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1

MODULAR CORE UNITS FOR A NEUTRONIC REACTOR  

DOEpatents

A modular core unit for use in a nuclear reactor is described. Many identical core modules can be placed next to each other to make up a complete core. Such a module includes a cylinder of moderator material surrounding a fuel- containing re-entrant coolant channel. The re-entrant channel provides for the circulation of coolant such as liquid sodium from one end of the core unit, through the fuel region, and back out through the same end as it entered. Thermal insulation surrounds the moderator exterior wall inducing heat to travel inwardly to the coolant channel. Spaces between units may be used to accommodate control rods and support structure, which may be cooled by a secondary gas coolant, independently of the main coolant. (AEC)

Gage, J.F. Jr.; Sherer, D.B.

1964-04-01

2

Method of erecting a building using preconstructed modular units  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of constructing a building employing one or more preconstructed modular units each of which constitutes a room of the building after the completion, comprising: providing a floor for one level of the building; locating on the floor a preconstructed modular unit constructed of light-gauge framing materials unsuitable for permanent floor support capability; erecting a temporary shoring

Tricarico

1987-01-01

3

65. Modular bed storage unit, safety belt at left center, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. Modular bed storage unit, safety belt at left center, north side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

4

RNA backbone: Consensus all-angle conformers and modular string nomenclature (an RNA Ontology Consortium contribution)  

PubMed Central

A consensus classification and nomenclature are defined for RNA backbone structure using all of the backbone torsion angles. By a consensus of several independent analysis methods, 46 discrete conformers are identified as suitably clustered in a quality-filtered, multidimensional dihedral angle distribution. Most of these conformers represent identifiable features or roles within RNA structures. The conformers are given two-character names that reflect the seven-angle ??????? combinations empirically found favorable for the sugar-to-sugar “suite” unit within which the angle correlations are strongest (e.g., 1a for A-form, 5z for the start of S-motifs). Since the half-nucleotides are specified by a number for ??? and a lowercase letter for ????, this modular system can also be parsed to describe traditional nucleotide units (e.g., a1) or the dinucleotides (e.g., a1a1) that are especially useful at the level of crystallographic map fitting. This nomenclature can also be written as a string with two-character suite names between the uppercase letters of the base sequence (N1aG1gN1aR1aA1cN1a for a GNRA tetraloop), facilitating bioinformatic comparisons. Cluster means, standard deviations, coordinates, and examples are made available, as well as the Suitename software that assigns suite conformer names and conformer match quality (suiteness) from atomic coordinates. The RNA Ontology Consortium will combine this new backbone system with others that define base pairs, base-stacking, and hydrogen-bond relationships to provide a full description of RNA structural motifs.

Richardson, Jane S.; Schneider, Bohdan; Murray, Laura W.; Kapral, Gary J.; Immormino, Robert M.; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Richardson, David C.; Ham, Daniela; Hershkovits, Eli; Williams, Loren Dean; Keating, Kevin S.; Pyle, Anna Marie; Micallef, David; Westbrook, John; Berman, Helen M.

2008-01-01

5

Human factors issues for multi-modular reactor units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smaller and multi-modular reactors (MMR) will be highly technologically-advanced systems allowing more system flexibility to reactor configurations (e.g., addition\\/removal of reactor units). While the technical and financial advantages of such systems may be numerous, MMR presents many human factors challenges that may pose vulnerabilities to plant safety. An important human factors challenge in MMR operation and performance is the monitoring

Tuan Q. Tran; Humberto Garcia; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Bruce P. Hallbert

2007-01-01

6

Human Factors Issues For Multi-Modular Reactor Units  

SciTech Connect

Smaller and multi-modular reactor (MMR) will be highly technologically-advanced systems allowing more system flexibility to reactors configurations (e.g., addition/deletion of reactor units). While the technical and financial advantages of systems may be numerous, MMR presents many human factors challenges that may pose vulnerability to plant safety. An important human factors challenge in MMR operation and performance is the monitoring of data from multiple plants from centralized control rooms where human operators are responsible for interpreting, assessing, and responding to different system’s states and failures (e.g., simultaneously monitoring refueling at one plant while keeping an eye on another plant’s normal operating state). Furthermore, the operational, safety, and performance requirements for MMR can seriously change current staffing models and roles, the mode in which information is displayed, procedures and training to support and guide operators, and risk analysis. For these reasons, addressing human factors concerns in MMR are essential in reducing plant risk.

Tuan Q Tran; Humberto E. Garcia; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Bruce P. Hallbert

2007-08-01

7

Features of modularly assembled compounds that impart bioactivity against an RNA target.  

PubMed

Transcriptomes provide a myriad of potential RNAs that could be the targets of therapeutics or chemical genetic probes of function. Cell-permeable small molecules, however, generally do not exploit these targets, owing to the difficulty in the design of high affinity, specific small molecules targeting RNA. As part of a general program to study RNA function using small molecules, we designed bioactive, modularly assembled small molecules that target the noncoding expanded RNA repeat that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), r(CUG)(exp). Herein, we present a rigorous study to elucidate features in modularly assembled compounds that afford bioactivity. Different modular assembly scaffolds were investigated, including polyamines, ?-peptides, ?-peptides, and peptide tertiary amides (PTAs). On the basis of activity as assessed by improvement of DM1-associated defects, stability against proteases, cellular permeability, and toxicity, we discovered that constrained backbones, namely, PTAs, are optimal. Notably, we determined that r(CUG)(exp) is the target of the optimal PTA in cellular models and that the optimal PTA improves DM1-associated defects in a mouse model. Biophysical analyses were employed to investigate potential sources of bioactivity. These investigations show that modularly assembled compounds have increased residence times on their targets and faster on rates than the RNA-binding modules from which they were derived. Moreover, they have faster on rates than the protein that binds r(CUG)(exp), the inactivation of which gives rise to DM1-associated defects. These studies provide information about features of small molecules that are programmable for targeting RNA, allowing for the facile optimization of therapeutics or chemical probes against other cellular RNA targets. PMID:24032410

Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Gao, Yu; Tang, Zhen-Zhi; Thornton, Charles A; Kodadek, Thomas; Disney, Matthew D

2013-09-13

8

Growing Old in Public: A Modular Teaching Unit on Stereotypes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A college level unit which investigates stereotypes of aging in the United States is described. The three-class unit serves as an introduction to the study of social gerontology. Its purpose is to address issues of negative stereotypes of old age reinforced by the media and by our cultural roots; the lack of knowledge about the normal changes…

Detzner, Daniel F.

9

Growing Old in Public: A Modular Teaching Unit on Stereotypes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A college level unit which investigates stereotypes of aging in the United States is described. The three-class unit serves as an introduction to the study of social gerontology. Its purpose is to address issues of negative stereotypes of old age reinforced by the media and by our cultural roots; the lack of knowledge about the normal changes that…

Detzner, Daniel F.

10

46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a âSingle Station Smoke detectorâAlso suitable for use in Recreational Vehicles,â or other standard specified by the Commandant; (2) Contain an...

2011-10-01

11

Performance Evaluation of a Modular Detector Unit for X-Ray Computed Tomography  

PubMed Central

A research prototype CT scanner is currently under development in our lab. One of the key components in this project is the CT detector. This paper describes the design and performance evaluation of the modular CT detector unit for our proposed scanner. It consists of a Photodiode Array Assembly which captures irradiating X-ray photons and converts the energy into electrical current, and a mini Data Acquisition System which performs current integration and converts the analog signal into digital samples. The detector unit can be easily tiled together to form a CT detector. Experiments were conducted to characterize the detector performance both at the single unit level and system level. The noise level, linearity and uniformity of the proposed detector unit were reported and initial imaging studies were also presented which demonstrated the potential application of the proposed detector unit in actual CT scanners.

Guo, Zhe; Tang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xinzeng; Deng, Mingliang; Hu, Guangshu; Zhang, Hui

2013-01-01

12

Solar heating in the Los Alamos mobile/modular home Unit No. 1  

SciTech Connect

Mobile/Modular Home Unit No. 1 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has an active system that incorporates 340 ft/sup 2/ of flat black, single-glazed, flat-plate air-heating collectors mounted at a 60/sup 0/ tilt on the south wall. The thermal storage is in 1536 pint jars of water. The unit has been in operation since March 1976; data were obtained on the unit from October 1976 to May 1979. Data acquisition was accomplished with a Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3050 system controlled with a HP 9825 desk-top calculator. Complete energy summaries for the 1976-77, 1977-78, and 1978-79 heating seasons were obtained. The solar energy system has provided about 70% of the heating requirements of the house each season. Although the active solar energy system provides a major fraction of the space and domestic hot water requirements, the yearly total energy supplied is low. This is primarily because the house load is lower than expected because of passive gains and internal heat generation. Low performance is also the result of a low storage mass (5.3 Btu/sub c/sup -///sup 2/ /sup 0/F) and several possible uncontrolled air leaks. A paper design has been completed on a new, modular, solar heated home based on the information and experience obtained from the first unit.

Hedstrom, J.C.; Moore, S.W.

1982-04-01

13

Low modularity of aminoacyl-tRNA substrates in polymerization by the ribosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminoacyl-transfer RNAs contain four standardized units: amino acids, an invariant 3'-terminal CCA, trinucleotide anticodons and tRNA bodies. The degree of interchangeability of the three variable modules is poorly understood, despite its role in evolution and the engineering of translation to incorporate unnatural amino acids. Here, a purified translation system is used to investigate effects of various module swaps on the

Anthony C. Forster

2009-01-01

14

Specific and Modular Binding Code for Cytosine Recognition in Pumilio/FBF (PUF) RNA-binding Domains  

SciTech Connect

Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) proteins possess a recognition code for bases A, U, and G, allowing designed RNA sequence specificity of their modular Pumilio (PUM) repeats. However, recognition side chains in a PUM repeat for cytosine are unknown. Here we report identification of a cytosine-recognition code by screening random amino acid combinations at conserved RNA recognition positions using a yeast three-hybrid system. This C-recognition code is specific and modular as specificity can be transferred to different positions in the RNA recognition sequence. A crystal structure of a modified PUF domain reveals specific contacts between an arginine side chain and the cytosine base. We applied the C-recognition code to design PUF domains that recognize targets with multiple cytosines and to generate engineered splicing factors that modulate alternative splicing. Finally, we identified a divergent yeast PUF protein, Nop9p, that may recognize natural target RNAs with cytosine. This work deepens our understanding of natural PUF protein target recognition and expands the ability to engineer PUF domains to recognize any RNA sequence.

Dong, Shuyun; Wang, Yang; Cassidy-Amstutz, Caleb; Lu, Gang; Bigler, Rebecca; Jezyk, Mark R.; Li, Chunhua; Tanaka Hall, Traci M.; Wang, Zefeng (NIH); (Beijing U); (UNC)

2011-10-28

15

Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

2012-01-17

16

Modularized Ocean Basing System-A United States Option in a Strategy of Discriminate Deterrence (Circa 2000).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report investigates the feasibility of employing MOBS, the Modularized Ocean Basing System, as an alternative to fixed land basing overseas. MOBS is a concept for floating bases that could serve to project United States power as part of a U.S. forwar...

J. F. Brahtz

1989-01-01

17

A Modular Approach to Arithmetic and Logic Unit Design on a Reconfigurable Hardware Platform for Educational Purpose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) design is one of the important topics in Computer Architecture and Organization course in Computer and Electrical Engineering departments. There are ALU designs that have non-modular nature to be used as an educational tool. As the programmable logic technology has developed rapidly, it is feasible that ALU design based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is implemented in this course. In this paper, we have adopted the modular approach to ALU design based on FPGA. All the modules in the ALU design are realized using schematic structure on Altera's Cyclone II Development board. Under this model, the ALU content is divided into four distinct modules. These are arithmetic unit except for multiplication and division operations, logic unit, multiplication unit and division unit. User can easily design any size of ALU unit since this approach has the modular nature. Then, this approach was applied to microcomputer architecture design named BZK.SAU.FPGA10.0 instead of the current ALU unit.

Oztekin, Halit; Temurtas, Feyzullah; Gulbag, Ali

18

Efficient silencing of gene expression with modular trimeric Pol II expression cassettes comprising microRNA shuttles  

PubMed Central

Expressed polycistronic microRNA (miR) cassettes have useful properties that can be utilized for RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene silencing. To advance their application we generated modular trimeric anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) Pol II cassettes encoding primary (pri)-miR-31-derived shuttles that target three different viral genome sites. A panel of six expression cassettes, comprising each of the possible ordering combinations of the pri-miR-31 shuttles, was initially tested. Effective silencing of individual target sequences was achieved in transfected cells and transcribed pri-miR trimers generated intended guide strands. There was, however, variation in processing and silencing by each of the shuttles. In some cases the monomers’ position within the trimers influenced processing and this correlated with target silencing. Compromised efficacy could be compensated by substituting the pri-miR-31 backbone with a pri-miR-30a scaffold. Inhibition of HBV replication was achieved in vivo, and in cell culture without disruption of endogenous miR function or induction of the interferon response. A mutant HBV target sequence, with changes in one of the guide cognates, was also silenced by the trimeric cassettes. The modular nature of the cassettes together with compatibility with expression from Pol II promoters should be advantageous for gene silencing applications requiring simultaneous targeting of different sites.

Ely, Abdullah; Naidoo, Tanusha; Arbuthnot, Patrick

2009-01-01

19

MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System (DCS). In order to provide user friendly software for the process personnel, the software was broken down into just a few software modules. These software modules are the Application Window, Detector Selection, Detector Configuration Settings, Background Counting, and Routine Data Acquisition. Instructions for using the software have been included in a user's manual that is appended to this report. The work presented in this report meets all of the requirements set forth in the project task plan to design and implement gamma ray monitors for the MCU. Additional setup and testing of the system will be required when it implemented in the process.

Casella, V

2005-12-15

20

Life extension program for the modular caustic side solvent extraction unit at Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. At SRS, the CSSX process is deployed in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. Coalescers and decanters process the Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) and Strip Effluent (SE) streams to allow recovery and reuse of the organic solvent and to limit the quantity of solvent transferred to the downstream facilities. MCU is operated in series with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) which removes strontium and actinides from salt waste utilizing monosodium titanate. ARP and MCU were developed and implemented as interim salt processing until future processing technology, the CSSX-based Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), is operational. SWPF is slated to come on-line in October 2014. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU process, however, was reached in April 2011. Nevertheless, most of the individual process components are capable of operating longer. An evaluation determined ARP/MCU can operate until 2015 before major equipment failure is expected. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU Life Extension (ARP/MCU LE) program will bridge the gap between current ARP/MCU operations and the start of SWPF operation. The ARP/MCU LE program introduces no new technologies. As a portion of this program, a Next Generation Solvent (NGS) and corresponding flowsheet are being developed to provide a major performance enhancement at MCU. This paper discusses all the modifications performed in the facility to support the ARP/MCU Life Extension. It will also discuss the next generation chemistry, including NGS and new stripping chemistry, which will increase cesium removal efficiency in MCU. Possible implementation of the NGS chemistry in MCU accomplishes two objectives. MCU serves as a demonstration facility for improved flowsheet deployment at SWPF; operating with NGS and boric acid validates improved cesium removal performance and increased throughput as well as confirms Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) ability to vitrify waste streams containing boron. NGS implementation at MCU also aids the ARP/MCU LE operation, mitigating the impacts of delays and sustaining operations until other technology is able to come on-line.

Samadi-Dezfouli, Azadeh

2012-11-14

21

NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign}, Tefzel{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign}) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of the guanidine suppressor and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that guanidine (LIX{reg_sign}79) selectively affected Tefzel{reg_sign} (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel{reg_sign} and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of guanidine. Tefzel{reg_sign} is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to guanidine, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel{reg_sign}) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel{reg_sign} in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel{reg_sign} seating material. PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign} were not affected by guanidine and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and limited uptake of Isopar{reg_sign} L/Modifier by the polymers probably due to the polymers porosity and rough surfaces. Spectroscopic data on the organic liquid and the polymer surfaces showed no preferential adsorption of any component in the NGS to the polymers and no leachate was observed in the NGS from any of the polymers studied.

Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

2011-09-29

22

Examination of Organic Carryover from 2-cm Contactors to Support the Modular CSSX Unit  

SciTech Connect

A bank of four 2-cm centrifugal contactors was operated in countercurrent fashion to help address questions about organic carryover for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The contactors, having weirs sized for strip operation, were used to examine carryover for both strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS). Since only one bank of contactors was available in the short time frame of this work, the organic phase and only one aqueous phase were present in the flow loops at a time. Personnel maintained flowsheet-typical organic phase to aqueous phase (O:A) flow ratios when varying flow rates. Solvent from two different batches were tested with strip solution. In addition, potential mitigations of pH adjustment and coalescing media were examined. The experiment found that organic carryover after decanting averaged 220 ppm by mass with a range of 74 to 417 ppm of Isopar{reg_sign} L for strip effluent (SE)/organic solvent contacts. These values are based on measured modifier. Values were bounded by a value of 95 ppm based upon Isopar{reg_sign} L values as reported. The higher modifier-based numbers are considered more reliable at this time. Carryover of Isopar{reg_sign} L in DSS simulant averaged 77 ppm by mass with a range of 70 to 88 ppm of Isopar{reg_sign} L based on modifier content. The carryover was bounded by a value of 19 ppm based upon Isopar{reg_sign} L values as reported. More work is needed to resolve the discrepancy between modifier and Isopar{reg_sign} L values. The work did not detect organic droplets greater than 18 microns in SE. Strip output contained droplets down to 0.5 micron in size. Droplets in DSS were almost monodisperse by comparison, having a size range 4.7 +/- 1.6 micron in one test and 5.2 +/- 0.8 micron in the second demonstration. Optical microscopy provided qualitative results confirming the integrity of droplet size measurements in this work. Acidic or basic adjustments of aqueous strip solution from pH 3 to 1 and from pH 3 to 11 were not effective in clarifying the aqueous dispersions of organic droplets. Use of a 0.7-micron rated glass fiber filter of 3/4 mm thickness under gravity flow provided significant reduction in organic content and increased clarity. A 2 inch element stack of ''Teflon{reg_sign} Fiber Interceptor-Pak{trademark}'' media from ACS Separations, Inc. was not effective in clarifying DSS simulant.

Nash, Charles A.; Norato, Michael A.; Walker; D. Douglas; Pierce, Robert A.; Eubanks, Ronnye A.; Clark, James D.; Smith, Wilson M. Jr.; Crump, Stephen L.; Nelson, D. Zane; Fink, Samuel D.; Peters, Thomas B.; May, Cecil G.; Herman, David T.; Bolton, Henry L.

2005-04-29

23

Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to

OHara J. M; J. Higgins; A. DAgostino

2012-01-01

24

Waste and Solvent Composition Limits for Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU)  

SciTech Connect

This study examined waste feed and solvent limits for the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) currently being designed and built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove cesium from highly alkaline radioactive waste. The study involved proposing ranges for 12 waste feed components (i.e., Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, OH{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, F{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and AlO{sub 2}{sup -}) through a compilation of SRS waste data. Statistical design methods were used to generate numerous wastes with varying compositions from the proposed ranges. An Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) model called SXFIT was used to predict the cesium extraction distribution coefficients (D-values) between the organic (solvent) phase and the aqueous waste phase using the waste component concentrations as inputs. The D-values from the SXFIT model were used as input along with MCU base case process parameters to a SASSE (Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction) model to calculate final cesium concentrations for the MCU. The SASSE model was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The SXFIT D-value and the waste component concentration data were used to develop a handier alternative model (neural network model) to the SXFIT model that predicts D-values within 15% of the SXFIT D-values. Both the SXFIT and the neural network model revealed the following. The solvent extractant concentration ratios are approximately equal to the corresponding D-value ratios; a useful feature that could be used to predict extraction D-values when the extractant concentration in the solvent changes in the MCU operation. Also, potassium is the only waste component out of the 12 that shows a distinct relationship with the cesium extraction D-values; an indication of potassium's competition with cesium in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. A waste feed acceptance model suitable for assessing wastes within relatively wide ranges of D-values (0.6-40) and initial cesium-137 concentrations (0.2-12.8 Ci/gal) has been developed from the SASSE outputs. The waste feed acceptance model is an equation involving initial cesium-137 concentration and D-value that results in a final cesium-137 concentration of 0.1 Ci/gal, the target concentration for the MCU. For example, the waste feed acceptance model shows the minimum acceptable extraction D-value based on MCU base conditions is 5.73. The waste feed acceptance model is defined by a simple linear relationship for extraction D-values {ge} 7. This facilitates quicker calculations. For a given extraction D-value, final cesium-137 concentration (C{sub f}) and initial cesium-137 concentration (C{sub 0}) are linearly related; while for a given C{sub 0}, log (C{sub f}) and log (extraction D-value) are linear with a slope of -1.43. These two relationships allow one to quickly calculate C{sub f} at other MCU conditions without resorting to the SASSE model. The SASSE runs indicate that broad changes in the MCU process parameters for the extraction, scrub and strip stages (i.e., flow rate, temperature, fraction of interstage carryover, total liquid volume per contactor stage, and efficiency per contactor stage) will not result in C{sub f} exceeding target, at least for the MCU base conditions.

Adu-Wusu, Kofi; Waler, Douglas D.; Edwards, Thomas B

2005-05-26

25

7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Requirements for Modular/Panelized Housing Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...evaluation of manufactured farm service buildings in...Housing Units that Require Factory Inspections. Only... XI. Manufactured Farm Service Buildings. ...ALA). 6. A current factory inspection report...

2013-01-01

26

The modular analytical procedure and validation approach and the units of measurement for genetically modified materials in foods and feeds.  

PubMed

Food and feed analysts are confronted with a number of common problems, irrespective of the analytical target. The analytical procedure can be described as a series of successive steps: sampling, sample processing, analyte extraction, and ending, finally, in interpretation of an analytical result produced with, e.g., real-time polymerase chain reaction. The final analytical result is dependent on proper method selection and execution and is only valid if valid methods (modules) are used throughout the analytical procedure. The final step is easy to validate-the measurement uncertainty added from this step is relatively limited and can be estimated with a high degree of precision. In contrast, the front-end sampling and processing steps have not evolved much, and the corresponding methods are rarely or never experimentally validated according to internationally harmonized protocols. In this paper, we outlined a strategy for modular validation of the entire analytical procedure, using an upstream validation approach, illustrated with methods for genetically modified materials that may partially apply also to other areas of food and feed analyses. We have also discussed some implications and consequences of this approach in relation to reference materials, measurement units, and thresholds for labelling and enforcement, and for application of the validated methods (modules) in routine food and feed analysis. PMID:15295887

Holst-Jensen, Arne; Berdal, Knut G

27

Modular enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although modular macromolecular devices are encountered frequently in a variety of biological situations, their occurrence in biocatalysis has not been widely appreciated. Three general classes of modular biocatalysts can be identified: enzymes in which catalysis and substrate specificity are separable, multisubstrate enzymes in which binding sites for individual substrates are modular, and multienzyme systems that can catalyse programmable metabolic pathways.

Pehr B. Harbury; Chaitan Khosla

2001-01-01

28

An in vitro-selected RNA receptor for the GAAC loop: modular receptor for non-GNRA-type tetraloop  

PubMed Central

Although artificial RNA motifs that can functionally replace the GNRA/receptor interaction, a class of RNA–RNA interacting motifs, were isolated from RNA libraries and used to generate designer RNA structures, receptors for non-GNRA tetraloops have not been found in nature or selected from RNA libraries. In this study, we report successful isolation of a receptor motif interacting with GAAC, a non-GNRA tetraloop, from randomized sequences embedded in a catalytic RNA. Biochemical characterization of the GAAC/receptor interacting motif within three structural contexts showed its binding affinity, selectivity and structural autonomy. The motif has binding affinity comparable with that of a GNRA/receptor, selectivity orthogonal to GNRA/receptors and structural autonomy even in a large RNA context. These features would be advantageous for usage of the motif as a building block for designer RNAs. The isolated motif can also be used as a query sequence to search for unidentified naturally occurring GANC receptor motifs.

Ishikawa, Junya; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya

2013-01-01

29

pSAT RNA Interference Vectors: A Modular Series for Multiple Gene Down-Regulation in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for functional gene analysis, which has been successfully used to down-regulate the levels of specific target genes, enabling loss-of-function studies in living cells. Hairpin (hp) RNA expression cassettes are typically constructed on binary plasmids and delivered into plant cells by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Realizing the importance of RNAi for basic plant research, various

Mery Dafny-Yelin; S ang-Min Chung; Ellen L. Frankman; Tzvi Tzfira

2007-01-01

30

Bacteria as modular organisms.  

PubMed

The body plan of modular organisms is based on an indeterminate structure composed of iterated units or modules arrayed at various levels of complexity (such as leaves, twigs, and branches). Examples of modular organisms include plants and many sessile benthic invertebrates. In contrast, the body of unitary organisms is a determinate structure consisting usually of a strictly defined number of parts (such as legs or wings) established only during embryogenesis. Mobile animals are examples. Unlike that of unitary creatures, the form of a modular organism derives from a characteristic pattern of branching or budding of modules, which may remain attached or become separated to live physiologically independent lives as parts of a clone. Modular organisms tend to be sessile or passively mobile and, as genetic individuals, have the capacity for exponential increase in size. They do not necessarily undergo systemic senescence, and do not segregate somatic from germ line cells. It is argued here that bacteria are essentially modular organisms where the bacterial cell, microcolony, and macrocolony are modules of different levels of complexity analogous to modules of macroorganisms. This interpretation provides a broad conceptual basis for understanding the natural history of bacteria, and may illuminate the evolutionary origins and developmental biology of modular creatures. PMID:9891795

Andrews, J H

1998-01-01

31

NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT-MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (FINAL REPORT)  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX{reg_sign}79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX{reg_sign}79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX{reg_sign}79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and limited uptake of Isopar{reg_sign} L/Modifier by the polymers probably due to the polymers porosity and rough surfaces. Spectroscopic data on the organic liquid and the polymer surfaces showed no preferential adsorption of any component in the NGS to the polymers and with the exception of CPVC, no leachate was observed in the NGS from any of the polymers studied. The testing shows no major concerns for compatibility over the short duration of these tests but does indicate that longer duration exposure studies are warranted, especially for Tefzel. However, the physical changes experienced by Tefzel in the improved solvent were comparable to the physical changes obtained when Tefzel is placed in CSSX baseline solvent. Therefore, there is no effect of the improved solvent beyond those observed in CSSX baseline solvent.

Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

2012-01-17

32

RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND STRIP EFFLUENT COALESCER ELEMENTS FROM RADIOACTIVE OPERATIONS OF THE MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT  

SciTech Connect

The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of {approx}24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

2011-06-28

33

RNA Tectonics (tectoRNA) for RNA nanostructure design and its application in synthetic biology.  

PubMed

RNA molecules are versatile biomaterials that act not only as DNA-like genetic materials but also have diverse functions in regulation of cellular biosystems. RNA is capable of regulating gene expression by sequence-specific hybridization. This feature allows the design of RNA-based artificial gene regulators (riboregulators). RNA can also build complex two-dimensional (2D) and 3D nanostructures, which afford protein-like functions and make RNA an attractive material for nanobiotechnology. RNA tectonics is a methodology in RNA nanobiotechnology for the design and construction of RNA nanostructures/nanoobjects through controlled self-assembly of modular RNA units (tectoRNAs). RNA nanostructures designed according to the concept of RNA tectonics are also attractive as tools in synthetic biology, but in vivo RNA tectonics is still in the early stages. This review presents a summary of the achievements of RNA tectonics and its related researches in vitro, and also introduces recent developments that facilitated the use of RNA nanostructures in bacterial cells. WIREs RNA 2013, 4:651-664. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1185 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. PMID:23836522

Ishikawa, Junya; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya

2013-07-08

34

Modular 5-kW Power-Processing Unit Being Developed for the Next-Generation Ion Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a 5- to 10-kW ion engine for a broad range of mission applications. Simultaneously, a 5-kW breadboard power-processing unit (PPU) is being designed and fabricated by Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices, Torrance, C...

L. R. Pinero T. H. Bond D. Okada K. Phelps J. Pyter S. Wiseman

2001-01-01

35

Modular passive solar energy heating unit employing phase change heat storage material which is clearly transparent when in its high-stored-energy liquid state  

SciTech Connect

A highly effective modular passive solar energy heating unit for heating an enclosed space employs phase change heat storage material, which is optically transparent to visible light when in high-stored-energy liquid state enabling a viewer to see through clearly and which is translucent milky white when in low-stored-energy solid state for providing pleasant illumination to the enclosed space when first illuminated by sunlight in the morning. This phase change material, in a sealed container having two opposite surface areas transparent to sunlight, is polyethylene glycol having a heat of fusion of about 33 to 37 cal./gm. (4,170 to 4,670 Btu's per cubic ft.), a melting point of about 13/sup 0/ to 25/sup 0/ C. (55/sup 0/ F. to 77/sup 0/ F.), a specific gravity of about 1,125 at 20/sup 0/ C., and desirable isotropic freezing and melting characteristics with only very modest volume change during phase change. A dye soluble therein may be included for increasing solar-energy-absorptivity when translucent and for decreasing glare and direct penetration of sunlight into the space when transparent. The unit additionally contains at least one clearly optically transparent glazing layer facing the sunlight, preferably including an insulation layer to transmit short wavelength solar radiation while blocking longer heat rays for retaining thermal energy within the enclosed space. In preferred embodiments, there are two layers of closely spaced parallel transparent glazing near the sealed container, these layers being between incident solar radiation and the container.

Taff, D. C.; Holdridge, R. B.

1985-08-06

36

Development of a portable, modular unit for the optimization of ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of diesel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the stringent rules requiring ultra-low sulfur content in diesel fuels, it is necessary to develop alternative methods of desulfurization of fossil fuel derived oil, such as diesel. Current technology is not sufficient to solve this problem. Ultrasound applied to oxidative desulfurization which combined three complementary techniques: ultrasonication, phase transfer catalysis (PTC) and transition metal catalyzed oxidation, has accomplished high sulfur removal in a short contact time at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. This research has successfully demonstrated that the higher oxidation efficiency of BT to BTO and free of any by-products by using tetraoctylammonium fluoride as phase transfer agent. The oxidation rate of BT to BTO increased with increasing the carbon chain length of QAS cations. Under the same length of carbon chain, the oxidation rate of BT to BTO increased with decreasing the molecular size of QAS anions. Moreover, for diesel fuels containing various levels of sulfur content, UAOD process followed by solvent extraction has demonstrated that the sulfur reduction can reach above 95 % removal efficiency or final sulfur content below 15 ppm in mild condition. For large-scale commercial production, this research has successfully developed and operated a continuous desulfurization unit, which consists of a sonoractor, an RF amplifier, a function generator, a pretreatment tank, and a pipeline system. A single unit only needed 2' x 4' x 1' space for installation. The results indicated that the remarkable 92% removal efficiency for the sulfur in marine logistic diesel, even at a treatment rate as high as 25 lb/hour which is approximately 2 barrels per day. Therefore, this sonoreactor demonstrated the feasibility of large-scale operation even in a relatively small installation with low capital investment and maintenance cost. It also ensures the safety considerations by operating with diluted hydrogen peroxide under ambient temperature and pressure.

Wan, Meng-Wei

37

Modular Robotics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) is a subsidiary of Xerox Corporation. One of its most intriguing areas of study is "modular reconfigurable robotics," which is a technology that allows a robot to take itself apart and put itself back together again in a new form. This lets the robot customize its design for a given task. Several different models of robots have been constructed at the PARC, and this Web site describes how they were built and how they function. There is a large collection of video clips that show each of the robots in operation, including one of a robot riding a tricycle. Two Java simulation programs can be downloaded that demonstrate the control systems of two of the PARC models. A long list of publication titles with abstracts is given, and the full text is available for a few of them.

38

A universal modular autonomous robot architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a universal modular robot architecture. A robot consists of the following intelligent modules: central control unit (CCU), drive, actuators, a vision unit and senso r input unit. Software and hardware of the robot fit into this structure. We define generic interface protocols betwee n these units. If the robot has to solve a new application and is equipped

Wolfgang Ertel; Joachim Fessler; Nico Hochgeschwender

2005-01-01

39

RNA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

Darnell, James E., Jr.

1985-01-01

40

Modular Optical PDV System  

SciTech Connect

A modular optical photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) detector system has been developed by using readily available optical components with a 20-GHz Miteq optical detector into eight channels of single-wide modules integrated into a 3U rack unit (1U = 1.75 inches) with a common power supply. Optical fibers were precisely trimmed, welded, and timed within each unit. This system has been used to collect dynamic velocity data on various physics experiments. An optical power meter displays the laser input power to the module and optical power at the detector. An adjustable micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) optical attenuator is used to adjust the amount of unshifted light entering the detector. Front panel LEDs show the presence of power to the module. A fully loaded chassis with eight channels consumes 45 watts of power. Each chassis requires 1U spacing above and below for heat management. Modules can be easily replaced.

Araceli Rutkowski, David Esquibel

2008-12-11

41

A novel three-unit tRNA splicing endonuclease found in ultrasmall Archaea possesses broad substrate specificity  

PubMed Central

tRNA splicing endonucleases, essential enzymes found in Archaea and Eukaryotes, are involved in the processing of pre-tRNA molecules. In Archaea, three types of splicing endonuclease [homotetrameric: ?4, homodimeric: ?2, and heterotetrameric: (??)2] have been identified, each representing different substrate specificity during the tRNA intron cleavage. Here, we discovered a fourth type of archaeal tRNA splicing endonuclease (?2) in the genome of the acidophilic archaeon Candidatus Micrarchaeum acidiphilum, referred to as ARMAN-2 and its closely related species, ARMAN-1. The enzyme consists of two duplicated catalytic units and one structural unit encoded on a single gene, representing a novel three-unit architecture. Homodimeric formation was confirmed by cross-linking assay, and site-directed mutagenesis determined that the conserved L10-pocket interaction between catalytic and structural unit is necessary for the assembly. A tRNA splicing assay reveal that ?2 endonuclease cleaves both canonical and non-canonical bulge–helix–bulge motifs, similar to that of (??)2 endonuclease. Unlike other ARMAN and Euryarchaeota, tRNAs found in ARMAN-2 are highly disrupted by introns at various positions, which again resemble the properties of archaeal species with (??)2 endonuclease. Thus, the discovery of ?2 endonuclease in an archaeon deeply branched within Euryarchaeota represents a new example of the coevolution of tRNA and their processing enzymes.

Fujishima, Kosuke; Sugahara, Junichi; Miller, Christopher S.; Baker, Brett J.; Di Giulio, Massimo; Takesue, Kanako; Sato, Asako; Tomita, Masaru; Banfield, Jillian F.; Kanai, Akio

2011-01-01

42

A novel three-unit tRNA splicing endonuclease found in ultrasmall Archaea possesses broad substrate specificity.  

PubMed

tRNA splicing endonucleases, essential enzymes found in Archaea and Eukaryotes, are involved in the processing of pre-tRNA molecules. In Archaea, three types of splicing endonuclease [homotetrameric: ?(4), homodimeric: ?(2), and heterotetrameric: (??)(2)] have been identified, each representing different substrate specificity during the tRNA intron cleavage. Here, we discovered a fourth type of archaeal tRNA splicing endonuclease (?(2)) in the genome of the acidophilic archaeon Candidatus Micrarchaeum acidiphilum, referred to as ARMAN-2 and its closely related species, ARMAN-1. The enzyme consists of two duplicated catalytic units and one structural unit encoded on a single gene, representing a novel three-unit architecture. Homodimeric formation was confirmed by cross-linking assay, and site-directed mutagenesis determined that the conserved L10-pocket interaction between catalytic and structural unit is necessary for the assembly. A tRNA splicing assay reveal that ?(2) endonuclease cleaves both canonical and non-canonical bulge-helix-bulge motifs, similar to that of (??)(2) endonuclease. Unlike other ARMAN and Euryarchaeota, tRNAs found in ARMAN-2 are highly disrupted by introns at various positions, which again resemble the properties of archaeal species with (??)(2) endonuclease. Thus, the discovery of ?(2) endonuclease in an archaeon deeply branched within Euryarchaeota represents a new example of the coevolution of tRNA and their processing enzymes. PMID:21880595

Fujishima, Kosuke; Sugahara, Junichi; Miller, Christopher S; Baker, Brett J; Di Giulio, Massimo; Takesue, Kanako; Sato, Asako; Tomita, Masaru; Banfield, Jillian F; Kanai, Akio

2011-08-31

43

Modular tokamak magnetic system  

DOEpatents

A modular tokamak system comprised of a plurality of interlocking modules. Each module is comprised of a vacuum vessel section, a toroidal field coil, modular saddle coils which generate a poloidal magnetic field and ohmic heating coils.

Yang, Tien-Fang

1986-11-20

44

Portable modular detection system  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

Brennan, James S. (Rodeo, CA); Singh, Anup (Danville, CA); Throckmorton, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA); Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA)

2009-10-13

45

Localized co-transcriptional recruitment of the multifunctional RNA-binding protein CELF1 by lampbrush chromosome transcription units  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly-extended transcription units of lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) offer unique opportunities to study the co-transcriptional\\u000a events occurring on nascent transcripts. Using LBCs from amphibian oocytes, I investigated whether CELF1, an RNA binding protein\\u000a involved in the regulation of alternative splicing, mRNA stability and translation, is localized to active transcription units.\\u000a Antibodies raised against mammalian (CUG-BP1) and amphibian (EDEN-BP) CELF1 were

Garry T. Morgan

2007-01-01

46

Three-Dimensional Construction with Mobile Robots and Modular Blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a decentralized algorithmic approach to automatically building user-specified three-dimensional structures from modular units. Our bipartite system comprises passive units (blocks), responsible for embodying the structure and determining where further units can legally be attached, and active units (robots), responsible for transporting passive units. The algorithmic issues are correspondingly decomposed into two parts: (1) deciding where passive units may

Justin Werfel; Radhika Nagpal

2008-01-01

47

Modular spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instead of a pressurized cylinder serving as the basic module for space stations, certain polyhedra are studied having the all-space filling property, permitting the construction of pressurized volumes of cylindrical or virtually any conceivable shape. Rotatable forms for artificial gravity become an option because loads are evenly distributed through a triangle-based grid work. This grid work may be left open, or panelled and pressurized partially or totally. The isosceles tetrahedron is an especially useful member of a class of polyhedra that may be stacked face to face in three dimensions without leaving space among the units. Since only a few simple parts must be duplicated, the approach is economical as well as flexible. Components may be shuttled into orbit in the disassembled state so that a substantial space station may be established with a single flight. Reconfiguration is possible as requirements change. Conversion to translunar or interplanetary craft is also conceivable. On arrival such craft may again be reconfigured to fulfill several roles simultaneously: orbital support craft, lander, and surface base.

Frisina, Warren

1994-10-01

48

Transcription Unit Mapping in Bacteriophage T7 II. Proportionality of Number of Gene Copies, mRNA, and Gene Product  

PubMed Central

The effect of UV irradiation of bacteriophage T7 on in vivo early RNA synthesis has been studied by direct quantitation of the gene-specific RNA transcripts. The results show that the early region of phage T7 is transcribed from left to right as a single unit. Furthermore, gene inactivation, the UV sensitivity of synthesis of gene-specific RNA, and the UV sensitivity of synthesis of the corresponding proteins all follow pseudo first-order kinetics in multiply infected cells, demonstrating a random statistical correlation between both transcriptional sampling of gene copies and translational sampling of the resultant RNA transcripts. In addition, these simple kinetics imply an absence of positive feedback mechanisms compensating for the differential decline of individual early gene products in cells multiply infected with phage T7.

Brautigam, Alan R.; Sauerbier, Walter

1974-01-01

49

Premature termination by human RNA polymerase II occurs temporally in the adenovirus major late transcriptional unit  

SciTech Connect

The authors have recently demonstrated pausing and premature termination of transcription by eurocaryotic RNA polymerase II at specific sites in the major late transcriptional unit of adenovirus type 2 in vivo and in vitro. In further developing this is a system for studying eurocaryotic termination control, the authors found that prematurely terminated transcripts of 175 and 120 nucleotides also occur in adenovirus type 5-infected cells. In both cases, premature termination occurs temporally, being found only during late times of infection, not at early times before DNA replication or immediately after the onset of DNA replication when late gene expression has begun (intermediate times). To examine the phenomenon of premature termination further, a temperature-sensitive mutant virus, adenovirus type 5 ts107, was used to uncouple DNA replication and transcription. DNA replication is defective in this mutant at restrictive temperatures. They found that premature termination is inducible at intermediate times by shifting from a permissive temperature to a restrictive temperature, allowing continuous transcription in the absence of continuous DNA replication. No premature termination occurs when the temperature is shifted up at early times before DNA replication. Their data suggest that premature termination of transcription is dependent on both prior synthesis of new templates and cumulative late gene transcription but does not require continuous DNA replication.

Mok, M.; Maderious, A.; Chen-Kiang, S.

1984-10-01

50

Modular intelligent sensor system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a sensor system architecture suitable for application in systems intended for battery powered unattended use. The modularity concept addresses the logical interconnects between modules, the electrical interconnects between modules, and a system for the generalization of data to permit modular processing.

Fuess, D.A.

1993-06-17

51

Modular survivable satellite support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a highly mobile, survivable satellite system from the Transportable Mobile Ground Station (T\\/MGS) is proposed. The addition of advanced capabilities to the T\\/MGS such as telemetry processing equipment, and the flexibility of a modularly designed system are examined. The need to increase survivability and mobility while reducing life cycle costs is discussed. A modular survivable satellite support

R. E. Wagner

1984-01-01

52

A design perspective on modularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modularity is essential to software development. Without it, large software systems simply could not be realized. Designers typically strive to achieve a high degree of modularity by separating different concerns over different modules, a process called modularization. Modularity, however, is but one of the goals that the designer has. Furthermore, design does not just take place when the designer decides

André van der Hoek; Nicolas Lopez

2011-01-01

53

Modular integrated video system (MIVS) review station  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unattended video surveillance unit, the Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS), has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for International Safeguards use. An important support element of this system is a semi-automatic Review Station. Four component modules, including an 8 mm video tape recorder, a 4-inch video monitor, a power supply and control electronics utilizing a liquid crystal display (LCD)

1988-01-01

54

The Honeywell Modular Microprogram Machine: M 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

M3 is intended for research into unconventional special purpose stored program elements of computer systems (for example, a distributed computer Bus Interface Unit). The principal requirements for such a machine are flexibility and modularity. M3 consists of an application independent Kernel Machine to which application-dependent Functional Modules are attached. The Kernel Machine is vertically microprogrammed; it includes highly capable microinstruction

E. Douglas Jensen; Richard Y. Kain

1977-01-01

55

Modular assembly for supporting, straining, and directing flow to a core in a nuclear reactor  

DOEpatents

A reactor core support arrangement for supporting, straining, and providing fluid flow to the core and periphery of a nuclear reactor during normal operation. A plurality of removable inlet modular units are contained within permanent liners in the lower supporting plate of the reactor vessel lower internals. During normal operation (1) each inlet modular unit directs main coolant flow to a plurality of core assemblies, the latter being removably supported in receptacles in the upper portion of the modular unit and (2) each inlet modular unit may direct bypass flow to a low pressure annular region of the reactor vessel. Each inlet modular unit may include special fluid seals interposed between mating surfaces of the inlet modular units and the core assemblies and between the inlet modular units and the liners, to minimize leakage and achieve an hydraulic balance. Utilizing the hydraulic balance, the modular units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the modular unit receptacles by their own respective weight. Included as part of the permanent liners below the horizontal support plate are generally hexagonal axial debris barriers. The axial debris barriers collectively form a bottom boundary of a secondary high pressure plenum, the upper boundary of which is the bottom surface of the horizontal support plate. Peripheral liners include radial debris barriers which collectively form a barrier against debris entry radially. During normal operation primary coolant inlet openings in the liner, below the axial debris barriers, pass a large amount of coolant into the inlet modular units, and secondary coolant inlet openings in the portion of the liners within the secondary plenum pass a small amount of coolant into the inlet modular units. The secondary coolant inlet openings also provide alternative coolant inlet flow paths in the unlikely event of blockage of the primary inlet openings. The primary inlet openings have characteristics which limit the entry of debris and minimize the potential for debris entering the primary inlets blocking the secondary inlets from inside the modular unit.

Pennell, William E. (Greensburg, PA)

1977-01-01

56

State Librarianship: Modular Curriculum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This modular curriculum on state librarianship is designed to be used as a basis for a full-length library science course, instructional segments of several courses, continuing education courses, or workshops. The 20 curriculum modules cover the many face...

J. Robbins A. Powell

1976-01-01

57

Modular Small Hydro Configuration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Modular Small Hydro Configuration has been conceived and structured to address a selected fraction of the overall hydropower development market. In particular, smaller sites - those under 750 kilowatts, which previously were not attractive to develop ...

1981-01-01

58

Modular low-voltage electron emitters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modular, low-voltage electron emitters simplify electron beam (EB) technology for many industrial uses and for research and development. Modular electron emitters are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory, eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A plug-out plug-in method of replacement facilitates servicing. By using an ultra-thin 6 7 ?m titanium foil window, solid-state power supplies, an innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, these modular units combine ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 kV and 150 kV with beam currents up to 40 mA per 25 cm across the beam window. These new devices have been made in three widths: 5 cm, 25 cm, and 40 cm. Details of the beam construction and illustrations of industrial uses will be presented. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas have welcomed this modular technology as well as uses for surface sterilization. Being compact and lightweight (˜15 kg/emitter), these modular beams have been configured around complex shapes to achieve three-dimensional surface curing at high production rates.

Berejka, Anthony J.

2005-12-01

59

Localized co-transcriptional recruitment of the multifunctional RNA-binding protein CELF1 by lampbrush chromosome transcription units.  

PubMed

The highly-extended transcription units of lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) offer unique opportunities to study the co-transcriptional events occurring on nascent transcripts. Using LBCs from amphibian oocytes, I investigated whether CELF1, an RNA binding protein involved in the regulation of alternative splicing, mRNA stability and translation, is localized to active transcription units. Antibodies raised against mammalian (CUG-BP1) and amphibian (EDEN-BP) CELF1 were used to immunostain LBC spreads prepared from several species, including Xenopus laevis and the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum. Up to about 50 separate LBC loci were convincingly immunostained and it was clear that CELF1 was present in the nascent RNPs of lateral loops. Furthermore, myc-tagged CUG-BP1 expressed in microinjected axolotl oocytes was specifically targeted to nascent transcripts of loops that recruit endogenous CELF1. In many active transcription units CELF1 was distinctly localized, being first recruited by nascent transcripts only far downstream of the transcription start site and remaining associated until the end of transcription. Overall it appears possible that the multiple functions of CELF1 in regulating posttranscriptional gene expression could all be predetermined during transcription by virtue of a region-specific binding to the nascent transcripts of target genes. PMID:18095176

Morgan, Garry T

2007-12-21

60

A Stepwise Model for the Origin of the RNA World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a modular evolution model for the origin of the RNA world. It spans the gap between the first random RNA oligomers polymerized on mineral surfaces and a template-dependent RNA polymerase ribozyme that triggered darwinian evolution.

Briones, C.; Stich, M.; Manrubia, S. C.

2010-04-01

61

Modular Chemistry:  Secondary Building Units as a Basis for the Design of Highly Porous and Robust Metal?Organic Carboxylate Frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary building units (SBUs) are molecular complexes and cluster entities in which ligand coordination modes and metal coordination environments can be utilized in the transformation of these fragments into extended porous networks using polytopic linkers (1,4-benzenedicarboxylate, 1,3,5,7-adamantanetetracarboxyl- ate, etc.). Consideration of the geometric and chemical attributes of the SBUs and linkers leads to prediction of the framework topology, and in

Mohamed Eddaoudi; David B. Moler; Hailian Li; Banglin Chen; Theresa M. Reineke; OMAR M. YAGHI

2001-01-01

62

MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model -Documentation of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package for the groundwater modeling computer program MODFLOW-2000. The HUF Package is an alternative internal flow package that allows the vertical geometry of the system hydrogeology to be defined explicitly within the model using hydrogeologic units that can be different than the definition of the model layers. The HUF Package works with all the processes of MODFLOW-2000. For the Ground-Water Flow Process, the HUF Package calculates effective hydraulic properties for the model layers based on the hydraulic properties of the hydrogeologic units, which are defined by the user using parameters. The hydraulic properties are used to calculate the conductance coefficients and other terms needed to solve the ground-water flow equation. The sensitivity of the model to the parameters defined within the HUF Package input file can be calculated using the Sensitivity Process, using observations defined with the Observation Process. Optimal values of the parameters can be estimated by using the Parameter-Estimation Process. The HUF Package is nearly identical to the Layer-Property Flow (LPF) Package, the major difference being the definition of the vertical geometry of the system hydrogeology. Use of the HUF Package is illustrated in two test cases, which also serve to verify the performance of the package by showing that the Parameter-Estimation Process produces the true parameter values when exact observations are used.

Anderman, E. R.; Hill, M. C.

2000-01-01

63

Nucleotide sequence analysis of the spacer regions flanking the rat rRNA transcription unit and identification of repetitive elements.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the organization of the rat rDNA non-transcribed spacer (NTS) by determining the sequence of large NTS segments located upstream (2501 bp) and downstream (4025 bp) from the rRNA transcription unit. We identified four B2-like and two ID mobile elements. They may be grouped in three pairs with the members of each pair located in the upstream and downstream NTS. The ID sequences are identical to the consensus sequence, while the pairs of B2-like elements show 85% and 50/65% homology to the consensus B2 sequence. The proximal part of the downstream NTS contains a region of widely diverged SalI tandem repeats. A considerable part of the analyzed upstream and downstream NTS sequences is constituted by different types of simple sequences and long poly(purine) X poly(pyrimidine) tracts. These data show that the rat rDNA NTS regions flanking the rRNA transcription unit are characterized by a combination of short interspersed (B2-superfamily) and various simple sequences.

Yavachev, L P; Georgiev, O I; Braga, E A; Avdonina, T A; Bogomolova, A E; Zhurkin, V B; Nosikov, V V; Hadjiolov, A A

1986-01-01

64

Is the mind really modular?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Fodor titled his (1983) book the Modularity of Mind, he overstated his position. His actual view is that the mind divides into systems some of which are modular and others of which are not. The book would have been more aptly, if less provocatively, called The Modularity of Low-Level Peripheral Systems. High-level perception and cognitive systems are non-modular on

Jesse J. Prinz

65

Modular Analysis of Petri Nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how two of the most important analysis methods for Petri nets can be performed in a modular way. We illustrate our techniques by means of modular Place\\/Transitions nets (modular PT-nets) in which the individual modules interact via shared places and shared transitions. For place invariants we show that it is possible to construct invariants of the total

Søren Christensen; Laure Petrucci

2000-01-01

66

Economy of modularized communication platforms and satellite clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from an ESA cost-benefits analysis of modularized communication platforms and satellite clusters are reviewed. Attention was given to a reference satellite based on current technology, and advanced candidates for television broadcasting from a 19 deg W GEO modularized units and clusters. Both the Ariane and the Shuttle were considered as the launch vehicles for large, autonomous satellites, co-orbiting cluster units, or modular platofrms to be assembled in GEO. The analyses included development of performance and specific requirements, and cost comparison. Cost components comprised the spacecraft, constant costs, space segment costs, operations, and total system costs for a direct television broadcast system for Europe. An Ariane-launched modular platform was projected to cost 60% of the reference system, with break-even occurring at the addition of the third payload module.

Kleinau, W.; Nauck, J.; Hansell, P.

1982-09-01

67

Modular solar insolation panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular system of solar insolation panels having sun tracking capability and adapted to be installed directly upon a roof structure and integrated with the surrounding roofing, is comprised of prismatic lenses embodied in a multiplicity of transparent tubes disposed in normal relation to the traverse plane of the sun, and arranged upon an insulation panel and with corner fittings

Meckler

1981-01-01

68

Modular logistics service platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing customized services to satisfy the customers from different industry background is the emerging and critical issue of the success of the third party logistics company. This paper develops a modular logistics service platform for the third party logistics providers who are facing varied customer requirements from different industries, targeting quick identification of customer requirements and generation of comprehensive and

Yong Lin; Jing Luo; Li Zhou

2010-01-01

69

Modular hydroelectric power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular hydroelectric power plant which converts energy of water flowing in a stream into electric power is described. The plant comprises a plurality of modules which are removably mounted on piers embedded in a river or stream bed. Each module comprises a turbine over which water flows to rotate the turbine, and turbine rotation is converted into power by

Diggs

1977-01-01

70

Modular nuclear steam supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1985, the U.S. Department of Energy began a $90 million program to study some basic concepts of nuclear-fueled power generation. The problem was to create an inherently safe, modular nuclear steam supply system that could be installed more quickly and less expensively than current nuclear systems. The DOE chose the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module as the official nuclear

1989-01-01

71

Modular invariant gaugino condensation  

SciTech Connect

The construction of effective supergravity lagrangians for gaugino condensation is reviewed and recent results are presented that are consistent with modular invariance and yield a positive definite potential of the noscale type. Possible implications for phenomenology are briefly discussed. 29 refs.

Gaillard, M.K.

1991-05-09

72

Modular Moonshine III  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we complete the proof of Ryba's modular moonshine conjectures. We do this by applying Hodge theory to the cohomology of the monster Lie algebra over the ring of p-adic integers in order to calculate the Tate cohomology groups of elements of the monster acting on the monster vertex algebra.

Richard E. Borcherds

1998-01-01

73

Network modularity promotes cooperation.  

PubMed

Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported. PMID:23261393

Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

2012-12-19

74

Modular Fire Bomb.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A modular bomb employing a plastic container as a frangible and consumable module which is compatible with a Napalm B flame agent, was designed. The modules can be attached to a reusable dispenser in configurations of either two modules to form a 500-poun...

W. P. Farris

1969-01-01

75

Autonomous intelligent modular surveillance system (AIM2S)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the design and development of an autonomous intelligent modular surveillance system (AIM2S). The system represents a novel class of "smart" surveillance platforms that integrates multiple sensors on an open-bus chassis. AIM2S modular architecture allows plug & play system operation, enabling its performance as a standalone unit or in conjunction with other systems. The integration of multiple smart sensors facilitates the affective fusion of heterogeneous data sources to obtain previously unavailable state information.

Markov, Vladimir; Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Chavez, Joseph; Kupiec, Stephen; Erwin, Daniel A.; Liu, Shiang

2012-05-01

76

Siberian company starts up modular refinery  

SciTech Connect

Uraineftegas, a subsidiary of Russian oil giant Lukoil, has started up Siberia`s first modular crude distillation unit. The 2,000 b/d refinery was designed and manufactured by Ventech Engineers Inc., Pasadena, Tex. Uraineftegas is based in Urai, Siberia. Located in the Tyumen region on the Konda river, the remote town is accessible only by air and water. Most of Urai`s crude production--about 50,000 b/d, according to Ventech president Bill Stanley--is shipped by pipeline to the refining centers at Ufa and Omsk. Because there are no products pipelines in which to ship fuels back to Urai, the town needed a small refinery in order to produce its own fuels. This report briefly describes the design ad operation of these modular units. It describes construction techniques and temperature control equipment used to maintain an operational environment under severe winter weather.

NONE

1996-03-18

77

Refined finite element modelling for the vibration analysis of large rotating machines: Application to the gas turbine modular helium reactor power conversion unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is aimed at presenting refined finite element modelling used for dynamic analysis of large rotating machines. The first part shows an equivalence between several levels of modelling: firstly, models made of beam elements and rigid disc with gyroscopic coupling representing the position of the rotating shaft in an inertial frame; secondly full three-dimensional (3D) or 3D shell models of the rotor and the blades represented in the rotating frame and finally two-dimensional (2D) Fourier model for both rotor and stator. Simple cases are studied to better understand the results given by analysis performed using a rotating frame and the equivalence with the standard calculations with beam elements. Complete analysis of rotating machines can be performed with models in the frames best adapted for each part of the structure. The effects of several defects are analysed and compared with this approach. In the last part of the paper, the modelling approach is applied to the analysis of the large rotating shaft part of the power conversion unit of the GT-MHR nuclear reactor.

Combescure, D.; Lazarus, A.

2008-12-01

78

Modularity of methylotrophy, revisited.  

PubMed

Methylotrophy is a metabolic capability possessed by microorganisms that allows them to build biomass and to obtain energy from organic substrates containing no carbon-carbon bonds (C1 compounds, such as methane, methanol, etc.). This phenomenon in microbial physiology has been a subject of study for over 100 years, elucidating a set of well-defined enzymatic systems and pathways enabling this capability. The knowledge gained from the early genetic and genomic approaches to understanding methylotrophy pointed towards the existence of alternative enzymes/pathways for the specific metabolic goals. Different combinations of these systems in different organisms suggested that methylotrophy must be modular in its nature. More recent insights from genomic analyses, including the genomes representing novel types of methylotrophs, seem to reinforce this notion. This review integrates the new findings with the previously developed concept of modularity of methylotrophy. PMID:21443740

Chistoserdova, Ludmila

2011-03-28

79

On Some Modular Identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Using the theory of modular forms, we prove some arithmetical identitiessimilar to certain convolution formulae for sums of divisor powers proved byRamanujan in [6]. In Theorem 1 we also prove a somewhat different formula involvingan unusual multiplicative arithmetical function and containing an error term.1. Introduction.Let oe m (n) denote the sum of the m-th powers of the positive divisors

Giuseppe Melfi

80

The Click modular router  

Microsoft Academic Search

Click is a new software architecture for building flexible and configurable routers. A Click router is assembled from packet processing modules called which helps an element locate other interesting elements.We demonstrate several working configurations, including an IP router and an Ethernet bridge. These configurations are modular---the IP router has 16 elements on the forwarding path---and easy to extend by adding

Robert Morris; Eddie Kohler; John Jannotti; M. Frans Kaashoek

1999-01-01

81

Modular integrated video system  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) is intended to provide a simple, highly reliable closed circuit television (CCTV) system capable of replacing the IAEA Twin Minolta Film Camera Systems in those safeguards facilities where mains power is readily available, and situations where it is desired to have the CCTV camera separated from the CCTV recording console. This paper describes the MIVS and the Program Plan which is presently being followed for the development, testing, and implementation of the system.

Gaertner, K.J.; Heaysman, B.; Holt, R.; Sonnier, C.

1986-01-01

82

Modular moonshine, III  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we complete the proof of Ryba's modular moonshine conjectures.\\u000aWe do this by applying Hodge theory to the cohomology of the monster Lie\\u000aalgebra over the ring of p-adic integers in order to calculate the Tate\\u000acohomology groups of elements of the monster acting on the monster vertex\\u000aalgebra.

Richard E. Borcherds

83

Cyclic Modular ?-Sheets  

PubMed Central

The development of peptide ?-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust ?-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein ?-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein ?-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from sequence. These model ?-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide ?-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide ?-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two ?-linked ornithine (?Orn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each ?Orn turn contains a free ?-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent ?-sheets. These “cyclic modular ?-sheets” are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular ?-sheets 1a–1h containing sequences based on ?-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular ?-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield ?-proton chemical shifts, ?Orn ?-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE crosspeaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a ?-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (? 2 mM) concentrations. Changes to the residues in the Hao-containing strands of 1c and 1g improve folding and show that folding of the structures can be enhanced without altering the sequence of the pentapeptide strand. Well-folded cyclic modular ?-sheets 1a, 1b, and 1f each have a phenylalanine directly across from Hao, suggesting that cyclic modular ?-sheets containing aromatic residues across from Hao are better folded.

Woods, R. Jeremy; Brower, Justin O.; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A.

2008-01-01

84

Modular low-voltage electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modular, low-voltage systems have simplified electron beam (EB) technology for industrial uses and for research and development. Modular EB units are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A simple plug-out-plug-in method of replacement eliminates downtime for servicing. Use of ultra-thin beam windows (<10?m of titanium foil), solid-state 19in. (48cm) rack-mounted power supplies, an innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, combine for ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 and 150kV and with high beam currents (up to 40mA across the 25cm window). These electron systems are available in three widths, the standard 25cm and new 5 and 40cm beams. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas as well as uses in surface sterilization have found these compact, lightweight (approximately 15kg) modular beams of interest. Units have been configured around complex shapes to enable three-dimensional surface curing (as for coatings on aluminum tubing) to be achieved at high production rates. Details of the beam construction and some industrial uses are discussed.

Berejka, Anthony J.; Avnery, Tovi; Carlson, Carl

2004-09-01

85

Algebraic topology and modular forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular forms appear in many facets of mathematics, and have played important\\u000aroles in geometry, mathematical physics, number theory, representation theory,\\u000atopology, and other areas. Around 1994, motivated by technical issues in\\u000ahomotopy theory, Mark Mahowald, Haynes Miller and I constructed a topological\\u000arefinement of modular forms, which we call {\\\\em topological modular forms}. At\\u000athe Zurich ICM I sketched

Michael J. Hopkins

2002-01-01

86

A Unifying Modularity in Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new modularity criterion in complex networks, called the unifying modularity q which is independent of the number of partitions. It is shown that, for a given network, the relationship between the upper limit of Q and the number of the partitions, k, is sup(Qk) = (k - 1)/k. Since the range of Q for each partition number is inconsistent, we try to extend the concept Q to unifying modularity q, which is independent of the number of partitions. Subsequently, we indicate that it is more accurately to determine the number of partitions by using unifying modularity q than Q.

Hao, Jun-Jun; Cai, Shui-Ming; He, Qin-Bin; Liu, Zeng-Rong

2010-12-01

87

Helicopter Transmission Modularization and Maintainability Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the transmission modularization analysis was to develop a methodology to evaluate helicopter transmission modularization and to demonstrate the feasibility, methods, design criteria, and cost effectiveness of modularization. A U.S. Army C...

J. G. Kish K. R. Cormier P. Menkes

1974-01-01

88

Modular and Hierarchically Modular Organization of Brain Networks  

PubMed Central

Brain networks are increasingly understood as one of a large class of information processing systems that share important organizational principles in common, including the property of a modular community structure. A module is topologically defined as a subset of highly inter-connected nodes which are relatively sparsely connected to nodes in other modules. In brain networks, topological modules are often made up of anatomically neighboring and/or functionally related cortical regions, and inter-modular connections tend to be relatively long distance. Moreover, brain networks and many other complex systems demonstrate the property of hierarchical modularity, or modularity on several topological scales: within each module there will be a set of sub-modules, and within each sub-module a set of sub-sub-modules, etc. There are several general advantages to modular and hierarchically modular network organization, including greater robustness, adaptivity, and evolvability of network function. In this context, we review some of the mathematical concepts available for quantitative analysis of (hierarchical) modularity in brain networks and we summarize some of the recent work investigating modularity of structural and functional brain networks derived from analysis of human neuroimaging data.

Meunier, David; Lambiotte, Renaud; Bullmore, Edward T.

2010-01-01

89

Modular biometric system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modularity Biometric System (MBS) is an approach to support AiTR of the cooperated and/or non-cooperated standoff biometric in an area persistent surveillance. Advanced active and passive EOIR and RF sensor suite is not considered here. Neither will we consider the ROC, PD vs. FAR, versus the standoff POT in this paper. Our goal is to catch the "most wanted (MW)" two dozens, separately furthermore ad hoc woman MW class from man MW class, given their archrivals sparse front face data basis, by means of various new instantaneous input called probing faces. We present an advanced algorithm: mini-Max classifier, a sparse sample realization of Cramer-Rao Fisher bound of the Maximum Likelihood classifier that minimize the dispersions among the same woman classes and maximize the separation among different man-woman classes, based on the simple feature space of MIT Petland eigen-faces. The original aspect consists of a modular structured design approach at the system-level with multi-level architectures, multiple computing paradigms, and adaptable/evolvable techniques to allow for achieving a scalable structure in terms of biometric algorithms, identification quality, sensors, database complexity, database integration, and component heterogenity. MBS consist of a number of biometric technologies including fingerprints, vein maps, voice and face recognitions with innovative DSP algorithm, and their hardware implementations such as using Field Programmable Gate arrays (FPGAs). Biometric technologies and the composed modularity biometric system are significant for governmental agencies, enterprises, banks and all other organizations to protect people or control access to critical resources.

Hsu, Charles; Viazanko, Michael; O'Looney, Jimmy; Szu, Harold

2009-04-01

90

ATTAAA as well as downstream sequences are required for RNA 3'-end formation in the E3 complex transcription unit of adenovirus.  

PubMed Central

We mapped the location of the E3A RNA 3' end site in the E3 transcription unit of adenovirus 2. The procedure used was nuclease-gel analysis with 32P-labeled RNA probes. The poly(A) addition sites were microheterogeneous and were located approximately 17 to 29 nucleotides downstream from an ATTAAA sequence. To identify the sequences that make up the E3A RNA 3' end signal, we constructed five viable virus mutants with deletions in or near the E3A RNA 3' end site. The mutants were analyzed for E3A RNA 3' end formation in vivo. No effect was observed from a 47-base-pair (bp) deletion (dl716) or a 72-bp deletion (dl714) located 22 and 19 nucleotides, respectively, upstream of the ATTAAA. In contrast, E3A RNA 3' end formation was abolished by a 554-bp deletion (dl708) that removes both the ATTAAA and the poly(A) addition sites, a 124-bp deletion (dl713) that removes the ATTAAA but leaves the poly(A) addition sites, and a 65-bp deletion (dl719) that leaves the ATTAAA but removes the poly(A) addition sites. These results indicate that the ATTAAA, as well as downstream sequences, including the poly(A) addition sites, are required for E3A RNA 3' end formation. Images

Bhat, B M; Wold, W S

1985-01-01

91

In Search of the Biological Significance of Modular Structures in Protein Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many complex networks such as computer and social networks exhibit modular structures, where links between nodes are much denser within modules than between modules. It is widely believed that cellular networks are also modular, reflecting the relative independence and coherence of different functional units in a cell. While many authors have claimed that observations from the yeast protein–protein interaction (PPI)

Zhi Wang; Jianzhi Zhang

2007-01-01

92

In search of the biological significance of modular structures in protein networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many complex networks such as computer and social networks exhibit modular structures, where links between nodes are much denser within modules than between modules. It is widely believed that cellular networks are also modular, reflecting the relative independence and coherence of different functional units in a cell. While many authors have claimed that observations from the yeast protein-protein interaction (PPI)

Zhi Wang; Jianzhi Zhang

2005-01-01

93

Modular plastic chip for one-shot human papillomavirus diagnostic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we report the design and development of a plastic modular chip suitable for one-shot human papillomavirus (HPV) diagnostics, namely detection of the viral presence and relative genotyping, by two sequential steps performed directly on the same device. The device is composed of two modular and disposable plastic units that can be assembled or used separately. The first

G. Vecchio; S. Sabella; L. Tagliaferro; P. Menegazzi; M. P. Di Bello; V. Brunetti; R. Cingolani; R. Rinaldi; P. P. Pompa

2010-01-01

94

Modular Nonmonotonic Logic Programming Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, enabling modularity aspects in Answer Set Programming (ASP) has gained increasing interest to ease the composition of program parts to an overall program. In this paper, we focus on modular nonmonotonic logic programs (MLP) under the answer set semantics, whose modules may have contextually de- pendent input provided by other modules. Moreover, (mutually) recursive module calls are allowed. We

Minh Dao-tran; Thomas Eiter; Michael Fink; Thomas Krennwallner

2009-01-01

95

Enzymatic Computation and Cognitive Modularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there is widespread skepticism that higher cognitive processes, given their apparent flexibility and globality, could be carried out by specialized computational devices, or modules. This skepticism is largely due to Fodor's influential definition of modularity. From the rather flexible catalogue of possible modular features that Fodor originally proposed has emerged a widely held notion of modules as rigid, informationally

H. Clark Barrett

2005-01-01

96

Terpene Biosynthesis: Modularity Rules  

PubMed Central

Terpenes are the largest class of small molecule natural products on Earth, and the most abundant by mass. Here, we summarize recent developments in elucidating the structure and function of the proteins involved in their biosynthesis. There are 6 main building blocks or modules (?,?,?,?,? and ?) that make up the structures of these enzymes: the ?? and ?? head-to-tail trans-prenyl transferases that produce trans-isoprenoid diphosphates from C5 precursors; the ? head-to-head prenyl transferases that convert these diphosphates into the tri-and tetra-terpene precursors of sterols, hopanoids and carotenoids; the ?? di- and tri-terpene synthases; the ? head-to-tail cis-prenyl transferases that produce the cis-isoprenoid diphosphates involved in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, and finally the ?, ?? and ??? terpene synthases that produce plant terpenes, with many of these modular enzymes having originated from ancestral ? and ? domain proteins. We also review progress in determining the structure and function of the two 4Fe-4S reductases involved in formation of the C5 diphosphates in many bacteria, where again, highly modular structures are found.

Oldfield, Eric; Lin, Fu-Yang

2013-01-01

97

Preheating after modular inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study (p)reheating in modular (closed string) inflationary scenarios, with a special emphasis on Kähler moduli/Roulette models. It is usually assumed that reheating in such models occurs through perturbative decays. However, we find that there are very strong non-perturbative preheating decay channels related to the particular shape of the inflaton potential (which is highly nonlinear and has a very steep minimum). Preheating after modular inflation, proceeding through a combination of tachyonic instability and broad-band parametric resonance, is perhaps the most violent example of preheating after inflation known in the literature. Further, we consider the subsequent transfer of energy to the standard model sector in scenarios where the standard model particles are confined to a D7-brane wrapping the inflationary blow-up cycle of the compactification manifold or, more interestingly, a non-inflationary blow-up cycle. We explicitly identify the decay channels of the inflaton in these two scenarios. We also consider the case where the inflationary cycle shrinks to the string scale at the end of inflation; here a field theoretical treatment of reheating is insufficient and one must turn instead to a stringy description. We estimate the decay rate of the inflaton and the reheat temperature for various scenarios.

Barnaby, Neil; Bond, J. Richard; Huang, Zhiqi; Kofman, Lev

2009-12-01

98

Modular engineering for process plants  

SciTech Connect

Engineering design in the key to successful modular construction of process plants. Maximum schedule and cost advantages are thereby designed into these facilities. Demonstrating this concept, Braun engineers designed and constructed the world's first large modular process plant, an ammonia-urea fertilizer complex for Union Chemicals Co. in Alaska. Braun has since provided modular engineering for a worldscale grass roots ethylene plant being built in Saudi Arabia. The modules are assembled in Japan for shipment to the Middle East. Currently under construction in Scotford, Alberta, Canada, is a 50,000-BPSD modular synthetic crude oil refinery for Shell Canada that will process crude from the Athabasca tar sands. As on all landlocked projects, modularity is severely restricted, but through negotiations with the local and provincial governments and agreements for cost participation for utilities revisions, modules are being transported from a remote assembly area to the job site. 10 figures. (JMT)

Hoag, C.A.

1983-06-01

99

Modular arctic structures system  

SciTech Connect

A modular and floatable offshore exploration and production platform system for use in shallow arctic waters is disclosed. A concrete base member is floated to the exploration or production site, and ballated into a predredged cavity. The cavity and base are sized to provide a stable horizontal base 30 feet below the mean water/ice plane. An exploration or production platform having a massive steel base is floated to the site and ballasted into position on the base. Together, the platform, base and ballast provide a massive gravity structure that is capable of resisting large ice and wave forces that impinge on the structure. The steel platform has a sloping hourglass profile to deflect horizontal ice loads vertically, and convert the horizontal load to a vertical tensile stress, which assists in breaking the ice as it advances toward the structure.

Reusswig, G. H.

1984-12-04

100

Modular board game apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A modular board game apparatus has a segmental playing surface comprising pairs of segments which are variously configured to provides a surface whose shape and playing area may be changed according to the requirements of a particular game. The segments facilitate versions of games normally only played between two players (such as chess and draughts) to be played by two, three or four people (Configurations II, III and IV). The board shapes described are each proportional in area to the number of players, are symmetrical, and may be variously patterned (6,7). A preferred embodiment comprising eight quadrilateral segments (3) that may be arranged in differing orientations, assembled and secured about a central point by means of a restraining ring (2) is illustrated. Segment sets comprising variously shaped segments of differing thickness can be assembled to simulate undulating terrain.

Stanton; Jaan Peter Charles (Norwich, GB)

2004-05-18

101

Modular error embedding  

SciTech Connect

A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data containing noise in the low-order bits. The method applies to digital data representing analog signals, for example digital images. The method reduces the error introduced by other methods that replace the low-order bits with auxiliary information. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user through use of a digital key. The modular error embedding method includes a process to permute the order in which the host data values are processed. The method doubles the amount of auxiliary information that can be added to host data values, in comparison with bit-replacement methods for high bit-rate coding. The invention preserves human perception of the meaning and content of the host data, permitting the addition of auxiliary data in the amount of 50% or greater of the original host data.

Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Ettinger, J. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

102

Modular error embedding  

SciTech Connect

A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data containing noise in the low-order bits is disclosed. The method applies to digital data representing analog signals, for example digital images. The method reduces the error introduced by other methods that replace the low-order bits with auxiliary information. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user through use of a digital key. The modular error embedding method includes a process to permute the order in which the host data values are processed. The method doubles the amount of auxiliary information that can be added to host data values, in comparison with bit-replacement methods for high bit-rate coding. The invention preserves human perception of the meaning and content of the host data, permitting the addition of auxiliary data in the amount of 50% or greater of the original host data.

Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Ettinger, J.M.

1999-10-19

103

Modular building block  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a modular building block comprising an enclosure defined by end walls, side walls, a top wall and a bottom wall in an assembled relationship. The top wall includes a pattern of fastener slots and the bottom wall includes fastener tabs selectively slidable into a cooperable locking relationship in both vertical and horizontal directions with fastener slots in the top wall of another enclosure therebelow. Certain of the fastener slots in the top wall are disposed parallel to the longitudinal axis and along opposite edges thereof adjacent each of the side walls of the enclosure and other of the fastener slots are normal to the longitudinal axis at the midregion of the enclosure and along an edge thereof adjacent each of the end walls of the enclosure. The fastener tabs each include a cut-out portion overlaid by the top wall of another enclosure at an assembled condition.

Mc Guire, D.S.

1987-08-25

104

Modularity in Cognition: Framing the Debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modularity has been the subject of intense debate in the cognitive sciences for more than 2 decades. In some cases, misunderstandings have impeded conceptual progress. Here the authors identify arguments about modularity that either have been abandoned or were never held by proponents of modular views of the mind. The authors review arguments that purport to undermine modularity, with particular

H. Clark Barrett; Robert Kurzban

2006-01-01

105

Modular Reduction in Abstract Polytopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper studies modular reduction techniques for abstract regular and\\u000achiral polytopes, with two purposes in mind: first, to survey the literature\\u000aabout modular reduction in polytopes; and second, to apply modular reduction,\\u000awith moduli given by primes in Z[t] (with t=\\\\tau the golden ratio), to\\u000aconstruct new regular 4-polytopes of hyperbolic types {3,5,3} and {5,3,5} with\\u000aautomorphism groups given

B. Monson; Egon Schulte

2009-01-01

106

A modular metal fuel fast reactor enhancing economic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diversified or modular power source is attractive since it requires a low construction cost per unit and can be demonstrated in small scale experimental facilities. In this study, a new metal fuel sodium cooled reactor with 300 MW electric has been developed enhancing cost reduction. And economical potential at demonstration stage with first of a kind (FOAK) is emphasized.

Chikazawa Yoshitaka; Okano Yosushi; Konomura Mamoru; Sato Koji; Ando Masato; Nakanishi Shigeyuki; Sawa Naoki; Shimakawa Yoshio

2006-01-01

107

Design and Construction of a Modular Gamma Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented here describes an alternative to the standard gamma-camera design that is flexible enough to be used in a wide variety of applications. The new modular design consists of a small gamma camera that is optically and electronically independent from other units. The theoretical and experimental investigation of this report focuses on the design and construction of the

Thomas Dean Milster

1987-01-01

108

On structured fault tree construction by modularizing control loops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this article are: (1) to develop the fault trees for control loops in a way that they all appear in a proper form and as modules in the fault tree for the whole system; and also (2) to modularize each control loop in a system properly to establish its unit model. These two methods are essentially equivalent.

Y.-L. Cheng; J. Yuan

2000-01-01

109

A Modular Surgical Robotic System for Image Guided Percutaneous Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a robotic system for precise needle ins- ertion under radiological guidance for surgical interventions and for deli- very of therapy. It is extremely compact and is compatible with portable X-ray units and computer tomography scanners. The system presents a modular structure comprising a global positioning module, a miniature robotic module, and a radiolucent needle driver module. This

Dan Stoianovici; Louis L. Whitcomb; James H. Anderson; Russell H. Taylor; Louis R. Kavoussi

1998-01-01

110

A modular and mobile system for indoor localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presents a system for sensor data and complementary information fusion for localization in indoor environments. The system is based on modular sensor units, which can be attached to a person and contains various sensors, such as range sensors, inertial and magnetic sensors, a GPS receiver and a barometer. The measurements are processed using Bayesian Recursive Estimation algorithms and

Lasse Klingbeil; M. Romanovas; P. Schneider; M. Traechtler; Y. Manoli

2010-01-01

111

Transitioning from federated avionics architectures to Integrated Modular Avionics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies considerations for transitioning from a federated avionics architecture to an integrated modular avionics (IMA) architecture. Federated avionics architectures make use of distributed avionics functions that are packaged as self-contained units (LRUs and LRMs). IMA architectures employ a high-integrity, partitioned environment that hosts multiple avionics functions of different criticalities on a shared computing platform. This provides for weight

C. B. Watkins; R. Walter

2007-01-01

112

New insights on the modular planning of the Taj Mahal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimensional analysis has revealed that the modular planning of the Taj Mahal complex was executed using the traditional measurement units mentioned in the Arthasastra, and, in particular, the vitasti measuring 12 angulams of 1.763 cm. The riverfront terrace and garden sections of the complex were planned using square grids of 90 vitasti to the side, while the forecourt and caravanserai

R. Balasubramaniam

2009-01-01

113

General Purpose Modular Waveguide Assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article describes the design of a general purpose modular waveguide assembly consisting of orthogonally intersecting transmission lines coupled by two ferrite resonators. The construction allows one design version to serve as a directional bandpass fi...

A. V. Kislyakovskii N. G. Vodopyanov S. N. Kushch

1972-01-01

114

Modular computer system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A multi-processor computer system is disclosed in which processing elements, memory elements and peripheral units can be physically added and removed from the system without disrupting its operation or necessitating any reprogramming of software running on the system. The processing units, memory units and peripheral units are all coupled to a common system bus by specialized interface units. The processing elements are organized into partially independent groups each of which has dedicated interface units, but the processing units share system resources including peripherals and the entire memory space. Within each processing element group at any one time, group supervisory tasks are performed by one of the processors, but the supervisor function is passed among the processors in the group in a sequence to prevent a fault in one processor from disabling the entire group. Communication between groups is accomplished via the common memory areas. The transfer of the supervisor function from processor to processor is performed by registering the supervisor's identity in a common area in one of the dedicated interface units which area is accessable to all processors in the associated group and using program interrupts generated in the common interface unit to communicate between group processors. Access to the common system bus by the processing elements is controlled by the associated interface units by means of a combination serial/parallel arbitration scheme which increases arbitration speed without requiring a full complement of request/grant leads.

Stiffler; Jack J. (Concord, MA); Karp; Richard A. (Bedford, MA); Nolan, Jr.; James M. (Holliston, MA); Budwey; Michael J. (Holliston, MA); Wallace; David A. (Chelmsford, MA)

1984-11-20

115

Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator  

SciTech Connect

Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing ~24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during launch vibration. Details analysis indicates that the design offers a substantial improvement in specific power over the present generator of RTGs, using the same heat source modules. There are three copies in the file.

Schock, Alfred

1981-04-03

116

Modular designs highlight several new rigs  

SciTech Connect

A new platform drilling rig for offshore Trinidad and two new land rigs for the former Soviet Union feature the latest in drilling and construction technology and modular components for quick rig up/rig down. The Sundowner 801 was mock-up tested in Galveston, TX, a few weeks ago in preparation for its load-out to the Dolphin field offshore Trinidad. Two other new units, UNOC 500 DE series land rigs, were recently constructed and mock-up tested in Ekaterinburg, Russia, for upcoming exploratory work for RAO Gazprom, a large natural gas producer in Russia. These rigs are unique in that they were constructed from new components made both in the US and in Russia. The paper describes all three units.

Rappold, K.

1995-12-04

117

Environmental signal integration by a modular AND gate  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms use genetic circuits to integrate environmental information. We have constructed a synthetic AND gate in the bacterium Escherichia coli that integrates information from two promoters as inputs and activates a promoter output only when both input promoters are transcriptionally active. The integration occurs via an interaction between an mRNA and tRNA. The first promoter controls the transcription of a T7 RNA polymerase gene with two internal amber stop codons blocking translation. The second promoter controls the amber suppressor tRNA supD. When both components are transcribed, T7 RNA polymerase is synthesized and this in turn activates a T7 promoter. Because inputs and outputs are promoters, the design is modular; that is, it can be reconnected to integrate different input signals and the output can be used to drive different cellular responses. We demonstrate this modularity by wiring the gate to integrate natural promoters (responding to Mg2+ and AI-1) and using it to implement a phenotypic output (invasion of mammalian cells). A mathematical model of the transfer function is derived and parameterized using experimental data.

Anderson, J Christopher; Voigt, Christopher A; Arkin, Adam P

2007-01-01

118

Eigenvalue Spectra of Modular Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large variety of dynamical processes that take place on networks can be expressed in terms of the spectral properties of some linear operator which reflects how the dynamical rules depend on the network topology. Often, such spectral features are theoretically obtained by considering only local node properties, such as degree distributions. Many networks, however, possess large-scale modular structures that can drastically influence their spectral characteristics and which are neglected in such simplified descriptions. Here, we obtain in a unified fashion the spectrum of a large family of operators, including the adjacency, Laplacian, and normalized Laplacian matrices, for networks with generic modular structure, in the limit of large degrees. We focus on the conditions necessary for the merging of the isolated eigenvalues with the continuous band of the spectrum, after which the planted modular structure can no longer be easily detected by spectral methods. This is a crucial transition point which determines when a modular structure is strong enough to affect a given dynamical process. We show that this transition happens in general at different points for the different matrices, and hence the detectability threshold can vary significantly, depending on the operator chosen. Equivalently, the sensitivity to the modular structure of the different dynamical processes associated with each matrix will be different, given the same large-scale structure present in the network. Furthermore, we show that, with the exception of the Laplacian matrix, the different transitions coalesce into the same point for the special case where the modules are homogeneous but separate otherwise.

Peixoto, Tiago P.

2013-08-01

119

Bad communities with high modularity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss some problematic aspects of Newman and Girvan's modularity function QN. Given a graph G, the modularity of G can be written as QN = Qf - Q0, where Qf is the intracluster edge fraction of G and Q0 is the expected intracluster edge fraction of the null model, i.e., a randomly connected graph with same expected degree distribution as G. It follows that the maximization of QN must accomodate two factors pulling in opposite directions:Qf favors a small number of clusters and Q0 favors many balanced (i.e., with approximately equal degrees) clusters. In certain cases the Q0 term can cause overestimation of the true cluster number; this is the opposite of the well-known underestimation effect caused by the "resolution limit" of modularity. We illustrate the overestimation effect by constructing families of graphs with a "natural" community structure which, however, does not maximize modularity. In fact, we show there exist graphs G with a "natural clustering" V of G and another, balanced clustering U of G such that (i) the pair (G,U) has higher modularity than (G,V) and (ii) V and U are arbitrarily different.

Kehagias, Ath.; Pitsoulis, L.

2013-07-01

120

Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or \\

D. Meunier; R. Lambiotte; A. Fornito; K. D. Ersche; E. T. Bullmore

2010-01-01

121

Modular cogeneration: full steam ahead  

SciTech Connect

Modular cogeneration systems are coming of age, but if developers in the field expect to meet analysts' market growth projections, they need to move faster. Despite tax law changes, new market niches are emerging even though the industry is not living up to the optimistic expectations. Part of the blame must go to lower world oil prices and the stabilization of baseload costs, as well as a drop in the cost of money. The trend away from regulated utilities building large central power plants and toward private financing of future capacity works in favor of cogeneration. Another positive factor is the increasing modularity of the systems, which reduces installation costs.

Stoiaken, L.N.

1987-09-01

122

Corrosion of modular hip prostheses.  

PubMed

Nine uncemented hip prostheses of modular design were revised because of late infection (2 cases), femoral stem loosening or fracture (2), loosening of threaded cups (3) and protrusion of bipolar cups (2). At surgery we found tissue discoloration and macroscopic corrosion in four of the nine prostheses, located at the head-neck junction. Histological examination in most cases showed extensive necrosis associated with metal particles, indicating metal toxicity. Metallographic examination of the prosthetic heads revealed structural imperfections and inhomogeneity of the metal. We suggest that the crevice between the head and neck is a potential site of corrosion in modular designs. PMID:2071637

Mathiesen, E B; Lindgren, J U; Blomgren, G G; Reinholt, F P

1991-07-01

123

Integrated modular engine configuration options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engine concepts characterized by modular architecture, advanced technologies, and enhanced operability applicability to a wide range of missions (i.e., upper stage, space-based, transfer, lunar lander, ascent, and Mars lander propulsion systems). Two widely different propulsion system applications, a launch vehicle upper stage and a lunar lander vehicle, were developed around a common propulsion system architecture. These Integrated Modular Engine (IME) systems include propellant tanks, propellant distribution, and the rocket engines. This approach focused on automating and minimizing operations required for preparing and placing a propulsion system into operation. The versatility of the IME system architecture is described along with options to further integrate stage or vehicle functions.

Harmon, T. J.; Briley, G. L.

1993-11-01

124

Modular radioisotope AMTEC power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alakli Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) technology is extremely amenable to a modular configuration. Several modular designs have been proposed for coupling to the radioisotope general purpose heat source (GPHS). Current AMTEC cell designs, producing approximately 5 W at over 20% efficiency, can be integrated into a radioisotope heated module that provides 10-28 per 250 Wth GPHS. The mass of these modules is approximately 4 kg. The cell design used in this concept is under development. The first generation model has already been operated for one year. Smaller, higher efficiency cells are now being fabricated.

Sievers, Robert K.; Hunt, Thomas K.; Ivanenok, Joseph F.; Pantolin, Jan E.; Butkiewicz, David A.

1993-01-01

125

Using Neural Networks to Modularize Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes our experience with designing and using a module architecture assistant, an intelligent tool to help human software architects improve the modularity of large programs. The tool models modularization as nearest-neighbor clustering and classification, and uses the model to make recommendations for improving modularity by rearranging module membership. The tool learns similarity judgments that match those of the

Robert W. Schwanke; Stephen José Hanson

1994-01-01

126

The Modular Mind and Intrapersonal Communication Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on a prior model on modularity of the brain, a new modular model of intrapersonal communication was developed which focuses on brain processing, encompassing both the structures and the functions of those structures in the creation of messages. The modular mind is a bio-social model of communication which presupposes a relationship between…

Stacks, Don W.

127

Modularity in Cognition: Framing the Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Modularity has been the subject of intense debate in the cognitive sciences for more than 2 decades. In some cases, misunderstandings have impeded conceptual progress. Here the authors identify arguments about modularity that either have been abandoned or were never held by proponents of modular views of the mind. The authors review arguments…

Barrett, H. Clark; Kurzban, Robert

2006-01-01

128

3-d modular gripper design tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a ...

R. G. Brown R. C. Brost

1997-01-01

129

Atomic force microscopy reveals the mechanical design of a modular protein  

PubMed Central

Tandem modular proteins underlie the elasticity of natural adhesives, cell adhesion proteins, and muscle proteins. The fundamental unit of elastic proteins is their individually folded modules. Here, we use protein engineering to construct multimodular proteins composed of Ig modules of different mechanical strength. We examine the mechanical properties of the resulting tandem modular proteins by using single protein atomic force microscopy. We show that by combining modules of known mechanical strength, we can generate proteins with novel elastic properties. Our experiments reveal the simple mechanical design of modular proteins and open the way for the engineering of elastic proteins with defined mechanical properties, which can be used in tissue and fiber engineering.

Li, Hongbin; Oberhauser, Andres F.; Fowler, Susan B.; Clarke, Jane; Fernandez, Julio M.

2000-01-01

130

Welding Thrives on Modular System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The welding training program at Kirkwood Community College, Iowa, combines modular instruction, video tape technology, variable entry and exit registration, competency-based evaluation, self-pacing, and student-centered learning environment. Each learning module includes behavioral objectives, tests, lessons and materials, and completion…

Lockhart, Derrell C.

1977-01-01

131

Spreadsheet Investigations in Modular Arithmetic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular arithm etic has sometimes been regarded as a bit of a curiosity, at least by those unfamiliar with its importance to both abstract algebra and number theory, and with its numerous applications. However, with the ubiquity of fast digital computers, and the need for reliable digital security systems such as RSA, knowledge of this important branch of mathematics is

Steve Sugden

132

Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its

Kursat B. Bekar

2008-01-01

133

Integrated Modular Engine technology needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Integrated Modular Engine (IME) system conceptual design has been developed for meeting the upper stage propulsion requirements. This design was used to identify key technical areas for further development and demonstration. A number of factors are favorable for introducing advanced technologies: new materials are available, controls and health monitoring are vastly more capable, and new fabrication methods are coming

Timothy J. Harmon; Gary Briley; Ron Pauckert; John Vilja

1993-01-01

134

CAMAC Modular Programmable Function Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger...

G. W. Turner S. Suehiro R. W. Hendricks

1980-01-01

135

Modular invariance and the odderon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identify a new symmetry for the equations governing odderon amplitudes, corresponding in the Regge limit of QCD to the exchange of 3 reggeized gluons. The symmetry is a modular invariance with respect to the unique normal subgroup of SL(2, Z) of index 2. This leads to a natural description of the Hamiltonian and conservation-law operators as acting on the

Romuald Janik

1996-01-01

136

Space active modular materials experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ballistic Missile Defence Organization is flying the Space Active Modular Materials Experiments (SAMMES), test of contamination and space environment effects on materials on board the Space Test Research Vehicle-2. This paper describes the experiment architecture, the instruments, and the sample suite. Notional descriptions of operations are provided to highlight the objectives and capabilities of SAMMES.

Graham S. Arnold; David E. Brinza; P. Joshi; D. N. Keener

1998-01-01

137

A programmable, modular CNN cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental monolithic implementation of a programmable cellular neural network (CNN) is reported. It overcomes some of the characteristics and restrictions inherent in CMOS VLSI technologies, and allows an arbitrarily large continuous-time analog CNN to be built up by modularly connecting CNN chips with a modest number of cells. The template values are step-wise programmable, with values chosen for functionality

D. Lim; G. S. Moschytz

1994-01-01

138

Modular Multiplication Without Trial Division  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let N > 1. We present a method for multiplying two integers (called N-residues) modulo N while avoiding division by N. N-residues are represented in a nonstandard way, so this method is useful only if several computations are done modulo one N. The addition and subtraction algorithms are unchanged. 1. Description. Some algorithms (1), (2), (4), (5) require extensive modular

Peter L. Montgomery

1985-01-01

139

Defensive Strategies of Modular Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convergences concomitant with the occurrence of modular growth among systematically remote plant and invertebrate taxa not only reflect similar optimal ways of exploiting resources such as space, but also common defensive requirements among such organisms. This paper analyses the kinds of unfavourable interspecific interactions, principally predation, epibiosis, and endobiosis, which are found among the major aquatic invertebrate groups that may

P. E. J. Dyrynda

1986-01-01

140

Expressive Pointcuts for Increased Modularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In aspect-oriented programming, pointcuts are used to describe cross- cutting structure. Pointcuts that abstract over irrelevant implementation details are clearly desired to better support maintainability and modular reasoning. We present an analysis which shows that current pointcut languages support lo- calization of crosscutting concerns but are problematic with respect to infor- mation hiding. To cope with the problem, we present

Klaus Ostermann; Mira Mezini; Christoph Bockisch

2005-01-01

141

The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS)  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) is being developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for use in facilities where mains power is available and the separation of the Camera and Recording Control Unit is desirable. The system is being developed under the US Program for Technical Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards (POTAS). The MIVS is designed to be a user friendly system allowing operation with minimal effort and training. The system software, through the use of a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and four soft keys, leads the inspector through the setup procedures to accomplish the intended surveillance or maintenance task. Review of surveillance data is accomplished with the use of a Portable Review Station. This Review Station will aid the inspector in the review process and determine the number of missed video scenes during a surveillance period.

Schneider, S.L.; Sonnier, C.S.

1987-01-01

142

The modular integrated video system (MIVS)  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) is being developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for use in facilities where mains power is available and the separation of the Camera and Recording Control Unit is desirable. The system is being developed under the US Program for Technical Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards (POTAS). The MIVS is designed to be a user-friendly system, allowing operation with minimal effort and training. The system software, through the use of a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and four soft keys, leads the inspector through the setup procedures to accomplish the intended surveillance or maintenance task. Review of surveillance data is accomplished with the use of a Portable Review Station. This Review Station will aid the inspector in the review process and determine the number of missed video scenes during a surveillance period.

Schneider, S.L.; Sonnier, C.S.

1987-07-01

143

Eigenvalue spectra of modular networks.  

PubMed

A large variety of dynamical processes that take place on networks can be expressed in terms of the spectral properties of some linear operator which reflects how the dynamical rules depend on the network topology. Often, such spectral features are theoretically obtained by considering only local node properties, such as degree distributions. Many networks, however, possess large-scale modular structures that can drastically influence their spectral characteristics and which are neglected in such simplified descriptions. Here, we obtain in a unified fashion the spectrum of a large family of operators, including the adjacency, Laplacian, and normalized Laplacian matrices, for networks with generic modular structure, in the limit of large degrees. We focus on the conditions necessary for the merging of the isolated eigenvalues with the continuous band of the spectrum, after which the planted modular structure can no longer be easily detected by spectral methods. This is a crucial transition point which determines when a modular structure is strong enough to affect a given dynamical process. We show that this transition happens in general at different points for the different matrices, and hence the detectability threshold can vary significantly, depending on the operator chosen. Equivalently, the sensitivity to the modular structure of the different dynamical processes associated with each matrix will be different, given the same large-scale structure present in the network. Furthermore, we show that, with the exception of the Laplacian matrix, the different transitions coalesce into the same point for the special case where the modules are homogeneous but separate otherwise. PMID:24033075

Peixoto, Tiago P

2013-08-26

144

Modular architecture of protein structures and allosteric communications: potential implications for signaling proteins and regulatory linkages  

PubMed Central

Background Allosteric communications are vital for cellular signaling. Here we explore a relationship between protein architectural organization and shortcuts in signaling pathways. Results We show that protein domains consist of modules interconnected by residues that mediate signaling through the shortest pathways. These mediating residues tend to be located at the inter-modular boundaries, which are more rigid and display a larger number of long-range interactions than intra-modular regions. The inter-modular boundaries contain most of the residues centrally conserved in the protein fold, which may be crucial for information transfer between amino acids. Our approach to modular decomposition relies on a representation of protein structures as residue-interacting networks, and removal of the most central residue contacts, which are assumed to be crucial for allosteric communications. The modular decomposition of 100 multi-domain protein structures indicates that modules constitute the building blocks of domains. The analysis of 13 allosteric proteins revealed that modules characterize experimentally identified functional regions. Based on the study of an additional functionally annotated dataset of 115 proteins, we propose that high-modularity modules include functional sites and are the basic functional units. We provide examples (the G?s subunit and P450 cytochromes) to illustrate that the modular architecture of active sites is linked to their functional specialization. Conclusion Our method decomposes protein structures into modules, allowing the study of signal transmission between functional sites. A modular configuration might be advantageous: it allows signaling proteins to expand their regulatory linkages and may elicit a broader range of control mechanisms either via modular combinations or through modulation of inter-modular linkages.

del Sol, Antonio; Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Amoros, Dolors; Nussinov, Ruth

2007-01-01

145

Development of energy efficient modular architectural textile structures. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research program was aimed at the development of energy efficient architecture using textile structures. Design concepts for modular units were developed using cell structures. Roof and wall panels were constructed and evaluated to demonstrate the design concept. Test results indicated tubular fiberglass cell structures could provide thermal insulation R-value well above 2.4. Exploratory study was also carried out to demonstrate the possibility of forming complex shapes for structural architectural applications.

Ko, F.K.; Harris, J.A.; Messinger, A.

1983-05-01

146

On the Modular Design of Mughal Riverfront Funerary Gardens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modular designs of two significant funerary gardens of the Mughal period, the Humayun’s tomb and Taj Mahal complexes,\\u000a have been analyzed. The inherent symmetry in the designs is made evident through an analysis of the dimensions in terms of\\u000a units mentioned in the Arthasastra, in particular the dhanus (D) measuring 108 angulams and vitasti (V) measuring 12 angulams, with

R. Balasubramaniam

2010-01-01

147

Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor concept  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary conceptual study is made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR). A steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor is proposed for use as a central electric-power station. The MSR concept combines the physics of the classic stellarator confinement topology with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. The physics basis of the design point is described together with supporting magnetics, coil-force, and stress computations. The approach and results presented herein will be modified in the course of ongoing work to form a firmer basis for a detailed conceptual design of the MSR.

Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

1981-08-01

148

Molecular Ordering in Nematics: The Modular Formulation of the Potential of Mean Torque  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general framework for the description of orientational ordering of (flexible) molecules in the nematic phase in terms of ordering properties of submolecular units in a modular fashion is presented. Various choices of the elementary submolecular units (segments) leading to different representations of the potential of mean torque are discussed. Transformations among such representations are studied in order to clarify

D. J. Photinos; E. T. Samulski; H. Toriumi

1991-01-01

149

CAMAC modular programmable function generator  

SciTech Connect

A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

1980-12-01

150

Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks.

Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

2013-02-01

151

Multidimensional bioseparation with modular microfluidics  

DOEpatents

A multidimensional chemical separation and analysis system is described including a prototyping platform and modular microfluidic components capable of rapid and convenient assembly, alteration and disassembly of numerous candidate separation systems. Partial or total computer control of the separation system is possible. Single or multiple alternative processing trains can be tested, optimized and/or run in parallel. Examples related to the separation and analysis of human bodily fluids are given.

Chirica, Gabriela S.; Renzi, Ronald F.

2013-08-27

152

Ghosts in modular representation theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ghost over a finite p-group G is a map between modular representations of G which is invisible in Tate cohomology. Motivated by the failure of the generating hypothesis—the statement that ghosts between finite-dimensional G-representations factor through a projective—we define the ghost number of kG to be the smallest integer l such that the composite of any l ghosts between

Sunil K. Chebolu; J. Daniel Christensen; Ján Miná?

2008-01-01

153

MEMS modular packaging and interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industrial branches other than automotive industry may benefit from MEMS technology. Most of them require custom-designed MEMS in mid-scale volumes, which are at present not available at acceptable costs. A modular MEMS packaging and interface concept may contribute to less costly solutions with faster time to market. A 3D stackable packaging concept, the Top-Bottom Ball Grid Array TB-BGA, which

Matthias Schuenemann; Kourosh Amiri Jam; Volker Grosser; Rudolf Leutenbauer; Gerd Bauer; Wolfgang Schaefer; Herbert Reichl

2000-01-01

154

The concept of modularity: diffusion from manufacturing to service production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Modules and modularity have been popular concepts in operations research and management rhetoric for decades. Nevertheless, it seems that there is no single universal definition of modularity for classical research themes such as modularity in physical products or modular manufacturing. The purpose of this paper is to describe the current state of modularity research and to clarify the

Anu Bask; Mervi Lipponen; Mervi Rajahonka; Markku Tinnilä

2010-01-01

155

Fitness and structure landscapes for pre-miRNA processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processing from pre-miRNA to mature miRNA in plants involves a mechanism, which depends on an extended stem in the secondary structure of the pre-miRNA. Here, we show how natural selection acts on this secondary structure to produce evolutionary conservation of the processing mechanism together with modularity of the pre-miRNA molecules, making this molecular function independent of others. Our main results are: 1. Selection on miRNA processing can be described by a fitness landscape which depends directly on the secondary structure of the pre-miRNA. 2. This fitness landscape predicts the divergence of the phenotype between orthologous pre-miRNA molecules from different species. 3. Actual pre-miRNA structures are modular: their phenotype is significantly less affected by deleterious mutations in the remainder of the molecule than for random RNA molecules.

Bundschuh, Ralf; de Meaux, Juliette; Lassig, Michael

2011-03-01

156

The Protist Ribosomal Reference database (PR2): a catalog of unicellular eukaryote Small Sub-Unit rRNA sequences with curated taxonomy  

PubMed Central

The interrogation of genetic markers in environmental meta-barcoding studies is currently seriously hindered by the lack of taxonomically curated reference data sets for the targeted genes. The Protist Ribosomal Reference database (PR2, http://ssu-rrna.org/) provides a unique access to eukaryotic small sub-unit (SSU) ribosomal RNA and DNA sequences, with curated taxonomy. The database mainly consists of nuclear-encoded protistan sequences. However, metazoans, land plants, macrosporic fungi and eukaryotic organelles (mitochondrion, plastid and others) are also included because they are useful for the analysis of high-troughput sequencing data sets. Introns and putative chimeric sequences have been also carefully checked. Taxonomic assignation of sequences consists of eight unique taxonomic fields. In total, 136 866 sequences are nuclear encoded, 45 708 (36 501 mitochondrial and 9657 chloroplastic) are from organelles, the remaining being putative chimeric sequences. The website allows the users to download sequences from the entire and partial databases (including representative sequences after clustering at a given level of similarity). Different web tools also allow searches by sequence similarity. The presence of both rRNA and rDNA sequences, taking into account introns (crucial for eukaryotic sequences), a normalized eight terms ranked-taxonomy and updates of new GenBank releases were made possible by a long-term collaboration between experts in taxonomy and computer scientists.

Guillou, Laure; Bachar, Dipankar; Audic, Stephane; Bass, David; Berney, Cedric; Bittner, Lucie; Boutte, Christophe; Burgaud, Gaetan; de Vargas, Colomban; Decelle, Johan; del Campo, Javier; Dolan, John R.; Dunthorn, Micah; Edvardsen, Bente; Holzmann, Maria; Kooistra, Wiebe H.C.F.; Lara, Enrique; Le Bescot, Noan; Logares, Ramiro; Mahe, Frederic; Massana, Ramon; Montresor, Marina; Morard, Raphael; Not, Fabrice; Pawlowski, Jan; Probert, Ian; Sauvadet, Anne-Laure; Siano, Raffaele; Stoeck, Thorsten; Vaulot, Daniel; Zimmermann, Pascal; Christen, Richard

2013-01-01

157

The Protist Ribosomal Reference database (PR2): a catalog of unicellular eukaryote small sub-unit rRNA sequences with curated taxonomy.  

PubMed

The interrogation of genetic markers in environmental meta-barcoding studies is currently seriously hindered by the lack of taxonomically curated reference data sets for the targeted genes. The Protist Ribosomal Reference database (PR(2), http://ssu-rrna.org/) provides a unique access to eukaryotic small sub-unit (SSU) ribosomal RNA and DNA sequences, with curated taxonomy. The database mainly consists of nuclear-encoded protistan sequences. However, metazoans, land plants, macrosporic fungi and eukaryotic organelles (mitochondrion, plastid and others) are also included because they are useful for the analysis of high-troughput sequencing data sets. Introns and putative chimeric sequences have been also carefully checked. Taxonomic assignation of sequences consists of eight unique taxonomic fields. In total, 136 866 sequences are nuclear encoded, 45 708 (36 501 mitochondrial and 9657 chloroplastic) are from organelles, the remaining being putative chimeric sequences. The website allows the users to download sequences from the entire and partial databases (including representative sequences after clustering at a given level of similarity). Different web tools also allow searches by sequence similarity. The presence of both rRNA and rDNA sequences, taking into account introns (crucial for eukaryotic sequences), a normalized eight terms ranked-taxonomy and updates of new GenBank releases were made possible by a long-term collaboration between experts in taxonomy and computer scientists. PMID:23193267

Guillou, Laure; Bachar, Dipankar; Audic, Stéphane; Bass, David; Berney, Cédric; Bittner, Lucie; Boutte, Christophe; Burgaud, Gaétan; de Vargas, Colomban; Decelle, Johan; Del Campo, Javier; Dolan, John R; Dunthorn, Micah; Edvardsen, Bente; Holzmann, Maria; Kooistra, Wiebe H C F; Lara, Enrique; Le Bescot, Noan; Logares, Ramiro; Mahé, Frédéric; Massana, Ramon; Montresor, Marina; Morard, Raphael; Not, Fabrice; Pawlowski, Jan; Probert, Ian; Sauvadet, Anne-Laure; Siano, Raffaele; Stoeck, Thorsten; Vaulot, Daniel; Zimmermann, Pascal; Christen, Richard

2012-11-27

158

Ribosomal RNA genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I. Physical map of the repeating unit and location of the regions coding for 5 S, 5.8 S, 18 S, and 25 S ribosomal RNAs.  

PubMed

The organization of the ribosomal DNA repeating unit from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been analyzed. A cloned ribosomal DNA repeating unit has been mapped with the restriction enzymes Xma 1, Kpn 1, HindIII, Xba 1, Bgl I + II, and EcoRI. The locations of the sequences which code for 5 S, 5.8 S, 18 S, and 25 S ribosomal RNAs have been determined by hybridization of the purified RNA species with restriction endonuclease generated fragments of the repeating unit. The position of the 5.8 S ribosomal DNA sequences within the repeat was also established by sequencing the DNA which codes for 83 nucleotides at the 5' end of 5.8 S ribosomal RNA. The polarity of the 35 S ribosomal RNA precursor has been established by a combination of hybridization analysis and DNA sequence determination and is 5'-18 S, 5.8 S, 25 S-3'. PMID:334774

Bell, G I; DeGennaro, L J; Gelfand, D H; Bishop, R J; Valenzuela, P; Rutter, W J

1977-11-25

159

Validation of a wireless modular monitoring system for structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wireless sensing unit for use in a Wireless Modular Monitoring System (WiMMS) has been designed and constructed. Drawing upon advanced technological developments in the areas of wireless communications, low-power microprocessors and micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS) sensing transducers, the wireless sensing unit represents a high-performance yet low-cost solution to monitoring the short-term and long-term performance of structures. A sophisticated reduced instruction set computer (RISC) microcontroller is placed at the core of the unit to accommodate on-board computations, measurement filtering and data interrogation algorithms. The functionality of the wireless sensing unit is validated through various experiments involving multiple sensing transducers interfaced to the sensing unit. In particular, MEMS-based accelerometers are used as the primary sensing transducer in this study's validation experiments. A five degree of freedom scaled test structure mounted upon a shaking table is employed for system validation.

Lynch, Jerome P.; Law, Kincho H.; Kiremidjian, Anne S.; Carryer, John E.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Partridge, Aaron; Sundararajan, Arvind

2002-06-01

160

Embeddings of Simple Modular Extended RDF  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Extended Resource Description Framework has been proposed to equip RDF graphs with weak and strong negation, as well as\\u000a derivation rules, increasing the expressiveness of ordinary RDF graphs. In parallel, the Modular Web framework enables collaborative\\u000a and controlled reasoning in the Semantic Web. In this paper we exploit the use of the Modular Web framework to specify the\\u000a modular

Carlos Viegas Damásio; Anastasia Analyti; Grigoris Antoniou

2010-01-01

161

Greens functions, Hamiltonians and modular automorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate, under circumstances that allow the construction of a “thermodynamic” hamiltonian, that Gibbs equilibrium states ? are modular states in the Tomita-Takesaki sense. The thermodynamic Greens functionsG are connected to these modular states, and the associated group of modular automorphisms s, by the identification\\u000a$$G(A, B; t) = \\\\omega (A\\\\sigma _t (B))$$\\u000a (A andB are observables) whenever the thermodynamic

Ola Bratteli; Derek W. Robinson

1976-01-01

162

Modular and generic programming with interpreterlib  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular monadic semantics (MMS) is a well-known technique for structuring modular denotational semantic definitions. Families of language constructs are independently defined using syntactic functors and semantic algebras that can be combined in a mix-and-match fashion to create complete language definitions. We introduce InterpreterLib, a Haskell library that implements and extends MMS techniques for writing composable analyses. In addition to modular

Philip Weaver; Garrin Kimmell; Nicolas Frisby; Perry Alexander

2007-01-01

163

MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model -- Documentation of the Model-Layer Variable-Direction Horizontal Anisotropy (LVDA) capability of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) package  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents the model-layer variable-direction horizontal anisotropy (LVDA) capability of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package of MODFLOW-2000. The LVDA capability allows the principal directions of horizontal anisotropy to be different than the model-grid row and column directions, and for the directions to vary on a cell-by-cell basis within model layers. The HUF Package calculates effective hydraulic properties for model grid cells based on hydraulic properties of hydrogeologic units with thicknesses defined independently of the model layers. These hydraulic properties include, among other characteristics, hydraulic conductivity and a horizontal anisotropy ratio. Using the LVDA capability, horizontal anisotropy direction is defined for model grid cells within which one or more hydrogeologic units may occur. For each grid cell, the HUF Package calculates the effective horizontal hydraulic conductivity along the primary direction of anisotropy using the hydrogeologic-unit hydraulic conductivities, and calculates the effective horizontal hydraulic conductivity along the orthogonal anisotropy direction using the effective primary direction hydraulic conductivities and horizontal anisotropy ratios. The direction assigned to the model layer effective primary hydraulic conductivity is specified using a new data set defined by the LVDA capability, when active, to calculate coefficients needed to solve the ground-water flow equation. Use of the LVDA capability is illustrated in four simulation examples, which also serve to verify hydraulic heads, advective-travel paths, and sensitivities calculated using the LVDA capability. This version of the LVDA capability defines variable-direction horizontal anisotropy using model layers, not the hydrogeologic units defined by the HUF Package. This difference needs to be taken into account when designing model layers and hydrogeologic units to produce simulations that accurately represent a given field problem. This might be a reason, for example, to make model layer boundaries coincide with hydrogeologic-unit boundaries in all or part of a model grid.

Anderman, Evan R.; Kipp, K. L.; Hill, Mary C.; Valstar, Johan; Neupauer, R. M.

2002-01-01

164

A Modular Cloning System for Standardized Assembly of Multigene Constructs  

PubMed Central

The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize biotechnology through the design of organisms with novel phenotypes useful for medicine, agriculture and industry. However, a limiting factor is the ability of current methods to assemble complex DNA molecules encoding multiple genetic elements in various predefined arrangements. We present here a hierarchical modular cloning system that allows the creation at will and with high efficiency of any eukaryotic multigene construct, starting from libraries of defined and validated basic modules containing regulatory and coding sequences. This system is based on the ability of type IIS restriction enzymes to assemble multiple DNA fragments in a defined linear order. We constructed a 33 kb DNA molecule containing 11 transcription units made from 44 individual basic modules in only three successive cloning steps. This modular cloning (MoClo) system can be readily automated and will be extremely useful for applications such as gene stacking and metabolic engineering.

Gruetzner, Ramona; Werner, Stefan; Marillonnet, Sylvestre

2011-01-01

165

Optofluidic backplane as a platform for modular system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most Lab-on-a-Chip systems require a platform with external supply and control units to be operated. In this manuscript, we report on the development of a modular optoelectronic microfluidic backplane, enabling the flexible interconnection, supply, and control of microfluidic and optofluidic devices. The developed system was fabricated in polymers and consists of backplane modules that may be individually connected with each other. Each module holds one dedicated port on top for a device to be operated. In particular, we introduce an optical backplane module based on a novel optomechanical light switch to guide light to the device of choice within the system. This modular approach allows assembling an arbitrary number of different devices in three dimensions. In conclusion, the backplane provides a configurable platform for multiple optofluidic applications.

Brammer, M.; Megnin, C.; Siegfarth, M.; Sobich, S.; Hofmann, A.; Rabus, D. G.; Mappes, T.

2012-02-01

166

48 CFR 39.103 - Modular contracting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.103 Modular...Incremental Acquisition of Information Technology, of the Clinger-Cohen...Consistent with the agency's information technology architecture,...

2011-10-01

167

Modular control of endothelial sheet migration  

PubMed Central

Growth factor-induced migration of endothelial cell monolayers enables embryonic development, wound healing, and angiogenesis. Although collective migration is widespread and therapeutically relevant, the underlying mechanism by which cell monolayers respond to growth factor, sense directional signals, induce motility, and coordinate individual cell movements is only partially understood. Here we used RNAi to identify 100 regulatory proteins that enhance or suppress endothelial sheet migration into cell-free space. We measured multiple live-cell migration parameters for all siRNA perturbations and found that each targeted protein primarily regulates one of four functional outputs: cell motility, directed migration, cell–cell coordination, or cell density. We demonstrate that cell motility regulators drive random, growth factor-independent motility in the presence or absence of open space. In contrast, directed migration regulators selectively transduce growth factor signals to direct cells along the monolayer boundary toward open space. Lastly, we found that regulators of cell–cell coordination are growth factor-independent and reorient randomly migrating cells inside the sheet when boundary cells begin to migrate. Thus, cells transition from random to collective migration through a modular control system, whereby growth factor signals convert boundary cells into pioneers, while cells inside the monolayer reorient and follow pioneers through growth factor-independent migration and cell–cell coordination.

Vitorino, Philip; Meyer, Tobias

2008-01-01

168

Modular integrated video system (MIVS) review station  

SciTech Connect

An unattended video surveillance unit, the Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS), has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for International Safeguards use. An important support element of this system is a semi-automatic Review Station. Four component modules, including an 8 mm video tape recorder, a 4-inch video monitor, a power supply and control electronics utilizing a liquid crystal display (LCD) are mounted in a suitcase for probability. The unit communicates through the interactive, menu-driven LCD and may be operated on facility power through the world. During surveillance, the MIVS records video information at specified time intervals, while also inserting consecutive scene numbers and tamper event information. Using either of two available modes of operation, the Review Station reads the inserted information and counts the number of missed scenes and/or tamper events encountered on the tapes, and reports this to the user on the LCD. At the end of a review session, the system will summarize the results of the review, stop the recorder, and advise the user of the completion of the review. In addition, the Review Station will check for any video loss on the tape.

Garcia, M.L.

1988-01-01

169

Modular power plant for the combined production of electrical and thermal energy and installation comprising a plurality of modular power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular power plant comprises an internal combustion engine coupled to an electrical machine. The electrical machine may be used to start the engine and to generate electrical energy. The power plant is provided with an electronic control and protection system comprising an electronic processing and control unit arranged to operate in a first mode when the power plant is

Ausiello

1985-01-01

170

Integrated modular engine - Reliability assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major driver in the increased interest in integrated modular engine configurations is the desire for ultra reliability for future rocket propulsion systems. The concept of configuring multiple sets of turbomachinery networked to multiple thrust chamber assemblies has been identified as an approach with potential to achieve significant reliability enhancement. This paper summarizes the results of a reliability study comparing networked systems vs. discrete engine installations, both with and without major module and engine redundancy. The study was conducted for gas generator, expander, and staged combustion cycles. The results are representative of either booster or upper-stage applications and are indicative of either plug or nonplug installation philosophies.

Parsley, R. C.; Ward, T. B.

1992-07-01

171

MODULAR ANALYTICS: A New Approach to Automation in the Clinical Laboratory.  

PubMed

MODULAR ANALYTICS (Roche Diagnostics) (MODULAR ANALYTICS, Elecsys and Cobas Integra are trademarks of a member of the Roche Group) represents a new approach to automation for the clinical chemistry laboratory. It consists of a control unit, a core unit with a bidirectional multitrack rack transportation system, and three distinct kinds of analytical modules: an ISE module, a P800 module (44 photometric tests, throughput of up to 800 tests/h), and a D2400 module (16 photometric tests, throughput up to 2400 tests/h). MODULAR ANALYTICS allows customised configurations for various laboratory workloads. The performance and practicability of MODULAR ANALYTICS were evaluated in an international multicentre study at 16 sites. Studies included precision, accuracy, analytical range, carry-over, and workflow assessment. More than 700 000 results were obtained during the course of the study. Median between-day CVs were typically less than 3% for clinical chemistries and less than 6% for homogeneous immunoassays. Median recoveries for nearly all standardised reference materials were within 5% of assigned values. Method comparisons versus current existing routine instrumentation were clinically acceptable in all cases. During the workflow studies, the work from three to four single workstations was transferred to MODULAR ANALYTICS, which offered over 100 possible methods, with reduction in sample splitting, handling errors, and turnaround time. Typical sample processing time on MODULAR ANALYTICS was less than 30 minutes, an improvement from the current laboratory systems. By combining multiple analytic units in flexible ways, MODULAR ANALYTICS met diverse laboratory needs and offered improvement in workflow over current laboratory situations. It increased overall efficiency while maintaining (or improving) quality. PMID:18924721

Horowitz, Gary L; Zaman, Zahur; Blanckaert, Norbert J C; Chan, Daniel W; Dubois, Jeffrey A; Golaz, Olivier; Mensi, Noury; Keller, Franz; Stolz, Herbert; Klingler, Karl; Marocchi, Alessandro; Prencipe, Lorenzo; McLawhon, Ronald W; Nilsen, Olaug L; Oellerich, Michael; Luthe, Hilmar; Orsonneau, Jean-Luc; Richeux, Gérard; Recio, Fernando; Roldan, Esther; Rymo, Lars; Wicktorsson, Anne-Charlotte; Welch, Shirley L; Wieland, Heinrich; Grawitz, Andrea Busse; Mitsumaki, Hiroshi; McGovern, Margaret; Ng, Katherine; Stockmann, Wolfgang

2005-01-01

172

A new ordered bed modular reactor concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ordered Bed Modular Reactor (OBMR) is an advanced modular HTGR design in which the annular reactor core is filled with an ordered bed of fuel spheres. This arrangement allows fuel elements to be poured into the core cavity which is shaped so that an ordered bed is formed and to be discharged from the core through the opening holes

Jiafu Tian

2007-01-01

173

Modularity and Extreme Edges of the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the spectral properties of a diffusion process taking place on the Internet network focusing on the slowest decaying modes. These modes identify an underlying modular structure roughly corresponding to individual countries. For instance, in the slowest decaying mode the diffusion current flows from Russia to U.S. military sites. Quantitatively the modular structure manifests itself in a 10times larger

Kasper Astrup Eriksen; Ingve Simonsen; Sergei Maslov; Kim Sneppen

2003-01-01

174

Modular Denotational Semantics for Compiler Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show the benefits of applying modular monadic semantics to compiler construction. Modular monadic semantics allows us to define a language with a rich set of features from reusable building blocks, and use program transformation and equational reasoning to improve code. Compared to denotational semantics, reasoning in monadic style offers the added benefits of highly modu- larized proofs and more

Sheng Liang; Paul Hudak

1996-01-01

175

Water Source Heat Pump for Modular Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates and recommends design improvements for a water source heat pump system for mobile homes and modular classrooms. It builds on a previous study that tested a 3-ton geothermal heat pump in a modular classroom at Wilson Mills Elementary School in Johnston County, North Carolina. Water stored in flexible plastic bladders resting on the ground underneath the classroom

Andrew R. Forrest; James W. Leach

2005-01-01

176

Origin of Modularity in Recombination Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modularity is a well-known phenomenon in biology. Modularity implies a hierarchical character, and is manifested in both phenotypic and genotypic levels. A module is defined, in general, as a component which operates relatively independently of other components of the system. The independence is in both the structural and functional levels. How does modularity originate? Evolvability is a selectable trait and modularity enhances evolvability. Thus, under conditions that select for evolvability, we expect to see the emergence of modularity. We used a spin-glass model to simulate the evolution of genomes. This model captures the interactions between amino acids or epistasis between genes. The evolutions include both sequence evolution and structure evolution. The environment changes and recombination plays an important role in evolution. We will present our result of the emergence of modularity, a symmetry breaking of the system. We will present the dependence of modularity on the amplitude and frequency of environment changing. The crucial role of recombination in the emergence of modularity will be discussed as well.

Sun, Jun; Deem, Michael

2007-03-01

177

Modular Building Institute 2000 Educational Showcase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. The articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Elementary K-8 Modular Courtyard"; (2) "School District #33, Chilliwack, BC"; (3) "New Elementary School for Briarwood, NY"; (4) "Addition to Queens Intermediate…

Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

178

Modular microwave subsystems for downsized ATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the feasibility of designing microwave subsystem such as frequency synthesizers and wideband receiver front ends that can be used in the VXI and the MMS (modular measurement system) systems being promoted for downsized ATE (automatic test equipment). Typical examples of proven hardware are presented along with electrical and mechanical specifications to show that realization of modular microwave

M. K. Shandas; GANESH R. BASAWAPATNA

1990-01-01

179

Modular microwave subsystems for downsized ATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the feasibility of designing microwave subsystems such as frequency synthesizers and wideband receiver front ends that can be used in the VXI and the MMS (Modular Measurement System) systems being promoted for downsized ATE (automatic test equipment). Typical examples of proven hardware are presented along with electrical and mechanical specifications to show that realization of modular microwave

Meppalli K. Shandas; Ganesh R. Basawapatna

1990-01-01

180

Modular HTGR Systems Design and Cost Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This summary report describes conceptual designs and cost estimates for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) plants based on the modular reactor concept as a source of process steam. Studies suggest that a modular reactor system (MRS) composed of a ...

1982-01-01

181

On the Existence of Modular Fixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular fixtures are gaining wide use for flexible manu- facturing and job shop machining. A modular fixture is an arrangement of fixture elements (fixels) that will locate and securely hold a given part. Typically, a human combines in- tuition with trial-and-error to design fixtures. In some cas es designers are unable to design a fixture with given fixels and must

Yan Zhuangt; Kenneth Y. Goldberg; Yiu-Chung Wongs

1994-01-01

182

Face recognition using modular Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monolithic Neural Networks are generally prone to sub-optimal performance in highly complex and dimensional problems that hinders learning. Modular Neural Networks employ a divide and conquer strategy to convert a complex problem into a set of simpler problems. In classification this means focus upon local features and making of simpler feature space. The simpler problems in a modular architecture are

D. Sharma; J. Dhar

2010-01-01

183

A Methodology for Modular Representation of Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-based clinical practice guidelines often need to be modified when medical knowledge evolves or when guidelines are implemented in a local setting with specific constraints and preferences. To enable easy modifications to guidelines and maintain their integrity, we have developed a methodology for modular representation of guidelines. Using this approach, we create guidelines in a hierarchical and modular manner. We

Alicia O. Scott-Wright; Robert P. Fischer; Yaron Denekamp; Aziz A. Boxwala

2004-01-01

184

Modular rocket engine control software (MRECS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modular Rocket Engine Control Software (MRECS) Program is a technology demonstration effort designed to advance the state-of-the-art in launch vehicle propulsion systems. Its emphasis is on developing and demonstrating a modular software architecture for a generic, advanced engine control system that will result in lower software maintenance (operations) costs. It effectively accommodates software requirements changes that occur due to

C. Tarrant; J. Crook

1997-01-01

185

Aspect-oriented programming and modular reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects cut new interfaces through the primary decomposition of a system. This implies that in the presence of aspects, the complete interface of a module can only be determined once the complete configuration of modules in the system is known. While this may seem anti-modular, it is an inherent property of crosscutting concerns, and using aspect-oriented programming enables modular reasoning

Gregor Kiczales; Mira Mezini

2005-01-01

186

Modular interactive graphics programming environment  

SciTech Connect

The currently popular device independent graphics packages, such as the SIGGRAPH core System or the Graphical Kernel system, do not support a number of capabilities routinely available in general purpose programming languages. As a result, high performance interactive hardware is not well served, and sophisticated applications are more difficult to reliably program than they should be. In general purpose programming languages, the absence of data types, modularity and parameters would not be tolerated. Yet in preparing tools for programming interactive graphics systems, such capabilities are routinely omitted. This research explores the potential for a modular graphics environment (MGE), proposes one such structure, and demonstrates the feasibility of the MGE. The MGE is a device independent set of structures which is coupled with the capability of a graphics package like the SIGGRAPH Core System would provide the graphics programmer a more complete set of programming tools than currently exists. The added capabilities include: graphical data types, graphics procedures, parameters to graphics procedures, and an interactive librarian. The research is primarily concerned with the potential for such an approach on interactive graphics programming involving dynamic manipulation of images.

Dellenback, S.W.

1985-01-01

187

Modular smoothing and KAM tori  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transformation properties of KAM tori under the action of a modular group on frequencies are analysed, and used for calculating the KAM tori of a Hamiltonian system with one and a half degrees of freedom. First, we derive a relation between the KAM torus with a frequency v, and the KAM torus with the frequency v' = 1/v - [1/v], where [1/v] is the integer part of 1/v, given by a continuous function L1(v) in the double limit v --> m/n and k --> 0, where m/n is a rational frequency and k is a perturbation parameter. The function L1(v) was introduced by Buri?, Percival and Vivaldi, and also gives the transformation properties of the critical parameter as a function of the frequency. This function provides a zeroth order modular smoothing approximation to the invariant tori which is better than a perturbation expansion. The first order corrections to this approximation can be calculated from a function R1(v) that appears to be smooth.

Buri?, Nikola; Percival, Ian C.

1994-02-01

188

Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the existing beam port configuration of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) was designed to test and validate the code package in its entirety, as well as its modules separately. The selected physics code, TORT, and the requisite data such as source distribution, cross-sections, and angular quadratures were comprehensively tested with these computational models. The modular feature and the parallel performance of the code package were also examined using these computational models. Another outcome of these computational models is to provide the necessary background information for determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The first mission of the code package was completed successfully by determining the optimal tank shape which was sought for the current beam tube configuration and two new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The performance of the new beam tube configurations and the current beam tube configuration were evaluated with the new optimal tank shapes determined by MOZAIK. Furthermore, the performance of the code package with the two different optimization strategies were analyzed showing that while GA is capable of achieving higher thermal beam intensity for a given beam tube setup, Min-max produces an optimal shape that is more amenable to machining and manufacturing. The optimal D2O moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK with the current beam port configuration improves the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam port exit end by 9.5%. Similarly, the new tangential beam port configuration (beam port near the core interface) with the optimal moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK improves the thermal neutron beam intensity by a factor of 1.4 compared to the existing beam port configuration (with the existing D2O moderator tank). Another new beam port configuration, radial beam tube configuration, with the optimal moderator tank shape increases the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam tube exit by a factor of 1.8. All these results

Bekar, Kursat B.

189

ASMPKS: an analysis system for modular polyketide synthases  

PubMed Central

Background Polyketides are secondary metabolites of microorganisms with diverse biological activities, including pharmacological functions such as antibiotic, antitumor and agrochemical properties. Polyketides are synthesized by serialized reactions of a set of enzymes called polyketide synthase(PKS)s, which coordinate the elongation of carbon skeletons by the stepwise condensation of short carbon precursors. Due to their importance as drugs, the volume of data on polyketides is rapidly increasing and creating a need for computational analysis methods for efficient polyketide research. Moreover, the increasing use of genetic engineering to research new kinds of polyketides requires genome wide analysis. Results We describe a system named ASMPKS (Analysis System for Modular Polyketide Synthesis) for computational analysis of PKSs against genome sequences. It also provides overall management of information on modular PKS, including polyketide database construction, new PKS assembly, and chain visualization. ASMPKS operates on a web interface to construct the database and to analyze PKSs, allowing polyketide researchers to add their data to this database and to use it easily. In addition, the ASMPKS can predict functional modules for a protein sequence submitted by users, estimate the chemical composition of a polyketide synthesized from the modules, and display the carbon chain structure on the web interface. Conclusion ASMPKS has powerful computation features to aid modular PKS research. As various factors, such as starter units and post-processing, are related to polyketide biosynthesis, ASMPKS will be improved through further development for study of the factors.

Tae, Hongseok; Kong, Eun-Bae; Park, Kiejung

2007-01-01

190

[CuOCl(DABCO)].0.5DABCO.4CHOH ('MFU-5'): Modular synthesis of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework constructed from tetrahedral {l_brace}CuOCl{r_brace} secondary building units and linear organic linkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) based on a tetranuclear copper cluster and a linear organic ligand formulated as [CuOCl(DABCO)].0.5DABCO.4CHOH (denoted as MFU-5, MFU=Metal-Organic Framework, Ulm University; DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), was prepared via solvothermal synthesis. In contrast with common MOF synthesis strategies, MFU-5 is assembled from pre-defined molecular secondary building units, i.e. {l_brace}CuOCl{r_brace} moieties, which become the nodes of the coordination framework. The

Liu Yingya; Maciej Grzywa; Matthias Weil; Dirk Volkmer

2010-01-01

191

Overland Tidal Power Generation Using Modular Tidal Prism  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring sites with sufficient kinetic energy suitable for tidal power generation with sustained currents > 1 to 2 m/s are relatively rare. Yet sites with greater than 3 to 4 m of tidal range are relatively common around the U.S. coastline. Tidal potential does exist along the shoreline but is mostly distributed, and requires an approach which allows trapping and collection to also be conducted in a distributed manner. In this paper we examine the feasibility of generating sustainable tidal power using multiple nearshore tidal energy collection units and present the Modular Tidal Prism (MTP) basin concept. The proposed approach utilizes available tidal potential by conversion into tidal kinetic energy through cyclic expansion and drainage from shallow modular manufactured overland tidal prisms. A preliminary design and configuration of the modular tidal prism basin including inlet channel configuration and basin dimensions was developed. The unique design was shown to sustain momentum in the penstocks during flooding as well as ebbing tidal cycles. The unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was used to subject the proposed design to a number of sensitivity tests and to optimize the size, shape and configuration of MTP basin for peak power generation capacity. The results show that an artificial modular basin with a reasonable footprint (? 300 acres) has the potential to generate 10 to 20 kw average energy through the operation of a small turbine located near the basin outlet. The potential of generating a total of 500 kw to 1 MW of power through a 20 to 40 MTP basin tidal power farms distributed along the coastline of Puget Sound, Washington, is explored.

Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Copping, Andrea

2010-03-01

192

Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment  

SciTech Connect

? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview purposes and is a sampling of advanced SMR concepts, which will be considered as part of the current DOE SMR program but whose estimated deployment time is beyond CAP’s current investment time horizon. Attachment I is the public DOE statement describing the present approach of their SMR Program.

Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

2012-06-01

193

Modular countermine payload for small robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Payloads for small robotic platforms have historically been designed and implemented as platform and task specific solutions. A consequence of this approach is that payloads cannot be deployed on different robotic platforms without substantial re-engineering efforts. To address this issue, we developed a modular countermine payload that is designed from the ground-up to be platform agnostic. The payload consists of the multi-mission payload controller unit (PCU) coupled with the configurable mission specific threat detection, navigation and marking payloads. The multi-mission PCU has all the common electronics to control and interface to all the payloads. It also contains the embedded processor that can be used to run the navigational and control software. The PCU has a very flexible robot interface which can be configured to interface to various robot platforms. The threat detection payload consists of a two axis sweeping arm and the detector. The navigation payload consists of several perception sensors that are used for terrain mapping, obstacle detection and navigation. Finally, the marking payload consists of a dual-color paint marking system. Through the multimission PCU, all these payloads are packaged in a platform agnostic way to allow deployment on multiple robotic platforms, including Talon and Packbot.

Herman, Herman; Few, Doug; Versteeg, Roelof; Valois, Jean-Sebastien; McMahill, Jeff; Licitra, Michael; Henciak, Edward

2010-04-01

194

Analytical Spectroscopy Using Modular Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the development of three analytical spectroscopy experiments that compare the determination of salicylic acid (SA) content in aspirin tablets. The experiments are based on UV vis, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies and utilize modular spectroscopic components. Students assemble their own instruments, optimize them with respect to signal-to-noise, generate calibration curves, determine the SA content in retail aspirin tablets, and assign features in the respective spectra to functional groups within the active material. Using this approach in the discovery-based setting, the students gain invaluable insight into method-specific parameters, such as instrumental components, sample preparation, and analytical capability. In addition, the students learn the fundamentals of fiber optics and signal processing using the low-cost CCD based spectroscopic components.

Patterson, Brian M.; Danielson, Neil D.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Sommer, André J.

2003-12-01

195

A modular wideband sound absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption coefficients were measured of various depths of RW2 grade Rockwool laid directly on the floor of the ISO-Standard reverberation room at BBC Research Department. The Rockwool was very effective as a wideband sound absorber. A new absorber was designed and tested, having the dimensions of the existing BBC type A modular absorbers and containing RW2 Rockwool. The new absorber has a smoother absorption coefficient curve, a less complicated construction, and weighs less than the existing BBC wideband absorber (type A8/A9). It has been named type A11 and has an equivalent performance to that of BBC type A2 and A3 absorbers combined. It complements, very well, the performance of the A10 very low frequency absorber, described in a companion Report (BBC RD No. 1992/10).

Plumb, G. D.

196

Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity  

SciTech Connect

The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is being the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the NP-hard class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining invariant its modularity. This size reduction allows the heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the Extremal Optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernandez, A.; Gomez, S.

2008-12-24

197

MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

2001-07-31

198

Datalog, units and information hiding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose the introduction of structured units in datalog. Thisallows modularity and information hiding. Units are divided into a public and a privatepart. This structure calls for new composition operators which are defined here. Theseoperators express various forms of inheritance including the common ones in the objectoriented framework.1 IntroductionIn object oriented databases, encapsulation and inheritance are major

Foto N. Afrati; Isambo Karali; Theodoros Mitakos

1997-01-01

199

Lower limb salvage surgery: modular endoprosthesis in bone tumour treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrospectively analysed 90 patients who underwent “en bloc” resection and modular endoprosthesis reconstruction in the lower limbs between 1987–2003. After proximal femur resection, reconstruction was performed with a modular endoprosthesis by Howmedica (KFTR, designed by Kotz) and modular revision endoprosthesis by W. Link or Lima-Lto (Revision system, designed by Wagner). The knee joint was reconstructed with a modular endoprosthesis

D. Orlic; M. Smerdelj; R. Kolundzic; M. Bergovec

2006-01-01

200

Modularity optimization by conformational space annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a modularity optimization method, Mod-CSA, based on stochastic global optimization algorithm, conformational space annealing (CSA). Our method outperforms simulated annealing in terms of both efficiency and accuracy, finding higher modularity partitions with less computational resources required. The high modularity values found by our method are higher than, or equal to, the largest values previously reported. In addition, the method can be combined with other heuristic methods, and implemented in parallel fashion, allowing it to be applicable to large graphs with more than 10 000 nodes.

Lee, Juyong; Gross, Steven P.; Lee, Jooyoung

2012-05-01

201

A MODULAR ACTUATOR ARCHITECTURE FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Complexes perform numerous hazardous material handling operations within the confines of a glovebox. The DOE is continuing to seek more efficient and safer means of handling these materials inside gloveboxes rather than the conventional, labor-intensive method through lead lined gloves. The use of glovebox automation technology will also be critical to the DOE in its efforts to comply with its mandated ALARA principles in handling the hazardous materials associated with the cleanup process. Operations associated with materials processing in a glovebox are similar to many industrial tasks, but the unique glovebox environment and Plutonium material properties create a unique set of challenges for conventional automation machinery. Such properties include: Low to moderate levels of ionizing radiation, high abrasiveness, corrosiveness, pyrophoric tendencies, rapid dispersal and permeation of environment, diffuses quickly, and possible incompatible material interaction. The glovebox presents the following challenges: existing gloveboxes may not be readily altered or even modified at all, complex mechanical operations for maintenance and repair are difficult or impossible through gloves, failed equipment may not be removed easily or at all. If a broken piece of equipment cannot be bagged-out through a glove port (approximately 216 mm (8 1/2 inch) diameter) it must remain in place. Broken equipment obstructs further operations. If it renders the entire glovebox unusable, a significant volume of waste is generated and an expensive system must be disposed of and replaced. A moderate sized glovebox alone costs between $250,000 and $500,000 and an equipment malfunction, which penetrates the glovebox and exposes the room to Plutonium or other toxic materials, is catastrophic. In addition to the human exposure issues, cleanup can easily run into the millions of dollars. A solution to the issues described above is ARM Automation Inc.'s (ARM) modular robotic manipulator technology developed for DOE EM operations, which addresses many of the issues discussed in the previous section. This manipulator system has the capability of custom configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as materials repackaging. The modular nature and quick connects of this system simplify installations into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. In the field of automation and robotics, a very common element is one used to generate motion for precise positioning of loads. One example of such an automation component would be an individual joint within an industrial robotic manipulator. This component consists of a tightly integrated package containing an electric motor, gear train, output support bearings, position sensors, brake, servo-amplifier and communications controller. Within the context of this paper, this key building block is referred to as an actuator module. With regard to the needs of the EM, [8] and [9] have shown that while each focus area has unique requirements for robotic automation at a system or manipulator level, their requirements at the actuator level are very similar. Thereby, a modular approach to automation which utilizes a small set of versatile actuator modules can be used to construct a broad range of robotic systems and automation cells suited to EM applications. By providing a pre-engineered, pre-integrated motion system to different robotics users within the DOE, new automation systems can be more quickly created without extensive expertise in motion control or the expense of building custom equipment.

None

2001-07-01

202

Perception-based robotics based on perceiving-acting cycle with modular neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses controlling and learning methods of perception-based robotics from the viewpoint of ecological psychology. In the method, the perceptual system and the action system of the robot restrict each other according to the spatio-temporal context of the environment. Furthermore, we discuss the unit of actions using modular neural networks for robotic systems. We apply the proposed method to a dynamic

Naoyuki KUBOTA

2002-01-01

203

Modular system for data acquisition and control of experiments with digital output  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the design of an efficient, modular, and scalable data acquisition and control system is described. It consists of an array of microcontrollers and memories, which feed a single concentrating unit whose information can be accessed by means of a universal series bus (USB) interface to be processed later on. Signal levels can be controlled through a

Mauro F. Calabria; Roberto R. Deza

2010-01-01

204

A modular assembly method of a feed and thruster system for Cubesats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular assembly method for devices based on micro system technology is presented. The assembly method forms the foundation for a miniaturized feed and thruster system as part of a micro propulsion unit working as a simple blow-down system of a rocket engine. The micro rocket is designed to be used for constellation maintenance of Cubesats, which measure 10 ×

Marcus Louwerse; Henri Jansen; Miko Elwenspoek

2010-01-01

205

Comparison of two models for a pebble bed modular reactor core coupled to a Brayton cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) plant is a promising concept for inherently safe nuclear power generation. This paper presents two dynamic models for the core of a high temperature reactor (HTR) power plant with a helium gas turbine. Both the PBMR and its power conversion unit (PCU) based on a three-shaft, closed cycle, recuperative, inter-cooled Brayton cycle have been

Ayelet Walter; Alexander Schulz; Günter Lohnert

2006-01-01

206

Revisiting Information Hiding: Reflections on Classical and Nonclassical Modularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a What is modularity? Which kind of modularity should developers strive for? Despite decades of research on modularity, these\\u000a basic questions have no definite answer. We submit that the common understanding of modularity, and in particular its notion\\u000a of information hiding, is deeply rooted in classical logic. We analyze how classical modularity, based on classical logic,\\u000a fails to address the needs

Klaus Ostermann; Paolo G. Giarrusso; Christian Kästner; Tillmann Rendel

207

Modular Clock Algorithm for Blind Rendezvous.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new algorithm, the modular clock algorithm, is developed and analyzed as a solution for the simple rendezvous environment model, coupled with a modified version for environment models with less information. This thesis examines the rendezvous problem as...

N. C. Theis

2009-01-01

208

Honeywell modular automation system computer software documentation  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a Computer Software Docuemntation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-21I.

Cunningham, L.T.

1997-01-20

209

Monolithic vs modular HTGR cost comparison  

SciTech Connect

This summary report describes comparisons of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) plants based on the monolithic and modular reactor concepts as sources of process steam. This report presents a series of economic case studies comparing total investment requirements and steam production costs. One of the prime objectives of the GFY 1982 HTGR development program was an economic comparison of the 2240 MWt monolithic HTGR with a modular HTGR reactor system (MRS) consisting of a number of small nuclear heat sources (NHSs) coupled in parallel. The power rating of the modules is 250 MWt in the case of the reformer concept and 300 MTt in the case of the steam cycle-cogeneration concept. Specifically, in this report the economics of monolithic and modular HTGR systems, designed for equivalent process steam availability and for production of the same quantity of process steam, are compared. The report includes monolithic vs modular comparisons for two applications of the HTGR.

Not Available

1983-01-01

210

Monolithic Vs Modular HTGR Cost Comparison.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This summary report describes comparisons of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) plants based on the monolithic and modular reactor concepts as sources of process steam. This report presents a series of economic case studies comparing total investm...

1983-01-01

211

CFD Analysis of Modular Thrusters Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effective performance of modular thrusters in an aerospike configuration is difficult to determine. Standard analytical tools are applicable to conventional nozzle shapes, but are limited when applied to an aerospike nozzle (An aerospike nozzle is an ...

R. J. Ungewitter J. Beck A. Ketchum

1996-01-01

212

Modular synthesis of polyene side chain analogues of the potent macrolide antibiotic etnangien by a flexible coupling strategy based on hetero-bis-metallated alkenes.  

PubMed

An efficient procedure for the concise synthesis of hetero-bis-metallated alkenes as useful building blocks for the modular access to highly elaborate polyenes and stabilized analogues is reported. By applying these bifunctional olefins in convergent Stille/Suzuki-Miyaura couplings, novel, carefully selected side chain analogues of the potent RNA polymerase inhibitor etnangien were synthesized by a modular late stage coupling strategy and evaluated for antibacterial and antiproliferative activities. PMID:23196931

Altendorfer, Mario; Raja, Aruna; Sasse, Florenz; Irschik, Herbert; Menche, Dirk

2013-04-01

213

Comparison of Modular Arithmetic Algorithms on GPUs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present below our first implementation results on a modular arith- metic library for cryptography on GPUs. Our library, in C++ for CUDA, provides modular arithmetic, finite field arithmetic and some ECC support. Several algo- rithms and memory coding styles have been compared: local, shared and register. For moderate sizes, we report up to 2.6 speedup compared to state-of-the-art library.

Pascal GIORGI; Thomas IZARD; Arnaud TISSERAND

214

Concerns with modularity in total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Modularity is being diversified in total hip prostheses to increase surgical latitude in optimizing implant fixation and adjusting hip biomechanics. However, several problems have been clearly identified with implant modularity. First generation metal-backed acetabular components have shown deficiencies in the locking mechanism, the congruency and extent of polyethylene liner support, and polyethylene thickness, all of which have been implicated in accelerated polyethylene wear and failure. Evidence of screw motion against the metal backing, release of particulate material, and focal osteolysis have also been observed. At the head/neck junction evidence of corrosion and fretting has been documented with both similar-metal and mixed-metal taper combinations. Femoral prostheses with other sites of modularity present additional concerns with regard to mechanical integrity and generation of particulate debris by fretting. The modular junctions of three hip prostheses, the S-ROM, Infinity, and RMHS, were subjected to wet environment high cycle mechanical testing in a worst-case loading scenario. Preliminary results at relatively low loads up to three times body weight indicated gross stability of the modular junctions with evidence of minor fretting damage. Analysis of water solutions surrounding the modular junctions after ten to 20 million loading cycles yielded counts of one to three micron sized particles totalling several hundred thousand to several million. It is unknown what quantity of particulate material is sufficient to cause macrophage-mediated osteolysis or whether the debris from modular junctions can cause third-body wear of the articulating surfaces. Modular hip prostheses should be examined under stringent test conditions in order to characterize their fretting behavior and establish their mechanical limitations. PMID:8118986

Bobyn, J D; Tanzer, M; Krygier, J J; Dujovne, A R; Brooks, C E

1994-01-01

215

A 3-d modular gripper design tool  

SciTech Connect

Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line.

Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

1997-01-01

216

On the Structure of Modular Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a braided tensor category C and a subcategory K there is a notion of centralizer CC(K), which is a full tensor subcategory of C. A pre-modular tensor category (7) is known to be modular in the sense of Turaev iff the center Z2(C) ? CC(C) (not to be confused with the center Z1 of a tensor category, related to

Michael Muger

217

Towards a new Liquid Argon Imaging Chamber for the MODULAr project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MODULAr project foresees the exploitation of a new liquid Argon imaging detector, of at least 20 kt fiducial mass, to be operated in a shallow depth location under the Gran Sasso Mountain. It will be devoted to study neutrino oscillations with an optimized off-axis CNGS neutrino beam. Cosmic neutrinos as well as proton decay will also be addressed. The MODULAr detector will vastly inherit from the technology developed for ICARUS-T600. However, such an increase in the volume over the current ICARUS-T600 needs to be carefully considered. It is concluded that a single, huge volume is an inoperable and uneconomical solution for many reasons. A very large mass is best realized with a modular set of many identical, independent units, each of about 5 kt, ``cloning'' the basic technology of the ICARUS-T600. Several of such modular units will be assembled to reach at least 20 kt as initial sensitive volume. The increase of the active volume of about one order of magnitude with respect to the ICARUS-T600 detector requires some specific R&D activity, which will be implemented in a ~ 360 ton prototype unit (SLICE) of reduced length.

Angeli, D.; Baibussinov, B.; Baldo Ceolin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Benetti, P.; Borio, A.; Calligarich, E.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cavanna, F.; Centro, S.; Cieslik, K.; Cocco, A. G.; Dolfini, R.; Gigli Berzolari, A.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Ferrari, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Mannocchi, G.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Montanari, C.; Muraro, S.; Palamara, O.; Periale, L.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.; Satta, G.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.

2009-02-01

218

Distributed Modular Computer-Integrated Surgical Robotic Systems: Implementation Using Modular Software and Networked Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We seek to build CIS research systems within a flexible, open architecture. In this paper, we outline our solutions to the problems of system design, construction, and integration in this environment: building distributed, modular systems for sensing, control, and processing. Based on our experience building these systems, we utilize distributed network architectures, modular software components, and intelligent object distribution to

Andrew Bzostek; Rajesh Kumar; Nobuhiko Hata; Oliver Schorr; Ron Kikinis; Russell H. Taylor

2000-01-01

219

In Search of the Biological Significance of Modular Structures in Protein Networks  

PubMed Central

Many complex networks such as computer and social networks exhibit modular structures, where links between nodes are much denser within modules than between modules. It is widely believed that cellular networks are also modular, reflecting the relative independence and coherence of different functional units in a cell. While many authors have claimed that observations from the yeast protein–protein interaction (PPI) network support the above hypothesis, the observed structural modularity may be an artifact because the current PPI data include interactions inferred from protein complexes through approaches that create modules (e.g., assigning pairwise interactions among all proteins in a complex). Here we analyze the yeast PPI network including protein complexes (PIC network) and excluding complexes (PEC network). We find that both PIC and PEC networks show a significantly greater structural modularity than that of randomly rewired networks. Nonetheless, there is little evidence that the structural modules correspond to functional units, particularly in the PEC network. More disturbingly, there is no evolutionary conservation among yeast, fly, and nematode modules at either the whole-module or protein-pair level. Neither is there a correlation between the evolutionary or phylogenetic conservation of a protein and the extent of its participation in various modules. Using computer simulation, we demonstrate that a higher-than-expected modularity can arise during network growth through a simple model of gene duplication, without natural selection for modularity. Taken together, our results suggest the intriguing possibility that the structural modules in the PPI network originated as an evolutionary byproduct without biological significance.

Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Jianzhi

2007-01-01

220

Novel multifunctional microreaction unit for chemical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the development of a novel multifunctional microreaction unit made of silicon for application in modular microreaction systems in the chemical engineering. The main working principle of the unit is based on the combination of multilamination and chaotic advection effects. The fabrication of the microreaction unit was performed by KOH wet etching. The numerical investigations were carried out

R. Keoschkerjan; M. Richter; D. Boscovic; F. Schnuerer; S. Loebbecke

2004-01-01

221

Combustion Power Unit--400: CPU-400.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aerospace technology may have led to a unique basic unit for processing solid wastes and controlling pollution. The Combustion Power Unit--400 (CPU-400) is designed as a turboelectric generator plant that will use municipal solid wastes as fuel. The baseline configuration is a modular unit that is designed to utilize 400 tons of refuse per day…

Combustion Power Co., Palo Alto, CA.

222

Endomorphisms on half-sided modular inclusions  

SciTech Connect

In algebraic quantum field theory we consider nets of von Neumann algebras indexed over regions of the space time. Wiesbrock [''Conformal quantum field theory and half-sided modular inclusions of von Neumann algebras,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 537-543 (1993)] has shown that strongly additive nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle are in correspondence with standard half-sided modular inclusions. We show that a finite index endomorphism on a half-sided modular inclusion extends to a finite index endomorphism on the corresponding net of von Neumann algebras on the circle. Moreover, we present another approach to encoding endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle into half-sided modular inclusions. There is a natural way to associate a weight to a Moebius covariant endomorphism. The properties of this weight have been studied by Bertozzini et al. [''Covariant sectors with infinite dimension and positivity of the energy,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 471-492 (1998)]. In this paper we show the converse, namely, how to associate a Moebius covariant endomorphism to a given weight under certain assumptions, thus obtaining a correspondence between a class of weights on a half-sided modular inclusion and a subclass of the Moebius covariant endomorphisms on the associated net of von Neumann algebras. This allows us to treat Moebius covariant endomorphisms in terms of weights on half-sided modular inclusions. As our aim is to provide a framework for treating endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras in terms of the apparently simpler objects of weights on half-sided modular inclusions, we lastly give some basic results for manipulations with such weights.

Svegstrup, Rolf Dyre [Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8914 (Japan)

2006-12-15

223

Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development  

SciTech Connect

Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main tasks was to design and validate new gate drive circuits to provide the capability of high temp operation. The new power stages and controls were later validated through extensive performance, durability and environmental tests. To further validate the design, two power stages and controls were integrated into a grid-tied load bank test fixture, a real application for field-testing. This fixture was designed to test motor drives with PWM output up to 50kW. In the second part of this program the new control topology based on sub-phases control and interphase transformer technology was successfully developed and validated. The main advantage of this technology is to reduce magnetic mass, loss and current ripple. This report summarizes the results of the advanced modular inverter technology development and details: (1) Power stage development and fabrication (2) Power stage validation testing (3) Grid-tied test fixture fabrication and initial testing (4) Interphase transformer technology development

Adam Szczepanek

2006-02-04

224

Modular displays for megapixel applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information explosion has created a need for large, flat hang-on-the-wall displays to display the ever increasing quantity of information. Rapid advances in computing power and communication technology are outpacing the advances in display technology. Typical monitors have progressed from VGA with 0.3 M pixels, to SXGA with 1.3 M pixels. Top of the line displays are pushing 4 M pixels. Costs of displays with increased number of pixels have risen exponentially with pixel count. Display technology is limiting the exploitation of advances in information and communications technologies. A revolutionary new display technology is needed to enable practical use of the information and communications revolutions. The Sarnoff Corporation and Cambridge Display Technology Ltd. are developing a modular display approach for thin hang-on-the- wall displays that has a cost structure that is linear with pixel count. This approach is based on three display technology advances: smart block matrix addressing, light emitting polymers (LEP), and integrated packaging. Smart block matrix addressing enables the use of low cost addressing while at the same time decoupling the display performance from display size. LEP materials enable low manufacturing cost for bright emissive thin display modules. Integrated packaging enables the mass production of low cost display modules that can be assembled into large area, seamless displays. Together, these three technologies produce for the first time a thin scaleable display. The displays made using this technology have been named 'Array Displays.' Array Display size and shape are determined at assembly, not by the manufacturing line, Pixel densities of about one million pixels per square meter are possible with this low cost manufacturing approach. Array Displays provide the pathway to low cost scaleable displays to meet the needs for the information age.

Matthies, Dennis L.; Hasili, Jacob; Jose, David L.; Shen, Zilan; Stewart, Roger G.; Burroughes, Jeremy H.; Carter, J.

1999-08-01

225

Time Motion Study for Modular Caustic Solvent Extraction Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facilities (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is used to process high-level radioactive waste from the Tank Farm into borosilicate glass to reduce the mobility of the radionuclides and has processed and vitrified nuclear ...

R. C. Chang

2004-01-01

226

Modular architecture of eukaryotic RNase P and RNase MRP revealed by electron microscopy  

PubMed Central

Ribonuclease P (RNase P) and RNase MRP are closely related ribonucleoprotein enzymes, which process RNA substrates including tRNA precursors for RNase P and 5.8?S rRNA precursors, as well as some mRNAs, for RNase MRP. The structures of RNase P and RNase MRP have not yet been solved, so it is unclear how the proteins contribute to the structure of the complexes and how substrate specificity is determined. Using electron microscopy and image processing we show that eukaryotic RNase P and RNase MRP have a modular architecture, where proteins stabilize the RNA fold and contribute to cavities, channels and chambers between the modules. Such features are located at strategic positions for substrate recognition by shape and coordination of the cleaved-off sequence. These are also the sites of greatest difference between RNase P and RNase MRP, highlighting the importance of the adaptation of this region to the different substrates.

Hipp, Katharina; Galani, Kyriaki; Batisse, Claire; Prinz, Simone; Bottcher, Bettina

2012-01-01

227

Modular Categories and 3-MANIFOLD Invariants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to give a concise introduction to the theory of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants which generalize the Jones polynomial and which may be considered as a mathematical version of the Witten invariants. Such a theory was introduced by N. Reshetikhin and the author on the ground of the theory of quantum groups. Here we use more general algebraic objects, specifically, ribbon and modular categories. Such categories in particular arise as the categories of representations of quantum groups. The notion of modular category, interesting in itself, is closely related to the notion of modular tensor category in the sense of G. Moore and N. Seiberg. For simplicity we restrict ourselves in this paper to the case of closed 3-manifolds.

Turaev, Vladimir G.

228

Modular categories and 3-manifold invariants  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to give a concise introduction to the theory of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants which generalize the Jones polynomial and which may be considered as a mathematical version of the Witten invariants. Such a theory was introduced by N. Reshetikhin and the author on the ground of the theory of quantum groups. here we use more general algebraic objects, specifically, ribbon and modular categories. Such categories in particular arise as the categories of representations of quantum groups. The notion of modular category, interesting in itself, is closely related to the notion of modular tensor category in the sense of G. Moore and N. Seiberg. For simplicity we restrict ourselves in this paper to the case of closed 3-manifolds.

Tureav, V.G. (URA-CNRS, Dept. de Mathematique, Univ. Louis Pasteur, 7 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (FR))

1992-06-01

229

An Integrated Modular Avionics Development Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ARINC 653 standard has taken a leading role within the aeronautical industry in the development of safety-critical systems based upon the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) concept. The related cost savings in reduced integration, verification and validation effort has raised interest in the European space industry for developing a spacecraft IMA approach and for the definition of an ARINC 653-for-Space software framework. As part of this process, it is necessary to establish an effective way to develop, test and analyse on-board applications without having access to the final IMA target platform for all engineers. Target platforms are usually extremely expensive considering hardware and software prices as well as training costs. This paper describes the architecture of an Integrated Modular Avionics Development Environment (IMADE) based on the Linux Operating System and the ARINC 653 simulator for Modular On-Board Applications that was developed by Skysoft Portugal, S.A. In cooperation with ESA, 2007-2008.

Schoofs, T.; Santos, S.; Tatibana, C.; Anjos, J.; Rufino, J.; Windsor, J.

2009-05-01

230

Modularization Technology in Power Plant Construction  

SciTech Connect

Since the early 1980's, Hitachi has been developing and applying modularization technology to domestic nuclear power plant construction, and has achieved great rationalization. Modularization is one of the plant construction techniques which enables us to reduce site labor by pre-assembling components like equipment, pipes, valves and platforms in congested areas and installing them using large capacity cranes for cost reduction, better quality, safety improvement and shortening of construction time. In this paper, Hitachi's modularization technologies are described especially from with respect to their sophisticated design capabilities. The application of 3D-CAD at the detailed layout design stage, concurrent design environment achieved by the computer network, module design quantity control and the management system are described. (authors)

Kenji Akagi; Kouichi Murayama; Miki Yoshida; Junichi Kawahata [Hitachi Ltd. (Japan)

2002-07-01

231

RNA genetics  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings on RNA genetics: Retroviruses, Viroids, and RNA recombination, Volume 2. Topics covered include: Replication of retrovirus genomes, Hepatitis B virus replication, and Evolution of RNA viruses.

Domingo, E. (Instituto de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, Madrid (ES)); Holland, J.J. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Biology); Ahlquist, P. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

1988-01-01

232

MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model -- Three additions to the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package: Alternative storage for the uppermost active cells, Flows in hydrogeologic units, and the Hydraulic-coductivity depth-dependence (KDEP) capability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package is an internal flow package for MODFLOW-2000 that allows the vertical geometry of the system hydrogeology to be defined differently than the definition of model layers. Effective hydraulic properties for the model layers are calculated using the hydraulic properties of the hydrogeologic units. The HUF Package can be used instead of the Block-Centered Flow (BCF) or the Layer Property Flow (LPF) Packages. This report documents three additions to the HUF Package.

Anderman, Evan R.; Hill, Mary C.

2003-01-01

233

Modular Artificial ?-Cell System: A Prototype for Clinical Research  

PubMed Central

Background The quest toward an artificial ?-cell has been accelerating, propelled by recent technological advances in subcutaneous glucose sensors and insulin pumps. The development and clinical testing of algorithms involves several challenges: communication and data transfer between a sensor and a pump via computer, a human interface presenting real-time information to the physician, safety issues when an automated system is used to administer insulin, and an architecture that supports different sensors, pumps, and control algorithms. These challenges were addressed in the development of a modular artificial ?-cell system for clinical research. Methods The developmental environment of MATLAB® (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA) allowed the flexible implementation of communication protocols for different sensors and pumps. The system has a plug-and-play option for the control algorithm and a human interface that presents and logs the data, enforces protocol safety rules, and facilitates physician oversight. Results A novel platform for use in clinical research trials was realized as a bridge toward a portable unit. This prototype encapsulates communication between the control algorithm, the pump, and the sensors. Its intuitive human interface presents all the relevant patient information to the physician and allows events to be electronically logged. It facilitates subject safety by way of integrated interlocks, checklists, and alarms. Conclusion The modular design of the system allows for the robust testing of various sensors and pumps as well as feedback control, meal detection, predictive hypoglycemia alarms, and device-related algorithms to detect sensor or pump failure.

Dassau, Eyal; Zisser, Howard; C. Palerm, Cesar; A. Buckingham, Bruce; Jovanovic, Lois; J. Doyle III, Francis

2008-01-01

234

Design and Construction of a Modular Gamma Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presented here describes an alternative to the standard gamma-camera design that is flexible enough to be used in a wide variety of applications. The new modular design consists of a small gamma camera that is optically and electronically independent from other units. The theoretical and experimental investigation of this report focuses on the design and construction of the modular cameras. Each modular camera is, in essence, a small Anger camera. Components of each module include a scintillation crystal, a light guide, and an array of four photomultiplier tubes. Instead of an analog processing network, each module utilizes fast digital circuitry which includes direct analog -to-digital conversion of the photomultiplier signals, a lookup table which maps detector responses to position estimates of the scintillation flashes in the crystal, and an image memory which accumulates the position estimates and forms an image of the radiation incident on the faceplate of the camera. The contents of the lookup table are determined from the statistical properties of the detected signals as a function of scintillation position. Experiments are described in which "best" estimates of position are found by processing data collected from an array of point-source positions in contact with the crystal. Alternative methods for construction of the lookup table are also discussed, which involve computer generation of the estimates. Both maximum-likelihood and mimimum-mean-square-error estimation rules are used, and the results are compared. A one-dimensional module, which accumulates information along one axis of the faceplate, is designed first. The one-dimensional module provides proof-of-principle evidence for the estimation techniques and is used to determine critical parameters for modular-camera design. The results of the experiments with the one-dimensional camera are extended to two-dimensional designs, which yield position estimates along both axes of the camera faceplate. Several two-dimensional cameras are tested, and an optimum geometry is constructed and tested for spatial resolution and bias of the estimators. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

Milster, Thomas Dean

1987-09-01

235

Questioning the Direct Relationship between Product Modularity and Retirement Cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular product design has become a core element aspect of sustainable product design, particularly design for product retirement.\\u000a This work explores the relationship between product modularity and product retirement costs. Previous statements tying increased\\u000a modularity to decreased costs, specifically product retirement costs, motivated this work.\\u000a \\u000a Modular architecture is traditionally made up of functionally independent clusters of components. Past definitions of

Y. Zhang; J. K. Gershenson

2002-01-01

236

Modular robotic tiles: experiments for children with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a modular robotic tile and a system composed of a number of these modular robotic tiles. The system composed\\u000a of the modular robotic tiles engages the user in physical activities, e.g., physiotherapy, sports, fitness, and entertainment.\\u000a The modular robotic tiles motivate the user to perform physical activities by providing immediate feedback based upon their\\u000a physical interaction with the

Henrik Hautop Lund; Martin Dam Pedersen; Richard Beck

2009-01-01

237

Analyzing Class and Crosscutting Modularity with Design Structure Matrixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modularization of crosscutting concerns is the main benefit provided by Aspect-Oriented constructs. However, it does not address class modularity adequately. In order to assess both class and crosscutting modularity of AO systems, we use Design Structure Matrixes (DSMs) to analyze three different versions (OO, AO, and AO using design rules) of a real software application. We observed that, in the

Marcio De Medeiros Ribeiro; Marcos Dosea; Rodrigo Bonifacio; Alberto Costa Neto; Paulo Borba; Sérgio Soares

2007-01-01

238

Understanding the Emergence of Modularity in Neural Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modularity in the human brain remains a controversial issue, with disagreement over the nature of the modules that exist, and why, when, and how they emerge. It is a natural assumption that modularity offers some form of computational advantage, and hence evolution by natural selection has translated those advantages into the kind of modular

Bullinaria, John A.

2007-01-01

239

Wheeled locomotion for payload carrying with modular robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrying heavy payloads is a challenging task for the modular robot, because its composing modules are relatively tiny and less strong compared with conventional robots. To accomplish this task, we attached passive rollers to the modular robot, and designed a wheeled locomotion gait called tricycleBot. The gait is inspired by paddling motion, and is implemented on the modular robot called

Feili Hou; Nadeesha Ranasinghe; Behnam Salemi; Wei-min Shen

2008-01-01

240

A novel data communication network architecture for integrated modular avionics  

Microsoft Academic Search

With advanced avionics developing, the tendency of modularization, flexibility, interoperability, high bandwidth, and hard real time is much more obvious. Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) need an available network interconnection architecture to integrate the distributed and disordered modular elements of IMA systems. Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX), as a communication protocol, specifies a certain time-deterministic method applicable to real-time and

Haotian Wang; Huagang Xiong

2009-01-01

241

VHDL Library of Arithmetic Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive library of arithmetic units written in synthesizable VHDL code has been developed. The library contains components for a variety of arithmetic operations and for different speed requirements. The library components are implemented as circuit generators in parameterized structural VHDL code. Their modular and well-documented source code allows for simple usage and easy customization. Highly efficient circuit architectures are

Reto Zimmermann

1998-01-01

242

Hydrogen production using modular hellum reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-temperature characteristics of the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) make it a strong candidate for the production of hydrogen using either thermochemical or high- temperature electrolysis (HTE) processes. Using heat from the MHR to drive a Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical hydrogen process has been the subject of a DOE sponsored Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (NERI) project lead by General Atomics, with

A Shenoy; SM Mohsin Reza; Matt Richards; General Atomics

1996-01-01

243

Modular Building Institute 1999 Educational Showcase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Many articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Hightstown High School"; (2) "St. Pius X Parish, Vancouver BC"; (3) "Forrest Street Elementary School"; (4) "Kingman Academy of Learning"; (5) "Women Christian…

Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

244

A Modular Curriculum in Information Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prepared under a contract between UNESCO and IFLA (the International Federation of Library Associations), this modular curriculum is intended as a resource from which curricula can be constructed by individual departments of information studies to meet local needs and circumstances. Following an introductory discussion and explanation of the…

Large, J. A.

245

Modular verification of software components in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new methodology for automatic verification of C programs against finite state machine specifications. Our approach is compositional, naturally enabling us to decompose the verification of large software system into subproblems of manageable complexity. The decomposition reflects the modularity in the software design. We use weak simulation as the notion of conformance between the program and its specification.

Sagar Chaki; Edmund M. Clarke; Alex Groce; Somesh Jha; Helmut Veith

2003-01-01

246

Modular permanent magnet brushless servo motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the suitability of modular permanent magnet brushless machines for applications where servo characteristics are key performance requirements. It is shown that among the large number of feasible combinations of slot number and pole number, optimum combinations exist, which exhibit good servo characteristics.

Ede, J. D.; Atallah, K.; Howe, D.

2003-05-01

247

The Montgomery Modular Inverse-Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

We modify an algorithm given by Kaliski to compute the Montgomery inverse of an integer modulo a prime number. We also give a new definition of the Montgomery inverse, and introduce efficient algorithms for computing the classical modular inverse, the Kaliski- Montgomery inverse, and the new Montgomery inverse. The proposed algorithms are suitable for software imple- mentations on general-purpose microprocessors.

Erkay Savas; Çetin Kaya Koç

2000-01-01

248

Modular stellarator reactor conceptual design study  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment.

Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.

1983-01-01

249

Modular Patterns in Second Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of data from the first six months of acquisition of English as a second language by a Japanese five-year-old illustrated the role of modular "chunking" and coupling in the second language acquisition process, apparent in the child's pre-copula and copula referential utterances. (Author/CB)

Rescorla, Leslie; Okuda, Sachiko

1987-01-01

250

Sensitivity analysis of modular dynamic fault trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic fault tree analysis, as currently supported by the Galileo software package, provides an effective means for assessing the reliability of embedded computer-based systems. Dynamic fault trees extend traditional fault trees by defining special gates to capture sequential and functional dependency characteristics. A modular approach to the solution of dynamic fault trees effectively applies Binary Decision Diagram (BOD) and Markov

Yong Ou; Joanne Bechta Dugan

2000-01-01

251

Automatic Definition of Modular Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article illustrates an artificial developmental system that is a computationally efficient technique for the automatic generation of complex artificial neural networks (ANNs). The artificial developmental system can develop a graph grammar into a modular ANN made of a combination of simpler subnetworks. A genetic algorithm is used to evolve coded grammars that generate ANNs for controlling six-legged robot locomotion.

Frédéric Gruau

1994-01-01

252

47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...modular transmitter must have their own shielding. The physical crystal and tuning capacitors may be located external to the shielded...Only the radio front end must be shielded. The physical crystal and tuning capacitors may be located external to the...

2012-10-01

253

A Concise and Modular Synthesis of Pyranicin  

PubMed Central

A modular, 13 step, synthesis of the tetrahydropyran-containing annonaceous acetogenin pyranicin is reported. Key features are the use of an Achmatowicz oxidation-Kishi reduction sequence for the assembly of a pyranone from a furan, and the application of Fu’fs alkyl-alkyl Suzuki coupling for subunit union.

Griggs, Nolan D.; Phillips, Andrew J.

2010-01-01

254

Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a Computer Software Documentation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-211 and vertical denitration calciner in HC-230C-2.

CUNNINGHAM, L.T.

1999-09-27

255

Modularity, Development and 'Theory of Mind'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychologists and philosophers have recently been exploring whether the mechanisms which underlie the acquisition of 'theory of mind' (ToM) are best charac- terized as cognitive modules or as developing theories. In this paper, we attempt to clarify what a modular account of ToM entails, and why it is an attractive type of explanation. Intuitions and arguments in this debate often

Brian J. Scholl; Alan M. Leslie

1999-01-01

256

Pupil aberration in modular zoom lens design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In any zoom lens, by virtue of the differential motions of lens groups, individual zoom groups experience both conjugate and pupil shifts during zooming. When using a modular design approach, in which lens groups are designed independently, one has to take into account the dynamic aberration matching among lens groups. Deliberate aberration can be introduced to zoom groups to produce

Matthew Tsu-Yang Chang

1998-01-01

257

Predictive modular fuzzy systems for intelligent sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the predictive modular fuzzy system (PREMOFS) to perform time series classification. A PREMOFS consists of a bank of predictors and a fuzzy inference module. Assuming that the time series is generated by a source belonging to a finite search set, then the classification problem is to select the source that best represents the observed data. The classification is

A. Kehagias; V. Petridis

1996-01-01

258

The modular high temperature gas cooled reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor design has been evolving over the last few years to the point where the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission will soon issue a safety evaluation report based on their review of the preliminary safety information document submitted during the conceptual design phase. Key features of this design are the use of ceramic fuel particles surrounded

1988-01-01

259

Planning for Modular and Hybrid Fixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixturing encompasses the design and assembly of fixtures to locate and hold a workpiece duringa manufacturing operation such as machining or assembly. We have implemented an automateddesign algorithm for a fixturing toolkit called the fixture vise; the fixture vise involves two fixtureplates mounted on jaws of a vise and modular fixturing elements (pegs or flatted pegs). Generally,a fixture vise can

Aaron S. Wallack; John F. Canny

1994-01-01

260

Modular wavelength selective cross-connects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical cross-connects are an enabling technology for transparent mesh networking, but are better implemented in modular fashion for economic benefits. Various cross-connect constructs are reviewed and found that using wavelength-selective switches offers the greatest advantages.

D. Marom

2004-01-01

261

Resource Scheduling in Dependable Integrated Modular Avionics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent development of avionics systems, Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) is advocated for next generation architecture that needs integration of mixed- criticality real-time applications. These integrated applications meet their own timing constraints while sharing avionics computer resources. To guarantee timing constraints and dependability of each application, an IMA-based system is equipped with the schemes for spatial and temporal partitioning.

Yann-hang Lee; Daeyoung Kim; Mohamed F. Younis; Jeffrey X. Zhou; James Mcelroy

2000-01-01

262

Lightweight composites for modular panelized construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid advances in construction materials technology have enabled civil engineers to achieve impressive gains in the safety, economy, and functionality of structures built to serve the common needs of society. Modular building systems is a fast-growing modern, form of construction gaining recognition for its increased efficiency and ability to apply modern technology to the needs of the market place. In

Amol S. Vaidya

2009-01-01

263

Modular permanent magnet brushless servo motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the suitability of modular permanent magnet brushless machines for applications where servo characteristics are key performance requirements. It is shown that among the large number of feasible combinations of slot number and pole number, optimum combinations exist, which exhibit good servo characteristics.

J. D. Ede; K. Atallah; D. Howe

2003-01-01

264

Modular flight control reconfiguration design and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a reconfiguring flight control algorithm for damaged aircraft based upon a modular approach. This approach combines real time physical model identification with adaptive nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI). The sensitivity of NDI to modeling errors is eliminated here by making use of a real time identified model of the aircraft. In failure situations, the damaged aircraft model is

T. J. J. Lombaerts; Q. P. Chu; J. A. Mulder; D. A. Joosten

2011-01-01

265

Modular Building Institute 2001 Educational Showcase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Some articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "An Architect's Perspective: Convincing a Skeptic" (Robert M. Iamello); (2) "66 Portables for San Mateo High" (Steven Williams); (3) "Case Study: Charter Schools"…

Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

266

Efficient modular glass box software model checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass box software model checking incorporates novel techniques to identify similarities in the state space of a model checker and safely prune large numbers of redundant states without explicitly checking them. It is significantly more efficient than other software model checking approaches for checking certain kinds of programs and program properties. This paper presents Pipal, a system for modular glass

Michael Roberson; Chandrasekhar Boyapati

2010-01-01

267

Metal on metal total hip arthroplasty using modular acetabular shells.  

PubMed

Metal on metal bearings were reintroduced into the United States for use in total hip arthroplasty approximately a decade ago. We evaluated a consecutive series cohort of 148 patients with 169 hips who underwent THR using a metal on metal bearing surface with a modular acetabular shell that had fixation augmentation with dome screws. At 3 to 8 year follow-up, average 4.7 years, only one component was revised (for femoral loosening). 3 hips demonstrated proximal femoral osteolysis and 3 hips demonstrated pelvic osteolysis. The average follow-up Harris Hip Score was 94 (range, 57-100). Although the results have been excellent, we continue to closely monitor these hips for any long term failures, or concerns. PMID:23489729

Liudahl, Adam A; Liu, Steve S; Goetz, Devon D; Mahoney, Craig R; Callaghan, John J

2013-03-13

268

Modular design in natural and biomimetic soft materials.  

PubMed

Under eons of evolutionary and environmental pressure, biological systems have developed strong and lightweight peptide-based polymeric materials by using the 20 naturally occurring amino acids as principal monomeric units. These materials outperform their man-made counterparts in the following ways: 1) multifunctionality/tunability, 2) adaptability/stimuli-responsiveness, 3) synthesis and processing under ambient and aqueous conditions, and 4) recyclability and biodegradability. The universal design strategy that affords these advanced properties involves "bottom-up" synthesis and modular, hierarchical organization both within and across multiple length-scales. The field of "biomimicry"-elucidating and co-opting nature's basic material design principles and molecular building blocks-is rapidly evolving. This Review describes what has been discovered about the structure and molecular mechanisms of natural polymeric materials, as well as the progress towards synthetic "mimics" of these remarkable systems. PMID:21898722

Kushner, Aaron M; Guan, Zhibin

2011-09-05

269

RNA helicases  

PubMed Central

Similar to proteins, RNA molecules must fold into the correct conformation and associate with protein complexes in order to be functional within a cell. RNA helicases rearrange RNA secondary structure and RNA-protein interactions in an ATP-dependent reaction, performing crucial functions in all aspects of RNA metabolism. In prokaryotes, RNA helicase activity is associated with roles in housekeeping functions including RNA turnover, ribosome biogenesis, translation and small RNA metabolism. In addition, RNA helicase expression and/or activity are frequently altered during cellular response to abiotic stress, implying they perform defined roles during cellular adaptation to changes in the growth environment. Specifically, RNA helicases contribute to the formation of cold-adapted ribosomes and RNA degradosomes, implying a role in alleviation of RNA secondary structure stabilization at low temperature. A common emerging theme involves RNA helicases acting as scaffolds for protein-protein interaction and functioning as molecular clamps, holding RNA-protein complexes in specific conformations. This review highlights recent advances in DEAD-box RNA helicase association with cellular response to abiotic stress in prokaryotes.

Owttrim, George W.

2013-01-01

270

Hierarchical formation of supramolecular transient networks in water: a modular injectable delivery system.  

PubMed

A modular one-component supramolecular transient network in water, based on poly(ethylene glycol) and end-capped with four-fold hydrogen bonding units, is reported. Due to its nonlinear structural formation, this system allows active proteins to be added to the hydrogel during formation. Once implanted in vivo it releases the protein by erosion of both the protein and polymer via dissolution. PMID:22528786

Dankers, Patricia Y W; Hermans, Thomas M; Baughman, Travis W; Kamikawa, Yuko; Kieltyka, Roxanne E; Bastings, Maartje M C; Janssen, Henk M; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Larsen, Antje; van Luyn, Marja J A; Bosman, Anton W; Popa, Eliane R; Fytas, George; Meijer, E W

2012-04-23

271

Modular system for data acquisition and control of experiments with digital output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the design of an efficient, modular, and scalable data acquisition and control system is described. It consists of an array of microcontrollers and memories, which feed a single concentrating unit whose information can be accessed by means of a universal series bus (USB) interface to be processed later on. Signal levels can be controlled through a set of digital potentiometers. This system is ideal for experiments with a large number of digital outputs.

Calabria, Mauro F.; Deza, Roberto R.

2010-11-01

272

TATA is a modular component of synthetic promoters  

PubMed Central

The expression of most genes is regulated by multiple transcription factors. The interactions between transcription factors produce complex patterns of gene expression that are not always obvious from the arrangement of cis-regulatory elements in a promoter. One critical element of promoters is the TATA box, the docking site for the RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Using a synthetic promoter system coupled to a thermodynamic model of combinatorial regulation, we analyze the effects of different strength TATA boxes on various aspects of combinatorial cis-regulation. The thermodynamic model explains 75% of the variance in gene expression in synthetic promoter libraries with different strength TATA boxes, suggesting that many of the salient aspects of cis-regulation are captured by the model. Our results demonstrate that the effect of changing the TATA box on gene expression is the same for all synthetic promoters regardless of the arrangement of cis-regulatory sites we studied. Our analysis also showed that in our synthetic system the strength of the RNA polymerase–TATA interaction does not alter the combinatorial interactions between transcription factors, or between transcription factors and RNA polymerase. Finally, we show that although stronger TATA boxes increase expression in a predictable fashion, stronger TATA boxes have very little effect on noise in our synthetic promoters, regardless of the arrangement of cis-regulatory sites. Our results support a modular model of promoter function, where cis-regulatory elements can be mixed and matched (programmed) with outcomes on expression that are predictable based on the rules of simple protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions.

Mogno, Ilaria; Vallania, Francesco; Mitra, Robi D.; Cohen, Barak A.

2010-01-01

273

TATA is a modular component of synthetic promoters.  

PubMed

The expression of most genes is regulated by multiple transcription factors. The interactions between transcription factors produce complex patterns of gene expression that are not always obvious from the arrangement of cis-regulatory elements in a promoter. One critical element of promoters is the TATA box, the docking site for the RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Using a synthetic promoter system coupled to a thermodynamic model of combinatorial regulation, we analyze the effects of different strength TATA boxes on various aspects of combinatorial cis-regulation. The thermodynamic model explains 75% of the variance in gene expression in synthetic promoter libraries with different strength TATA boxes, suggesting that many of the salient aspects of cis-regulation are captured by the model. Our results demonstrate that the effect of changing the TATA box on gene expression is the same for all synthetic promoters regardless of the arrangement of cis-regulatory sites we studied. Our analysis also showed that in our synthetic system the strength of the RNA polymerase-TATA interaction does not alter the combinatorial interactions between transcription factors, or between transcription factors and RNA polymerase. Finally, we show that although stronger TATA boxes increase expression in a predictable fashion, stronger TATA boxes have very little effect on noise in our synthetic promoters, regardless of the arrangement of cis-regulatory sites. Our results support a modular model of promoter function, where cis-regulatory elements can be mixed and matched (programmed) with outcomes on expression that are predictable based on the rules of simple protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. PMID:20627890

Mogno, Ilaria; Vallania, Francesco; Mitra, Robi D; Cohen, Barak A

2010-07-13

274

X-ray structure of the fourth type of archaeal tRNA splicing endonuclease: insights into the evolution of a novel three-unit composition and a unique loop involved in broad substrate specificity  

PubMed Central

Cleavage of introns from precursor transfer RNAs (tRNAs) by tRNA splicing endonuclease (EndA) is essential for tRNA maturation in Archaea and Eukarya. In the past, archaeal EndAs were classified into three types (??2, ?4 and ?2?2) according to subunit composition. Recently, we have identified a fourth type of archaeal EndA from an uncultivated archaeon Candidatus Micrarchaeum acidiphilum, referred to as ARMAN-2, which is deeply branched within Euryarchaea. The ARMAN-2 EndA forms an ?2 homodimer and has broad substrate specificity like the ?2?2 type EndAs found in Crenarchaea and Nanoarchaea. However, the precise architecture of ARMAN-2 EndA was unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of the ?2 homodimer of ARMAN-2 EndA. The structure reveals that the ? protomer is separated into three novel units (?N, ? and ?C) fused by two distinct linkers, although the overall structure of ARMAN-2 EndA is similar to those of the other three types of archaeal EndAs. Structural comparison and mutational analyses reveal that an ARMAN-2 type-specific loop (ASL) is involved in the broad substrate specificity and that K161 in the ASL functions as the RNA recognition site. These findings suggest that the broad substrate specificities of ?2 and ?2?2 EndAs were separately acquired through different evolutionary processes.

Hirata, Akira; Fujishima, Kosuke; Yamagami, Ryota; Kawamura, Takuya; Banfield, Jillian F.; Kanai, Akio; Hori, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

275

Molecular Analysis of the 18S rRNA Gene of Cryptosporidium Parasites from Patients with or without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections Living in Kenya, Malawi, Brazil, the United Kingdom, and Vietnam  

PubMed Central

An 840-bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene was used to identify Cryptosporidium spp. recovered from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected patients from Kenya, Malawi, Brazil, the United Kingdom, and Vietnam. Initial identification was by Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining. Confirmation was by nested PCR, targeting the most polymorphic region of the 18S rRNA gene. Genotyping was by restriction endonuclease digestion of the PCR product followed by nucleotide sequencing. Among 63 isolates analyzed, four genotypes of Cryptosporidium were identified; 75% of the isolates were of the C. parvum human genotype, while the potentially zoonotic species were of the C. parvum bovine genotype (21.7%), the C. meleagridis genotype (1.6% [one isolate]), and the C. muris genotype (1.6% [one case]). HIV-infected individuals were more likely to have zoonotic genotypes than the HIV-uninfected individuals. Among the C. parvum group, strains clustered distinctly into either human or bovine genotypes regardless of the geographical origin, age, or HIV status of the patients. The intragenotypic variation observed in the C. parvum human genotype was extensive compared to that within the C. parvum bovine genotype group. The variation within genotypes was conserved in all geographical regions regardless of the patients' HIV status. The extensive diversity within genotypes at the 18S rRNA gene locus may limit its application to phylogenetic analyses.

Gatei, Wangeci; Greensill, Julie; Ashford, Richard W.; Cuevas, Luis E.; Parry, Christopher M.; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Hart, C. Anthony

2003-01-01

276

X-ray structure of the fourth type of archaeal tRNA splicing endonuclease: insights into the evolution of a novel three-unit composition and a unique loop involved in broad substrate specificity.  

PubMed

Cleavage of introns from precursor transfer RNAs (tRNAs) by tRNA splicing endonuclease (EndA) is essential for tRNA maturation in Archaea and Eukarya. In the past, archaeal EndAs were classified into three types (?'2, ?4 and ?2?2) according to subunit composition. Recently, we have identified a fourth type of archaeal EndA from an uncultivated archaeon Candidatus Micrarchaeum acidiphilum, referred to as ARMAN-2, which is deeply branched within Euryarchaea. The ARMAN-2 EndA forms an ?2 homodimer and has broad substrate specificity like the ?2?2 type EndAs found in Crenarchaea and Nanoarchaea. However, the precise architecture of ARMAN-2 EndA was unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of the ?2 homodimer of ARMAN-2 EndA. The structure reveals that the ? protomer is separated into three novel units (?N, ? and ?C) fused by two distinct linkers, although the overall structure of ARMAN-2 EndA is similar to those of the other three types of archaeal EndAs. Structural comparison and mutational analyses reveal that an ARMAN-2 type-specific loop (ASL) is involved in the broad substrate specificity and that K161 in the ASL functions as the RNA recognition site. These findings suggest that the broad substrate specificities of ?2 and ?2?2 EndAs were separately acquired through different evolutionary processes. PMID:22941657

Hirata, Akira; Fujishima, Kosuke; Yamagami, Ryota; Kawamura, Takuya; Banfield, Jillian F; Kanai, Akio; Hori, Hiroyuki

2012-08-31

277

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Overhead Cooling Systems In Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. Naturally, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has, in the meanwhile, created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants' input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 1. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable overhead cooling system. The system was tested in a hot/cold aisle environment without separation, or containment or the hot or cold aisles. The scope of this report is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with a concurrent research study to document the energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Xu, TengFang T.

2009-05-01

278

Performance Evaluation for a Modular, Scalable Passive Cooling System in Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. In the meanwhile, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has created significant opportunities for precision cooling to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected passive, modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 4. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a passive, modular, scalable liquid cooling system in this study. The scope is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit corresponding to various server loads and inlet air temperatures, under various chilled-water supply temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with documented energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Xu, TengFang

2009-05-01

279

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. In the meanwhile, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 3. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable liquid-rack cooling system in this study. The scope is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures, under various chilled-water supply temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with documented energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Xu, TengFang

2009-05-01

280

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Cooling Systems with Hot Aisle Containment in Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. Naturally, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has, in the meanwhile, created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 2. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable pair of chilled water cooling modules that were tested in a hot/cold aisle environment with hot aisle containment. The scope of this report is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with a concurrent research study to document the energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Adams, Barbara J

2009-05-01

281

Photovoltaic stand-alone modular systems. Phase 2. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The final hardware and system qualification phase of a two part stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system development is covered. The final design incorporated modular, power blocks capable of expanding incrementally from 320 watts to twenty kilowatts (PK). The basic power unit (PU) was nominally rated 1.28 kWp. The controls units, power collection buses and main lugs, electrical protection subsystems, power switching, and load management circuits are housed in a common control enclosure. Photo-voltaic modules are electrically connected in a horizontal daisy-chain method via Amp Solarlok plugs mating with compatible connectors installed on the back side of each photovoltaic module. A pair of channel rails accommodate the mounting of the modules into a frameless panel support structure. Foundations are of a unique planter (tub-like) configuration to allow for world-wide deployment without restriction as to types of soil. One battery string capable of supplying approximately 240 ampere hours nominal of carryover power is specified for each basic power unit. Load prioritization and shedding circuits are included to protect critical loads and selectively shed and defer lower priority or noncritical power demands. The baseline system, operating at approximately 2 1/2 PUs (3.2 kW pk.) was installed and deployed. Qualification was successfully complete in March 1983. Since that time, the demonstration system has logged approximately 3000 hours of continuous operation under load without major incident.

Naff, G.J.; Marshall, N.A.

1983-07-01

282

Small satellite modular design and application prospect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small satellite modular architecture is introduced, which is based on systematically analyzing the subsystem functions of small satellites. A whole spacecraft is divided into three modules: the payload module, the attitude control module and the common service module. The payload module offers three versions to select according to payload mass; the attitude control module offers gravity gradient modules, spin stabilized modules and two types of three axis stabilization module; common service module is the small satellite control center including control system, power system and TTC (Telemetry, Tracking and Control) system. Several basic module configurations are possible: gravity gradient model, spin stabilized model, the payload module mass varying between 50 to 150 kg. The use of a Chinese launch vehicle to launch these modular small satellites is possible. Small satellite applications in the military, civil and scientific fields are prospected.

Yuan, Jie; Chen, Jin-Jun

1993-01-01

283

Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant  

SciTech Connect

A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

1983-07-01

284

Modular multiplication operator and quantized baker's maps  

SciTech Connect

The modular multiplication operator, a central subroutine in Shor's factoring algorithm, is shown to be a coherent superposition of two quantum baker's maps when the multiplier is 2. The classical limit of the maps being completely chaotic, it is shown that there exist perturbations that push the modular multiplication operator into regimes of generic quantum chaos with spectral fluctuations that are those of random matrices. For the initial state of relevance to Shor's algorithm we study fidelity decay due to phase and bit-flip errors in a single qubit and show exponential decay with shoulders at multiples or half-multiples of the order. A simple model is used to gain some understanding of this behavior.

Lakshminarayan, Arul [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

2007-10-15

285

Integrated modular water reactor (IMR) design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated modular water reactor (IMR) has been developed as one of the advanced small-scale light water reactors, with a thermal output of 1000MW. The IMR adopts natural circulation and self-pressurization in the primary cooling system, and a reactor vessel built-in steam generators. The core design has been performed using the current light water reactor technology. Thermal-hydraulic sensitivity analyses have been

Koki Hibi; Hitoi Ono; Takashi Kanagawa

2004-01-01

286

Modular test facility for HTS insert coils  

SciTech Connect

The final beam cooling stages of a Muon Collider may require DC solenoid magnets with magnetic fields in the range of 40-50 T. In this paper we will present a modular test facility developed for the purpose of investigating very high field levels with available 2G HTS superconducting materials. Performance of available conductors is presented, together with magnetic calculations and evaluation of Lorentz forces distribution on the HTS coils. Finally a test of a double pancake coil is presented.

Lombardo, V; Bartalesi, A.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

2009-10-01

287

Parallel Induction of Modular Classification Rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Distributed Rule Induction (DRI) project at the University of Portsmouth is concerned with distributed data mining algorithms for automatically generating rules of all kinds. In this paper we present a system architecture and its implementation for inducing modular classification rules in parallel in a local area network using a distributed blackboard system. We present initial results of a prototype implementation based on the Prism algorithm.

Stahl, Frederic; Bramer, Max; Adda, Mo

288

Robustness and modular structure in networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many complex systems, from power grids and the internet, to the brain and\\u000asociety, can be modeled using modular networks. Modules, densely interconnected\\u000agroups of elements, often overlap due to elements that belong to multiple\\u000amodules. The elements and modules of these networks perform individual and\\u000acollective tasks such as generating and consuming electrical load, transmitting\\u000adata, or executing parallelized

James P. Bagrow; Sune Lehmann; Yong-Yeol Ahn

2011-01-01

289

Learning properties of Modular Network SOMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modular network self-organizing map (mn-SOM) is a generalization of SOMs, where each node represents a parametric function such as a multi-layer perceptron or another SOM. Since given datasets are fewer than the nodes in general, some nodes never win in competition and have to update their parameters from the winners in the neighborhood, which can be regarded as interpolation.

Manabu Takeda; Kazushi Ikeda; Tetsuo Furukawa

2008-01-01

290

Development of novel robots with modular methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modules have been widely used in the development of re-configurable robots and snake-like robots. Modular methodology can also be applied in design of other robots. To build robots flexibly and quickly with low costs, we have developed two basic joint modules and several functional modules including grippers, suckers and wheels\\/feet as end-effectors. In this paper, we introduce the development of

Yisheng Guan; Li Jiang; Xianmin Zhang; Hong Zhang; Xuefeng Zhou

2009-01-01

291

Modular wall climbing robots with transition capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces two wall climbing robots based on different adhesive mechanisms: vortex attraction technique and the vacuum rotor package. The robots adopt modular design with each module can move on various smooth\\/rough surfaces independently while a combination of two modules can achieve wall-to-wall transition. Detailed description of the novel mechanical and electrical design is presented. Simulation is conducted to

Jizhong Xiao; Angel Calle; Ali Sadegh; Matthew Elliott

2005-01-01

292

Embedded-based modular NC systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the discussion of the problems for the current computer numerical control (CNC) systems, such as the lack of tailorability,\\u000a insufficient utilization of resources, and the complexity of interconnections based upon parallel interfaces, etc., this paper\\u000a presents the work on embedded-based modular numerical control (NC) systems. The proposed systems take advantage of the most\\u000a recent advances in embedded technology. They

Yi-Hong Long; Zu-De Zhou; Quan Liu; Ben-Yuan Chen; Heng-Lin Zhou

2009-01-01

293

Modular Approach to Physics: Colliding Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation illustrates conservation of momentum through the collision of two masses. The user can adjust the masses of the planets and observe that they always will collide at their center of mass if they start at rest relative to each other. The momentum and forces on the masses are shown in the illustration and data collected for graphing. This item is part of a larger collection of physics simulations sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-05-20

294

Innovative safety features of the modular HTGR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is an advanced reactor concept under development through a cooperative program involving the US Government, the nuclear industry, and the utilities. Near-term development is focused on electricity generation. The top-level safety requirement is that the plant`s operation not disturb the normal day-to-day activities of the public. Quantitatively, this requires that the design meet

F. A. Silady; W. A. Simon

1992-01-01

295

Innovative safety features of the modular HTGR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is an advanced reactor concept under development through a cooperative program involving the US Government, the nuclear industry, and the utilities. Near-term development is focused on electricity generation. The top-level safety requirement is that the plant's operation not disturb the normal day-to-day activities of the public. Quantitatively, this requires that the design meet

F. A. Silady; W. A. Simon

1992-01-01

296

UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATION FOR MODULAR AND HIERARCHICAL MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a modular\\/hierarchical uncertainty quantication framework based on a recently developed methodology using concentration-of-measure inequalities for probability-of-failure upper bound calculations. In this framework, the relations between the variables of the underlying input-output model are represented by directed, acyclic graphs and the bounded uncertainty in the input variables is propagated to the output variable (performance measure) in an inductive manner

L. J. LUCAS; M. ORTIZ; H. OWHADI; U. TOPCUy

297

Programming Modular Robots with the TOTA Middleware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular robots represent a perfect application scenario for multiagent coordination. The autonomous modules composing the\\u000a robot must coordinate their respective activities to enforce a specific global shape or a coherent motion gait. Here we show\\u000a how the TOTA (“Tuples On The Air”) middleware can be effectively exploited to support agents’ coordination in this context.\\u000a The key idea in TOTA is

Marco Mamei; Franco Zambonelli

298

lazar: a modular predictive toxicology framework.  

PubMed

lazar (lazy structure-activity relationships) is a modular framework for predictive toxicology. Similar to the read across procedure in toxicological risk assessment, lazar creates local QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) models for each compound to be predicted. Model developers can choose between a large variety of algorithms for descriptor calculation and selection, chemical similarity indices, and model building. This paper presents a high level description of the lazar framework and discusses the performance of example classification and regression models. PMID:23761761

Maunz, Andreas; Gütlein, Martin; Rautenberg, Micha; Vorgrimmler, David; Gebele, Denis; Helma, Christoph

2013-04-09

299

Moving RNA moves RNA forward.  

PubMed

Cell communication affects all aspects of cell structure and behavior, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, division, and coordination of various physiological functions. The moving RNA in plants and mammalian cells indicates that nucleic acid could be one of the various types of messengers for cell communication. The microvesicle is a critical pathway that mediates RNA moving and keeps moving RNA stable in body fluids. When moving miRNA enters the target cell, it functions by altering the gene expression profile and significantly inhibiting mRNA translation in recipient cells. Thus, moving RNA may act as a long-range modulator during development, organogenesis, and tumor metastasis. PMID:24008386

Peng, Lina; Li, Yujiao; Zhang, Lan; Yu, Wenqiang

2013-09-05

300

Relative Importance of Modularity and Other Morphological Attributes on Different Types of Lithic Point Weapons: Assessing Functional Variations  

PubMed Central

The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as “near decomposable units” in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric attributes, and evolving on a modular way.

Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Charlin, Judith

2012-01-01

301

Relative importance of modularity and other morphological attributes on different types of lithic point weapons: assessing functional variations.  

PubMed

The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as "near decomposable units" in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric attributes, and evolving on a modular way. PMID:23094104

González-José, Rolando; Charlin, Judith

2012-10-19

302

Modular closed-loop control of diabetes.  

PubMed

Modularity plays a key role in many engineering systems, allowing for plug-and-play integration of components, enhancing flexibility and adaptability, and facilitating standardization. In the control of diabetes, i.e., the so-called "artificial pancreas," modularity allows for the step-wise introduction of (and regulatory approval for) algorithmic components, starting with subsystems for assured patient safety and followed by higher layer components that serve to modify the patient's basal rate in real time. In this paper, we introduce a three-layer modular architecture for the control of diabetes, consisting in a sensor/pump interface module (IM), a continuous safety module (CSM), and a real-time control module (RTCM), which separates the functions of insulin recommendation (postmeal insulin for mitigating hyperglycemia) and safety (prevention of hypoglycemia). In addition, we provide details of instances of all three layers of the architecture: the APS© serving as the IM, the safety supervision module (SSM) serving as the CSM, and the range correction module (RCM) serving as the RTCM. We evaluate the performance of the integrated system via in silico preclinical trials, demonstrating 1) the ability of the SSM to reduce the incidence of hypoglycemia under nonideal operating conditions and 2) the ability of the RCM to reduce glycemic variability. PMID:22481809

Patek, S D; Magni, L; Dassau, E; Karvetski, C; Toffanin, C; De Nicolao, G; Del Favero, S; Breton, M; Man, C Dalla; Renard, E; Zisser, H; Doyle, F J; Cobelli, C; Kovatchev, B P

2012-04-03

303

Small Modular Reactors (468th Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect

With good reason, much more media attention has focused on nuclear power plants than solar farms, wind farms, or hydroelectric plants during the past month and a half. But as nations around the world demand more energy to power everything from cell phone batteries to drinking water pumps to foundries, nuclear plants are the only non-greenhouse-gas producing option that can be built to operate almost anywhere, and can continue to generate power during droughts, after the sun sets, and when winds die down. To supply this demand for power, designers around the world are competing to develop more affordable nuclear reactors of the future: small modular reactors. Brookhaven Lab is working with DOE to ensure that these reactors are designed to be safe for workers, members of surrounding communities, and the environment and to ensure that the radioactive materials and technology will only be used for peaceful purposes, not weapons. In his talk, Bari will discuss the advantages and challenges of small modular reactors and what drives both international and domestic interest in them. He will also explain how Brookhaven Lab and DOE are working to address the challenges and provide a framework for small modular reactors to be commercialized.

Bari, Robert

2011-04-20

304

MACOP modular architecture with control primitives.  

PubMed

Walking, catching a ball and reaching are all tasks in which humans and animals exhibit advanced motor skills. Findings in biological research concerning motor control suggest a modular control hierarchy which combines movement/motor primitives into complex and natural movements. Engineers inspire their research on these findings in the quest for adaptive and skillful control for robots. In this work we propose a modular architecture with control primitives (MACOP) which uses a set of controllers, where each controller becomes specialized in a subregion of its joint and task-space. Instead of having a single controller being used in this subregion [such as MOSAIC (modular selection and identification for control) on which MACOP is inspired], MACOP relates more to the idea of continuously mixing a limited set of primitive controllers. By enforcing a set of desired properties on the mixing mechanism, a mixture of primitives emerges unsupervised which successfully solves the control task. We evaluate MACOP on a numerical model of a robot arm by training it to generate desired trajectories. We investigate how the tracking performance is affected by the number of controllers in MACOP and examine how the individual controllers and their generated control primitives contribute to solving the task. Furthermore, we show how MACOP compensates for the dynamic effects caused by a fixed control rate and the inertia of the robot. PMID:23888140

Waegeman, Tim; Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin

2013-07-23

305

Evolution of a modular software network  

PubMed Central

“Evolution behaves like a tinkerer” (François Jacob, Science, 1977). Software systems provide a singular opportunity to understand biological processes using concepts from network theory. The Debian GNU/Linux operating system allows us to explore the evolution of a complex network in a unique way. The modular design detected during its growth is based on the reuse of existing code in order to minimize costs during programming. The increase of modularity experienced by the system over time has not counterbalanced the increase in incompatibilities between software packages within modules. This negative effect is far from being a failure of design. A random process of package installation shows that the higher the modularity, the larger the fraction of packages working properly in a local computer. The decrease in the relative number of conflicts between packages from different modules avoids a failure in the functionality of one package spreading throughout the entire system. Some potential analogies with the evolutionary and ecological processes determining the structure of ecological networks of interacting species are discussed.

Fortuna, Miguel A.; Bonachela, Juan A.; Levin, Simon A.

2011-01-01

306

More modular invariant anomalous U(1) breaking  

SciTech Connect

We consider the case of several scalar fields, charged under a number of U(1) factors, acquiring vacuum expectation values due to anomalous U(1). We demonstrate how to make redefinitions at the superfield level in order to account for tree-level exchange of vector supermultiplets in the effective supergravity theory of the light fields in the supersymmetric vacuum phase. Our approach builds up on previous results that we obtained in a more elementary case. We find that the modular weights of light fields are typically shifted from their original values, allowing an interpretation in terms of the preservation of modular invariance in the effective theory. We address various subtleties in defining unitary gauge that are associated with the noncanonical Kahler potential of modular invariant supergravity, the vacuum degeneracy, and the role of the dilaton field. We discuss the effective superpotential for the light fields and note how proton decay operators may be obtained when the heavy fields are integrated out of the theory at the tree-level. We also address how our formalism may be extended to describe the generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism for multiple anomalous U(1)'s that occur in four-dimensional Type I and Type IIB string constructions.

Gaillard, Mary K.; Giedt, Joel

2002-06-27

307

A methodology for modular representation of guidelines.  

PubMed

Computer-based clinical practice guidelines often need to be modified when medical knowledge evolves or when guidelines are implemented in a local setting with specific constraints and preferences. To enable easy modifications to guidelines and maintain their integrity, we have developed a methodology for modular representation of guidelines. Using this approach, we create guidelines in a hierarchical and modular manner. We use the Axiomatic Design methodology to facilitate the development of independent modules. Design matrices capture the interactions among modules. The design matrices can be used during guideline modification to create a change process and to enable identification of other modules that are affected by a change to a module. We implemented this modular knowledge representation approach by incorporating it into the Guideline Interchange Format (GLIF) language. We applied this approach to encode parts of three outdated guidelines released during 2000-2001, and we revised these designs to model updated releases of the guideline. Qualitative and quantitative metrics were developed to assess the types of changes made to the encoded guidelines. PMID:15360793

Scott-Wright, Alicia O; Fischer, Robert P; Denekamp, Yaron; Boxwala, Aziz A

2004-01-01

308

Topological Strings And (Almost) Modular Forms  

SciTech Connect

The B-model topological string theory on a Calabi-Yau threefold X has a symmetry group {Lambda}, generated by monodromies of the periods of X. This acts on the topological string wave function in a natural way, governed by the quantum mechanics of the phase space H{sup 3}(X). We show that, depending on the choice of polarization, the genus g topological string amplitude is either a holomorphic quasi-modular form or an almost holomorphic modular form of weight 0 under {Lambda}. Moreover, at each genus, certain combinations of genus g amplitudes are both modular and holomorphic. We illustrate this for the local Calabi-Yau manifolds giving rise to Seiberg-Witten gauge theories in four dimensions and local IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 1} x IP{sub 1}. As a byproduct, we also obtain a simple way of relating the topological string amplitudes near different points in the moduli space, which we use to give predictions for Gromov-Witten invariants of the orbifold C{sub 3}/ZZ{sub 3}.

Aganagic, Mina; Bouchard, Vincent; Klemm, Albrecht

2007-05-04

309

Topological Strings and (Almost) Modular Forms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The B-model topological string theory on a Calabi-Yau threefold X has a symmetry group ?, generated by monodromies of the periods of X. This acts on the topological string wave function in a natural way, governed by the quantum mechanics of the phase space H 3( X). We show that, depending on the choice of polarization, the genus g topological string amplitude is either a holomorphic quasi-modular form or an almost holomorphic modular form of weight 0 under ?. Moreover, at each genus, certain combinations of genus g amplitudes are both modular and holomorphic. We illustrate this for the local Calabi-Yau manifolds giving rise to Seiberg-Witten gauge theories in four dimensions and local IP 2 and IP 1 × IP 1. As a byproduct, we also obtain a simple way of relating the topological string amplitudes near different points in the moduli space, which we use to give predictions for Gromov-Witten invariants of the orbifold {{mathbb {C}^3} / {mathbb {Z}_3}}.

Aganagic, Mina; Bouchard, Vincent; Klemm, Albrecht

2008-02-01

310

Modularization and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Modularization Task Team  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of the work performed by the Technology Transfer Task Team on Modularization. This work was performed as part of the Technology Transfer work being performed under Department of Energy Contract 54-7WM-335406, between December, 1984 and February, 1985. The purpose of this task team effort was to briefly survey the current use of modularization in the nuclear and non-nuclear industries and to assess and evaluate the techniques available for potential application to nuclear power. A key conclusion of the evaluation was that there was a need for a study to establish guidelines for the future development of Light Water Reactor, High Temperature Gas Reactor and Liquid Metal Reactor plants. The guidelines should identify how modularization can improve construction, maintenance, life extension and decommissioning.

Not Available

1985-06-01

311

Assessment of Microbial Diversity in Four Southwestern United States Soils by 16S rRNA Gene Terminal Restriction Fragment Analysis  

PubMed Central

The ability of terminal restriction fragment (T-RFLP or TRF) profiles of 16S rRNA genes to provide useful information about the relative diversity of complex microbial communities was investigated by comparison with other methods. Four soil communities representing two pinyon rhizosphere and two between-tree (interspace) soil environments were compared by analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and culture collections (Dunbar et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:1662–1669, 1998) and by analysis of 16S rDNA TRF profiles of community DNA. The TRF method was able to differentiate the four communities in a manner consistent with previous comparisons of the communities by analysis of 16S rDNA clone libraries. TRF profiles were not useful for calculating and comparing traditional community richness or evenness values among the four soil environments. Statistics calculated from RsaI, HhaI, HaeIII, and MspI profiles of each community were inconsistent, and the combined data were not significantly different between samples. The detection sensitivity of the method was tested. In standard PCRs, a seeded population comprising 0.1 to 1% of the total community could be detected. The combined results demonstrate that TRF analysis is an excellent method for rapidly comparing the relationships between bacterial communities in environmental samples. However, for highly complex communities, the method appears unable to provide classical measures of relative community diversity.

Dunbar, John; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

2000-01-01

312

AC thin film electroluminescent display unit for cockpit control display unit application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype thin film electroluminescent (TFEL) display unit (DU) for a control display unit (CDU) design and development was initiated in FY90. Features of the display include high brightness and contrast, sunlight readability, night vision goggle compatibility, light weight, low power, automatic brightness control based on ambient light conditions, modular design, ease of assembly and test, and high reliability. The

Alan L. Bridges

1992-01-01

313

The role of KSRP in mRNA decay and microRNA precursor maturation.  

PubMed

KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP)/FBP2, a single-strand nucleic acid binding protein originally identified as both an RNA-binding protein and a transcription factor, affects RNA fates at multiple levels. In this review we will discuss the ability of KSRP to (1) promote decay of labile mRNAs by interacting with some components of the mRNA decay machinery and (2) favor the maturation of a select group of microRNA precursors. We also discuss how its peculiar modular structure allows KSRP to specifically interact with a wide spectrum of RNA sequences and how post-translational modifications influence KSRP functions in cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:21935887

Gherzi, Roberto; Chen, Ching-Yi; Trabucchi, Michele; Ramos, Andres; Briata, Paola

2010-05-06

314

Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

Harto, Andang Widi

2012-06-01

315

Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system  

SciTech Connect

Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

Harto, Andang Widi [Engineering Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

2012-06-06

316

Demonstration of a Small Modular Biopower System Using Poultry Litter-Final Report  

SciTech Connect

On-farm conversion of poultry litter into energy is a unique market connected opportunity for commercialization of small modular bioenergy systems. The United States Department of Energy recognized the need in the poultry industry for alternative litter management as an opportunity for bioenergy. The DOE created a relevant topic in the December 2000 release of the small business innovative research (SBIR) grant solicitation. Community Power Corporation responded to this solicitation by proposing the development of a small modular gasification and gas cleanup system to produce separate value streams of clean producer gas and mineral rich solids. This phase II report describes our progress in the development of an on-farm litter to energy system.

John Reardon; Art Lilley

2004-06-15

317

Unimodal sequences and quantum and mock modular forms  

PubMed Central

We show that the rank generating function U(t; q) for strongly unimodal sequences lies at the interface of quantum modular forms and mock modular forms. We use U(-1; q) to obtain a quantum modular form which is “dual” to the quantum form Zagier constructed from Kontsevich’s “strange” function F(q). As a result, we obtain a new representation for a certain generating function for L-values. The series U(i; q) = U(-i; q) is a mock modular form, and we use this fact to obtain new congruences for certain enumerative functions.

Bryson, Jennifer; Ono, Ken; Pitman, Sarah; Rhoades, Robert C.

2012-01-01

318

Metabolic Network Modularity in Archaea Depends on Growth Conditions  

PubMed Central

Network modularity is an important structural feature in metabolic networks. A previous study suggested that the variability in natural habitat promotes metabolic network modularity in bacteria. However, since many factors influence the structure of the metabolic network, this phenomenon might be limited and there may be other explanations for the change in metabolic network modularity. Therefore, we focus on archaea because they belong to another domain of prokaryotes and show variability in growth conditions (e.g., trophic requirement and optimal growth temperature), but not in habitats because of their specialized growth conditions (e.g., high growth temperature). The relationship between biological features and metabolic network modularity is examined in detail. We first show the absence of a relationship between network modularity and habitat variability in archaea, as archaeal habitats are more limited than bacterial habitats. Although this finding implies the need for further studies regarding the differences in network modularity, it does not contradict previous work. Further investigations reveal alternative explanations. Specifically, growth conditions, trophic requirement, and optimal growth temperature, in particular, affect metabolic network modularity. We have discussed the mechanisms for the growth condition-dependant changes in network modularity. Our findings suggest different explanations for the changes in network modularity and provide new insights into adaptation and evolution in metabolic networks, despite several limitations of data analysis.

Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Borjigin, Suritalatu

2011-01-01

319

p-adic coupling of mock modular forms and shadows  

PubMed Central

A “mock modular form” is the holomorphic part of a harmonic Maass form f. The nonholomorphic part of f is a period integral of its “shadow,” a cusp form g. A direct method for relating the coefficients of shadows and mock modular forms is not known. We solve these problems when the shadow is an integer weight newform. Our solution is p-adic, and it relies on our definition of an algebraic “regularized mock modular form.” As an application, we consider the modular solution to the cubic “arithmetic-geometric mean.”

Guerzhoy, Pavel; Kent, Zachary A.; Ono, Ken

2010-01-01

320

Exploiting Motor Modules in Modular Contexts in Humanoid Robotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing interest within various research communities in modeling motor control systems with modular structures. Recent studies identified that such control structures have many interesting properties. This chapter focuses, in a robot environment, on properties that are related to the fact that specific sets of contexts can themselves be modular. In particular, the chapter shows that the adaptation of a modular control structure can be guided by the modularity of contexts, by means of interpreting a current unexperienced context as the combination of previously experienced contexts.

Nori, Francesco; Metta, Giorgio; Sandini, Giulio

321

Improved Version 2.0 Qualitative and Quantitative AMPLICOR Reverse Transcription-PCR Tests for Hepatitis C Virus RNA: Calibration to International Units, Enhanced Genotype Reactivity, and Performance Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Version 2.0 qualitative and quantitative AMPLICOR reverse transcription-PCR tests for HCV were designed to improve on the performance of first version of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) tests. The new tests were calibrated in international units, the new commonly accepted standard unit of measurement for HCV RNA. The sensitivity of the qualitative tests was enhanced by modifying the specimen processing procedure to achieve a limit of detection 50 IU/ml. The limit of detection for the quantitative tests was 600 IU/ml. Modifications to the amplification reaction mixture and thermal cycling conditions enabled all genotypes to be amplified with similar efficiency. The quantitative tests exhibited a linear range extending from 500 to 500,000 IU/ml and excellent reproducibility, with coefficients of variation ranging from 18 to 39%, within the linear range. These data indicate that the version 2.0 AMPLICOR HCV tests will improve diagnosis of HCV infection and will yield more-accurate titers for prognosis and for monitoring therapeutic efficacy, particularly at low viral loads. Furthermore, it will be possible to compare the performance characteristics and viral load measurements of AMPLICOR tests to those of other tests that adopt the international unit as the standard of measurement.

Lee, Sung C.; Antony, Anisha; Lee, Nitta; Leibow, Jeff; Yang, Jian Q.; Soviero, Stephen; Gutekunst, Karen; Rosenstraus, Maurice

2000-01-01

322

DNA restriction digest and ribosomal RNA gene patterns of Campylobacter jejuni: a comparison with bio-, sero-, and bacteriophage-types of United Kingdom outbreak strains.  

PubMed Central

DNA restriction endonuclease (Hae III and Hind III) total digest and 16S and 23S ribosomal (r)RNA gene patterns (ribopatterns) were determined for 18 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni from three separate outbreaks of diarrhoea in the north of England. Strains were also characterized by biotyping, serotyping and phage typing. Comparisons of the DNA patterns by visual and numerical methods revealed five distinct strain groupings with clear differences between isolates from different outbreaks as well as some heterogeneity between strains within the community outbreak and one of the school outbreaks. An excellent correlation was observed between the genomic DNA fingerprints data and the Preston bacteriophage group, both of which gave better discrimination than biotyping and serotyping alone or in combination. Only one phage group (PG 37) was not confirmed by the DNA data. DNA fingerprints therefore provide additional information of value in studying the epidemiology of outbreaks of C. jejuni. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Owen, R. J.; Hernandez, J.; Bolton, F.

1990-01-01

323

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of 16S rDNA and of whole rRNA genes (ribotyping) of Streptococcus iniae strains from the United States and Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus iniae (junior synonym S. shiloi) isolated from tilapia and trout in Israel and in the United States were subtyped by restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) based on PCR amplified 16S rDNA and by ribotyping. 16S rDNA RFLP discriminated between S. iniae and other fish pathogens but not between S. iniae strains. HindIII and EcoRI ribotypes of S. iniae discriminated American

Avi Eldar; Sara Lawhon; Paul F. Frelier; Liliana Assenta; Bruce R Simpson; Patricia W Varner; Herve Bercovier

1997-01-01

324

Nuclear Safeguards Considerations For The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)  

SciTech Connect

High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been considered since the 1940s, and have been constructed and demonstrated in the United Kingdom (Dragon), United States (Peach Bottom and Fort Saint Vrain), Japan (HTTR), Germany (AVR and THTR-300), and have been the subject of conceptual studies in Russia (VGM). The attraction to these reactors is that they can use a variety of reactor fuels, including abundant thorium, which upon reprocessing of the spent fuel can produce fissile U-233. Hence, they could extend the stocks of available uranium, provided the fuel is reprocessed. Another attractive attribute is that HTRs typically operate at a much higher temperature than conventional light water reactors (LWRs), because of the use of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coated (TRISO) fuel particles embedded in ceramic graphite. Rather than simply discharge most of the unused heat from the working fluid in the power plant to the environment, engineers have been designing reactors for 40 years to recover this heat and make it available for district heating or chemical conversion plants. Demonstrating high-temperature nuclear energy conversion was the purpose behind Fort Saint Vrain in the United States, THTR-300 in Germany, HTTR in Japan, and HTR-10 and HTR-PM, being built in China. This resulted in nuclear reactors at least 30% or more thermodynamically efficient than conventional LWRs, especially if the waste heat can be effectively utilized in chemical processing plants. A modern variant of high temperature reactors is the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Originally developed in the United States and Germany, it is now being redesigned and marketed by the Republic of South Africa and China. The team examined historical high temperature and high temperature gas reactors (HTR and HTGR) and reviewed safeguards considerations for this reactor. The following is a preliminary report on this topic prepared under the ASA-100 Advanced Safeguards Project in support of the NNSA Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI).

Phillip Casey Durst; David Beddingfield; Brian Boyer; Robert Bean; Michael Collins; Michael Ehinger; David Hanks; David L. Moses; Lee Refalo

2009-10-01

325

Modularisation: Aspects of the Debate in Germany and the United Kingdom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes four theme articles: "Some Remarks on Modular Training in the Federal Republic of Germany" (Zedler); "Modular Initial and Continuing Education and Training: A Comparative Survey of the Education System in the United Kingdom and Germany" (Hammer); "Modules in Vocational Training" (Wiegand); and "Modularisation and Qualification Reform in…

Zedler, Reinhard; And Others

1996-01-01

326

Modularisation: Aspects of the Debate in Germany and the United Kingdom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Includes four theme articles: "Some Remarks on Modular Training in the Federal Republic of Germany" (Zedler); "Modular Initial and Continuing Education and Training: A Comparative Survey of the Education System in the United Kingdom and Germany" (Hammer); "Modules in Vocational Training" (Wiegand); and "Modularisation and Qualification Reform in…

Zedler, Reinhard; And Others

1996-01-01

327

NUTECH HOrizontal MOdular Storage (NUHOMS) modular spent-fuel storage system: Performance testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the results of a heat transfer and shielding performance evaluation of the NUTECH HOrizontal MOdular Storage (NUHOMS{reg sign}) System utilized by the Carolina Power and Light Co. (CP L) in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The ISFSI is located at CP L's H. B. Robinson Nuclear Plant

L. A. Strope; M. A. McKinnon; D. J. Dyksterhouse; J. C. McLean

1990-01-01

328

Lightweight composites for modular panelized construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid advances in construction materials technology have enabled civil engineers to achieve impressive gains in the safety, economy, and functionality of structures built to serve the common needs of society. Modular building systems is a fast-growing modern, form of construction gaining recognition for its increased efficiency and ability to apply modern technology to the needs of the market place. In the modular construction technique, a single structural panel can perform a number of functions such as providing thermal insulation, vibration damping, and structural strength. These multifunctional panels can be prefabricated in a manufacturing facility and then transferred to the construction site. A system that uses prefabricated panels for construction is called a "panelized construction system". This study focuses on the development of pre-cast, lightweight, multifunctional sandwich composite panels to be used for panelized construction. Two thermoplastic composite panels are proposed in this study, namely Composite Structural Insulated Panels (CSIPs) for exterior walls, floors and roofs, and Open Core Sandwich composite for multifunctional interior walls of a structure. Special manufacturing techniques are developed for manufacturing these panels. The structural behavior of these panels is analyzed based on various building design codes. Detailed descriptions of the design, cost analysis, manufacturing, finite element modeling and structural testing of these proposed panels are included in this study in the of form five peer-reviewed journal articles. The structural testing of the proposed panels involved in this study included flexural testing, axial compression testing, and low and high velocity impact testing. Based on the current study, the proposed CSIP wall and floor panels were found satisfactory, based on building design codes ASCE-7-05 and ACI-318-05. Joining techniques are proposed in this study for connecting the precast panels on the construction site. Keywords: Modular panelized construction, sandwich composites, composite structural insulated panels (CSIPs).

Vaidya, Amol S.

329

Simple currents, modular invariants and fixed points  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the use of simple currents in constructing modular invariant partition functions and the problem of resolving their fixed points. The authors present some new results, in particular regarding fixed point resolution. Additional empirical evidence is provided in support of the conjecture that fixed point conformal field theories for all simply laced and most non-simply laced Kac-Moody algebras, for which the fixed point CFT's turn out to be Kac-Moody algebras themselves. For the remaining non-simply laced ones we obtain spectra that appear to correspond to new non-unitary conformal field theories. The fusion rules of the simplest unidentified example are computed.

Schellekens, A.N. (CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (CH)); Yankielowicz, S. (School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv Univ., Tel-Aviv 69978 (IL))

1990-08-10

330

Modular strategies for PET imaging agents  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging.

Hooker, , J.M.

2010-03-01

331

Language constructs for modular parallel programs  

SciTech Connect

We describe programming language constructs that facilitate the application of modular design techniques in parallel programming. These constructs allow us to isolate resource management and processor scheduling decisions from the specification of individual modules, which can themselves encapsulate design decisions concerned with concurrence, communication, process mapping, and data distribution. This approach permits development of libraries of reusable parallel program components and the reuse of these components in different contexts. In particular, alternative mapping strategies can be explored without modifying other aspects of program logic. We describe how these constructs are incorporated in two practical parallel programming languages, PCN and Fortran M. Compilers have been developed for both languages, allowing experimentation in substantial applications.

Foster, I.

1996-03-01

332

Modular Approach to Physics: Angular Velocity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains an interactive simulation for introductory physics students describing different types of motion in term of angular coordinates. It consists of a moving car, a graph of angular velocity vs. time, and real-time values for areal and angular velocity. The path of the car can be a straight line, a circle, or a parabola with the angular motion given relative to a fixed point. This item is part of a larger collection of physics simulations sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-08-03

333

Modular Approach to Physics: Weighted Average  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a multi-exercise module relating to average speed. It contains an interactive Java simulation featuring a car that the user controls for speed. Graphs of instantaneous and average velocities are simultaneously displayed, helping the user to understand the concept of time-weighted average. The lesson plan available through the Help menu explains how to calculate a weighted average, first with two speeds, and then with multiple. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics models sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-08-13

334

Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This CSWD describes hardware and PFP developed software for control of stabilization furnaces. The Honeywell software can generate configuration reports for the developed control software. These reports are described in the following section and are attached as addendum's. This plan applies to PFP Engineering Manager, Thermal Stabilization Cognizant Engineers, and the Shift Technical Advisors responsible for the Honeywell MAS software/hardware and administration of the Honeywell System.

STUBBS, A.M.

2000-12-04

335

Autonomous modular quantum systems: Contextual Jarzynski relations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For autonomous quantum systems with modular structure we demonstrate that the Jarzynski relation can be reinterpreted to apply even locally: For this purpose certain contexts have to be introduced by selecting the system of interest versus its environment. The respective energy exchange is then divided into heat and work based on a generalized definition of these notions. In this way we are able to identify functional parts of the environment as either heat or work sources, respectively. We investigate different combinations of these functional parts with respect to contextual Jarzynski relations. Our analytical results are confirmed by numerical investigations on small multipartite systems.

Teifel, Jens; Mahler, Günter

2011-04-01

336

Development of modular cable mesh deployable antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes a concept and key technologies for the modular mesh deployable antenna. The antenna reflector composed of independently manufactured and tested modules is presented. Each module consists of a mesh surface, a cable network, and a deployable truss structure. The cable network comprises three kinds of cables, surface, tie, and back cables. Adjustment of tie cable lengths improves the surface accuracy. Synchronous deployment truss structures are considered as a supporting structure. Their design method, BBM's (Bread Board Model) and deployment analysis are also explained.

Meguro, Akira; Mitsugi, Jin; Andou, Kazuhide

1993-03-01

337

Modular fuel-cell stack assembly  

DOEpatents

A modular multi-stack fuel-cell assembly in which the fuel-cell stacks are situated within a containment structure and in which a gas distributor is provided in the structure and distributes received fuel and oxidant gases to the stacks and receives exhausted fuel and oxidant gas from the stacks so as to realize a desired gas flow distribution and gas pressure differential through the stacks. The gas distributor is centrally and symmetrically arranged relative to the stacks so that it itself promotes realization of the desired gas flow distribution and pressure differential.

Patel, Pinakin (Danbury, CT); Urko, Willam (West Granby, CT)

2008-01-29

338

Modular Approach to Physics: Physical Pendulum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive Java applet that simulates the motion of a physical pendulum. By changing the size and initial position of the bob, the user can observe how the motion differs from that of a simple pendulum where all the mass is contained at a single point on the bottom of the string. Velocity, forces on the object, and acceleration can all be displayed as vectors on the diagram. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-08-13

339

The calpains: modular designs and functional diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The calpain family is named for the calcium dependence of the papain-like, thiol protease activity of the well-studied ubiquitous\\u000a vertebrate enzymes calpain-1 (?-calpain) and calpain-2 (m-calpain). Proteins showing sequence relatedness to the catalytic\\u000a core domains of these enzymes are included in this ancient and diverse eukaryotic protein family. Calpains are examples of\\u000a highly modular organization, with several varieties of amino-terminal

Dorothy E Croall; Klaus Ersfeld

2007-01-01

340

Interacting topological phases and modular invariance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss (2+1)-dimensional topological superconductors with Nf left- and right-moving Majorana edge modes and a Z2×Z2 symmetry. In the absence of interactions, these phases are distinguished by an integral topological invariant Nf. With interactions, the edge state in the case of Nf=8 is unstable against interactions, and a Z2×Z2 invariant mass gap can be generated dynamically. We show that this phenomenon is closely related to the modular invariance of type II superstring theory. More generally, we show that the global gravitational anomaly of the nonchiral Majorana edge states is the physical manifestation of the bulk topological superconductors classified by Z8.

Ryu, Shinsei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

2012-06-01

341

Modular Approach to Physics: Energy and Orbits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a simulation-based activity relating to gravitational potential energy (GPE) as a function of satellite-earth distance. Users may adjust the speed and initial position of a satellite in earth's gravitational field. Visible vectors and energy bar graphs help the learner determine how to apply the law of energy conservation to predict the speed of an object moving in earth's gravitational field. Included in the "Help" section is a detailed lesson plan with suggested supplementary activities. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation-based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-08-15

342

Modular Strategies for PET Imaging Agents  

PubMed Central

Summary of Recent Advances In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging.

Hooker, Jacob M

2009-01-01

343

Modular functionalization of allenes to aminated stereotriads.  

PubMed

Nitrogen-containing stereotriads, compounds with three adjacent stereodefined carbons, are commonly found in biologically important molecules. However, the preparation of molecules bearing these motifs can be challenging. Herein, we describe a modular oxidation protocol which converts a substituted allene to a triply functionalized amine of the form C-X/C-N/C-Y. The key step employs a Rh-catalyzed intramolecular conversion of the allene to a strained bicyclic methylene aziridine. This reactive intermediate is further elaborated to the target products, often in one reaction vessel and with effective transfer of the axial chirality of the allene to point chirality in the stereotriad. PMID:22708990

Adams, Christopher S; Boralsky, Luke A; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

2012-06-20

344

The axion mass in modular invariant supergravity  

SciTech Connect

When supersymmetry is broken by condensates with a single condensing gauge group, there is a nonanomalous R-symmetry that prevents the universal axion from acquiring a mass. It has been argued that, in the context of supergravity, higher dimension operators will break this symmetry and may generate an axion mass too large to allow the identification of the universal axion with the QCD axion. We show that such contributions to the axion mass are highly suppressed in a class of models where the effective Lagrangian for gaugino and matter condensation respects modular invariance (T-duality).

Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

2005-02-09

345

Xenopus borealis and Xenopus laevis 28S ribosomal DNA and the complete 40S ribosomal precursor RNA coding units of both species.  

PubMed

We have determined the nucleotide sequence of Xenopus borealis 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and have revised the sequence of Xenopus laevis 28S rDNA (Ware et al., Nucl. Acids Res. 11, 7795-7817 (1983)). In the regions encoding the conserved structural core of 28S rRNA (2490 nucleotides) there are only four differences between the two species, each difference being a base substitution. In the variable regions, also called eukaryotic expansion segments (ca. 1630 nucleotides) there are some 61 differences, due to substitutions, mini-insertions and mini-deletions. Thus, evolutionary divergence in the variable regions has been at least 20-fold more rapid than in the conserved core. A search for intraspecies sequence variation has revealed minimal heterogeneity in X. laevis and none in X. borealis. At three out of four sites where heterogeneity was found in X. laevis (all in variable regions) the minority variant corresponded to the standard form in X. borealis. Intraspecies heterogeneity and interspecies divergence in the 28S variable regions are much less extensive than in the transcribed spacers. The 28S sequences are from the same clones that were used previously for sequencing the 18S genes and transcribed spacers. The complete sequences of the 40S precursor regions of the two reference clones are given. PMID:1682930

Ajuh, P M; Heeney, P A; Maden, B E

1991-07-22

346

Functional analysis of mRNA 3' end formation signals in the convergent and overlapping transcription units of the S. cerevisiae genes RHO1 and MRP2.  

PubMed Central

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes RHO1 and MRP2 are convergently transcribed, with 281 base pairs separating their termination codons. Transcript mapping revealed at least 111 base pairs within the RHO1-MRP2 intercoding region are transcribed in both directions. Transplacement experiments showed distinct sequences of 70 nt for MRP2 and 179 nt for RHO1 were sufficient for normal mRNA 3' end formation. The MRP2 signal functioned in either orientation, although relatively inefficiently in the non-native orientation. This element contains a polyAT sequence essential for 3' end formation in both orientations. RHO1 or MRP2 3' end formation was not affected by overproduction or elimination of the complementary, natural antisense transcript. In contrast, insertion of a strong promoter that extended antisense transcripts beyond their normal 3' ends inactivated either MRP2 or RHO1. These data suggest that transcript termination in the compact yeast genome can be important to prevent inactivation of downstream genes as a result of antisense transcription. Images

Peterson, J A; Myers, A M

1993-01-01

347

LOADING AND UNLOADING SCHEME OF THE ORDERED BED MODULAR REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ordered Bed Modular Reactor (OBMR) is an advanced modular HTGR design in which the annular reactor core is filled with an ordered bed of fuel spheres. The OBMR with batch-wise fuel loads requires the loading and unloading of fuel spheres of the core to be completed as quickly as possible in a shorter shutdown time and the fuel spheres

Jiafu Tian

348

Architectural Considerations in the Certification of Modular Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular system architectures, such as integrated modular avionics (IMA) in the aerospace sector, offer potential benefits of improved flexibility in function allocation, reduced development costs and improved maintainability. However, they require a new certification approach. The traditional approach to certification is to prepare monolithic safety cases as bespoke developments for a specific system in a fixed configuration. However, this nullifies

Iain Bate; Tim Kelly

2002-01-01

349

Toward a Product System Modularity Construct: Literature Review and Reconceptualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product modularity has been discussed in engineering and management literature for over forty years. During this time span, definitions and views on the meaning of product modularity proliferated to the extent that it is difficult to understand the essential traits of the concept. While definitional ambiguity is often a byproduct of academic debate, it hinders the advancement of scientific knowledge

Fabrizio Salvador

2007-01-01

350

AUTMOD3: A PLANNING TOOL FOR MODULAR BUILDING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

High quality modular construction is one of the solutions for the fast growing need for affordable high quality housing in Europe, which can not be solved by conventional building technology. The software environment for automatic modular construction AUTMOD3 has been developed, by University Carlos III de Madrid, in the frame of the European Union project FutureHome. The environment integrated in

V. M. Padron; O. Cardenas; R. Diez; M. Abderrahim; C. Balaguer

351

A construction of the c <1 modular invariant partition functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposition theorems for certain representations of Kac-Moody algebras which are needed for the construction of modular invariant unitary conformal models are proved. It is shown that allc<1 modular invariant models can then be recovered from gauged free fermionic models, including the exceptional cases.

Daniel Altschuler; Korkut Bardakci; Eliezer Rabinovici

1988-01-01

352

On modular termination proofs of general logic programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a modular method for proving termination of general logic programs (i.e., logic programs with negation). It is based on the notion of acceptable programs, but it allows us to prove termination in a truly modular way. We consider programs consisting of a hierarchy of modules and supply a general result for proving termination by dealing with each module

Annalisa Bossi; Nicoletta Cocco; Sandro Etalle; Sabina Rossi

2002-01-01

353

Modular concepts for a new generation of light weight robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper outlines DLR's mechatronic developments in the robotics area over the last five years. They aim at designing a new multisensory, modularly configurable light weight robot generation in a unified and integral way. A first step in this direction has been the development of a complex multisensory gripper based on a fully modular hard- and software-concept. It turned out

B. Gombert; G. Hirzinger; G. Plank; M. Schedl

1994-01-01

354

Modular Building Supplement: A Quick, Quality Solution for Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement presents three articles on modular construction that look at: "Fast Track Expansion for a New Jersey School" (involving a modular addition); "Precast Construction Helps Schools Meet Attendance Boom" (precast concrete components are quick, durable, and flexible); and "Airing HVAC Concerns" (poor indoor air quality in prefabricated…

Goodmiller, Brian D.; Schendell, Derek G.

2003-01-01

355

Intelligent layout for modular design of machine tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular design has played an important role in design and manufacturing of machine tools. With the fast development of modern industry and the appearance of the computer integrated manufacturing system (CIMS), modular design has been developed aiming at the automatic and intelligent design. It is well known that intelligent layout becomes the bottleneck of intelligent design of mechanical products. In

Miao-An Ouyang; Chuanyun Yi; Cheng-Gang Li; Ji Zhou

1995-01-01

356

Managing modularity of product architectures: toward an integrated theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of innovation through modular product architecture strategies is gaining increasing importance for firms, both in practice and theory. Modularity refers to a new product development strategy in which interfaces shared among components in a given product architecture are specified and standardized to allow for greater substitutability of components across product families. It is argued that the degree of

Juliana Hsuan Mikkola; Oliver Gassmann

2003-01-01

357

Development of a low-cost modular pole climbing robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the design and development work on a modular pole climbing robot. Modularity was achieved by ensuring similar repeated structures can be coupled and controlled in almost similar fashion. The design considers the rudimentary aspect of climbing and adopts grasp-push-grasp motion arrangement. The resulting design consists of two grippers for grasping and two central arms for climbing

Zaidi Mohd. Ripin; Tan Beng Soon; A. B. Abdullah; Zahurin Samad

2000-01-01

358

EVIDENCE OF MODULARITY FROM PRIMATE ERRORS DURING TASK LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades have seen a great deal of theorising and speculation about the modular nature of human intelligence, as well as a rise in use of modular architectures in artificial intelligence. Nevertheless, whether such models of natural intelligence are well supported is still an issue of debate. In this paper, I propose that the most important criteria for

JOANNA J. BRYSON

2004-01-01

359

Modular design and construction techniques for nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modularization has been proposed as a nuclear power plant design-fabrication approach for increasing the quality and reducing the costs of future plants. The work reported describes a methodology for making the modular design and construction process more systematic and efficient. This methodology is applied to both the design and fabrication processes for power plant modules. The design process is enhanced

Christopher W. Lapp; Michael W. Golay

1997-01-01

360

Modular synchronization in multiversion databases: version control and concurrency control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a version control mechanism that enhances the modularity and extensibility of multiversion concurrency control algorithms. We decouple the multiversion algorithms into two components: version control and concurrency control. This permits modular development of multiversion protocols, and simplifies the task of proving the correctness of these protocols. An interesting feature of our framework is that the

Divyakant Agrawal; S. Sengupta

1989-01-01

361

Modular Representions of Cognitive Phenomena in AI, Psychology and Neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many architectures of mind assume some form of modularity, but what is meant by the term 'module'? This chapter creates a framework for understanding current modularity research in three subdisciplines of cognitive science — psychology, arti- ficial intelligence and neuroscience. This framework starts from the distinction be- tween horizontal modules which support all expressed behaviors vs. vertical modules which support

Joanna J. Bryson

362

Efficacy of modular cognitive behavior therapy for childhood anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation evaluated the initial efficacy of a modular approach to cog- nitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth. Modular CBT consists of the guided combination of individually scripted techniques that are explicitly matched to the child's individual strengths and needs. Eleven youth primarily of Asian and Pacific Island ethnicity ranging in age from 7 to 13

Bruce F. Chorpita; Alissa A. Taylor; Sarah E. Francis; Catherine Moffitt; Ayda A. Austin

2004-01-01

363

GEOMETRIC ACCURACY POTENTIAL OF THE DIGITAL MODULAR CAMERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Digital Modular Camera (DMC) is the new digital aerial camera system of Z\\/I Imaging. It is based on CCD areal array sensor technology and provides a very high interior geometric stability. According to its modular design, more than one individual camera module can be tied together, resulting in a large field of view of the camera. The DMC high

Liang Tang; Christoph Dörstel; Karsten Jacobsen; Christian Heipke; Alexander Hinz

2000-01-01

364

Dynamic rolling locomotion and control of modular robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly redundant modular robots may undergo large shape changes which significantly affect the geometry and dynamics of the robot. In these motions, the shape change may induce a tipping or rolling behavior of the robot. The paper describes the dynamic modeling, locomotion planning, control and simulation of such rolling motions for the Tetrobot modular robots. The motion is described by

Woo Ho Lee; Arthur C. Sanderson

2002-01-01

365

Design, construction and demonstration of modular, reconfigurable robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a framework for the design and configuration of joints and links for the assembly of modular robots. This report is founded on two premises. First, that a modular strategy will improve the robot design process, by narrowing the focus to manageable and experimentally verifiable joint and link modules. The second premise is that a module data base

Robert Owen Ambrose

1991-01-01

366

High-pressure, compact, modular radiosynthesizer for production of positron emitting biomarkers.  

PubMed

A robust, modular, semi-automated synthesis unit useful for conducting radiochemical reactions under pressurized conditions (up to ?200psi [1.4MPa]) for the production of PET biomarkers has been developed. This compact unit (7.6cm×33.0cm×58.4cm) is capable of performing any single step reaction that is generally encountered in radiochemical syntheses, and multiple units can be combined for more complex syntheses. The versatility of a 3-unit system is exemplified by reliably conducting the multi-step syntheses of 2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-1-?-arabinofuranosyl-uracil and -cytosine derivatives, which involve corrosive and moisture sensitive reagents under pressurized conditions. PMID:23702794

Amaraesekera, Bernard; Marchis, Phillip D; Bobinski, Krzysztof P; Radu, Caius G; Czernin, Johannes; Barrio, Jorge R; Michael van Dam, R

2013-04-25

367

Intelligent Control of Modular Robotic Welding Cell  

SciTech Connect

Although robotic machines are routinely used for welding, such machines do not normally incorporate intelligent capabilities. We are studying the general problem of formulating usable levels of intelligence into welding machines. From our perspective, an intelligent machine should: incorporate knowledge of the welding process, know if the process is operating correctly, know if the weld it is making is good or bad, have the ability to learn from its experience to perform welds, and be able to optimize its own performance. To this end, we are researching machine architecture, methods of knowledge representation, decision making and conflict resolution algorithms, methods of learning and optimization, human/machine interfaces, and various sensors. This paper presents work on the machine architecture and the human/machine interface specifically for a robotic, gas metal arc welding cell. Although the machine control problem is normally approached from the perspective of having a central body of control in the machine, we present a design using distributed agents. A prime goal of this work is to develop an architecture for an intelligent machine that will support a modular, plug and play standard. A secondary goal of this work is to formulate a human/machine interface that treats the human as an active agent in the modular structure.

Smartt, Herschel Bernard; Kenney, Kevin Louis; Tolle, Charles Robert

2002-04-01

368

Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness  

PubMed Central

Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the ‘core knowledge’ account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research.

Shettleworth, Sara J.

2012-01-01

369

Modular HTGR systems design and cost summary  

SciTech Connect

This summary report describes conceptual designs and cost estimates for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) plants based on the modular reactor concept as a source of process steam. Studies suggest that a modular reactor system (MRS) composed of a number of small, standardized, HTGR modules (which collectively meet the process heat users' requirements) might have some advantages relative to a single, large (monolithic) HTGR designed for the same capacity. This summarizes the designs of these MRS systems. The overall plant descriptions, arrangements, and layouts of the MRS-R and MRS-SC/C concepts are summarized. This inlcudes descriptions of the reactor core design and internals, major components, and balance of plant (BOP) design. Initial availability estimates as well as licensing and safety assessments of these MRS concepts are presented. Estimates of the plant capital, fuel cycle, operating and maintenance costs, and construction schedule are summarized. The technical issues which need be addressed for the development of the MRS concepts are highlighted. A discussion of the anticipated follow-on effort to these studies is presented.

Not Available

1982-12-01

370

Axial flux, modular, permanent-magnet generator with a toroidal winding for wind turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

Permanent-magnet generators have been used for wind turbines for many years. Many small wind turbine manufacturers use direct-drive permanent-magnet generators. For wind turbine generators, the design philosophy must cover the following characteristics: low cost, light weight, low speed, high torque, and variable speed generation. The generator is easy to manufacture and the design can be scaled up for a larger size without major retooling. A modular permanent-magnet generator with axial flux direction was chosen. The permanent magnet used is NdFeB or ferrite magnet with flux guide to focus flux density in the air gap. Each unit module of the generator may consist of one, two, or more phases. Each generator can be expanded to two or more unit modules. Each unit module is built from simple modular poles. The stator winding is formed like a torus. Thus, the assembly process is simplified and the winding insertion in the slot is less tedious. The authors built a prototype of one unit module and performed preliminary tests in the laboratory. Follow up tests will be conducted in the lab to improve the design.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Wan, Y.H.

1998-07-01

371

RNA interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conserved biological response to double-stranded RNA, known variously as RNA interference (RNAi) or post-transcriptional gene silencing, mediates resistance to both endogenous parasitic and exogenous pathogenic nucleic acids, and regulates the expression of protein-coding genes. RNAi has been cultivated as a means to manipulate gene expression experimentally and to probe gene function on a whole-genome scale.

Gregory J. Hannon

2002-01-01

372

RNA decoys  

PubMed Central

The role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), both short and long ncRNAs, in the regulation of gene expression has become evident in recent years. Non-coding RNA-based regulation is achieved through a variety of mechanisms; some are relatively well-characterized, while others are much less understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous small RNAs, function as master regulators of gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. A notable, recently discovered role for long ncRNAs is that of miRNA decoys, also referred to as target mimics or sponges, in which long ncRNAs carry a short stretch of sequence sharing homology to miRNA-binding sites in endogenous targets. As a consequence, miRNA decoys are able to sequester and inactivate miRNA function. Engineered miRNA decoys are also efficacious and useful tools for studying gene function. We recently demonstrated that the potential of miRNA decoys to inactivate miRNAs in the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana is dependent on the level of sequence complementarity to miRNAs of interest. The flexibility of the miRNA decoy approach in sequence-dependent miRNA inactivation, backbone choice, ability to simultaneously inactivate multiple miRNAs, and more importantly, to achieve a desirable level of miRNA inactivation, makes it a potentially useful tool for crop improvement. This research addendum reports the functional extension of miRNA decoys from model plants to crops. Furthermore, endogenous miRNA decoys, first described in plants, have been proposed to play a significant role in regulating the transcriptome in eukaryotes. Using computational analysis, we have identified numerous endogenous sequences with potential miRNA decoy activity for conserved miRNAs in several plant species. Our data suggest that endogenous miRNA decoys can be widespread in plants and may be a component of the global gene expression regulatory network in plants.

Banks, Isaac R.; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B. Elizabeth; Heck, Greg R.; Ivashuta, Sergey

2012-01-01

373

Distributed control and computation in a parallel modular robotic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New generations of modular and reconfigurable robotic systems with many degrees of freedom can be transformed to achieve different functions, modes of manipulation, and means of mobility resulting in efficient multifunctional systems which adapt to complex environments. The design of modular distributed algorithms and architectures for control of these systems is particularly challenging since kinematic and dynamic performance must be maintained throughout a range of alternative physical reconfigurations. The 'Tetrobot' is a prototype modular system using parallel, variable geometry truss-like mechanisms which can be reconfigured to create moving platforms, walking machines, manipulator arms, a pipe crawler and other devices. Modular algorithms for distributed control and dynamic redundancy resolution of these system will be discussed, and the principles of distributed control for modular systems generalize beyond these specific mechanisms. The resulting Tetrobot system has a range of interesting applications including space robotics, construction, mining, medical, undersea, and flexible manufacturing.

Lee, Woo H.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

1999-08-01

374

Understanding the emergence of modularity in neural systems.  

PubMed

Modularity in the human brain remains a controversial issue, with disagreement over the nature of the modules that exist, and why, when, and how they emerge. It is a natural assumption that modularity offers some form of computational advantage, and hence evolution by natural selection has translated those advantages into the kind of modular neural structures familiar to cognitive scientists. However, simulations of the evolution of simplified neural systems have shown that, in many cases, it is actually non-modular architectures that are most efficient. In this paper, the relevant issues are discussed and a series of simulations are presented that reveal crucial dependencies on the details of the learning algorithms and tasks that are being modelled, and the importance of taking into account known physical brain constraints, such as the degree of neural connectivity. A pattern is established which provides one explanation of why modularity should emerge reliably across a range of neural processing tasks. PMID:21635312

Bullinaria, John A

2007-07-01

375

Studies on the closed-loop digital control of multi-modular reactors  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the theoretical development and the evaluation via both experiment and simulation of digital methods for the closed-loop control of power, temperature, and steam generator level in multi-modular reactors. The major conclusion of the research reported here is that the technology is currently available to automate many aspects of the operation of multi-modular plants. This will in turn minimize the number of required personnel and thus contain both operating and personnel costs, allow each module to be operated at a different power level thereby staggering the times at which refuelings would be needed, and maintain the competitiveness of US industry relative to foreign vendors who are developing and applying advanced control concepts. The technology described in this report is appropriate to the proposed multi-modular reactor designs and to present-generation pressurized water reactors. Its extension to boiling water reactors is possible provided that the commitment is made to create a real-time model of a BWR. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to the United States Department of Energy (Division of Industry and University Programs, Contract No. DE-FG07-90ER12930.)

Bernard, J.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.); Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.; Meyer, J.E. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

1992-11-01

376

Studies on the closed-loop digital control of multi-modular reactors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the theoretical development and the evaluation via both experiment and simulation of digital methods for the closed-loop control of power, temperature, and steam generator level in multi-modular reactors. The major conclusion of the research reported here is that the technology is currently available to automate many aspects of the operation of multi-modular plants. This will in turn minimize the number of required personnel and thus contain both operating and personnel costs, allow each module to be operated at a different power level thereby staggering the times at which refuelings would be needed, and maintain the competitiveness of US industry relative to foreign vendors who are developing and applying advanced control concepts. The technology described in this report is appropriate to the proposed multi-modular reactor designs and to present-generation pressurized water reactors. Its extension to boiling water reactors is possible provided that the commitment is made to create a real-time model of a BWR. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to the United States Department of Energy (Division of Industry and University Programs, Contract No. DE-FG07-90ER12930.)

Bernard, J.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.; Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.; Meyer, J.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1992-11-01

377

RNA-SeQC: RNA-seq metrics for quality control and process optimization  

PubMed Central

Summary: RNA-seq, the application of next-generation sequencing to RNA, provides transcriptome-wide characterization of cellular activity. Assessment of sequencing performance and library quality is critical to the interpretation of RNA-seq data, yet few tools exist to address this issue. We introduce RNA-SeQC, a program which provides key measures of data quality. These metrics include yield, alignment and duplication rates; GC bias, rRNA content, regions of alignment (exon, intron and intragenic), continuity of coverage, 3?/5? bias and count of detectable transcripts, among others. The software provides multi-sample evaluation of library construction protocols, input materials and other experimental parameters. The modularity of the software enables pipeline integration and the routine monitoring of key measures of data quality such as the number of alignable reads, duplication rates and rRNA contamination. RNA-SeQC allows investigators to make informed decisions about sample inclusion in downstream analysis. In summary, RNA-SeQC provides quality control measures critical to experiment design, process optimization and downstream computational analysis. Availability and implementation: See www.genepattern.org to run online, or www.broadinstitute.org/rna-seqc/ for a command line tool. Contact: ddeluca@broadinstitute.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

DeLuca, David S.; Levin, Joshua Z.; Sivachenko, Andrey; Fennell, Timothy; Nazaire, Marc-Danie; Williams, Chris; Reich, Michael; Winckler, Wendy; Getz, Gad

2012-01-01

378

Numerical and experimental characterization of a novel modular passive micromixer.  

PubMed

This paper reports a new low-cost passive microfluidic mixer design, based on a replication of identical mixing units composed of microchannels with variable curvature (clothoid) geometry. The micromixer presents a compact and modular architecture that can be easily fabricated using a simple and reliable fabrication process. The particular clothoid-based geometry enhances the mixing by inducing transversal secondary flows and recirculation effects. The role of the relevant fluid mechanics mechanisms promoting the mixing in this geometry were analysed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 to 110. A measure of mixing potency was quantitatively evaluated by calculating mixing efficiency, while a measure of particle dispersion was assessed through the lacunarity index. The results show that the secondary flow arrangement and recirculation effects are able to provide a mixing efficiency equal to 80 % at Reynolds number above 70. In addition, the analysis of particles distribution promotes the lacunarity as powerful tool to quantify the dispersion of fluid particles and, in turn, the overall mixing. On fabricated micromixer prototypes the microscopic-Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (?LIF) technique was applied to characterize mixing. The experimental results confirmed the mixing potency of the microdevice. PMID:22711456

Pennella, Francesco; Rossi, Massimiliano; Ripandelli, Simone; Rasponi, Marco; Mastrangelo, Francesco; Deriu, Marco A; Ridolfi, Luca; Kähler, Christian J; Morbiducci, Umberto

2012-10-01

379

A modular payload concept with decentralized instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modular payload concept with decentralized instrumentation is described, and its implementation in the last seven TEXUS payloads is discussed. The payloads are all boosted by a two-stage solid propellant rocket motor, providing an approximate 360 kg payload mass with a zero-g-time of six minutes. The power subsystem consists of modules with individual power supplies, offering weight reduction, increased reliability, and reduced EMC problems. In addition, each module has its own timer, thus eliminating the need for cables connected to a central timing system, and allowing each module to be tested individually. A modified data acquisition system was used in which each module uses one or more telemetry interfaces with a standard serial link to the telemetry transmitter. This offers built-in redundancy and a telemetry format which is easily programmed. Flight and recovery of all payloads has been successful, and this concept may be applied on Spacelab.

Schmitt, G.; Schmalz, A.; Klett, R.

380

Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations.

Nichols, Ralph L. (812 Plantation Point Dr., N. Augusta, SC 29841); Widdowson, Mark A. (4204 Havana Ct., Columbia, SC 29206); Mullinex, Harry (10 Cardross La., Columbia, SC 29209); Orne, William H. (12 Martha Ct., Sumter, SC 29150); Looney, Brian B. (1135 Ridgemont Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

1994-01-01

381

FOAM: the modular adaptive optics framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control software for adaptive optics systems is mostly custom built and very specific in nature. We have developed FOAM, a modular adaptive optics framework for controlling and simulating adaptive optics systems in various environments. Portability is provided both for different control hardware and adaptive optics setups. To achieve this, FOAM is written in C++ and runs on standard CPUs. Furthermore we use standard Unix libraries and compilation procedures and implemented a hardware abstraction layer in FOAM. We have successfully implemented FOAM on the adaptive optics system of ExPo - a high-contrast imaging polarimeter developed at our institute - in the lab and will test it on-sky late June 2012. We also plan to implement FOAM on adaptive optics systems for microscopy and solar adaptive optics. FOAM is available* under the GNU GPL license and is free to be used by anyone.

van Werkhoven, T. I. M.; Homs, L.; Sliepen, G.; Rodenhuis, M.; Keller, C. U.

2012-07-01

382

Self-Assembly Modularity and Physical Complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-assembly is ubiquitous in physics, chemistry and biology, and has many applications in materials science and engineering. Here we present a general approach for finding the simplest set of building blocks that will assemble into a given physical structure. Our procedure can be adapted to any given geometry, and thus to any given type of physical system. The amount of information required to describe this simplest set of building blocks provides a quantitative measure of the structure's physical complexity, which is capable of detecting any symmetry or modularity in the underlying structure.We also introduce the notions of joint, mutual and conditional complexity for self-assembling structures. We illustrate our approach using self-assembling polyominoes, and demonstrate the breadth of its potential applications by using it to quantify the physical complexity of protein complexes.

Ahnert, S. E.

2012-12-01

383

Generic small modular reactor plant design.  

SciTech Connect

This report gives an overview of expected design characteristics, concepts, and procedures for small modular reactors. The purpose of this report is to provide those who are interested in reducing the cost and improving the safety of advanced nuclear power plants with a generic design that possesses enough detail in a non-sensitive manner to give merit to their conclusions. The report is focused on light water reactor technology, but does add details on what could be different in a more advanced design (see Appendix). Numerous reactor and facility concepts were used for inspiration (documented in the bibliography). The final design described here is conceptual and does not reflect any proposed concept or sub-systems, thus any details given here are only relevant within this report. This report does not include any design or engineering calculations.

Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Baum, Gregory A.

2012-12-01

384

The modular nature of trustworthiness detection.  

PubMed

The capacity to trust wisely is a critical facilitator of success and prosperity, and it has been conjectured that people of higher intelligence are better able to detect signs of untrustworthiness from potential partners. In contrast, this article reports five trust game studies suggesting that reading trustworthiness of the faces of strangers is a modular process. Trustworthiness detection from faces is independent of general intelligence (Study 1) and effortless (Study 2). Pictures that include nonfacial features such as hair and clothing impair trustworthiness detection (Study 3) by increasing reliance on conscious judgments (Study 4), but people largely prefer to make decisions from this sort of pictures (Study 5). In sum, trustworthiness detection in an economic interaction is a genuine and effortless ability, possessed in equal amount by people of all cognitive capacities, but whose impenetrability leads to inaccurate conscious judgments and inappropriate informational preferences. PMID:22686638

Bonnefon, Jean-François; Hopfensitz, Astrid; De Neys, Wim

2012-06-11

385

Quadruped robots' modular trajectories: Stability issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pinto, Santos, Rocha and Matos [13, 12] study a CPG model for the generation of modular trajectories of quadruped robots. They consider that each movement is composed of two types of primitives: rhythmic and discrete. The rhythmic primitive models the periodic patterns and the discrete primitive is inserted as a perturbation of those patterns. In this paper we begin to tackle numerically the problem of the stability of that mathematical model. We observe that if the discrete part is inserted in all limbs, with equal values, and as an offset of the rhythmic part, the obtained gait is stable and has the same spatial and spatio-temporal symmetry groups as the purely rhythmic gait, differing only on the value of the offset.

Pinto, Carla M. A.

2012-09-01

386

Honeywell modular automation system computer software documentation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The Honeywell MAS is used to control the thermal stabilization furnaces in glovebox HA-211. The PFP developed software is being updated to reflect the Polycube Processing and Unwashed Salt Thermal Stabilization program addition. The polycube processing program was installed per HNF-FMP-02-11162-R2. The functional test of the program was performed in JCS work package 22-02-1031, The unwashed salt item program was installed per HNF-FMP-03-16577-RO. The functional test of the program completed in JCS work package 22-03-00654.

STUBBS, A.M.

2003-07-02

387

Honeywell Modular Automation System Acceptance Test Procedure  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) is to verify the operability of the three new furnaces as controlled by the new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS). The Honeywell MAS is being installed in PFP to control the three thermal stabilization furnaces in glovebox HA-211. The ATP provides instructions for testing the configuration of the Honeywell MAS at the Plutonium Finishing Plant(PFP). The test will be a field test of the analog inputs, analog outputs, and software interlocks. The interlock test will check the digital input and outputs. Field equipment will not be connected forth is test. Simulated signals will be used to test thermocouple, limit switch, and vacuum pump inputs to the PLUMAS.

STUBBS, A.M.

1999-09-21

388

Modular Approach to Physics: Skaters and Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains an interactive simulation on conservation of momentum. Users may choose from two views: a pair of ice skaters pushing off from each other or a model of two blocks exerting a force on each other. The user can adjust the masses of the two objects and observe their velocities, momenta, and kinetic energies as they move away from each other. This resource was developed to enhance understanding of the law of momentum conservation. It includes, the simulation help, a detailed lesson with related problems/solutions, learning outcomes, and instructions for use. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation-based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-05-30

389

Calibration of the Modular Neutron Array*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) was recently finished and commissioned at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University. MoNA has 144 detector bars, each of which have a photomultiplier tube at either end and several pieces of associated electronics. In order to prepare MoNA for efficient operations it was necessary to gain match the PMTs and perform several calibrations on the time-to-digital converters (TDCs) and position spectra. An Ortec time calibrator was used to calibrate the time response of the TDCs while cosmic ray data was used to calibrate both the PMTs and the subsequent time spectra. These calibrations were then verified to be sufficiently accurate when a test experiment using a secondary beam of 8Li was used to generate neutron events from the immediate decay of 7He into 6He and a neutron.

Pepin, Robert; Pike, Tina

2004-10-01

390

Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL): Stereochemical modules  

SciTech Connect

In our previous papers we introduced the Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL) for providing a linear representation of chemical information. A subsequent development was the MCDL Java Chemical Structure Editor which is capable of drawing chemical structures from linear representations and generating MCDL descriptors from structures. In this paper we present MCDL modules and accompanying software that incorporate unique representation of molecular stereochemistry based on Cahn-Ingold-Prelog and Fischer ideas in constructing stereoisomer descriptors. The paper also contains additional discussions regarding canonical representation of stereochemical isomers, and brief algorithm descriptions of the open source LINDES, Java applet, and Open Babel MCDL processing module software packages. Testing of the upgraded MCDL Java Chemical Structure Editor on compounds taken from several large and diverse chemical databases demonstrated satisfactory performance for storage and processing of stereochemical information in MCDL format.

Gakh, Andrei A [ORNL; Burnett, Michael N [ORNL; Trepalin, Sergei V. [Institute Physiologically Active Compouds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Yarkov, Alexander V [Institute Physiologically Active Compouds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

2011-01-01

391

Kahler stabilized, modular invariant heterotic string models  

SciTech Connect

We review the theory and phenomenology of effective supergravity theories based on orbifold compactifications of the weakly-coupled heterotic string. In particular, we consider theories in which the four-dimensional theory displays target space modular invariance and where the dilatonic mode undergoes Kahler stabilization. A self-contained exposition of effective Lagrangian approaches to gaugino condensation and heterotic string theory is presented, leading to the development of the models of Binétruy, Gaillard and Wu. Various aspects of the phenomenology of this class of models are considered. These include issues of supersymmetry breaking and superpartner spectra, the role of anomalous U(1) factors, issues of flavor and R-parity conservation, collider signatures, axion physics, and early universe cosmology. For the vast majority of phenomenological considerations the theories reviewed here compare quite favorably to other string-derived models in the literature. Theoretical objections to the framework and directions for further research are identified and discussed.

Gaillard, Mary K.; Gaillard, Mary K.; Nelson, Brent D.

2007-03-19

392

Modular, security enclosure and method of assembly  

DOEpatents

A transportable, reusable rapidly assembled and disassembled, resizable modular, security enclosure utilizes a stepped panel construction. Each panel has an inner portion and an outer portion which form joints. A plurality of channels can be affixed to selected joints of the panels. Panels can be affixed to a base member and then affixed to one another by the use of elongated pins extending through the channel joints. Alternatively, the base member can be omitted and the panels themselves can be used as the floor of the enclosure. The pins will extend generally parallel to the joint in which they are located. These elongated pins are readily inserted into and removable from the channels in a predetermined sequence to allow assembly and disassembly of the enclosure. A door constructed from panels is used to close the opening to the enclosure.

Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moyer, John W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01

393

Modularizing Spatial Ontologies for Assisted Living Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assisted living systems are intended to support daily-life activities in user homes by automatizing and monitoring behavior of the environment while interacting with the user in a non-intrusive way. The knowledge base of such systems therefore has to define thematically different aspects of the environment mostly related to space, such as basic spatial floor plan information, pieces of technical equipment in the environment and their functions and spatial ranges, activities users can perform, entities that occur in the environment, etc. In this paper, we present thematically different ontologies, each of which describing environmental aspects from a particular perspective. The resulting modular structure allows the selection of application-specific ontologies as necessary. This hides information and reduces complexity in terms of the represented spatial knowledge and reasoning practicability. We motivate and present the different spatial ontologies applied to an ambient assisted living application.

Hois, Joana

394

Modularized Smad-regulated TGF? signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The transforming Growth Factor ? (TGF?) signaling pathway is a prominent regulatory signaling pathway controlling various important cellular processes. TGF? signaling can be induced by several factors including ionizing radiation. The pathway is regulated in a negative feedback loop through promoting the nuclear import of the regulatory Smads and a subsequent expression of inhibitory Smad7, that forms ubiquitin ligase with Smurf2, targeting active TGF? receptors for degradation. In this work, we proposed a mathematical model to study the Smad-regulated TGF? signaling pathway. By modularization, we are able to analyze mathematically each component subsystem and recover the nonlinear dynamics of the entire network system. Meanwhile the excitability, a common feature observed in the biological systems, in the TGF? signaling pathway is discussed and supported as well by numerical simulation, indicating the robustness of the model. PMID:22892478

Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Minli; Carra, Claudio; Cucinotta, Francis A

2012-08-06

395

Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system  

DOEpatents

A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); McInnes, Ian D. (San Jose, CA); Massey, John V. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

396

Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (MGRS) Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed the Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (MGRS) in 2003-2004, and have de-veloped an array of MGRS concepts and technologies that have substantially impacted LISA architecture, and effectively functioned as a novel technology pathfinder for gravitational ref-erence sensors. Some of known examples are: Two-step measurement within and outside the MGRS module, UV LED charge management, two layer optical sensing, differential optical shadow sensing for drag free control, and in-field telescope conception. We will report our progress and plan in the follow areas 1) MGRS systems for both high precision gravitational wave detection, and for mid-precision planet gravitation survey 2) UV LED charge management system 3) Grating angular sensor and grating stabilization of absolute laser frequency 4) Two-layer optical sensing for drag free control and science measurement 5) Small satellite tests of MGRS technologies

Sun, Ke-Xun

397

Putting genetic interactions in context through a global modular decomposition  

PubMed Central

Genetic interactions provide a powerful perspective into gene function, but our knowledge of the specific mechanisms that give rise to these interactions is still relatively limited. The availability of a global genetic interaction map in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, covering ?30% of all possible double mutant combinations, provides an unprecedented opportunity for an unbiased assessment of the native structure within genetic interaction networks and how it relates to gene function and modular organization. Toward this end, we developed a data mining approach to exhaustively discover all block structures within this network, which allowed for its complete modular decomposition. The resulting modular structures revealed the importance of the context of individual genetic interactions in their interpretation and revealed distinct trends among genetic interaction hubs as well as insights into the evolution of duplicate genes. Block membership also revealed a surprising degree of multifunctionality across the yeast genome and enabled a novel association of VIP1 and IPK1 with DNA replication and repair, which is supported by experimental evidence. Our modular decomposition also provided a basis for testing the between-pathway model of negative genetic interactions and within-pathway model of positive genetic interactions. While we find that most modular structures involving negative genetic interactions fit the between-pathway model, we found that current models for positive genetic interactions fail to explain 80% of the modular structures detected. We also find differences between the modular structures of essential and nonessential genes.

Bellay, Jeremy; Atluri, Gowtham; Sing, Tina L.; Toufighi, Kiana; Costanzo, Michael; Ribeiro, Philippe Souza Moraes; Pandey, Gaurav; Baller, Joshua; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Michaut, Magali; Han, Sangjo; Kim, Philip; Brown, Grant W.; Andrews, Brenda J.; Boone, Charles; Kumar, Vipin; Myers, Chad L.

2011-01-01

398

Putting genetic interactions in context through a global modular decomposition.  

PubMed

Genetic interactions provide a powerful perspective into gene function, but our knowledge of the specific mechanisms that give rise to these interactions is still relatively limited. The availability of a global genetic interaction map in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, covering ?30% of all possible double mutant combinations, provides an unprecedented opportunity for an unbiased assessment of the native structure within genetic interaction networks and how it relates to gene function and modular organization. Toward this end, we developed a data mining approach to exhaustively discover all block structures within this network, which allowed for its complete modular decomposition. The resulting modular structures revealed the importance of the context of individual genetic interactions in their interpretation and revealed distinct trends among genetic interaction hubs as well as insights into the evolution of duplicate genes. Block membership also revealed a surprising degree of multifunctionality across the yeast genome and enabled a novel association of VIP1 and IPK1 with DNA replication and repair, which is supported by experimental evidence. Our modular decomposition also provided a basis for testing the between-pathway model of negative genetic interactions and within-pathway model of positive genetic interactions. While we find that most modular structures involving negative genetic interactions fit the between-pathway model, we found that current models for positive genetic interactions fail to explain 80% of the modular structures detected. We also find differences between the modular structures of essential and nonessential genes. PMID:21715556

Bellay, Jeremy; Atluri, Gowtham; Sing, Tina L; Toufighi, Kiana; Costanzo, Michael; Ribeiro, Philippe Souza Moraes; Pandey, Gaurav; Baller, Joshua; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Michaut, Magali; Han, Sangjo; Kim, Philip; Brown, Grant W; Andrews, Brenda J; Boone, Charles; Kumar, Vipin; Myers, Chad L

2011-06-29

399

Hydrogen Production Using the Modular Helium Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The high-temperature characteristics of the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) make it a strong candidate for the production of hydrogen using either thermochemical or high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) processes. Using heat from the MHR to drive a Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical hydrogen process has been the subject of a DOE sponsored Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (NERI) project lead by General Atomics, with participation from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Texas A&M University. While the focus of much of the initial work was on the S-I thermochemical production of hydrogen, recent activities have also included development of a preconceptual design for an integral HTE hydrogen production plant driven by the process heat and electricity produced by a 600 MWt MHR. This paper describes RELAP5-3D analyses performed to evaluate alternative primary system cooling configurations for the MHR to minimize peak reactor vessel and core temperatures while achieving core helium outlet temperatures in the range of 900 oC to 1000 oC, needed for the efficient production of hydrogen using either the S-I thermochemical or HTE process. The cooling schemes investigated are intended to ensure peak fuel temperatures do not exceed specified limits under normal or transient upset conditions, and that reactor vessel temperatures do not exceed ASME code limits for steady-state or transient conditions using standard LWR vessel materials. Preconceptual designs for both an S-I thermochemical and HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a 600 MWt MHR at helium outlet temperatures in the range of 900 oC to 1000 oC are described and compared. An initial SAPHIRE model to evaluate the reliability, maintainablility, and availability of the S-I hydrogen production plant is also discussed, and plans for future assessments of conceptual designs for both a S-I thermochemical and HTE hydrogen production plant coupled to a 600 MWt modular helium reactor are described.

E. A. Harvego; S. M. Reza; M. Richards; A. Shenoy

2005-05-01

400

Human Reliability Analysis for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Because no human reliability analysis (HRA) method was specifically developed for small modular reactors (SMRs), the application of any current HRA method to SMRs represents tradeoffs. A first- generation HRA method like THERP provides clearly defined activity types, but these activity types do not map to the human-system interface or concept of operations confronting SMR operators. A second- generation HRA method like ATHEANA is flexible enough to be used for SMR applications, but there is currently insufficient guidance for the analyst, requiring considerably more first-of-a-kind analyses and extensive SMR expertise in order to complete a quality HRA. Although no current HRA method is optimized to SMRs, it is possible to use existing HRA methods to identify errors, incorporate them as human failure events in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and quantify them. In this paper, we provided preliminary guidance to assist the human reliability analyst and reviewer in understanding how to apply current HRA methods to the domain of SMRs. While it is possible to perform a satisfactory HRA using existing HRA methods, ultimately it is desirable to formally incorporate SMR considerations into the methods. This may require the development of new HRA methods. More practicably, existing methods need to be adapted to incorporate SMRs. Such adaptations may take the form of guidance on the complex mapping between conventional light water reactors and small modular reactors. While many behaviors and activities are shared between current plants and SMRs, the methods must adapt if they are to perform a valid and accurate analysis of plant personnel performance in SMRs.

Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

2012-06-01

401

A new small modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor plant concept based on proven technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the established and proven high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technologies from the Peach Bottom 1 and Fort St. Vrain utility-operated units, a new small modular HTGR reactor is currently being evaluated. The basic nuclear reactor heat source, with a prismatic core, is being designed so that the decay heat can be removed by passive means (i.e., natural circulation). The

C. F. McDonald; A. J. Goodjohn

1982-01-01

402

A new small modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor plant concept based on proven technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the established and proven high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technologies from the Peach Bottom 1 and Fort St. Vrain utility-operated units, a new small modular HTGR reactor is currently being evaluated. The basic nuclear reactor heat source, with a prismatic core, is being designed so that the decay heat can be removed by passive means (i.e., natural circulation). Although

C. F. McDonald; A. J. Goodjohn

1982-01-01

403

Breaking Barriers to Low-Cost Modular Inverter Production & Use  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this cost share contract is to advance key technologies to reduce size, weight and cost while enhancing performance and reliability of Modular Inverter Product for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Efforts address technology development to meet technical needs of DER market protection, isolation, reliability, and quality. Program activities build on SatCon Technology Corporation inverter experience (e.g., AIPM, Starsine, PowerGate) for Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell, Energy Storage applications. Efforts focused four technical areas, Capacitors, Cooling, Voltage Sensing and Control of Parallel Inverters. Capacitor efforts developed a hybrid capacitor approach for conditioning SatCon's AIPM unit supply voltages by incorporating several types and sizes to store energy and filter at high, medium and low frequencies while minimizing parasitics (ESR and ESL). Cooling efforts converted the liquid cooled AIPM module to an air-cooled unit using augmented fin, impingement flow cooling. Voltage sensing efforts successfully modified the existing AIPM sensor board to allow several, application dependent configurations and enabling voltage sensor galvanic isolation. Parallel inverter control efforts realized a reliable technique to control individual inverters, connected in a parallel configuration, without a communication link. Individual inverter currents, AC and DC, were balanced in the paralleled modules by introducing a delay to the individual PWM gate pulses. The load current sharing is robust and independent of load types (i.e., linear and nonlinear, resistive and/or inductive). It is a simple yet powerful method for paralleling both individual devices dramatically improves reliability and fault tolerance of parallel inverter power systems. A patent application has been made based on this control technology.

Bogdan Borowy; Leo Casey; Jerry Foshage; Steve Nichols; Jim Perkinson

2005-05-31

404

An Empirical Study of Flexible Business Process Based on Modularity System Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduced concept of modularity business process. High modular business processes have properties of encapsulation and plug-and-play, which make business process more flexible and responsible to environment change. We also proposed a mechanism model of business process modularity and hypothesizes based on modular system theory and transaction cost economics. Diversity of customer demand and supplier specialization will lead to

Fang Ding; Liu Jie

2008-01-01

405

Development of a space universal modular architecture (SUMO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This concept paper proposes that the space community should develop and implement a universal standard for spacecraft modularity - to improve interoperability of spacecraft components. Pursuing a global industry consensus standard for open and modular spacecraft architecture will encourage trade, remove standards-related market barriers, and in the long run increase both value provided to customers and profitability of the space industrial sector. This concept paper sets out: (1) the goals for a SUMO standard and how it will benefit the space community; (2) background on spacecraft modularity and existing related standards; (3) the proposed technical scope of the current standardization effort; and (4) an approach for creating a SUMO standard.

Collins, Bernie F.

406

Experimental observation of quantum correlations in modular variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally detect entanglement in modular position and momentum variables of photon pairs which have passed through D-slit apertures. We first employ an entanglement criteria recently proposed in [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.106.210501 106, 210501 (2011)], using variances of the modular variables. We then propose an entanglement witness for modular variables based on the Shannon entropy and test it experimentally. Finally, we derive criteria for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-steering correlations using variances and entropy functions. In both cases, the entropic criteria are more successful at identifying quantum correlations in our data.

Carvalho, M. A. D.; Ferraz, J.; Borges, G. F.; de Assis, P.-L.; Pádua, S.; Walborn, S. P.

2012-09-01

407

[The morse taper junction in modular revision hip replacement].  

PubMed

Morse taper junctions of modular hip revision replacements are predilection sites for fretting, crevice corrosion, dissociation and breakage of the components. In this report we present the results of a retrieval analysis of a morse taper junction of a MRP-titanium modular revision replacement (MRP-Titanium, Peter Brehm GmbH, Weisendorf, Germany) after 11.5 years of in vivo use. In the context of this case report the significance of morse taper junctions in modular hip revision replacement under consideration of the current literature is also discussed. PMID:17492554

Gravius, S; Mumme, T; Andereya, S; Maus, U; Müller-Rath, R; Wirtz, D C

408

RNA and RNP as new molecular parts in synthetic biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic biology has a promising outlook in biotechnology and for understanding the self-organizing principle of biological molecules in life. However, synthetic biologists have been looking for new molecular “parts” that function as modular units required in designing and constructing new “devices” and “systems” for regulating cell function because the number of such parts is strictly limited at present. In this

Hirohide Saito; Tan Inoue

2007-01-01

409

Crystal Structure of Rcl1 an Essential Component of the Eukaryal pre-rRNA Processosome Implicated in 18s rRNA Biogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Rcl1 is an essential nucleolar protein required for U3 snoRNA-guided pre-rRNA processing at sites flanking the 18S rRNA sequence. A potential catalytic role for Rcl1 during pre-rRNA cleavage has been suggested based on its primary structure similarity to RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclase (Rtc) enzymes, which perform nucleotidyl transfer and phosphoryl transfer reactions at RNA ends. Here, we report the 2.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of a biologically active yeast Rcl1, which illuminates its modular 4-domain architecture and overall homology with RNA cyclases while revealing numerous local differences that account for why Rtcs possess metal-dependent adenylyltransferase activity and Rcls do not. A conserved oxyanion-binding site in Rcl1 was highlighted for possible catalytic or RNA-binding functions. However, the benign effects of mutations in and around the anion site on Rcl1 activity in vivo militate against such a role.

T Tanaka; P Smith; S Shuman

2011-12-31

410

Dissection of miRNA-miRNA Interaction in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The relationships between miRNAs and their regulatory influences in esophageal carcinoma remain largely unknown. Accumulated evidence suggests that delineation of subpathways within an entire pathway can underlie complex diseases. To analyze the regulation of differentially expressed miRNAs in subpathways of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we constructed bipartite miRNA and subpathway networks to determine miRNA regulatory influences on subpathways. The miRNA-subpathway network indicated that miRNAs regulate numerous subpathways. Two principal biological networks were derived from the miRNA-subpathway network by the hypergeometric test. This miRNA-miRNA network revealed the co-regulation of subpathways between the upregulated and downregulated miRNAs. Subpathway-subpathway networks characterized scale free, small world, and modular architecture. K-clique analysis revealed co-regulation of subpathways between certain downregulated and upregulated miRNAs. When ESCC patients were grouped according to their expression levels of paired upregulation of miR-31 and downregulation of miR-338-3p, survival time analysis revealed a significant difference based on miR-31-miR-338-3p interaction. These findings can facilitate the understanding of the biological meaning of miRNA-miRNA interactions with either the same or opposite expression trend.

Zhang, Pixian; Yao, Qianlan; Wu, Jianyi; Han, Junwei; Liao, Liandi; Xu, Yanjun; Lin, Ruijun; Xiao, Dawei; Xu, Liyan; Li, Enmin; Li, Xia

2013-01-01

411

Indoor unit for electric heat pump  

DOEpatents

An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

1984-05-22

412

Modular, rule-based modeling for the design of eukaryotic synthetic gene circuits  

PubMed Central

Background The modular design of synthetic gene circuits via composable parts (DNA segments) and pools of signal carriers (molecules such as RNA polymerases and ribosomes) has been successfully applied to bacterial systems. However, eukaryotic cells are becoming a preferential host for new synthetic biology applications. Therefore, an accurate description of the intricate network of reactions that take place inside eukaryotic parts and pools is necessary. Rule-based modeling approaches are increasingly used to obtain compact representations of reaction networks in biological systems. However, this approach is intrinsically non-modular and not suitable per se for the description of composable genetic modules. In contrast, the Model Description Language (MDL) adopted by the modeling tool ProMoT is highly modular and it enables a faithful representation of biological parts and pools. Results We developed a computational framework for the design of complex (eukaryotic) gene circuits by generating dynamic models of parts and pools via the joint usage of the BioNetGen rule-based modeling approach and MDL. The framework converts the specification of a part (or pool) structure into rules that serve as inputs for BioNetGen to calculate the part’s species and reactions. The BioNetGen output is translated into an MDL file that gives a complete description of all the reactions that take place inside the part (or pool) together with a proper interface to connect it to other modules in the circuit. In proof-of-principle applications to eukaryotic Boolean circuits with more than ten genes and more than one thousand reactions, our framework yielded proper representations of the circuits’ truth tables. Conclusions For the model-based design of increasingly complex gene circuits, it is critical to achieve exact and systematic representations of the biological processes with minimal effort. Our computational framework provides such a detailed and intuitive way to design new and complex synthetic gene circuits.

2013-01-01

413

Acquisition: Contract Award and Administration for Modular Causeway Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall audit objective was to determine whether contract award and administration policies and procedures were properly followed for the acquisition of the MCS. Specifically, we evaluated contract award and administration of the May 2001 modular caus...

D. K. Steensma K. A. Caprio R. L. Ragsdale L. Truong C. B. Tucker

2004-01-01

414

Seismic Effects on Modularized Spent Fuel Storage Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large pools are being considered to provide additional storage capacity for spent fuel from nuclear power plants. Because of the large size, modularization of the pool into cells would enhance operational safety and convenience in terms of isolating troub...

R. G. Dong F. J. Tokarz

1976-01-01

415

Modular Coils: A Promising Toroidal-Reactor-Coil System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of modular coils originated from a need to find reactor-relevant stellarator windings, but its usefulness can be extended to provide an externally applied, additional rotational transform in tokamaks. Considerations of (1) basic principles of ...

T. K. Chu H. P. Furth J. L. Johnson C. Ludescher K. E. Weimer

1981-01-01

416

Discrete-Coil Investigations of Modular Stellarator Configurations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The existence of a vacuum magnetic well is generally accepted as a prerequisite to start-up. The special set of modular-stellarator configurations selected for the present computational investigation was derived from coefficients and equations that produc...

C. G. Lilliequist

1985-01-01

417

Low-leakage modular regenerators for gas-turbine engines  

SciTech Connect

One of the significant problems plaguing regenerator designs is seal leakage resulting in a reduction of thermal efficiency. This paper describes the preliminary design and analysis of a new regenerative heat-exchanger concept, called a modular regenerator, that promises to provide improved seal-leakage performance. The modular regenerator concept consists of a ceramic-honeycomb matrix discretized into rectangular blocks, called modules. Separating the matrix into modules substantially reduces the transverse sealing lengths and substantially increases the longitudinal sealing lengths as compared with typical rotary designs. Potential applications can range from small gas-turbine engines for automotive applications to large stationary gas turbines for industrial power generation. Descriptions of two types of modular regenerators are presented including sealing concepts. Results of seal leakage analysis for typical modular regenerators sized for a small gas-turbine engine (120 kW) predict leakage rates under one percent for most seal-clearance heights.

Kluka, J.A. [Pratt and Whitney, Middletown, CT (United States); Wilson, D.G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1998-04-01

418

Transitioning to Integrated Modular Avionics with a Mission Management System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an incremental approach towards the adoption of an Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architecture via the implementation of a Mission Management System using present-day Commercial Off-The Shelf (COTS) technology. While standardized IM...

M. Gangkofer H. Kader W. Kloeckner C. G. White

2000-01-01

419

17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...submission and notify the electronic filer by electronic mail. After six business days, the modular submission...document intended to become an electronic filing may be submitted...submitted no more than six business days in advance of...

2013-04-01

420

Modularity in Non-Procedural Languages through Abstract Data Types.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This dissertation presents abstract data types as a means of introducing modularity in non-procedural languages. Non-procedural languages based on equational specifications have been proposed in recent years to improve programmer productivity reliability....

R. Sangal

1980-01-01

421

Human Reliablity Analysis for Small Modular Reactors: PSAM11.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because no human reliability analysis (HRA) method was specifically developed for small modular reactors (SMRs), the application of any current HRA method to SMRs represents tradeoffs. A first generation HRA method like THERP provides clearly defined acti...

D. I. Gertman R. L. Boring

2012-01-01

422

Modular Invariants, Graphs and ?-Induction for Nets of Subfactors. II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the theory of ?-induction of sectors which we elaborated in our previous paper to several nets of subfactors arising from conformal field theory. The main application are conformal embeddings and orbifold inclusions of SU(n) WZW models. For the latter, we construct the extended net of factors by hand. Developing further some ideas of F. Xu, our treatment leads canonically to certain fusion graphs, and in all our examples we rediscover the graphs Di Francesco, Petkova and Zuber associated empirically to the corresponding SU(n) modular invariants. We establish a connection between exponents of these graphs and the appearance of characters in the block-diagonal modular invariants, provided that the extended modular S-matrices diagonalize the endomorphism fusion rules of the extended theories. This is proven for many cases, and our results cover all the block-diagonal SU(2) modular invariants, thus provide some explanation of the A-D-E classification.

Böckenhauer, Jens; Evans, David E.

423

A modular attachment mechanism for software network evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modular attachment mechanism of software network evolution is presented in this paper. Compared with the previous models, our treatment of object-oriented software system as a network of modularity is inherently more realistic. To acquire incoming and outgoing links in directed networks when new nodes attach to the existing network, a new definition of asymmetric probabilities is given. Based on this, modular attachment instead of single node attachment in the previous models is then adopted. The proposed mechanism is demonstrated to be able to generate networks with features of power-law, small-world, and modularity, which represents more realistic properties of actual software networks. This work therefore contributes to a more accurate understanding of the evolutionary mechanism of software systems. What is more, explorations of the effects of various software development principles on the structure of software systems have been carried out, which are expected to be beneficial to the software engineering practices.

Li, Hui; Zhao, Hai; Cai, Wei; Xu, Jiu-Qiang; Ai, Jun

2013-05-01

424

Regulation of RNA Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Messenger RNA synthesis can take place during amino acid starvation and is thus not regulated by the stringent control. Transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA are coordinately controlled by the stringent control. Transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA vary independently ...

R. Lavalle

1968-01-01

425

Post-transcriptional Boolean computation by combining aptazymes controlling mRNA translation initiation and tRNA activation.  

PubMed

In cellular systems environmental and metabolic signals are integrated for the conditional control of gene expression. On the other hand, artificial manipulation of gene expression is of high interest for metabolic and genetic engineering. Especially the reprogramming of gene expression patterns to orchestrate cellular responses in a predictable fashion is considered to be of great importance. Here we introduce a highly modular RNA-based system for performing Boolean logic computation at a post-transcriptional level in Escherichia coli. We have previously shown that artificial riboswitches can be constructed by utilizing ligand-dependent Hammerhead ribozymes (aptazymes). Employing RNA self-cleavage as the expression platform-mechanism of an artificial riboswitch has the advantage that it can be applied to control several classes of RNAs such as mRNAs, tRNAs, and rRNAs. Due to the highly modular and orthogonal nature of these switches it is possible to combine aptazyme regulation of activating a suppressor tRNA with the regulation of mRNA translation initiation. The different RNA classes can be controlled individually by using distinct aptamers for individual RNA switches. Boolean logic devices are assembled by combining such switches in order to act on the expression of a single mRNA. In order to demonstrate the high modularity, a series of two-input Boolean logic operators were constructed. For this purpose, we expanded our aptazyme toolbox with switches comprising novel behaviours with respect to the small molecule triggers thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and theophylline. Then, individual switches were combined to yield AND, NOR, and ANDNOT gates. This study demonstrates that post-transcriptional aptazyme-based switches represent versatile tools for engineering advanced genetic devices and circuits without the need for regulatory protein cofactors. PMID:22777205

Klauser, Benedikt; Saragliadis, Athanasios; Ausländer, Simon; Wieland, Markus; Berthold, Michael R; Hartig, Jörg S

2012-07-09

426

Carry-Save Montgomery Modular Exponentiation on Reconfigurable Hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a hardware implementation of the RSA algorithm for public-key cryptography. Basically, the RSA algorithm entails a modular exponentiation operation on large integers, which is considerably time-consuming to implement. To this end, we adopted a novelalgorithm combining the Montgomery's technique and the carry-save representation of numbers. A highly modular, bit-slice based architecture has been designed for

Alessandro Cilardo; Antonino Mazzeo; Luigi Romano; Giacinto Paolo Saggese

2004-01-01

427

Modular, Multi-Function Digital-RF Receiver Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconductor digital receiver systems of increasing functionality, modularity and user-friendliness have been de- veloped. The modular design methodology ensures that within its input-output and heat load capacity, the system can be re- configured to perform a different function by changing the chip module and by reprogramming FPGA-based digital signal pro- cessors. One of the systems (ADR-004), originally equipped with a

Deepnarayan Gupta; Dmitri E. Kirichenko; Vladimir V. Dotsenko; Robert Miller; Saad Sarwana; Andrei Talalaevskii; Jean Delmas; Robert J Webber; Sergei Govorkov; Alexander F. Kirichenko; Igor V. Vernik; Jia Tang

2011-01-01

428

Modular production networks: a new American model of industrial organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the case of contract manufacturing in the electronics industry to illustrate an emergent American model of industrial organization, the modular production network. Lead firms in the modular production network concentrate on the creation, penetration and defense of markets for end products--and increasingly the provision of services to go with them--while manufacturing capacity is shifted out-of-house to globally

Timothy J. Sturgeon

2002-01-01

429

Modular groups of quantum fields in thermal states  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a quantum field in a thermal equilibrium state we discuss the group generated by time translations and the modular action associated with an algebra invariant under half-sided translations. The modular flows corresponding to the algebras of the forward light cone and a space-like wedge admit a simple geometric description in two-dimensional models that factorize in light-cone coordinates. At large

H. J. Borchers; J. Yngvason

1999-01-01

430

Modular simulation and thermodynamic analysis of absorption heat pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular simulation program of absorption heat pumps, refrigerators and air conditioners is developed under Mathematica\\u000a ®. The modular approach is an easier way to simulate various complex configurations. A comparative study between the simulator’s\\u000a results—temperatures, pressures, refrigerant concentrations, heat duties, flow rates, overall heat transfer parameters and\\u000a coefficient of performance (COP)—and experimental measurements shows a favorable agreement. The usefulness

Sana El May; Ismail Boukholda; Ahmed Bellagi

2010-01-01

431

Quantum Groups at Roots of Unity and Modularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

For each compact, simple, simply-connected Lie group and each integer level\\u000awe construct a modular tensor category from a quotient of a certain subcategory\\u000aof the category of representations of the corresponding quantum group. We\\u000adetermine when at fractional levels the corresponding category is modular. We\\u000aalso give a quantum version of the Racah formula for the decomposition of the

Stephen F. Sawin

2003-01-01

432

Vacuum Fluctuations, Geometric Modular Action and Relativistic Quantum Information Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of some lines of ideas leading to model-independent frameworks of relativistic quantum field theory is given. It\\u000a is followed by a discussion of the Reeh-Schlieder theorem and geometric modular action of Tomita-Takesaki modular objects\\u000a associated with the quantum field vacuum state and certain algebras of observables. The distillability concept, which is significant\\u000a in specifying useful entanglement in quantum

Rainer Verch

2005-01-01

433

Modular robotics overview of the `state of the art`  

SciTech Connect

The design of a robotic arm processing modular components and reconfigurable links is the general goal of a modular robotics development program. The impetus behind the pursuit of modular design is the remote engineering paradigm of improved reliability and availability provided by the ability to remotely maintain and repair a manipulator operating in a hazardous environment by removing and replacing worn or failed modules. Failed components can service off- line and away from hazardous conditions. The desire to reconfigure an arm to perform different tasks is also an important driver for the development of a modular robotic manipulator. In order to bring to fruition a truly modular manipulator, an array of technical challenges must be overcome. These range from basic mechanical and electrical design considerations such as desired kinematics, actuator types, and signal and transmission types and routings, through controls issues such as the need for control algorithms capable of stable free space and contact control, to computer and sensor design issues like consideration of the use of embedded processors and redundant sensors. This report presents a brief overview of the state of the art of technical issues relevant of modular robotic arm design. The focus is on breadth of coverage, rather than depth, in order to provide a reference frame for future development.

Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Hamel, W.R.

1996-08-01

434

Rational, modular adaptation of enzyme-free DNA circuits to multiple detection methods.  

PubMed

Signal amplification is a key component of molecular detection. Enzyme-free signal amplification is especially appealing for the development of low-cost, point-of-care diagnostics. It has been previously shown that enzyme-free DNA circuits with signal-amplification capacity can be designed using a mechanism called 'catalyzed hairpin assembly'. However, it is unclear whether the efficiency and modularity of such circuits is suitable for multiple analytical applications. We have therefore designed and characterized a simplified DNA circuit based on catalyzed hairpin assembly, and applied it to multiple different analytical formats, including fluorescent, colorimetric, and electrochemical and signaling. By optimizing the design of previous hairpin-based catalytic assemblies we found that our circuit has almost zero background and a high catalytic efficiency, with a k(cat) value above 1?min(-1). The inherent modularity of the circuit allowed us to readily adapt our circuit to detect both RNA and small molecule analytes. Overall, these data demonstrate that catalyzed hairpin assembly is suitable for analyte detection and signal amplification in a 'plug-and-play' fashion. PMID:21693555

Li, Bingling; Ellington, Andrew D; Chen, Xi

2011-06-21

435

Rational, modular adaptation of enzyme-free DNA circuits to multiple detection methods  

PubMed Central

Signal amplification is a key component of molecular detection. Enzyme-free signal amplification is especially appealing for the development of low-cost, point-of-care diagnostics. It has been previously shown that enzyme-free DNA circuits with signal-amplification capacity can be designed using a mechanism called ‘catalyzed hairpin assembly’. However, it is unclear whether the efficiency and modularity of such circuits is suitable for multiple analytical applications. We have therefore designed and characterized a simplified DNA circuit based on catalyzed hairpin assembly, and applied it to multiple different analytical formats, including fluorescent, colorimetric, and electrochemical and signaling. By optimizing the design of previous hairpin-based catalytic assemblies we found that our circuit has almost zero background and a high catalytic efficiency, with a kcat value above 1?min?1. The inherent modularity of the circuit allowed us to readily adapt our circuit to detect both RNA and small molecule analytes. Overall, these data demonstrate that catalyzed hairpin assembly is suitable for analyte detection and signal amplification in a ‘plug-and-play’ fashion.

Li, Bingling; Ellington, Andrew D.; Chen, Xi

2011-01-01

436

Modular plastic chip for one-shot human papillomavirus diagnostic analysis.  

PubMed

In this article, we report the design and development of a plastic modular chip suitable for one-shot human papillomavirus (HPV) diagnostics, namely detection of the viral presence and relative genotyping, by two sequential steps performed directly on the same device. The device is composed of two modular and disposable plastic units that can be assembled or used separately. The first module is represented by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microreactor that is exploited for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and, thus, is suitable for detecting the presence of virus. The second unit is a PDMS microwell array that allows virus genotyping by a colorimetric assay, based on DNA hybridization technology developed on plastic, requiring simple inspection by the naked eye. The two modules can be easily coupled to reusable hardware, enabling the heating/cooling processes and the real-time detection of HPV. By coupling real-time assay and colorimetric genotyping on the same chip, the assembled device may provide a low-cost tool for HPV diagnostics, thereby favoring the prediction of cancer risk in patients. PMID:19766581

Vecchio, G; Sabella, S; Tagliaferro, L; Menegazzi, P; Di Bello, M P; Brunetti, V; Cingolani, R; Rinaldi, R; Pompa, P P

2009-09-18

437

Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations. 3 figures.

Nichols, R.L.; Widdowson, M.A.; Mullinex, H.; Orne, W.H.; Looney, B.B.

1994-03-15

438

Modular near-surface completion system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a modular near-surface completion system for subsea wells in deep water, wherein each of the subsea wells has been drilled and cased from a mudline and completed with a lower tubing hanger below the mudline, the near-surface completion comprising: of production risers, one the production riser extending from each of the plurality of subsea wells to a quiescent zone beneath the surface of the sea, riser buoys positioned in the quiescent zone out of a subsurface sea region affected by the action of wind and waves, one each of the riser buoys being attached to one of the first plurality of production risers, each of the buoys having positive buoyance in an amount exceeding the weight of respective elements it supports; well completion trees with a single well completion tree mounted atop each of the riser buoys; means for connecting each of the well completion trees to an above-surface production facility; means interconnecting at least one of the riser buoys directly to one or more additional adjacent riser buoys of the riser buoys to increase stability of the near-surface completion system by substantially fixedly interconnecting the adjacent riser buoys, the interconnecting means including attachment points capable of accommodating variations in vertical positioning of the adjacent buoys.

Wybro, P.G.; Leach, C.P.

1988-08-09

439

Modular hyperspectral imager enables multiple research applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MR-i spectroradiometer can support a wide range of applications from its architecture suited to multiple configurations. Its modular 4-port FTIR spectroradiometer architecture allows the simultaneous use of two different detector modules, direct or differential input(s) and multiple telescopes. In a given configuration, MR-i can combine a MWIR focal plane array and a LWIR focal plane array to provide an extended spectral range from the two imaging sensors. The two detector array modules are imaging the same scene allowing synchronized pixel-to-pixel spectral range combination. In another configuration, MR-i can combine two identical focal plane arrays with different attenuation factors and two interleaved integration times per detector array. This configuration generates four sets of hyperspectral data cubes with different dynamic ranges that can be combined to produce a single hyperspectral cube with unmatched dynamic range. This configuration is particularly well suited for high-speed, high-dynamic range characterization of targets such as aircrafts, flares, and explosions. In a third configuration, named iCATSI, the spectroradiometer is used in differential input configuration to provide efficient optical background subtraction. The iCATSI configuration features an MCT detectors array with spectral cutoff near 14 µm. This extended spectral range and high sensitivity allows the detection and identification of a wide range of chemicals.

Hô, Nicolas; Prel, Florent; Moreau, Louis; Lavoie, Hugo; Bouffard, François; Dubé, Denis; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Vallières, Christian; Roy, Claude

2012-09-01

440

Modular functionalization of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes.  

PubMed

A series of highly efficient, modular zwitterion-mediated transformations have been developed which enable diverse functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs, both single-walled and multi-walled) and fullerenes. Three functionalization strategies are demonstrated. (1) Trapping the charged zwitterion intermediate with added nucleophiles allows a variety of functional groups to be installed on the fullerenes and carbon nanotubes in a one-pot reaction. (2) Varying the electrophile from dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate to other disubstituted esters provides CNTs functionalized with chloroethyl, allyl, and propargyl groups, which can further undergo S(N)2 substitution, thiol addition, or 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions. (3) Postfunctionalization transformations on the cyclopentenones (e.g., demethylation and saponification) of the CNTs lead to demethylated or hydrolyzed products, with high solubility in water (1.2 mg/mL for MWCNTs). CNT aqueous dispersions of the latter derivatives are stable for months and have been successfully utilized in preparation of CNT-poly(ethylene oxide) nanocomposite via electrospinning. Large-scale MWCNT (10 g) functionalization has also been demonstrated to show the scalability of the zwitterion reaction. In total we present a detailed account of diverse CNT functionalization under mild conditions (60 degrees C, no strong acids/bases, or high pressure) and with high efficiency (1 functional group per 10 carbon atoms for SWCNTs), which expand the utility of these materials. PMID:19480427

Zhang, Wei; Sprafke, Johannes K; Ma, Minglin; Tsui, Emily Y; Sydlik, Stefanie A; Rutledge, Gregory C; Swager, Timothy M

2009-06-24

441

Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system for storing irradiated nuclear fuel, comprising: a reusable, elongate transfer cask means for shielding and transferring the irradiated nuclear fuel, the transfer cask means having a cylindrical body which provides a radiation barrier, the cask cylindrical body defining a passage; an elongate canister means for containing the irradiated nuclear fuel, which canister means is positionable in the passage of the transfer cask means; the canister means having a lightweight cylindrical body with radiation shielded end plugs; the canister cylindrical body being structurally capable of supporting the irradiated nuclear fuel, but which is unable to provide a radiation barrier; means for tranferring the transfer cask with the canister means inserted therein to a location for dry storage; module means for storing the canister means at the location with irradiated nuclear fuel contained therein in a horizontal position, wherein the module means includes a plurality of modules, each module including first and second side surfaces and a front surface having an entry port, the first and second side surfaces including interlocking means for locking the modules to each other in a side surface by the surface relationship.

Fischer, L.E.; McInnes, I.D.; Massey, J.V.

1988-10-25

442

Modular architecture for ultrasound beamforming with FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reception beamforming requires a high-resolution time base to keep low delay quantization lobes. Usually signals acquired at the Nyquist sampling rate are up-sampled by a factor of 4 to 16 to achieve the required time-resolution. Although this has been carried out for decades using fractional delay interpolating filters, the interpolation and coherent addition processes use a large silicon area and consume power, mainly when implemented in FPGAs. These drawbacks are reduced if the beamformer is implemented in ASICs, but this precludes any retro-fitting operation. This work presents a beamfoming architecture to overcome these shortcomings, based on the DSP cells incorporated into state-of-the art FPGAs. Since the manufacturing process is similar to that of ASIC, these cells consume low power and processing speed is high. The proposed beamformer interleaves the interpolation and the coherent sum. Besides reducing hardware resources, the design is modular and scalable, which allows to trade off among the number of channels per device, time resolution and resource requirements. It can be easily tailored to very different applications, from the low-channel count systems to the more demanding ones with multi-beamforming capabilities.

Cruza, J. F.; Camacho, J.; Brizuela, J.; Moreno, J. M.; Fritsch, C.

2012-05-01

443

Safety approaches for high power modular laser operation  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 20 years ago, a program was initiated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study the feasibility of using lasers to separate isotopes of uranium and other materials. Of particular interest has been the development of a uranium enrichment method for the production of commercial nuclear power reactor fuel to replace current more expensive methods. The Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program has progressed to the point where a plant-scale facility to demonstrate commercial feasibility has been built and is being tested. The U-AVLIS Program uses copper vapor lasers which pump frequency selective dye lasers to photoionize uranium vapor produced by an electron beam. The selectively ionized isotopes are electrostatically collected. The copper lasers are arranged in oscillator/amplifier chains. The current configuration consists of 12 chains, each with a nominal output of 800 W for a system output in excess of 9 kW. The system requirements are for continuous operation (24 h a day, 7 days a week) and high availability. To meet these requirements, the lasers are designed in a modular form allowing for rapid change-out of the lasers requiring maintenance. Since beginning operation in early 1985, the copper lasers have accumulated over 2 million unit hours at a >90% availability. The dye laser system provides approximately 2.5 kW average power in the visible wavelength range. This large-scale laser system has many safety considerations, including high-power laser beams, high voltage, and large quantities ({approximately}3000 gal) of ethanol dye solutions. The Laboratory`s safety policy requires that safety controls be designed into any process, equipment, or apparatus in the form of engineering controls. Administrative controls further reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Selected examples of engineering and administrative controls currently being used in the U-AVLIS Program are described.

Handren, R.T.

1993-03-01

444

A complete algorithm for synthesizing modular fixtures for polygonal parts  

SciTech Connect

Commercially-available nuclear fixturing systems typically include a square lattice of tapped and bushed holes with precision locating and clamping elements that can be rigidly attached to the lattice using dowel pins or expanding mandrels. Currently, human expertise is required to synthesize a suitable arrangements of these elements to hold a given part. Besides being time consuming, if the set of alternatives is not systematically explored, the designer may fail to find an acceptable fixture or may settle upon a suboptimal fixture. We consider a class of modular fixtures that prevent a part from translating or rotting in the plane using four point contacts on the part`s boundary. These fixtures are based on three round locators, each centered on a lattice point, and one translating clamp. We present an algorithm that accepts a polygonal part shape as input and synthesizes the set of all fixture designs that achieve form closure for the given part. The algorithm also allows the user to specify geometric access constraints on fixtures. If the part has n edges and its maximal diameter is d lattice units, the asymptotic running time of the algorithm is O(n{sup 5}d{sup 5}). We have implemented the algorithm and present example fixtures that it has synthesized. This implementation includes a metric to rank fixtures based on their ability to resist applied forces. We believe this is the first fixture synthesize algorithm that is complete in the sense that it is guaranteed to find an admissible fixture if one exists. Furthermore, the algorithm is guaranteed to find the optimal fixture, relative to any well-defined quality metric.

Brost, R.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goldberg, K.Y. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1993-11-01

445

A modular chitin-binding protease associated with hemocytes and hemolymph in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Sp22D, a modular serine protease encompassing chitin binding, low density lipoprotein receptor, and scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains, was identified by molecular cloning in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. It is expressed in multiple body parts and during much of development, most intensely in hemocytes. The protein appears to be posttranslationally modified. Its integral, putatively glycosylated form is secreted in the hemolymph, whereas a smaller form potentially generated by proteolytic processing is associated with the tissues. Bacterial challenge or wounding result in low-level RNA induction, but the protein does not bind to bacteria, nor is its processing affected by infection. However, Sp22D binds to chitin with high affinity and undergoes transient changes in processing during pupal to adult metamorphosis; it may respond to exposure to naked chitin during tissue remodeling or damage.

Danielli, Alberto; Loukeris, Thanasis G.; Lagueux, Marie; Muller, Hans-Michael; Richman, Adam; Kafatos, Fotis C.

2000-01-01

446

Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams. 6 figs.

Noah, K.S.; Sayer, R.L.; Thompson, D.N.

1998-06-30

447

A hybrid generation system using variable speed wind turbines and diesel units  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a study of a power system consisting of wind turbines and diesel generation units. In the study, a direct drive modular permanent magnet generator is used for the wind turbine and a normal permanent magnet generator is used for the diesel generation unit. Both types of generation units are connected to the load via power electronic converters

Z. Chen; Y. Hu

2003-01-01

448

Innovative safety features of the modular HTGR  

SciTech Connect

The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is an advanced reactor concept under development through a cooperative program involving the US Government, the nuclear industry, and the utilities. Near-term development is focused on electricity generation. The top-level safety requirement is that the plant`s operation not disturb the normal day-to-day activities of the public. Quantitatively, this requires that the design meet the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Protective Action Guides at the site boundary and hence preclude the need for sheltering or evacuation of the public. To meet these stringent safety requirements and at the same time provide a cost competitive design requires the innovative use of the basic high temperature gas-cooled reactor features of ceramic fuel, helium coolant, and a graphite moderator. The specific fuel composition and core size and configuration have been selected to the use the natural characteristics of these materials to develop significantly higher margins of safety. In this document the innovative safety features of the MHTGR are reviewed by examining the safety response to events challenging the functions relied on to retain radionuclides within the coated fuel particles. A broad range of challenges to core heat removal are examined, including a loss of helium pressure of a simultaneous loss of forced cooling of the core. The challenges to control of heat generation consider not only the failure to insert the reactivity control systems but also the withdrawal of control rods. Finally, challenges to control of chemical attack of the ceramic-coated fuel are considered, including catastrophic failure of the steam generator, which allows water ingress, or failure of the pressure vessels, which allows air ingress. The plant`s response to these extreme challenges is not dependent on operator action, and the events considered encompass conceivable operator errors.

Silady, F.A.; Simon, W.A.

1992-01-01

449

Innovative safety features of the modular HTGR  

SciTech Connect

The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is an advanced reactor concept under development through a cooperative program involving the US Government, the nuclear industry, and the utilities. Near-term development is focused on electricity generation. The top-level safety requirement is that the plant's operation not disturb the normal day-to-day activities of the public. Quantitatively, this requires that the design meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's Protective Action Guides at the site boundary and hence preclude the need for sheltering or evacuation of the public. To meet these stringent safety requirements and at the same time provide a cost competitive design requires the innovative use of the basic high temperature gas-cooled reactor features of ceramic fuel, helium coolant, and a graphite moderator. The specific fuel composition and core size and configuration have been selected to the use the natural characteristics of these materials to develop significantly higher margins of safety. In this document the innovative safety features of the MHTGR are reviewed by examining the safety response to events challenging the functions relied on to retain radionuclides within the coated fuel particles. A broad range of challenges to core heat removal are examined, including a loss of helium pressure of a simultaneous loss of forced cooling of the core. The challenges to control of heat generation consider not only the failure to insert the reactivity control systems but also the withdrawal of control rods. Finally, challenges to control of chemical attack of the ceramic-coated fuel are considered, including catastrophic failure of the steam generator, which allows water ingress, or failure of the pressure vessels, which allows air ingress. The plant's response to these extreme challenges is not dependent on operator action, and the events considered encompass conceivable operator errors.

Silady, F.A.; Simon, W.A.

1992-01-01

450

The calpains: modular designs and functional diversity  

PubMed Central

The calpain family is named for the calcium dependence of the papain-like, thiol protease activity of the well-studied ubiquitous vertebrate enzymes calpain-1 (?-calpain) and calpain-2 (m-calpain). Proteins showing sequence relatedness to the catalytic core domains of these enzymes are included in this ancient and diverse eukaryotic protein family. Calpains are examples of highly modular organization, with several varieties of amino-terminal or carboxy-terminal modules flanking a conserved core. Acquisition of the penta-EF-hand module involved in calcium binding (and the formation of heterodimers for some calpains) seems to be a relatively late event in calpain evolution. Several alternative mechanisms for binding calcium and associating with membranes/phospholipids are found throughout the family. The gene family is expanded in mammals, trypanosomes and ciliates, with up to 26 members in Tetrahymena, for example; in striking contrast to this, only a single calpain gene is present in many other protozoa and in plants. The many isoforms of calpain and their multiple splice variants complicate the discussion and analysis of the family, and challenge researchers to ascertain the relationships between calpain gene sequences, protein isoforms and their distinct or overlapping functions. In mammals and plants it is clear that a calpain plays an essential role in development. There is increasing evidence that ubiquitous calpains participate in a variety of signal transduction pathways and function in important cellular processes of life and death. In contrast to relatively promiscuous degradative proteases, calpains cleave only a restricted set of protein substrates and use complex substrate-recognition mechanisms, involving primary and secondary structural features of target proteins. The detailed physiological significance of both proteolytically active calpains and those lacking key catalytic residues requires further study.

Croall, Dorothy E; Ersfeld, Klaus

2007-01-01

451

A modular neural model of motor synergies.  

PubMed

Animals such as reptiles, amphibians and mammals (including humans) are mechanically extremely complex. It has been estimated that the human body has between 500 and 1400 degrees of freedom! And yet, these animals can generate an infinite variety of very precise, complicated and goal-directed movements in continuously changing and uncertain environments. Understanding how this is achieved is of great interest to both biologists and engineers. There are essentially two questions that must be addressed: (1) What type of control strategy is used to handle the large number of degrees of freedom involved? and (2) How is this strategy instantiated in the substrate of neural and musculoskeletal elements comprising the animal bodies? The first question has been studied intensively for several decades, providing strong indications that, rather than using standard feedback control based on continuous tracking of desired trajectories, animals' movements emerge from the controlled combination of pre-configured movement primitives or synergies. These synergies represent coordinated activity patterns over groups of muscles, and can be triggered as a whole with controlled amplitude and temporal offset. Complex movements can thus be constructed from the appropriate combination of a relatively small number of synergies, greatly simplifying the control problem. Although experimental studies on animal movements have confirmed the existence of motor synergies, and their utility has been demonstrated in the control of fairly complex robots, their neural basis remains poorly understood. In this paper, we introduce a simple but plausible and general neural model for motor synergies based on the principle that these functional modules reflect the structural modularity of the underlying physical system. Using this model, we show that a small set of synergies selected through a redundancy-reduction principle can generate a rich motor repertoire in a model two-jointed arm system. We investigate the synergies generated by this model systematically with respect to various parameters, and compare them to those observed in experiments. PMID:22394689

Byadarhaly, Kiran V; Perdoor, Mithun C; Minai, Ali A

2012-02-14

452

Alternative modular polyketide synthase expression controls macrolactone structure.  

PubMed

Modular polyketide synthases are giant multifunctional enzymes that catalyse the condensation of small carboxylic acids such as acetate and propionate into structurally diverse polyketides that possess a spectrum of biological activities. In a modular polyketide synthase, an enzymatic domain catalyses a specific reaction, and three to six enzymatic domains involved in a condensation-processing cycle are organized into a module. A fundamental aspect of a modular polyketide synthase is that its module arrangement linearly specifies the structure of its polyketide product. Here we report a natural example in which alternative expression of the pikromycin polyketide synthase results in the generation of two macrolactone structures. Expression of the full-length modular polyketide synthase PikAIV in Streptomyces venezuelae generates the 14-membered ring macrolactone narbonolide, whereas expression of the amino-terminal truncated form of PikAIV leads to 'skipping' of the final condensation cycle in polyketide biosynthesis to generate the 12-membered ring macrolactone 10-deoxymethynolide. Our findings provide insight into the structure and function of modular polyketide synthases, as well as a new set of tools to generate structural diversity in polyketide natural products. PMID:10676969

Xue, Y; Sherman, D H

2000-02-01

453

Manufacturing Development of the NCSX Modular Coil Windings  

SciTech Connect

The modular coils on the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) present a number of significant engineering challenges due to their complex shapes, requirements for high dimensional accuracy and the high current density required in the modular coils due to space constraints. In order to address these challenges, an R&D program was established to develop the conductor, insulation scheme, manufacturing techniques, and procedures. A prototype winding named Twisted Racetrack Coil (TRC) was of particular importance in dealing with these challenges. The TRC included a complex shaped winding form, conductor, insulation scheme, leads and termination, cooling system and coil clamps typical of the modular coil design. Even though the TRC is smaller in size than a modular coil, its similar complex geometry provided invaluable information in developing the final design, metrology techniques and development of manufacturing procedures. In addition a discussion of the development of the copper rope conductor including "Keystoning" concerns; the epoxy impregnation system (VPI) plus the tooling and equipment required to manufacture the modular coils will be presented.

Chrzanowski JH, Fogarty PJ, Heitzenroeder PJ, Meighan T, Nelson B, Raftopoulos S, Williamson D

2005-09-27

454

A modular concept of phenotypic plasticity in plants.  

PubMed

Based on empirical evidence from the literature we propose that, in nature, phenotypic plasticity in plants is usually expressed at a subindividual level. While reaction norms (i.e. the type and the degree of plant responses to environmental variation) are a property of genotypes, they are expressed at the level of modular subunits in most plants. We thus contend that phenotypic plasticity is not a whole-plant response, but a property of individual meristems, leaves, branches and roots, triggered by local environmental conditions. Communication and behavioural integration of interconnected modules can change the local responses in different ways: it may enhance or diminish local plastic effects, thereby increasing or decreasing the differences between integrated modules exposed to different conditions. Modular integration can also induce qualitatively different responses, which are not expressed if all modules experience the same conditions. We propose that the response of a plant to its environment is the sum of all modular responses to their local conditions plus all interaction effects that are due to integration. The local response rules to environmental variation, and the modular interaction rules may be seen as evolving traits targeted by natural selection. Following this notion, whole-plant reaction norms are an integrative by-product of modular plasticity, which has far-reaching methodological, ecological and evolutionary implications. PMID:15760352

de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun; Stuefer, Josef F; van Groenendael, Jan M

2005-04-01

455

"Modular Biospheres" - A new platform for education and research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of testbed platform for education and research a modular biosphere has emerged from research which dates back to the Biosphere 2 and the effort to develop bioregenerative technologies for space life support Two examples of this type of facility are the Biosphere 2 Test Module a glass and spaceframe structure which runs on incident sunlight for plant growth and the Laboratory Biosphere a cylindrical opaque chamber which uses artificial lights for plant growth Both types of system require a variable volume lung chamber to relieve pressure differences between the modular biosphere and the outside environment Modular biosphere facilities offer unique research and public education opportunities Ecosystem behavior can be studied since all state conditions can be precisely specified and tracked over different ranges of time periods With material closure apart from small air exchange rate which can be determined biogeochemical cycles can be studied as elements transit between soil water plants and atmosphere Such studies offer a major step upward from studies conducted with phytotrons which because of their small size limit the number of organisms to a very small number Modular biospheres differ from ecological microcosms because of their material closure thus a much more thorough examination of nutrient cycling can be conducted and their larger volume Though large in comparison with phytotrons and microcosms modular biospheres are small enough that they can be reconfigured -- with elements changed --

Nelson, M.; Allen, J. P.; Alling, A.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; van Thillo, M.

456

Systems analysis for modular vs. multi-beam HIF drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous modeling for HIF drivers concentrated on designs in which 100 or more beams are grouped in an array and accelerated through a common set of induction cores. The total beam energy required by the target is achieved by the combination of final ion energy, current per beam and number of beams. Economic scaling favors a large number of small (˜1 cm diameter) beams. An alternative architecture has now been investigated, which we refer to as a modular driver. In this case, the driver is subdivided into many (>10) independent accelerators with one or many beams each. A key objective of the modular driver approach is to be able to demonstrate all aspects of the driver (source-to-target) by building a single, lower-cost module compared to a full-scale, multi-beam driver. We consider and compare several design options for the modular driver including single-beam designs with solenoid instead of quadrupole magnets in order to transport the required current per module in a single beam, solenoid/quad combinations, and multi-beam, all-quad designs. The drivers are designed to meet the requirements of the hybrid target, which can accommodate a larger spot size than the distributed radiator target that was used for the Robust Point Design. We compare the multi-beam and modular driver configuration for a variety of assumptions and identify key technology advances needed for the modular design.

Meier, W. R.; Logan, B. G.

2005-05-01

457

RNA structural motifs: building blocks of a modularbiomolecule  

SciTech Connect

RNAs are modular biomolecules, composed largely of conserved structural subunits, or motifs. These structural motifs comprise the secondary structure of RNA and are knit together via tertiary interactions into a compact, functional, three-dimensional structure and are to be distinguished from motifs defined by sequence or function. A relatively small number of structural motifs are found repeatedly in RNA hairpin and internal loops, and are observed to be composed of a limited number of common 'structural elements'. In addition to secondary and tertiary structure motifs, there are functional motifs specific for certain biological roles and binding motifs that serve to complex metals or other ligands. Research is continuing into the identification and classification of RNA structural motifs and is being initiated to predict motifs from sequence, to trace their phylogenetic relationships and to use them as building blocks in RNA engineering.

Hendrix, Donna K.; Brenner