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1

TectoRNA: modular assembly units for the construction of RNA nano-objects  

PubMed Central

Structural information on complex biological RNA molecules can be exploited to design tectoRNAs or artificial modular RNA units that can self-assemble through tertiary interactions thereby forming nanoscale RNA objects. The selective interactions of hairpin tetraloops with their receptors can be used to mediate tectoRNA assembly. Here we report on the modulation of the specificity and the strength of tectoRNA assembly (in the nanomolar to micromolar range) by variation of the length of the RNA subunits, the nature of their interacting motifs and the degree of flexibility of linker regions incorporated into the molecules. The association is also dependent on the concentration of magnesium. Monitoring of tectoRNA assembly by lead(II) cleavage protection indicates that some degree of structural flexibility is required for optimal binding. With tectoRNAs one can compare the binding affinities of different tertiary motifs and quantify the strength of individual interactions. Furthermore, in analogy to the synthons used in organic chemistry to synthesize more complex organic compounds, tectoRNAs form the basic assembly units for constructing complex RNA structures on the nanometer scale. Thus, tectoRNA provides a means for constructing molecular scaffoldings that organize functional modules in three-dimensional space for a wide range of applications.

Jaeger, Luc; Westhof, Eric; Leontis, Neocles B.

2001-01-01

2

RNA modularity for synthetic biology  

PubMed Central

RNA molecules are highly modular components that can be used in a variety of contexts for building new metabolic, regulatory and genetic circuits in cells. The majority of synthetic RNA systems to date predominately rely on two-dimensional modularity. However, a better understanding and integration of three-dimensional RNA modularity at structural and functional levels is critical to the development of more complex, functional bio-systems and molecular machines for synthetic biology applications.

2013-01-01

3

Modular weapon control unit  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Modular Weapon Control Unit (MWCU) program was to design and develop a reconfigurable weapon controller (programmer/sequencer) that can be adapted to different weapon systems based on the particular requirements for that system. Programmers from previous systems are conceptually the same and perform similar tasks. Because of this commonality and the amount of re-engineering necessary with the advent of every new design, the idea of a modular, adaptable system has emerged. Also, the controller can be used in more than one application for a specific weapon system. Functionality has been divided into a Processor Module (PM) and an Input/Output Module (IOM). The PM will handle all operations that require calculations, memory, and timing. The IOM will handle interfaces to the rest of the system, input level shifting, output drive capability, and detection of interrupt conditions. Configuration flexibility is achieved in two ways. First, the operation of the PM is determined by a surface mount Read-Only Memory (ROM). Other surface-mount components can be added or neglected as necessary for functionality. Second, IOMs consist of configurable input buffers, configurable output drivers, and configurable interrupt generation. Further, these modules can be added singly or in groups to a Processor Module to achieve the required I/O configuration. The culmination of this LDRD was the building of both Processor Module and Input/Output Module. The MWCU was chosen as a test system to evaluate Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology, desirable for high component density and good thermal characteristics.

Boccabella, M.F.; McGovney, G.N.

1997-01-01

4

46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450 Section 181...Systems § 181.450 Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL...

2013-10-01

5

RNA-binding proteins: modular design for efficient function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many RNA-binding proteins have modular structures and are composed of multiple repeats of just a few basic domains that are arranged in various ways to satisfy their diverse functional requirements. Recent studies have investigated how different modules cooperate in regulating the RNA-binding specificity and the biological activity of these proteins. They have also investigated how multiple modules cooperate with enzymatic

Bradley M. Lunde; Claire Moore; Gabriele Varani

2007-01-01

6

Human Factors Issues for Multi-Modular Reactor Units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Smaller and multi-modular reactors (MMR) will be highly technologically-advanced systems allowing more system flexibility to reactor configurations (e.g., addition/removal of reactor units). While the technical and financial advantages of such systems may...

B. P. Hallbert H. Garcia J. C. Joe R. L. Boring T. Q. Tran

2007-01-01

7

Multipurpose modular lentiviral vectors for RNA interference and transgene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have created a multipurpose modular lentiviral vector system for expressing both transgenes and miRNA 30-based short hairpins\\u000a (shRNAmirs) for RNAi. The core of the resulting vector system, pLVmir, allows a simple two step cloning procedure for expressing\\u000a shRNAmirs under the control of a Pol II promoter in both a constitutive and conditional manner. The adapted cloning method\\u000a includes a

Venu Kesireddy; Dieter O. Fürst

2010-01-01

8

RNA backbone: Consensus all-angle conformers and modular string nomenclature (an RNA Ontology Consortium contribution)  

PubMed Central

A consensus classification and nomenclature are defined for RNA backbone structure using all of the backbone torsion angles. By a consensus of several independent analysis methods, 46 discrete conformers are identified as suitably clustered in a quality-filtered, multidimensional dihedral angle distribution. Most of these conformers represent identifiable features or roles within RNA structures. The conformers are given two-character names that reflect the seven-angle ??????? combinations empirically found favorable for the sugar-to-sugar “suite” unit within which the angle correlations are strongest (e.g., 1a for A-form, 5z for the start of S-motifs). Since the half-nucleotides are specified by a number for ??? and a lowercase letter for ????, this modular system can also be parsed to describe traditional nucleotide units (e.g., a1) or the dinucleotides (e.g., a1a1) that are especially useful at the level of crystallographic map fitting. This nomenclature can also be written as a string with two-character suite names between the uppercase letters of the base sequence (N1aG1gN1aR1aA1cN1a for a GNRA tetraloop), facilitating bioinformatic comparisons. Cluster means, standard deviations, coordinates, and examples are made available, as well as the Suitename software that assigns suite conformer names and conformer match quality (suiteness) from atomic coordinates. The RNA Ontology Consortium will combine this new backbone system with others that define base pairs, base-stacking, and hydrogen-bond relationships to provide a full description of RNA structural motifs.

Richardson, Jane S.; Schneider, Bohdan; Murray, Laura W.; Kapral, Gary J.; Immormino, Robert M.; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Richardson, David C.; Ham, Daniela; Hershkovits, Eli; Williams, Loren Dean; Keating, Kevin S.; Pyle, Anna Marie; Micallef, David; Westbrook, John; Berman, Helen M.

2008-01-01

9

A modular strategy for engineering orthogonal chimeric RNA transcription regulators  

PubMed Central

Antisense RNA transcription attenuators are a key component of the synthetic biology toolbox, with their ability to serve as building blocks for both signal integration logic circuits and transcriptional cascades. However, a central challenge to building more sophisticated RNA genetic circuitry is creating larger families of orthogonal attenuators that function independently of each other. Here, we overcome this challenge by developing a modular strategy to create chimeric fusions between the engineered transcriptional attenuator from plasmid pT181 and natural antisense RNA translational regulators. Using in vivo gene expression assays in Escherichia coli, we demonstrate our ability to create chimeric attenuators by fusing sequences from five different translational regulators. Mutagenesis of these functional attenuators allowed us to create a total of 11 new chimeric attenutaors. A comprehensive orthogonality test of these culminated in a 7 × 7 matrix of mutually orthogonal regulators. A comparison between all chimeras tested led to design principles that will facilitate further engineering of orthogonal RNA transcription regulators, and may help elucidate general principles of non-coding RNA regulation. We anticipate that our strategy will accelerate the development of even larger families of orthogonal RNA transcription regulators, and thus create breakthroughs in our ability to construct increasingly sophisticated RNA genetic circuitry.

Takahashi, Melissa K.; Lucks, Julius B.

2013-01-01

10

Engineering modular 'ON' RNA switches using biological components.  

PubMed

Riboswitches are cis-acting regulatory elements broadly distributed in bacterial mRNAs that control a wide range of critical metabolic activities. Expression is governed by two distinct domains within the mRNA leader: a sensory 'aptamer domain' and a regulatory 'expression platform'. Riboswitches have also received considerable attention as important tools in synthetic biology because of their conceptually simple structure and the ability to obtain aptamers that bind almost any conceivable small molecule using in vitro selection (referred to as SELEX). In the design of artificial riboswitches, a significant hurdle has been to couple the two domains enabling their efficient communication. We previously demonstrated that biological transcriptional 'OFF' expression platforms are easily coupled to diverse aptamers, both biological and SELEX-derived, using simple design rules. Here, we present two modular transcriptional 'ON' riboswitch expression platforms that are also capable of hosting foreign aptamers. We demonstrate that these biological parts can be used to facilely generate artificial chimeric riboswitches capable of robustly regulating transcription both in vitro and in vivo. We expect that these modular expression platforms will be of great utility for various synthetic biological applications that use RNA-based biosensors. PMID:23999097

Ceres, Pablo; Trausch, Jeremiah J; Batey, Robert T

2013-12-01

11

Human Factors Issues For Multi-Modular Reactor Units  

SciTech Connect

Smaller and multi-modular reactor (MMR) will be highly technologically-advanced systems allowing more system flexibility to reactors configurations (e.g., addition/deletion of reactor units). While the technical and financial advantages of systems may be numerous, MMR presents many human factors challenges that may pose vulnerability to plant safety. An important human factors challenge in MMR operation and performance is the monitoring of data from multiple plants from centralized control rooms where human operators are responsible for interpreting, assessing, and responding to different system’s states and failures (e.g., simultaneously monitoring refueling at one plant while keeping an eye on another plant’s normal operating state). Furthermore, the operational, safety, and performance requirements for MMR can seriously change current staffing models and roles, the mode in which information is displayed, procedures and training to support and guide operators, and risk analysis. For these reasons, addressing human factors concerns in MMR are essential in reducing plant risk.

Tuan Q Tran; Humberto E. Garcia; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Bruce P. Hallbert

2007-08-01

12

Features of modularly assembled compounds that impart bioactivity against an RNA target.  

PubMed

Transcriptomes provide a myriad of potential RNAs that could be the targets of therapeutics or chemical genetic probes of function. Cell-permeable small molecules, however, generally do not exploit these targets, owing to the difficulty in the design of high affinity, specific small molecules targeting RNA. As part of a general program to study RNA function using small molecules, we designed bioactive, modularly assembled small molecules that target the noncoding expanded RNA repeat that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), r(CUG)(exp). Herein, we present a rigorous study to elucidate features in modularly assembled compounds that afford bioactivity. Different modular assembly scaffolds were investigated, including polyamines, ?-peptides, ?-peptides, and peptide tertiary amides (PTAs). On the basis of activity as assessed by improvement of DM1-associated defects, stability against proteases, cellular permeability, and toxicity, we discovered that constrained backbones, namely, PTAs, are optimal. Notably, we determined that r(CUG)(exp) is the target of the optimal PTA in cellular models and that the optimal PTA improves DM1-associated defects in a mouse model. Biophysical analyses were employed to investigate potential sources of bioactivity. These investigations show that modularly assembled compounds have increased residence times on their targets and faster on rates than the RNA-binding modules from which they were derived. Moreover, they have faster on rates than the protein that binds r(CUG)(exp), the inactivation of which gives rise to DM1-associated defects. These studies provide information about features of small molecules that are programmable for targeting RNA, allowing for the facile optimization of therapeutics or chemical probes against other cellular RNA targets. PMID:24032410

Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Gao, Yu; Tang, Zhen-Zhi; Thornton, Charles A; Kodadek, Thomas; Disney, Matthew D

2013-10-18

13

The Sarcin\\/Ricin Loop, a Modular RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conformation of a 29 base oligonucleotide called E73 has been determined in solution by NMR. E73 includes a 23 nucleotide sequence that is identical with that of a the ?-sarcin and ricin-sensitive loop (SRL) from rat 28 rRNA, and like the SRL in intact ribosomes, E73 is a substrate for both toxins. The SRL includes a long, conserved sequence

A. A. Szewczak; P. B. Moore

1995-01-01

14

M-pick, a modularity-based method for OTU picking of 16S rRNA sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Binning 16S rRNA sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) is an initial crucial step in analyzing large sequence datasets generated to determine microbial community compositions in various environments including that of the human gut. Various methods have been developed, but most suffer from either inaccuracies or from being unable to handle millions of sequences generated in current studies. Furthermore, existing binning methods usually require a priori decisions regarding binning parameters such as a distance level for defining an OTU. Results We present a novel modularity-based approach (M-pick) to address the aforementioned problems. The new method utilizes ideas from community detection in graphs, where sequences are viewed as vertices on a weighted graph, each pair of sequences is connected by an imaginary edge, and the similarity of a pair of sequences represents the weight of the edge. M-pick first generates a graph based on pairwise sequence distances and then applies a modularity-based community detection technique on the graph to generate OTUs to capture the community structures in sequence data. To compare the performance of M-pick with that of existing methods, specifically CROP and ESPRIT-Tree, sequence data from different hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA were used and binning results were compared. Conclusions A new modularity-based clustering method for OTU picking of 16S rRNA sequences is developed in this study. The algorithm does not require a predetermined cut-off level, and our simulation studies suggest that it is superior to existing methods that require specified distance levels to define OTUs. The source code is available at http://plaza.ufl.edu/xywang/Mpick.htm.

2013-01-01

15

Rational Design of Bioactive, Modularly Assembled Aminoglycosides Targeting the RNA that Causes Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused when an expanded r(CUG) repeat (r(CUG)exp) binds the RNA splicing regulator muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1) as well as other proteins. Previously, we reported that modularly assembled small molecules displaying a 6?-N-5-hexynoate kanamycin A RNA-binding module (K) on a peptoid backbone potently inhibit the binding of MBNL1 to r(CUG)exp. However, these parent compounds are not appreciably active in cell-based models of DM1. The lack of potency was traced to suboptimal cellular permeability and localization. To improve these properties, second-generation compounds that are conjugated to a D-Arg9 molecular transporter were synthesized. These modified compounds enter cells in higher concentrations than the parent compounds and are efficacious in cell-based DM1 model systems at low micromolar concentrations. In particular, they improve three defects that are the hallmarks of DM1: a translational defect due to nuclear retention of transcripts containing r(CUG)exp; pre-mRNA splicing defects due to inactivation of MBNL1; and the formation of nuclear foci. The best compound in cell-based studies was tested in a mouse model of DM1. Modest improvement of pre-mRNA splicing defects was observed. These studies suggest that a modular assembly approach can afford bioactive compounds that target RNA.

Childs-Disney, Jessica L.; Parkesh, Raman; Nakamori, Masayuki; Thornton, Charles A.; Disney, Matthew D.

2012-01-01

16

Rational design of bioactive, modularly assembled aminoglycosides targeting the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1.  

PubMed

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused when an expanded r(CUG) repeat (r(CUG)(exp)) binds the RNA splicing regulator muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1) as well as other proteins. Previously, we reported that modularly assembled small molecules displaying a 6'-N-5-hexynoate kanamycin A RNA-binding module (K) on a peptoid backbone potently inhibit the binding of MBNL1 to r(CUG)(exp). However, these parent compounds are not appreciably active in cell-based models of DM1. The lack of potency was traced to suboptimal cellular permeability and localization. To improve these properties, second-generation compounds that are conjugated to a d-Arg(9) molecular transporter were synthesized. These modified compounds enter cells in higher concentrations than the parent compounds and are efficacious in cell-based DM1 model systems at low micromolar concentrations. In particular, they improve three defects that are the hallmarks of DM1: a translational defect due to nuclear retention of transcripts containing r(CUG)(exp); pre-mRNA splicing defects due to inactivation of MBNL1; and the formation of nuclear foci. The best compound in cell-based studies was tested in a mouse model of DM1. Modest improvement of pre-mRNA splicing defects was observed. These studies suggest that a modular assembly approach can afford bioactive compounds that target RNA. PMID:23130637

Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Parkesh, Raman; Nakamori, Masayuki; Thornton, Charles A; Disney, Matthew D

2012-12-21

17

Modeling Organizational Units as Modular Components of Systems of Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern software systems are frequently characterized as systems of systems. Agent-orientation as a software engineering paradigm exhibits a high degree of qualification for addressing many of the accompanying challenges. However, when it comes to a hierarchical/recursive system decomposition, classical agent orientation reaches its limits. We propose the concept of an organizational unit that both embeds actors and is itself embedded as a collective actor in surrounding organizational units. Building upon previous publications that feature an abstract model of organizational units, we supply it with a precise operational semantics in this paper.

Wester-Ebbinghaus, Matthias; Moldt, Daniel; Köhler-Bußmeier, Michael

18

Development of a "modular" scheme to describe the kinetics of transcript elongation by RNA polymerase.  

PubMed

Transcript elongation by RNA polymerase involves the sequential appearance of several alternative and off-pathway states of the transcript elongation complex (TEC), and this complicates modeling of the kinetics of the transcription elongation process. Based on solutions of the chemical master equation for such transcription systems as a function of time, we here develop a modular scheme for simulating such kinetic transcription data. This scheme deals explicitly with the problem of TEC desynchronization as transcript synthesis proceeds, and develops kinetic modules to permit the various alternative states of the TECs (paused states, backtracked states, arrested states, and terminated states) to be introduced one-by-one as needed. In this way, we can set up a comprehensive kinetic model of appropriate complexity to fit the known transcriptional properties of any given DNA template and set of experimental conditions, including regulatory cofactors. In the companion article, this modular scheme is successfully used to model kinetic transcription elongation data obtained by bulk-gel electrophoresis quenching procedures and real-time surface plasmon resonance methods from a template of known sequence that contains defined pause, stall, and termination sites. PMID:21889453

Greive, Sandra J; Goodarzi, Jim P; Weitzel, Steven E; von Hippel, Peter H

2011-09-01

19

Cesium and Isopar L Concentrations in Samples Collected During Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Simulant Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During simulant testing, the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) collected samples and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel for analysis of cesium, Isopar L, and Modifier (1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoro propoxy)-3-(...

C. Coleman L. Johnson M. Poirier P. Thomas S. Fink

2007-01-01

20

Performance Evaluation of a Modular Detector Unit for X-Ray Computed Tomography  

PubMed Central

A research prototype CT scanner is currently under development in our lab. One of the key components in this project is the CT detector. This paper describes the design and performance evaluation of the modular CT detector unit for our proposed scanner. It consists of a Photodiode Array Assembly which captures irradiating X-ray photons and converts the energy into electrical current, and a mini Data Acquisition System which performs current integration and converts the analog signal into digital samples. The detector unit can be easily tiled together to form a CT detector. Experiments were conducted to characterize the detector performance both at the single unit level and system level. The noise level, linearity and uniformity of the proposed detector unit were reported and initial imaging studies were also presented which demonstrated the potential application of the proposed detector unit in actual CT scanners.

Guo, Zhe; Tang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xinzeng; Deng, Mingliang; Hu, Guangshu; Zhang, Hui

2013-01-01

21

A Modular Strategy for Development of RNA-Based Fluorescent Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent biosensors that directly transduce binding events of small molecules into optical signals are valuable tools in the areas of therapeutics and diagnostics. However, construction of fluorescent biosensors from macromolecular receptors with desired characteristics, such as detection wavelengths and concentration ranges for ligand detection, is not a straightforward task. A ribonucleopeptide (RNP) receptor was easy to convert to a fluorescent RNP sensor without chemically modifying the nucleotide in the ligand-binding RNA. The strategy of converting the ligand-binding RNP receptor to a fluorescent RNP sensor was applied to generate fluorescent ligandbinding RNP libraries by utilizing a pool of RNA subunits obtained from the in vitro selection of ATP-binding RNPs and various fluorophore-modified peptide subunits. Simple screening of the fluorescent RNP library based on the fluorescence emission intensity changes in the absence and presence of the ligand afforded a wide variety of fluorescent RNP sensors with emission wavelengths ranged from 390 to 670 nm. Screening of the fluorescence emission intensity changes in the presence of increasing concentrations of ligand provided RNP sensors responding at wide concentration ranges of ligand. The combinatorial strategy using the modular RNP receptor enables tailoring of a fluorescent sensor for a specific ligand without knowledge of detailed structural information for the macromolecular receptor.

Fukuda, Masatora; Hasegawa, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Hironori; Morii, Takashi

22

Specific and Modular Binding Code for Cytosine Recognition in Pumilio/FBF (PUF) RNA-binding Domains  

SciTech Connect

Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) proteins possess a recognition code for bases A, U, and G, allowing designed RNA sequence specificity of their modular Pumilio (PUM) repeats. However, recognition side chains in a PUM repeat for cytosine are unknown. Here we report identification of a cytosine-recognition code by screening random amino acid combinations at conserved RNA recognition positions using a yeast three-hybrid system. This C-recognition code is specific and modular as specificity can be transferred to different positions in the RNA recognition sequence. A crystal structure of a modified PUF domain reveals specific contacts between an arginine side chain and the cytosine base. We applied the C-recognition code to design PUF domains that recognize targets with multiple cytosines and to generate engineered splicing factors that modulate alternative splicing. Finally, we identified a divergent yeast PUF protein, Nop9p, that may recognize natural target RNAs with cytosine. This work deepens our understanding of natural PUF protein target recognition and expands the ability to engineer PUF domains to recognize any RNA sequence.

Dong, Shuyun; Wang, Yang; Cassidy-Amstutz, Caleb; Lu, Gang; Bigler, Rebecca; Jezyk, Mark R.; Li, Chunhua; Tanaka Hall, Traci M.; Wang, Zefeng (NIH); (Beijing U); (UNC)

2011-10-28

23

Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

2012-01-17

24

pSAT RNA interference vectors: a modular series for multiple gene down-regulation in plants.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for functional gene analysis, which has been successfully used to down-regulate the levels of specific target genes, enabling loss-of-function studies in living cells. Hairpin (hp) RNA expression cassettes are typically constructed on binary plasmids and delivered into plant cells by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Realizing the importance of RNAi for basic plant research, various vectors have been developed for RNAi-mediated gene silencing, allowing the silencing of single target genes in plant cells. To further expand the collection of available tools for functional genomics in plant species, we constructed a set of modular vectors suitable for hpRNA expression under various constitutive promoters. Our system allows simple cloning of the target gene sequences into two distinct multicloning sites and its modular design provides a straightforward route for replacement of the expression cassette's regulatory elements. More importantly, our system was designed to facilitate the assembly of several hpRNA expression cassettes on a single plasmid, thereby enabling the simultaneous suppression of several target genes from a single vector. We tested the functionality of our new vector system by silencing overexpressed marker genes (green fluorescent protein, DsRed2, and nptII) in transgenic plants. Various combinations of hpRNA expression cassettes were assembled in binary plasmids; all showed strong down-regulation of the reporter genes in transgenic plants. Furthermore, assembly of all three hpRNA expression cassettes, combined with a fourth cassette for the expression of a selectable marker, resulted in down-regulation of all three different marker genes in transgenic plants. This vector system provides an important addition to the plant molecular biologist's toolbox, which will significantly facilitate the use of RNAi technology for analyses of multiple gene function in plant cells. PMID:17766396

Dafny-Yelin, Mery; Chung, Sang-Min; Frankman, Ellen L; Tzfira, Tzvi

2007-12-01

25

BYY learning, regularized implementation, and model selection on modular networks with one hidden layer of binary units  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BYY learning has been extended to a modular system, with developments on not only regularized implementation via either normalization or data smoothing, but also the least com- plexity based model selection. Moreover, both unsupervised and supervised learning have been speci2cally investigated on networks with one hidden layer of binary units. Adaptive EM-like learning algorithms are provided for implementing regularized

Lei Xu

2003-01-01

26

Life Extension Program for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit at Savannah River Site - 13179  

SciTech Connect

Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. Currently, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the CSSX process are deployed in the (ARP)/Modular CSSX Unit (MCU), to process salt waste for permanent disposition. The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. The original plant was permitted for a three year design life; however, given the successful operation of the plant, a life extension program was completed to continue operations. The program included detailed engineering analyses of the life-expectancy of passive and active components, resulting in component replacement and/or maintenance and monitoring program improvements. The program also included a review of the operations and resulted in a series of operational improvements. Since the improvements have been made, an accelerated processing rate has been demonstrated. In addition, plans for instituting a next-generation solvent are in place and will enhance the decontamination factors. (author)

Samadi, Azadeh [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

27

RNA-seq profiles from grass carp tissues after reovirus (GCRV) infection based on singular and modular enrichment analyses.  

PubMed

Hemorrhagic disease of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, is a fatal disease in fingerlings and yearlings caused by a reovirus, GCRV. RNA-seq data from four diseased grass carp tissues (gill, intestine, liver and spleen) were obtained at 2h before and six times after (2h, 24h, 48h, 72h, 96h and 120h) GCRV challenge. A total of 7.25±0.18 million (M) clean reads and 3.53±0.37M unique reads were obtained per RNA-seq analysis. Compared with controls, there were 9060 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the four tissues at the six time points post-GCRV challenge. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the DEGs showed that the data from the six time points fell into three branches: 2h, 24h/48h, and 72h/96h/120h. Singular (SEA) and modular enrichment analyses of DEGs per RNA-seq dataset were performed based on gene ontology. The results showed that immune responses occurred in all four tissues, indicating that GCRV probably does not target any tissue specifically. Moreover, during the course of disease, disturbances were observed in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in each of the organs. SEA of DEGs based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database was also performed, and this indicated that the complement system and cellular immunity played an important role during the course of hemorrhagic disease. The qPCR of pooled samples of duplicate challenge experiment were used to confirm our RNA-seq approach. PMID:24865419

Shi, Mijuan; Huang, Rong; Du, Fukuan; Pei, Yongyan; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

2014-09-01

28

Modular Plasmonic Nanocarriers for Efficient and Targeted Delivery of Cancer-Therapeutic siRNA.  

PubMed

We have combined a versatile and powerful route to deliver nucleic acids with peptide-based cell-specific targeting. siRNA targeting the polo-like kinase gene is in clinical trials for cancer treatment, and here we deliver this RNA selectively to cancer cells displaying the neuropilin-1 epitope using gold nanoshells. Release of the siRNA from the nanoparticles results from irradiation with a pulsed near-infrared laser, which also provides efficient endosomal escape within the cell. As a result, our approach requires 10-fold less material than standard nucleic acid transduction materials and is significantly more efficient than other particle-based methods. We also describe a particle-nucleic acid design that does not rely on modified RNA, thereby making the preparation of these materials more efficient and much less expensive. These improvements, when combined with control over when and where the siRNA is released, could provide the basis for diverse cell biological studies. PMID:24597503

Huang, Xiao; Pallaoro, Alessia; Braun, Gary B; Morales, Demosthenes P; Ogunyankin, Maria O; Zasadzinski, Joseph; Reich, Norbert O

2014-04-01

29

Examination of Organic Carryover from 2-cm Contactors to Support the Modular CSSX Unit  

SciTech Connect

A bank of four 2-cm centrifugal contactors was operated in countercurrent fashion to help address questions about organic carryover for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The contactors, having weirs sized for strip operation, were used to examine carryover for both strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS). Since only one bank of contactors was available in the short time frame of this work, the organic phase and only one aqueous phase were present in the flow loops at a time. Personnel maintained flowsheet-typical organic phase to aqueous phase (O:A) flow ratios when varying flow rates. Solvent from two different batches were tested with strip solution. In addition, potential mitigations of pH adjustment and coalescing media were examined. The experiment found that organic carryover after decanting averaged 220 ppm by mass with a range of 74 to 417 ppm of Isopar{reg_sign} L for strip effluent (SE)/organic solvent contacts. These values are based on measured modifier. Values were bounded by a value of 95 ppm based upon Isopar{reg_sign} L values as reported. The higher modifier-based numbers are considered more reliable at this time. Carryover of Isopar{reg_sign} L in DSS simulant averaged 77 ppm by mass with a range of 70 to 88 ppm of Isopar{reg_sign} L based on modifier content. The carryover was bounded by a value of 19 ppm based upon Isopar{reg_sign} L values as reported. More work is needed to resolve the discrepancy between modifier and Isopar{reg_sign} L values. The work did not detect organic droplets greater than 18 microns in SE. Strip output contained droplets down to 0.5 micron in size. Droplets in DSS were almost monodisperse by comparison, having a size range 4.7 +/- 1.6 micron in one test and 5.2 +/- 0.8 micron in the second demonstration. Optical microscopy provided qualitative results confirming the integrity of droplet size measurements in this work. Acidic or basic adjustments of aqueous strip solution from pH 3 to 1 and from pH 3 to 11 were not effective in clarifying the aqueous dispersions of organic droplets. Use of a 0.7-micron rated glass fiber filter of 3/4 mm thickness under gravity flow provided significant reduction in organic content and increased clarity. A 2 inch element stack of ''Teflon{reg_sign} Fiber Interceptor-Pak{trademark}'' media from ACS Separations, Inc. was not effective in clarifying DSS simulant.

Nash, Charles A.; Norato, Michael A.; Walker; D. Douglas; Pierce, Robert A.; Eubanks, Ronnye A.; Clark, James D.; Smith, Wilson M. Jr.; Crump, Stephen L.; Nelson, D. Zane; Fink, Samuel D.; Peters, Thomas B.; May, Cecil G.; Herman, David T.; Bolton, Henry L.

2005-04-29

30

NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign}, Tefzel{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign}) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of the guanidine suppressor and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that guanidine (LIX{reg_sign}79) selectively affected Tefzel{reg_sign} (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel{reg_sign} and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of guanidine. Tefzel{reg_sign} is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to guanidine, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel{reg_sign}) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel{reg_sign} in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel{reg_sign} seating material. PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign} were not affected by guanidine and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and limited uptake of Isopar{reg_sign} L/Modifier by the polymers probably due to the polymers porosity and rough surfaces. Spectroscopic data on the organic liquid and the polymer surfaces showed no preferential adsorption of any component in the NGS to the polymers and no leachate was observed in the NGS from any of the polymers studied.

Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

2011-09-29

31

Life extension program for the modular caustic side solvent extraction unit at Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. At SRS, the CSSX process is deployed in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. Coalescers and decanters process the Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) and Strip Effluent (SE) streams to allow recovery and reuse of the organic solvent and to limit the quantity of solvent transferred to the downstream facilities. MCU is operated in series with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) which removes strontium and actinides from salt waste utilizing monosodium titanate. ARP and MCU were developed and implemented as interim salt processing until future processing technology, the CSSX-based Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), is operational. SWPF is slated to come on-line in October 2014. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU process, however, was reached in April 2011. Nevertheless, most of the individual process components are capable of operating longer. An evaluation determined ARP/MCU can operate until 2015 before major equipment failure is expected. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU Life Extension (ARP/MCU LE) program will bridge the gap between current ARP/MCU operations and the start of SWPF operation. The ARP/MCU LE program introduces no new technologies. As a portion of this program, a Next Generation Solvent (NGS) and corresponding flowsheet are being developed to provide a major performance enhancement at MCU. This paper discusses all the modifications performed in the facility to support the ARP/MCU Life Extension. It will also discuss the next generation chemistry, including NGS and new stripping chemistry, which will increase cesium removal efficiency in MCU. Possible implementation of the NGS chemistry in MCU accomplishes two objectives. MCU serves as a demonstration facility for improved flowsheet deployment at SWPF; operating with NGS and boric acid validates improved cesium removal performance and increased throughput as well as confirms Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) ability to vitrify waste streams containing boron. NGS implementation at MCU also aids the ARP/MCU LE operation, mitigating the impacts of delays and sustaining operations until other technology is able to come on-line.

Samadi-Dezfouli, Azadeh

2012-11-14

32

Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to

OHara J. M; J. Higgins; A. DAgostino

2012-01-01

33

Public Education in the United States. A Modularized Course. Elementary Education 3010. Secondary Education 3040.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This modularized, self-paced study program in Elementary and Secondary Education for K-12 majors is an evolving course of study designed for responsible students. The course is organized into six modules: Trends and Issues in Contemporary Education, Philosophical and Historical Foundations of Education, Administrative Structure and Financing of…

Lawrence, Joyce V.; Mamola, Claire Z.

34

Controlling the Specificity of Modularly Assembled Small Molecules for RNA via Ligand Module Spacing: Targeting the RNAs that Cause Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Myotonic muscular dystrophy types 1 and 2 (DM1 and DM2, respectively) are caused by expansions of repeating nucleotides in non-coding regions of RNA. In DM1, the expansion is an rCUG triplet repeat whereas the DM2 expansion is an rCCUG quadruplet repeat, both of which fold into hairpin structures with periodically repeating internal loops separated by two 5?GC/3?CG base pairs. The sizes of the loops, however, are different: the DM1 repeat forms 1 × 1 nucleotide UU loops while the DM2 repeat forms 2 × 2 nucleotide 5?CU/3?UC loops. DM is caused when the expanded repeats bind the RNA splicing regulator Muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1), thus compromising its function. Therefore, one potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases is to prevent MBNL1 from binding the toxic RNA repeats. Previously, we designed nanomolar inhibitors of the DM2-MBNL1 interaction by modularly assembling 6?-N-5-hexyonate kanamycin A (K) onto a peptoid backbone. The K ligand binds the 2 × 2 pyrimidine-rich internal loops found in the DM2 RNA with high affinity. The best compound identified from that study contains three K modules separated by four propylamine spacing modules and is 20-fold selective over the DM1 RNA. Because the modularly assembled K-containing compounds also bound the DM1 RNA, albeit with lower affinity, and because the loop size is different, we hypothesized that the optimal DM1 RNA binder may display K modules separated by shorter distance between ligand modules. Indeed, the ideal DM1 RNA binder has only two propylamine spacing modules separating the K ligands. Peptoids displaying three and four K modules on a peptoid scaffold bind the DM1 RNA with Kd's of 20 (3-fold selective for DM1 over DM2) and 4 nM (6-fold selective for DM1 over DM2) and inhibit the RNA-protein interaction with IC50's of 40 and 7 nM, respectively. Importantly, by coupling the two studies together, we have determined that appropriate spacing can affect binding selectivity by 60-fold (20- × 3-fold). The trimer and tetramer also bind ?13- and ?63-fold more tightly to DM1 RNAs than does MBNL1. The modularly assembled compounds are cell permeable and non-toxic as determined by flow cytometry. The results establish that for these two systems: (i) a programmable modular assembly approach can provide synthetic ligands for RNA with affinities and specificities that exceed those of natural proteins; and (ii) the spacing of ligand modules can be used to tune specificity for one RNA target over another.

Lee, Melissa M.; Childs-Disney, Jessica L.; Pushechnikov, Alexei; French, Jonathan M.; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Thornton, Charles A.; Disney, Matthew D.

2009-01-01

35

RNA structure alignment by a unit-vector approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: The recent discovery of tiny RNA molecules such as µRNAs and small interfering RNA are transforming the view of RNA as a simple information transfer molecule. Similar to proteins, the native three-dimensional structure of RNA determines its biological activity. Therefore, classifying the current structural space is paramount for functionally annotating RNA molecules. The increasing numbers of RNA structures deposited

Emidio Capriotti; Marc A. Martí-renom

2008-01-01

36

A graphics processing unit accelerated motion correction algorithm and modular system for real-time fMRI.  

PubMed

Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) has recently gained interest as a possible means to facilitate the learning of certain behaviors. However, rt-fMRI is limited by processing speed and available software, and continued development is needed for rt-fMRI to progress further and become feasible for clinical use. In this work, we present an open-source rt-fMRI system for biofeedback powered by a novel Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) accelerated motion correction strategy as part of the BioImage Suite project ( www.bioimagesuite.org ). Our system contributes to the development of rt-fMRI by presenting a motion correction algorithm that provides an estimate of motion with essentially no processing delay as well as a modular rt-fMRI system design. Using empirical data from rt-fMRI scans, we assessed the quality of motion correction in this new system. The present algorithm performed comparably to standard (non real-time) offline methods and outperformed other real-time methods based on zero order interpolation of motion parameters. The modular approach to the rt-fMRI system allows the system to be flexible to the experiment and feedback design, a valuable feature for many applications. We illustrate the flexibility of the system by describing several of our ongoing studies. Our hope is that continuing development of open-source rt-fMRI algorithms and software will make this new technology more accessible and adaptable, and will thereby accelerate its application in the clinical and cognitive neurosciences. PMID:23319241

Scheinost, Dustin; Hampson, Michelle; Qiu, Maolin; Bhawnani, Jitendra; Constable, R Todd; Papademetris, Xenophon

2013-07-01

37

Developing a Modular Curriculum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship among content units in the nursing curriculum offered at the Evanston Hospital School of Nursing in Illinois is explored. The decision was made that, within any given course, students could study content in any sequence. A modular curricu...

M. Beyers N. Diekelmann M. Thompson

1972-01-01

38

An in vitro-selected RNA receptor for the GAAC loop: modular receptor for non-GNRA-type tetraloop  

PubMed Central

Although artificial RNA motifs that can functionally replace the GNRA/receptor interaction, a class of RNA–RNA interacting motifs, were isolated from RNA libraries and used to generate designer RNA structures, receptors for non-GNRA tetraloops have not been found in nature or selected from RNA libraries. In this study, we report successful isolation of a receptor motif interacting with GAAC, a non-GNRA tetraloop, from randomized sequences embedded in a catalytic RNA. Biochemical characterization of the GAAC/receptor interacting motif within three structural contexts showed its binding affinity, selectivity and structural autonomy. The motif has binding affinity comparable with that of a GNRA/receptor, selectivity orthogonal to GNRA/receptors and structural autonomy even in a large RNA context. These features would be advantageous for usage of the motif as a building block for designer RNAs. The isolated motif can also be used as a query sequence to search for unidentified naturally occurring GANC receptor motifs.

Ishikawa, Junya; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya

2013-01-01

39

Modular Arithmetic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about modular arithmetic and how to apply it in real world situations involving remainders. Students are introduced to modular notation (# mod #) and learn how to perform modular arithmetic. Lists of prerequisites, suggested lesson outlines and links to individual activities and to worksheets and discussions are included.

2004-01-01

40

Documentation of a computer program to simulate transient leakage from confining units using the modular finite-difference, ground-water flow model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transient leakage into or out of a compressible fine-grained confining unit results from ground- water storage changes within the unit. The computer program described in this report provides a new method of simulating transient leakage using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite- difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW). The new program is referred to as the Transient- Leakage Package. The Transient-Leakage Package solves integrodifferential equations that describe flow across the upper and lower boundaries of confining units. For each confining unit, vertical hydraulic conductivity, thickness, and specific storage are specified in input arrays. These properties can vary from cell to cell and the confining unit need not be present at all locations in the grid; however, the confining units must be bounded above and below by model layers in which head is calculated or specified. The package was used in an example problem to simulate drawdown around a pumping well in a system with two aquifers separated by a confining unit. For drawdown values in excess of 1 centimeter, the solution using the new package closely matched an exact analytical solution. The problem also was simulated without the new package by using a separate model layer to represent the confining unit. That simulation was refined by using two model layers to represent the confining unit. The simulation using the Transient-Leakage Package was faster and more accurate than either of the simulations using model layers to represent the confining unit.

Leake, S. A.; Leahy, P. P.; Navoy, A. S.

1994-01-01

41

pSAT RNA Interference Vectors: A Modular Series for Multiple Gene Down-Regulation in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for functional gene analysis, which has been successfully used to down-regulate the levels of specific target genes, enabling loss-of-function studies in living cells. Hairpin (hp) RNA expression cassettes are typically constructed on binary plasmids and delivered into plant cells by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Realizing the importance of RNAi for basic plant research, various

Mery Dafny-Yelin; S ang-Min Chung; Ellen L. Frankman; Tzvi Tzfira

2007-01-01

42

The ribosomal RNA transcription unit of Entamoeba invadens: accumulation of unprocessed pre-rRNA and a long non coding RNA during encystation.  

PubMed

The ribosomal RNA genes in Entamoeba spp. are located on extrachromosomal circular molecules. Unlike model organisms where rRNA transcription stops during growth stress, Entamoeba histolytica continues transcription; but unprocessed pre-rRNA accumulates during stress, along with a novel class of circular transcripts from the 5'-external transcribed spacer (ETS). To determine the fate of rRNA transcription during stage conversion between trophozoite to cyst we analyzed Entamoeba invadens, a model system for differentiation studies in Entamoeba. We characterized the complete rDNA transcription unit by mapping the ends of pre-rRNA and mature rRNAs. The 3' end of mature 28S rRNA was located 321 nt downstream of the end predicted by sequence homology with E. histolytica. The major processing sites were mapped in external and internal transcribed spacers. The promoter located within 146 nt upstream of 5' ETS was used to transcribe the pre-rRNA. On the other hand, a second promoter located at the 3' end of 28S rDNA was used to transcribe almost the entire intergenic spacer into a long non coding (nc) RNA (>10 kb). Interestingly we found that the levels of pre-rRNA and long ncRNA, measured by northern hybridization, decreased initially in cells shifted to encystation medium, after which they began to increase and reached high levels by 72 h when mature cysts were formed. Unlike E. histolytica, no circular transcripts were found in E. invadens. E. histolytica and E. invadens express fundamentally different ncRNAs from the rDNA locus, which may reflect their adaptation to different hosts (human and reptiles, respectively). This is the first description of rDNA organization and transcription in E. invadens, and provides the framework for further studies on regulation of rRNA synthesis during cyst formation. PMID:24200639

Ojha, Sandeep; Singh, Nishant; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

2013-01-01

43

Modular avionics: a commercial perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular avionics are in the process of supplanting traditional LRU (line replaceable unit) based avionics on new military aircraft and will see initial applications on commercial transport aircraft in the mid to late 1990s. The author discusses the major considerations which must be addressed for modular avionics on commercial transport aircraft as well as the needs of commercial versus military

J. R. Todd

1991-01-01

44

Modular entanglement.  

PubMed

We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing. PMID:21405382

Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio

2011-02-01

45

Mapping of Digitaria streak virus transcripts reveals different RNA species from the same transcription unit.  

PubMed Central

All, except 19 [corrected] bp, of the Digitaria streak virus (DSV) genome is transcribed. Two RNA transcripts (1+ and 2+) are encoded by the virion DNA strand and up to five (1- to 5-) by the complementary DNA strand [corrected]. Detailed mapping of these RNAs has revealed evidence for splicing in one species (RNA 4-), which together with its more abundant unspliced counterpart (RNA 2-) could synthesize both a 30.5 and 41 kd polypeptide from the same transcription unit. This extensive overlapping of spliced and unspliced RNAs could indicate that the initiation and splicing of transcripts is temporally regulated. At least one transcript (RNA 1-) may have a non-translational role. Transcription of the DSV genome shows similarities to some animal DNA viruses, particularly the papovaviruses. Images

Accotto, G P; Donson, J; Mullineaux, P M

1989-01-01

46

RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND STRIP EFFLUENT COALESCER ELEMENTS FROM RADIOACTIVE OPERATIONS OF THE MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT  

SciTech Connect

The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of {approx}24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

2011-06-28

47

Structural link between giant molybdenum oxide based ions and derived Keggin structure: modular assemblies based on the [BW11O39]9- ion and pentagonal {M'M5} units (M' = W; M = Mo,W).  

PubMed

Linked to the Pentagon: The addition of molybdate to [HBW(11)O(39)](8-) ions leads to the formation of mixed pentagonal units {W(Mo(5))} and {W(WMo(4))} trapped as linkers in the resulting modular assemblies, thus establishing the first link between the conventional Keggin ion derivatives and the giant molybdenum oxide and keplerate ions. PMID:19475597

Leclerc-Laronze, Nathalie; Marrot, Jérôme; Thouvenot, René; Cadot, Emmanuel

2009-01-01

48

Modular Synthesizers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the basics of inexpensive modular synthesizers (which demonstrate various principles of sound). Topics considered include: oscillators and musical range; oscillator waveforms and characteristics; synthesizing simple musical sounds; and modulation and sweeping filter effects. Suggestions for purchasing or building synthesizer components…

Ruiz, Michael J.

1985-01-01

49

Modular cleanroom construction success.  

PubMed

The completion of a 408 m2 major new aseptic pharmacy unit for the St George's Hospital NHS Trust, London, is a significant example of the benefits of using modern modular construction techniques compared to a traditional cleanroom build. At every stage from concept through project planning to final completion, the use of modules proved to be the most appropriate for the task. PMID:17892061

Möllmann, Markus

2007-09-01

50

Modular 5-kW Power-Processing Unit Being Developed for the Next-Generation Ion Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a 5- to 10-kW ion engine for a broad range of mission applications. Simultaneously, a 5-kW breadboard power-processing unit (PPU) is being designed and fabricated by Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices, Torrance, C...

L. R. Pinero T. H. Bond D. Okada K. Phelps J. Pyter S. Wiseman

2001-01-01

51

RNA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

Darnell, James E., Jr.

1985-01-01

52

Development of a portable, modular unit for the optimization of ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of diesel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the stringent rules requiring ultra-low sulfur content in diesel fuels, it is necessary to develop alternative methods of desulfurization of fossil fuel derived oil, such as diesel. Current technology is not sufficient to solve this problem. Ultrasound applied to oxidative desulfurization which combined three complementary techniques: ultrasonication, phase transfer catalysis (PTC) and transition metal catalyzed oxidation, has accomplished high sulfur removal in a short contact time at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. This research has successfully demonstrated that the higher oxidation efficiency of BT to BTO and free of any by-products by using tetraoctylammonium fluoride as phase transfer agent. The oxidation rate of BT to BTO increased with increasing the carbon chain length of QAS cations. Under the same length of carbon chain, the oxidation rate of BT to BTO increased with decreasing the molecular size of QAS anions. Moreover, for diesel fuels containing various levels of sulfur content, UAOD process followed by solvent extraction has demonstrated that the sulfur reduction can reach above 95 % removal efficiency or final sulfur content below 15 ppm in mild condition. For large-scale commercial production, this research has successfully developed and operated a continuous desulfurization unit, which consists of a sonoractor, an RF amplifier, a function generator, a pretreatment tank, and a pipeline system. A single unit only needed 2' x 4' x 1' space for installation. The results indicated that the remarkable 92% removal efficiency for the sulfur in marine logistic diesel, even at a treatment rate as high as 25 lb/hour which is approximately 2 barrels per day. Therefore, this sonoreactor demonstrated the feasibility of large-scale operation even in a relatively small installation with low capital investment and maintenance cost. It also ensures the safety considerations by operating with diluted hydrogen peroxide under ambient temperature and pressure.

Wan, Meng-Wei

53

Modular shield  

DOEpatents

A modular system for containing projectiles has a sheet of material including at least a polycarbonate layer held by a metal frame having a straight frame member corresponding to each straight edge of the sheet. Each frame member has a U-shaped shield channel covering and holding a straight edge of the sheet and an adjacent U-shaped clamp channel rigidly held against the shield channel. A flexible gasket separates each sheet edge from its respective shield channel; and each frame member is fastened to each adjacent frame member only by clamps extending between adjacent clamp channels.

Snyder, Keith W. (Sandia Park, NM)

2002-01-01

54

A novel three-unit tRNA splicing endonuclease found in ultrasmall Archaea possesses broad substrate specificity  

PubMed Central

tRNA splicing endonucleases, essential enzymes found in Archaea and Eukaryotes, are involved in the processing of pre-tRNA molecules. In Archaea, three types of splicing endonuclease [homotetrameric: ?4, homodimeric: ?2, and heterotetrameric: (??)2] have been identified, each representing different substrate specificity during the tRNA intron cleavage. Here, we discovered a fourth type of archaeal tRNA splicing endonuclease (?2) in the genome of the acidophilic archaeon Candidatus Micrarchaeum acidiphilum, referred to as ARMAN-2 and its closely related species, ARMAN-1. The enzyme consists of two duplicated catalytic units and one structural unit encoded on a single gene, representing a novel three-unit architecture. Homodimeric formation was confirmed by cross-linking assay, and site-directed mutagenesis determined that the conserved L10-pocket interaction between catalytic and structural unit is necessary for the assembly. A tRNA splicing assay reveal that ?2 endonuclease cleaves both canonical and non-canonical bulge–helix–bulge motifs, similar to that of (??)2 endonuclease. Unlike other ARMAN and Euryarchaeota, tRNAs found in ARMAN-2 are highly disrupted by introns at various positions, which again resemble the properties of archaeal species with (??)2 endonuclease. Thus, the discovery of ?2 endonuclease in an archaeon deeply branched within Euryarchaeota represents a new example of the coevolution of tRNA and their processing enzymes.

Fujishima, Kosuke; Sugahara, Junichi; Miller, Christopher S.; Baker, Brett J.; Di Giulio, Massimo; Takesue, Kanako; Sato, Asako; Tomita, Masaru; Banfield, Jillian F.; Kanai, Akio

2011-01-01

55

Modular Robotics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) is a subsidiary of Xerox Corporation. One of its most intriguing areas of study is "modular reconfigurable robotics," which is a technology that allows a robot to take itself apart and put itself back together again in a new form. This lets the robot customize its design for a given task. Several different models of robots have been constructed at the PARC, and this Web site describes how they were built and how they function. There is a large collection of video clips that show each of the robots in operation, including one of a robot riding a tricycle. Two Java simulation programs can be downloaded that demonstrate the control systems of two of the PARC models. A long list of publication titles with abstracts is given, and the full text is available for a few of them.

56

Propulsion/Control Modular Booster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A modular, apogee-control package is disclosed which can be added to existing missiles, and which will limit the apogee of the missile trajectory by implementation of thrust vector control (TVC). The package comprises a boost guidance unit, a solid rocket...

M. J. Ripley-Lotee R. B. Dillinger K. E. Clark

1980-01-01

57

Donor-Acceptor-Donor Modular Small Organic Molecules Based on the Naphthalene Diimide Acceptor Unit for Solution-Processable Photovoltaic Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two novel solution-processable small organic molecules, 4,9-bis(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-2,7-dioctylbenzo[3,8]phenanthroline-1,3,6,8(2H,7H)-tetraone (S6) and 4,9-bis(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2,7-dioctylbenzo[3,8]phenanthroline-1,3,6,8 (2H,7H)-tetraone (S7), have been successfully designed, synthesized, characterized, and applied in solution-processable photovoltaic devices. S6 and S7 contain a common electron-accepting moiety, naphthalene diimide (NDI), with different electron-donating moieties, triphenylamine (S6) and benzothiophene (S7), and are based on a donor-acceptor-donor structure. S7 was isolated as black, rod-shaped crystals. Its triclinic structure was determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD): space group Pbar{1} , Z = 2, a = 9.434(5) Å, b = 14.460(7) Å, c = 15.359(8) Å, ? = 67.256(9) degrees, ? = 80.356(11) degrees, ? = 76.618(10) degrees, at 150 Kelvin (K), R = 0.073. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra revealed that use of triphenylamine donor functionality with the NDI acceptor unit resulted in an enhanced intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) transition and reduction of the optical band gap compared with the benzothiophene analogue. Solution-processable inverted bulk heterojunction devices with the structure indium tin oxide/zinc oxide (30 nm)/active layer/molybdenum trioxide (10 nm)/silver (100 nm) were fabricated with S6 and S7 as donors and (6,6)-phenyl C70-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) as acceptor. Power conversion efficiencies of 0.22% for S6/PC70BM and 0.10% for S7/PC70BM were achieved for the preliminary photovoltaic devices under simulated AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm-2). This paper reports donor-acceptor-donor modular small organic molecules, with NDI as central accepting unit, that have been screened for use in solution-processable inverted photovoltaic devices.

Patil, Hemlata; Gupta, Akhil; Bilic, Ante; Jackson, Sam Leslie; Latham, Kay; Bhosale, Sheshanath V.

2014-06-01

58

Ecological Consistency of SSU rRNA-Based Operational Taxonomic Units at a Global Scale  

PubMed Central

Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), usually defined as clusters of similar 16S/18S rRNA sequences, are the most widely used basic diversity units in large-scale characterizations of microbial communities. However, it remains unclear how well the various proposed OTU clustering algorithms approximate ‘true’ microbial taxa. Here, we explore the ecological consistency of OTUs – based on the assumption that, like true microbial taxa, they should show measurable habitat preferences (niche conservatism). In a global and comprehensive survey of available microbial sequence data, we systematically parse sequence annotations to obtain broad ecological descriptions of sampling sites. Based on these, we observe that sequence-based microbial OTUs generally show high levels of ecological consistency. However, different OTU clustering methods result in marked differences in the strength of this signal. Assuming that ecological consistency can serve as an objective external benchmark for cluster quality, we conclude that hierarchical complete linkage clustering, which provided the most ecologically consistent partitions, should be the default choice for OTU clustering. To our knowledge, this is the first approach to assess cluster quality using an external, biologically meaningful parameter as a benchmark, on a global scale.

Schmidt, Thomas S. B.; Matias Rodrigues, Joao F.; von Mering, Christian

2014-01-01

59

Ecological consistency of SSU rRNA-based operational taxonomic units at a global scale.  

PubMed

Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), usually defined as clusters of similar 16S/18S rRNA sequences, are the most widely used basic diversity units in large-scale characterizations of microbial communities. However, it remains unclear how well the various proposed OTU clustering algorithms approximate 'true' microbial taxa. Here, we explore the ecological consistency of OTUs--based on the assumption that, like true microbial taxa, they should show measurable habitat preferences (niche conservatism). In a global and comprehensive survey of available microbial sequence data, we systematically parse sequence annotations to obtain broad ecological descriptions of sampling sites. Based on these, we observe that sequence-based microbial OTUs generally show high levels of ecological consistency. However, different OTU clustering methods result in marked differences in the strength of this signal. Assuming that ecological consistency can serve as an objective external benchmark for cluster quality, we conclude that hierarchical complete linkage clustering, which provided the most ecologically consistent partitions, should be the default choice for OTU clustering. To our knowledge, this is the first approach to assess cluster quality using an external, biologically meaningful parameter as a benchmark, on a global scale. PMID:24763141

Schmidt, Thomas S B; Matias Rodrigues, João F; von Mering, Christian

2014-04-01

60

Modular robot  

DOEpatents

A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

Ferrante, T.A.

1997-11-11

61

Modular robot  

DOEpatents

A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

Ferrante, Todd A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01

62

Modular Optical PDV System  

SciTech Connect

A modular optical photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) detector system has been developed by using readily available optical components with a 20-GHz Miteq optical detector into eight channels of single-wide modules integrated into a 3U rack unit (1U = 1.75 inches) with a common power supply. Optical fibers were precisely trimmed, welded, and timed within each unit. This system has been used to collect dynamic velocity data on various physics experiments. An optical power meter displays the laser input power to the module and optical power at the detector. An adjustable micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) optical attenuator is used to adjust the amount of unshifted light entering the detector. Front panel LEDs show the presence of power to the module. A fully loaded chassis with eight channels consumes 45 watts of power. Each chassis requires 1U spacing above and below for heat management. Modules can be easily replaced.

Araceli Rutkowski, David Esquibel

2008-12-11

63

Fluidized Bed Gas Turbine Experimental Unit for Modular Integrated Utility Systems (MIUS) Applications. Quarterly Progress Report for Period January 1, 1975 through March 31, 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first in a series of quarterly reports, this work focuses on a program for developing a coal - fueled Modular Integrated Utility System (MIUS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Oak Ridge, Tenn. The work is being jointly sponsored by the Depa...

A. P. Fraas

1976-01-01

64

Reliability of Some Modularly Redundant Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is established for the reliability of modularly redundant systems with unequal failure rates for the operating and standby units. The failure modes include failures of the active and standby units, three types of switch failures, and failures on system recovery. System reliability is considered for cases of both similar and dissimilar units, and for various restrictions on

David K. Chow

1972-01-01

65

The modular high-temperature reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly all problems encountered in large high-temperature reactor power plants with respect to design and safety are related to the mere physical size of a larger reactor core. Our analyses show that it is feasible to subdivide a larger reactor core into modular units, analogous to the common practice of using several smaller units instead of one large unit. In

H. Reutler; G. H. Lohnert

1983-01-01

66

A modular optical sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation presents the design of a modular, fiber-optic sensor and the results obtained from testing the modular sensor. The modular fiber-optic sensor is constructed in such manner that the sensor diaphragm can be replaced with different configurations to detect numerous physical phenomena. Additionally, different fiber-optic detection systems can be attached to the sensor. Initially, the modular sensor was developed

John Albert Conklin

2006-01-01

67

Modularity and cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modularity is a concept central to cognitive science, and Fodor’s analysis of cognitive modularity in his book The Modularity Of Mind has been widely influential – but also widely misunderstood. It is often claimed that the possession of some or other system-property is a necessary condition for that system to be modular in Fodor’s sense, but Fodor made it clear

Max Coltheart

1999-01-01

68

Immunolocalization of Picornavirus RNA in infected cells with antibodies to Tyr-pUp, the covalent linkage unit between VPg and RNA.  

PubMed

The genomic RNA of picornaviruses is attached to a small protein (VPg) via a covalent bond between a tyrosine and a 5'-terminal uridine phosphate. The same structure is present in potyvirus and calicivirus families. VPgs play a key role in initiation of viral replication by acting as primers for RNA synthesis. The model compound [N(Ac),CO(NHMe)]Tyr-(5'P?O)Up-O-(CH(2))(6)NH(2) (mCLU), mimicking this 'covalent linkage unit' (CLU) and containing Tyr-pUp was synthesized in solution following the phosphoramidite scheme and used to raise antibodies for studying picornavirus infection. The antibodies recognized CLU-containing mengovirus RNA and showed minimal cross-reactivity with RNAs lacking CLU. Immunofluorescence staining of cells infected with a human rhinovirus demonstrated co-localization of the signals from anti-mCLU and from anti-VPg antibodies. Efficient synthesis of mCLU and anti-mCLU antibodies might be of great utility for investigating viral replication and identifying yet unknown viral and cellular CLU-containing RNA-protein complexes. PMID:21056058

Gavryushina, Elena S; Bryantseva, Sofia A; Nadezhdina, Elena S; Zatsepin, Timofei S; Toropygin, Ilya Yu; Pickl-Herk, Angela; Blaas, Dieter; Drygin, Yuri F

2011-01-01

69

Modular Design and Construction of Nucleic Acid Molecules, Aptamer-Derived Nucleic Acid Constructs, RNA Scaffolds, their Expression, and Methods of Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to a nucleic acid molecule comprised of first and second nucleic acid elements that each bind a target molecule, and a three-way junction operably linking the first and second nucleic elements. Also disclosed is an RNA scaffo...

H. Shi J. T. Lis

2005-01-01

70

Portable modular detection system  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

Brennan, James S. (Rodeo, CA); Singh, Anup (Danville, CA); Throckmorton, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA); Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA)

2009-10-13

71

Modular extracorporeal liver support.  

PubMed

Modular extracorporeal liver support (MELS) is an integrative concept for the treatment of hepatic failure with appropriate extracorporeal therapy units tailored to suit the actual clinical needs of each patient. The CellModule is a specific bioreactor charged with primary human liver cells harvested from human donor livers found to be unsuitable for transplantation due to steatosis, cirrhosis, or traumatic injury. The DetoxModule enables albumin dialysis for the removal of albumin-bound toxins, reducing the biochemical burden of the liver cells and replacing the bile excretion of hepatocytes in the bioreactor. A DialysisModule for continuous venovenous hemofiltration can be added to the system if required in hepatorenal syndrome. PMID:12139497

Sauer, Igor M; Gerlach, Joerg C

2002-08-01

72

Comparison of Cost and Production between a Traditional Bundle System and a Unit Production System Installation: Installation of a Modular Sewing Station Carousel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to study the impact of a 3 to 4 sewing-station carousel unit on apparel productivity, with special emphasis on the impact in a flexible (Unit Production System) environment. Upon installation the unit's operation was obse...

J. Korngruen

1992-01-01

73

Modularity and cognition.  

PubMed

Modularity is a concept central to cognitive science, and Fodor's analysis of cognitive modularity in his book The Modularity Of Mind has been widely influential - but also widely misunderstood. It is often claimed that the possession of some or other system-property is a necessary condition for that system to be modular in Fodor's sense, but Fodor made it clear that he was not proposing a definition of modularity, nor proposing any necessary conditions for the applicability of the term. He was simply suggesting a number of system properties that are typical of modular systems. I argue that it is nevertheless possible to derive a useful definition of modularity from the kinds of arguments put forward by Fodor: A cognitive system is modular when and only when it is domain-specific. Given any such proposed module, the other features of modularity discussed by Fodor should be dealt with as empirical issues: for each feature (innateness, for example), it is an empirical question whether or not the proposed module has that feature. PMID:10322463

Coltheart

1999-03-01

74

Solar photovoltaic power conversion using modular multilevel converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper makes an attempt to develop grid connected solar photovoltaic array power conversion using modular multilevel converter. The proposed system makes use of single stage power conversion with maximum power point tracking and modular multilevel converter (MMC) as interfacing unit into the grid. Here perturb & observe method of maximum power point algorithm is used to regulate the DC

S. Rajasekar; Rajesh Gupta

2012-01-01

75

Power Converter Design for an Integrated Modular Motor Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Modular Motor Drive (IMMD) concept provides a promising approach to integrating motor drive electronics into the machine housing by modularizing both the machine stator and the power converter. The basic module of the IMMD consists of a stator pole-piece wound with a concentrated coil and fitted with a dedicated power converter unit. This paper addresses several of the

N. R. Brown; T. M. Jahns; R. D. Lorenz

2007-01-01

76

Modular avionics packaging standardization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modular Avionics Packaging (MAP) Program for packaging future military avionics systems with the objective of improving reliability, maintainability, and supportability, and reducing equipment life cycle costs is addressed. The basic MAP packaging concepts called the Standard Avionics Module, the Standard Enclosure, and the Integrated Rack are summarized, and the benefits of modular avionics packaging, including low risk design, technology

M. Austin; J. K. McNichols

1984-01-01

77

Modular robot system architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In comparison with dedicated robot systems, the main goal of modular robot systems is to achieve system adaptability by providing various modular configuration variations to meet possible task requirements. System architecture determines the system configuration variations, as the architecture specifies primary building blocks and the types of ways they are connected. In order to make systems more adaptive, configuration variations

Z. M. Bi; W. J. Zhang; Sherman Y. T. Lang

2002-01-01

78

Modularity and Web Ontologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modularity in ontologies is key both for large scale ontology development and for distributed ontology reuse on the Web. However, the problems of formally characterizing a modular representation, on the one hand, and of automatically iden- tifying modules within an OWL ontology, on the other, has not been satisfactorily addressed, although their relevance has been widely accepted by the Ontology

Bernardo Cuenca Grau; Bijan Parsia; Evren Sirin; Aditya Kalyanpur

2006-01-01

79

MODULARITY, DEPENDENCE AND CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological artifacts such as software often comprise a large number of modules; more than twenty thousand in the case of the Java software Eclipse. While on the micro-level this system is modular, how should the building blocks be arranged on the macro-level? In the literature this question has mainly been addressed with the same arguments already used to advocate modularity

MARKUS MICHAEL GEIPEL

2012-01-01

80

Modular redundant number systems  

SciTech Connect

With the increased use of public key cryptography, faster modular multiplication has become an important cryptographic issue. Almost all public key cryptography, including most elliptic curve systems, use modular multiplication. Modular multiplication, particularly for the large public key modulii, is very slow. Increasing the speed of modular multiplication is almost synonymous with increasing the speed of public key cryptography. There are two parts to modular multiplication: multiplication and modular reduction. Though there are fast methods for multiplying and fast methods for doing modular reduction, they do not mix well. Most fast techniques require integers to be in a special form. These special forms are not related and converting from one form to another is more costly than using the standard techniques. To this date it has been better to use the fast modular reduction technique coupled with standard multiplication. Standard modular reduction is much more costly than standard multiplication. Fast modular reduction (Montgomery`s method) reduces the reduction cost to approximately that of a standard multiply. Of the fast multiplication techniques, the redundant number system technique (RNS) is one of the most popular. It is simple, converting a large convolution (multiply) into many smaller independent ones. Not only do redundant number systems increase speed, but the independent parts allow for parallelization. RNS form implies working modulo another constant. Depending on the relationship between these two constants; reduction OR division may be possible, but not both. This paper describes a new technique using ideas from both Montgomery`s method and RNS. It avoids the formula problem and allows fast reduction and multiplication. Since RNS form is used throughout, it also allows the entire process to be parallelized.

NONE

1998-05-31

81

Controlling RNA self-assembly to form filaments  

PubMed Central

Fundamental control over supra-molecular self-assembly for organization of matter on the nano-scale is a major objective of nanoscience and nanotechnology. ‘RNA tectonics’ is the design of modular RNA units, called tectoRNAs, that can be programmed to self-assemble into novel nano- and meso-scopic architectures of desired size and shape. We report the three-dimensional design of tectoRNAs incorporating modular 4-way junction (4WJ) motifs, hairpin loops and their cognate loop–receptors to create extended, programmable interaction interfaces. Specific and directional RNA–RNA interactions at these interfaces enable conformational, topological and orientational control of tectoRNA self-assembly. The interacting motifs are precisely positioned within the helical arms of the 4WJ to program assembly from only one helical stacking conformation of the 4WJ. TectoRNAs programmed to assemble with orientational compensation produce micrometer-scale RNA filaments through supra-molecular equilibrium polymerization. As visualized by transmission electron microscopy, these RNA filaments resemble actin filaments from the protein world. This work emphasizes the potential of RNA as a scaffold for designing and engineering new controllable biomaterials mimicking modern cytoskeletal proteins.

Nasalean, Lorena; Baudrey, Stephanie; Leontis, Neocles B.; Jaeger, Luc

2006-01-01

82

The Honeywell Modular Microprogram Machine: M 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

M3 is intended for research into unconventional special purpose stored program elements of computer systems (for example, a distributed computer Bus Interface Unit). The principal requirements for such a machine are flexibility and modularity. M3 consists of an application independent Kernel Machine to which application-dependent Functional Modules are attached. The Kernel Machine is vertically microprogrammed; it includes highly capable microinstruction

E. Douglas Jensen; Richard Y. Kain

1977-01-01

83

Modular Instruction in Higher Education: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the principles, implementation, management, formats, problems, and research in modular instruction. A module is defined as a self-contained, independent unit of a planned series of learning activities designed to help the student accomplish certain well-defined objectives. The learner is able to proceed at his own rate, choose…

Goldschmid, Barbara; Goldschmid, Marcel L.

84

Modular, High Power, Variable R Dynamic Electrical Load Simulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of a previously developed basic variable R load simulator was entended to increase its power dissipation and transient handling capabilities. The delivered units satisfy all design requirements, and provides for a high power, modular simulation...

K. P. Joncas

1974-01-01

85

Modular Small Hydro Configuration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Modular Small Hydro Configuration has been conceived and structured to address a selected fraction of the overall hydropower development market. In particular, smaller sites - those under 750 kilowatts, which previously were not attractive to develop ...

1981-01-01

86

Standardized Modular Antenna System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For use in a submarine, an easily reconfigurable mast antenna system disposed within an RF transparent radome is disclosed where modularly, interchangeably designed antenna of the system are detachably attached to each other via an electronic interface co...

D. J. Saleem

1997-01-01

87

Successful modular cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a modular cosmology scenario where the difficulties encountered in conventional modular cosmology are solved in a self-consistent manner, with definite predictions to be tested by observation. Notably, the difficulty of the dilaton finding its way to a precarious weak coupling minimum is made irrelevant by having eternal modular inflation at the vacuum supersymmetry breaking scale after the dilaton is stabilised. Neither this eternal inflation nor the subsequent non-slow-roll modular inflation destabilise the dilaton from its precarious minimum due to the low energy scale of the inflation and consequent small back reaction on the dilaton potential. The observed flat CMB spectrum is obtained from fluctuations in the angular component of a modulus near a symmetric point, which are hugely magnified by the roll down of the modulus to Planckian values, allowing them to dominate the final curvature perturbation. We also give precise calculations of the spectral index and its running.

Kadota, Kenji; Stewart, Ewan D.

2003-07-01

88

Combinatorial approach to modularity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communities are clusters of nodes with a higher than average density of internal connections. Their detection is of great relevance to better understand the structure and hierarchies present in a network. Modularity has become a standard tool in the area of community detection, providing at the same time a way to evaluate partitions and, by maximizing it, a method to find communities. In this work, we study the modularity from a combinatorial point of view. Our analysis (as the modularity definition) relies on the use of the configurational model, a technique that given a graph produces a series of randomized copies keeping the degree sequence invariant. We develop an approach that enumerates the null model partitions and can be used to calculate the probability distribution function of the modularity. Our theory allows for a deep inquiry of several interesting features characterizing modularity such as its resolution limit and the statistics of the partitions that maximize it. Additionally, the study of the probability of extremes of the modularity in the random graph partitions opens the way for a definition of the statistical significance of network partitions.

Radicchi, Filippo; Lancichinetti, Andrea; Ramasco, José J.

2010-08-01

89

Modular chemistry: secondary building units as a basis for the design of highly porous and robust metal-organic carboxylate frameworks.  

PubMed

Secondary building units (SBUs) are molecular complexes and cluster entities in which ligand coordination modes and metal coordination environments can be utilized in the transformation of these fragments into extended porous networks using polytopic linkers (1,4-benzenedicarboxylate, 1,3,5,7-adamantanetetracarboxylate, etc.). Consideration of the geometric and chemical attributes of the SBUs and linkers leads to prediction of the framework topology, and in turn to the design and synthesis of a new class of porous materials with robust structures and high porosity. PMID:11308306

Eddaoudi, M; Moler, D B; Li, H; Chen, B; Reineke, T M; O'Keeffe, M; Yaghi, O M

2001-04-01

90

Analysis of DC voltage ripples in modular multilevel converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modular multilevel converters (MMC), a circulating current in each phase unit is caused by the DC voltage ripples of the phase unit. This paper analyzed the power transfer of MMC, the energy and voltage fluctuations of the storage capacitors in the sub-modules. An accurate model to determine the voltage ripples of a phase unit is derived, in consideration of

Minyuan Guan; Zheng Xu; Huijie Li

2010-01-01

91

Symmetric modular torsatron  

DOEpatents

A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

1984-01-01

92

Modular optical detector system  

DOEpatents

A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

Horn, Brent A. (Livermore, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2006-02-14

93

Modular biowaste monitoring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Modular Biowaste Monitoring System Program was to generate and evaluate hardware for supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs. An initial conceptual design effort established requirements and defined an overall modular system for the collection, measurement, sampling and storage of urine and feces biowastes. This conceptual design effort was followed by the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a flight prototype model urine collection, volume measurement and sampling capability. No operational or performance deficiencies were uncovered as a result of the performance evaluation tests.

Fogal, G. L.

1975-01-01

94

Modular hydraulic control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of modular electrohydraulic servovalves is centrally controlled and may be used to control the operation of critical hydraulic actuators. A programmable controller operates a group of modular servovalves which each deliver a portion of the total actuator fluid requirements. The flow rate, valve position, and valve pressure of each servovalve is monitored by the controller and compared to expected values in memory to determine whether a servovalve malfunction exists. If so, the controller maintains the required flow rate to the actuator by closing the malfunctioning valve and either activating a spare or proportionally increasing the flow rates of the remaining servovalves to compensate for the loss.

Winyard, David C.; Lindstrom, Waldemar C.

1994-06-01

95

Refined finite element modelling for the vibration analysis of large rotating machines: Application to the gas turbine modular helium reactor power conversion unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is aimed at presenting refined finite element modelling used for dynamic analysis of large rotating machines. The first part shows an equivalence between several levels of modelling: firstly, models made of beam elements and rigid disc with gyroscopic coupling representing the position of the rotating shaft in an inertial frame; secondly full three-dimensional (3D) or 3D shell models of the rotor and the blades represented in the rotating frame and finally two-dimensional (2D) Fourier model for both rotor and stator. Simple cases are studied to better understand the results given by analysis performed using a rotating frame and the equivalence with the standard calculations with beam elements. Complete analysis of rotating machines can be performed with models in the frames best adapted for each part of the structure. The effects of several defects are analysed and compared with this approach. In the last part of the paper, the modelling approach is applied to the analysis of the large rotating shaft part of the power conversion unit of the GT-MHR nuclear reactor.

Combescure, D.; Lazarus, A.

2008-12-01

96

Modular Instruction: A Resource Book.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Issues and illustrative material are presented from a project evaluating modular courses at McGill University from 1972 to 1976, with the overall intent of aiding instructors to produce instructional modules. Questions related to the nature of modular ins...

J. G. Donald

1977-01-01

97

Modular engineering for process plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering design in the key to successful modular construction of process plants. Maximum schedule and cost advantages are thereby designed into these facilities. Demonstrating this concept, Braun engineers designed and constructed the world's first large modular process plant, an ammonia-urea fertilizer complex for Union Chemicals Co. in Alaska. Braun has since provided modular engineering for a worldscale grass roots ethylene

Hoag

1983-01-01

98

CUSPIDAL MODULAR SYMBOLS ARE TRANSPORTABLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular symbols of weight 2 for a congruence subgroup0 satisfy the identity f; .\\/ gDf ; .\\/g for all ; in the extended upper half plane and 2 0. The analogue of this identity is false for modular symbols of weight greater than 2. This paper provides a definition of transportable modular symbols, which are symbols for which an analogue

WILLIAM A. STEIN; HELENA A. VERRILL

2001-01-01

99

Breaching the Phalanx: Developing a More Engineer-Centric Modular BCT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army decided to re-structure the combat divisions into modular, brigade units in order to better address the difficulty inherent in fighting terrorism, while simultaneously providing combat units to OIF and OEF for SSTR operations. These new modular c...

J. M. Schultze

2007-01-01

100

Modular assembly for supporting, straining, and directing flow to a core in a nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reactor core support arrangement for supporting, straining, and providing fluid flow to the core and periphery of a nuclear reactor during normal operation. A plurality of removable inlet modular units are contained within permanent liners in the lower supporting plate of the reactor vessel lower internals. During normal operation (1) each inlet modular unit directs main coolant flow to

Pennell; William E

1977-01-01

101

Modular assembly for supporting, straining, and directing flow to a core in a nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reactor core support arrangement for supporting, straining, and providing fluid flow to the core and periphery of a nuclear reactor during normal operation is described. A plurality of removable inlet modular units are contained within permanent liners in the lower supporting plate of the reactor vessel lower internals. During normal operation (1) each inlet modular unit directs main coolant

Pennell

1977-01-01

102

A Modular CAI System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experimental CAI system which is being tested at Delft University of Technology is structured in a modular manner to account for high changeability. The concept formulated for this project was the outcome of research into technological, organizational, and educational developments in CAI, and the enumeration of the common aspects of the…

Van Der Mast, Charles

103

Modular core holder  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a modular core holder. It comprises: a sleeve, forming an internal cavity for receiving a core. The sleeve including segments; support means, overlying the sleeve, for supporting the sleeve; and access means, positioned between at least two of the segments of the sleeve, for allowing measurement of conditions within the internal cavity.

Mueller, J.; Cole, C.W.; Hamid, S.; Lucas, J.K.

1991-03-05

104

Modular Basic Action Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we design a representation that allows writ- ing more compact and modular basic action theories, than it is currently possible. Moreover, such representation also provides formal foundations for reasoning about actions in OpenCyc by using Reiter's basic action theory formalism.

Yilan Gu; Mikhail Soutchanski

105

Modularity in robotic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most robotic systems today are designed one at a time, at a high cost of time and money. This wasteful approach has been necessary because the industry has not established a foundation for the continued evolution of intelligent machines. The next generation of robots will have to be generic, versatile machines capable of absorbing new technology rapidly and economically. This approach is demonstrated in the success of the personal computer, which can be upgraded or expanded with new software and hardware at virtually every level. Modularity is perceived as a major opportunity to reduce the 6 to 7 year design cycle time now required for new robotic manipulators, greatly increasing the breadth and speed of diffusion of robotic systems in manufacturing. Modularity and its crucial role in the next generation of intelligent machines are the focus of interest. The main advantages that modularity provides are examined; types of modules needed to create a generic robot are discussed. Structural modules designed by the robotics group at the University of Texas at Austin are examined to demonstrate the advantages of modular design.

Tesar, Delbert; Butler, Michael S.

1989-01-01

106

Modular, Multilayer Perceptron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combination of proposed modular, multilayer perceptron and algorithm for its operation recognizes new objects after relatively brief retraining sessions. (Perceptron is multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network fully connected and trained via back-propagation learning algorithm.) Knowledge pertaining to each object to be recognized resides in subnetwork of full network, therefore not necessary to retrain full network to recognize each new object.

Cheng, Li-Jen; Liu, Tsuen-Hsi

1991-01-01

107

Autonomous intelligent modular surveillance system (AIM2S)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the design and development of an autonomous intelligent modular surveillance system (AIM2S). The system represents a novel class of "smart" surveillance platforms that integrates multiple sensors on an open-bus chassis. AIM2S modular architecture allows plug & play system operation, enabling its performance as a standalone unit or in conjunction with other systems. The integration of multiple smart sensors facilitates the affective fusion of heterogeneous data sources to obtain previously unavailable state information.

Markov, Vladimir; Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Chavez, Joseph; Kupiec, Stephen; Erwin, Daniel A.; Liu, Shiang

2012-05-01

108

Three small RNAs within the 10 kb trypanosome rRNA transcription unit are analogous to domain VII of other eukaryotic 28S rRNAs.  

PubMed Central

We have localized the six ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) which encode the 28S rRNA region of Trypanosoma brucei. These six rRNAs include two large rRNAs, 28S alpha (approx. 1840 nt) and 28S beta (approx. 1570 nt), and four small rRNAs of approximate sizes 220, 180, 140 and 70 nt. Three of these four small rRNAs (180, 70 and 140) are found at the 3' end of the 28S rRNAs region. Sequence analysis of this area shows that these three small rRNAs encode Domain VII, the last domain of secondary structure in the 28S rRNAs of eukaryotes. Hybridization of labeled nascent RNA to the cloned repeat unit and S1 nuclease protection analysis of putative precursors show that transcription initiates approximately 1.2 kb upstream of the 18S rRNA and terminates after the last small rRNA (140) at the 3' end of the 28S rRNA region. Analysis of three putative rRNA precursors suggests that the small rRNAs are not processed from the primary transcript until after the usual processing of the 5.8S rRNA region. Images

White, T C; Rudenko, G; Borst, P

1986-01-01

109

ATTAAA as well as downstream sequences are required for RNA 3'-end formation in the E3 complex transcription unit of adenovirus.  

PubMed Central

We mapped the location of the E3A RNA 3' end site in the E3 transcription unit of adenovirus 2. The procedure used was nuclease-gel analysis with 32P-labeled RNA probes. The poly(A) addition sites were microheterogeneous and were located approximately 17 to 29 nucleotides downstream from an ATTAAA sequence. To identify the sequences that make up the E3A RNA 3' end signal, we constructed five viable virus mutants with deletions in or near the E3A RNA 3' end site. The mutants were analyzed for E3A RNA 3' end formation in vivo. No effect was observed from a 47-base-pair (bp) deletion (dl716) or a 72-bp deletion (dl714) located 22 and 19 nucleotides, respectively, upstream of the ATTAAA. In contrast, E3A RNA 3' end formation was abolished by a 554-bp deletion (dl708) that removes both the ATTAAA and the poly(A) addition sites, a 124-bp deletion (dl713) that removes the ATTAAA but leaves the poly(A) addition sites, and a 65-bp deletion (dl719) that leaves the ATTAAA but removes the poly(A) addition sites. These results indicate that the ATTAAA, as well as downstream sequences, including the poly(A) addition sites, are required for E3A RNA 3' end formation. Images

Bhat, B M; Wold, W S

1985-01-01

110

Modular reflector concept study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility was studied of constructing large space structures, specifically a 100 meter paraboloidal R.F. reflector, by individually deploying a number of relatively small structural modules, and then joining them to form a single large structure in orbit. The advantage of this approach is that feasibility of a large antenna may be demonstrated by ground and flight tests of several smaller and less costly subelements. Thus, initial development costs are substantially reduced and a high degree of reliability can be obtained without commitment to construction of a very large system. The three candidate structural concepts investigated are: (1) the deployable cell module; (2) the paraboloidal extendable truss antenna adapted to modular assembly; and (3) the modular extendable truss antenna (META).

Vaughan, D. H.

1981-01-01

111

Modular photovoltaic array field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The procurement, fabrication, assembly, installation, and test of a fixed flat panel photovoltaic (PV) array field composed of modular 10 kWp building blocks is described. The objective of this program is to verify the balance of systems costs developed under the prior study contract. Major features of the balance of system incorporated + or - 200 Vdc bipolar circuitry, a low cost hybrid structure/foundation which features a frameless panel and self-grounding foundation, and a power collection center for housing the modular system controls and protection circuits. It is shown that the objective to an install, a low cost balance of systems for an intermediate power, flat-panel photovoltaic array field is realized.

1984-09-01

112

Processor Controlled Assembly of Modular Power Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the planning and implementation of a production line where the bare circuit board is loaded by a feeder mechanism onto a conveyor and is processed through automated assembly machines, a progressive assembly line, and soldering and cleaning machines without a human intervention on the bottom side of the board. The output of the line is a functionally

S. L. Diggs; W. R. Scherb; J. Tardy; O. R. Yeater

1984-01-01

113

Advanced Modular Power Approach to Affordable, Supportable Space Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies of missions to the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) indicate that these missions often involve several distinct separately launched vehicles that must ultimately be integrated together in-flight and operate as one unit. Therefore, it is important to see these vehicles as elements of a larger segmented spacecraft rather than separate spacecraft flying in formation. The evolution of large multi-vehicle exploration architecture creates the need (and opportunity) to establish a global power architecture that is common across all vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is aimed at establishing the modular power system architecture that will enable power systems to be built from a common set of modular building blocks. The project is developing, demonstrating and evaluating key modular power technologies that are expected to minimize non-recurring development costs, reduce recurring integration costs, as well as, mission operational and support costs. Further, modular power is expected to enhance mission flexibility, vehicle reliability, scalability and overall mission supportability. The AMPS project not only supports multi-vehicle architectures but should enable multi-mission capability as well. The AMPS technology development involves near term demonstrations involving developmental prototype vehicles and field demonstrations. These operational demonstrations not only serve as a means of evaluating modular technology but also provide feedback to developers that assure that they progress toward truly flexible and operationally supportable modular power architecture.

Oeftering, Richard C.; Kimnach, Greg L.; Fincannon, James; Mckissock,, Barbara I.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Wong, Edmond

2013-01-01

114

Test stations: a modular approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent requests for test stations to characterize and evaluate thermal and visible imaging systems have shown remarkable similarities. They contain the usual request for target patterns for the measurement of MRTD, NETD, SiTF for the infrared thermal imager and similar patterns for measuring CTF and SNR for the visible imager. The combined systems almost invariably include some type of laser designator/rangefinder in the total package requiring the need for LOS registration among the various individual units. Similarities also exist in that the requests are for large collimator apertures and focal lengths for projecting the desired signals into the unit under test apertures. Diversified Optical Products, Inc. has developed and is continually improving test station hardware and software to provide modularity in design and versatility in operation while satisfying individual test requirements and maintaining low cost. A high emissivity, DSP controlled, high slew rate, low cost, blackbody source with excellent uniformity and stability has been produced to function as the driver for thermal image target projectors. Several types of sources for producing energy in the visible portion of the spectrum have been evaluated. Software for selection of targets, sources, focus and auto- collimation has been developed and tested.

Capone, Benjamin R.; Remillard, Paul; Everett, Jonathan E.

1996-06-01

115

SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Small Explorer (SMEX) missions have typically had three years between mission definition and launch. This short schedule has posed significant challenges with respect to solar array design and procurement. Typically, the solar panel geometry is frozen prior to going out with a procurement. However, with the SMEX schedule, it has been virtually impossible to freeze the geometry in time to avoid scheduling problems with integrating the solar panels to the spacecraft. A modular solar array architecture was developed to alleviate this problem. This approach involves procuring sufficient modules for multiple missions and assembling the modules onto a solar array framework that is unique to each mission. The modular approach removes the solar array from the critical path of the SMEX integration and testing schedule. It also reduces the cost per unit area of the solar arrays and facilitates the inclusion of experiments involving new solar cell or panel technologies in the SMEX missions.

Lyons, John W.; Day, John (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

116

SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the most part, Goddard solar arrays have been custom designs that are unique to each mission. The solar panel design has been frozen prior to issuing an RFP for their procurement. There has typically been 6-9 months between RFP release and contract award, followed by an additional 24 months for performance of the contract. For Small Explorer (SMEX) missions, with three years between mission definition and launch, this has been a significant problem. The SMEX solar panels have been sufficiently small that the contract performance period has been reduced to 12-15 months. The bulk of this time is used up in the final design definition and fabrication of flight solar cell assemblies. Even so, it has been virtually impossible to have the spacecraft design at a level of maturity sufficient to freeze the solar panel geometry and release the RFP in time to avoid schedule problems with integrating the solar panels to the spacecraft. With that in mind, the SMEX-Lite project team developed a modular architecture for the assembly of solar arrays to greatly reduce the cost and schedule associated with the development of a mission- specific solar array. In the modular architecture, solar cells are fabricated onto small substrate panels. This modular panel (approximately 8.5" x 17" in this case) becomes the building block for constructing solar arrays for multiple missions with varying power requirements and geometrical arrangements. The mechanical framework that holds these modules together as a solar array is the only mission-unique design, changing in size and shape as required for each mission. There are several advantages to this approach. First, the typical solar array development cycle requires a mission unique design, procurement, and qualification including a custom qualification panel. With the modular architecture, a single qualification of the SMEX-Lite modules and the associated mechanical framework in a typical configuration provided a qualification by similarity to multiple missions. It then becomes possible to procure solar array modules in advance of mission definition and respond quickly and inexpensively to a selected mission's unique requirements. The solar array modular architecture allows the procurement of solar array modules before the array geometry has been frozen. This reduces the effect of procurement lead-time on the mission integration and test flow by as much as 50%. Second, by spreading the non-recurring costs over multiple missions, the cost per unit area is also reduced. In the case of the SMEX-Lite procurement, this reduction was by about one third of the cost per unit area compared to previous SMEX mission-unique procurements. Third, the modular architecture greatly facilitates the infusion of new solar cell technologies into flight programs as these technologies become available. New solar cell technologies need only be fabricated onto a standard-sized module to be incorporated into the next available mission. The modular solar array can be flown in a mixed configuration with some new and some standard cell technologies. Since each module has its own wiring terminals, the array can be arranged as desired electrically with little impact to cost and schedule. The solar array modular architecture does impose some additional constraints on systems and subsystem engineers. First, they must work with discrete solar array modules rather than size the array to fit exactly within an available envelope. The array area is constrained to an integer multiple of the module area. Second, the modular design is optimized for space radiation and thermal environments not greatly different from a typical SMEX LEO environment. For example, a mission with a highly elliptical orbit (e.g., Polar, SMEX/FAST) would require thicker coverglasses to protect the solar cells from the more intense radiation environment.

Lyons, John

2002-01-01

117

Modular and Hierarchically Modular Organization of Brain Networks  

PubMed Central

Brain networks are increasingly understood as one of a large class of information processing systems that share important organizational principles in common, including the property of a modular community structure. A module is topologically defined as a subset of highly inter-connected nodes which are relatively sparsely connected to nodes in other modules. In brain networks, topological modules are often made up of anatomically neighboring and/or functionally related cortical regions, and inter-modular connections tend to be relatively long distance. Moreover, brain networks and many other complex systems demonstrate the property of hierarchical modularity, or modularity on several topological scales: within each module there will be a set of sub-modules, and within each sub-module a set of sub-sub-modules, etc. There are several general advantages to modular and hierarchically modular network organization, including greater robustness, adaptivity, and evolvability of network function. In this context, we review some of the mathematical concepts available for quantitative analysis of (hierarchical) modularity in brain networks and we summarize some of the recent work investigating modularity of structural and functional brain networks derived from analysis of human neuroimaging data.

Meunier, David; Lambiotte, Renaud; Bullmore, Edward T.

2010-01-01

118

Modular gear bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

119

Modular Containerless Processing Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modular Containerless Processing Facility (MCPF) of the Space Station Freedom, being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is described. The MCPF will be capable of positioning, manipulating, and performing processing operations on samples completely free of container walls. It will be comprised of a host facility and a series of interchangeable plug-in modules. Initial iterations of MCPF modules will be flown on the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory (USML) series of Shuttle flights. The Drop Physics Module schedualed to fly on USML-1 in March 1992 is also considered.

Morrison, Andrew D.

1990-01-01

120

Modular reflector concept study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of space erecting a 100 meter paraboloidal radio frequency reflector by joining a number of individually deployed structural modules. Three module design concepts were considered: (1) the deployable cell module (DCM); (2) the modular paraboloidal erectable truss antenna (Mod-PETA); and (3) the modular erectable truss antenna (META). With the space shuttle (STS) as the launch system, the methodology of packaging and stowing in the orbiter, and of dispensing, deploying and joining, in orbit, were studied and the necessary support equipment identified. The structural performance of the completed reflectors was evaluated and their overall operational capability and feasibility were evaluated and compared. The potential of the three concepts to maintain stable shape in the space environment was determined. Their ability to operate at radio frequencies of 1 GHz and higher was assessed assuming the reflector surface to consist of a number of flat, hexagonal facets. A parametric study was performed to determine figure degradation as a function of reflector size, flat facet size, and f/D ratio.

Vaughan, D. H.

1981-01-01

121

Modular architecture for nanosatellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniaturization and reduction of design and production costs of electronics is at the forefront of today's technological efforts. Ground based applications have been the forerunner of this trend. It is proposed that a space analog be created. A modular architectural approach to the construction of an extremely small satellite may provide a standard for future space-based research, educational, and communication platforms. Dartsat is to meet such specifications while providing the footing for ongoing research ons pace operations at Dartmouth College. The first iteration of Dartsat is to serve as a model for future missions. Dartsat has dimensions of ten centimeters cubed; the maximum allowable mass is one kilogram. Of this volume, roughly 75 cm3 is occupied by mechanical superstructure. The remainder of the volume, approximately 925 cm3, is divided into modular bays. The control, power, and radio communication (CPR) of the satellite occupies one of these bays. The other bays are to be outfitted with standardized interfaces allowing the snap-in of interchangable, independently engineered payloads. The unique design of Dartsat is to provide a benchmark for future space flight orbital operations.

Parashar, Amish; Kerner, Todd E.; Moore, Augustus S.

2000-11-01

122

Modular antenna design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical design of a modular antenna concept was developed sufficiently to allow manufacture of a working demonstration model of a module, to predict mass properties, and to make performance estimates for antenna reflectors composed of these modules. The primary features of this concept are: (1) each module is an autonomous structural element which can be attached to adjacent modules through a three point connection; (2) the upper surface is a folding hexagonal truss plate mechanism which serves as the supporting structure for a reflective surface; and (3) the entire truss and surface can be folded into a cylindrical envelope in which all truss elements are essentially parallel. The kinematic studies and engineering demonstration model fully verified the deployment kinematics, stowing philosophy, and deployment sequencing for large antenna modules. It was established that such modules can be stowed in packages as small as 25 cm in diameter, using 1.27 cm diameter structural tubes. The development activity indicates that this deployable modular approach towards building large structures in space will support erection of 450 m apertures for operation up to 3 GHz with a single space shuttle flight.

Ribble, J. W.

1981-01-01

123

Terpene Biosynthesis: Modularity Rules  

PubMed Central

Terpenes are the largest class of small molecule natural products on Earth, and the most abundant by mass. Here, we summarize recent developments in elucidating the structure and function of the proteins involved in their biosynthesis. There are 6 main building blocks or modules (?,?,?,?,? and ?) that make up the structures of these enzymes: the ?? and ?? head-to-tail trans-prenyl transferases that produce trans-isoprenoid diphosphates from C5 precursors; the ? head-to-head prenyl transferases that convert these diphosphates into the tri-and tetra-terpene precursors of sterols, hopanoids and carotenoids; the ?? di- and tri-terpene synthases; the ? head-to-tail cis-prenyl transferases that produce the cis-isoprenoid diphosphates involved in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, and finally the ?, ?? and ??? terpene synthases that produce plant terpenes, with many of these modular enzymes having originated from ancestral ? and ? domain proteins. We also review progress in determining the structure and function of the two 4Fe-4S reductases involved in formation of the C5 diphosphates in many bacteria, where again, highly modular structures are found.

Oldfield, Eric; Lin, Fu-Yang

2013-01-01

124

Phylogenetic Diversity of Ultraplankton Plastid Small-Subunit rRNA Genes Recovered in Environmental Nucleic Acid Samples from the Pacific and Atlantic Coasts of the United States  

PubMed Central

The scope of marine phytoplankton diversity is uncertain in many respects because, like bacteria, these organisms sometimes lack defining morphological characteristics and can be a challenge to grow in culture. Here, we report the recovery of phylogenetically diverse plastid small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene (rDNA) clones from natural plankton populations collected in the Pacific Ocean off the mouth of Yaquina Bay, Oreg. (OCS clones), and from the eastern continental shelf of the United States off Cape Hatteras, N.C. (OM clones). SSU rRNA gene clone libraries were prepared by amplifying rDNAs from nucleic acids isolated from plankton samples and cloning them into plasmid vectors. The PCR primers used for amplification reactions were designed to be specific for bacterial SSU rRNA genes; however, plastid genes have a common phylogenetic origin with bacteria and were common in both SSU rRNA gene clone libraries. A combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, nucleic acid sequencing, and taxon-specific oligonucleotide probe hybridizations revealed that 54 of the 116 OCS gene clones were of plastid origin. Collectively, clones from the OCS and OM libraries formed at least eight unique lineages within the plastid radiation, including gene lineages related to the classes Bacillariophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Chrysophyceae, and Prasinophyceae; for a number of unique clones, no close phylogenetic neighbors could be identified with confidence. Only a group of two OCS rRNA gene clones showed close identity to the plastid SSU rRNA gene sequence of a cultured organism [Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) Hay and Mohler; 99.8% similar]. The remaining clones could not be identified to the genus or species level. Although cryptic species are not as prevalent among phytoplankton as they are among their bacterial counterparts, this genetic survey nonetheless uncovered significant new information about phytoplankton diversity.

Rappe, Michael S.; Suzuki, Marcelino T.; Vergin, Kevin L.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

1998-01-01

125

Modular Flooring System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped onto durable, commercially available drywall carts for storage and/or transportation. This method of storage and transportation makes it very convenient and safe when handling large quantities of modules.

Thate, Robert

2012-01-01

126

Modular arctic structures system  

SciTech Connect

A modular and floatable offshore exploration and production platform system for use in shallow arctic waters is disclosed. A concrete base member is floated to the exploration or production site, and ballated into a predredged cavity. The cavity and base are sized to provide a stable horizontal base 30 feet below the mean water/ice plane. An exploration or production platform having a massive steel base is floated to the site and ballasted into position on the base. Together, the platform, base and ballast provide a massive gravity structure that is capable of resisting large ice and wave forces that impinge on the structure. The steel platform has a sloping hourglass profile to deflect horizontal ice loads vertically, and convert the horizontal load to a vertical tensile stress, which assists in breaking the ice as it advances toward the structure.

Reusswig, G. H.

1984-12-04

127

Modular electronics packaging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.

Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

128

Modular error embedding  

DOEpatents

A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data containing noise in the low-order bits. The method applies to digital data representing analog signals, for example digital images. The method reduces the error introduced by other methods that replace the low-order bits with auxiliary information. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user through use of a digital key. The modular error embedding method includes a process to permute the order in which the host data values are processed. The method doubles the amount of auxiliary information that can be added to host data values, in comparison with bit-replacement methods for high bit-rate coding. The invention preserves human perception of the meaning and content of the host data, permitting the addition of auxiliary data in the amount of 50% or greater of the original host data.

Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Ettinger, J. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

129

How RNA folds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the RNA folding problem and contrast it with the much more difficult protein folding problem. RNA has four similar monomer units, whereas proteins have 20 very different residues. The folding of RNA is hierarchical in that secondary structure is much more stable than tertiary folding. In RNA the two levels of folding (secondary and tertiary) can be experimentally

Ignacio Tinoco; Carlos Bustamante

1999-01-01

130

Modularity of service design for IT company  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying modular logic to service design is crucial to service innovation; however, both under-modularity and over-modularity results in strategic mistakes, in particular to the IT service offering companies. This paper firstly identifies four dimensions of the conceptual modular IT service platform for designing and providing service to the customers. And a mathematical model is developed and applied to evaluate the

Zhenkun Zhou; Yong Lin; Shihua Ma; Feng Yue

2010-01-01

131

Design of modular digital circuits for testability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular products and reconfigurable testing processes are crucial in modern manufacturing. This paper discusses the concept of product modularity, test modules of increased reusability and exchangeability, and some aspects of design for testability. A methodology for design of modular products for testability in the presence of testing modules is developed. An integrated approach to design of modular products and test

Andrew Kusiak; Chun-Che Huang

1997-01-01

132

Modular decomposition of protein-protein interaction networks.  

PubMed

We introduce an algorithmic method, termed modular decomposition, that defines the organization of protein-interaction networks as a hierarchy of nested modules. Modular decomposition derives the logical rules of how to combine proteins into the actual functional complexes by identifying groups of proteins acting as a single unit (sub-complexes) and those that can be alternatively exchanged in a set of similar complexes. The method is applied to experimental data on the pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)/NFkappaB transcription factor pathway. PMID:15287979

Gagneur, Julien; Krause, Roland; Bouwmeester, Tewis; Casari, Georg

2004-01-01

133

Modular Tissue Engineering: Engineering Biological Tissues from the Bottom Up  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering creates biological tissues that aim to improve the function of diseased or damaged tissues. To enhance the function of engineered tissues there is a need to generate structures that mimic the intricate architecture and complexity of native organs and tissues. With the desire to create more complex tissues with features such as developed and functional microvasculature, cell binding motifs and tissue specific morphology, tissue engineering techniques are beginning to focus on building modular microtissues with repeated functional units. The emerging field known as modular tissue engineering focuses on fabricating tissue building blocks with specific microarchitectural features and using these modular units to engineer biological tissues from the bottom up. In this review we will examine the promise and shortcomings of “bottom-up” approaches to creating engineered biological tissues. Specifically, we will survey the current techniques for controlling cell aggregation, proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition, as well as approaches to generating shape-controlled tissue modules. We will then highlight techniques utilized to create macroscale engineered biological tissues from modular microscale units.

Nichol, Jason W.; Khademhosseini, Ali

2009-01-01

134

Modular designs highlight several new rigs  

SciTech Connect

A new platform drilling rig for offshore Trinidad and two new land rigs for the former Soviet Union feature the latest in drilling and construction technology and modular components for quick rig up/rig down. The Sundowner 801 was mock-up tested in Galveston, TX, a few weeks ago in preparation for its load-out to the Dolphin field offshore Trinidad. Two other new units, UNOC 500 DE series land rigs, were recently constructed and mock-up tested in Ekaterinburg, Russia, for upcoming exploratory work for RAO Gazprom, a large natural gas producer in Russia. These rigs are unique in that they were constructed from new components made both in the US and in Russia. The paper describes all three units.

Rappold, K.

1995-12-04

135

Kernel for modular robot applications: Automatic modeling techniques  

SciTech Connect

A modular robotic system consists of standardized joint and link units that an be assembled into various kinematic configurations for different types of tasks. For the control and simulation of such a system, manual derivation of the kinematic and dynamic models, as well as the error model for kinematic calibration, require tremendous effort, because the models constantly change as the robot geometry is altered after module reconfiguration. This paper presents a frame-work to facilitate the model-generation procedure for the control and simulation of the modular robot system. A graph technique, termed kinematic graphs and realized through assembly incidence matrices (AIM), is introduced to represent the module-assembly sequence and robot geometry. The kinematics and dynamics are formulated based on a local representation of the theory of lie groups and Lie algebras. The automatic model-generation procedure starts with a given assembly graph of the modular robot. Kinematic, dynamic, and error models of the robot are then established, based on the local representations and iterative graph-traversing algorithms. This approach can be applied to a modular robot with both serial and branch-type geometries, and arbitrary degrees of freedom. Furthermore, the AIM of the robot naturally leads to solving the task-oriented optimal configuration problem in modular robots. There is no need to maintain a huge library of robot models, and the footprint of the overall software system can be reduced.

Chen, I.M.; Yeo, S.H.; Chen, G. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). School of Mechanical and production Engineering] [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). School of Mechanical and production Engineering; Yang, G. [Gintic Inst. of Manufacturing Technology (Singapore). Automation Technology Div.] [Gintic Inst. of Manufacturing Technology (Singapore). Automation Technology Div.

1999-02-01

136

Uniting Germline and Stem Cells: the Function of Piwi Proteins and the piRNA Pathway in Diverse Organisms  

PubMed Central

The topipotency of the germline is the full manifestation of the pluri- and multipotency of embryonic and adult stem cells, thus the germline and stem cells must share common mechanisms that guarantee their multipotentials in development. One of the few such known shared mechanisms is represented by Piwi proteins, which constitute one of the two subfamilies of the Argonaute protein family. Piwi proteins bind to Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that are generally 26–31 nucleotides in length. Both Piwi proteins and piRNAs are most abundantly expressed in the germline. Moreover, Piwi proteins are expressed broadly in certain types of somatic stem/progenitor cells and other somatic cells across animal phylogeny. Recent studies indicate that the Piwi-piRNA pathway mediates epigenetic programming and post-transcriptional regulation, which may be responsible for its function in germline specification, gametogenesis, stem cell maintenance, transposon silencing, and genome integrity in diverse organisms.

Juliano, Celina; Wang, Jianquan; Lin, Haifan

2013-01-01

137

Spectral graph analysis of modularity and assortativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expressions and bounds for Newman’s modularity are presented. These results reveal conditions for or properties of the maximum modularity of a network. The influence of the spectrum of the modularity matrix on the maximum modularity is discussed. The second part of the paper investigates how the maximum modularity, the number of clusters, and the hop count of the shortest paths vary when the assortativity of the graph is changed via degree-preserving rewiring. Via simulations, we show that the maximum modularity increases, the number of clusters decreases, and the average hop count and the effective graph resistance increase with increasing assortativity.

van Mieghem, P.; Ge, X.; Schumm, P.; Trajanovski, S.; Wang, H.

2010-11-01

138

A modular reactor to simulate biofilm development in orthopedic materials.  

PubMed

Surfaces of medical implants are generally designed to encourage soft- and/or hard-tissue adherence, eventually leading to tissue- or osseo-integration. Unfortunately, this feature may also encourage bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. To understand the mechanisms of bone tissue infection associated with contaminated biomaterials, a detailed understanding of bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation on biomaterial surfaces is needed. In this study, a continuous-flow modular reactor composed of several modular units placed in parallel was designed to evaluate the activity of circulating bacterial suspensions and thus their predilection for biofilm formation during 72 h of incubation. Hydroxyapatite discs were placed in each modular unit and then removed at fixed times to quantify biofilm accumulation. Biofilm formation on each replicate of material, unchanged in structure, morphology, or cell density, was reproducibly observed. The modular reactor therefore proved to be a useful tool for following mature biofilm formation on different surfaces and under conditions similar to those prevailing near human-bone implants. PMID:24568034

Barros, Joana; Grenho, Liliana; Manuel, Cândida M; Ferreira, Carla; Melo, Luís F; Nunes, Olga C; Monteiro, Fernando J; Ferraz, Maria P

2013-09-01

139

Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits.  

PubMed

A key element enabling the microelectronic technology advances of the past decades has been the conceptualization of complex circuits with versatile functionalities as being composed of the proper combination of basic 'lumped' circuit elements (for example, inductors and capacitors). In contrast, modern nanophotonic systems are still far from a similar level of sophistication, partially because of the lack of modularization of their response in terms of basic building blocks. Here we demonstrate the design, assembly and characterization of relatively complex photonic nanocircuits by accurately positioning a number of metallic and dielectric nanoparticles acting as modular lumped elements. The nanoparticle clusters produce the desired spectral response described by simple circuit rules and are shown to be dynamically reconfigurable by modifying the direction or polarization of impinging signals. Our work represents an important step towards extending the powerful modular design tools of electronic circuits into nanophotonic systems. PMID:24871450

Shi, Jinwei; Monticone, Francesco; Elias, Sarah; Wu, Yanwen; Ratchford, Daniel; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

2014-01-01

140

Adaptability Through Modular Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several short articles describe programs utilizing laser/electro-optics technology curriculum materials developed by Technical Education Research Centers (TERC): at undergraduate and graduate levels in universities; in a city college; in continuing education; and in industry. Modules, independent units based on booklets or films, include…

Hull, Daniel M.; And Others

1974-01-01

141

INTEGRATED FISCHER TROPSCH MODULAR PROCESS MODEL  

SciTech Connect

With declining petroleum reserves, increased world demand, and unstable politics in some of the world’s richest oil producing regions, the capability for the U.S. to produce synthetic liquid fuels from domestic resources is critical to national security and economic stability. Coal, biomass and other carbonaceous materials can be converted to liquid fuels using several conversion processes. The leading candidate for large-scale conversion of coal to liquid fuels is the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. Process configuration, component selection, and performance are interrelated and dependent on feed characteristics. This paper outlines a flexible modular approach to model an integrated FT process that utilizes a library of key component models, supporting kinetic data and materials and transport properties allowing rapid development of custom integrated plant models. The modular construction will permit rapid assessment of alternative designs and feed stocks. The modeling approach consists of three thrust areas, or “strands” – model/module development, integration of the model elements into an end to end integrated system model, and utilization of the model for plant design. Strand 1, model/module development, entails identifying, developing, and assembling a library of codes, user blocks, and data for FT process unit operations for a custom feedstock and plant description. Strand 2, integration development, provides the framework for linking these component and subsystem models to form an integrated FT plant simulation. Strand 3, plant design, includes testing and validation of the comprehensive model and performing design evaluation analyses.

Donna Post Guillen; Richard Boardman; Anastasia M. Gribik; Rick A. Wood; Robert A. Carrington

2007-12-01

142

Modular Training Systems and Strategies: An International Meeting (Washington, D.C., May 11-12, 1992).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains materials from a conference to discuss modular approaches to curriculum design. The materials from the United States and five other countries address both national skills standards and modular systems of training delivery. An introduction provides brief summaries of the conference materials and the agenda. "National…

American Society for Training and Development, Alexandria, VA.

143

Modular Network SOM and Self-Organizing Homotopy Network as a Foundation for Brain-like Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abst ract— In this paper, two generalizations of the SOM are introduced. The first of these extends the SOM to deal with more generalized classes of objects besides the vector dataset. This generalization is realized by employ- ing modular networks instead of reference vector units and is thus called a modular network SOM (mnSOM). The sec- ond generalization involves the

Tetsuo Furukawa

2007-01-01

144

The Protist Ribosomal Reference database (PR2): a catalog of unicellular eukaryote Small Sub-Unit rRNA sequences with curated taxonomy  

PubMed Central

The interrogation of genetic markers in environmental meta-barcoding studies is currently seriously hindered by the lack of taxonomically curated reference data sets for the targeted genes. The Protist Ribosomal Reference database (PR2, http://ssu-rrna.org/) provides a unique access to eukaryotic small sub-unit (SSU) ribosomal RNA and DNA sequences, with curated taxonomy. The database mainly consists of nuclear-encoded protistan sequences. However, metazoans, land plants, macrosporic fungi and eukaryotic organelles (mitochondrion, plastid and others) are also included because they are useful for the analysis of high-troughput sequencing data sets. Introns and putative chimeric sequences have been also carefully checked. Taxonomic assignation of sequences consists of eight unique taxonomic fields. In total, 136 866 sequences are nuclear encoded, 45 708 (36 501 mitochondrial and 9657 chloroplastic) are from organelles, the remaining being putative chimeric sequences. The website allows the users to download sequences from the entire and partial databases (including representative sequences after clustering at a given level of similarity). Different web tools also allow searches by sequence similarity. The presence of both rRNA and rDNA sequences, taking into account introns (crucial for eukaryotic sequences), a normalized eight terms ranked-taxonomy and updates of new GenBank releases were made possible by a long-term collaboration between experts in taxonomy and computer scientists.

Guillou, Laure; Bachar, Dipankar; Audic, Stephane; Bass, David; Berney, Cedric; Bittner, Lucie; Boutte, Christophe; Burgaud, Gaetan; de Vargas, Colomban; Decelle, Johan; del Campo, Javier; Dolan, John R.; Dunthorn, Micah; Edvardsen, Bente; Holzmann, Maria; Kooistra, Wiebe H.C.F.; Lara, Enrique; Le Bescot, Noan; Logares, Ramiro; Mahe, Frederic; Massana, Ramon; Montresor, Marina; Morard, Raphael; Not, Fabrice; Pawlowski, Jan; Probert, Ian; Sauvadet, Anne-Laure; Siano, Raffaele; Stoeck, Thorsten; Vaulot, Daniel; Zimmermann, Pascal; Christen, Richard

2013-01-01

145

The Protist Ribosomal Reference database (PR2): a catalog of unicellular eukaryote small sub-unit rRNA sequences with curated taxonomy.  

PubMed

The interrogation of genetic markers in environmental meta-barcoding studies is currently seriously hindered by the lack of taxonomically curated reference data sets for the targeted genes. The Protist Ribosomal Reference database (PR(2), http://ssu-rrna.org/) provides a unique access to eukaryotic small sub-unit (SSU) ribosomal RNA and DNA sequences, with curated taxonomy. The database mainly consists of nuclear-encoded protistan sequences. However, metazoans, land plants, macrosporic fungi and eukaryotic organelles (mitochondrion, plastid and others) are also included because they are useful for the analysis of high-troughput sequencing data sets. Introns and putative chimeric sequences have been also carefully checked. Taxonomic assignation of sequences consists of eight unique taxonomic fields. In total, 136 866 sequences are nuclear encoded, 45 708 (36 501 mitochondrial and 9657 chloroplastic) are from organelles, the remaining being putative chimeric sequences. The website allows the users to download sequences from the entire and partial databases (including representative sequences after clustering at a given level of similarity). Different web tools also allow searches by sequence similarity. The presence of both rRNA and rDNA sequences, taking into account introns (crucial for eukaryotic sequences), a normalized eight terms ranked-taxonomy and updates of new GenBank releases were made possible by a long-term collaboration between experts in taxonomy and computer scientists. PMID:23193267

Guillou, Laure; Bachar, Dipankar; Audic, Stéphane; Bass, David; Berney, Cédric; Bittner, Lucie; Boutte, Christophe; Burgaud, Gaétan; de Vargas, Colomban; Decelle, Johan; Del Campo, Javier; Dolan, John R; Dunthorn, Micah; Edvardsen, Bente; Holzmann, Maria; Kooistra, Wiebe H C F; Lara, Enrique; Le Bescot, Noan; Logares, Ramiro; Mahé, Frédéric; Massana, Ramon; Montresor, Marina; Morard, Raphael; Not, Fabrice; Pawlowski, Jan; Probert, Ian; Sauvadet, Anne-Laure; Siano, Raffaele; Stoeck, Thorsten; Vaulot, Daniel; Zimmermann, Pascal; Christen, Richard

2013-01-01

146

Inherent controllability in modular ALMRs  

SciTech Connect

As part of recent development efforts on advanced reactor designs ANL has proposed the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) concept. The IFR concept is currently being applied to modular sized reactors which would be built in multiple power paks together with an integrated fuel cycle facility. It has been amply demonstrated that the concept as applied to the modular designs has significant advantages in regard to ATWS transients. Attention is now being focussed on determining whether or not those advantages deriving from the traits of the IFR can be translated to the operational/DBA (design basis accident) class of transients. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Sackett, J.I.; Sevy, R.H.; Wei, T.Y.C.

1989-01-01

147

Corrosion of modular hip prostheses.  

PubMed

Nine uncemented hip prostheses of modular design were revised because of late infection (2 cases), femoral stem loosening or fracture (2), loosening of threaded cups (3) and protrusion of bipolar cups (2). At surgery we found tissue discoloration and macroscopic corrosion in four of the nine prostheses, located at the head-neck junction. Histological examination in most cases showed extensive necrosis associated with metal particles, indicating metal toxicity. Metallographic examination of the prosthetic heads revealed structural imperfections and inhomogeneity of the metal. We suggest that the crevice between the head and neck is a potential site of corrosion in modular designs. PMID:2071637

Mathiesen, E B; Lindgren, J U; Blomgren, G G; Reinholt, F P

1991-07-01

148

Portable or Modular? There Is a Difference....  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes differences between two types of school facilities: portable (prebuilt, temporary wood structure installed on site) and modular (method of construction for permanent buildings). Provides details of modular construction. (PKP)

Morton, Mike

2002-01-01

149

Branched modular primers in DNA sequencing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need to synthesize new sequencing primers, such as in primer walking, can be eliminated by assembling modular primers from oligonucleotide modules selected from presynthesized libraries. Our earlier modular primers consisted of 5-mers, 6-mers or 7-mer...

R. C. Mugasimangalam M. Shmulevitz V. Ramanathan

1997-01-01

150

Molecular Analysis of the 18S rRNA Gene of Cryptosporidium Parasites from Patients with or without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections Living in Kenya, Malawi, Brazil, the United Kingdom, and Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 840-bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene was used to identify Cryptosporidium spp. recovered from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected patients from Kenya, Malawi, Brazil, the United King- dom, and Vietnam. Initial identification was by Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining. Confirmation was by nested PCR, targeting the most polymorphic region of the 18S rRNA gene. Genotyping was by restriction endonuclease

Wangeci Gatei; Julie Greensill; Richard W. Ashford; Luis E. Cuevas; Christopher M. Parry; Nigel A. Cunliffe; Nicholas J. Beeching; C. Anthony Hart

2003-01-01

151

Ribosomal RNA genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I. Physical map of the repeating unit and location of the regions coding for 5 S, 5.8 S, 18 S, and 25 S ribosomal RNAs.  

PubMed

The organization of the ribosomal DNA repeating unit from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been analyzed. A cloned ribosomal DNA repeating unit has been mapped with the restriction enzymes Xma 1, Kpn 1, HindIII, Xba 1, Bgl I + II, and EcoRI. The locations of the sequences which code for 5 S, 5.8 S, 18 S, and 25 S ribosomal RNAs have been determined by hybridization of the purified RNA species with restriction endonuclease generated fragments of the repeating unit. The position of the 5.8 S ribosomal DNA sequences within the repeat was also established by sequencing the DNA which codes for 83 nucleotides at the 5' end of 5.8 S ribosomal RNA. The polarity of the 35 S ribosomal RNA precursor has been established by a combination of hybridization analysis and DNA sequence determination and is 5'-18 S, 5.8 S, 25 S-3'. PMID:334774

Bell, G I; DeGennaro, L J; Gelfand, D H; Bishop, R J; Valenzuela, P; Rutter, W J

1977-11-25

152

LTL Model Checking for Modular Petri Nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of model checking modular Petri nets for the linear time logic LTL-X. An algorithm is presented which can use the synchronisation graph from modular analysis as presented by Christensen and Petrucci and perform LTL-X model checking. We have implemented our method in the reachability analyser Maria and performed experiments. As is the case for modular analysis

Timo Latvalaand; Marko Makela

153

LTL Model Checking for Modular Petri Nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of model checking modular Petri nets for the linear time logic LTL-X. An algorithm is presented which can use the synchronisation graph from modular analysis as presented by Christensen and Petrucci and perform LTL-X model checking. We have implemented our method in the reachability analyser Maria and performed experiments. As is the case for modular analysis

Timo Latvalaand; Marko Mäkelä

2004-01-01

154

Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary conceptual study is made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR). A steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor is proposed for use as a central electric-power station. The MSR concept combines the physics of the classic stella...

R. L. Miller R. A. Krakowski

1981-01-01

155

A Modular Drinking Philosophers Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variant of the drinking philosophers algorithm of Chandy and Misra is described and proved correct in a modular way. The algorithm of Chandy and Misra is based on a particular dining philosophers algorithm and relies on certain properties of its implementation. The drinking philosophers algorithm presented in this paper is able to use an arbitrary dining philosophers algorithm as

Jennifer L. Welch; Nancy A. Lynch

1993-01-01

156

Space active modular materials experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ballistic Missile Defence Organization is flying the Space Active Modular Materials Experiments (SAMMES), test of contamination and space environment effects on materials on board the Space Test Research Vehicle-2. This paper describes the experiment architecture, the instruments, and the sample suite. Notional descriptions of operations are provided to highlight the objectives and capabilities of SAMMES.

Graham S. Arnold; David E. Brinza; P. Joshi; D. N. Keener

1998-01-01

157

Modular Instruction Under Restricted Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the evaluation and reconstruction of a transport phenomena course given at the Bandung Institute of Technology which had a 70 percent failure rate. Discusses the teacher-paced modular instruction technique designed to replace the original course material and its results in terms of student performance over a three-year period. (JM)

Utomo, Tjipto; Ruijter, Kees

1984-01-01

158

Robust modular product family design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a modified Taguchi methodology to improve the robustness of modular product families against changes in customer requirements. The general research questions posed in this paper are: (1) How to effectively design a product family (PF) that is robust enough to accommodate future customer requirements. (2) How far into the future should designers look to design a robust

Lan Jiang; Venkat Allada

2001-01-01

159

Secure Evaluation of Modular Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simple and ecien t method of pro- tection against fault analysis when the underpinning cryptosystem uses modular arithmetic. The proposed method applies whatever the modu- lar function to be evaluated and the used algorithms. Moreover, it only requires a very little overhead of extra computations, especially when the modulus is represented in diminished-radix form or when

Marc Joye; Pascal Paillier; Sung-Ming Yen

1998-01-01

160

Modular Multiplication Without Trial Division  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let N > 1. We present a method for multiplying two integers (called N-residues) modulo N while avoiding division by N. N-residues are represented in a nonstandard way, so this method is useful only if several computations are done modulo one N. The addition and subtraction algorithms are unchanged. 1. Description. Some algorithms (1), (2), (4), (5) require extensive modular

Peter L. Montgomery

1985-01-01

161

Teaching Creation: A Modular Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article describes a modular approach to teaching Genesis 1-3 that values depth over breadth even in an introductory class. The module allows students to learn about the text and its original context by orienting discussion around contemporary issues of practical concern. Specifically, the creation-evolution debates provide an…

Bosworth, David A.

2007-01-01

162

Modular Ontologies for Architectural Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of architectural environments has to take into account vari- ous sources of heterogeneous information. Not only quantitative spatial constraints and qualitative relations but also functionally-dependent and abstract conceptual- izations are relevant aspects for architectural design. We aim at a modular ontologi- cal approach based on the theory of E-connections to formally present and bring to- gether these different

Joana Hois; Mehul Bhatt; Oliver Kutz

2009-01-01

163

The modular integrated video system (MIVS)  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) is being developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for use in facilities where mains power is available and the separation of the Camera and Recording Control Unit is desirable. The system is being developed under the US Program for Technical Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards (POTAS). The MIVS is designed to be a user-friendly system, allowing operation with minimal effort and training. The system software, through the use of a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and four soft keys, leads the inspector through the setup procedures to accomplish the intended surveillance or maintenance task. Review of surveillance data is accomplished with the use of a Portable Review Station. This Review Station will aid the inspector in the review process and determine the number of missed video scenes during a surveillance period.

Schneider, S.L.; Sonnier, C.S.

1987-07-01

164

The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS)  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) is being developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for use in facilities where mains power is available and the separation of the Camera and Recording Control Unit is desirable. The system is being developed under the US Program for Technical Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards (POTAS). The MIVS is designed to be a user friendly system allowing operation with minimal effort and training. The system software, through the use of a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and four soft keys, leads the inspector through the setup procedures to accomplish the intended surveillance or maintenance task. Review of surveillance data is accomplished with the use of a Portable Review Station. This Review Station will aid the inspector in the review process and determine the number of missed video scenes during a surveillance period.

Schneider, S.L.; Sonnier, C.S.

1987-01-01

165

PASCAR: Long burning small modular reactor based on natural circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

PASCAR is a 100MWt\\/35MWe lead–bismuth-cooled small modular reactor which requires no on-site refueling and well suits to be used as a distributed power source in either a single unit or a cluster for electricity, heat supply, and desalination. This paper includes both steady-state and transient performance evaluations for neutronics and thermal–hydraulics. Through design optimization studies for minimizing a burn-up reactivity

Sungyeol Choi; Jae-Hyun Cho; Moo-Hoon Bae; Jun Lim; Dina Puspitarini; Ji Hoon Jeun; Han-Gyu Joo; Il Soon Hwang

2011-01-01

166

Development of energy efficient modular architectural textile structures. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research program was aimed at the development of energy efficient architecture using textile structures. Design concepts for modular units were developed using cell structures. Roof and wall panels were constructed and evaluated to demonstrate the design concept. Test results indicated tubular fiberglass cell structures could provide thermal insulation R-value well above 2.4. Exploratory study was also carried out to demonstrate the possibility of forming complex shapes for structural architectural applications.

Ko, F.K.; Harris, J.A.; Messinger, A.

1983-05-01

167

MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model -- Documentation of the Model-Layer Variable-Direction Horizontal Anisotropy (LVDA) capability of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) package  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents the model-layer variable-direction horizontal anisotropy (LVDA) capability of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package of MODFLOW-2000. The LVDA capability allows the principal directions of horizontal anisotropy to be different than the model-grid row and column directions, and for the directions to vary on a cell-by-cell basis within model layers. The HUF Package calculates effective hydraulic properties for model grid cells based on hydraulic properties of hydrogeologic units with thicknesses defined independently of the model layers. These hydraulic properties include, among other characteristics, hydraulic conductivity and a horizontal anisotropy ratio. Using the LVDA capability, horizontal anisotropy direction is defined for model grid cells within which one or more hydrogeologic units may occur. For each grid cell, the HUF Package calculates the effective horizontal hydraulic conductivity along the primary direction of anisotropy using the hydrogeologic-unit hydraulic conductivities, and calculates the effective horizontal hydraulic conductivity along the orthogonal anisotropy direction using the effective primary direction hydraulic conductivities and horizontal anisotropy ratios. The direction assigned to the model layer effective primary hydraulic conductivity is specified using a new data set defined by the LVDA capability, when active, to calculate coefficients needed to solve the ground-water flow equation. Use of the LVDA capability is illustrated in four simulation examples, which also serve to verify hydraulic heads, advective-travel paths, and sensitivities calculated using the LVDA capability. This version of the LVDA capability defines variable-direction horizontal anisotropy using model layers, not the hydrogeologic units defined by the HUF Package. This difference needs to be taken into account when designing model layers and hydrogeologic units to produce simulations that accurately represent a given field problem. This might be a reason, for example, to make model layer boundaries coincide with hydrogeologic-unit boundaries in all or part of a model grid.

Anderman, Evan R.; Kipp, K. L.; Hill, Mary C.; Valstar, Johan; Neupauer, R. M.

2002-01-01

168

Fitness and structure landscapes for pre-miRNA processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processing from pre-miRNA to mature miRNA in plants involves a mechanism, which depends on an extended stem in the secondary structure of the pre-miRNA. Here, we show how natural selection acts on this secondary structure to produce evolutionary conservation of the processing mechanism together with modularity of the pre-miRNA molecules, making this molecular function independent of others. Our main results are: 1. Selection on miRNA processing can be described by a fitness landscape which depends directly on the secondary structure of the pre-miRNA. 2. This fitness landscape predicts the divergence of the phenotype between orthologous pre-miRNA molecules from different species. 3. Actual pre-miRNA structures are modular: their phenotype is significantly less affected by deleterious mutations in the remainder of the molecule than for random RNA molecules.

Bundschuh, Ralf; de Meaux, Juliette; Lassig, Michael

2011-03-01

169

Mosaic Evolution of the Basicranium in Homo and its Relation to Modular Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosaic evolution describes different rates of evolutionary change in different body units. Morphologically these units are\\u000a described by more relationships within a unit than between different units which relates mosaic evolution with morphological\\u000a integration and modularity. Recent evidence suggests mosaic evolution at the human basicranium due to different evolutionary\\u000a rates of midline and lateral cranial base morphology but this hypothesis

Markus Bastir; Antonio Rosas

2009-01-01

170

Modular Inflation and the Curvaton  

SciTech Connect

Supersymmetric Peccei-Quinn models which provide a suitable candidate for the curvaton field are studied. These models also solve the {mu} problem, while generating the Peccei-Quinn scale dynamically. The curvaton is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson corresponding to an angular degree of freedom orthogonal to the axion. Its order parameter increases substantially following a phase transition during inflation.s results in a drastic amplification of the curvaton perturbations. Consequently, these models are able to accommodate low-scale inflation with Hubble parameter at the TeV scale such as modular inflation. We find that modular inflation with the orthogonal axion as curvaton can indeed account for the observations for natural values of the parameters. In particular, the spectral index can easily be made adequately lower than unity in accord with the recent data.

Lazarides, George [Physics Division, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

2007-01-12

171

Multidimensional bioseparation with modular microfluidics  

DOEpatents

A multidimensional chemical separation and analysis system is described including a prototyping platform and modular microfluidic components capable of rapid and convenient assembly, alteration and disassembly of numerous candidate separation systems. Partial or total computer control of the separation system is possible. Single or multiple alternative processing trains can be tested, optimized and/or run in parallel. Examples related to the separation and analysis of human bodily fluids are given.

Chirica, Gabriela S.; Renzi, Ronald F.

2013-08-27

172

MOCHA: Modularity in Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new interactive verification environment called M OCHA for the modular verifi- cation of heterogeneous systems. MOCHA differs from many existing model checkers in three significant ways: - For modeling, we replace unstructured state-transition graphs with th e heterogeneous mod- eling framework of reactive modules(AH96). The definition of reactive modules is inspired by formalisms such as Unity (CM88),

Rajeev Alur; Thomas A. Henzinger; Freddy Y. C. Mang; Shaz Qadeer; Sriram K. Rajamani; Serdar Tasiran

1998-01-01

173

CAMAC modular programmable function generator  

SciTech Connect

A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

1980-12-01

174

Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks.

Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

2013-02-01

175

Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks

Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

2014-01-01

176

Functional Annotation of Hierarchical Modularity  

PubMed Central

In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function–hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology) and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms), our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS) to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of “enriched” functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our method using Saccharomyces cerevisiae data from KEGG and MIPS databases and several other computationally derived and curated datasets. The code and additional supplemental files can be obtained from http://code.google.com/p/functional-annotation-of-hierarchical-modularity/ (Accessed 2012 March 13).

Padmanabhan, Kanchana; Wang, Kuangyu; Samatova, Nagiza F.

2012-01-01

177

Role of the Modular Domains of SR Proteins in Subnuclear Localization and Alternative Splicing Specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

SR proteins are required for constitutive pre- mRNA splicing and also regulate alternative splice site selection in a concentration-dependent manner. They have a modular structure that consists of one or two RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs) and a COOH-termi- nal arginine\\/serine-rich domain (RS domain). We have analyzed the role of the individual domains of these closely related proteins in cellular distribution, subnu-

J. F. Caceres; Tom Misteli; Gavin R. Screaton; David L. Spector; Adrian R. Krainer

1997-01-01

178

Theory and applications of modular reconfigurable robotic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modular reconfigurable robotic system consists of various link and joint units with standardized connecting interfaces that can be easily separated and reassembled into different configurations. Compared to a fixed configuration robot, which is usually a compromised design for a limited set of tasks, a modular robot can accomplish a large class of tasks through reconfiguration of a small inventory of modules. This thesis studies how to find an optimal module assembly configuration constructed from a given inventory of module components for a specific task. A set of generalized module models that bear features found in many real implementations is introduced. The modular robot assembly configuration is represented by a novel Assembly Incidence Matrix (AIM). Equivalence relations based on module geometry symmetries and graph isomorphisms are defined on the AIMs. An enumeration algorithm to generate non-isomorphic assembly configurations based on this equivalence relation is proposed. Examples demonstrate that this method is a significant improvement over a brute force enumeration process. Configuration independent kinematic models for modular robots are developed, and they are essential for solving the task-optimal configuration problem. A task-oriented objective function is defined on the set of non-isomorphic module assembly configurations. Task requirements and kinematic constraints on the robot assembly are treated as parameters to this objective function. The task-optimal configuration problem is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem to which genetic algorithms are employed for solutions. Examples of finding task optimal serial revolute-jointed robot configurations are demonstrated. In addition, the applications of modular robots to planning multifinger grasping and manipulation are developed. Planning two-finger grasps is done through finding antipodal point grasps on a smooth shaped object. Planning n-finger grasps is achieved by defining a qualitative force-closure test function on the n-finger grasps on an object. Applications of this test function to manipulation task and finger gaiting are illustrated.

Chen, I.-Ming

1994-01-01

179

Antares: A low cost modular launch vehicle for the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle Antares is a revolutionary concept based on identical modular units, enabling the Antares to efficiently launch communications satellites, as well as heavy payloads, into Earth orbit and beyond. The basic unit of the modular system, a single Antares vehicle, is aimed at launching approximately 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) into low Earth orbit (LEO). When coupled with a standard Centaur upper stage, it is capable of placing 4000 kg (8800 lb) into geosynchronous Earth orbit (GE0). The Antares incorporates a reusable engine, the Dual Mixture Ratio Engine (DMRE), as its propulsive device. This enables Antares to compete and excel in the satellite launch market by dramatically reducing launch costs. Inherent in the design is the capability to attach several of these vehicles together to provide heavy lift capability. Any number of these vehicles can be attached depending on the payload and mission requirements. With a seven-vehicle configuration, the Antares' modular concept provides a heavy lift capability of approximately 70,000 kg (154,000 lb) to LEO. This expandability allows for a wide range of payload options, such as large Earth satellites, Space Station Freedom material, and interplanetary spacecraft, and also offers a significant cost savings over a mixed fleet based on different launch vehicles.

1991-01-01

180

Modular ulnar head decoupling force: case report.  

PubMed

Cobalt-chrome modular distal ulnar head replacement arthroplasty is a surgical option to restore stability to the distal radioulnar joint rendered unstable by hemi-resection arthroplasty or a total resection arthroplasty. However, the revision of dislocated modular cobalt-chrome ulnar head implants may pose an important intraoperative challenge. The Morse-taper disassembly force of modular ulnar head implants is not available in the current published literature. We present a case in which tremendous difficulty was encountered while revising a dislocated modular cobalt-chrome distal ulnar head implant. The mean Morse-taper disassembly force of the retrieved modular cobalt-chrome implant was 2958 N +/- 1272. At nearly 4.5 times the average body weight, the modular ulnar head Morse-taper disassembly strength presented a formidable force to overcome intraoperatively. PMID:19446967

Naidu, Sanjiv H; Radin, Alex

2009-01-01

181

Modular rational sparse multivariate polynomial interpolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of interpolating multivariate polynomials whose coefficient domain is the rational numbers is considered. The effect of intermediate number growth on a speeded Ben-Or and Tiwari algorithm is studied.Then the newly developed modular algorithm is presented. The computing times for the speeded Ben-Or and Tiwari and the modular algorithm are compared, and it is shown that the modular algorithm

Erich Kaltofen; Yagati N. Lakshman; John-Michael Wiley

1990-01-01

182

Modular integrated video system (MIVS) review station  

SciTech Connect

An unattended video surveillance unit, the Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS), has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for International Safeguards use. An important support element of this system is a semi-automatic Review Station. Four component modules, including an 8 mm video tape recorder, a 4-inch video monitor, a power supply and control electronics utilizing a liquid crystal display (LCD) are mounted in a suitcase for probability. The unit communicates through the interactive, menu-driven LCD and may be operated on facility power through the world. During surveillance, the MIVS records video information at specified time intervals, while also inserting consecutive scene numbers and tamper event information. Using either of two available modes of operation, the Review Station reads the inserted information and counts the number of missed scenes and/or tamper events encountered on the tapes, and reports this to the user on the LCD. At the end of a review session, the system will summarize the results of the review, stop the recorder, and advise the user of the completion of the review. In addition, the Review Station will check for any video loss on the tape.

Garcia, M.L.

1988-01-01

183

Optofluidic backplane as a platform for modular system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most Lab-on-a-Chip systems require a platform with external supply and control units to be operated. In this manuscript, we report on the development of a modular optoelectronic microfluidic backplane, enabling the flexible interconnection, supply, and control of microfluidic and optofluidic devices. The developed system was fabricated in polymers and consists of backplane modules that may be individually connected with each other. Each module holds one dedicated port on top for a device to be operated. In particular, we introduce an optical backplane module based on a novel optomechanical light switch to guide light to the device of choice within the system. This modular approach allows assembling an arbitrary number of different devices in three dimensions. In conclusion, the backplane provides a configurable platform for multiple optofluidic applications.

Brammer, M.; Megnin, C.; Siegfarth, M.; Sobich, S.; Hofmann, A.; Rabus, D. G.; Mappes, T.

2012-02-01

184

Modular thrust subsystem approaches to solar electric propulsion module design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three approaches are presented for packaging the elements of a 30 cm ion thrustor subsystem into a modular thrust subsystem. The individual modules, when integrated into a conceptual solar electric propulsion module are applicable to a multimission set of interplanetary flights with the Space Shuttle/Interim Upper Stage as the launch vehicle. The emphasis is on the structural and thermal integration of the components into the modular thrust subsystems. Thermal control for the power processing units is either by direct radiation through louvers in combination with heat pipes of an all heat pipe system. The propellant storage and feed system and thrustor gimbal system concepts are presented. The three approaches are compared on the basis of mass, cost, testing, interfaces, simplicity, reliability, and maintainability.

Cake, J. E.; Sharp, G. R.; Oglebay, J. C.; Shaker, F. J.; Zevesky, R. J.

1976-01-01

185

Modular thrust subsystem approaches to solar electric propulsion module design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three approaches are presented for packaging the elements of a 30 cm ion thruster subsystem into a modular thrust subsystem. The individual modules, when integrated into a conceptual solar electric propulsion module are applicable to a multimission set of interplanetary flights with the space shuttle interim upper stage as the launch vehicle. The emphasis is on the structural and thermal integration of the components into the modular thrust subsystems. Thermal control for the power processing units is either by direct radiation through louvers in combination with heat pipes or an all heat pipe system. The propellant storage and feed system and thruster gimbal system concepts are presented. The three approaches are compared on the basis of mass, cost, testing, interfaces, simplicity, reliability, and maintainability.

Cake, J. E.; Sharp, G. R.; Oglebay, J. C.; Shaker, F. J.; Zavesky, R. J.

1976-01-01

186

Modular design attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sequence of single axismodels and a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order are used to reconstruct inaccessible variables pertaining to the modular attitude control of a rigid body flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft. The single axis models consist of two, three, four, and five rigid bodies, each interconnected by a flexible shaft passing through the mass centers of the bodies. Modal damping is added to each model. Reduced state linear observers are developed for synthesizing the inaccessible modal state variables for each modal model.

Chichester, F. D.

1984-01-01

187

Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.  

PubMed

In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function-hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology) and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms), our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS) to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its p-value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of "enriched" functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our method using Saccharomyces cerevisiae data from KEGG and MIPS databases and several other computationally derived and curated datasets. The code and additional supplemental files can be obtained from http://code.google.com/p/functional-annotation-of-hierarchical-modularity/ (Accessed 2012 March 13). PMID:22496762

Padmanabhan, Kanchana; Wang, Kuangyu; Samatova, Nagiza F

2012-01-01

188

The scaRNA2 is produced by an independent transcription unit and its processing is directed by the encoding region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The C\\/D box scaRNA2 is predicted to guide spe- cific 20-O-methylation of U2 snRNA. In contrast to other SCARNA genes, SCARNA2 appears to be independently transcribed. By transient expression of SCARNA2-reporter gene constructs, we have demonstrated that this gene is transcribed by RNA polymerase II and that the promoter elements responsible for its transcription are contained within a 161bp region

Marie-Aline Gerard; Evelyne Myslinski; Natassia Chylak; Stephanie Baudrey; Alain Krol; Philippe Carbon

2010-01-01

189

PL-MOD; Fault Tree Analysis by Modularization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PL-MOD performs an analysis of operating systems modeled by means of fault trees using modularization techniques. The program was developed to perform the modularization and evaluation of the modular occurrence probabilities and Vesely-Fussell importance ...

J. Olmos L. Wolf N. Rasmussen

1984-01-01

190

RNA-binding strategies common to cold-shock domain- and RNA recognition motif-containing proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous RNA-binding proteins have modular structures, comprising one or several copies of a selective RNA-binding domain generally coupled to an auxiliary domain that binds RNA non-specifically. We have built and compared homology-based models of the cold-shock domain (CSD) of the Xenopus protein, FRGY2, and of the third RNA recog- nition motif (RRM) of the ubiquitous nucleolar protein, nucleolin. Our model

Xavier Manival; Laurence Ghisolfi-Nieto; Gérard Joseph; Philippe Bouvet; Monique Erard

2001-01-01

191

The Iterative Structure Analysis of Montgomery Modular Multiplication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Montgomery modular multiplication (MMM) plays a crucial role in the implementation of modular exponentiations of public-key cryptography. In this paper, we discuss the iterative structure and extend the iterative bound condition of MMM. It can be applied to complicated modular exponentiations. Based on the iterative condition of MMM, we can directly use non-modular additions, subtractions and even simple multiplications instead of the modular forms, which make modular exponentiation operation very efficient but more importantly iterative applicability of MMM.

Jinbo, Wang

2007-09-01

192

Engineering RNA-binding proteins for biology  

PubMed Central

RNA-binding proteins play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression. Many have modular structures and combine relatively few common domains in various arrangements to recognize RNA sequences and/or structures. Recent progress in engineering the specificity of the PUF class RNA-binding proteins has shown that RNA-binding domains may be combined with various effector or functional domains to regulate the metabolism of targeted RNAs. Designer RNA-binding proteins with tailored sequence specificity will provide valuable tools for biochemical research as well as potential therapeutic applications. In this review, we discuss the suitability of various RNA-binding domains for engineering RNA-binding specificity, based on the structural basis for their recognition. We also compare various protein engineering and design methods applied to RNA-binding proteins, and discuss future applications of these proteins.

Chen, Yu; Varani, Gabriele

2014-01-01

193

Learning modular policies for robotics.  

PubMed

A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behavior. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithm that is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of these requirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithms that are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that supports co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots. PMID:24966830

Neumann, Gerhard; Daniel, Christian; Paraschos, Alexandros; Kupcsik, Andras; Peters, Jan

2014-01-01

194

Learning modular policies for robotics  

PubMed Central

A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behavior. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithm that is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of these requirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithms that are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that supports co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots.

Neumann, Gerhard; Daniel, Christian; Paraschos, Alexandros; Kupcsik, Andras; Peters, Jan

2014-01-01

195

A Formal Theory for Modular ERDF Ontologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the Semantic Web is impossible without any form of modularity, encapsulation, and access control. In an earlier paper, we extended RDF graphs with weak and strong negation, as well as derivation rules. The ERDF #n-stable model semantics of the extended RDF framework (ERDF) is defined, extending RDF(S) semantics. In this paper, we propose a framework for modular

Anastasia Analyti; Grigoris Antoniou; Carlos Viegas Damásio

2009-01-01

196

Development of Modular Ontologies in CASL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the advantages of the Common Alge- braic Specification Language (Casl) for the development of modular ontologies. Casl not only oers logics with a limited expressivity like de- scription logic, but also e.g. first-order logic and modal logic. The central part of Casl is its powerful structuring mechanism, which is orthogonal to the logical formalisms. Hence the modularization

Klaus Lüttich; Claudio Masolo; Stefano Borgo

2006-01-01

197

Modular approach to fault tree analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method to describe fault tree diagrams in terms of their modular composition is developed. Fault tree structures are characterized by recursively relating the top tree event to all its basic component inputs through a set of equations defining each of the modules for the fault tree. It is shown that such a modular description is an extremely valuable

J. Olmes; L. Wolf

1977-01-01

198

Modular injection systems for miniature engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mission requirements for Kinetic Energy Weapons will require miniaturization of current vehicle propulsion systems for future Space Defence Iniative Programs. A modular injection system (MIS) valve is presented which will decrease cost, size and weight of miniaturized storable bipropellant rocket engines and features two poppet-type propellant valve modules pneumatically linked to a pilot solenoid module. A prototype modular injection valve

Mike Cochran

1992-01-01

199

Modular Buildings Are Here To Stay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents several examples of modular building construction being used be school districts to support their need for more space, building flexibility, and enhancement of the learning environment. Comparisons with traditionally built school facilities are offered as are answers to commonly held myths concerning modular construction. (GR)

Williams, Steven; Roman, Michael I.; Tiernan, Maury; Savage, Chuck; Airikka, Robert; Brosius, Jerry L.

2000-01-01

200

Modular Helium Reactor for Hydrogen Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For electricity and hydrogen production, an advanced reactor technology receiving considerable international interest is a modular, passively-safe version of the high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), known in the U.S. as the Modular Helium Reactor ...

A. Shenoy K. Schultz L. Brown M. Fukuie M. Richards

2006-01-01

201

A study on modular design representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faced with the pressure of shortened product life cycle, most enterprises are looking for the ways to reduce the inventory cost and enhance the service level. As stated by many researchers of related fields, modular design is an efficient method using product varieties to fulfill customer satisfactions. However, the discussion of modular design often excludes its graphical representation which renders

Yuan-Ping Luh; Chih-Chin Pan; Jian-Wei Su

2007-01-01

202

Modular domains of the Dicistroviridae intergenic internal ribosome entry site.  

PubMed

The intergenic region internal ribosome entry site (IGR IRES) of the Dicistroviridae viral family can directly assemble 80S ribosomes and initiate translation at a non-AUG codon from the ribosomal A-site. These functions are directed by two independently folded domains of the IGR IRES. One domain, composed of overlapping pseudoknots II and III (PKII/III), mediates ribosome recruitment. The second domain, composed of PKI, mimics a tRNA anticodon-codon interaction to position the ribosome at the ribosomal A-site. Although adopting a common secondary structure, the dicistrovirus IGR IRESs can be grouped into two classes based on distinct features within each domain. In this study, we report on the modularity of the IGR IRESs and show that the ribosome-binding domain and the tRNA anticodon mimicry domain are functionally interchangeable between the Type I and the Type II IGR IRESs. Using structural probing, ribosome-binding assays, and ribosome positioning analysis by toeprinting assays, we show that the chimeric IRESs fold properly, assemble 80S ribosomes, and can mediate IRES translation in rabbit reticulocyte lysates. We also demonstrate that the chimeric IRESs can stimulate the ribosome-dependent GTPase activity of eEF2, which suggests that the ribosome is primed for a step downstream from IRES binding. Overall, the results demonstrate that the dicistrovirus IGR IRESs are composed of two modular domains that work in concert to manipulate the ribosome and direct translation initiation. PMID:20423979

Jang, Christopher J; Jan, Eric

2010-06-01

203

Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the existing beam port configuration of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) was designed to test and validate the code package in its entirety, as well as its modules separately. The selected physics code, TORT, and the requisite data such as source distribution, cross-sections, and angular quadratures were comprehensively tested with these computational models. The modular feature and the parallel performance of the code package were also examined using these computational models. Another outcome of these computational models is to provide the necessary background information for determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The first mission of the code package was completed successfully by determining the optimal tank shape which was sought for the current beam tube configuration and two new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The performance of the new beam tube configurations and the current beam tube configuration were evaluated with the new optimal tank shapes determined by MOZAIK. Furthermore, the performance of the code package with the two different optimization strategies were analyzed showing that while GA is capable of achieving higher thermal beam intensity for a given beam tube setup, Min-max produces an optimal shape that is more amenable to machining and manufacturing. The optimal D2O moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK with the current beam port configuration improves the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam port exit end by 9.5%. Similarly, the new tangential beam port configuration (beam port near the core interface) with the optimal moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK improves the thermal neutron beam intensity by a factor of 1.4 compared to the existing beam port configuration (with the existing D2O moderator tank). Another new beam port configuration, radial beam tube configuration, with the optimal moderator tank shape increases the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam tube exit by a factor of 1.8. All these results

Bekar, Kursat B.

204

A Formal Theory for Modular ERDF Ontologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of the Semantic Web is impossible without any form of modularity, encapsulation, and access control. In an earlier paper, we extended RDF graphs with weak and strong negation, as well as derivation rules. The ERDF #n-stable model semantics of the extended RDF framework (ERDF) is defined, extending RDF(S) semantics. In this paper, we propose a framework for modular ERDF ontologies, called modular ERDF framework, which enables collaborative reasoning over a set of ERDF ontologies, while support for hidden knowledge is also provided. In particular, the modular ERDF stable model semantics of modular ERDF ontologies is defined, extending the ERDF #n-stable model semantics. Our proposed framework supports local semantics and different points of view, local closed-world and open-world assumptions, and scoped negation-as-failure. Several complexity results are provided.

Analyti, Anastasia; Antoniou, Grigoris; Damásio, Carlos Viegas

205

The emergence of modularity in biological systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review, we discuss modularity and hierarchy in biological systems. We review examples from protein structure, genetics, and biological networks of modular partitioning of the geometry of biological space. We review theories to explain modular organization of biology, with a focus on explaining how biology may spontaneously organize to a structured form. That is, we seek to explain how biology nucleated from among the many possibilities in chemistry. The emergence of modular organization of biological structure will be described as a symmetry-breaking phase transition, with modularity as the order parameter. Experimental support for this description will be reviewed. Examples will be presented from pathogen structure, metabolic networks, gene networks, and protein-protein interaction networks. Additional examples will be presented from ecological food networks, developmental pathways, physiology, and social networks.

Lorenz, Dirk M.; Jeng, Alice; Deem, Michael W.

2011-06-01

206

Modular microfluidic systems using reversibly attached PDMS fluid control modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of soft lithography-based poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) valve systems is the dominating approach for high-density microscale fluidic control. Integrated systems enable complex flow control and large-scale integration, but lack modularity. In contrast, modular systems are attractive alternatives to integration because they can be tailored for different applications piecewise and without redesigning every element of the system. We present a method for reversibly coupling hard materials to soft lithography defined systems through self-aligning O-ring features thereby enabling easy interfacing of complex-valve-based systems with simpler detachable units. Using this scheme, we demonstrate the seamless interfacing of a PDMS-based fluid control module with hard polymer chips. In our system, 32 self-aligning O-ring features protruding from the PDMS fluid control module form chip-to-control module interconnections which are sealed by tightening four screws. The interconnection method is robust and supports complex fluidic operations in the reversibly attached passive chip. In addition, we developed a double-sided molding method for fabricating PDMS devices with integrated through-holes. The versatile system facilitates a wide range of applications due to the modular approach, where application specific passive chips can be readily attached to the flow control module.

Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Sip, Christopher G.; Folch, Albert; Dufva, Martin

2013-05-01

207

ASMPKS: an analysis system for modular polyketide synthases  

PubMed Central

Background Polyketides are secondary metabolites of microorganisms with diverse biological activities, including pharmacological functions such as antibiotic, antitumor and agrochemical properties. Polyketides are synthesized by serialized reactions of a set of enzymes called polyketide synthase(PKS)s, which coordinate the elongation of carbon skeletons by the stepwise condensation of short carbon precursors. Due to their importance as drugs, the volume of data on polyketides is rapidly increasing and creating a need for computational analysis methods for efficient polyketide research. Moreover, the increasing use of genetic engineering to research new kinds of polyketides requires genome wide analysis. Results We describe a system named ASMPKS (Analysis System for Modular Polyketide Synthesis) for computational analysis of PKSs against genome sequences. It also provides overall management of information on modular PKS, including polyketide database construction, new PKS assembly, and chain visualization. ASMPKS operates on a web interface to construct the database and to analyze PKSs, allowing polyketide researchers to add their data to this database and to use it easily. In addition, the ASMPKS can predict functional modules for a protein sequence submitted by users, estimate the chemical composition of a polyketide synthesized from the modules, and display the carbon chain structure on the web interface. Conclusion ASMPKS has powerful computation features to aid modular PKS research. As various factors, such as starter units and post-processing, are related to polyketide biosynthesis, ASMPKS will be improved through further development for study of the factors.

Tae, Hongseok; Kong, Eun-Bae; Park, Kiejung

2007-01-01

208

Modular Countermine Payload for Small Robots  

SciTech Connect

Payloads for small robotic platforms have historically been designed and implemented as platform and task specific solutions. A consequence of this approach is that payloads cannot be deployed on different robotic platforms without substantial re-engineering efforts. To address this issue, we developed a modular countermine payload that is designed from the ground-up to be platform agnostic. The payload consists of the multi-mission payload controller unit (PCU) coupled with the configurable mission specific threat detection, navigation and marking payloads. The multi-mission PCU has all the common electronics to control and interface to all the payloads. It also contains the embedded processor that can be used to run the navigational and control software. The PCU has a very flexible robot interface which can be configured to interface to various robot platforms. The threat detection payload consists of a two axis sweeping arm and the detector. The navigation payload consists of several perception sensors that are used for terrain mapping, obstacle detection and navigation. Finally, the marking payload consists of a dual-color paint marking system. Through the multi-mission PCU, all these payloads are packaged in a platform agnostic way to allow deployment on multiple robotic platforms, including Talon and Packbot.

Herman Herman; Doug Few; Roelof Versteeg; Jean-Sebastien Valois; Jeff McMahill; Michael Licitra; Edward Henciak

2010-04-01

209

Modular countermine payload for small robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Payloads for small robotic platforms have historically been designed and implemented as platform and task specific solutions. A consequence of this approach is that payloads cannot be deployed on different robotic platforms without substantial re-engineering efforts. To address this issue, we developed a modular countermine payload that is designed from the ground-up to be platform agnostic. The payload consists of the multi-mission payload controller unit (PCU) coupled with the configurable mission specific threat detection, navigation and marking payloads. The multi-mission PCU has all the common electronics to control and interface to all the payloads. It also contains the embedded processor that can be used to run the navigational and control software. The PCU has a very flexible robot interface which can be configured to interface to various robot platforms. The threat detection payload consists of a two axis sweeping arm and the detector. The navigation payload consists of several perception sensors that are used for terrain mapping, obstacle detection and navigation. Finally, the marking payload consists of a dual-color paint marking system. Through the multimission PCU, all these payloads are packaged in a platform agnostic way to allow deployment on multiple robotic platforms, including Talon and Packbot.

Herman, Herman; Few, Doug; Versteeg, Roelof; Valois, Jean-Sebastien; McMahill, Jeff; Licitra, Michael; Henciak, Edward

2010-04-01

210

Overland Tidal Power Generation Using Modular Tidal Prism  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring sites with sufficient kinetic energy suitable for tidal power generation with sustained currents > 1 to 2 m/s are relatively rare. Yet sites with greater than 3 to 4 m of tidal range are relatively common around the U.S. coastline. Tidal potential does exist along the shoreline but is mostly distributed, and requires an approach which allows trapping and collection to also be conducted in a distributed manner. In this paper we examine the feasibility of generating sustainable tidal power using multiple nearshore tidal energy collection units and present the Modular Tidal Prism (MTP) basin concept. The proposed approach utilizes available tidal potential by conversion into tidal kinetic energy through cyclic expansion and drainage from shallow modular manufactured overland tidal prisms. A preliminary design and configuration of the modular tidal prism basin including inlet channel configuration and basin dimensions was developed. The unique design was shown to sustain momentum in the penstocks during flooding as well as ebbing tidal cycles. The unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was used to subject the proposed design to a number of sensitivity tests and to optimize the size, shape and configuration of MTP basin for peak power generation capacity. The results show that an artificial modular basin with a reasonable footprint (? 300 acres) has the potential to generate 10 to 20 kw average energy through the operation of a small turbine located near the basin outlet. The potential of generating a total of 500 kw to 1 MW of power through a 20 to 40 MTP basin tidal power farms distributed along the coastline of Puget Sound, Washington, is explored.

Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Copping, Andrea

2010-03-01

211

BESST: A Miniature, Modular Radiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new radiometer assembly has been developed that incorporates modular design principles in order to provide flexibility and versatility. The assembly, shown in Figure 1, is made up of six modules plus a central cubical frame. A small thermal imaging detector is used to determine the temperature of remote objects. To improve the accuracy of the temperature reading, frequent calibration is required. The detector must view known temperature targets before viewing the remote object. Calibration is achieved by using a motorized fold mirror to select the desired scene the detector views. The motor steps the fold mirror through several positions, which allows the detector to view the calibration targets or the remote object. The details, features, and benefits of the radiometer are described in this paper.

Warden, Robert; Good, William; Baldwin-Stevens, Erik

2010-01-01

212

Modular generation of fluorescent phycobiliproteins.  

PubMed

Phycobiliproteins are brightly-fluorescent light-harvesting pigments for photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and red algae. They are also of interest as fluorescent biomarkers, but their heterologous generation in vivo has previously required multiple transformations. We report here a modular approach that requires only two DNA segments. The first codes for the apo-protein. The second codes for fusions capable of chromophore biosynthesis and its covalent attachment to the apo-protein; it contains the genes of heme oxygenase, a bilin reductase, and a chromophore lyase. Phycobiliproteins containing phycoerythrobilin (?(fluor) ~ 560 nm), phycourobilin (?(fluor) ~ 500 nm), phycocyanobilin (?(fluor) ~ 630 nm) or phycoviolobilin (?(fluor) ~ 580 nm) were obtained in high yield in E. coli. This approach facilitates chromophorylation studies of phycobiliproteins, as well as their use for fluorescence labeling based on their high fluorescence. PMID:23545837

Wu, Xian-Jun; Chang, Kun; Luo, Juan; Zhou, Ming; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong

2013-06-01

213

Modular construction of dynamic nucleodendrimers.  

PubMed

Isoguanosine-containing dendritic small molecules self-assemble into decameric nucleodendrimers as observed by 1D?NMR spectroscopy, 2D?DOSY, and mass spectrometry. In particular, apolar building blocks readily form pentameric structures in acetonitrile while the presence of alkali metals promotes the formation of stable decameric assemblies with a preference for cesium ions. Remarkably, co-incubation of guanosine and isoguanosine-containing nucleodendrons results in the formation of decameric structures in absence of added salts. Further analysis of the mixture indicated that guanosine derivatives facilitate the formation, but are not involved in decameric structures; a process reminiscent of molecular crowding. This molecular system provides a powerful canvas for the rapid and modular assembly of polyfunctional dendritic macromolecules. PMID:24700537

Abet, Valentina; Evans, Robert; Guibbal, Florian; Caldarelli, Stefano; Rodriguez, Raphaël

2014-05-01

214

Osmotrophy in modular Ediacara organisms  

PubMed Central

The Ediacara biota include macroscopic, morphologically complex soft-bodied organisms that appear globally in the late Ediacaran Period (575–542 Ma). The physiology, feeding strategies, and functional morphology of the modular Ediacara organisms (rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs) remain debated but are critical for understanding their ecology and phylogeny. Their modular construction triggered numerous hypotheses concerning their likely feeding strategies, ranging from micro-to-macrophagus feeding to photoautotrophy to osmotrophy. Macrophagus feeding in rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs is inconsistent with their lack of oral openings, and photoautotrophy in rangeomorphs is contradicted by their habitats below the photic zone. Here, we combine theoretical models and empirical data to evaluate the feasibility of osmotrophy, which requires high surface area to volume (SA/V) ratios, as a primary feeding strategy of rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs. Although exclusively osmotrophic feeding in modern ecosystems is restricted to microscopic bacteria, this study suggests that (i) fractal branching of rangeomorph modules resulted in SA/V ratios comparable to those observed in modern osmotrophic bacteria, and (ii) rangeomorphs, and particularly erniettomorphs, could have achieved osmotrophic SA/V ratios similar to bacteria, provided their bodies included metabolically inert material. Thus, specific morphological adaptations observed in rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs may have represented strategies for overcoming physiological constraints that typically make osmotrophy prohibitive for macroscopic life forms. These results support the viability of osmotrophic feeding in rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs, help explain their taphonomic peculiarities, and point to the possible importance of earliest macroorganisms for cycling dissolved organic carbon that may have been present in abundance during Ediacaran times.

Laflamme, Marc; Xiao, Shuhai; Kowalewski, Michal

2009-01-01

215

Specialization Can Drive the Evolution of Modularity  

PubMed Central

Organismal development and many cell biological processes are organized in a modular fashion, where regulatory molecules form groups with many interactions within a group and few interactions between groups. Thus, the activity of elements within a module depends little on elements outside of it. Modularity facilitates the production of heritable variation and of evolutionary innovations. There is no consensus on how modularity might evolve, especially for modules in development. We show that modularity can increase in gene regulatory networks as a byproduct of specialization in gene activity. Such specialization occurs after gene regulatory networks are selected to produce new gene activity patterns that appear in a specific body structure or under a specific environmental condition. Modules that arise after specialization in gene activity comprise genes that show concerted changes in gene activities. This and other observations suggest that modularity evolves because it decreases interference between different groups of genes. Our work can explain the appearance and maintenance of modularity through a mechanism that is not contingent on environmental change. We also show how modularity can facilitate co-option, the utilization of existing gene activity to build new gene activity patterns, a frequent feature of evolutionary innovations.

Espinosa-Soto, Carlos; Wagner, Andreas

2010-01-01

216

Modular architecture of nucleotide-binding pockets  

PubMed Central

Recently, modularity has emerged as a general attribute of complex biological systems. This is probably because modular systems lend themselves readily to optimization via random mutation followed by natural selection. Although they are not traditionally considered to evolve by this process, biological ligands are also modular, being composed of recurring chemical fragments, and moreover they exhibit similarities reminiscent of mutations (e.g. the few atoms differentiating adenine and guanine). Many ligands are also promiscuous in the sense that they bind to many different protein folds. Here, we investigated whether ligand chemical modularity is reflected in an underlying modularity of binding sites across unrelated proteins. We chose nucleotides as paradigmatic ligands, because they can be described as composed of well-defined fragments (nucleobase, ribose and phosphates) and are quite abundant both in nature and in protein structure databases. We found that nucleotide-binding sites do indeed show a modular organization and are composed of fragment-specific protein structural motifs, which parallel the modular structure of their ligands. Through an analysis of the distribution of these motifs in different proteins and in different folds, we discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings and argue that the structural features we observed can arise both as a result of divergence from a common ancestor or convergent evolution.

Gherardini, Pier Federico; Ausiello, Gabriele; Russell, Robert B.; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela

2010-01-01

217

Human Cytoplasmic Isoleucyl-tRNA Synthetase: Selective Divergence of the Anticodon-Binding Domain and Acquisition of a New Structural Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show here that the class I human cytoplasmic isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase is an exceptionally large polypeptide (1266 aa) which, unlike its homologues in lower eukaryotes and prokaryotes, has a third domain of two repeats of an ≈90-aa sequence appended to its C-terminal end. While extracts of Escherichia coli do not aminoacylate mammalian tRNA with isoleucine, expression of the cloned human

Kiyotaka Shiba; Noriko Suzuki; Katsuya Shigesada; Yuziro Namba; Paul Schimmel; Tetsuo Noda

1994-01-01

218

WARP: a modular wind power system for distributed electric utility application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady development of wind turbine technology, and the accumulation of wind farm operating experience, have resulted in the emergence of wind power as a potentially attractive source of electricity for utilities. Since wind turbines are inherently modular, with medium-sized units typically in the range of a few hundred kW each, they lend themselves well to distributed generation service. A patented

A. L. Weisbrich; S. L. Ostrow; J. Padalino

1995-01-01

219

WARP: a modular wind power system for distributed electric utility application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady development of wind turbine technology, and the accumulation of wind farm operating experience, have resulted in the emergence of wind power as a potentially attractive source of electricity for utilities. Since wind turbines are inherently modular, with medium-sized units typically in the range of a few hundred kilowatts each, they lend themselves well to distributed generation service, A patented

Alfred L. Weisbrich; Stephen L. Ostrow; Joseph P. Padalino

1996-01-01

220

Fossil Plant Control Systems Applications with the Modular Modeling System Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic model of the MSUS standard coal-fired unit was developed using EPRI's Modular Modeling System (MMS) code. A simplified control system model was used to help reveal the need for more sophisticated control strategies. The control system was also designed for operation in either a constant throttle pressure or a sliding throttle pressure control mode. Transient results showed that

W. R. Barcelo; C. W. Sanders

1983-01-01

221

The Role of Instrumentation and Controls Technology in Enabling Deployment of Small Modular Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) will provide the United States with another economically viable energy option, diversify the available nuclear power alternatives for the country, and enhance U.S. economic competitiveness by ensuring a domestic capability to supply demonstrated reactor technology to a growing global market for clean and affordable energy sources. Smaller nuclear power plants match the

Dwight A Clayton; Richard Thomas Wood

2010-01-01

222

The Role of Instrumentation and Control Technology in Enabling Deployment of Small Modular Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) will provide the United States with another economically viable energy option, diversify the available nuclear power alternatives for the country, and enhance U.S. economic competitiveness by ensuring a domestic capability to supply demonstrated reactor technology to a growing global market for clean and affordable energy sources. Smaller nuclear power plants match the

Dwight A Clayton; Richard Thomas Wood

2011-01-01

223

Hardware for Accelerating N-Modular Redundant Systems for High-Reliability Computing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hardware unit has been designed that reduces the cost, in terms of performance and power consumption, for implementing N-modular redundancy (NMR) in a multiprocessor device. The innovation monitors transactions to memory, and calculates a form of sumcheck on-the-fly, thereby relieving the processors of calculating the sumcheck in software

Dobbs, Carl, Sr.

2012-01-01

224

Experimental study of active vibration suppression of flexible structure using modular control patch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental results of vibration suppression of a flexible structure using a miniaturized digital controller, called modular control patch (MCP). The MCP employs a TI-C30 digital signal processor and was developed by TRW for the United States Air Force for future space vibration control. In this research, the MCP is used to implement different control algorithms for vibration

Gangbing Song; Steve P. Schmidt; B. N. Agrawal

1998-01-01

225

Generalized Fuzzy Torus and its Modular Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a generalization of the basic fuzzy torus to a fuzzy torus with non-trivial modular parameter, based on a finite matrix algebra. We discuss the modular properties of this fuzzy torus, and compute the matrix Laplacian for a scalar field. In the semi-classical limit, the generalized fuzzy torus can be used to approximate a generic commutative torus represented by two generic vectors in the complex plane, with generic modular parameter ?. The effective classical geometry and the spectrum of the Laplacian are correctly reproduced in the limit. The spectrum of a matrix Dirac operator is also computed.

Schreivogl, Paul; Steinacker, Harold

2013-10-01

226

A Modular Approach to Redundant Robot Control  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a modular approach for computing redundant robot kinematics. First some conventional redundant control methods are presented and shown to be `passive control laws`, i.e. they can be represented by a network consisting of passive elements. These networks are then put into modular form by applying scattering operator techniques. Additional subnetwork modules can then be added to further shape the motion. Modules for obstacle detection, joint limit avoidance, proximity sensing, and for imposing nonlinear velocity constraints are presented. The resulting redundant robot control system is modular, flexible and robust.

Anderson, R.J.

1997-12-01

227

Generalized epidemic process on modular networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social reinforcement and modular structure are two salient features observed in the spreading of behavior through social contacts. In order to investigate the interplay between these two features, we study the generalized epidemic process on modular networks with equal-sized finite communities and adjustable modularity. Using the analytical approach originally applied to clique-based random networks, we show that the system exhibits a bond-percolation type continuous phase transition for weak social reinforcement, whereas a discontinuous phase transition occurs for sufficiently strong social reinforcement. Our findings are numerically verified using the finite-size scaling analysis and the crossings of the bimodality coefficient.

Chung, Kihong; Baek, Yongjoo; Kim, Daniel; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

2014-05-01

228

Borcherds products and arithmetic intersection theory on Hilbert modular surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove an arithmetic version of a theorem of Hirzebruch and Zagier saying that Hirzebruch-Zagier divisors on a Hilbert modular surface are the coefficients of an elliptic modular form of weight $2$ . Moreover, we determine the arithmetic self-intersection number of the line bundle of modular forms equipped with its Petersson metric on a regular model of a Hilbert modular

Jan H. Bruinier; José I. Burgos Gil; Ulf Kühn

2007-01-01

229

Borcherds products and arithmetic intersection theory on Hilbert modular surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove an arithmetic version of a theorem of Hirzebruch and Zagier saying that Hirzebruch-Zagier divisors on a Hilbert modular surface are the coefficients of an elliptic modular form of weight two. Moreover, we determine the arithmetic self-intersection number of the line bundle of modular forms equipped with its Petersson metric on a regular model of a Hilbert modular surface,

Jan H. Bruinier; Jose I. Burgos Gil; Ulf Kuehn

2003-01-01

230

Modular Buildings: A Quick, Quality Solution for Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the history of the modular classroom industry and emergence of the Modular Building Institute. Analyzes the differences between temporary portable classrooms and permanent modular additions. Also examines the possible influence of modular classrooms on future facility design and the ways that educational facilities officials are saving…

School Planning & Management, 2001

2001-01-01

231

RNA genetics  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings on RNA genetics: Retroviruses, Viroids, and RNA recombination, Volume 2. Topics covered include: Replication of retrovirus genomes, Hepatitis B virus replication, and Evolution of RNA viruses.

Domingo, E. (Instituto de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, Madrid (ES)); Holland, J.J. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Biology); Ahlquist, P. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

1988-01-01

232

Modular power distribution system to drive DC and AC electrical loads, in particular for vehicle or domotics application  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A modular power distribution system configured to drive DC and AC electrical loads comprises logical units in different locations receiving DC and AC power lines for distribution to respectively DC and AC electrical loads in all of these locations. In each of the logical units, the system comprises one or more physical units, and in each of the physical units one or more power modules for the distribution of DC or AC power to one of the DC or AC electrical loads. Finally, the system comprises at least one master control unit for each of the logical units placed in one of physical units to control the functions of the pertaining logical unit.

2013-05-14

233

Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

Hassani, V.

2000-06-18

234

Individualized Project Physics in a Modular Schedule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Physics is taught at Gibault High School (Waterloo, IL) using a modular schedule and learning activity packets. A description of the course, instructional strategies used, and the learning activity packets is provided. (JN)

Cange, Francis

1985-01-01

235

Modular biowaste monitoring system conceptual design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the study was to define requirements and generate a conceptual design for a Modular Biowaste Monitoring System for specifically supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs.

Fogal, G. L.

1974-01-01

236

Modular District Heating System MODiS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MODiS (Modular District Heating System) products were developed during the project for either building an entirely new district heating (DH) system or for renovating and extending an existing system. Good planning of the parts that constitute DH systems, ...

K. Sipilae A. Ranne T. Koljonen

2000-01-01

237

Honeywell modular automation system computer software documentation  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a Computer Software Docuemntation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-21I.

Cunningham, L.T.

1997-01-20

238

Modular, Intelligent Power Systems for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's new Space Exploration Initiative demands that vehicles, habitats, and rovers achieve unprecedented levels of reliability, safety, effectiveness, and affordability. Modular and intelligent electrical power systems are critical to achieving those goals. Modular electrical power systems naturally increase reliability and safety through built-in fault tolerance. These modular systems also enable standardization across a multitude of systems, thereby greatly increasing affordability of the programs. Various technologies being developed to support this new paradigm for space power systems will be presented. Examples include the use of digital control in power electronics to enable better performance and advanced modularity functions such as distributed, master-less control and series input power conversion. Also, digital control and robust communication enables new levels of power system control, stability, fault detection, and health management. Summary results from recent development efforts are presented along with expected future technology development needs required to support NASA's ambitious space exploration goals.

Button, Robert

2006-01-01

239

CFD Analysis of Modular Thrusters Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effective performance of modular thrusters in an aerospike configuration is difficult to determine. Standard analytical tools are applicable to conventional nozzle shapes, but are limited when applied to an aerospike nozzle (An aerospike nozzle is an ...

R. J. Ungewitter J. Beck A. Ketchum

1996-01-01

240

Adapting Modular Curriculum in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a rationale for using modular education and discusses how it can be used in the technology education classroom. Suggests that teacher-developed materials are more useful than those developed by vendors. (JOW)

Loveland, Tom

1999-01-01

241

Modular hydride beds for mobile applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design, construction, initial testing and simple thermal modeling of modular, metal hydride beds have been completed. Originally designed for supplying hydrogen to a fuel cell on a mobile vehicle, the complete bed design consists of 8 modules and is inten...

M. E. Malinowski K. D. Stewart

1997-01-01

242

Modular digital holographic fringe data processing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software architecture suitable for reducing holographic fringe data into useful engineering data is developed and tested. The results, along with a detailed description of the proposed architecture for a Modular Digital Fringe Analysis System, are presented.

Downward, J. G.; Vavra, P. C.; Schebor, F. S.; Vest, C. M.

1985-01-01

243

Limiting modular symbols and the Lyapunov spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper consists of variations upon the theme of limiting modular symbols.\\u000aTopics covered are: an expression of limiting modular symbols as Birkhoff\\u000aaverages on level sets of the Lyapunov exponent of the shift of the continued\\u000afraction, a vanishing theorem depending on the spectral properties of a\\u000ageneralized Gauss-Kuzmin operator, the construction of certain non-trivial\\u000ahomology classes associated to

Matilde Marcolli

2003-01-01

244

Optimal cost-effective design of triple-modular-redundancy-with-spares systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design issue for the optimal number of spare units in a triple-modular-redundancy system with spare units, including fault coverage and common-cause failure, is addressed. Two aspects of the problem are shown: (1) how to minimize the average total system cost, and how to minimize the average total system cost subject to an acceptance designed reliability level; and (2) how

Hoang Pham; Reader Aids

1993-01-01

245

A 3-d modular gripper design tool  

SciTech Connect

Modular fixturing kits are sets of components used for flexible, rapid construction of fixtures. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, each jaw of which is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid-plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, one gains the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed an algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses they have added to the planar algorithm, including a 3-d grasp quality metric based on force information, 3-d geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis. Finally, the authors describe two applications of their code. One of these is an internal application at Sandia, while the other shows a potential use of the code for designing part of an agile assembly line.

Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

1997-02-01

246

Theory for the Emergence of Modularity in Complex Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a theory for the dynamics of modularity in these systems. We find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at long times. In addition, we find a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity at short times. We discuss a number of biological and social systems that can be understood with this framework. The modularity of the protein-protein interaction network increases when yeast are exposed to heat shock, and the modularity of the protein-protein networks in both yeast and E. coli appears to have increased over evolutionary time. Food webs in low-energy, stressful environments are more modular than those in plentiful environments, arid ecologies are more modular during droughts, and foraging of sea otters is more modular when food is limiting. The modularity of social networks changes over time: stock brokers instant messaging networks are more modular under stressful market conditions, criminal networks are more modular under increased police pressure, and world trade network modularity has decreased

Deem, Michael; Park, Jeong-Man

2013-03-01

247

Modular Wideband Active Vibration Absorber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of space experiments with previous missions shows a common theme. Some of the recent experiments are based on the scientific fundamentals of instruments of prior years. However, the main distinguishing characteristic is the embodiment of advances in engineering and manufacturing in order to extract clearer and sharper images and extend the limits of measurement. One area of importance to future missions is providing vibration free observation platforms at acceptable costs. It has been shown by researchers that vibration problems cannot be eliminated by passive isolation techniques alone. Therefore, various organizations have conducted research in the area of combining active and passive vibration control techniques. The essence of this paper is to present progress in what is believed to be a new concept in this arena. It is based on the notion that if one active element in a vibration transmission path can provide a reasonable vibration attenuation, two active elements in series may provide more control options and better results. The paper presents the functions of a modular split shaft linear actuator developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and University of Massachusetts Lowell. It discusses some of the control possibilities facilitated by the device. Some preliminary findings and problems are also discussed.

Zewari, Wahid; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Smith, David R.

1999-01-01

248

Shifting Responsibly: The Importance of Striatal Modularity to Reinforcement Learning in Uncertain Environments  

PubMed Central

We propose here that the modular organization of the striatum reflects a context-sensitive modular learning architecture in which clustered striosome–matrisome domains participate in modular reinforcement learning (RL). Based on anatomical and physiological evidence, it has been suggested that the modular organization of the striatum could represent a learning architecture. There is not, however, a coherent view of how such a learning architecture could relate to the organization of striatal outputs into the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia, nor a clear formulation of how such a modular architecture relates to the RL functions attributed to the striatum. Here, we hypothesize that striosome–matrisome modules not only learn to bias behavior toward specific actions, as in standard RL, but also learn to assess their own relevance to the environmental context and modulate their own learning and activity on this basis. We further hypothesize that the contextual relevance or “responsibility” of modules is determined by errors in predictions of environmental features and that such responsibility is assigned by striosomes and conveyed to matrisomes via local circuit interneurons. To examine these hypotheses and to identify the general requirements for realizing this architecture in the nervous system, we developed a simple modular RL model. We then constructed a network model of basal ganglia circuitry that includes these modules and the direct and indirect pathways. Based on simple assumptions, this model suggests that while the direct pathway may promote actions based on striatal action values, the indirect pathway may act as a gating network that facilitates or suppresses behavioral modules on the basis of striatal responsibility signals. Our modeling functionally unites the modular compartmental organization of the striatum with the direct–indirect pathway divisions of the basal ganglia, a step that we suggest will have important clinical implications.

Amemori, Ken-ichi; Gibb, Leif G.; Graybiel, Ann M.

2011-01-01

249

Modular Approach to Instrumental Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To remedy certain deficiencies, an instrument analysis course was reorganized into six one-unit modules: optical spectroscopy, magnetic resonance, separations, electrochemistry, radiochemistry, and computers and interfacing. Selected aspects of the course are discussed. (SK)

Deming, Richard L.; And Others

1982-01-01

250

Modular multiaperatures for light sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Process involves electroplating multiaperature masks as unit, eliminating alinement and assembly difficulties previously encountered. Technique may be applied to masks in automated and surveillance light systems, when precise, wide angle field of view is needed.

Rizzo, A. A.

1977-01-01

251

Evolutionary principles of modular gene regulation in yeasts  

PubMed Central

Divergence in gene regulation can play a major role in evolution. Here, we used a phylogenetic framework to measure mRNA profiles in 15 yeast species from the phylum Ascomycota and reconstruct the evolution of their modular regulatory programs along a time course of growth on glucose over 300 million years. We found that modules have diverged proportionally to phylogenetic distance, with prominent changes in gene regulation accompanying changes in lifestyle and ploidy, especially in carbon metabolism. Paralogs have significantly contributed to regulatory divergence, typically within a very short window from their duplication. Paralogs from a whole genome duplication (WGD) event have a uniquely substantial contribution that extends over a longer span. Similar patterns occur when considering the evolution of the heat shock regulatory program measured in eight of the species, suggesting that these are general evolutionary principles. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00603.001

Thompson, Dawn A; Roy, Sushmita; Chan, Michelle; Styczynsky, Mark P; Pfiffner, Jenna; French, Courtney; Socha, Amanda; Thielke, Anne; Napolitano, Sara; Muller, Paul; Kellis, Manolis; Konieczka, Jay H; Wapinski, Ilan; Regev, Aviv

2013-01-01

252

Teleoperated Modular Robots for Lunar Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar system exploration is currently carried out by special purpose robots exquisitely designed for the anticipated tasks. However, all contingencies for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), human habitat preparation, and exploration will be difficult to anticipate. Furthermore, developing the necessary special purpose mechanisms for deployment and other capabilities is difficult and error prone. For example, the Galileo high gain antenna never opened, severely restricting the quantity of data returned by the spacecraft. Also, deployment hardware is used only once. To address these problems, we are developing teleoperated modular robots for lunar missions, including operations in transit from Earth. Teleoperation of lunar systems from Earth involves a three second speed-of-light delay, but experiment suggests that interactive operations are feasible.' Modular robots typically consist of many identical modules that pass power and data between them and can be reconfigured for different tasks providing great flexibility, inherent redundancy and graceful degradation as modules fail. Our design features a number of different hub, link, and joint modules to simplify the individual modules, lower structure cost, and provide specialized capabilities. Modular robots are well suited for space applications because of their extreme flexibility, inherent redundancy, high-density packing, and opportunities for mass production. Simple structural modules can be manufactured from lunar regolith in situ using molds or directed solar sintering. Software to direct and control modular robots is difficult to develop. We have used genetic algorithms to evolve both the morphology and control system for walking modular robots3 We are currently using evolvable system technology to evolve controllers for modular robots in the ISS glove box. Development of lunar modular robots will require software and physical simulators, including regolith simulation, to enable design and test of robot software and hardware, particularly automation software. Ready access to these simulators could provide opportunities for contest-driven development ala RoboCup (http://www.robocup.org/). Licensing of module designs could provide opportunities in the toy market and for spin-off applications.

Globus, Al; Hornby, Greg; Larchev, Greg; Hancher, Matt; Cannon, Howard; Lohn, Jason

2004-01-01

253

Endomorphisms on half-sided modular inclusions  

SciTech Connect

In algebraic quantum field theory we consider nets of von Neumann algebras indexed over regions of the space time. Wiesbrock [''Conformal quantum field theory and half-sided modular inclusions of von Neumann algebras,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 537-543 (1993)] has shown that strongly additive nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle are in correspondence with standard half-sided modular inclusions. We show that a finite index endomorphism on a half-sided modular inclusion extends to a finite index endomorphism on the corresponding net of von Neumann algebras on the circle. Moreover, we present another approach to encoding endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle into half-sided modular inclusions. There is a natural way to associate a weight to a Moebius covariant endomorphism. The properties of this weight have been studied by Bertozzini et al. [''Covariant sectors with infinite dimension and positivity of the energy,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 471-492 (1998)]. In this paper we show the converse, namely, how to associate a Moebius covariant endomorphism to a given weight under certain assumptions, thus obtaining a correspondence between a class of weights on a half-sided modular inclusion and a subclass of the Moebius covariant endomorphisms on the associated net of von Neumann algebras. This allows us to treat Moebius covariant endomorphisms in terms of weights on half-sided modular inclusions. As our aim is to provide a framework for treating endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras in terms of the apparently simpler objects of weights on half-sided modular inclusions, we lastly give some basic results for manipulations with such weights.

Svegstrup, Rolf Dyre [Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8914 (Japan)

2006-12-15

254

RNA helicases  

PubMed Central

Similar to proteins, RNA molecules must fold into the correct conformation and associate with protein complexes in order to be functional within a cell. RNA helicases rearrange RNA secondary structure and RNA-protein interactions in an ATP-dependent reaction, performing crucial functions in all aspects of RNA metabolism. In prokaryotes, RNA helicase activity is associated with roles in housekeeping functions including RNA turnover, ribosome biogenesis, translation and small RNA metabolism. In addition, RNA helicase expression and/or activity are frequently altered during cellular response to abiotic stress, implying they perform defined roles during cellular adaptation to changes in the growth environment. Specifically, RNA helicases contribute to the formation of cold-adapted ribosomes and RNA degradosomes, implying a role in alleviation of RNA secondary structure stabilization at low temperature. A common emerging theme involves RNA helicases acting as scaffolds for protein-protein interaction and functioning as molecular clamps, holding RNA-protein complexes in specific conformations. This review highlights recent advances in DEAD-box RNA helicase association with cellular response to abiotic stress in prokaryotes.

Owttrim, George W.

2013-01-01

255

Modular Manufacturing Simulator: Users Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modular Manufacturing Simulator (MMS) has been developed for the beginning user of computer simulations. Consequently, the MMS cannot model complex systems that require branching and convergence logic. Once a user becomes more proficient in computer simulation and wants to add more complexity, the user is encouraged to use one of the many available commercial simulation systems. The (MMS) is based on the SSE5 that was developed in the early 1990's by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A recent survey by MSFC indicated that the simulator has been a major contributor to the economic impact of the MSFC technology transfer program. Many manufacturers have requested additional features for the SSE5. Consequently, the following features have been added to the MMS that are not available in the SSE5: runs under Windows, print option for both input parameters and output statistics, operator can be fixed at a station or assigned to a group of stations, operator movement based on time limit, part limit, or work-in-process (WIP) limit at next station. The movement options for a moveable operators are: go to station with largest WIP, rabbit chase where operator moves in circular sequence between stations, and push/pull where operator moves back and forth between stations. This user's manual contains the necessary information for installing the MMS on a PC, a description of the various MMS commands, and the solutions to a number of sample problems using the MMS. Also included in the beginning of this report is a brief discussion of technology transfer.

1997-01-01

256

Modular displays for megapixel applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information explosion has created a need for large, flat hang-on-the-wall displays to display the ever increasing quantity of information. Rapid advances in computing power and communication technology are outpacing the advances in display technology. Typical monitors have progressed from VGA with 0.3 M pixels, to SXGA with 1.3 M pixels. Top of the line displays are pushing 4 M pixels. Costs of displays with increased number of pixels have risen exponentially with pixel count. Display technology is limiting the exploitation of advances in information and communications technologies. A revolutionary new display technology is needed to enable practical use of the information and communications revolutions. The Sarnoff Corporation and Cambridge Display Technology Ltd. are developing a modular display approach for thin hang-on-the- wall displays that has a cost structure that is linear with pixel count. This approach is based on three display technology advances: smart block matrix addressing, light emitting polymers (LEP), and integrated packaging. Smart block matrix addressing enables the use of low cost addressing while at the same time decoupling the display performance from display size. LEP materials enable low manufacturing cost for bright emissive thin display modules. Integrated packaging enables the mass production of low cost display modules that can be assembled into large area, seamless displays. Together, these three technologies produce for the first time a thin scaleable display. The displays made using this technology have been named 'Array Displays.' Array Display size and shape are determined at assembly, not by the manufacturing line, Pixel densities of about one million pixels per square meter are possible with this low cost manufacturing approach. Array Displays provide the pathway to low cost scaleable displays to meet the needs for the information age.

Matthies, Dennis L.; Hasili, Jacob; Jose, David L.; Shen, Zilan; Stewart, Roger G.; Burroughes, Jeremy H.; Carter, J.

1999-08-01

257

Modular Rake of Pitot Probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure presents selected views of a modular rake of 17 pitot probes for measuring both transient and steady-state pressures in a supersonic wind tunnel. In addition to pitot tubes visible in the figure, the probe modules contain (1) high-frequency dynamic-pressure transducers connected through wires to remote monitoring circuitry and (2) flow passages that lead to tubes that, in turn, lead to remote steady-state pressure transducers. Prior pitot-probe rakes were fabricated as unitary structures, into which the individual pitot probes were brazed. Repair or replacement of individual probes was difficult, costly, and time-consuming because (1) it was necessary to remove entire rakes in order to unbraze individual malfunctioning probes and (2) the heat of unbrazing a failed probe and of brazing a new probe in place could damage adjacent probes. In contrast, the modules in the present probe are designed to be relatively quickly and easily replaceable with no heating and, in many cases, without need for removal of the entire rake from the wind tunnel. To remove a malfunctioning probe, one first removes a screw-mounted V-cross-section cover that holds the probe and adjacent probes in place. Then one removes a screw-mounted cover plate to gain access to the steady-state pressure tubes and dynamicpressure wires. Next, one disconnects the tube and wires of the affected probe. Finally, one installs a new probe in the reverse of the aforementioned sequence. The wire connections can be made by soldering, but to facilitate removal and installation, they can be made via miniature plugs and sockets. The connections between the probe flow passages and the tubes leading to the remote pressure sensors can be made by use of any of a variety of readily available flexible tubes that can be easily pulled off and slid back on for removal and installation, respectively.

Dunlap, Timothy A.; Henry, Michael W.; Homyk, Raymond P.

2004-01-01

258

VHDL Library of Arithmetic Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive library of arithmetic units written in synthesizable VHDL code has been developed. The library contains components for a variety of arithmetic operations and for different speed requirements. The library components are implemented as circuit generators in parameterized structural VHDL code. Their modular and well-documented source code allows for simple usage and easy customization. Highly efficient circuit architectures are

Reto Zimmermann

1998-01-01

259

Modular Toolkit for Data Processing (MDP): A Python Data Processing Framework  

PubMed Central

Modular toolkit for Data Processing (MDP) is a data processing framework written in Python. From the user's perspective, MDP is a collection of supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms and other data processing units that can be combined into data processing sequences and more complex feed-forward network architectures. Computations are performed efficiently in terms of speed and memory requirements. From the scientific developer's perspective, MDP is a modular framework, which can easily be expanded. The implementation of new algorithms is easy and intuitive. The new implemented units are then automatically integrated with the rest of the library. MDP has been written in the context of theoretical research in neuroscience, but it has been designed to be helpful in any context where trainable data processing algorithms are used. Its simplicity on the user's side, the variety of readily available algorithms, and the reusability of the implemented units make it also a useful educational tool.

Zito, Tiziano; Wilbert, Niko; Wiskott, Laurenz; Berkes, Pietro

2008-01-01

260

Computing an upper bound of modularity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modularity proposed by Newman and Girvan is a quality function for community detection. Numerous heuristics for modularity maximization have been proposed because the problem is NP-hard. However, the accuracy of these heuristics has yet to be properly evaluated because computational experiments typically use large networks whose optimal modularity is unknown. In this study, we propose two powerful methods for computing a nontrivial upper bound of modularity. More precisely, our methods can obtain the optimal value of a linear programming relaxation of the standard integer linear programming for modularity maximization. The first method modifies the traditional row generation approach proposed by Grötschel and Wakabayashi to shorten the computation time. The second method is based on a row and column generation. In this method, we first solve a significantly small subproblem of the linear programming and iteratively add rows and columns. Owing to the speed and memory efficiency of these proposed methods, they are suitable for large networks. In particular, the second method consumes exceedingly small memory capacity, enabling us to compute the optimal value of the linear programming for the Power Grid network (consisting of 4941 vertices and 6594 edges) on a standard desktop computer.

Miyauchi, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Yuichiro

2013-07-01

261

Branched modular primers in DNA sequencing  

SciTech Connect

The need to synthesize new sequencing primers, such as in primer walking, can be eliminated by assembling modular primers from oligonucleotide modules selected from presynthesized libraries. Our earlier modular primers consisted of 5-mers, 6-mers or 7-mers, annealing to the template contiguously with each other. Here we introduce a novel {open_quotes}branched{close_quotes} type of modular primer with a distinctly different specificity mechanism. The concept of a {open_quotes}branched{close_quotes} primer involves modules that are physically linked by annealing to each other as well as to the target, forming a branched structure of the 3-way junction type. While contiguous modular primers are made specific by the preference of the polymerase for longer primer, branched primers, in contrast, owe their specificity to cooperative annealing of their modules to the intended site on the template. This cooperativity of annealing to the template is provided by mutually complementary segments in the two modules that bind each other. Thus the primer-template complex is no longer limited to linear sequences, but acquires another, second dimension giving the modular primer new functionality.

Mugasimangalam, R.C.; Shmulevitz, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Weisman Institute, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Structural Biology; Ramanathan, V. [Weismann Institute, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Structural Biology] [and others

1997-08-01

262

X-ray structure of the fourth type of archaeal tRNA splicing endonuclease: insights into the evolution of a novel three-unit composition and a unique loop involved in broad substrate specificity  

PubMed Central

Cleavage of introns from precursor transfer RNAs (tRNAs) by tRNA splicing endonuclease (EndA) is essential for tRNA maturation in Archaea and Eukarya. In the past, archaeal EndAs were classified into three types (??2, ?4 and ?2?2) according to subunit composition. Recently, we have identified a fourth type of archaeal EndA from an uncultivated archaeon Candidatus Micrarchaeum acidiphilum, referred to as ARMAN-2, which is deeply branched within Euryarchaea. The ARMAN-2 EndA forms an ?2 homodimer and has broad substrate specificity like the ?2?2 type EndAs found in Crenarchaea and Nanoarchaea. However, the precise architecture of ARMAN-2 EndA was unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of the ?2 homodimer of ARMAN-2 EndA. The structure reveals that the ? protomer is separated into three novel units (?N, ? and ?C) fused by two distinct linkers, although the overall structure of ARMAN-2 EndA is similar to those of the other three types of archaeal EndAs. Structural comparison and mutational analyses reveal that an ARMAN-2 type-specific loop (ASL) is involved in the broad substrate specificity and that K161 in the ASL functions as the RNA recognition site. These findings suggest that the broad substrate specificities of ?2 and ?2?2 EndAs were separately acquired through different evolutionary processes.

Hirata, Akira; Fujishima, Kosuke; Yamagami, Ryota; Kawamura, Takuya; Banfield, Jillian F.; Kanai, Akio; Hori, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

263

Molecular Analysis of the 18S rRNA Gene of Cryptosporidium Parasites from Patients with or without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections Living in Kenya, Malawi, Brazil, the United Kingdom, and Vietnam  

PubMed Central

An 840-bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene was used to identify Cryptosporidium spp. recovered from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected patients from Kenya, Malawi, Brazil, the United Kingdom, and Vietnam. Initial identification was by Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining. Confirmation was by nested PCR, targeting the most polymorphic region of the 18S rRNA gene. Genotyping was by restriction endonuclease digestion of the PCR product followed by nucleotide sequencing. Among 63 isolates analyzed, four genotypes of Cryptosporidium were identified; 75% of the isolates were of the C. parvum human genotype, while the potentially zoonotic species were of the C. parvum bovine genotype (21.7%), the C. meleagridis genotype (1.6% [one isolate]), and the C. muris genotype (1.6% [one case]). HIV-infected individuals were more likely to have zoonotic genotypes than the HIV-uninfected individuals. Among the C. parvum group, strains clustered distinctly into either human or bovine genotypes regardless of the geographical origin, age, or HIV status of the patients. The intragenotypic variation observed in the C. parvum human genotype was extensive compared to that within the C. parvum bovine genotype group. The variation within genotypes was conserved in all geographical regions regardless of the patients' HIV status. The extensive diversity within genotypes at the 18S rRNA gene locus may limit its application to phylogenetic analyses.

Gatei, Wangeci; Greensill, Julie; Ashford, Richard W.; Cuevas, Luis E.; Parry, Christopher M.; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Hart, C. Anthony

2003-01-01

264

An Integrated Modular Avionics Development Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ARINC 653 standard has taken a leading role within the aeronautical industry in the development of safety-critical systems based upon the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) concept. The related cost savings in reduced integration, verification and validation effort has raised interest in the European space industry for developing a spacecraft IMA approach and for the definition of an ARINC 653-for-Space software framework. As part of this process, it is necessary to establish an effective way to develop, test and analyse on-board applications without having access to the final IMA target platform for all engineers. Target platforms are usually extremely expensive considering hardware and software prices as well as training costs. This paper describes the architecture of an Integrated Modular Avionics Development Environment (IMADE) based on the Linux Operating System and the ARINC 653 simulator for Modular On-Board Applications that was developed by Skysoft Portugal, S.A. In cooperation with ESA, 2007-2008.

Schoofs, T.; Santos, S.; Tatibana, C.; Anjos, J.; Rufino, J.; Windsor, J.

2009-05-01

265

A modular integrated platform for microsensor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modular self-contained modular platform is described, for easy integration with micro sensors and other sensor elements. The platform is designed to be physically robust and suitable for harsh environments. The platform features switch able power modes, signal processing capabilities and extensive I/O for sensor and external device communications, data download and transmission. The modular design allows flexible implementation of required functionality depending on the particular application and also provides flexibility for packaging solutions. Two practical applications of the platform are presented to demonstrate its use. Firstly a variety of human exercise activities are investigated using accelerometers. Secondly a weather station made up of environmental sensors using off the shelf and prototype sensors is described. Both of these applications differ greatly in their operational requirements. These implementations demonstrate the adaptability of the platform for different applications.

James, Daniel A.; Davey, Neil P.; Gourdeas, Leon

2004-03-01

266

Time Triggered Protocol (TTP) for Integrated Modular Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional avionics computing systems are federated, with each system provided on a number of dedicated hardware units. Federated applications are physically separated from one another and analysis of the systems is undertaken individually. Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) takes these federated functions and integrates them on a common computing platform in a tightly deterministic distributed real-time network of computing modules in which the different applications can run. IMA supports different levels of criticality in the same computing resource and provides a platform for implementation of fault tolerance through hardware and application redundancy. Modular implementation has distinct benefits in design, testing and system maintainability. This paper covers the requirements for fault tolerant bus systems used to provide reliable communication between IMA computing modules. An overview of the Time Triggered Protocol (TTP) specification and implementation as a reliable solution for IMA systems is presented. Application examples in aircraft avionics and a development system for future space application are covered. The commercially available TTP controller can be also be implemented in an FPGA and the results from implementation studies are covered. Finally future direction for the application of TTP and related development activities are presented.

Motzet, Guenter; Gwaltney, David A.; Bauer, Guenther; Jakovljevic, Mirko; Gagea, Leonard

2006-01-01

267

Resampling-Based Approaches to Study Variation in Morphological Modularity  

PubMed Central

Modularity has been suggested to be connected to evolvability because a higher degree of independence among parts allows them to evolve as separate units. Recently, the Escoufier RV coefficient has been proposed as a measure of the degree of integration between modules in multivariate morphometric datasets. However, it has been shown, using randomly simulated datasets, that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size. Also, so far there is no statistical test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations. Here, we (1), using a rarefaction analysis, show that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size also in real geometric morphometric datasets; (2) propose a permutation procedure to test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations; (3) show, through simulations, that such a permutation procedure has an appropriate Type I error; (4) suggest that a rarefaction procedure could be used to obtain sample-size-corrected values of the RV coefficient; and (5) propose a nearest-neighbor procedure that could be used when studying the variation of modularity in geographic space. The approaches outlined here, readily extendable to non-morphometric datasets, allow study of the variation in the degree of integration between a priori defined modules. A Java application – that will allow performance of the proposed test using a software with graphical user interface – has also been developed and is available at the Morphometrics at Stony Brook Web page (http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/).

Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Meyer, Axel

2013-01-01

268

Amphipathic Homopolymers for siRNA Delivery: Probing Impact of Bifunctional Polymer Composition on Transfection.  

PubMed

In this study, we systematically explore the influence of the lipophilic group on the siRNA transfection properties of the polycationic-based delivery vectors. For this, a novel and modular synthetic strategy was developed for the preparation of polymers carrying a cationic site and a lipophilic group at each polymer repeat unit. These bifunctional polymers could form a complex with siRNA and deliver it to human colon carcinoma cells (HT-29-luc). In general, transfection capability increased with an increase in the chain length of the lipophilic moiety. The best transfection agent, a polymer containing ammonium groups and pentyl side chains, exhibited lower toxicity and higher transfection efficiency than branched and linear polyethylenimines (PEI). Moreover, as opposed to PEI, the transfection efficiency of polymer/siRNA complexes remained unchanged in the presence of bafilomycin A1, a proton pump inhibitor, suggesting that the present system did not rely on the "proton sponge" effect for siRNA delivery. PMID:24754338

Buerkli, Christian; Lee, Soo Hyeon; Moroz, Elena; Stuparu, Mihaiela C; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Khan, Anzar

2014-05-12

269

Serre’s modularity conjecture (I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first part of a work which proves Serre’s modularity conjecture. We first prove the cases \\u000a \\u000a and odd conductor, and p=2 and weight 2, see Theorem 1.2, modulo Theorems 4.1 and 5.1. Theorems 4.1 and 5.1 are proven in the second part, see Khare\\u000a and Wintenberger (Invent. Math., doi:10.1007\\/s00222-009-0206-6, 2009). We then reduce the general case to a modularity statement

Chandrashekhar Khare; Jean-Pierre Wintenberger

2009-01-01

270

Advanced Modular Micro-Production System (AMMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced Modular Micro-Production System (AMMS) is the title of a new concept which creates a suitable size ratio between microcomponents and the production environment. The concept is also ideal for the integration and interconnection of processes which have yet to be separated. The AMMS concept can be redesigned or extended in an easy and flexible manner. By using a modular construction, small dimensions and a decentrally-organized control architecture, high- precision and sensitive handling procedures could be automated with acceptable investment and operating costs.

Gaugel, Tobias; Dobler, Hannes

2001-10-01

271

Developing a Modular Hydrogeology Ontology Extending the SWEET Ontologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reengineering upper-level ontologies to make them useful for specific domains can be achieved using modular software development techniques. The challenge of manipulating complex and general, upper-level ontologies can be overcome by using ontology development tools for the purpose of analysis and design of new concepts and extension of existing concepts. As a use case representing this approach we present the reengineering of NASA's Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies to include part of the hydrogeology concepts. We have maintained the modular design of the SWEET ontologies for maximum extensibility and reusability. The modular reengineering of the SWEET ontologies to include hydrogeology domain involved the following steps: (1): Identify the terms and concepts relevant to the hydrogeology domain through scenarios, competency questions, and interviews with domain experts. (2): Establish the inter-relationships between concepts (e.g., vadose zone = unsaturated zone). (3): Identify the dependent concepts, such as physical properties or units, and determine their relationships to external concepts. (4): Download the OWL files from SWEET, and save them on local systems for editing. (5): Use ontology editing tools like SWOOP and Protege to analyze the structure of the existing OWL files. (6): Add new domain concepts as new classes in the OWL files, or as subclasses of already existing classes in the SWEET ontologies. The step involved changing the relationships (properties) and/or adding new relationships where they were required in the domain. Sometimes the entire structure of the existing concepts needed to be changed to represent the domain concept more meaningfully. (7): Test the consistency of concepts using appropriate tools (e.g., Protege, which uses the Racer reasoner to check consistency of concepts). (8) Add individuals to the new concepts to test the modified ontologies. We present an example of a simple RDQL query to test and demonstrate the new hydrogeology ontology. Our work shows that SWEET ontologies can successfully be extended and reused by other Earth science domains without losing their modular structure.

Tripathi, A.; Babaie, H. A.

2005-12-01

272

Modular Trough Power Plant Cycle and Systems Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this analysis is to reduce the cost of power production from modular concentrating solar power plants through a relatively new and exciting concept that merges two mature technologies to produce distributed modular electric power in the r...

H. Price V. Hassani

2002-01-01

273

Evaluation of the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent advances in gas-turbine and heat exchanger technology have enhanced the potential for a Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) incorporating a direct gas turbine (Brayton) cycle for power conversion. The resulting Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) ...

1994-01-01

274

Modular PM Motor Drives for Automotive Traction Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents modular permanent magnet (PM) motor drives for automotive traction applications. A partially modularized drive system consisting of a single PM motor and multiple inverters is described. The motor has multiple three-phase stator windin...

G. J. Su

2001-01-01

275

Molecular characterization of Histomonas meleagridis and other parabasalids in the United States using the 5.8S, ITS-1, and ITS-2 rRNA regions.  

PubMed

Extracted DNA from 28 Histomonas meleagridis -infected avian tissue samples from multiple hosts and geographic locations was analyzed for variation in the 5.8S rRNA and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS 1 and ITS 2). Samples were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and compared with known sequences from GenBank accessions of H. meleagridis and other related protozoa. The analyses revealed significant genetic variation within H. meleagridis sequences and suggested the possibility of multiple genotypes within the samples or a possible misdiagnosis. Related protozoa found in some samples were mostly identified as Tetratrichomonas spp. However, 1 sample had a 93% identity to Simplicimonas similis , a newly described organism, suggesting the possibility of a new pathogen in poultry. A phylogenetic tree analyzing the 5.8S and flanking ITS regions was inconclusive and we were unable to resolve all H. meleagridis into a single grouping. In contrast, a tree constructed only on the 5.8S rRNA grouped all but 1 H. meleagridis sample into 1 clade, including GenBank accessions submitted from Europe. This suggests that the 5.8S region alone is more reliable in identifying H. meleagridis than are the combined 5.8S and flanking ITS regions. There was no correlation between genotypes and host species or geographic location, suggesting that H. meleagridis moves freely between multiple avian species in the sampled regions. PMID:21506848

Lollis, Lori; Gerhold, Richard; McDougald, Larry; Beckstead, Robert

2011-08-01

276

Borcherds products and arithmetic intersection theory on Hilbert modular surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove an arithmetic version of a theorem of Hirzebruch and Zagier saying\\u000athat Hirzebruch-Zagier divisors on a Hilbert modular surface are the\\u000acoefficients of an elliptic modular form of weight two. Moreover, we determine\\u000athe arithmetic self-intersection number of the line bundle of modular forms\\u000aequipped with its Petersson metric on a regular model of a Hilbert modular\\u000asurface,

Jan H. Bruinier; Jose I. Burgos Gil; Ulf Kuhn

2003-01-01

277

Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor for High Precision Astronomical Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the progress in developing the Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (modular GRS) [1], which was first proposed as a simplified core sensor for space gravitational wave detection missions. In a modular GRS, laser beam from the remote the sensor does not illuminate the proof mass directly. The internal measurement from housing to proof mass is separated from the external

Ke-Xun Sun; G. Allen; S. Buchman; R. L. Byer; J. W. Conklin; D. B. DeBra; D. Gill; A. Goh; S. Higuchi; P. Lu; N. Robertson; A. Swank

2006-01-01

278

A Readiness Model To Implement Modular Scheduling, 1971-72.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was part of the ERDC's overall program of evaluation of various aspects of modular scheduling in its member schools. A readiness model to implement modular scheduling was developed, based on a review of the literature on modular scheduling and on practices and theoretical aspects of change and its implications. The model was tested by…

Weiss, Ronald P.

279

Order batching design for a modular fulfillment center  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is divided into two chapters, each consisting of materials from independent journal papers that addresses the issue of order batching in fulfillment centers which utilize the modular order picking areas.^ In chapter one, an order batching framework designed for the modular picking area is proposed. A modular picking area is a unique picking layout; originally designed for the

Mun Geet Ow Yong

2009-01-01

280

On music perception and cognition: Modularity, structure, and processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper treats issues concerning the modular modelisation of musical mental processes. Some musical phenomena, like musical illusions, are explained in the framework of modularity and hypotheses are advanced in which the modular model seems very promising for the study of musical perception and cognition. In addition, arguments are proposed to distinguish between levels of abstraction and knowledge in musical

Lelio Camilleri; Musica L. Cherubini; Belle Arti

1992-01-01

281

The Conceptual and Statistical Relationship between Modularity and Morphological Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modular variation of organismal form during evolution or development can be viewed as the result of dissociated local developmental processes. Whereas studies of modularity often are experimental, morphological integration is a more descriptive concept applying to groups of correlated phenotypic characters. Using simple path models, this paper shows that the classic underlying assumption of modularity (high correlations within modules,

Philipp Mitteroecker; Fred Bookstein

2007-01-01

282

The case for massively modular models of mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

what a massively modular model of the mind is. So at least some of our discussion will have to be terminological. I shall begin by laying out the range of things that can be meant by 'modularity'. I shall then adopt a pair of strategies. One will be to distinguish some things that 'modularity' definitely can't mean, if the thesis

Peter Carruthers

283

DNA restriction digest and ribosomal RNA gene patterns of Campylobacter jejuni: a comparison with bio-, sero-, and bacteriophage-types of United Kingdom outbreak strains.  

PubMed Central

DNA restriction endonuclease (Hae III and Hind III) total digest and 16S and 23S ribosomal (r)RNA gene patterns (ribopatterns) were determined for 18 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni from three separate outbreaks of diarrhoea in the north of England. Strains were also characterized by biotyping, serotyping and phage typing. Comparisons of the DNA patterns by visual and numerical methods revealed five distinct strain groupings with clear differences between isolates from different outbreaks as well as some heterogeneity between strains within the community outbreak and one of the school outbreaks. An excellent correlation was observed between the genomic DNA fingerprints data and the Preston bacteriophage group, both of which gave better discrimination than biotyping and serotyping alone or in combination. Only one phage group (PG 37) was not confirmed by the DNA data. DNA fingerprints therefore provide additional information of value in studying the epidemiology of outbreaks of C. jejuni. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Owen, R. J.; Hernandez, J.; Bolton, F.

1990-01-01

284

A Modular and Extensible JVM Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design, implementation, and experimental evaluation of a modular and ex- tensible Java r Virtual Machine (JVM) infrastruc- ture, called Jupiter. The infrastructure is intended to serve as a vehicle for our research on scalable JVM architectures for a 128-processor cluster of PC workstations, with support for shared mem- ory in software. Jupiter is constructed, using a

Patrick Doyle; Tarek S. Abdelrahman

2002-01-01

285

Jupiter: A Modular and Extensible JVM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our work-in-progress on the design and implementation of Jupiter: a modular and extensible Java Virtual Machine (JVM) infrastructure. Jupiter serves as a vehicle for our research on JVM architectures that deliver scalable high performance for scientific applications on large numbers of processors. Our goal is to run Jupiter on our 128-processor cluster of PC workstations that supports

Patrick Doyle; Tarek S. Abdelrahman

2001-01-01

286

Modular Portable Air-Conditioning System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A modular air-conditioning system is disclosed and consists of a power supply module, blower module(s), air- conditioning module(s), and an air- distribution module. The power module may he comprised of batteries, whereas the blower module provides ventil...

J. W. Kaufman P. A. Dolinar

2001-01-01

287

Standard modular power supplies for avionics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four-step approach has been devised to assess the economic and technical feasibility of standard modular power supplies for avionics and to identify candidate sets of standard modules. The approach includes: (1) an assessment of the feasibility of the power supplies in terms of power supply commonality and the potential payoff in reduced acquisition cost, (2) analysis of alternative partitionings

J. S. Pavliga; R. A. Wakefield; J. D. Garcher

1976-01-01

288

Modular standards for emerging avionics technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation is concerned with modular standards for the integration of new avionics technologies into production aircraft, taking into account also major retrofit programs. It is pointed out that avionics systems are about to undergo drastic changes in the partitioning of functions and judicious sharing of resources. These changes have the potential to significantly improve reliability and maintainability, and

B. Radcliffe; J. Boaz

1984-01-01

289

What Symbionts Teach us about Modularity  

PubMed Central

The main goal of Synthetic Biology (SB) is to apply engineering principles to biotechnology in order to make life easier to engineer. These engineering principles include modularity: decoupling of complex systems into smaller, orthogonal sub-systems that can be used in a range of different applications. The successful use of modules in engineering is expected to be reproduced in synthetic biological systems. But the difficulties experienced up to date with SB approaches question the short-term feasibility of designing life. Considering the “engineerable” nature of life, here we discuss the existence of modularity in natural living systems, particularly in symbiotic interactions, and compare the behavior of such systems, with those of engineered modules. We conclude that not only is modularity present but it is also common among living structures, and that symbioses are a new example of module-like sub-systems having high similarity with modularly designed ones. However, we also detect and stress fundamental differences between man-made and biological modules. Both similarities and differences should be taken into account in order to adapt SB design to biological laws.

Porcar, Manuel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andres

2013-01-01

290

A Theory of Modular Production Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many globalized industries, the recent wave of vertical outsourcing seems to have co-evolved with increased horizontal consolidation in the component sector. To account for this phe- nomenon, I build an industry-equilibrium model in which the boundaries of the firm are en- dogenous in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions of international production. The con- cept of modularity is subsequently

Ari Van Assche; HEC Montreal

291

Modular design expands applications of pumped storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pumped storage is widely recognized as the most efficient available technology for the storage of electrical energy. Escalating regulatory difficulties, together with high costs and long construction times, however, have led many utilities to abandon pumped storage as a resource option. Modular hydroelectric pumped storage (MHPS) is a proprietary design approach revolving around two man-made reservoirs which standardizes major components

J. E. Eastwood; D. Olsen

1990-01-01

292

Smart Memories: a modular reconfigurable architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in VLSI technology scaling demand that future comput- ing devices be narrowly focused to achieve high performance and high efficiency, yet also target the high volumes and low costs of widely applicable general purpose designs. To address these conflicting requirements, we propose a modular reconfig- urable architecture called Smart Memories, targeted at com- puting needs in the 0.1?m technology

Ken Mai; Tim Paaske; Nuwan Jayasena; Ron Ho; William J. Dally; Mark Horowitz

2000-01-01

293

Adaptive Resource Management Via Modular Feedback Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key feature of tomorrow's operating systems and run- time environments is their ability to adapt. Current state of the art uses an ad-hoc approach to building adaptive software, resulting in systems that can be complex, unpre- dictable and brittle. We advocate a modular and methodical approach for building adaptive system software based on feedback control. The use of feedback

Ashvin Goel; David Steere; Calton Pu; Jonathan Walpole

1999-01-01

294

Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a Computer Software Documentation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-211 and vertical denitration calciner in HC-230C-2.

CUNNINGHAM, L.T.

1999-09-27

295

Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

Pires, Craig

2010-01-01

296

Hydrogen production using modular hellum reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-temperature characteristics of the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) make it a strong candidate for the production of hydrogen using either thermochemical or high- temperature electrolysis (HTE) processes. Using heat from the MHR to drive a Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical hydrogen process has been the subject of a DOE sponsored Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (NERI) project lead by General Atomics, with

A Shenoy; SM Mohsin Reza; Matt Richards; General Atomics

1996-01-01

297

A Modular Algorithm for Resource Allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. This paper concerns resource allocation in dis- tributed message passing systems, i.e., the scheduling of accesses to exclusive system resources shared among con- current processes. An efficient modular resource allocation algorithm is presented that uses any arbitrary resource al- location algorithm as a subroutine. It improves the perfor- mance of the subroutine by letting each process wait only for

Injong Rhee

1998-01-01

298

Modular reconfigurable flexible final assembly systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market turbulence forces assembly plants to constantly adjust their production volume of products, variants and quantities. At the same time, assembly plant managers must protect long-term investments in the flexible assembly system. For reconfigurability and agility the best solution is the modular semi-automatic approach by combining flexible automation and human skills. It gives managers possibility to adjust volume by adding

Juhani Heilala; Paavo Voho

2001-01-01

299

Human touch to efficient modular assembly system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market turbulence drives assembly plants to constantly adjust their production volume of products, variants and quantities. At the same time, the assembly plant managers must protect the long-term investments in the flexible assembly system. The best solution is the modular approach, which gives managers possibilities to adjust volume by adding new modules or to automate the manual system step by

Juhani Heilala; Paavo Voho

1997-01-01

300

Outsourcing Sealift for the Modular Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The end of the Cold War has introduced new strategic challenges and threats to our political and senior military leaders. As the U.S. Army transforms its force to modular expeditionary brigade combat teams to compensate for these evolving challenges and t...

J. F. Donnie Walker

2008-01-01

301

Modular verification of software components in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new methodology for automatic verification of C programs against finite state machine specifications. Our approach is compositional, naturally enabling us to decompose the verification of large software system into subproblems of manageable complexity. The decomposition reflects the modularity in the software design. We use weak simulation as the notion of conformance between the program and its specification.

Sagar Chaki; Edmund M. Clarke; Alex Groce; Somesh Jha; Helmut Veith

2003-01-01

302

LEGO: A modular accelerator design code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An object-oriented accelerator design code has been designed and implemented in a simple and modular fashion. It contains all major features of its predecessors: TRACY and DESPOT. All physics of single-particle dynamics is implemented based on the Hamilto...

Y. Cai M. Donald J. Irwin Y. Yan

1997-01-01

303

Design of a modular digital computer system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design tradeoff study is reported for a modular spaceborne computer system that is responsive to many mission types and phases. The computer uses redundancy to maximize reliability, and multiprocessing to maximize processing capacity. Fault detection and recovery features provide optimal reliability.

1973-01-01

304

Integrating automated systems with modular architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modularity project of the Consortium for Automated Analytical Laboratory Systems, or CAALS, has been working to define and produce specifications with which manufacturers of analytical equipment can produce products suited for integration into automated systems. A set of standards that will allow subsystems to be configured into robust, useful, controllable systems in a stylized, consistent manner will facilitate the

M. L. Salit; F. R. Guenther; G. W. Kramer; J. M. Griesmeyer

1994-01-01

305

Software Reliability Model for Modular Program Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper treats a modular program in which transfers of control between modules follow a semi-Markov process. Each module is failure-prone, and the different failure processes are assumed to be Poisson. The transfers of control between modules (interfaces) are themselves subject to failure. The overall failure process of the program is described, and an asymptotic Poisson process approximation is given

Bev Littlewood

1979-01-01

306

Modular Patterns in Second Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of data from the first six months of acquisition of English as a second language by a Japanese five-year-old illustrated the role of modular "chunking" and coupling in the second language acquisition process, apparent in the child's pre-copula and copula referential utterances. (Author/CB)

Rescorla, Leslie; Okuda, Sachiko

1987-01-01

307

A Modular Curriculum in Information Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared under a contract between UNESCO and IFLA (the International Federation of Library Associations), this modular curriculum is intended as a resource from which curricula can be constructed by individual departments of information studies to meet local needs and circumstances. Following an introductory discussion and explanation of the…

Large, J. A.

308

Sensitivity analysis of modular dynamic fault trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic fault tree analysis, as currently supported by the Galileo software package, provides an effective means for assessing the reliability of embedded computer-based systems. Dynamic fault trees extend traditional fault trees by defining special gates to capture sequential and functional dependency characteristics. A modular approach to the solution of dynamic fault trees effectively applies Binary Decision Diagram (BOD) and Markov

Yong Ou; Joanne Bechta Dugan

2000-01-01

309

Modular countermine payload for small robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Payloads for small robotic platforms have historically been designed and implemented as platform and task specific solutions. A consequence of this approach is that payloads cannot be deployed on different robotic platforms without substantial re-engineering efforts. To address this issue, we developed a modular countermine payload that is designed from the ground-up to be platform agnostic. The payload consists of

Herman Herman; Doug Few; Roelof Versteeg; Jean-Sebastien Valois; Jeff McMahill; Michael Licitra; Edward Henciak

2010-01-01

310

Modular Rocket Engine Control Software (MRECS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modular Rocket Engine Control Software (MRECS) Program is a technology demonstration effort designed to advance the state-of-the-art in launch vehicle propulsion systems. Its emphasis is on developing and demonstrating a modular software architecture for advanced engine control systems that will result in lower software maintenance (operations) costs. It effectively accommodates software requirement changes that occur due to hardware technology upgrades and engine development testing. Ground rules directed by MSFC were to optimize modularity and implement the software in the Ada programming language. MRECS system software and the software development environment utilize Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) products. This paper presents the objectives, benefits, and status of the program. The software architecture, design, and development environment are described. MRECS tasks are defined and timing relationships given. Major accomplishments are listed. MRECS offers benefits to a wide variety of advanced technology programs in the areas of modular software architecture, reuse software, and reduced software reverification time related to software changes. MRECS was recently modified to support a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) hot-fire test. Cold Flow and Flight Readiness Testing were completed before the test was cancelled. Currently, the program is focused on supporting NASA MSFC in accomplishing development testing of the Fastrac Engine, part of NASA's Low Cost Technologies (LCT) Program. MRECS will be used for all engine development testing.

Tarrant, C.; Crook, J.

1998-01-01

311

Modular Rocket Engine Control Software (MRECS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modular Rocket Engine Control Software (MRECS) Program is a technology demonstration effort designed to advance the state-of-the-art in launch vehicle propulsion systems. Its emphasis is on developing and demonstrating a modular software architecture for a generic, advanced engine control system that will result in lower software maintenance (operations) costs. It effectively accommodates software requirements changes that occur due to hardware. technology upgrades and engine development testing. Ground rules directed by MSFC were to optimize modularity and implement the software in the Ada programming language. MRECS system software and the software development environment utilize Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) products. This paper presents the objectives and benefits of the program. The software architecture, design, and development environment are described. MRECS tasks are defined and timing relationships given. Major accomplishment are listed. MRECS offers benefits to a wide variety of advanced technology programs in the areas of modular software, architecture, reuse software, and reduced software reverification time related to software changes. Currently, the program is focused on supporting MSFC in accomplishing a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) hot-fire test at Stennis Space Center and the Low Cost Boost Technology (LCBT) Program.

Tarrant, Charlie; Crook, Jerry

1997-01-01

312

Human Reliability Considerations for Small Modular Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process

OHara J. M; H. Higgins; A. DAgostino; L. Erasmia

2012-01-01

313

A Case for Small Modular Fast Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a 50MWe Small Modular Fast Reactor (SMFR) design that has been developed jointly by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as an international collaborative effort. Key design innovations include a metallic fueled core with 30-year lifetime and supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle.

Yoon I. CHANG; Mamoru KONOMURA; Pierre LO PINTO

2007-01-01

314

The modular ALMR (PRISM) fuel cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modular reactor concept, PRISM (power reactor, innovative, small module), originated by General Electric in conjunction with the integral fast reactor (IFR) metal fuel being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is the reference US Department of Energy advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR). The reference ALMR is unique in several ways; for example, it can produce (or breed) substantially more fissile

Thompson

1990-01-01

315

The Modular Market. Studies in Further Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Origins of modular courses and the module in British postcompulsory education are considered, along with characteristics of modules, credit transfer, five case studies, and marketing in further and higher education. A module is a measured part (or course) of an extended learning experience that leads to specified qualifications. A designated…

Theodossin, Ernest

316

New orbifold model and modular transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conditions of modular invariance in the heterotic string theories compactified on the orbifolds are derived. According to these conditions, several phenomenologically interesting models are given, among which we have six and two helicity -1/2 family models with E6 and E7 gauge symmetries, respectively. Present address: Ochianomizu University, Otsuka, Tokyo, Japan.

Senda, Ikuo; Sugamoto, Akio

1988-09-01

317

On the Modularity of Sequence Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular theory of motor control posits that the representation of an action sequence is independent of the effector (motor) system that implements the sequence. Three experiments tested this theory. Each used a variant of a method developed by Nissen and Bullemer (1987) in which subjects responded to visual signals occupying different spatial positions by pressing a key corresponding to

Steven W. Keele; Peggy Jennings; Steven Jones; David Caulton; Asher Cohen

1995-01-01

318

A Modular Sensorized Mat for Monitoring Infant Posture  

PubMed Central

We present a novel sensorized mat for monitoring infant's posture through the measure of pressure maps. The pressure-sensitive mat is based on an optoelectronic technology developed in the last few years at Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna: a soft silicone skin cover, which constitutes the mat, participates in the transduction principle and provides the mat with compliance. The device has a modular structure (with a minimum of one and a maximum of six sub-modules, and a total surface area of about 1 m2) that enables dimensional adaptation of the pressure-sensitive area to different specific applications. The system consists of on-board electronics for data collection, pre-elaboration, and transmission to a remote computing unit for analysis and posture classification. In this work we present a complete description of the sensing apparatus along with its experimental characterization and validation with five healthy infants.

Donati, Marco; Cecchi, Francesca; Bonaccorso, Filippo; Branciforte, Marco; Dario, Paolo; Vitiello, Nicola

2014-01-01

319

Modular design in natural and biomimetic soft materials.  

PubMed

Under eons of evolutionary and environmental pressure, biological systems have developed strong and lightweight peptide-based polymeric materials by using the 20 naturally occurring amino acids as principal monomeric units. These materials outperform their man-made counterparts in the following ways: 1) multifunctionality/tunability, 2) adaptability/stimuli-responsiveness, 3) synthesis and processing under ambient and aqueous conditions, and 4) recyclability and biodegradability. The universal design strategy that affords these advanced properties involves "bottom-up" synthesis and modular, hierarchical organization both within and across multiple length-scales. The field of "biomimicry"-elucidating and co-opting nature's basic material design principles and molecular building blocks-is rapidly evolving. This Review describes what has been discovered about the structure and molecular mechanisms of natural polymeric materials, as well as the progress towards synthetic "mimics" of these remarkable systems. PMID:21898722

Kushner, Aaron M; Guan, Zhibin

2011-09-19

320

A modular sensorized mat for monitoring infant posture.  

PubMed

We present a novel sensorized mat for monitoring infant's posture through the measure of pressure maps. The pressure-sensitive mat is based on an optoelectronic technology developed in the last few years at Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna: a soft silicone skin cover, which constitutes the mat, participates in the transduction principle and provides the mat with compliance. The device has a modular structure (with a minimum of one and a maximum of six sub-modules, and a total surface area of about 1 m2) that enables dimensional adaptation of the pressure-sensitive area to different specific applications. The system consists of on-board electronics for data collection, pre-elaboration, and transmission to a remote computing unit for analysis and posture classification. In this work we present a complete description of the sensing apparatus along with its experimental characterization and validation with five healthy infants. PMID:24385029

Donati, Marco; Cecchi, Francesca; Bonaccorso, Filippo; Branciforte, Marco; Dario, Paolo; Vitiello, Nicola

2013-01-01

321

Cell engineering with synthetic messenger RNA.  

PubMed

mRNA has become an important alternative to DNA as a tool for cell reprogramming. To be expressed, exogenous DNA must be transmitted through the cell cytoplasm and placed into the nucleus. In contrast, exogenous mRNA simply has to be delivered into the cytoplasm. This can result in a highly uniform transfection of the whole population of cells, an advantage that has not been observed with DNA transfer. The use of mRNA, instead of DNA, in medical applications increases protocol safety by abolishing the risk of transgene insertion into host genomes. In this chapter, we review the aspects of mRNA structure and function that are important for its "transgenic" behavior, such as the composition of mRNA molecules and complexes with RNA binding proteins, localization of mRNA in cytoplasmic compartments, translation, and the duration of mRNA expression. In immunotherapy, mRNA is employed in reprogramming of antigen presenting cells (vaccination) and cytolytic lymphocytes. Other applications include generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, and genome engineering with modularly assembled nucleases. The most investigated applications of mRNA technology are also reviewed here. PMID:23296924

Rabinovich, Peter M; Weissman, Sherman M

2013-01-01

322

Utility of modular implants in primary total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Most surgeons believe that some level of modularity has a valuable role to play in primary total hip arthroplasty. However, all modular junctions carry some risk and recent problems with taper tribocorrosion have elevated concerns. These problems suggest that more rigorous preclinical testing should be undertaken before new types of modularity are widely used. Efforts to further optimize these junctions where they are needed, avoidance of gratuitous use of modular junctions where they provide only modest benefits, and a judicious approach to adopting new modularity are reasonable approaches to current concerns. PMID:24655609

Berry, Daniel J

2014-04-01

323

Modular femoral neck fracture after primary total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

The use of modular femoral stems in primary total hip arthroplasty has increased considerably in recent years. These modular components offer the surgeon the ability to independently alter version, offset, and length of the femoral component of a hip arthroplasty. This increases the surgeon's ability to accurately recreate the relevant anatomy but increases the possibilities of corrosion and fracture. Multiple case reports have highlighted fractures of these modular components. We present a case of a fracture of a modular design that has had no previously reported modular neck fractures. The patient was informed that data concerning the case would be submitted, and he consented. PMID:22658428

Sotereanos, Nicholas G; Sauber, Timothy J; Tupis, Todd T

2013-01-01

324

Modular Photovoltaic Generation Systems Based on a Dual-Panel MPPT Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a modular structure for grid-connected photovoltaic generation systems is presented. The basic generation unit consists in a quasi-parallel connection of two PV panels, with a dedicated buck-boost (or fly-back) PWM converter. The chopper input voltage, i.e., the PV panels' voltage, is regulated according to a novel MPPT algorithm, based on a forced small displacement in the working

G. Grandi; C. Rossi; G. Fantini

2007-01-01

325

Mass study for modular approaches to a solar electric propulsion module  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propulsion module comprises six to eight 30-cm thruster and power processing units, a mercury propellant storage and distribution system, a solar array ranging in power from 18 to 25 kW, and the thermal and structure systems required to support the thrust and power subsystems. Launch and on-orbit configurations are presented for both modular approaches. The propulsion module satisfies the

G. R. Sharp; J. E. Cake; J. C. Oglebay; F. J. Shaker

1977-01-01

326

RNA radiolabeling.  

PubMed

Radioactive end-labeling is useful for visualizing and allowing the detection of nucleic acids at trace concentrations. Radioactive end-labeling can be carried out on RNA, DNA, or other modified nucleic acids. For RNA, the uses of end-labeling extend beyond simple detection of the intact RNA. A number of RNA molecules studied by biologists form three-dimensional structures in solution, and many of the techniques used to study these structures depend on the ability to visualize the RNA after fragmentation. Labeling at either the 5'- or 3'-end serves as a gateway into these structural analysis techniques (see Structural Analysis of RNA Backbone Using In-Line Probing), and protocols for these labeling procedures are described below (for a nonradiactive labeling protocol, see Fluorescently Labeling Synthetic RNAs). PMID:24034326

Porecha, Rishi; Herschlag, Daniel

2013-01-01

327

Implicit contractive mappings in modular metric and fuzzy metric spaces.  

PubMed

The notion of modular metric spaces being a natural generalization of classical modulars over linear spaces like Lebesgue, Orlicz, Musielak-Orlicz, Lorentz, Orlicz-Lorentz, and Calderon-Lozanovskii spaces was recently introduced. In this paper we investigate the existence of fixed points of generalized ?-admissible modular contractive mappings in modular metric spaces. As applications, we derive some new fixed point theorems in partially ordered modular metric spaces, Suzuki type fixed point theorems in modular metric spaces and new fixed point theorems for integral contractions. In last section, we develop an important relation between fuzzy metric and modular metric and deduce certain new fixed point results in triangular fuzzy metric spaces. Moreover, some examples are provided here to illustrate the usability of the obtained results. PMID:25003157

Hussain, N; Salimi, P

2014-01-01

328

Implicit Contractive Mappings in Modular Metric and Fuzzy Metric Spaces  

PubMed Central

The notion of modular metric spaces being a natural generalization of classical modulars over linear spaces like Lebesgue, Orlicz, Musielak-Orlicz, Lorentz, Orlicz-Lorentz, and Calderon-Lozanovskii spaces was recently introduced. In this paper we investigate the existence of fixed points of generalized ?-admissible modular contractive mappings in modular metric spaces. As applications, we derive some new fixed point theorems in partially ordered modular metric spaces, Suzuki type fixed point theorems in modular metric spaces and new fixed point theorems for integral contractions. In last section, we develop an important relation between fuzzy metric and modular metric and deduce certain new fixed point results in triangular fuzzy metric spaces. Moreover, some examples are provided here to illustrate the usability of the obtained results.

Hussain, N.; Salimi, P.

2014-01-01

329

Robust and fault tolerant control of modular and reconfigurable robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modular and reconfigurable robot has been one of the main areas of robotics research in recent years due to its wide range of applications, especially in aerospace sector. Dynamic control of manipulators can be performed using joint torque sensing with little information of the link dynamics. From the modular robot perspective, this advantage offered by the torque sensor can be taken to enhance the modularity of the control system. Known modular robots though boast novel and diverse mechanical design on joint modules in one way or another, they still require the whole robot dynamic model for motion control, and modularity offered in the mechanical side does not offer any advantage in the control design. In this work, a modular distributed control technique is formulated for modular and reconfigurable robots that can instantly adapt to robot reconfigurations. Under this control methodology, a modular and reconfigurable robot is stabilized joint by joint, and modules can be added or removed without the need of re-tuning the controller. Model uncertainties associated with load and links are compensated by the use of joint torque sensors. Other model uncertainties at each joint module are compensated by a decomposition based robust controller for each module. The proposed distributed control technique offers a 'modular' approach, featuring a unique joint-by-joint control synthesis of the joint modules. Fault tolerance and fault detection are formulated as a decentralized control problem for modular and reconfigurable robots in this thesis work. The modularity of the system is exploited to derive a strategy dependent only on a single joint module, while eliminating the need for the motion states of other joint modules. While the traditional fault tolerant and detection schemes are suitable for robots with the whole dynamic model, this proposed technique is ideal for modular and reconfigurable robots because of its modular nature. The proposed methods have been investigated with simulations and experimentally tested using a 3-DOF modular and reconfigurable robot.

Abdul, Sajan

330

Photovoltaic stand-alone modular systems, phase 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The final hardware and system qualification phase of a two part stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system development is covered. The final design incorporated modular, power blocks capable of expanding incrementally from 320 watts to twenty kilowatts (PK). The basic power unit (PU) was nominally rated 1.28 kWp. The controls units, power collection buses and main lugs, electrical protection subsystems, power switching, and load management circuits are housed in a common control enclosure. Photo-voltaic modules are electrically connected in a horizontal daisy-chain method via Amp Solarlok plugs mating with compatible connectors installed on the back side of each photovoltaic module. A pair of channel rails accommodate the mounting of the modules into a frameless panel support structure. Foundations are of a unique planter (tub-like) configuration to allow for world-wide deployment without restriction as to types of soil. One battery string capable of supplying approximately 240 ampere hours nominal of carryover power is specified for each basic power unit. Load prioritization and shedding circuits are included to protect critical loads and selectively shed and defer lower priority or noncritical power demands. The baseline system, operating at approximately 2 1/2 PUs (3.2 kW pk.) was installed and deployed. Qualification was successfully complete in March 1983; since that time, the demonstration system has logged approximately 3000 hours of continuous operation under load without major incident.

Naff, G. J.; Marshall, N. A.

1983-07-01

331

Photovoltaic stand-alone modular systems, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final hardware and system qualification phase of a two part stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system development is covered. The final design incorporated modular, power blocks capable of expanding incrementally from 320 watts to twenty kilowatts (PK). The basic power unit (PU) was nominally rated 1.28 kWp. The controls units, power collection buses and main lugs, electrical protection subsystems, power switching, and load management circuits are housed in a common control enclosure. Photo-voltaic modules are electrically connected in a horizontal daisy-chain method via Amp Solarlok plugs mating with compatible connectors installed on the back side of each photovoltaic module. A pair of channel rails accommodate the mounting of the modules into a frameless panel support structure. Foundations are of a unique planter (tub-like) configuration to allow for world-wide deployment without restriction as to types of soil. One battery string capable of supplying approximately 240 ampere hours nominal of carryover power is specified for each basic power unit. Load prioritization and shedding circuits are included to protect critical loads and selectively shed and defer lower priority or noncritical power demands. The baseline system, operating at approximately 2 1/2 PUs (3.2 kW pk.) was installed and deployed. Qualification was successfully complete in March 1983; since that time, the demonstration system has logged approximately 3000 hours of continuous operation under load without major incident.

Naff, G. J.; Marshall, N. A.

1983-01-01

332

Performance Evaluation for a Modular, Scalable Passive Cooling System in Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. In the meanwhile, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has created significant opportunities for precision cooling to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected passive, modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 4. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a passive, modular, scalable liquid cooling system in this study. The scope is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit corresponding to various server loads and inlet air temperatures, under various chilled-water supply temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with documented energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Xu, TengFang

2009-05-01

333

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Cooling Systems with Hot Aisle Containment in Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. Naturally, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has, in the meanwhile, created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 2. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable pair of chilled water cooling modules that were tested in a hot/cold aisle environment with hot aisle containment. The scope of this report is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with a concurrent research study to document the energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Adams, Barbara J

2009-05-01

334

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. In the meanwhile, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 3. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable liquid-rack cooling system in this study. The scope is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures, under various chilled-water supply temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with documented energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Xu, TengFang

2009-05-01

335

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Overhead Cooling Systems In Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. Naturally, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has, in the meanwhile, created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants' input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 1. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable overhead cooling system. The system was tested in a hot/cold aisle environment without separation, or containment or the hot or cold aisles. The scope of this report is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with a concurrent research study to document the energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Xu, TengFang T.

2009-05-01

336

Modular integrated fluidized bed bioreactor technology.  

PubMed

We describe the design and demonstrate the application of a modular integrated fluidized bed bioreactor system. Basically the system is a reactor vessel equipped with an extending cylinder and a liquid distributor plate. Instead of an external recirculation loop, as used in existing fluidized bed systems, a low shear stress impeller is used as the recirculation pump. The system has several unique features, such as modular exchangeable elements, efficient oxygenation and the option of operating as a stirred tank-, a packed bed- or a fluidized bed reactor. An example of a fluidized bed run using CHO-K1 cells is shown. Under standard culture conditions a 100-fold increase in cell density (up to 1.2 x 10(8) cells/ml) was achieved. PMID:1367626

Reiter, M; Blüml, G; Gaida, T; Zach, N; Unterluggauer, F; Doblhoff-Dier, O; Noe, M; Plail, R; Huss, S; Katinger, H

1991-11-01

337

Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

1975-01-01

338

Modular, bluetooth enabled, wireless electroencephalograph (EEG) platform.  

PubMed

A design for a modular, compact, and accurate wireless electroencephalograph (EEG) system is proposed. EEG is the only non-invasive measure for neuronal function of the brain. Using a number of digital signal processing (DSP) techniques, this neuronal function can be acquired and processed into meaningful representations of brain activity. The system described here utilizes Bluetooth to wirelessly transmit the digitized brain signal for an end application use. In this way, the system is portable, and modular in terms of the device to which it can interface. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) has become a popular extension of EEG systems in modern research. This design serves as a platform for applications using BCI capability. PMID:24111196

Lovelace, Joseph A; Witt, Tyler S; Beyette, Fred R

2013-01-01

339

Multifunctional materials through modular protein engineering.  

PubMed

The diversity of potential applications for protein-engineered materials has undergone profound recent expansion through a rapid increase in the library of domains that have been utilized in these materials. Historically, protein-engineered biomaterials have been generated from a handful of peptides that were selected and exploited for their naturally evolved functionalities. In recent years, the scope of the field has drastically expanded to include peptide domains that were designed through computational modeling, identified through high-throughput screening, or repurposed from wild type domains to perform functions distinct from their primary native applications. The strategy of exploiting a diverse library of peptide domains to design modular block copolymers enables the synthesis of multifunctional protein-engineered materials with a range of customizable properties and activities. As the diversity of peptide domains utilized in modular protein engineering continues to expand, a tremendous and ever-growing combinatorial expanse of material functionalities will result. PMID:22730248

DiMarco, Rebecca L; Heilshorn, Sarah C

2012-08-01

340

Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant  

SciTech Connect

A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

1983-07-01

341

A Modular Approach to Roberts' Theorem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roberts’ theorem from 1979 states that the only incentive compatible mechanisms over a full domain and range of at least 3 are weighted variants of the VCG mechanism termed affine maximizers. Roberts’ proof is somewhat “magical” and we provide a new “modular” proof. We hope that this proof will help in future efforts to extend the theorem to non-full domains such as combinatorial auctions or scheduling.

Dobzinski, Shahar; Nisan, Noam

342

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOEpatents

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01

343

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOEpatents

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01

344

Reverse automatic differentiation of modular FORTRAN programs  

SciTech Connect

Several software systems are available for implementing automatic differentiation of computer programs. The forward mode of automatic differentiation is limited by computational intensity and computer memory. The reverse mode, or adjoint approach, is limited by computer memory and disk storage. A modular technique for derivative computation that can significantly reduce memory required to compute derivatives in a complex FORTRAN model using the reverse mode of automatic differentiation is discussed and demonstrated.

Horwedel, J.E.

1992-03-01

345

Modular Habitats Comprising Rigid and Inflatable Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular, lightweight, fully equipped buildings comprising hybrids of rigid and inflatable structures can be assembled on Earth and then transported to and deployed on the Moon for use as habitats. Modified versions of these buildings could also prove useful on Earth as shelters that can be rapidly and easily erected in emergency situations and/or extreme environments: examples include shelters for hurricane relief and for Antarctic exploration.

Kennedy, Kriss J.

2010-01-01

346

Modular architecture model of CSCD system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular architecture model of a computer-supported collaborative design (CSCD) system is proposed on the basis of the hierarchical\\u000a structure characteristics of a distributed collaborative design system and advanced component object technology. The model\\u000a mainly regards the module as the core organizing and managing design objects and uses the common object request broker architecture\\u000a (CORBA) specifications as an interactive platform

Hongxue Xu; Hong Zheng; Xiuying Guo

2010-01-01

347

A modular approach to multichannel magnetometry.  

PubMed

A 19-channel SQUID system for biomagnetic measurements has been developed. This system differs from standard instruments in its modular approach. Various gradiometers can be coupled to the SQUIDs, the cryogenic system allows the exchange of single channels and the electronics is based on a cassette system. Problems with thermal insulation, vibrations of the gradiometers and tilted gradiometer geometries are discussed and solutions are presented. PMID:1807883

Dössel, O; David, B; Fuchs, M; Krüger, J; Kullmann, W H; Ludeke, K M

1991-01-01

348

Soundness of Symbolic Equivalence for Modular Exponentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the Dynamic Decisional Diffie-Hellman (3DH) problem,a powerfulgeneralizationoftheDecisionalDiffie-Hellman(DDH)prob- lem. Our main result is that DDH implies 3DH. This result leads to significantly simpler proofs for protocols by relying directly on the more general problem. Our second contribution is a computationally sound symbolic technique for reasoning about protocols that use symmetric encryption and modular exponentiation. We show

Yassine Lakhnech; Laurent Mazare; Bogdan Warinschi

349

The TLS Handshake Protocol: A Modular Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the security of the widely deployed Secure Session Layer\\/Transport Layer Security (TLS) key agreement protocol. Our\\u000a analysis identifies, justifies, and exploits the modularity present in the design of the protocol: the application keys offered to higher-level applications are obtained from a master key, which in turn is derived through interaction from a pre-master key.\\u000a \\u000a We define models (following

Paul Morrissey; Nigel P. Smart; Bogdan Warinschi

2010-01-01

350

Modular test facility for HTS insert coils  

SciTech Connect

The final beam cooling stages of a Muon Collider may require DC solenoid magnets with magnetic fields in the range of 40-50 T. In this paper we will present a modular test facility developed for the purpose of investigating very high field levels with available 2G HTS superconducting materials. Performance of available conductors is presented, together with magnetic calculations and evaluation of Lorentz forces distribution on the HTS coils. Finally a test of a double pancake coil is presented.

Lombardo, V; Bartalesi, A.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

2009-10-01

351

Integrated modular water reactor (IMR) design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated modular water reactor (IMR) has been developed as one of the advanced small-scale light water reactors, with a thermal output of 1000MW. The IMR adopts natural circulation and self-pressurization in the primary cooling system, and a reactor vessel built-in steam generators. The core design has been performed using the current light water reactor technology. Thermal-hydraulic sensitivity analyses have been

Koki Hibi; Hitoi Ono; Takashi Kanagawa

2004-01-01

352

Modular architecture for robotics and teleoperation  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for modularization and discretization of real-time robot, telerobot and teleoperation systems using passive, network based control laws. Modules consist of network one-ports and two-ports. Wave variables and position information are passed between modules. The behavior of each module is decomposed into uncoupled linear-time-invariant, and coupled, nonlinear memoryless elements and then are separately discretized.

Anderson, Robert J. (11908 Ibex Ave., N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

1996-12-03

353

Maass Forms and Quantum Modular Forms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes several new results in the theory of harmonic Maass forms and related objects. Maass forms have recently led to a flood of applications throughout number theory and combinatorics in recent years, especially following their development by the work of Bruinier and Funke the modern understanding Ramanujan's mock theta functions due to Zwegers. The first of three main theorems discussed in this thesis concerns the integrality properties of singular moduli. These are well-known to be algebraic integers, and they play a beautiful role in complex multiplication and explicit class field theory for imaginary quadratic fields. One can also study "singular moduli" for special non-holomorphic functions, which are algebraic but are not necessarily algebraic integers. Here we will explain the phenomenon of integrality properties and provide a sharp bound on denominators of symmetric functions in singular moduli. The second main theme of the thesis concerns Zagier's recent definition of a quantum modular form. Since their definition in 2010 by Zagier, quantum modular forms have been connected to numerous different topics such as strongly unimodal sequences, ranks, cranks, and asymptotics for mock theta functions. Motivated by Zagier's example of the quantum modularity of Kontsevich's "strange" function F(q), we revisit work of Andrews, Jimenez-Urroz, and Ono to construct a natural vector-valued quantum modular form whose components. The final chapter of this thesis is devoted to a study of asymptotics of mock theta functions near roots of unity. In his famous deathbed letter, Ramanujan introduced the notion of a mock theta function, and he offered some alleged examples. The theory of mock theta functions has been brought to fruition using the framework of harmonic Maass forms, thanks to Zwegers. Despite this understanding, little attention has been given to Ramanujan's original definition. Here we prove that Ramanujan's examples do indeed satisfy his original definition.

Rolen, Larry

354

Modular wall climbing robots with transition capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces two wall climbing robots based on different adhesive mechanisms: vortex attraction technique and the vacuum rotor package. The robots adopt modular design with each module can move on various smooth\\/rough surfaces independently while a combination of two modules can achieve wall-to-wall transition. Detailed description of the novel mechanical and electrical design is presented. Simulation is conducted to

Jizhong Xiao; Angel Calle; Ali Sadegh; Matthew Elliott

2005-01-01

355

Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) instruction simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design principles, description, functional operation, and recommended expansion and enhancements are presented for the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer interpretive simulator. Included as appendices are the user's manual, program module descriptions, target instruction descriptions, simulator source program listing, and a sample program printout. In discussing the design and operation of the simulator, the key problems involving host computer independence and target computer architectural scope are brought into focus.

Curran, R. T.

1972-01-01

356

lazar: a modular predictive toxicology framework  

PubMed Central

lazar (lazy structure–activity relationships) is a modular framework for predictive toxicology. Similar to the read across procedure in toxicological risk assessment, lazar creates local QSAR (quantitative structure–activity relationship) models for each compound to be predicted. Model developers can choose between a large variety of algorithms for descriptor calculation and selection, chemical similarity indices, and model building. This paper presents a high level description of the lazar framework and discusses the performance of example classification and regression models.

Maunz, Andreas; Gutlein, Martin; Rautenberg, Micha; Vorgrimmler, David; Gebele, Denis; Helma, Christoph

2013-01-01

357

A comparison of modular tapered versus modular cylindrical stems for complex femoral revisions.  

PubMed

The effect of distal geometry in modular stems in revision THA remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare femoral revisions with modular tapered versus modular cylindrical stems in high-grade defects. A multicenter review of 105 femoral revisions with Paprosky III/IV defects using modular titanium stems (61 tapered; 44 cylindrical) was performed with an average follow-up of 5 years. Demographic data was comparable between groups. The tapered group had more IIIB and IV defects (51% vs. 20%; P < .01). The failure rate for component osseointegration was 1.6% in the tapered group and 15.9% in the cylindrical group (P = <.01). The rate of femoral component re-revision for any reason was 4.9% in the tapered group and 22.7% in the cylindrical group (P = .013). Modular tapered stems were associated with lower rates of stem failure and improved bone ongrowth compared to cylindrical stems despite being used in femurs with greater defects. PMID:24034509

2013-09-01

358

Topological Strings And (Almost) Modular Forms  

SciTech Connect

The B-model topological string theory on a Calabi-Yau threefold X has a symmetry group {Lambda}, generated by monodromies of the periods of X. This acts on the topological string wave function in a natural way, governed by the quantum mechanics of the phase space H{sup 3}(X). We show that, depending on the choice of polarization, the genus g topological string amplitude is either a holomorphic quasi-modular form or an almost holomorphic modular form of weight 0 under {Lambda}. Moreover, at each genus, certain combinations of genus g amplitudes are both modular and holomorphic. We illustrate this for the local Calabi-Yau manifolds giving rise to Seiberg-Witten gauge theories in four dimensions and local IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 1} x IP{sub 1}. As a byproduct, we also obtain a simple way of relating the topological string amplitudes near different points in the moduli space, which we use to give predictions for Gromov-Witten invariants of the orbifold C{sub 3}/ZZ{sub 3}.

Aganagic, Mina; Bouchard, Vincent; Klemm, Albrecht

2007-05-04

359

More modular invariant anomalous U(1) breaking  

SciTech Connect

We consider the case of several scalar fields, charged under a number of U(1) factors, acquiring vacuum expectation values due to anomalous U(1). We demonstrate how to make redefinitions at the superfield level in order to account for tree-level exchange of vector supermultiplets in the effective supergravity theory of the light fields in the supersymmetric vacuum phase. Our approach builds up on previous results that we obtained in a more elementary case. We find that the modular weights of light fields are typically shifted from their original values, allowing an interpretation in terms of the preservation of modular invariance in the effective theory. We address various subtleties in defining unitary gauge that are associated with the noncanonical Kahler potential of modular invariant supergravity, the vacuum degeneracy, and the role of the dilaton field. We discuss the effective superpotential for the light fields and note how proton decay operators may be obtained when the heavy fields are integrated out of the theory at the tree-level. We also address how our formalism may be extended to describe the generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism for multiple anomalous U(1)'s that occur in four-dimensional Type I and Type IIB string constructions.

Gaillard, Mary K.; Giedt, Joel

2002-06-27

360

Modular injection systems for miniature engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mission requirements for Kinetic Energy Weapons will require miniaturization of current vehicle propulsion systems for future Space Defence Iniative Programs. A modular injection system (MIS) valve is presented which will decrease cost, size and weight of miniaturized storable bipropellant rocket engines and features two poppet-type propellant valve modules pneumatically linked to a pilot solenoid module. A prototype modular injection valve sized for 100lbf thrust was designed and is being tested to show lower costs, fewer moving parts and a reduction in weight and size. Results show that this valve meets objectives of one-half weight, one-half cost and one-fifth the envelopment of current production valves. Studies indicate that a cruciform configuration of four nominal 100lbf thrust engines can be controlled by four modular injection valve systems in a single housing of less than 1.0 m3. Following further development and correlation of results this concept may be scaled to control four higher thrust engines.

Cochran, Mike

1992-07-01

361

Evolution of a modular software network  

PubMed Central

“Evolution behaves like a tinkerer” (François Jacob, Science, 1977). Software systems provide a singular opportunity to understand biological processes using concepts from network theory. The Debian GNU/Linux operating system allows us to explore the evolution of a complex network in a unique way. The modular design detected during its growth is based on the reuse of existing code in order to minimize costs during programming. The increase of modularity experienced by the system over time has not counterbalanced the increase in incompatibilities between software packages within modules. This negative effect is far from being a failure of design. A random process of package installation shows that the higher the modularity, the larger the fraction of packages working properly in a local computer. The decrease in the relative number of conflicts between packages from different modules avoids a failure in the functionality of one package spreading throughout the entire system. Some potential analogies with the evolutionary and ecological processes determining the structure of ecological networks of interacting species are discussed.

Fortuna, Miguel A.; Bonachela, Juan A.; Levin, Simon A.

2011-01-01

362

RAMS (Risk Analysis - Modular System) methodology  

SciTech Connect

The Risk Analysis - Modular System (RAMS) was developed to serve as a broad scope risk analysis tool for the Risk Assessment of the Hanford Mission (RAHM) studies. The RAHM element provides risk analysis support for Hanford Strategic Analysis and Mission Planning activities. The RAHM also provides risk analysis support for the Hanford 10-Year Plan development activities. The RAMS tool draws from a collection of specifically designed databases and modular risk analysis methodologies and models. RAMS is a flexible modular system that can be focused on targeted risk analysis needs. It is specifically designed to address risks associated with overall strategy, technical alternative, and `what if` questions regarding the Hanford cleanup mission. RAMS is set up to address both near-term and long-term risk issues. Consistency is very important for any comparative risk analysis, and RAMS is designed to efficiently and consistently compare risks and produce risk reduction estimates. There is a wide range of output information that can be generated by RAMS. These outputs can be detailed by individual contaminants, waste forms, transport pathways, exposure scenarios, individuals, populations, etc. However, they can also be in rolled-up form to support high-level strategy decisions.

Stenner, R.D.; Strenge, D.L.; Buck, J.W. [and others

1996-10-01

363

Modular closed-loop control of diabetes.  

PubMed

Modularity plays a key role in many engineering systems, allowing for plug-and-play integration of components, enhancing flexibility and adaptability, and facilitating standardization. In the control of diabetes, i.e., the so-called "artificial pancreas," modularity allows for the step-wise introduction of (and regulatory approval for) algorithmic components, starting with subsystems for assured patient safety and followed by higher layer components that serve to modify the patient's basal rate in real time. In this paper, we introduce a three-layer modular architecture for the control of diabetes, consisting in a sensor/pump interface module (IM), a continuous safety module (CSM), and a real-time control module (RTCM), which separates the functions of insulin recommendation (postmeal insulin for mitigating hyperglycemia) and safety (prevention of hypoglycemia). In addition, we provide details of instances of all three layers of the architecture: the APS© serving as the IM, the safety supervision module (SSM) serving as the CSM, and the range correction module (RCM) serving as the RTCM. We evaluate the performance of the integrated system via in silico preclinical trials, demonstrating 1) the ability of the SSM to reduce the incidence of hypoglycemia under nonideal operating conditions and 2) the ability of the RCM to reduce glycemic variability. PMID:22481809

Patek, S D; Magni, L; Dassau, E; Karvetski, C; Toffanin, C; De Nicolao, G; Del Favero, S; Breton, M; Man, C Dalla; Renard, E; Zisser, H; Doyle, F J; Cobelli, C; Kovatchev, B P

2012-11-01

364

Relative Importance of Modularity and Other Morphological Attributes on Different Types of Lithic Point Weapons: Assessing Functional Variations  

PubMed Central

The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as “near decomposable units” in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric attributes, and evolving on a modular way.

Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Charlin, Judith

2012-01-01

365

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 1: Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems  

SciTech Connect

This deliverable is the Final Report for Task 1, Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems, as part of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 1.1 looked into processes and technologies that have been commercially built at both large and small scales, with three technologies, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) of refinery gas oil, Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Expanders, chosen for further investigation. These technologies were chosen due to their applicability relative to other technologies being considered by NREL for future commercial applications, such as indirect gasification and fluidized bed tar cracking. Research in this subject is driven by an interest in the impact that scaling has on the cost and major process unit designs for commercial technologies. Conclusions from the evaluations performed could be applied to other technologies being considered for modular or skid-mounted applications.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01

366

Modularization and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Modularization Task Team  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of the work performed by the Technology Transfer Task Team on Modularization. This work was performed as part of the Technology Transfer work being performed under Department of Energy Contract 54-7WM-335406, between December, 1984 and February, 1985. The purpose of this task team effort was to briefly survey the current use of modularization in the nuclear and non-nuclear industries and to assess and evaluate the techniques available for potential application to nuclear power. A key conclusion of the evaluation was that there was a need for a study to establish guidelines for the future development of Light Water Reactor, High Temperature Gas Reactor and Liquid Metal Reactor plants. The guidelines should identify how modularization can improve construction, maintenance, life extension and decommissioning.

Not Available

1985-06-01

367

Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity.  

PubMed

The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure. PMID:24621482

Russo, R; Herrmann, H J; de Arcangelis, L

2014-01-01

368

Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity  

PubMed Central

The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure.

Russo, R.; Herrmann, H. J.; de Arcangelis, L.

2014-01-01

369

Modularisation: Aspects of the Debate in Germany and the United Kingdom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes four theme articles: "Some Remarks on Modular Training in the Federal Republic of Germany" (Zedler); "Modular Initial and Continuing Education and Training: A Comparative Survey of the Education System in the United Kingdom and Germany" (Hammer); "Modules in Vocational Training" (Wiegand); and "Modularisation and Qualification Reform in…

Zedler, Reinhard; And Others

1996-01-01

370

Fuzzy modular arithmetic for cryptographic schemes with applications for mobile security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular arithmetic is a key operation in modern cryptology. This paper presents a modified modular computation strategy to simplify processing of modular arithmetic for cryptographic applications. A novel technique called fuzzy modular arithmetic is presented. The impact of this technique on the implementation of modular computations is discussed in particular cases. The impact of the technique on system security for

W. Adi

2000-01-01

371

Calculation and modular properties of multiloop superstring amplitudes  

SciTech Connect

Multiloop superstring amplitudes are calculated within an extensively used gauge where the two-dimensional gravitino field carries Grassmann moduli. In general, the amplitudes possess, instead of modular symmetry, symmetry with respect to modular transformation supplemented with appropriate transformations of two-dimensional local supersymmetry. If the number of loops is larger than three, the integrationmeasures are notmodular forms, while the expression for the amplitude contains integrals along the boundary of the fundamental region of the modular group.

Danilov, G. S., E-mail: Gennady.Danilov@thd.pnpi.spb.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

2013-06-15

372

Modularized construction of general integrated circuits on individual carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

While constructing general integrated circuits (ICs) with field-effect transistors (FETs) built on individual CNTs is among few viable ways to build ICs with small dimension and high performance that can be compared with that of state-of-the-art Si based ICs, this has not been demonstrated owing to the absence of valid and well-tolerant fabrication method. Here we demonstrate a modularized method for constructing general ICs on individual CNTs with different electric properties. A pass-transistor-logic style 8-transistor (8-T) unit is built, demonstrated as a multifunctional function generator with good tolerance to inhomogeneity in the CNTs used and used as a building block for constructing general ICs. As an example, an 8-bits BUS system that is widely used to transfer data between different systems in a computer is constructed. This is the most complicated IC fabricated on individual CNTs to date, containing 46 FETs built on six individual semiconducting CNTs. The 8-T unit provides a good basis for constructing complex ICs to explore the potential and limits of CNT ICs given the current imperfection in available CNT materials and may also be developed into a universal and efficient way for constructing general ICs on ideal CNT materials in the future. PMID:24796796

Pei, Tian; Zhang, Panpan; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qiu, Chenguang; Liang, Shibo; Yang, Yingjun; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

2014-06-11

373

Mammalian skull heterochrony reveals modular evolution and a link between cranial development and brain size.  

PubMed

The multiple skeletal components of the skull originate asynchronously and their developmental schedule varies across amniotes. Here we present the embryonic ossification sequence of 134 species, covering all major groups of mammals and their close relatives. This comprehensive data set allows reconstruction of the heterochronic and modular evolution of the skull and the condition of the last common ancestor of mammals. We show that the mode of ossification (dermal or endochondral) unites bones into integrated evolutionary modules of heterochronic changes and imposes evolutionary constraints on cranial heterochrony. However, some skull-roof bones, such as the supraoccipital, exhibit evolutionary degrees of freedom in these constraints. Ossification timing of the neurocranium was considerably accelerated during the origin of mammals. Furthermore, association between developmental timing of the supraoccipital and brain size was identified among amniotes. We argue that cranial heterochrony in mammals has occurred in concert with encephalization but within a conserved modular organization. PMID:24704703

Koyabu, Daisuke; Werneburg, Ingmar; Morimoto, Naoki; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Forasiepi, Analia M; Endo, Hideki; Kimura, Junpei; Ohdachi, Satoshi D; Truong Son, Nguyen; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

2014-01-01

374

Mammalian skull heterochrony reveals modular evolution and a link between cranial development and brain size  

PubMed Central

The multiple skeletal components of the skull originate asynchronously and their developmental schedule varies across amniotes. Here we present the embryonic ossification sequence of 134 species, covering all major groups of mammals and their close relatives. This comprehensive data set allows reconstruction of the heterochronic and modular evolution of the skull and the condition of the last common ancestor of mammals. We show that the mode of ossification (dermal or endochondral) unites bones into integrated evolutionary modules of heterochronic changes and imposes evolutionary constraints on cranial heterochrony. However, some skull-roof bones, such as the supraoccipital, exhibit evolutionary degrees of freedom in these constraints. Ossification timing of the neurocranium was considerably accelerated during the origin of mammals. Furthermore, association between developmental timing of the supraoccipital and brain size was identified among amniotes. We argue that cranial heterochrony in mammals has occurred in concert with encephalization but within a conserved modular organization.

Koyabu, Daisuke; Werneburg, Ingmar; Morimoto, Naoki; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Forasiepi, Analia M.; Endo, Hideki; Kimura, Junpei; Ohdachi, Satoshi D.; Truong Son, Nguyen; Sanchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

2014-01-01

375

Demonstration of a Small Modular Biopower System Using Poultry Litter-Final Report  

SciTech Connect

On-farm conversion of poultry litter into energy is a unique market connected opportunity for commercialization of small modular bioenergy systems. The United States Department of Energy recognized the need in the poultry industry for alternative litter management as an opportunity for bioenergy. The DOE created a relevant topic in the December 2000 release of the small business innovative research (SBIR) grant solicitation. Community Power Corporation responded to this solicitation by proposing the development of a small modular gasification and gas cleanup system to produce separate value streams of clean producer gas and mineral rich solids. This phase II report describes our progress in the development of an on-farm litter to energy system.

John Reardon; Art Lilley

2004-06-15

376

A modular attractor associative memory with patchy connectivity and weight pruning.  

PubMed

An important research topic in neuroscience is the study of mechanisms underlying memory and the estimation of the information capacity of the biological system. In this report we investigate the performance of a modular attractor network with recurrent connections similar to the cortical long-range connections extending in the horizontal direction. We considered a single learning rule, the BCPNN, which implements a kind of Hebbian learning and we trained the network with sparse random patterns. The storage capacity was measured experimentally for networks of size between 500 and 46?K units with a constant activity level, gradually diluting the connectivity. We show that the storage capacity of the modular network with patchy connectivity is comparable with the theoretical values estimated for simple associative memories and furthermore we introduce a new technique to prune the connectivity, which enhances the storage capacity up to the asymptotic value. PMID:24251411

Meli, Cristina; Lansner, Anders

2013-01-01

377

Unimodal sequences and quantum and mock modular forms  

PubMed Central

We show that the rank generating function U(t; q) for strongly unimodal sequences lies at the interface of quantum modular forms and mock modular forms. We use U(-1; q) to obtain a quantum modular form which is “dual” to the quantum form Zagier constructed from Kontsevich’s “strange” function F(q). As a result, we obtain a new representation for a certain generating function for L-values. The series U(i; q) = U(-i; q) is a mock modular form, and we use this fact to obtain new congruences for certain enumerative functions.

Bryson, Jennifer; Ono, Ken; Pitman, Sarah; Rhoades, Robert C.

2012-01-01

378

p-adic coupling of mock modular forms and shadows  

PubMed Central

A “mock modular form” is the holomorphic part of a harmonic Maass form f. The nonholomorphic part of f is a period integral of its “shadow,” a cusp form g. A direct method for relating the coefficients of shadows and mock modular forms is not known. We solve these problems when the shadow is an integer weight newform. Our solution is p-adic, and it relies on our definition of an algebraic “regularized mock modular form.” As an application, we consider the modular solution to the cubic “arithmetic-geometric mean.”

Guerzhoy, Pavel; Kent, Zachary A.; Ono, Ken

2010-01-01

379

Lightweight composites for modular panelized construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid advances in construction materials technology have enabled civil engineers to achieve impressive gains in the safety, economy, and functionality of structures built to serve the common needs of society. Modular building systems is a fast-growing modern, form of construction gaining recognition for its increased efficiency and ability to apply modern technology to the needs of the market place. In the modular construction technique, a single structural panel can perform a number of functions such as providing thermal insulation, vibration damping, and structural strength. These multifunctional panels can be prefabricated in a manufacturing facility and then transferred to the construction site. A system that uses prefabricated panels for construction is called a "panelized construction system". This study focuses on the development of pre-cast, lightweight, multifunctional sandwich composite panels to be used for panelized construction. Two thermoplastic composite panels are proposed in this study, namely Composite Structural Insulated Panels (CSIPs) for exterior walls, floors and roofs, and Open Core Sandwich composite for multifunctional interior walls of a structure. Special manufacturing techniques are developed for manufacturing these panels. The structural behavior of these panels is analyzed based on various building design codes. Detailed descriptions of the design, cost analysis, manufacturing, finite element modeling and structural testing of these proposed panels are included in this study in the of form five peer-reviewed journal articles. The structural testing of the proposed panels involved in this study included flexural testing, axial compression testing, and low and high velocity impact testing. Based on the current study, the proposed CSIP wall and floor panels were found satisfactory, based on building design codes ASCE-7-05 and ACI-318-05. Joining techniques are proposed in this study for connecting the precast panels on the construction site. Keywords: Modular panelized construction, sandwich composites, composite structural insulated panels (CSIPs).

Vaidya, Amol S.

380

Multi-robot operator control unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego (SSC San Diego) has developed an unmanned vehicle and sensor operator control interface capable of simultaneously controlling and monitoring multiple sets of heterogeneous systems. The modularity, scalability and flexible user interface of the Multi-robot Operator Control Unit (MOCU) accommodates a wide range of vehicles and sensors in varying mission scenarios. MOCU currently

D. Powell; G. Gilbreath; M. Bruch

2006-01-01

381

Modular Strategies for PET Imaging Agents  

PubMed Central

Summary of Recent Advances In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging.

Hooker, Jacob M

2009-01-01

382

Modular, Parallel Pulse-Shaping Filter Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Novel architectures based on parallel subconvolution frequency-domain filtering methods have been developed for modular processing rate reduction of discrete-time pulse-shaping filters. Such pulse-shaping is desirable and often necessary to obtain bandwidth efficiency in very-high-rate wireless communications systems. In principle, this processing could be implemented in very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. Whereas other approaches to digital pulse-shaping are based primarily on time-domain processing concepts, the theory and design rules of the architectures presented here are founded on frequency-domain processing that has advantages in certain systems.

Gray, Andrew A.

2003-01-01

383

Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This CSWD describes hardware and PFP developed software for control of stabilization furnaces. The Honeywell software can generate configuration reports for the developed control software. These reports are described in the following section and are attached as addendum's. This plan applies to PFP Engineering Manager, Thermal Stabilization Cognizant Engineers, and the Shift Technical Advisors responsible for the Honeywell MAS software/hardware and administration of the Honeywell System.

STUBBS, A.M.

2000-12-04

384

Modular fuel-cell stack assembly  

DOEpatents

A modular multi-stack fuel-cell assembly in which the fuel-cell stacks are situated within a containment structure and in which a gas distributor is provided in the structure and distributes received fuel and oxidant gases to the stacks and receives exhausted fuel and oxidant gas from the stacks so as to realize a desired gas flow distribution and gas pressure differential through the stacks. The gas distributor is centrally and symmetrically arranged relative to the stacks so that it itself promotes realization of the desired gas flow distribution and pressure differential.

Patel, Pinakin (Danbury, CT) [Danbury, CT; Urko, Willam (West Granby, CT) [West Granby, CT

2008-01-29

385

New Modular Camera No Ordinary Joe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although dubbed 'Little Joe' for its small-format characteristics, a new wavefront sensor camera has proved that it is far from coming up short when paired with high-speed, low-noise applications. SciMeasure Analytical Systems, Inc., a provider of cameras and imaging accessories for use in biomedical research and industrial inspection and quality control, is the eye behind Little Joe's shutter, manufacturing and selling the modular, multi-purpose camera worldwide to advance fields such as astronomy, neurobiology, and cardiology.

2003-01-01

386

Modular Approach to Physics: Physical Pendulum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive Java applet that simulates the motion of a physical pendulum. By changing the size and initial position of the bob, the user can observe how the motion differs from that of a simple pendulum where all the mass is contained at a single point on the bottom of the string. Velocity, forces on the object, and acceleration can all be displayed as vectors on the diagram. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-08-13

387

Some Learning Properties of Modular Network SOMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Modular Network Self-Organizing Map (mnSOM) is a generalization of the SOM, where each node represents a parametric function such as a multi-layer perceptron or another SOM. Since given datasets are, in general, fewer than nodes, some nodes never win in competition and have to update their parameters from the winners in the neighborhood. This is a process that can be regarded as interpolation. This study derives the interpolation curve between winners in simple cases and discusses the distribution of winners based on the neighborhood function.

Takeda, Manabu; Ikeda, Kazushi; Furukawa, Tetsuo

388

Language constructs for modular parallel programs  

SciTech Connect

We describe programming language constructs that facilitate the application of modular design techniques in parallel programming. These constructs allow us to isolate resource management and processor scheduling decisions from the specification of individual modules, which can themselves encapsulate design decisions concerned with concurrence, communication, process mapping, and data distribution. This approach permits development of libraries of reusable parallel program components and the reuse of these components in different contexts. In particular, alternative mapping strategies can be explored without modifying other aspects of program logic. We describe how these constructs are incorporated in two practical parallel programming languages, PCN and Fortran M. Compilers have been developed for both languages, allowing experimentation in substantial applications.

Foster, I.

1996-03-01

389

Testing programs for the Multimission Modular Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) provides a standard spacecraft bus to a user for a variety of space missions ranging from near-earth to synchronous orbits. The present paper describes the philosophy behind the MMS module test program and discusses the implementation of the test program. It is concluded that the MMS module test program provides an effective and comprehensive customer buy-off at the subsystem contractor's plant, is an optimum approach for checkout of the subsystems prior to use for on-orbit servicing in the Shuttle Cargo Bay, and is a cost-effective technique for environmental testing.

Greenwell, T. J.

1978-01-01

390

Automatic Sleep Scoring Based on Modular Rule-Based Reasoning Units and Signal Processing Units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sleep stage scoring is laborious and requires much expertise. So using expert system for automatic sleep scoring systems is desirable. In this study, we have designed and implemented a multi-staged rule-based reasoning system with augmented functions usin...

J. Oh H. Park J. Seo K. Park

2001-01-01

391

Discovery and visualization of miRNA-mRNA functional modules within integrated data using bicluster analysis.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. An miRNA may target many messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts, and each transcript may be targeted by multiple miRNAs. Our understanding of miRNA regulation is evolving to consider modules of miRNAs that regulate groups of functionally related mRNAs. Here we expand the model of miRNA functional modules and use it to guide the integration of miRNA and mRNA expression and target prediction data. We present evidence of cooperativity between miRNA classes within this integrated miRNA-mRNA association matrix. We then apply bicluster analysis to uncover miRNA functional modules within this integrated data set and develop a novel application to visualize and query these results. We show that this wholly unsupervised approach can discover a network of miRNA-mRNA modules that are enriched for both biological processes and miRNA classes. We apply this method to investigate the interplay of miRNAs and mRNAs in integrated data sets derived from neuroblastoma and human immune cells. This study is the first to apply the technique of biclustering to model functional modules within an integrated miRNA-mRNA association matrix. Results provide evidence of an extensive modular miRNA functional network and enable characterization of miRNA function and dysregulation in disease. PMID:24357407

Bryan, Kenneth; Terrile, Marta; Bray, Isabella M; Domingo-Fernandéz, Raquel; Watters, Karen M; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Stallings, Raymond L

2014-02-01

392

Axial flux, modular, permanent-magnet generator with a toroidal winding for wind turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

Permanent-magnet generators have been used for wind turbines for many years. Many small wind turbine manufacturers use direct-drive permanent-magnet generators. For wind turbine generators, the design philosophy must cover the following characteristics: low cost, light weight, low speed, high torque, and variable speed generation. The generator is easy to manufacture and the design can be scaled up for a larger size without major retooling. A modular permanent-magnet generator with axial flux direction was chosen. The permanent magnet used is NdFeB or ferrite magnet with flux guide to focus flux density in the air gap. Each unit module of the generator may consist of one, two, or more phases. Each generator can be expanded to two or more unit modules. Each unit module is built from simple modular poles. The stator winding is formed like a torus. Thus, the assembly process is simplified and the winding insertion in the slot is less tedious. The authors built a prototype of one unit module and performed preliminary tests in the laboratory. Follow up tests will be conducted in the lab to improve the design.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Wan, Y.H.

1998-07-01

393

The CMS Modular Track Finder boards, MTF6 and MTF7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To accommodate the increase in energy and luminosity of the upgraded LHC, the CMS Endcap Muon Level 1 Trigger system has to be significantly modified. To provide the best track reconstruction, the Trigger system must now import all available trigger primitives generated by Cathode Strip Chambers and by other regional subsystems, such as Resistive Plate Chambers. In addition to massive input bandwidth, this also requires a significant increase in logic and memory resources. To satisfy these requirements, a new Sector Processor unit for muon track finding is being designed. This unit follows the micro-TCA standard recently adopted by CMS. It consists of three modules. The Core Logic module houses the large FPGA that contains the processing logic and multi-gigabit serial links for data exchange. The Optical module contains optical receivers and transmitters; it communicates with the Core Logic module via a custom backplane section. The Look-Up Table module contains a large amount of low-latency memory that is used to assign the final transverse momentum of the muon candidate tracks. The name of the unitModular Track Finder — reflects the modular approach used in the design. Presented here are the details of the hardware design of the prototype unit based on Xilinx's Virtex-6 FPGA family, MTF6, as well as results of the conducted tests. Also presented are plans for the pre-production prototype based on the Virtex-7 FPGA family, MTF7.

Acosta, D.; Brown, G.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Furic, I.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Madorsky, A.; Matveev, M.; Padley, P.; Rank, D.; Reeves, C.; Scurlock, B.; Wang, S.

2013-12-01

394

An Overview of the Safety Case for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Several small modular reactor (SMR) designs emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s in response to lessons learned from the many technical and operational challenges of the large Generation II light-water reactors. After the accident at the Three Mile Island plant in 1979, an ensuing reactor redesign effort spawned the term inherently safe designs, which later evolved into passively safe terminology. Several new designs were engineered to be deliberately small in order to fully exploit the benefits of passive safety. Today, new SMR designs are emerging with a similar philosophy of offering highly robust and resilient designs with increased safety margins. Additionally, because these contemporary designs are being developed subsequent to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack, they incorporate a number of intrinsic design features to further strengthen their safety and security. Several SMR designs are being developed in the United States spanning the full spectrum of reactor technologies, including water-, gas-, and liquid-metal-cooled ones. Despite a number of design differences, most of these designs share a common set of design principles to enhance plant safety and robustness, such as eliminating plant design vulnerabilities where possible, reducing accident probabilities, and mitigating accident consequences. An important consequence of the added resilience provided by these design approaches is that the individual reactor units and the entire plant should be able to survive a broader range of extreme conditions. This will enable them to not only ensure the safety of the general public but also help protect the investment of the owner and continued availability of the power-generating asset. Examples of typical SMR design features and their implications for improved plant safety are given for specific SMR designs being developed in the United States.

Ingersoll, Daniel T [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

395

Modular thermal analyzer routine, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modular Thermal Analyzer Routine (MOTAR) is a general thermal analysis routine with strong capabilities for performing thermal analysis of systems containing flowing fluids, fluid system controls (valves, heat exchangers, etc.), life support systems, and thermal radiation situations. Its modular organization permits the analysis of a very wide range of thermal problems for simple problems containing a few conduction nodes to those containing complicated flow and radiation analysis with each problem type being analyzed with peak computational efficiency and maximum ease of use. The organization and programming methods applied to MOTAR achieved a high degree of computer utilization efficiency in terms of computer execution time and storage space required for a given problem. The computer time required to perform a given problem on MOTAR is approximately 40 to 50 percent that required for the currently existing widely used routines. The computer storage requirement for MOTAR is approximately 25 percent more than the most commonly used routines for the most simple problems but the data storage techniques for the more complicated options should save a considerable amount of space.

Oren, J. A.; Phillips, M. A.; Williams, D. R.

1972-01-01

396

Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness.  

PubMed

Darwin's claim 'that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind' is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the 'core knowledge' account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research. PMID:22927578

Shettleworth, Sara J

2012-10-01

397

Modular adaptive implant based on smart materials.  

PubMed

Applications of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology are defined as Bionics. The present paper describes a bionics application of shape memory alloy in construction of orthopedic implant. The main idea of this paper is related to design modular adaptive implants for fractured bones. In order to target the efficiency of medical treatment, the implant has to protect the fractured bone, for the healing period, undertaking much as is possible from the daily usual load of the healthy bones. After a particular stage of healing period is passed, using implant modularity, the load is gradually transferred to bone, assuring in this manner a gradually recover of bone function. The adaptability of this design is related to medical possibility of the physician to made the implant to correspond to patient specifically anatomy. Using a CT realistic numerical bone models, the mechanical simulation of different types of loading of the fractured bones treated with conventional method are presented. The results are commented and conclusions are formulated. PMID:19050799

Bîzdoac?, N; Tarni??, Daniela; Tarni??, D N

2008-01-01

398

Modular inverse reinforcement learning for visuomotor behavior.  

PubMed

In a large variety of situations one would like to have an expressive and accurate model of observed animal or human behavior. While general purpose mathematical models may capture successfully properties of observed behavior, it is desirable to root models in biological facts. Because of ample empirical evidence for reward-based learning in visuomotor tasks, we use a computational model based on the assumption that the observed agent is balancing the costs and benefits of its behavior to meet its goals. This leads to using the framework of reinforcement learning, which additionally provides well-established algorithms for learning of visuomotor task solutions. To quantify the agent's goals as rewards implicit in the observed behavior, we propose to use inverse reinforcement learning, which quantifies the agent's goals as rewards implicit in the observed behavior. Based on the assumption of a modular cognitive architecture, we introduce a modular inverse reinforcement learning algorithm that estimates the relative reward contributions of the component tasks in navigation, consisting of following a path while avoiding obstacles and approaching targets. It is shown how to recover the component reward weights for individual tasks and that variability in observed trajectories can be explained succinctly through behavioral goals. It is demonstrated through simulations that good estimates can be obtained already with modest amounts of observation data, which in turn allows the prediction of behavior in novel configurations. PMID:23832417

Rothkopf, Constantin A; Ballard, Dana H

2013-08-01

399

Intelligent Control of Modular Robotic Welding Cell  

SciTech Connect

Although robotic machines are routinely used for welding, such machines do not normally incorporate intelligent capabilities. We are studying the general problem of formulating usable levels of intelligence into welding machines. From our perspective, an intelligent machine should: incorporate knowledge of the welding process, know if the process is operating correctly, know if the weld it is making is good or bad, have the ability to learn from its experience to perform welds, and be able to optimize its own performance. To this end, we are researching machine architecture, methods of knowledge representation, decision making and conflict resolution algorithms, methods of learning and optimization, human/machine interfaces, and various sensors. This paper presents work on the machine architecture and the human/machine interface specifically for a robotic, gas metal arc welding cell. Although the machine control problem is normally approached from the perspective of having a central body of control in the machine, we present a design using distributed agents. A prime goal of this work is to develop an architecture for an intelligent machine that will support a modular, plug and play standard. A secondary goal of this work is to formulate a human/machine interface that treats the human as an active agent in the modular structure.

Smartt, Herschel Bernard; Kenney, Kevin Louis; Tolle, Charles Robert

2002-04-01

400

A Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric propulsion technologies promise to revolutionize access to space, opening the door for mission concepts unfeasible by traditional propulsion methods alone. The Hall effect thruster is a relatively high thrust, moderate specific impulse electric propulsion device that belongs to the class of electrostatic thrusters. Hall effect thrusters benefit from an extensive flight history, and offer significant performance and cost advantages when compared to other forms of electric propulsion. Ongoing research on these devices includes the investigation of mechanisms that tend to decrease overall thruster efficiency, as well as the development of new techniques to extend operational lifetimes. This thesis is primarily concerned with the design and construction of a Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster (SMLHET), and its operation on argon propellant gas. Particular attention was addressed at low-cost, modular design principles, that would facilitate simple replacement and modification of key thruster parts such as the magnetic circuit and discharge channel. This capability is intended to facilitate future studies of device physics such as anomalous electron transport and magnetic shielding of the channel walls, that have an impact on thruster performance and life. Preliminary results demonstrate SMLHET running on argon in a manner characteristic of Hall effect thrusters, additionally a power balance method was utilized to estimate thruster performance. It is expected that future thruster studies utilizing heavier though more expensive gases like xenon or krypton, will observe increased efficiency and stability.

Lee, Ty Davis

401

Design for a Portable, Modular Stream Enclosure\\/Exclosure Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed a portable, modular enclosure\\/exclosure device for in situ stream experimentation. The basic enclosure consists of interlocking panels to provide a 1 m area, and combines the easy transportation of small cages with the modular flexibility to construct large enclosures. In field experiments, we assessed: 1) the potential for mesh size to affect the presence of fish food items;

William T. Slack; Martin T. OConnell

1998-01-01

402

Concurrency by modularity: design patterns, a case in point  

Microsoft Academic Search

General purpose object-oriented programs typically aren't embarrassingly parallel. For these applications, finding enough concurrency remains a challenge in program design. To address this challenge, in the Panini project we are looking at reconciling concurrent program design goals with modular program design goals. The main idea is that if programmers improve the modularity of their programs they should get concurrency for

Hridesh Rajan; Steven M. Kautz; Wayne Rowcliffe

2010-01-01

403

Voltage Monitoring on Capacitor of Modular Multilevel Converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modular multilevel converter is an attractive solution for power conversion without transformers. As modular multilevel converter consists of cascade connections and floating dc capacitors, it requires continuous voltage monitoring. This paper represents voltage measurement circuit of a DC-storage capacitor including power supply with results of experiments.

Steiks, Ingars; Ribickis, Leonids

2009-01-01

404

AUTMOD3: A PLANNING TOOL FOR MODULAR BUILDING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

High quality modular construction is one of the solutions for the fast growing need for affordable high quality housing in Europe, which can not be solved by conventional building technology. The software environment for automatic modular construction AUTMOD3 has been developed, by University Carlos III de Madrid, in the frame of the European Union project FutureHome. The environment integrated in

V. M. Padron; O. Cardenas; R. Diez; M. Abderrahim; C. Balaguer

405

Diversified use of modularity theory in logo design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modularity is defined as a dynamic integration process. It refers to subsystems of semi-autonomy, which interconnect with other similar subsystems in terms of certain rules, and constitute a more complex system or process. This paper analyzes the modularity theory in the concept of the standardization of sub-module, module decomposition, module integration, in order to expound the symbol significance of the

Leige Jiang

2011-01-01

406

Divide-and-conquer learning and modular perceptron networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel modular perceptron network (MPN) and divide-and-conquer learning (DCL) schemes for the design of modular neural networks are proposed. When a training process in a multilayer perceptron falls into a local minimum or stalls in a flat region, the proposed DCL scheme is applied to divide the current training data region into two easier to be learned regions. The

Hsin-Chia Fu; Yen-Po Lee; Cheng-Chin Chiang; Hsiao-Tien Pao

2001-01-01

407

Design of reconfigurable heterogeneous modular architecture for service robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and implementation of a reconfigurable heterogeneous modular architecture for service robots. The proposed architecture has five key concepts which are different from conventional reconfigurable modular service robots; (1) easy and multiple assembly according to requirements of users, (2) hardware resource sharing system with other heterogeneous modules, (3) communication ability among all heterogeneous modules which have

Ho Seok Ahn; Young Min Beak; In-kyu Sa; Woo-sung Kang; Jin Hee Na; Jin Young Choi

2008-01-01

408

Phylogenetic analysis of modularity in protein interaction networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In systems biology, comparative analyses of molecular interactions across diverse species indicate that conservation and divergence of networks can be used to understand functional evolution from a systems perspective. A key characteristic of these networks is their modularity, which contributes significantly to their robustness, as well as adaptability. Consequently, analysis of modular network structures from a phylogenetic perspective may

Sinan Erten; Xin Li; Gürkan Bebek; Jing Li; Mehmet Koyutürk

2009-01-01

409

LSPB Trajectory Planning: Design for the Modular Robot Arm Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report a household service robot with multi-sensor and modular arms. According to the DH convention, the coordinate system of robot arm is established. The methods of solving direct and inverse kinematics are introduced. Because both acceleration and speed of the arm modular are limited, so LSPB trajectory planning method is designed for our robot arm. Simulations

Li Xianhua; Tan Shili; Feng Xiaowei; Rong Hailiang

2009-01-01

410

Parameter and cost optimizations for a modular stellarator reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical scaling and cost scaling of a modular stellarator reactor are described. It is shown that configurations based onl=2 are best able to support adequate beta, and physical relationships are derived which enable the geometry and parameters of anl=2 modular stellarator to be defined. A cost scaling for the components of the nuclear island is developed using Starfire (tokamak

W. N. G. Hitchon; P. C. Johnson; C. J. H. Watson

1983-01-01

411

On Cuspidal Divisors on the Modular Varieties of Elliptic Modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elliptic modules of arbitrary rank are considered over the polynomial ring Fq[t]. A compactification of the modular varieties that parametrizes such modules is constructed. A generalization of the Manin-Drinfel'd theorem on modular curves is proved: the difference of two adherent components of codimension 1 has finite order in the Picard group. Bibliography: 7 titles.

M. M. Kapranov

1988-01-01

412

On Cuspidal Divisors on the Modular Varieties of Elliptic Modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elliptic modules of arbitrary rank are considered over the polynomial ring Fq[t]. A compactification of the modular varieties that parametrizes such modules is constructed. A generalization of the Manin-Drinfel'd theorem on modular curves is proved: the difference of two adherent components of codimension 1 has finite order in the Picard group. Bibliography: 7 titles.

Kapranov, M. M.

1988-06-01

413

Development of Modular Laboratory Equipment for Instruction in Biomedical Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modularized hardware for use in laboratory instruction of biomedical instrumentation is described. It consists of a mainframe and a variety of instrument modules performing elementary signal processing functions which can be inserted into the mainframe and appropriately interconnected to synthesize biomedical instrumentation. The use of modular hardware as described offers pedagogical as well as economical benefits over the use of

David W. Arnett

1978-01-01

414

Modular Building Supplement: A Quick, Quality Solution for Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement presents three articles on modular construction that look at: "Fast Track Expansion for a New Jersey School" (involving a modular addition); "Precast Construction Helps Schools Meet Attendance Boom" (precast concrete components are quick, durable, and flexible); and "Airing HVAC Concerns" (poor indoor air quality in prefabricated…

Goodmiller, Brian D.; Schendell, Derek G.

2003-01-01

415

Modular network evolution under selection for robustness to noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real networks often exhibit modularity, which is defined as the degree to which a network can be decomposed into several subnetworks. The question of how a modular network arises is still open to discussion. The leading hypothesis is that high modularity evolves under multiple goals, which are decomposable to subproblems, as well as under the evolutionary constraint that selection prefers sparse links in a network. In the present study, we investigate an alternative evolutionary constraint entailing increased robustness to noise. To examine this, we present noise-interfused network models involving an analytically solvable linear system and biologically inspired nonlinear systems. The models demonstrate that it is possible to evolve a modular network under both modularly changing goal orientations and enhancing robustness to noise, thereby reducing sensitivity to noise. By performing theoretical analyses of linear systems, it is shown that the evolutionary constraint enforces the establishment of well-balanced noise sensitivities of multiple noise sources and leads to a modular network underlying a modular structure in goals. Moreover, computer simulations confirm that the presented mechanisms of modular network evolution are robust to variations of nonlinearity in network functions. Our findings suggest a positive role for the presence of noise in network evolution.

Ikemoto, Yusuke; Sekiyama, Kosuke

2014-04-01

416

Graduate Student and Optical Instrumentation Support Related to the Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR)  

NSF Publications Database

Graduate Student and Optical Instrumentation Support Related to the Advanced Modular Incoherent ... Program Title: Graduate Student and Optical Instrumentation Support Related to the Advanced Modular ...

417

RNA and RNP as new molecular parts in synthetic biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic biology has a promising outlook in biotechnology and for understanding the self-organizing principle of biological molecules in life. However, synthetic biologists have been looking for new molecular “parts” that function as modular units required in designing and constructing new “devices” and “systems” for regulating cell function because the number of such parts is strictly limited at present. In this

Hirohide Saito; Tan Inoue

2007-01-01

418

Indoor unit for electric heat pump  

DOEpatents

An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

1984-05-22

419

Studies on the closed-loop digital control of multi-modular reactors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the theoretical development and the evaluation via both experiment and simulation of digital methods for the closed-loop control of power, temperature, and steam generator level in multi-modular reactors. The major conclusion of the research reported here is that the technology is currently available to automate many aspects of the operation of multi-modular plants. This will in turn minimize the number of required personnel and thus contain both operating and personnel costs, allow each module to be operated at a different power level thereby staggering the times at which refuelings would be needed, and maintain the competitiveness of US industry relative to foreign vendors who are developing and applying advanced control concepts. The technology described in this report is appropriate to the proposed multi-modular reactor designs and to present-generation pressurized water reactors. Its extension to boiling water reactors is possible provided that the commitment is made to create a real-time model of a BWR. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to the United States Department of Energy (Division of Industry and University Programs, Contract No. DE-FG07-90ER12930.)

Bernard, J.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.; Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.; Meyer, J.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1992-11-01

420

Project Antares: A low cost modular launch vehicle for the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The single stage to orbit launch vehicle Antares is based upon the revolutionary concept of modularity, enabling the Antares to efficiently launch communications satellites, as well as heavy payloads, into Earth's orbit and beyond. The basic unit of the modular system, a single Antares vehicle, is aimed at launching approximately 10,000 kg into low Earth orbit (LEO). When coupled with a Centaur upper stage it is capable of placing 3500 kg into geostationary orbit. The Antares incorporates a reusable engine, the Dual Mixture Ratio Engine (DMRE), as its propulsive device. This enables Antares to compete and excel in the satellite launch market by dramatically reducing launch costs. Antares' projected launch costs are $1340 per kg to LEO which offers a tremendous savings over launch vehicles available today. Inherent in the design is the capability to attach several of these vehicles together to provide heavy lift capability. Any number of these vehicles, up to seven, can be attached depending on the payload and mission requirements. With a seven vehicle configuration Antares's modular concept provides a heavy lift capability of approximately 70,000 kg to LEO. This expandability allows for a wider range of payload options such as large Earth satellites, Space Station Freedom support, and interplanetary spacecraft, and also offers a significant cost savings over a mixed fleet based on different launch vehicles.

Aarnio, Steve; Anderson, Hobie; Arzaz, El Mehdi; Bailey, Michelle; Beeghly, Jeff; Cartwright, Curt; Chau, William; Dawdy, Andrew; Detert, Bruce; Ervin, Miles

1991-01-01

421

A modular and programmable development platform for capsule endoscopy system.  

PubMed

The state-of-the-art capsule endoscopy (CE) technology offers painless examination for the patients and the ability to examine the interior of the gastrointestinal tract by a noninvasive procedure for the gastroenterologists. In this work, a modular and flexible CE development system platform consisting of a miniature field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronic capsule, a microcontroller based portable data recorder unit and computer software is designed and developed. Due to the flexible and reprogrammable nature of the system, various image processing and compression algorithms can be tested in the design without requiring any hardware change. The designed capsule prototype supports various imaging modes including white light imaging (WLI) and narrow band imaging (NBI), and communicates with the data recorder in full duplex fashion, which enables configuring the image size and imaging mode in real time during examination. A low complexity image compressor based on a novel color-space is implemented inside the capsule to reduce the amount of RF transmission data. The data recorder contains graphical LCD for real time image viewing and SD cards for storing image data. Data can be uploaded to a computer or Smartphone by SD card, USB interface or by wireless Bluetooth link. Computer software is developed that decompresses and reconstructs images. The fabricated capsule PCBs have a diameter of 16 mm. An ex-vivo animal testing has also been conducted to validate the results. PMID:24859846

Khan, Tareq Hasan; Shrestha, Ravi; Wahid, Khan A

2014-06-01

422

Rat ultrasonic vocalization shows features of a modular behavior.  

PubMed

Small units of production, or modules, can be effective building blocks of more complex motor behaviors. Recording underlying movements of vocal production in awake and spontaneously behaving male Sprague Dawley rats interacting with a female, I tested whether the underlying movements of ultrasonic calls can be described by modules. Movements were quantified by laryngeal muscle EMG activity and subglottal pressure changes. A module was defined by uniformity in both larynx movement and pressure pattern that resulted in a specific spectrographic feature. Modules are produced either singly (single module call type) or in combination with a different module (composite call type). Distinct modules were shown to be linearly (re)combined. Additionally, I found that modules produced during the same expiratory phase can be linked with or without a pause in laryngeal activity, the latter creating the spectrographic appearance of two separate calls. Results suggest that combining discrete modules facilitates generation of higher-order patterns, thereby increasing overall complexity of the vocal repertoire. With additional study, modularity and flexible laryngeal-respiratory coordination may prove to be a basal feature of mammalian vocal motor control. PMID:24828641

Riede, Tobias

2014-05-14

423

Embedding triple-modular redundancy into a hypercube architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an embedding of Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) into a binary hypercube. The goal is to improve fault tolerance by masking any single-point faults. Each module of an application task is triplicated and executed in parallel on three nodes of a 2-dimensional subcube (Q2) of the hypercube. Each of these nodes also executes a voter process. The remaining node is used for message passing only. All outputs from the triplicated modules are voted on, and the voting results are transmitted to the appropriate destination. Thus, all interunit messages are also triplicated. We propose an embedding of TMR into a hypercube which can be implemented in a manner transparent to the application program. Subcubes are allocated so that the address space for the TMR units is also a hypercube. Hence, the subcube allocation and intermodule communication schemes are defined to be analogous to the schemes used in the nonredundant system. The embedded system is proven to mask all single-point faults.

Kiskis, Daniel L.; Shin, Kang G.

1988-01-01

424

Some improvements on RNS Montgomery modular multiplication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Residue Number Systems (RNS), an integer X is represented by its residues {x0,...,xn-1} modulo a base of relatively prime numbers {m0,...,mn-1}. Thus a large number can be represented as a set of small integers. Addition and multiplication can be easily parallelized, there is no carry propagation. The time is reduced to the evaluation of these operations with small numbers. This representation is useful in cryptography and digital signal processing. Furthermore, in these two domains, modular multiplication (A X B mod N) is frequently used. So, in 1998, we have presented in IEEE journal of transactions on computers, a new modular multiplication algorithm in RNS. This algorithm is based on the Montgomery algorithm, using the associated Mixed Radix representation, for the weighted digits. It was the first algorithm of this type. In this paper, we present two remarks. First, if we develop the different expressions due to the algorithm, we obtain some mathematical simplifications that allow us to suppress some Mixed Radix occurrence in the basic iteration simply with a new initialization of our variables. Thus, in this new version, the complexity of each basic iteration, becomes equivalent to two products of small integers instead of three. The second remark is that, most of the time, modular multiplications are done with the same modulo N. We can precompute some values and reduce the complexity of each basic iteration to one multiplication of two small integers. Thus, the basic iteration is three times faster, and the global computation, due to the initialization, is 8/5 time faster than the original version. Sometime after the last basic iteration a Mixed Radix conversion can be needed. Classical parallel methods are linear. We propose an algorithmic parallel algorithm for this translation from RNS to Mixed Radix. For this, we use a result that comes from an RNS division algorithm, we published in Journal of VLSI signal processing systems 1998. We obtain in a logarithmic time an approximation of the Mixed radix representation. The correct representation is then established in a logarithmic time too.

Bajard, Jean-Claude; Didier, Laurent-Stephane; Kornerup, Peter; Rico, Fabien

2000-11-01

425

Modular mechatronic system for stationary bicycles interfaced with virtual environment for rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background Cycling has been used in the rehabilitation of individuals with both chronic and post-surgical conditions. Among the challenges with implementing bicycling for rehabilitation is the recruitment of both extremities, in particular when one is weaker or less coordinated. Feedback embedded in virtual reality (VR) augmented cycling may serve to address the requirement for efficacious cycling; specifically recruitment of both extremities and exercising at a high intensity. Methods In this paper a mechatronic rehabilitation bicycling system with an interactive virtual environment, called Virtual Reality Augmented Cycling Kit (VRACK), is presented. Novel hardware components embedded with sensors were implemented on a stationary exercise bicycle to monitor physiological and biomechanical parameters of participants while immersing them in an augmented reality simulation providing the user with visual, auditory and haptic feedback. This modular and adaptable system attaches to commercially-available stationary bicycle systems and interfaces with a personal computer for simulation and data acquisition processes. The complete bicycle system includes: a) handle bars based on hydraulic pressure sensors; b) pedals that monitor pedal kinematics with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and forces on the pedals while providing vibratory feedback; c) off the shelf electronics to monitor heart rate and d) customized software for rehabilitation. Bench testing for the handle and pedal systems is presented for calibration of the sensors detecting force and angle. Results The modular mechatronic kit for exercise bicycles was tested in bench testing and human tests. Bench tests performed on the sensorized handle bars and the instrumented pedals validated the measurement accuracy of these components. Rider tests with the VRACK system focused on the pedal system and successfully monitored kinetic and kinematic parameters of the rider’s lower extremities. Conclusions The VRACK system, a virtual reality mechatronic bicycle rehabilitation modular system was designed to convert most bicycles in virtual reality (VR) cycles. Preliminary testing of the augmented reality bicycle system was successful in demonstrating that a modular mechatronic kit can monitor and record kinetic and kinematic parameters of several riders.

2014-01-01

426

Self-assembling RNA square  

SciTech Connect

The three-dimensional structures of noncoding RNA molecules reveal recurring architectural motifs that have been exploited for the design of artificial RNA nanomaterials. Programmed assembly of RNA nanoobjects from autonomously folding tetraloop-receptor complexes as well as junction motifs has been achieved previously through sequence-directed hybridization of complex sets of long oligonucleotides. Due to size and complexity, structural characterization of artificial RNA nanoobjects has been limited to low-resolution microscopy studies. Here we present the design, construction, and crystal structure determination at 2.2 {angstrom} of the smallest yet square-shaped nanoobject made entirely of double-stranded RNA. The RNA square is comprised of 100 residues and self-assembles from four copies each of two oligonucleotides of 10 and 15 bases length. Despite the high symmetry on the level of secondary structure, the three-dimensional architecture of the square is asymmetric, with all four corners adopting distinct folding patterns. We demonstrate the programmed self-assembly of RNA squares from complex mixtures of corner units and establish a concept to exploit the RNA square as a combinatorial nanoscale platform.

Dibrov, Sergey M.; McLean, Jaime; Parsons, Jerod; Hermann, Thomas (UCSD)

2011-12-22

427

Modular Approach to Physics: Skaters and Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains an interactive simulation on conservation of momentum. Users may choose from two views: a pair of ice skaters pushing off from each other or a model of two blocks exerting a force on each other. The user can adjust the masses of the two objects and observe their velocities, momenta, and kinetic energies as they move away from each other. This resource was developed to enhance understanding of the law of momentum conservation. It includes, the simulation help, a detailed lesson with related problems/solutions, learning outcomes, and instructions for use. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation-based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-05-30

428

Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (MGRS) Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed the Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (MGRS) in 2003-2004, and have de-veloped an array of MGRS concepts and technologies that have substantially impacted LISA architecture, and effectively functioned as a novel technology pathfinder for gravitational ref-erence sensors. Some of known examples are: Two-step measurement within and outside the MGRS module, UV LED charge management, two layer optical sensing, differential optical shadow sensing for drag free control, and in-field telescope conception. We will report our progress and plan in the follow areas 1) MGRS systems for both high precision gravitational wave detection, and for mid-precision planet gravitation survey 2) UV LED charge management system 3) Grating angular sensor and grating stabilization of absolute laser frequency 4) Two-layer optical sensing for drag free control and science measurement 5) Small satellite tests of MGRS technologies

Sun, Ke-Xun

429

Modularized TGFbeta-Smad Signaling Pathway  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathway is a prominent regulatory signaling pathway controlling various important cellular processes. It can be induced by several factors, including ionizing radiation. It is regulated by Smads in a negative feedback loop through promoting increases in the regulatory Smads in the cell nucleus, and subsequent expression of inhibitory Smad, Smad7 to form a ubiquitin ligase with Smurf targeting active TGF receptors for degradation. In this work, we proposed a mathematical model to study the radiation-induced Smad-regulated TGF signaling pathway. By modularization, we are able to analyze each module (subsystem) and recover the nonlinear dynamics of the entire network system. Meanwhile the excitability, a common feature observed in the biological systems, along the TGF signaling pathway is discussed by mathematical analysis and numerical simulation.

Li, Yongfeng; Wang, M.; Carra, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.

2011-01-01

430

A modular reduction for GCD computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of integer GCD algorithms use one or several basic transformations which reduce at each step the size of the inputs integers u and v. These transformations called reductions are studied in a general framework. Our investigations lead to many applications such as a new integer division and a new reduction called Modular Reduction or MR for short. This reduction is, at least theoretically, optimal on some subset of reductions, if we consider the number of bits chopped by each reductions. Although its computation is rather difficult, we suggest, as a first attempt, a weaker version which is more efficient in time. Sequential and parallel integer GCD algorithms are designed based on this new reduction and our experiments show that it performs as well as the Weber's version of the Sorenson's k-ary reduction.

Sedjelmaci, Sidi Mohammed

2004-01-01

431

Honeywell Modular Automation System Acceptance Test Procedure  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) is to verify the operability of the three new furnaces as controlled by the new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS). The Honeywell MAS is being installed in PFP to control the three thermal stabilization furnaces in glovebox HA-211. The ATP provides instructions for testing the configuration of the Honeywell MAS at the Plutonium Finishing Plant(PFP). The test will be a field test of the analog inputs, analog outputs, and software interlocks. The interlock test will check the digital input and outputs. Field equipment will not be connected forth is test. Simulated signals will be used to test thermocouple, limit switch, and vacuum pump inputs to the PLUMAS.

STUBBS, A.M.

1999-09-21

432

Honeywell modular automation system computer software documentation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The Honeywell MAS is used to control the thermal stabilization furnaces in glovebox HA-211. The PFP developed software is being updated to reflect the Polycube Processing and Unwashed Salt Thermal Stabilization program addition. The polycube processing program was installed per HNF-FMP-02-11162-R2. The functional test of the program was performed in JCS work package 22-02-1031, The unwashed salt item program was installed per HNF-FMP-03-16577-RO. The functional test of the program completed in JCS work package 22-03-00654.

STUBBS, A.M.

2003-07-02

433

Self-Assembly Modularity and Physical Complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-assembly is ubiquitous in physics, chemistry and biology, and has many applications in materials science and engineering. Here we present a general approach for finding the simplest set of building blocks that will assemble into a given physical structure. Our procedure can be adapted to any given geometry, and thus to any given type of physical system. The amount of information required to describe this simplest set of building blocks provides a quantitative measure of the structure's physical complexity, which is capable of detecting any symmetry or modularity in the underlying structure.We also introduce the notions of joint, mutual and conditional complexity for self-assembling structures. We illustrate our approach using self-assembling polyominoes, and demonstrate the breadth of its potential applications by using it to quantify the physical complexity of protein complexes.

Ahnert, S. E.

2012-12-01

434

Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations.

Nichols, Ralph L. (812 Plantation Point Dr., N. Augusta, SC 29841); Widdowson, Mark A. (4204 Havana Ct., Columbia, SC 29206); Mullinex, Harry (10 Cardross La., Columbia, SC 29209); Orne, William H. (12 Martha Ct., Sumter, SC 29150); Looney, Brian B. (1135 Ridgemont Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

1994-01-01

435

Calibration of the Modular Neutron Array*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) was recently finished and commissioned at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University. MoNA has 144 detector bars, each of which have a photomultiplier tube at either end and several pieces of associated electronics. In order to prepare MoNA for efficient operations it was necessary to gain match the PMTs and perform several calibrations on the time-to-digital converters (TDCs) and position spectra. An Ortec time calibrator was used to calibrate the time response of the TDCs while cosmic ray data was used to calibrate both the PMTs and the subsequent time spectra. These calibrations were then verified to be sufficiently accurate when a test experiment using a secondary beam of 8Li was used to generate neutron events from the immediate decay of 7He into 6He and a neutron.

Pepin, Robert; Pike, Tina

2004-10-01

436

Modularizing Spatial Ontologies for Assisted Living Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assisted living systems are intended to support daily-life activities in user homes by automatizing and monitoring behavior of the environment while interacting with the user in a non-intrusive way. The knowledge base of such systems therefore has to define thematically different aspects of the environment mostly related to space, such as basic spatial floor plan information, pieces of technical equipment in the environment and their functions and spatial ranges, activities users can perform, entities that occur in the environment, etc. In this paper, we present thematically different ontologies, each of which describing environmental aspects from a particular perspective. The resulting modular structure allows the selection of application-specific ontologies as necessary. This hides information and reduces complexity in terms of the represented spatial knowledge and reasoning practicability. We motivate and present the different spatial ontologies applied to an ambient assisted living application.

Hois, Joana

437

Initial comparisons of modular-sized, integrated utility systems and conventional systems for several building types  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study of the application of a modular integrated utility system to six typical building types are compared with the application of a conventional utility system to the same facilities. The effects of varying the size and climatic location of the buildings and the size of the powerplants are presented. Construction details of the six building types (garden apartments, a high rise office building, high rise apartments, a shopping center, a high school, and a hospital) and typical site and floor plans are provided. The environmental effects, the unit size determination, and the market potential are discussed. The cost effectiveness of the various design options is not considered.

Benson, H. E.; Monford, L. G., Jr.

1976-01-01

438

An iterative in silico and modular synthetic approach to aqueous soluble tercyclic ?-helix mimetics.  

PubMed

Tercyclic scaffolds, designed to have improved synthetic accessibility and aqueous solubility, were evaluated as structural ?-helix mimetics by using an iterative in silico approach. The synthesis of these tercyclic scaffolds was accomplished using a modular synthetic approach by employing functionalised methoxyphenyl units which were readily manipulated to allow the introduction of various nitrogen-based heterocycles. The ability of these scaffolds to mimic the key i, i + 3 and i + 7 residues of a polyalanine ?-helix was ratified by in silico studies, X-ray crystallographic and NOESY analysis, and their aqueous solubility was measured by a kinetic turbidimetric method. PMID:24847981

Lim, Zelong; Duggan, Peter J; Meyer, Adam G; Tuck, Kellie L

2014-06-01

439

The Energy Systems Optimization Computer Program /ESOP/ developed for Modular Integrated Utility Systems /MIUS/ analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A significant energy and cost savings can be obtained by integrating various utility services (space heating and cooling, electrical power generation, solid waste disposal, potable water, and waste water treatment) into a single unit which provides buildings or groups of buildings with these services. This paper presents a description of a computer program, called the Energy Systems Optimization Program (ESOP). This program predicts the loads, energy requirements, equipment sizes, and life-cycle costs of alternative methods of meeting these utility requirements. The program has been used extensively for performing energy analyses of Modular Integrated Utility Systems (MIUS).

Ferden, S. L.; Rochelle, W. C.; Stallings, R. D.; Brandli, A. E.; Lively, C. F., Jr.

1974-01-01

440

Modular hydride beds for mobile applications  

SciTech Connect

Design, construction, initial testing and simple thermal modeling of modular, metal hydride beds have been completed. Originally designed for supplying hydrogen to a fuel cell on a mobile vehicle, the complete bed design consists of 8 modules and is intended for use on the Palm Desert Vehicle (PDV) under development at the Schatz Energy Center, Humbolt State University. Each module contains approximately 2 kg of a commercially available, low temperature, hydride-forming metal alloy. Waste heat from the fuel cell in the form of heated water is used to desorb hydrogen from the alloy for supplying feed hydrogen to the fuel cell. In order to help determine the performance of such a modular bed system, six modules were constructed and tested. The design and construction of the modules is described in detail. Initial testing of the modules both individually and as a group showed that each module can store {approximately} 30 g of hydrogen (at 165 PSIA fill pressure, 17 C), could be filled with hydrogen in 6 minutes at a nominal, 75 standard liters/min (slm) fueling rate, and could supply hydrogen during desorption at rates of 25 slm, the maximum anticipated hydrogen fuel cell input requirement. Tests made of 5 modules as a group indicated that the behavior of the group run in parallel both in fueling and gas delivery could be directly predicted from the corresponding, single module characteristics by using an appropriate scaling factor. Simple thermal modeling of a module as an array of cylindrical, hydride-filled tubes was performed. The predictions of the model are in good agreement with experimental data.

Malinowski, M.E.; Stewart, K.D.

1997-08-01

441

Hydrogen Production Using the Modular Helium Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The high-temperature characteristics of the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) make it a strong candidate for the production of hydrogen using either thermochemical or high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) processes. Using heat from the MHR to drive a Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical hydrogen process has been the subject of a DOE sponsored Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (NERI) project lead by General Atomics, with participation from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Texas A&M University. While the focus of much of the initial work was on the S-I thermochemical production of hydrogen, recent activities have also included development of a preconceptual design for an integral HTE hydrogen production plant driven by the process heat and electricity produced by a 600 MWt MHR. This paper describes RELAP5-3D analyses performed to evaluate alternative primary system cooling configurations for the MHR to minimize peak reactor vessel and core temperatures while achieving core helium outlet temperatures in the range of 900 oC to 1000 oC, needed for the efficient production of hydrogen using either the S-I thermochemical or HTE process. The cooling schemes investigated are intended to ensure peak fuel temperatures do not exceed specified limits under normal or transient upset conditions, and that reactor vessel temperatures do not exceed ASME code limits for steady-state or transient conditions using standard LWR vessel materials. Preconceptual designs for both an S-I thermochemical and HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a 600 MWt MHR at helium outlet temperatures in the range of 900 oC to 1000 oC are described and compared. An initial SAPHIRE model to evaluate the reliability, maintainablility, and availability of the S-I hydrogen production plant is also discussed, and plans for future assessments of conceptual designs for both a S-I thermochemical and HTE hydrogen production plant coupled to a 600 MWt modular helium reactor are described.

E. A. Harvego; S. M. Reza; M. Richards; A. Shenoy

2005-05-01

442

Does Habitat Variability Really Promote Metabolic Network Modularity?  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that variability in natural habitats promotes modular organization is widely accepted for cellular networks. However, results of some data analyses and theoretical studies have begun to cast doubt on the impact of habitat variability on modularity in metabolic networks. Therefore, we re-evaluated this hypothesis using statistical data analysis and current metabolic information. We were unable to conclude that an increase in modularity was the result of habitat variability. Although horizontal gene transfer was also considered because it may contribute for survival in a variety of environments, closely related to habitat variability, and is known to be positively correlated with network modularity, such a positive correlation was not concluded in the latest version of metabolic networks. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the previously observed increase in network modularity due to habitat variability and horizontal gene transfer was probably due to a lack of available data on metabolic reactions. Instead, we determined that modularity in metabolic networks is dependent on species growth conditions. These results may not entirely discount the impact of habitat variability and horizontal gene transfer. Rather, they highlight the need for a more suitable definition of habitat variability and a more careful examination of relationships of the network modularity with horizontal gene transfer, habitats, and environments.

Takemoto, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

443

Putting genetic interactions in context through a global modular decomposition  

PubMed Central

Genetic interactions provide a powerful perspective into gene function, but our knowledge of the specific mechanisms that give rise to these interactions is still relatively limited. The availability of a global genetic interaction map in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, covering ?30% of all possible double mutant combinations, provides an unprecedented opportunity for an unbiased assessment of the native structure within genetic interaction networks and how it relates to gene function and modular organization. Toward this end, we developed a data mining approach to exhaustively discover all block structures within this network, which allowed for its complete modular decomposition. The resulting modular structures revealed the importance of the context of individual genetic interactions in their interpretation and revealed distinct trends among genetic interaction hubs as well as insights into the evolution of duplicate genes. Block membership also revealed a surprising degree of multifunctionality across the yeast genome and enabled a novel association of VIP1 and IPK1 with DNA replication and repair, which is supported by experimental evidence. Our modular decomposition also provided a basis for testing the between-pathway model of negative genetic interactions and within-pathway model of positive genetic interactions. While we find that most modular structures involving negative genetic interactions fit the between-pathway model, we found that current models for positive genetic interactions fail to explain 80% of the modular structures detected. We also find differences between the modular structures of essential and nonessential genes.

Bellay, Jeremy; Atluri, Gowtham; Sing, Tina L.; Toufighi, Kiana; Costanzo, Michael; Ribeiro, Philippe Souza Moraes; Pandey, Gaurav; Baller, Joshua; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Michaut, Magali; Han, Sangjo; Kim, Philip; Brown, Grant W.; Andrews, Brenda J.; Boone, Charles; Kumar, Vipin; Myers, Chad L.

2011-01-01

444

DNA computation in mammalian cells: microRNA logic operations.  

PubMed

DNA computation can utilize logic gates as modules to create molecular computers with biological inputs. Modular circuits that recognize nucleic acid inputs through strand hybridization activate computation cascades to produce controlled outputs. This allows for the construction of synthetic circuits that can be interfaced with cellular environments. We have engineered oligonucleotide AND gates to respond to specific microRNA (miRNA) inputs in live mammalian cells. Both single and dual-sensing miRNA-based computation devices were synthesized for the cell-specific identification of endogenous miR-21 and miR-122. A logic gate response was observed with miRNA expression regulators, exhibiting molecular recognition of miRNA profile changes. Nucleic acid logic gates that are functional in a cellular environment and recognize endogenous inputs significantly expand the potential of DNA computation to monitor, image, and respond to cell-specific markers. PMID:23795550

Hemphill, James; Deiters, Alexander

2013-07-17

445

A new small modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor plant concept based on proven technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the established and proven high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technologies from the Peach Bottom 1 and Fort St. Vrain utility-operated units, a new small modular HTGR reactor is currently being evaluated. The basic nuclear reactor heat source, with a prismatic core, is being designed so that the decay heat can be removed by passive means (i.e., natural circulation). The

C. F. McDonald; A. J. Goodjohn

1982-01-01

446

A new small modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor plant concept based on proven technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the established and proven high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technologies from the Peach Bottom 1 and Fort St. Vrain utility-operated units, a new small modular HTGR reactor is currently being evaluated. The basic nuclear reactor heat source, with a prismatic core, is being designed so that the decay heat can be removed by passive means (i.e., natural circulation). Although

C. F. McDonald; A. J. Goodjohn

1982-01-01

447

Preliminary Airworthiness Evaluation, AH-1G with the Airborne Target Acquisition Fire Control System and the HELLFIRE Modular Missile System Installed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AH-1G helicopter with the HELLFIRE modular Missile System (HMMS) and the Airborne Target Acquisition Fire Control System (ATAFCS) is being used as a surrogate trainer for the YAH-64 helicopter. The United States Army Aviation Engineering Flight Activi...

P. J. Moe

1979-01-01

448

Development of a space universal modular architecture (SUMO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This concept paper proposes that the space community should develop and implement a universal standard for spacecraft modularity - to improve interoperability of spacecraft components. Pursuing a global industry consensus standard for open and modular spacecraft architecture will encourage trade, remove standards-related market barriers, and in the long run increase both value provided to customers and profitability of the space industrial sector. This concept paper sets out: (1) the goals for a SUMO standard and how it will benefit the space community; (2) background on spacecraft modularity and existing related standards; (3) the proposed technical scope of the current standardization effort; and (4) an approach for creating a SUMO standard.

Collins, Bernie F.

449

Multi-kilowatt modularized spacecraft power processing system development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of existing information pertaining to spacecraft power processing systems and equipment was accomplished with a view towards applicability to the modularization of multi-kilowatt power processors. Power requirements for future spacecraft were determined from the NASA mission model-shuttle systems payload data study which provided the limits for modular power equipment capabilities. Three power processing systems were compared to evaluation criteria to select the system best suited for modularity. The shunt regulated direct energy transfer system was selected by this analysis for a conceptual design effort which produced equipment specifications, schematics, envelope drawings, and power module configurations.

Andrews, R. E.; Hayden, J. H.; Hedges, R. T.; Rehmann, D. W.

1975-01-01

450

[The morse taper junction in modular revision hip replacement].  

PubMed

Morse taper junctions of modular hip revision replacements are predilection sites for fretting, crevice corrosion, dissociation and breakage of the components. In this report we present the results of a retrieval analysis of a morse taper junction of a MRP-titanium modular revision replacement (MRP-Titanium, Peter Brehm GmbH, Weisendorf, Germany) after 11.5 years of in vivo use. In the context of this case report the significance of morse taper junctions in modular hip revision replacement under consideration of the current literature is also discussed. PMID:17492554

Gravius, S; Mumme, T; Andereya, S; Maus, U; Müller-Rath, R; Wirtz, D C

2007-01-01

451

Impact and Limitations of Modular Service Platforms: The case of IT Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show the impact and limitations of modular service platforms based on two action research studies with IT service providers. The projects used the information systems modularization and standardization (IS-MOST) method. The resulting modular platform enables providers to match the required scope of services of individual solutions from a set of defined modules. The modular platform can

Tilo Bohmann; Helmut Krcmar

2006-01-01

452

A modular Chemical Measurements Laboratory for Juniors and Seniors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses offering of a modular course designed to acquaint the student with methods of observing and quantitatively measuring the properties and reactions of chemicals. Included is a brief sketch of course content and requirements. (CC)

Moore, John H., Jr.; O'Haver, Thomas C.

1974-01-01

453

Biosynthetic modularity rules in the bisintercalator family of antitumor compounds.  

PubMed

Diverse actinomycetes produce a family of structurally and biosynthetically related non-ribosomal peptide compounds which belong to the chromodepsipeptide family. These compounds act as bisintercalators into the DNA helix. They give rise to antitumor, antiparasitic, antibacterial and antiviral bioactivities. These compounds show a high degree of conserved modularity (chromophores, number and type of amino acids). This modularity and their high sequence similarities at the genetic level imply a common biosynthetic origin for these pathways. Here, we describe insights about rules governing this modular biosynthesis, taking advantage of the fact that nowadays five of these gene clusters have been made public (thiocoraline, triostin, SW-163 and echinomycin/quinomycin). This modularity has potential application for designing and producing novel genetic engineered derivatives, as well as for developing new chemical synthesis strategies. These would facilitate their clinical development. PMID:24821625

Fernández, Javier; Marín, Laura; Alvarez-Alonso, Raquel; Redondo, Saúl; Carvajal, Juan; Villamizar, Germán; Villar, Claudio J; Lombó, Felipe

2014-01-01

454

Biosynthetic Modularity Rules in the Bisintercalator Family of Antitumor Compounds  

PubMed Central

Diverse actinomycetes produce a family of structurally and biosynthetically related non-ribosomal peptide compounds which belong to the chromodepsipeptide family. These compounds act as bisintercalators into the DNA helix. They give rise to antitumor, antiparasitic, antibacterial and antiviral bioactivities. These compounds show a high degree of conserved modularity (chromophores, number and type of amino acids). This modularity and their high sequence similarities at the genetic level imply a common biosynthetic origin for these pathways. Here, we describe insights about rules governing this modular biosynthesis, taking advantage of the fact that nowadays five of these gene clusters have been made public (thiocoraline, triostin, SW-163 and echinomycin/quinomycin). This modularity has potential application for designing and producing novel genetic engineered derivatives, as well as for developing new chemical synthesis strategies. These would facilitate their clinical development.

Fernandez, Javier; Marin, Laura; Alvarez-Alonso, Raquel; Redondo, Saul; Carvajal, Juan; Villamizar, German; Villar, Claudio J.; Lombo, Felipe

2014-01-01

455

Lessons Learned During the Manufacture of the NCSX Modular Coils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Compact Stellarator Experiments (NCSX) modular coils presented a number of engineering and manufacturing challenges due to their complex shapes, requirements for high dimensional accuracy and high current density requirements due to space con...

J. H. Chrzanowski L. Dude P. J. Fogarty S. Raftopoulos T. G. Meighan

2009-01-01