We introduce the motivation behind its design, the components of the framework and some examples of use: 1) a case study in a simple number domain, in which its capabilities

  1. Modular Building Institute 2001 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Some articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "An Architect's Perspective: Convincing a Skeptic" (Robert M. Iamello); (2) "66 Portables for San Mateo High" (Steven Williams); (3) "Case Study: Charter Schools"…

  2. A MODULAR, SCALABLE, ARCHITECTURE FOR UNMANNED VEHICLES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Armstrong II; Carl D. Crane; David Novick; Jeffrey Wit; Ralph English; Phillip Adsit; David Shahady

    2000-01-01

    A modular, scalable architecture for use on unmanned vehicles has been developed at the Center for Intelligent Machines and Robotics under the direction of the Air Force Research Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base, FL. This state of the art architecture isolates five functionally cohesive sub-tasks into self-contained modules with well defined interfaces. The architecture consists of a Mob ility

  3. Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.L.

    1990-03-01

    To assist in the repair of the Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) printed circuit boards, a maintenance or service manual is essential. This manual provides a simplified overview of each PC board and explains the functions of each component. Setup procedures and parts lists for each board are included to minimize the task of aligning the boards and identifying replacement parts.

  4. Honeywell modular automation system computer software documentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The Honeywell MAS is used to control the thermal stabilization furnaces in glovebox HA-211. The PFP developed software is being updated to reflect the Polycube Processing and Unwashed Salt Thermal Stabilization program

  5. MPM : a modular package manager Pietro Abate

    E-print Network

    Zacchiroli, Stefano - Laboratoire Preuves, Programmes et Systèmes, Université Paris 7

    on a target system. So-called package managers are used to per- form installation, upgrade and removalMPM : a modular package manager Pietro Abate abate@pps.jussieu.fr Roberto Di Cosmo roberto-called package managers for the installation and removal of pack- ages on target machines. State

  6. Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…

  7. Photovoltaic stand-alone modular systems, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naff, G. J.; Marshall, N. A.

    1983-07-01

    The final hardware and system qualification phase of a two part stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system development is covered. The final design incorporated modular, power blocks capable of expanding incrementally from 320 watts to twenty kilowatts (PK). The basic power unit (PU) was nominally rated 1.28 kWp. The controls units, power collection buses and main lugs, electrical protection subsystems, power switching, and load management circuits are housed in a common control enclosure. Photo-voltaic modules are electrically connected in a horizontal daisy-chain method via Amp Solarlok plugs mating with compatible connectors installed on the back side of each photovoltaic module. A pair of channel rails accommodate the mounting of the modules into a frameless panel support structure. Foundations are of a unique planter (tub-like) configuration to allow for world-wide deployment without restriction as to types of soil. One battery string capable of supplying approximately 240 ampere hours nominal of carryover power is specified for each basic power unit. Load prioritization and shedding circuits are included to protect critical loads and selectively shed and defer lower priority or noncritical power demands. The baseline system, operating at approximately 2 1/2 PUs (3.2 kW pk.) was installed and deployed. Qualification was successfully complete in March 1983; since that time, the demonstration system has logged approximately 3000 hours of continuous operation under load without major incident.

  8. Photovoltaic stand-alone modular systems, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naff, G. J.; Marshall, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    The final hardware and system qualification phase of a two part stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system development is covered. The final design incorporated modular, power blocks capable of expanding incrementally from 320 watts to twenty kilowatts (PK). The basic power unit (PU) was nominally rated 1.28 kWp. The controls units, power collection buses and main lugs, electrical protection subsystems, power switching, and load management circuits are housed in a common control enclosure. Photo-voltaic modules are electrically connected in a horizontal daisy-chain method via Amp Solarlok plugs mating with compatible connectors installed on the back side of each photovoltaic module. A pair of channel rails accommodate the mounting of the modules into a frameless panel support structure. Foundations are of a unique planter (tub-like) configuration to allow for world-wide deployment without restriction as to types of soil. One battery string capable of supplying approximately 240 ampere hours nominal of carryover power is specified for each basic power unit. Load prioritization and shedding circuits are included to protect critical loads and selectively shed and defer lower priority or noncritical power demands. The baseline system, operating at approximately 2 1/2 PUs (3.2 kW pk.) was installed and deployed. Qualification was successfully complete in March 1983; since that time, the demonstration system has logged approximately 3000 hours of continuous operation under load without major incident.

  9. Antisense-RNA regulation and RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Brantl, Sabine

    2002-05-01

    For a long time, RNA has been merely regarded as a molecule that can either function as a messenger (mRNA) or as part of the translational machinery (tRNA, rRNA). Meanwhile, it became clear that RNAs are versatile molecules that do not only play key roles in many important biological processes like splicing, editing, protein export and others, but can also--like enzymes--act catalytically. Two important aspects of RNA function--antisense-RNA control and RNA interference (RNAi)--are emphasized in this review. Antisense-RNA control functions in all three kingdoms of life--although the majority of examples are known from bacteria. In contrast, RNAi, gene silencing triggered by double-stranded RNA, the oldest and most ubiquitous antiviral system, is exclusively found in eukaryotes. Our current knowledge about occurrence, biological roles and mechanisms of action of antisense RNAs as well as the recent findings about involved genes/enzymes and the putative mechanism of RNAi are summarized. An interesting intersection between both regulatory mechanisms is briefly discussed. PMID:12020814

  10. Synthetic biology devices and circuits for RNA-based 'smart vaccines': a propositional review.

    PubMed

    Andries, Oliwia; Kitada, Tasuku; Bodner, Katie; Sanders, Niek N; Weiss, Ron

    2015-02-01

    Nucleic acid vaccines have been gaining attention as an alternative to the standard attenuated pathogen or protein based vaccine. However, an unrealized advantage of using such DNA or RNA based vaccination modalities is the ability to program within these nucleic acids regulatory devices that would provide an immunologist with the power to control the production of antigens and adjuvants in a desirable manner by administering small molecule drugs as chemical triggers. Advances in synthetic biology have resulted in the creation of highly predictable and modular genetic parts and devices that can be composed into synthetic gene circuits with complex behaviors. With the recent advent of modified RNA gene delivery methods and developments in the RNA replicon platform, we foresee a future in which mammalian synthetic biologists will create genetic circuits encoded exclusively on RNA. Here, we review the current repertoire of devices used in RNA synthetic biology and propose how programmable 'smart vaccines' will revolutionize the field of RNA vaccination. PMID:25566800

  11. An RNA folding motif: GNRA tetraloop-receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Julie L; Nesbitt, David J

    2013-08-01

    Nearly two decades after Westhof and Michel first proposed that RNA tetraloops may interact with distal helices, tetraloop–receptor interactions have been recognized as ubiquitous elements of RNA tertiary structure. The unique architecture of GNRA tetraloops (N=any nucleotide, R=purine) enables interaction with a variety of receptors, e.g., helical minor grooves and asymmetric internal loops. The most common example of the latter is the GAAA tetraloop–11 nt tetraloop receptor motif. Biophysical characterization of this motif provided evidence for the modularity of RNA structure, with applications spanning improved crystallization methods to RNA tectonics. In this review, we identify and compare types of GNRA tetraloop–receptor interactions. Then we explore the abundance of structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic information on the frequently occurring and most widely studied GAAA tetraloop–11 nt receptor motif. Studies of this interaction have revealed powerful paradigms for structural assembly of RNA, as well as providing new insights into the roles of cations, transition states and protein chaperones in RNA folding pathways. However, further research will clearly be necessary to characterize other tetraloop–receptor and long-range tertiary binding interactions in detail – an important milestone in the quantitative prediction of free energy landscapes for RNA folding. PMID:23915736

  12. Relative Importance of Modularity and Other Morphological Attributes on Different Types of Lithic Point Weapons: Assessing Functional Variations

    PubMed Central

    González-José, Rolando; Charlin, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as “near decomposable units” in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric attributes, and evolving on a modular way. PMID:23094104

  13. Overview of the Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor building layout

    SciTech Connect

    Cronje, J. M. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Centurion (South Africa); Van Wyk, J. J.; Memmott, M. J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the third in a series of four papers, which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. It focuses in particular upon the plant building layout and modular design of the Westinghouse SMR. In the development of small modular reactors, the building layout is an area where the safety of the plant can be improved by applying new design approaches. This paper will present an overview of the Westinghouse SMR building layout and indicate how the design features improve the safety and robustness of the plant. The Westinghouse SMR is designed with no shared systems between individual reactor units. The main buildings inside the security fence are the nuclear island, the rad-waste building, the annex building, and the turbine building. All safety related equipment is located in the nuclear island, which is a seismic class 1 building. To further enhance the safety and robustness of the design, the reactor, containment, and most of the safety related equipment are located below grade on the nuclear island. This reduces the possibility of severe damage from external threats or natural disasters. Two safety related ultimate heat sink (UHS) water tanks that are used for decay heat removal are located above grade, but are redundant and physically separated as far as possible for improved safety. The reactor and containment vessel are located below grade in the center of the nuclear island. The rad-waste and other radioactive systems are located on the bottom floors to limit the radiation exposure to personnel. The Westinghouse SMR safety trains are completely separated into four unconnected quadrants of the building, with access between quadrants only allowed above grade. This is an improvement to conventional reactor design since it prevents failures of multiple trains during floods or fires and other external events. The main control room is located below grade, with a remote shutdown room in a different quadrant. All defense in depth systems are placed on the nuclear island, primarily above grade, while the safety systems are located on lower floors. The economics of the Westinghouse SMR challenges the established approach of large Light Water Reactors (LWR) that utilized the economies of scale to reach economic competitiveness. To serve the market expectation of smaller capital investment and cost competitive energy, a modular design approach is implemented within the Westinghouse SMR. The Westinghouse SMR building layout integrates the three basic design constraints of modularization; transportation, handling and module-joining technology. (authors)

  14. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1984-05-22

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

  15. Modularity and predictability in cell signaling and decision making

    PubMed Central

    Atay, Oguzhan; Skotheim, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    Cells make decisions to differentiate, divide, or apoptose based on multiple signals of internal and external origin. These decisions are discrete outputs from dynamic networks comprised of signaling pathways. Yet the validity of this decomposition of regulatory proteins into distinct pathways is unclear because many regulatory proteins are pleiotropic and interact through cross-talk with components of other pathways. In addition to the deterministic complexity of interconnected networks, there is stochastic complexity arising from the fluctuations in concentrations of regulatory molecules. Even within a genetically identical population of cells grown in the same environment, cell-to-cell variations in mRNA and protein concentrations can be as high as 50% in yeast and even higher in mammalian cells. Thus, if everything is connected and stochastic, what hope could we have for a quantitative understanding of cellular decisions? Here we discuss the implications of recent advances in genomics, single-cell, and single-cell genomics technology for network modularity and cellular decisions. On the basis of these recent advances, we argue that most gene expression stochasticity and pathway interconnectivity is nonfunctional and that cellular decisions are likely much more predictable than previously expected. PMID:25368418

  16. Integrative Analysis of miRNA-mRNA and miRNA-miRNA Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding regulatory molecules. They are involved in many essential biological processes and act by suppressing gene expression. The present work reports an integrative analysis of miRNA-mRNA and miRNA-miRNA interactions and their regulatory patterns using high-throughput miRNA and mRNA datasets. Aberrantly expressed miRNA and mRNA profiles were obtained based on fold change analysis, and qRT-PCR was used for further validation of deregulated miRNAs. miRNAs and target mRNAs were found to show various expression patterns. miRNA-miRNA interactions and clustered/homologous miRNAs were also found to contribute to the flexible and selective regulatory network. Interacting miRNAs (e.g., miRNA-103a and miR-103b) showed more pronounced differences in expression, which suggests the potential “restricted interaction” in the miRNA world. miRNAs from the same gene clusters (e.g., miR-23b gene cluster) or gene families (e.g., miR-10 gene family) always showed the same types of deregulation patterns, although they sometimes differed in expression levels. These clustered and homologous miRNAs may have close functional relationships, which may indicate collaborative interactions between miRNAs. The integrative analysis of miRNA-mRNA based on biological characteristics of miRNA will further enrich miRNA study. PMID:24689063

  17. The RNA Exosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Peter Hopfner; Sophia Hartung

    \\u000a RNA exosomes are large multimeric 3?-5? exo- and endonucleases found in eukaryotes and many archaeal species. They represent\\u000a the central RNA 3?-end processing factor and are implicated in processing, quality control, and turnover of both coding and\\u000a noncoding RNAs. RNA exosomes are highly regulated and processive machineries, assembled as large macromolecular cages that\\u000a channel RNA to the ribonuclease sites. The

  18. Rational design of modular polyketide synthases: morphing the aureothin pathway into a luteoreticulin assembly line.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Yuki; Ding, Ling; Ishida, Keishi; Hertweck, Christian

    2014-02-01

    The unusual nitro-substituted polyketides aureothin, neoaureothin (spectinabilin), and luteoreticulin, which are produced by diverse Streptomyces species, point to a joint evolution. Through rational genetic recombination and domain exchanges we have successfully reprogrammed the modular (type?I) aur polyketide synthase (PKS) into a synthase that generates luteoreticulin. This is the first rational transformation of a modular PKS to produce a complex polyketide that was initially isolated from a different bacterium. A unique aspect of this synthetic biology approach is that we exclusively used genes from a single biosynthesis gene cluster to design the artificial pathway, an avenue that likely emulates natural evolutionary processes. Furthermore, an unexpected, context-dependent switch in the regiospecificity of a pyrone methyl transferase was observed. We also describe an unprecedented scenario where an AT domain iteratively loads an extender unit onto the cognate ACP and the downstream ACP. This aberrant function is a novel case of non-colinear behavior of PKS domains. PMID:24402879

  19. Demonstration of a Small Modular Biopower System Using Poultry Litter-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reardon; Art Lilley

    2004-06-15

    On-farm conversion of poultry litter into energy is a unique market connected opportunity for commercialization of small modular bioenergy systems. The United States Department of Energy recognized the need in the poultry industry for alternative litter management as an opportunity for bioenergy. The DOE created a relevant topic in the December 2000 release of the small business innovative research (SBIR) grant solicitation. Community Power Corporation responded to this solicitation by proposing the development of a small modular gasification and gas cleanup system to produce separate value streams of clean producer gas and mineral rich solids. This phase II report describes our progress in the development of an on-farm litter to energy system.

  20. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    SciTech Connect

    Harto, Andang Widi [Engineering Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

    2012-06-06

    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  1. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harto, Andang Widi

    2012-06-01

    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  2. Design and evaluation of energy efficient modular classroom structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard, S.; Brown, G.Z.; Briscoe, J.; Kline, J.; Kumar, P.; Wang, Z. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Rasmussen, D.; Rasmussen, K.; Stanard, J. [Modern Building Systems, Inc., Aumsville, OR (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The objective of these investigations was to develop innovations that would enable modular builders to improve the energy performance of their classrooms without increasing their first cost. The Modern Building Systems` classroom building conforms to the stringent Oregon and Washington energy codes, and at $18/S.F. it is at the low end of the cost range for modular classrooms. The authors proposed to investigate daylighting, cross-ventilation, solar preheat of ventilation air, and thermal storage as ways to reduce energy use. Simple paybacks range from 1.3 years in Honolulu to 23.8 years in Astoria, OR. Therefore in the five climates investigated in Phase 1 they came closest to achieving the objective of increasing energy performance without increasing the first cost of the unit in the Honolulu climate. The second best performing climate was Fairbanks with a simple payback of 7.7 years. The third best performing climate was Bakersfield, California, which had a simple payback of 10.3 years. Spokane had a simple payback period of 17.2 years. The major cost increases in Spokane are in the preheater and lights, with a modest increase in windows. Astoria had the worst payback period of almost 24 years with most of the increased cost being in the preheater, windows, and lighting. In Phase II of this project, by combining the strategies of improved electrical light-switching, perimeter insulation, shading, window sizing, preheater configuration and location and HVAC locations, the authors expect to reduce simple payback periods to 0 years in Honolulu, Hawaii; less than 2 years in Bakersfield, California; 3 years in Astoria, Oregon; 4 years in Fairbanks, Alaska; and 8 years in Spokane, Washington.

  3. Asymptotics of RNA Shapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Lorenz; Yann Ponty; Peter Clote

    2008-01-01

    RNA shapes, introduced by Giegerich et al. (17), pro- vide a useful classiflcation of the branching complexity for RNA secondary structures. In this paper, we derive an exact value for the asymptotic number of RNA shapes, by relying on an elegant relation between non-ambiguous, context-free grammars and gen- erating functions. Our results provide a theoretical upper bound on the length

  4. Genetic interference reduces the evolvability of modular and non-modular visual neural networks.

    PubMed

    Calabretta, Raffaele

    2007-03-29

    The aim of this paper is to propose an interdisciplinary evolutionary connectionism approach for the study of the evolution of modularity. It is argued that neural networks as a model of the nervous system and genetic algorithms as simulative models of biological evolution would allow us to formulate a clear and operative definition of module and to simulate the different evolutionary scenarios proposed for the origin of modularity. I will present a recent model in which the evolution of primate cortical visual streams is possible starting from non-modular neural networks. Simulation results not only confirm the existence of the phenomenon of neural interference in non-modular network architectures but also, for the first time, reveal the existence of another kind of interference at the genetic level, i.e. genetic interference, a new population genetic mechanism that is independent from the network architecture. Our simulations clearly show that genetic interference reduces the evolvability of visual neural networks and sexual reproduction can at least partially solve the problem of genetic interference. Finally, it is shown that entrusting the task of finding the neural network architecture to evolution and that of finding the network connection weights to learning is a way to completely avoid the problem of genetic interference. On the basis of this evidence, it is possible to formulate a new hypothesis on the origin of structural modularity, and thus to overcome the traditional dichotomy between innatist and empiricist theories of mind. PMID:17255016

  5. The Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, T.; Kelleher, C.; Gooseff, M.; McGlynn, B.; Marshall, L.; Meixner, T.; McGuire, K.; Sharma, P.; Zappe, S.

    2009-04-01

    In-class hydrology education is typically strongly biased towards the instructor's background and overcoming this limitation is overly burdensome within the time-constraints of the academic life. This is particularly true for academics in tenure-track positions when most of the material development has to occur. To overcome this issue, we are in the process of establishing the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA). Our overall objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for hydrology education freely available to and developed and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. We seek to establish an online faculty learning community for hydrology education and a modular core curriculum based on modern pedagogical standards. The goal of this effort is to support hydrology faculty in educating hydrologists that can solve today's and tomorrow's interdisciplinary problems that go far beyond the traditional disciplinary biased hydrology education most of us have experienced.

  6. Stress promotes maleness in hermaphroditic modular animals

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, R. N.; Manríquez, P. H.; Bishop, J. D. D.; Burrows, M. T.

    2003-01-01

    Sex-allocation theory developed for hermaphroditic plants predicts that impaired phenotype or reduced parental survivorship caused by environmental stress should induce relatively greater allocation to the male function. We provide experimental evidence of stress-induced maleness, already well documented in flowering plants, in a modular animal. By using cloned copies of replicate genotypes, we show that the marine bryozoan Celleporella hyalina increases the ratio of male to female modules in response to diverse environmental stressors. Mating trials confirmed that paternity is determined by fair-raffle sperm competition, which should obviate local mate competition at characteristic population density and promote the advantage of increased male allocation. The demonstrated similarity to plants transcends specific physiological pathways and suggests that stress-induced bias toward male function is a general response of hermaphroditic modular organisms to impaired prospects for parental productivity or survival. PMID:12930903

  7. Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

  8. Nuclear Safeguards Considerations For The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip Casey Durst; David Beddingfield; Brian Boyer; Robert Bean; Michael Collins; Michael Ehinger; David Hanks; David L. Moses; Lee Refalo

    2009-10-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been considered since the 1940s, and have been constructed and demonstrated in the United Kingdom (Dragon), United States (Peach Bottom and Fort Saint Vrain), Japan (HTTR), Germany (AVR and THTR-300), and have been the subject of conceptual studies in Russia (VGM). The attraction to these reactors is that they can use a variety of reactor fuels, including abundant thorium, which upon reprocessing of the spent fuel can produce fissile U-233. Hence, they could extend the stocks of available uranium, provided the fuel is reprocessed. Another attractive attribute is that HTRs typically operate at a much higher temperature than conventional light water reactors (LWRs), because of the use of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coated (TRISO) fuel particles embedded in ceramic graphite. Rather than simply discharge most of the unused heat from the working fluid in the power plant to the environment, engineers have been designing reactors for 40 years to recover this heat and make it available for district heating or chemical conversion plants. Demonstrating high-temperature nuclear energy conversion was the purpose behind Fort Saint Vrain in the United States, THTR-300 in Germany, HTTR in Japan, and HTR-10 and HTR-PM, being built in China. This resulted in nuclear reactors at least 30% or more thermodynamically efficient than conventional LWRs, especially if the waste heat can be effectively utilized in chemical processing plants. A modern variant of high temperature reactors is the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Originally developed in the United States and Germany, it is now being redesigned and marketed by the Republic of South Africa and China. The team examined historical high temperature and high temperature gas reactors (HTR and HTGR) and reviewed safeguards considerations for this reactor. The following is a preliminary report on this topic prepared under the ASA-100 Advanced Safeguards Project in support of the NNSA Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI).

  9. Cooperative control of modular space robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiara Toglia; Fred Kennedy; Steven Dubowsky

    Modular self-assembling on-orbit robots have the potential to reduce mission costs, increase reliability, and permit on-orbit\\u000a repair and refueling. Modules with a variety of specialized capabilities would self-assemble from orbiting inventories. The\\u000a assembled modules would then share resources such as power and sensors. As each free-flying module carries its own attitude\\u000a control actuators, the assembled system has substantial sensor and

  10. Integrated modular water reactor (IMR) design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koki Hibi; Hitoi Ono; Takashi Kanagawa

    2004-01-01

    Integrated modular water reactor (IMR) has been developed as one of the advanced small-scale light water reactors, with a thermal output of 1000MW. The IMR adopts natural circulation and self-pressurization in the primary cooling system, and a reactor vessel built-in steam generators. The core design has been performed using the current light water reactor technology. Thermal-hydraulic sensitivity analyses have been

  11. Multimission modular spacecraft parallel battery tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palandati, C.

    1977-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft power supply is presented. The spacecraft has one charger with eight commandable voltage versus temperature levels. Graphs are presented which represent: (1) cell voltage limits vs. temperature; (2) charge ratio vs. temperature; (3) effect of 0.0 percent impedance unbalance at 10 C; (4) shorted cell at 10 C; and (5) discharge voltage profile at 10 C.

  12. On modular completion of generalized flux orbits

    E-print Network

    Shukla, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    In the context of type IIB orientifold compactification with the presence of (non-)geometric fluxes, we conjecture a modular completed version of the generalized flux-orbits of various NS-NS and RR fluxes. Subsequently, considering an explicit example with frozen complex structure moduli, we illustrate the utility of these new flux orbits in a `suitable' rearrangement of the four dimensional effective scalar potential which could be relevant for understanding its ten-dimensional origin.

  13. Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) instruction simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    The design principles, description, functional operation, and recommended expansion and enhancements are presented for the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer interpretive simulator. Included as appendices are the user's manual, program module descriptions, target instruction descriptions, simulator source program listing, and a sample program printout. In discussing the design and operation of the simulator, the key problems involving host computer independence and target computer architectural scope are brought into focus.

  14. UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATION FOR MODULAR AND HIERARCHICAL MODELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. LUCAS; M. ORTIZ; H. OWHADI; U. TOPCUy

    We propose a modular\\/hierarchical uncertainty quantication framework based on a recently developed methodology using concentration-of-measure inequalities for probability-of-failure upper bound calculations. In this framework, the relations between the variables of the underlying input-output model are represented by directed, acyclic graphs and the bounded uncertainty in the input variables is propagated to the output variable (performance measure) in an inductive manner

  15. Integrated modular propulsion for launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, William; Crawford, Roger; Litchford, Ron

    1993-06-01

    The paper proposes a modular approach to rocket propulsion which offers a versatile method for realizing the goals of low cost, safety, reliability, and ease of operation. It is shown that, using practical modules made up of only 4-6 individual elements, it is possible to achieve thrust levels of 2-3 mln lbf and more, using turbomachinery, thrust chambers, lines, and valves about the size of SSME hardware. The approach is illustrated by a LOX/LH2 configuration.

  16. Parallel Induction of Modular Classification Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Frederic; Bramer, Max; Adda, Mo

    The Distributed Rule Induction (DRI) project at the University of Portsmouth is concerned with distributed data mining algorithms for automatically generating rules of all kinds. In this paper we present a system architecture and its implementation for inducing modular classification rules in parallel in a local area network using a distributed blackboard system. We present initial results of a prototype implementation based on the Prism algorithm.

  17. Modularly Typesafe Interface Dispatch in JPred

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Frost; Todd Millstein

    Multiple dispatch generalizes the receiver-oriented dynamic dis- patch of traditional object-oriented (OO) languages by all owing the run-time classes of all arguments to be employed. While research over the last decade has shown how to integrate multiple dispatch with the modular static typechecking found in traditional OO lan- guages, that work has been forced to impose unnatural restrictions or modifications

  18. Modular architecture for robotics and teleoperation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert J. (11908 Ibex Ave., N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1996-12-03

    Systems and methods for modularization and discretization of real-time robot, telerobot and teleoperation systems using passive, network based control laws. Modules consist of network one-ports and two-ports. Wave variables and position information are passed between modules. The behavior of each module is decomposed into uncoupled linear-time-invariant, and coupled, nonlinear memoryless elements and then are separately discretized.

  19. Modular Habitats Comprising Rigid and Inflatable Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2010-01-01

    Modular, lightweight, fully equipped buildings comprising hybrids of rigid and inflatable structures can be assembled on Earth and then transported to and deployed on the Moon for use as habitats. Modified versions of these buildings could also prove useful on Earth as shelters that can be rapidly and easily erected in emergency situations and/or extreme environments: examples include shelters for hurricane relief and for Antarctic exploration.

  20. Couplings and spectra in modular inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Wan-Il; Stewart, Ewan D. [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    We analyze how the spectrum of perturbations produced in a multicomponent modular inflation model proposed by Kadota and Stewart depends on couplings between the two moduli. Although some simple direct couplings give essentially the same results as the original model, dn/dlnk{proportional_to}n-1, simple indirect couplings produce a power law spectrum, n-1=constant, which can naturally be close to scale invariant.

  1. The CREW PRAM Complexity of Modular Inversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Von Zur Gathen; Igor Shparlinski

    1998-01-01

    One of the long-standing open questions in the theory of parallel computation is the parallel complexity of the integer gcd and related problems, such as modular inversion. We present a lower bound ›(logn) for the parallel time on an exclusive-write parallel random access machine (CREW PRAM) computing the inverse modulo certain n-bit integers, including all such primes. For inflnitely many

  2. Modularized construction of general integrated circuits on individual carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Pei, Tian; Zhang, Panpan; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qiu, Chenguang; Liang, Shibo; Yang, Yingjun; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-06-11

    While constructing general integrated circuits (ICs) with field-effect transistors (FETs) built on individual CNTs is among few viable ways to build ICs with small dimension and high performance that can be compared with that of state-of-the-art Si based ICs, this has not been demonstrated owing to the absence of valid and well-tolerant fabrication method. Here we demonstrate a modularized method for constructing general ICs on individual CNTs with different electric properties. A pass-transistor-logic style 8-transistor (8-T) unit is built, demonstrated as a multifunctional function generator with good tolerance to inhomogeneity in the CNTs used and used as a building block for constructing general ICs. As an example, an 8-bits BUS system that is widely used to transfer data between different systems in a computer is constructed. This is the most complicated IC fabricated on individual CNTs to date, containing 46 FETs built on six individual semiconducting CNTs. The 8-T unit provides a good basis for constructing complex ICs to explore the potential and limits of CNT ICs given the current imperfection in available CNT materials and may also be developed into a universal and efficient way for constructing general ICs on ideal CNT materials in the future. PMID:24796796

  3. High-Throughput Detection of West Nile Virus RNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PEI-YONG SHI; ELIZABETH B. KAUFFMAN; PING REN; ANDY FELTON; JENNIFER H. TAI; ALAN P. DUPUIS II; SUSAN A. JONES; KIET A. NGO; DAVID C. NICHOLAS; JOSEPH MAFFEI; GREGORY D. EBEL; KRISTEN A. BERNARD; LAURA D. KRAMER

    2001-01-01

    The recent outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV) in the northeastern United States and other regions of the world have made it essential to develop an efficient protocol for surveillance of WNV. In the present report, we describe a high-throughput procedure that combines automated RNA extraction, amplification, and detection of WNV RNA. The procedure analyzed 96 samples in approximately 4.5

  4. The 5S rRNA gene in sea barley (Hordeum marinum Hudson sensu lato): sequence variation among repeat units and relationship to the X haplome in barley (Hordeum).

    PubMed

    Baum, B R; Johnson, D A

    1998-10-01

    We have investigated the molecular diversity of the 5S rDNA units in sea barley, comprising Hordeum marinum and Hordeum geniculatum. Although we were unable to detect "short" units after screening of 639 clones, we found two unit classes, one 602-607 bp long and the other 507-512 bp long. We classify the shortest unit class of the two as belonging to the "long H1" unit class, identified in previous papers. The longest unit class is not similar to any unit class so far identified, and is therefore unique. It was coined by us as the "long X1," to reflect the X haplome. We present a summary of all the unit classes so far described in Hordeum. We carried out a cladistic analysis, based on the "long H1" (orthologous) sequences, that included H. vulgare, H. spontaneum, H. bulbosum, H. marinum, H. geniculatum, and H. bogdanii. As a result, the first three grouped in one clade, and the other three in the other clade, with the latter clade being more isolated. These results reflect current knowledge of relationships based on morphology, cytology, and genome analysis. Furthermore, the sequences from the 5S unit classes may be potentially useful as DNA probes for genomic identification and genetic transfer in the Triticeae. PMID:9809436

  5. Theory of force-extension curves for modular proteins and DNA hairpins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, L. L.; Carpio, A.; Prados, A.

    2015-05-01

    We study a model describing the force-extension curves of modular proteins, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules made out of several single units or modules. At a mesoscopic level of description, the configuration of the system is given by the elongations of each of the units. The system free energy includes a double-well potential for each unit and an elastic nearest-neighbor interaction between them. Minimizing the free energy yields the system equilibrium properties whereas its dynamics is given by (overdamped) Langevin equations for the elongations, in which friction and noise amplitude are related by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Our results, both for the equilibrium and the dynamical situations, include analytical and numerical descriptions of the system force-extension curves under force or length control and agree very well with actual experiments in biomolecules. Our conclusions also apply to other physical systems comprising a number of metastable units, such as storage systems or semiconductor superlattices.

  6. Modular Dynamical Semigroups for Quantum Dissipative Systems

    E-print Network

    David Taj; Hans Christian Öttinger

    2015-03-10

    We introduce a class of Markovian quantum master equations, able to describe the dissipative dynamics of a quantum system weakly coupled to one or several heat baths. The dissipative structure is driven by an entropic operator, the so called modular Hamiltonian, which makes it nonlinear. The generated Modular Dynamical Semigroup (MDS) is not, in general, a Quantum Dynamical Semigroup (QDS), whose dynamics is of the popular Lindblad type. The MDS has a robust thermodynamic structure, which guarantees for the positivity of the time evolved state, the correct steady state properties, the positivity of the entropy production, a positive Onsager matrix and Onsager symmetry relations (arising from Green-Kubo formulas). We show that the celebrated Davies generator, obtained through the Born and the secular approximations, generates a MDS. By unravelling the modular structure of the former, we provide a different and genuinely nonlinear MDS, not of QDS type, which is free from the severe spectral restrictions of the Davies generator, while still being supported by a weak coupling limit argument. With respect to the latter, the present work is a substantial extension of \\cite{Ottinger2011_GEO,Ottinger2010_TLS_DHO}

  7. Small Modular Reactors (468th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Robert

    2011-04-20

    With good reason, much more media attention has focused on nuclear power plants than solar farms, wind farms, or hydroelectric plants during the past month and a half. But as nations around the world demand more energy to power everything from cell phone batteries to drinking water pumps to foundries, nuclear plants are the only non-greenhouse-gas producing option that can be built to operate almost anywhere, and can continue to generate power during droughts, after the sun sets, and when winds die down. To supply this demand for power, designers around the world are competing to develop more affordable nuclear reactors of the future: small modular reactors. Brookhaven Lab is working with DOE to ensure that these reactors are designed to be safe for workers, members of surrounding communities, and the environment and to ensure that the radioactive materials and technology will only be used for peaceful purposes, not weapons. In his talk, Bari will discuss the advantages and challenges of small modular reactors and what drives both international and domestic interest in them. He will also explain how Brookhaven Lab and DOE are working to address the challenges and provide a framework for small modular reactors to be commercialized.

  8. MACOP modular architecture with control primitives

    PubMed Central

    Waegeman, Tim; Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Walking, catching a ball and reaching are all tasks in which humans and animals exhibit advanced motor skills. Findings in biological research concerning motor control suggest a modular control hierarchy which combines movement/motor primitives into complex and natural movements. Engineers inspire their research on these findings in the quest for adaptive and skillful control for robots. In this work we propose a modular architecture with control primitives (MACOP) which uses a set of controllers, where each controller becomes specialized in a subregion of its joint and task-space. Instead of having a single controller being used in this subregion [such as MOSAIC (modular selection and identification for control) on which MACOP is inspired], MACOP relates more to the idea of continuously mixing a limited set of primitive controllers. By enforcing a set of desired properties on the mixing mechanism, a mixture of primitives emerges unsupervised which successfully solves the control task. We evaluate MACOP on a numerical model of a robot arm by training it to generate desired trajectories. We investigate how the tracking performance is affected by the number of controllers in MACOP and examine how the individual controllers and their generated control primitives contribute to solving the task. Furthermore, we show how MACOP compensates for the dynamic effects caused by a fixed control rate and the inertia of the robot. PMID:23888140

  9. Understanding Modularity in Molecular Networks Requires Dynamics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roger P. Alexander (Yale University; Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics REV)

    2009-07-28

    The era of genome sequencing has produced long lists of the molecular parts from which cellular machines are constructed. A fundamental goal in systems biology is to understand how cellular behavior emerges from the interaction in time and space of genetically encoded molecular parts, as well as nongenetically encoded small molecules. Networks provide a natural framework for the organization and quantitative representation of all the available data about molecular interactions. The structural and dynamic properties of molecular networks have been the subject of intense research. Despite major advances, bridging network structure to dynamics—and therefore to behavior—remains challenging. A key concept of modern engineering that recurs in the functional analysis of biological networks is modularity. Most approaches to molecular network analysis rely to some extent on the assumption that molecular networks are modular—that is, they are separable and can be studied to some degree in isolation. We describe recent advances in the analysis of modularity in biological networks, focusing on the increasing realization that a dynamic perspective is essential to grouping molecules into modules and determining their collective function.

  10. More modular invariant anomalous U(1) breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, Mary K.; Giedt, Joel

    2002-06-27

    We consider the case of several scalar fields, charged under a number of U(1) factors, acquiring vacuum expectation values due to anomalous U(1). We demonstrate how to make redefinitions at the superfield level in order to account for tree-level exchange of vector supermultiplets in the effective supergravity theory of the light fields in the supersymmetric vacuum phase. Our approach builds up on previous results that we obtained in a more elementary case. We find that the modular weights of light fields are typically shifted from their original values, allowing an interpretation in terms of the preservation of modular invariance in the effective theory. We address various subtleties in defining unitary gauge that are associated with the noncanonical Kahler potential of modular invariant supergravity, the vacuum degeneracy, and the role of the dilaton field. We discuss the effective superpotential for the light fields and note how proton decay operators may be obtained when the heavy fields are integrated out of the theory at the tree-level. We also address how our formalism may be extended to describe the generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism for multiple anomalous U(1)'s that occur in four-dimensional Type I and Type IIB string constructions.

  11. RAMS (Risk Analysis - Modular System) methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Strenge, D.L.; Buck, J.W. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The Risk Analysis - Modular System (RAMS) was developed to serve as a broad scope risk analysis tool for the Risk Assessment of the Hanford Mission (RAHM) studies. The RAHM element provides risk analysis support for Hanford Strategic Analysis and Mission Planning activities. The RAHM also provides risk analysis support for the Hanford 10-Year Plan development activities. The RAMS tool draws from a collection of specifically designed databases and modular risk analysis methodologies and models. RAMS is a flexible modular system that can be focused on targeted risk analysis needs. It is specifically designed to address risks associated with overall strategy, technical alternative, and `what if` questions regarding the Hanford cleanup mission. RAMS is set up to address both near-term and long-term risk issues. Consistency is very important for any comparative risk analysis, and RAMS is designed to efficiently and consistently compare risks and produce risk reduction estimates. There is a wide range of output information that can be generated by RAMS. These outputs can be detailed by individual contaminants, waste forms, transport pathways, exposure scenarios, individuals, populations, etc. However, they can also be in rolled-up form to support high-level strategy decisions.

  12. A modular approach to linear uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed

    Weathers, J B; Luck, R; Weathers, J W

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a methodology to simplify the uncertainty analysis of large-scale problems where many outputs and/or inputs are of interest. The modular uncertainty technique presented here can be utilized to analyze the results spanning a wide range of engineering problems with constant sensitivities within parameter uncertainty bounds. The proposed modular approach provides the same results as the traditional propagation of errors methodology with fewer conceptual steps allowing for a relatively straightforward implementation of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis effort. The structure of the modular technique allows easy integration into most experimental/modeling programs or data acquisition systems. The proposed methodology also provides correlation information between all outputs, thus providing information not easily obtained using the traditional uncertainty process based on analyzing one data reduction equation (DRE)/model at a time. Finally, the paper presents a straightforward methodology to obtain the covariance matrix for the input variables using uncorrelated elemental sources of systematic uncertainties along with uncorrelated sources corresponding to random uncertainties. PMID:19942216

  13. Building Programmable Jigsaw Puzzles with RNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arkadiusz Chworos; Isil Severcan; Alexey Y. Koyfman; Patrick Weinkam; Emin Oroudjev; Helen G. Hansma; Luc Jaeger

    2004-01-01

    One challenge in supramolecular chemistry is the design of versatile, self-assembling building blocks to attain total control of arrangement of matter at a molecular level. We have achieved reliable prediction and design of the three-dimensional structure of artificial RNA building blocks to generate molecular jigsaw puzzle units called tectosquares. They can be programmed with control over their geometry, topology, directionality,

  14. Molecular Cell RNA Polymerase I Stability Couples

    E-print Network

    Chanfreau, Guillaume

    the transcription of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) by RNA polymerase I (RNAPI). Negative regulation of RNAPI activity rDNA transcription units, whereas regulation of RNAPI transcription factors directly controls RNAPI is controlled by two major mech- anisms: epigenetic control of rDNA chromatin can modulate the number of active

  15. Cytoplasmic Z-RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, D.A.; Calhoun, C.J.; Hardin, C.C.; Zarling, A.H.

    1987-09-01

    Specific immunochemical probes for Z-RNA were generated and characterized to search for possible Z-RNA-like double helices in cells. Z-RNA was detected in the cytoplasm of fixed protozoan cells by immunofluorescence microscopy using these anti-Z-RNA IgCs. In contrast, autoimmune or experimentally elicited anti-DNA antibodies, specifically reactive with B-DNA or Z-DNA, stained the nuclei. Pre-or nonimmune IgGs did not bind to the cells. RNase A or T1 digestion eliminated anti-Z-RNA IgG binding to cytoplasmic determinants; however, DNase I or mung bean nuclease had no effect. Doxorubicin and ethidium bromide prevented anti-Z-RNA antibody binding; however, actinomycin D, which does not bind double-stranded RNA, did not. Anti-Z-RNA immunofluorescence was specifically blocked in competition assays by synthetic Z-RNA but not Z-DNA, A-RNA, or single-stranded RNAs. Thus, some cytoplasmic sequences in fixed cells exist in the left-handed Z-RNA conformation.

  16. Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity.

    PubMed

    Russo, R; Herrmann, H J; de Arcangelis, L

    2014-01-01

    The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure. PMID:24621482

  17. Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, R.; Herrmann, H. J.; de Arcangelis, L.

    2014-03-01

    The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure.

  18. RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

  19. Online unit checklist Unit code______________ Unit title_____________________________

    E-print Network

    Online unit checklist Unit code______________ Unit title_____________________________ Teaching period _________ Y/N Comments Unit Information and Learning Guide (UILG) File name is for correct unit code Latest template used ­ no columns & icons in text especially in Resources for this unit Cover page

  20. Vaccination with Messenger RNA (mRNA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Pascolo

    Both DNA and mRNA can be used as vehicles for gene therapy. Because the immune system is naturally activated by foreign nucleic\\u000a acids thanks to the presence of Toll-like Receptors (TLR) in endosomes (TLR3, 7, and 8 detect exogenous RNA, while TLR9 can\\u000a detect exogenous DNA), the delivery of foreign nucleic acids usually induces an immune response directed against the

  1. Calculation and modular properties of multiloop superstring amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Danilov, G. S., E-mail: Gennady.Danilov@thd.pnpi.spb.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15

    Multiloop superstring amplitudes are calculated within an extensively used gauge where the two-dimensional gravitino field carries Grassmann moduli. In general, the amplitudes possess, instead of modular symmetry, symmetry with respect to modular transformation supplemented with appropriate transformations of two-dimensional local supersymmetry. If the number of loops is larger than three, the integrationmeasures are notmodular forms, while the expression for the amplitude contains integrals along the boundary of the fundamental region of the modular group.

  2. Modular functors are determined by their genus zero data

    E-print Network

    Jorgen Ellegaard Andersen; Kenji Ueno

    2006-11-03

    We prove in this paper that the genus zero data of a modular functor determines the modular functor. We do this by establishing that the S-matrix in genus one with one point labeled arbitrarily can be expressed in terms of the genus zero information and we give an explicit formula. We do not assume the modular functor in question has duality or is unitary, in order to establish this.

  3. The Emergence of Modularity in Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Dirk M.; Jeng, Alice; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss modularity and hierarchy in biological systems. We review examples from protein structure, genetics, and biological networks of modular partitioning of the geometry of biological space. We review theories to explain modular organization of biology, with a focus on explaining how biology may spontaneously organize to a structured form. That is, we seek to explain how biology nucleated from among the many possibilities in chemistry. The emergence of modular organization of biological structure will be described as a symmetry-breaking phase transition, with modularity as the order parameter. Experimental support for this description will be reviewed. Examples will be presented from pathogen structure, metabolic networks, gene networks, and protein-protein interaction networks. Additional examples will be presented from ecological food networks, developmental pathways, physiology, and social networks. There once were two watchmakers, named Hora and Tempus, who manufactured very fine watches. Both of them were highly regarded, and the phones in their workshops rang frequently — new customers were constantly calling them. However, Hora prospered, while Tempus became poorer and poorer and finally lost his shop. What was the reason? The watches the men made consisted of about 1,000 parts each. Tempus had so constructed his that if he had one partly assembled and had to put it down — to answer the phone say— it immediately fell to pieces and had to be reassembled from the elements. The better the customers liked his watches, the more they phoned him, the more difficult it became for him to find enough uninterrupted time to finish a watch. The watches that Hora made were no less complex than those of Tempus. But he had designed them so that he could put together subassemblies of about ten elements each. Ten of these subassemblies, again, could be put together into a larger subassembly; and a system of ten of the latter sub-assemblies constituted the whole watch. Hence, when Hora had to put down a partly assembled watch in order to answer the phone, he lost only a small part of his work, and he assembled his watches in only a fraction of the man-hours it took Tempus.”H. A. Simon, The Architecture of Complexity, 1962 [1]. PMID:21353651

  4. Photonic gene circuits by optically addressable siRNA-Au nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Somin Eunice; Sasaki, Darryl Y; Park, Younggeun; Xu, Ren; Brennan, James S; Bissell, Mina J; Lee, Luke P

    2012-09-25

    The precise perturbation of gene circuits and the direct observation of signaling pathways in living cells are essential for both fundamental biology and translational medicine. Current optogenetic technology offers a new paradigm of optical control for cells; however, this technology relies on permanent genomic modifications with light-responsive genes, thus limiting dynamic reconfiguration of gene circuits. Here, we report precise control of perturbation and reconfiguration of gene circuits in living cells by optically addressable siRNA-Au nanoantennas. The siRNA-Au nanoantennas fulfill dual functions as selectively addressable optical receivers and biomolecular emitters of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Using siRNA-Au nanoantennas as optical inputs to existing circuit connections, photonic gene circuits are constructed in living cells. We show that photonic gene circuits are modular, enabling subcircuits to be combined on-demand. Photonic gene circuits open new avenues for engineering functional gene circuits useful for fundamental bioscience, bioengineering, and medical applications. PMID:22827439

  5. Miniaturised Modular Wireless Sensor Networks. John Barton, Kieran Delaney,

    E-print Network

    Miniaturised Modular Wireless Sensor Networks. John Barton, Kieran Delaney, Cian O' Mathuna, National Microelectronic Research Centre Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork, Ireland +353 021 4904088 {john.barton

  6. A graphical operations interface for modular surface systems

    E-print Network

    Vona, Marsette A.

    This paper presents the design and implementation of algorithms for a new graphical operations interface system specifically adapted to operating modular reconfigurable articulated surface systems. Geometric models of ...

  7. Genomic RNA constellation of recently emerging serotype G14 equine rotavirus strains in Japan that is highly homologous with prototype G3 and G14 strains previously identified in the United States of America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Nakagomi; H. Tsunemitsu; H. Imagawa; O. Nakagomi

    2003-01-01

    Summary.  ?Serotype G14 was once considered to be uncommon among equine rotaviruses. While it sporadically emerged in some parts of\\u000a the world, serotype G14 became the dominant G serotype among rotaviruses detected in foals with diarrhea in Japan in the late\\u000a 1990s. However, it is not known how such recently emerging G14 rotaviruses are related in their overall genomic RNA constellation

  8. Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model

    E-print Network

    Mazumdar, Mainak

    Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model. Keywords: Software reliability; Modular Operational Tests; Sample Size Determination; Mathematical Programming #12;Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model

  9. Shifting responsibly: the importance of striatal modularity to reinforcement learning in uncertain environments

    E-print Network

    Amemori, Ken-ichi

    We propose here that the modular organization of the striatum reflects a context-sensitive modular learning architecture in which clustered striosome–matrisome domains participate in modular reinforcement learning (RL). ...

  10. A universal protein tag for delivery of SiRNA-aptamer chimeras.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong Yan; Gao, Xiaohu

    2013-01-01

    siRNA-aptamer chimeras have emerged as one of the most promising approaches for targeted delivery of siRNA due to the modularity of their diblock RNA structure, relatively lower cost over other targeted delivery approaches, and, most importantly, the outstanding potential for clinical translation. However, additional challenges must be addressed for efficient RNA interference (RNAi), in particular, endosomal escape. Currently, vast majority of siRNA delivery vehicles are based on cationic materials, which form complexes with negatively charged siRNA. Unfortunately, these approaches complicate the formulations again by forming large complexes with heterogeneous sizes, unfavorable surface charges, colloidal instability, and poor targeting ligand orientation. Here, we report the development of a small and simple protein tag that complements the therapeutic and targeting functionalities of chimera with two functional domains: a dsRNA binding domain (dsRBD) for siRNA docking and a pH-dependent polyhistidine to disrupt endosomal membrane. The protein selectively tags along the siRNA block of individual chimera, rendering the overall size of the complex small, desirable for deep tissue penetration, and the aptamer block accessible for target recognition. More interestingly, we found that extending the c-terminal polyhistidine segment in the protein tag to 18 amino acids completely abolishes the RNA binding function of dsRBD. PMID:24196104

  11. A Universal Protein Tag for Delivery of SiRNA-Aptamer Chimeras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong Yan; Gao, Xiaohu

    2013-11-01

    siRNA-aptamer chimeras have emerged as one of the most promising approaches for targeted delivery of siRNA due to the modularity of their diblock RNA structure, relatively lower cost over other targeted delivery approaches, and, most importantly, the outstanding potential for clinical translation. However, additional challenges must be addressed for efficient RNA interference (RNAi), in particular, endosomal escape. Currently, vast majority of siRNA delivery vehicles are based on cationic materials, which form complexes with negatively charged siRNA. Unfortunately, these approaches complicate the formulations again by forming large complexes with heterogeneous sizes, unfavorable surface charges, colloidal instability, and poor targeting ligand orientation. Here, we report the development of a small and simple protein tag that complements the therapeutic and targeting functionalities of chimera with two functional domains: a dsRNA binding domain (dsRBD) for siRNA docking and a pH-dependent polyhistidine to disrupt endosomal membrane. The protein selectively tags along the siRNA block of individual chimera, rendering the overall size of the complex small, desirable for deep tissue penetration, and the aptamer block accessible for target recognition. More interestingly, we found that extending the c-terminal polyhistidine segment in the protein tag to 18 amino acids completely abolishes the RNA binding function of dsRBD.

  12. De novo design of heat-repressible RNA thermosensors in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Hinman, Kristina; Kirchner, Lukas; Moon, Tae Seok

    2015-07-13

    RNA-based temperature sensing is common in bacteria that live in fluctuating environments. Most naturally-occurring RNA thermosensors are heat-inducible, have long sequences, and function by sequestering the ribosome binding site in a hairpin structure at lower temperatures. Here, we demonstrate the de novo design of short, heat-repressible RNA thermosensors. These thermosensors contain a cleavage site for RNase E, an enzyme native to Escherichia coli and many other organisms, in the 5' untranslated region of the target gene. At low temperatures, the cleavage site is sequestered in a stem-loop, and gene expression is unobstructed. At high temperatures, the stem-loop unfolds, allowing for mRNA degradation and turning off expression. We demonstrated that these thermosensors respond specifically to temperature and provided experimental support for the central role of RNase E in the mechanism. We also demonstrated the modularity of these RNA thermosensors by constructing a three-input composite circuit that utilizes transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational regulation. A thorough analysis of the 24 thermosensors allowed for the development of design guidelines for systematic construction of similar thermosensors in future applications. These short, modular RNA thermosensors can be applied to the construction of complex genetic circuits, facilitating rational reprogramming of cellular processes for synthetic biology applications. PMID:25979263

  13. Repetitive RNA unwinding by RNA helicase A facilitates RNA annealing

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Hye Ran; Xing, Li; Kleiman, Lawrence; Myong, Sua

    2014-01-01

    Helicases contribute to diverse biological processes including replication, transcription and translation. Recent reports suggest that unwinding of some helicases display repetitive activity, yet the functional role of the repetitiveness requires further investigation. Using single-molecule fluorescence assays, we elucidated a unique unwinding mechanism of RNA helicase A (RHA) that entails discrete substeps consisting of binding, activation, unwinding, stalling and reactivation stages. This multi-step process is repeated many times by a single RHA molecule without dissociation, resulting in repetitive unwinding/rewinding cycles. Our kinetic and mutational analysis indicates that the two double stand RNA binding domains at the N-terminus of RHA are responsible for such repetitive unwinding behavior in addition to providing an increased binding affinity to RNA. Further, the repetitive unwinding induces an efficient annealing of a complementary RNA by making the unwound strand more accessible. The complex and unusual mechanism displayed by RHA may help in explaining how the repetitive unwinding of helicases contributes to their biological functions. PMID:24914047

  14. The eukaryotic RNA exosome

    PubMed Central

    Januszyk, Kurt; Lima, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic RNA exosome is an essential multi-subunit ribonuclease complex that contributes to the degradation or processing of nearly every class of RNA in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Its nine-subunit core shares structural similarity to phosphorolytic exoribonucleases such as bacterial PNPase. PNPase and the RNA exosome core feature a central channel that can accommodate single stranded RNA although unlike PNPase, the RNA exosome core is devoid of ribonuclease activity. Instead, the core associates with Rrp44, an endoribonuclease and processive 3??5? exoribonuclease, and Rrp6, a distributive 3??5? exoribonuclease. Recent biochemical and structural studies suggest that the exosome core is essential because it coordinates Rrp44 and Rrp6 recruitment, RNA can pass through the central channel, and the association with the core modulates Rrp44 and Rrp6 activities. PMID:24525139

  15. Plant Mitochondrial RNA Editing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siegfried Steinhauser; Susanne Beckert; Ingrid Capesius; Olaf Malek; Volker Knoop

    1999-01-01

    .   RNA editing affects messenger RNAs and transfer RNAs in plant mitochondria by site-specific exchange of cytidine and uridine\\u000a bases in both seed and nonseed plants. Distribution of the phenomenon among bryophytes has been unclear since RNA editing\\u000a has been detected in some but not all liverworts and mosses. A more detailed understanding of RNA editing in plants required\\u000a extended

  16. Project Antares: A low cost modular launch vehicle for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aarnio, Steve; Anderson, Hobie; Arzaz, El Mehdi; Bailey, Michelle; Beeghly, Jeff; Cartwright, Curt; Chau, William; Dawdy, Andrew; Detert, Bruce; Ervin, Miles

    1991-01-01

    The single stage to orbit launch vehicle Antares is based upon the revolutionary concept of modularity, enabling the Antares to efficiently launch communications satellites, as well as heavy payloads, into Earth's orbit and beyond. The basic unit of the modular system, a single Antares vehicle, is aimed at launching approximately 10,000 kg into low Earth orbit (LEO). When coupled with a Centaur upper stage it is capable of placing 3500 kg into geostationary orbit. The Antares incorporates a reusable engine, the Dual Mixture Ratio Engine (DMRE), as its propulsive device. This enables Antares to compete and excel in the satellite launch market by dramatically reducing launch costs. Antares' projected launch costs are $1340 per kg to LEO which offers a tremendous savings over launch vehicles available today. Inherent in the design is the capability to attach several of these vehicles together to provide heavy lift capability. Any number of these vehicles, up to seven, can be attached depending on the payload and mission requirements. With a seven vehicle configuration Antares's modular concept provides a heavy lift capability of approximately 70,000 kg to LEO. This expandability allows for a wider range of payload options such as large Earth satellites, Space Station Freedom support, and interplanetary spacecraft, and also offers a significant cost savings over a mixed fleet based on different launch vehicles.

  17. A modular multi-mission electrical power subsystem for geosynchronous satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Canzano, S.M.; Webber, H.F.; Applewhite, A.Z.; Hosick, D.K.; Pollard, H.E. [Space Systems/Loral, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A project was initiated to develop a Modular Multi-Mission Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS) that is easily adaptable from program to program with minimal non-recurring engineering. The primary design application is for a 8,125W, 100 V regulated dual-bus system for a high power Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) operated in geosynchronous orbit. The goals of this project were (1) to develop a 100 V power system for the DBS Satellite, (2) modularize to produce output power levels from 4kW to 8kW by the addition or subtraction of equipment ``building blocks``, (3) and to utilize a standard battery cell to allow a long term purchasing agreement for cell manufacture. This paper describes the design and implementation of the Multi-Mission EPS. The power requirements and configuration of the DBS satellite power system are presented. This is followed by a brief overview of each major component along with a description of the system operation. Next the mechanical packaging of the Power Control Unit (PCU) is presented. Finally the modularity of the system for future applications is discussed.

  18. Lightweight composites for modular panelized construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Amol S.

    Rapid advances in construction materials technology have enabled civil engineers to achieve impressive gains in the safety, economy, and functionality of structures built to serve the common needs of society. Modular building systems is a fast-growing modern, form of construction gaining recognition for its increased efficiency and ability to apply modern technology to the needs of the market place. In the modular construction technique, a single structural panel can perform a number of functions such as providing thermal insulation, vibration damping, and structural strength. These multifunctional panels can be prefabricated in a manufacturing facility and then transferred to the construction site. A system that uses prefabricated panels for construction is called a "panelized construction system". This study focuses on the development of pre-cast, lightweight, multifunctional sandwich composite panels to be used for panelized construction. Two thermoplastic composite panels are proposed in this study, namely Composite Structural Insulated Panels (CSIPs) for exterior walls, floors and roofs, and Open Core Sandwich composite for multifunctional interior walls of a structure. Special manufacturing techniques are developed for manufacturing these panels. The structural behavior of these panels is analyzed based on various building design codes. Detailed descriptions of the design, cost analysis, manufacturing, finite element modeling and structural testing of these proposed panels are included in this study in the of form five peer-reviewed journal articles. The structural testing of the proposed panels involved in this study included flexural testing, axial compression testing, and low and high velocity impact testing. Based on the current study, the proposed CSIP wall and floor panels were found satisfactory, based on building design codes ASCE-7-05 and ACI-318-05. Joining techniques are proposed in this study for connecting the precast panels on the construction site. Keywords: Modular panelized construction, sandwich composites, composite structural insulated panels (CSIPs).

  19. Fabricating RNA Microarrays with RNA-DNA Surface Ligation Chemistry

    E-print Network

    Fabricating RNA Microarrays with RNA-DNA Surface Ligation Chemistry Hye Jin Lee, Alastair W. Wark to create renewable RNA microarrays from single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) microar- rays on gold surfaces of the ssRNA microarray in terms of (i) the hybridization adsorption of complementary DNA onto the RNA array

  20. Modular Functionalization of Allenes to Aminated Stereotriads

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Christopher S.; Boralsky, Luke A.; Guzei, Ilia A.; Schomaker, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-containing stereotriads- compounds with three adjacent stereodefined carbons- are commonly found in biologically important molecules. However, the preparation of molecules bearing these motifs can be challenging. Herein, we describe a modular oxidation protocol which converts a substituted allene to a triply functionalized amine of the form C-X/C-N/CY. The key step employs a Rh-catalyzed intramolecular conversion of the allene to a strained bicyclic methylene aziridine. This reactive intermediate is further elaborated to the target products, often in one reaction vessel and with effective transfer of the axial chirality of the allene to point chirality in the stereotriad. PMID:22708990

  1. Modular, Parallel Pulse-Shaping Filter Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew A.

    2003-01-01

    Novel architectures based on parallel subconvolution frequency-domain filtering methods have been developed for modular processing rate reduction of discrete-time pulse-shaping filters. Such pulse-shaping is desirable and often necessary to obtain bandwidth efficiency in very-high-rate wireless communications systems. In principle, this processing could be implemented in very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. Whereas other approaches to digital pulse-shaping are based primarily on time-domain processing concepts, the theory and design rules of the architectures presented here are founded on frequency-domain processing that has advantages in certain systems.

  2. The calpains: modular designs and functional diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy E Croall; Klaus Ersfeld

    2007-01-01

    Summary  The calpain family is named for the calcium dependence of the papain-like, thiol protease activity of the well-studied ubiquitous\\u000a vertebrate enzymes calpain-1 (?-calpain) and calpain-2 (m-calpain). Proteins showing sequence relatedness to the catalytic\\u000a core domains of these enzymes are included in this ancient and diverse eukaryotic protein family. Calpains are examples of\\u000a highly modular organization, with several varieties of amino-terminal

  3. Modular fuel-cell stack assembly

    DOEpatents

    Patel, Pinakin (Danbury, CT); Urko, Willam (West Granby, CT)

    2008-01-29

    A modular multi-stack fuel-cell assembly in which the fuel-cell stacks are situated within a containment structure and in which a gas distributor is provided in the structure and distributes received fuel and oxidant gases to the stacks and receives exhausted fuel and oxidant gas from the stacks so as to realize a desired gas flow distribution and gas pressure differential through the stacks. The gas distributor is centrally and symmetrically arranged relative to the stacks so that it itself promotes realization of the desired gas flow distribution and pressure differential.

  4. New Modular Camera No Ordinary Joe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Although dubbed 'Little Joe' for its small-format characteristics, a new wavefront sensor camera has proved that it is far from coming up short when paired with high-speed, low-noise applications. SciMeasure Analytical Systems, Inc., a provider of cameras and imaging accessories for use in biomedical research and industrial inspection and quality control, is the eye behind Little Joe's shutter, manufacturing and selling the modular, multi-purpose camera worldwide to advance fields such as astronomy, neurobiology, and cardiology.

  5. The axion mass in modular invariant supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

    2005-02-09

    When supersymmetry is broken by condensates with a single condensing gauge group, there is a nonanomalous R-symmetry that prevents the universal axion from acquiring a mass. It has been argued that, in the context of supergravity, higher dimension operators will break this symmetry and may generate an axion mass too large to allow the identification of the universal axion with the QCD axion. We show that such contributions to the axion mass are highly suppressed in a class of models where the effective Lagrangian for gaugino and matter condensation respects modular invariance (T-duality).

  6. Photocaging of carboxylic acids: a modular approach.

    PubMed

    Szyma?ski, Wiktor; Velema, Willem A; Feringa, Ben L

    2014-08-11

    Photocaged compounds are important tools for studying and regulating multiple processes, including biological functions. Reported herein is the use of the Passerini multicomponent reaction for modular preparation of photocaged carboxylic acids. The reaction is compatible with several functionalities and proceeds smoothly both in water and dichloromethane. The choice of aldehyde determines the wavelength used for deprotection and enables formation of orthogonally protected products. The isocyanide component can be used for introduction of reactive tags and photosensitizers, as well as for immobilization on a solid support. PMID:24801857

  7. Modular strategies for PET imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, , J.M.

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging.

  8. A new small modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor plant concept based on proven technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. McDonald; A. J. Goodjohn

    1982-01-01

    Based on the established and proven high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technologies from the Peach Bottom 1 and Fort St. Vrain utility-operated units, a new small modular HTGR reactor is currently being evaluated. The basic nuclear reactor heat source, with a prismatic core, is being designed so that the decay heat can be removed by passive means (i.e., natural circulation). The

  9. A new small modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor plant concept based on proven technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. McDonald; A. J. Goodjohn

    1982-01-01

    Based on the established and proven high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technologies from the Peach Bottom 1 and Fort St. Vrain utility-operated units, a new small modular HTGR reactor is currently being evaluated. The basic nuclear reactor heat source, with a prismatic core, is being designed so that the decay heat can be removed by passive means (i.e., natural circulation). Although

  10. The modular (twin) gradient coil—high resolution, high contrast, diffusion weighted EPI at 1.0 Tesla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Harvey

    1999-01-01

    The modular (twin) gradient coil is a novel and effective approach to obtaining flexible and high power gradient performance\\u000a without (i) peripheral nerve stimulation and (ii) the need for resonant or expensive high voltage gradient power supply units\\u000a (PSU). This whole-body gradient system contains, on the same former, two independent sets of gradient coils, theconventional coil set and theshort-body coil

  11. Modular control of varied locomotor tasks in children with incomplete spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Fox, Emily J; Tester, Nicole J; Kautz, Steven A; Howland, Dena R; Clark, David J; Garvan, Cyndi; Behrman, Andrea L

    2013-09-01

    A module is a functional unit of the nervous system that specifies functionally relevant patterns of muscle activation. In adults, four to five modules account for muscle activation during walking. Neurological injury alters modular control and is associated with walking impairments. The effect of neurological injury on modular control in children is unknown and may differ from adults due to their immature and developing nervous systems. We examined modular control of locomotor tasks in children with incomplete spinal cord injuries (ISCIs) and control children. Five controls (8.6 ± 2.7 yr of age) and five children with ISCIs (8.6 ± 3.7 yr of age performed treadmill walking, overground walking, pedaling, supine lower extremity flexion/extension, stair climbing, and crawling. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded in bilateral leg muscles. Nonnegative matrix factorization was applied, and the minimum number of modules required to achieve 90% of the "variance accounted for" (VAF) was calculated. On average, 3.5 modules explained muscle activation in the controls, whereas 2.4 modules were required in the children with ISCIs. To determine if control is similar across tasks, the module weightings identified from treadmill walking were used to reconstruct the EMGs from each of the other tasks. This resulted in VAF values exceeding 86% for each child and each locomotor task. Our results suggest that 1) modularity is constrained in children with ISCIs and 2) for each child, similar neural control mechanisms are used across locomotor tasks. These findings suggest that interventions that activate the neuromuscular system to enhance walking also may influence the control of other locomotor tasks. PMID:23761702

  12. Efficacy of Modular Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorpita, Bruce F.; Taylor, Alissa A.; Francis, Sarah E.; Moffitt, Catherine; Austin, Ayda A.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the initial efficacy of a modular approach to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth. Modular CBT consists of the guided combination of individually scripted techniques that are explicitly matched to the child's individual strengths and needs. Eleven youth primarily of Asian and Pacific…

  13. Exploring the Deployment Potential of Small Modular Reactors

    E-print Network

    Exploring the Deployment Potential of Small Modular Reactors Submitted in partial fulfillment nuclear power, exploring the potential of small modular reactors (SMRs) proved challenging. Moreover, these reactors come in a wide range of sizes and can employ a number of technologies, which made investigating

  14. Parameter and cost optimizations for a modular stellarator reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. N. G. Hitchon; P. C. Johnson; C. J. H. Watson

    1983-01-01

    The physical scaling and cost scaling of a modular stellarator reactor are described. It is shown that configurations based onl=2 are best able to support adequate beta, and physical relationships are derived which enable the geometry and parameters of anl=2 modular stellarator to be defined. A cost scaling for the components of the nuclear island is developed using Starfire (tokamak

  15. A Multi-Modular Neutronically Coupled Power Generation System 

    E-print Network

    Patel, Vishal

    2012-07-16

    The High Temperature Integrated Multi-Modular Thermal Reactor is a small modular reactor that uses an enhanced conductivity BeO-UO2 fuel with supercritical CO2 coolant to drive turbo-machinery in a direct Brayton cycle. The core consists of several...

  16. Modular Visualization of Distributed Systems Gustavo A. Guevara S.1

    E-print Network

    Varela, Carlos

    Modular Visualization of Distributed Systems Gustavo A. Guevara S.1 Jason LaPorte2 Carlos A. Varela to developing, analyzing, and optimizing distributed systems. We have developed OverView, a tool for online/offline distributed systems visualization, that enables modular layout mechanisms, so that different distributed

  17. A Modular Neural Network Architecture with Additional Generalization Abilities

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Albrecht

    . The structure of the modular system is similar to architectures known from logical neural networks. The newA Modular Neural Network Architecture with Additional Generalization Abilities for High Dimensional of gratitude to my supervisor, Dr Zuhair A. Bandar from whom I have learned much about neural networks. I wish

  18. A visual solution to modular neural network system development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kussul; A. Riznyk; E. Sadovaya; A. Sitchov; Tie-Qi Chen

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a visual software tool (called MNN-CAD) for modular neural network system development is introduced. Its major functionalities such as constructing, training and testing a modular system are described. Its open-structure implementation is explained. Finally, the application of MNN-CAD in an automotive occupant spatial sensing problem is presented

  19. On the Modularity of Confluence in Infinitary Term Rewriting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob Grue Simonsen

    2004-01-01

    We show that, unlike the case in nitary term rewriting, conuence is not a modular property of innitary term rewriting systems, even when these are non-collapsing. We also give a positive result: two sucien t conditions for the modularity of conuence in the innitary setting.

  20. A product modular design method based on axiomatic design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Cheng; Chuanming Xiao; Ligang Cai; Guojun Zhang; Peihua Gu

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop reasonable modular product architecture with physically detachable modules, a new systematic method for product modularization is proposed based on axiomatic design (AD). In the proposed method, the product is decomposed hierarchically in its functional, physical and process domains according to AD. After the transformation from design matrices to design structure matrices, the correlation design structure matrices

  1. The modular class of a twisted Poisson structure

    E-print Network

    Yvette Kosmann-Schwarzbach; Camille Laurent-Gengoux

    2005-08-30

    We study the geometric and algebraic properties of the twisted Poisson structures on Lie algebroids, leading to a definition of their modular class and to an explicit determination of a representative of the modular class, in particular in the case of a twisted Poisson manifold.

  2. Toward a Product System Modularity Construct: Literature Review and Reconceptualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Salvador

    2007-01-01

    Product modularity has been discussed in engineering and management literature for over forty years. During this time span, definitions and views on the meaning of product modularity proliferated to the extent that it is difficult to understand the essential traits of the concept. While definitional ambiguity is often a byproduct of academic debate, it hinders the advancement of scientific knowledge

  3. Parallel modular multiplication on multi-core processors

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Parallel modular multiplication on multi-core processors Pascal Giorgi LIRMM, CNRS, UM2 Montpellier parallel modular multiplications. Famous methods such as Barrett, Montgomery as well as more recent algorithms are compared together with a novel k-ary multipartite multiplication which allows to split

  4. Ontology Modularization for Knowledge Selection: Experiments and Evaluations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathieu d’Aquin; Anne Schlicht; Heiner Stuckenschmidt; Marta Sabou

    2007-01-01

    Problems with large monolithical ontologies in terms of reusability, scalability and maintenance have led to an increasing inter- est in modularization techniques for ontologies. Currently, existing work suers from the fact that the notion of modularization is not as well un- derstood in the context of ontologies as it is in software engineering. In this paper, we experiment on applying

  5. Ultra modular plastic mini AUV platform for VSW mine reconnaissance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel M. Smith; David Kronen; Richard Dunn; Jim Whitney; John Frankenfield; Edgar An; Tom Pantelakis; Aaron Burn; Eric Heatzig

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Marine Systems Lab at FAU has developed a new ultra modular plastic mini AUV for coastal applications including very shallow water MCM. This vehicle is composed of modular injection molded plastic pressure vessels and a cabling system that allows the modules to be rearranged without rewiring bulkheads. The plastic pressure vessels are inexpensive, inherently mass producible, extremely corrosion

  6. Product Line Selection and Pricing with Modularity in Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wallace J. Hopp; Xiaowei Xu

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the strategic impact of modular design on the optimal length and price of a differentiated product line. We represent consumer demand with a Bayesian logit model. We also break operations costs into product design and production components. Our analysis shows that reducing product development costs via modular design always makes it attractive to offer greater product variety.

  7. Efficacy of modular cognitive behavior therapy for childhood anxiety disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce F. Chorpita; Alissa A. Taylor; Sarah E. Francis; Catherine Moffitt; Ayda A. Austin

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the initial efficacy of a modular approach to cog- nitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth. Modular CBT consists of the guided combination of individually scripted techniques that are explicitly matched to the child's individual strengths and needs. Eleven youth primarily of Asian and Pacific Island ethnicity ranging in age from 7 to 13

  8. An Approach for Ontology Modularization Camila Bezerra 1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An Approach for Ontology Modularization Camila Bezerra 1 , Fred Freitas1 , J´er^ome Euzenat2,fred.freitas}@cin.ufpe.br {Jerome.Euzenat, antoine.zimmermann}@inrialpes.fr antoine.zimmermann@deri.org Abstract. Ontology modularization could help overcome the problem of defin- ing a fragment of an existing ontology to be reused

  9. Self-Reconfiguration Using Graph Grammars for Modular Robotics

    E-print Network

    Egerstedt, Magnus

    Self-Reconfiguration Using Graph Grammars for Modular Robotics Daniel Pickem Magnus Egerstedt: In this paper, we apply graph grammars to self-reconfigurable modular robots and present a method to reconfigure of modules to formal assembly rules. We present an approach for centralized reconfiguration planning

  10. Simple components for a reconfigurable modular robotic system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew S. Moses; Gregory S. Chirikjian

    2009-01-01

    A set of modular components is presented for use in reconfigurable robots. The proposed architecture for large systems built with these components is a number of active mobile devices operating within a larger, passive structural grid. The mobile devices and grid are constructed from the same class of heterogeneous modular components. The compo- nents themselves are designed for low-cost simple

  11. CryptoBooster: A Recongurable and Modular Cryptographic

    E-print Network

    Teuscher, Christof

    , Reconøguration, FPGA, IDEA. 1 Introduction In this paper we describe a novel cryptographic coprocessorCryptoBooster: A Reconøgurable and Modular Cryptographic Coprocessor Emeka Mosanya 1 , ChristofBooster is a modular and reconøgurable crypto­ graphic coprocessor that takes full advantage of current high

  12. On locally nite modular lattice varieties of nite height

    E-print Network

    Haller-Dintelmann, Robert

    On locally #12;nite modular lattice varieties of #12;nite height Christian Herrmann and Anvar Key words: Lattice variety, modular lattice, Finite Height Conjecture 1 Introduction Theorem 1 For any natural number, h, there are only #12;nitely many va- rieties which are of height #20; h in the lattice

  13. Simplifying the engineering of modular PROFINET IO devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominik von Rohr; Max Felser; Markus Rentschler

    2011-01-01

    PROFINET IO is designed with a modular structure of the IO devices. Certified modular PROFINET IO devices are usually shipped with a General Station Description (GSD) file that does not contain the actual module configuration of the IO device. With common appliances the modules must subsequently be configured manually in the engineering tool. This can become an elaborate task in

  14. Software architecture for modular self-reconfigurable robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Zhang; Kimon D. Roufas; Mark Yim

    2001-01-01

    Modular, self-reconfigurable robots show the promise of great versatility, robustness and low cost. However, programming such robots for specific tasks, with hundreds of modules and each of which with multiple actuators and sensors, can be tedious and error-prone. The extreme versatility of the modular systems requires a new paradigm in programming. We present a software architecture for this type of

  15. M.A.P. MODULAR APPROACH TO PHYSICS LABORATORY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Austen; Wytze Brouwer; Peter Wright; Hans J. Laue

    We present recent developments in the laboratory component of MAP - Modular Approach to Physics - Java enhanced modules to be used as aids in teaching the first three terms of university physics. The MAP project is very comprehensive and consists of a modular approach to physics that utilizes Java applets; Flash animations and html based tutorials. The overall instructional

  16. Recent developments in MAP - MODULAR APPROACH to PHYSICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Rae; Dave Austen; Wytze Brouwer

    2002-01-01

    We present recent developments in MAP - MODULAR APPROACH to PHYSICS - JAVA enhanced modules to be used as aids in teaching the first 3 terms of university physics. The MAP project is very comprehensive and consists of a modular approach to physics that utilizes JAVA applets, FLASH animations and HTML based tutorials. The overall instructional philosophy of MAP is

  17. Modularity, individuality, and evo-devo in butterfly wings

    E-print Network

    Beldade, Patrícia

    Modularity, individuality, and evo-devo in butterfly wings Patri´cia Beldade*, Kees Koops, and Paul selection to explore the modular organization of butterfly wing patterns and the extent to which, in Bicyclus anynana butterflies, despite the evidence that all eyespots are developmentally coupled

  18. Strategies for Launch and Assembly of Modular Spacecraft

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    the second topic, four separate assembly strategies involving module self-assembly, tug- based assembly1 Strategies for Launch and Assembly of Modular Spacecraft by Erica Lynn Gralla B.S.E., Mechanical;3 Strategies for Launch and Assembly of Modular Spacecraft by Erica Lynn Gralla Submitted to the Department

  19. Modular assembly: not just for phones but also for taps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Kochan

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the Prodel modular assembly system which can easily accommodate changes in product design and market demand. Describes the autonomy of the standard assembly module which can be quickly slipped into, and out of, an assembly line. Outlines applications of the modular system to mobile phone assembly and to bathroom and kitchen tap assembly.

  20. Promoting RNA helical stacking via A-minor junctions

    PubMed Central

    Geary, Cody; Chworos, Arkadiusz; Jaeger, Luc

    2011-01-01

    RNA molecules take advantage of prevalent structural motifs to fold and assemble into well-defined 3D architectures. The A-minor junction is a class of RNA motifs that specifically controls coaxial stacking of helices in natural RNAs. A sensitive self-assembling supra-molecular system was used as an assay to compare several natural and previously unidentified A-minor junctions by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. This class of modular motifs follows a topological rule that can accommodate a variety of interchangeable A-minor interactions with distinct local structural motifs. Overall, two different types of A-minor junctions can be distinguished based on their functional self-assembling behavior: one group makes use of triloops or GNRA and GNRA-like loops assembling with helices, while the other takes advantage of more complex tertiary receptors specific for the loop to gain higher stability. This study demonstrates how different structural motifs of RNA can contribute to the formation of topologically equivalent helical stacks. It also exemplifies the need of classifying RNA motifs based on their tertiary structural features rather than secondary structural features. The A-minor junction rule can be used to facilitate tertiary structure prediction of RNAs and rational design of RNA parts for nanobiotechnology and synthetic biology. PMID:20876687

  1. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) biosynthesis in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Hajjawi, Omar S

    2015-01-01

    In many respects, the most remarkable chemical substances within the genome of eukaryotic cells are remarkable proteins which are the critical structural and functional units of living cells. The specifications for everything that goes in the cell are natural digital-to-digital decoding process in an archive sequence by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and an articulate construction by ribonucleic acid (RNA). The products of DNA transcription are long polymers of ribonucleotides rather than deoxyribonucleotides and are termed ribonucleic acids. Certain deoxyribonucleotide sequences, or genes, give rise to transfer RNA (tRNA) and other ribosomal RNA (rRNA) when transcribed. The ribonucleotide sequences fold extensively and rRNA is associated with specific proteins to yield the essential cell components, ribosomes. Transcription of other special sequences yields messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that contain ribonucleotide sequences that will be ultimately translated into new types of amino acid sequences of functional cellular protein molecules. This switch to a different variety of cellular molecular sequences is complex, but each sequence of the three ribonucleotides specifies the insertion of one particular amino acid into the polypeptide chain under production. Whilst mRNA is considered the vehicle by which genetic information is transmitted from the genome and allocated in the appropriate cytoplasmic sites for translation into protein via cap-dependent mechanism, the actual translation depends also on the presence of other so-called household and luxury protein molecules. Recent evidence suggests RNA species are required at initiation, because treatment of cells with antibiotics or drugs that inhibit RNA synthesis cause a decrease in protein synthesis. The rRNA is necessary as a structural constituent of the ribosomes upon which translation takes place, whereas tRNA is necessary as an adaptor in amino acid activation and elongation protein chains to ribosomes. In this article, we review malignant tumor, with stem like properties, and recent technical advances into the phenomenon of micro-particles and micro-vesicles containing cell-free nucleic acids that circulate plasma. New areas of research have been opened into screening tumor telomerase progression, prognosis of aptamers targeting cell surface, monitoring the efficacy of anticancer therapies, oncogenic transformation of host cell, and RNA polymerases role in the cell cycle progression and differentiation. PMID:25717284

  2. Broadband optical-Internet-based modular interactive information system for research department in university environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Bury, Jaroslaw; Koprek, Waldemar; Orzelowski, Andrzej

    2004-07-01

    The work describes, standardized, modular and interactive, (optical) broadband Internet based, information system for a research and didactic unit active in the university environment. The logical structure of the system was designed and realized. The structure of logical interconnections between the scientific and didactic information was embedded in the database. New solutions for the broadband processing and presentations layers were proposed. The theoretical and design considerations were implemented practically for one of the research departments at the Warsaw University of Technology. Chosen examples of the system in action were quoted.

  3. Modularity of the femoral component in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Anand; Jung, Edward; Levine, Brett Russell

    2012-04-01

    Modular femoral components have been developed to aid in recreating native femoral version, limb length, and offset in total hip arthroplasty. Use of modular implants results in cost savings, as well. Inventory can be reduced while allowing intraoperative flexibility and options. With modular implants, the femoral prosthesis can be built in situ, which is helpful in minimizing incision length and surgical dissection. However, additional modular junctions are associated with increased concern for component failure through taper fretting, fatigue fracture, and local corrosion, which may contribute to elevated serum metal ion levels. The recent trend toward using larger diameter femoral heads may impart higher loads and stress than were seen previously. Although modular components offer a plethora of intraoperative options in primary and revision total hip arthroplasty, the long-term effects of these additional junctions remains unknown. PMID:22474091

  4. Hecke operators on Hilbert-Siegel modular forms

    E-print Network

    Caulk, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    We define Hilbert-Siegel modular forms and Hecke "operators" acting on them. As with Hilbert modular forms, these linear transformations are not linear operators until we consider a direct product of spaces of modular forms (with varying groups), modulo natural identifications we can make between certain spaces. With Hilbert-Siegel forms we identify several families of natural identifications between certain spaces of modular forms. We associate the Fourier coefficients of a form in our product space to even integral lattices, independent of a basis and choice of coefficient rings. We then determine the action of the Hecke operators on these Fourier coefficients, paralleling the result of Hafner and Walling for Siegel modular forms (where the number field is the field of rationals).

  5. Z-score-based modularity for community detection in networks

    E-print Network

    Miyauchi, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Identifying community structure in networks is an issue of particular interest in network science. The modularity introduced by Newman and Girvan [Phys. Rev. E 69, 026113 (2004)] is the most popular quality function for community detection in networks. In this study, we identify a problem in the concept of modularity and suggest a solution to overcome this problem. Specifically, we obtain a new quality function for community detection. We refer to the function as Z-modularity because it measures the Z-score of a given division with respect to the fraction of the number of edges within communities. Our theoretical analysis shows that Z-modularity mitigates the resolution limit of the original modularity in certain cases. Computational experiments using both artificial networks and well-known real-world networks demonstrate the validity and reliability of the proposed quality function.

  6. Distributed control and computation in a parallel modular robotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woo H.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

    1999-08-01

    New generations of modular and reconfigurable robotic systems with many degrees of freedom can be transformed to achieve different functions, modes of manipulation, and means of mobility resulting in efficient multifunctional systems which adapt to complex environments. The design of modular distributed algorithms and architectures for control of these systems is particularly challenging since kinematic and dynamic performance must be maintained throughout a range of alternative physical reconfigurations. The 'Tetrobot' is a prototype modular system using parallel, variable geometry truss-like mechanisms which can be reconfigured to create moving platforms, walking machines, manipulator arms, a pipe crawler and other devices. Modular algorithms for distributed control and dynamic redundancy resolution of these system will be discussed, and the principles of distributed control for modular systems generalize beyond these specific mechanisms. The resulting Tetrobot system has a range of interesting applications including space robotics, construction, mining, medical, undersea, and flexible manufacturing.

  7. United States Unit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Weaver

    2009-11-09

    Fifth grade social studies. Students are assigned to a specific state in the United states, they are to discover specific details of the state and share with the class. You are forced to move out of your state and must find a new place to live in the United States. You are to research one state and create a power point or brochure to give away to a classmate to help them make their decision on where they want ...

  8. DEAD-box RNA helicase domains exhibit a continuum between complete functional independence and high thermodynamic coupling in nucleotide and RNA duplex recognition

    PubMed Central

    Samatanga, Brighton; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    DEAD-box helicases catalyze the non-processive unwinding of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) at the expense of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Nucleotide and RNA binding and unwinding are mediated by the RecA domains of the helicase core, but their cooperation in these processes remains poorly understood. We therefore investigated dsRNA and nucleotide binding by the helicase cores and the isolated N- and C-terminal RecA domains (RecA_N, RecA_C) of the DEAD-box proteins Hera and YxiN by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence methods. Both helicases bind nucleotides predominantly via RecA_N, in agreement with previous studies on Mss116, and with a universal, modular function of RecA_N in nucleotide recognition. In contrast, dsRNA recognition is different: Hera interacts with dsRNA in the absence of nucleotide, involving both RecA domains, whereas for YxiN neither RecA_N nor RecA_C binds dsRNA, and the complete core only interacts with dsRNA after nucleotide has been bound. DEAD-box proteins thus cover a continuum from complete functional independence of their domains, exemplified by Mss116, to various degrees of inter-domain cooperation in dsRNA binding. The different degrees of domain communication and of thermodynamic linkage between dsRNA and nucleotide binding have important implications on the mechanism of dsRNA unwinding, and may help direct RNA helicases to their respective cellular processes. PMID:25123660

  9. Composite material impregnation unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, S. P.; Marchello, J. M.; Johnston, N. J.

    1993-01-01

    This memorandum presents an introduction to the NASA multi-purpose prepregging unit which is now installed and fully operational at the Langley Research Center in the Polymeric Materials Branch. A description of the various impregnation methods that are available to the prepregger are presented. Machine operating details and protocol are provided for its various modes of operation. These include, where appropriate, the related equations for predicting the desired prepreg specifications. Also, as the prepregger is modular in its construction, each individual section is described and discussed. Safety concerns are an important factor and a chapter has been included that highlights the major safety features. Initial experiences and observations for fiber impregnation are described. These first observations have given great insight into the areas of future work that need to be addressed. Future memorandums will focus on these individual processes and their related problems.

  10. Video Surveillance Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, R.L.; Johnson, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Video Surveillance Unit (VSU) has been designed to provide a flexible, easy to operate video surveillance and recording capability for permanent rack-mounted installations. The system consists of a single rack-mountable chassis and a camera enclosure. The chassis contains two 8 mm video recorders, a color monitor, system controller board, a video authentication verifier module (VAVM) and a universal power supply. A separate camera housing contains a solid state camera and a video authentication processor module (VAPM). Through changes in the firmware in the system, the recorders can be commanded to record at the same time, on alternate time cycle, or sequentially. Each recorder is capable of storing up to 26,000 scenes consisting of 6 to 8 video frames. The firmware can be changed to provide fewer recording with more frames per scene. The modular video authentication system provides verification of the integrity of the video transmission line between the camera and the recording chassis. 5 figs.

  11. Embedding triple-modular redundancy into a hypercube architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiskis, Daniel L.; Shin, Kang G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an embedding of Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) into a binary hypercube. The goal is to improve fault tolerance by masking any single-point faults. Each module of an application task is triplicated and executed in parallel on three nodes of a 2-dimensional subcube (Q2) of the hypercube. Each of these nodes also executes a voter process. The remaining node is used for message passing only. All outputs from the triplicated modules are voted on, and the voting results are transmitted to the appropriate destination. Thus, all interunit messages are also triplicated. We propose an embedding of TMR into a hypercube which can be implemented in a manner transparent to the application program. Subcubes are allocated so that the address space for the TMR units is also a hypercube. Hence, the subcube allocation and intermodule communication schemes are defined to be analogous to the schemes used in the nonredundant system. The embedded system is proven to mask all single-point faults.

  12. Rat Ultrasonic Vocalization Shows Features of a Modular Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Small units of production, or modules, can be effective building blocks of more complex motor behaviors. Recording underlying movements of vocal production in awake and spontaneously behaving male Sprague Dawley rats interacting with a female, I tested whether the underlying movements of ultrasonic calls can be described by modules. Movements were quantified by laryngeal muscle EMG activity and subglottal pressure changes. A module was defined by uniformity in both larynx movement and pressure pattern that resulted in a specific spectrographic feature. Modules are produced either singly (single module call type) or in combination with a different module (composite call type). Distinct modules were shown to be linearly (re)combined. Additionally, I found that modules produced during the same expiratory phase can be linked with or without a pause in laryngeal activity, the latter creating the spectrographic appearance of two separate calls. Results suggest that combining discrete modules facilitates generation of higher-order patterns, thereby increasing overall complexity of the vocal repertoire. With additional study, modularity and flexible laryngeal–respiratory coordination may prove to be a basal feature of mammalian vocal motor control. PMID:24828641

  13. A modular and programmable development platform for capsule endoscopy system.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tareq Hasan; Shrestha, Ravi; Wahid, Khan A

    2014-06-01

    The state-of-the-art capsule endoscopy (CE) technology offers painless examination for the patients and the ability to examine the interior of the gastrointestinal tract by a noninvasive procedure for the gastroenterologists. In this work, a modular and flexible CE development system platform consisting of a miniature field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronic capsule, a microcontroller based portable data recorder unit and computer software is designed and developed. Due to the flexible and reprogrammable nature of the system, various image processing and compression algorithms can be tested in the design without requiring any hardware change. The designed capsule prototype supports various imaging modes including white light imaging (WLI) and narrow band imaging (NBI), and communicates with the data recorder in full duplex fashion, which enables configuring the image size and imaging mode in real time during examination. A low complexity image compressor based on a novel color-space is implemented inside the capsule to reduce the amount of RF transmission data. The data recorder contains graphical LCD for real time image viewing and SD cards for storing image data. Data can be uploaded to a computer or Smartphone by SD card, USB interface or by wireless Bluetooth link. Computer software is developed that decompresses and reconstructs images. The fabricated capsule PCBs have a diameter of 16 mm. An ex-vivo animal testing has also been conducted to validate the results. PMID:24859846

  14. The RNA World

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brig Klyce

    This resource provides a description of RNA's probable role in the formation of life as both a catalytic molecule and genetic material. It also provides alternate theories and loads of reference material and related links all to do with the special nature of RNA.

  15. Understanding regulation of mRNA by RNA binding proteins

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Alexander De Jong

    2014-01-01

    Posttranscriptional regulation of mRNA by RNA-binding proteins plays key roles in regulating the transcriptome over the course of development, between tissues and in disease states. The specific interactions between mRNA ...

  16. RNA Integrity Number (RIN) Standardization of RNA Quality Control

    E-print Network

    Richardson, David

    and RNA LabChip® kits play an important role in assisting researchers in the determination of RNA quality. The Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer and asso- ciated RNA 6000 Nano and Pico LabChip kits have become the standard

  17. Recent ARC developments: Through modularity to interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O.; Cameron, D.; Dóbé, P.; Ellert, M.; Frågåt, T.; Grønager, M.; Johansson, D.; Jönemo, J.; Kleist, J.; Ko?an, M.; Konstantinov, A.; Kónya, B.; Márton, I.; Möller, S.; Mohn, B.; Nagy, Zs; Nilsen, J. K.; Ould Saada, F.; Qiang, W.; Read, A.; Rosendahl, P.; Roczei, G.; Savko, M.; Skou Andersen, M.; Stefán, P.; Szalai, F.; Taga, A.; Toor, S. Z.; Wäänänen, A.

    2010-04-01

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware introduced by NorduGrid is one of the basic Grid solutions used by scientists worldwide. While being well-proven in daily use by a wide variety of scientific applications at large-scale infrastructures like the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) and smaller scale projects, production ARC of today is still largely based on conventional Grid technologies and custom interfaces introduced a decade ago. In order to guarantee sustainability, true cross-system portability and standards-compliance based interoperability, the ARC community undertakes a massive effort of implementing modular Web Service (WS) approach into the middleware. With support from the EU KnowARC project, new components were introduced and the existing key ARC services got extended with WS technology based standard-compliant interfaces following a service-oriented architecture. Such components include the hosting environment framework, the resource-coupled execution service, the re-engineered client library, the self-healing storage solution and the peer-to-peer information system, to name a few. Gradual introduction of these new services and client tools into the production middleware releases is carried out together with NDGF and thus ensures a smooth transition to the next generation Grid middleware. Standard interfaces and modularity of the new component design are essential for ARC contributions to the planned Universal Middleware Distribution of the European Grid Initiative.

  18. A Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ty Davis

    Electric propulsion technologies promise to revolutionize access to space, opening the door for mission concepts unfeasible by traditional propulsion methods alone. The Hall effect thruster is a relatively high thrust, moderate specific impulse electric propulsion device that belongs to the class of electrostatic thrusters. Hall effect thrusters benefit from an extensive flight history, and offer significant performance and cost advantages when compared to other forms of electric propulsion. Ongoing research on these devices includes the investigation of mechanisms that tend to decrease overall thruster efficiency, as well as the development of new techniques to extend operational lifetimes. This thesis is primarily concerned with the design and construction of a Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster (SMLHET), and its operation on argon propellant gas. Particular attention was addressed at low-cost, modular design principles, that would facilitate simple replacement and modification of key thruster parts such as the magnetic circuit and discharge channel. This capability is intended to facilitate future studies of device physics such as anomalous electron transport and magnetic shielding of the channel walls, that have an impact on thruster performance and life. Preliminary results demonstrate SMLHET running on argon in a manner characteristic of Hall effect thrusters, additionally a power balance method was utilized to estimate thruster performance. It is expected that future thruster studies utilizing heavier though more expensive gases like xenon or krypton, will observe increased efficiency and stability.

  19. Modular thermal analyzer routine, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Phillips, M. A.; Williams, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Modular Thermal Analyzer Routine (MOTAR) is a general thermal analysis routine with strong capabilities for performing thermal analysis of systems containing flowing fluids, fluid system controls (valves, heat exchangers, etc.), life support systems, and thermal radiation situations. Its modular organization permits the analysis of a very wide range of thermal problems for simple problems containing a few conduction nodes to those containing complicated flow and radiation analysis with each problem type being analyzed with peak computational efficiency and maximum ease of use. The organization and programming methods applied to MOTAR achieved a high degree of computer utilization efficiency in terms of computer execution time and storage space required for a given problem. The computer time required to perform a given problem on MOTAR is approximately 40 to 50 percent that required for the currently existing widely used routines. The computer storage requirement for MOTAR is approximately 25 percent more than the most commonly used routines for the most simple problems but the data storage techniques for the more complicated options should save a considerable amount of space.

  20. On Metaplectic Modular Categories and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Matthew B.; Nayak, Chetan; Wang, Zhenghan

    2014-08-01

    For non-abelian simple objects in a unitary modular category, the density of their braid group representations, the # P-hard evaluation of their associated link invariants, and the BQP-completeness of their anyonic quantum computing models are closely related. We systematically study such properties of the non-abelian simple objects in the metaplectic modular categories SO( m)2 for an odd integer m ? 3. The simple objects with quantum dimensions have finite image braid group representations, and their link invariants are classically efficient to evaluate. We also provide classically efficient simulations of their braid group representations. These simulations of the braid group representations can be regarded as qudit generalizations of the Knill-Gottesmann theorem for the qubit case. The simple objects of dimension 2 give us a surprising result: while their braid group representations have finite images and are efficiently simulable classically after a generalized localization, their link invariants are # P-hard to evaluate exactly. We sharpen the # P-hardness by showing that any sufficiently accurate approximation of their associated link invariants is already # P-hard.