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Sample records for rna polymerase subunit

  1. Characterization of Human RNA Polymerase III Identifies Orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA Polymerase III Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Wu, Si; Sun, Yuling; Yuan, Chih-Chi; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Myers, Michael P.; Hernandez, Nouria

    2002-01-01

    Unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III, human RNA polymerase III has not been entirely characterized. Orthologues of the yeast RNA polymerase III subunits C128 and C37 remain unidentified, and for many of the other subunits, the available information is limited to database sequences with various degrees of similarity to the yeast subunits. We have purified an RNA polymerase III complex and identified its components. We found that two RNA polymerase III subunits, referred to as RPC8 and RPC9, displayed sequence similarity to the RNA polymerase II RPB7 and RPB4 subunits, respectively. RPC8 and RPC9 associated with each other, paralleling the association of the RNA polymerase II subunits, and were thus paralogues of RPB7 and RPB4. Furthermore, the complex contained a prominent 80-kDa polypeptide, which we called RPC5 and which corresponded to the human orthologue of the yeast C37 subunit despite limited sequence similarity. RPC5 associated with RPC53, the human orthologue of S. cerevisiae C53, paralleling the association of the S. cerevisiae C37 and C53 subunits, and was required for transcription from the type 2 VAI and type 3 human U6 promoters. Our results provide a characterization of human RNA polymerase III and show that the RPC5 subunit is essential for transcription. PMID:12391170

  2. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases have homologous core subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Sweetser, D; Nonet, M; Young, R A

    1987-01-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerases are complex aggregates whose component subunits are functionally ill-defined. The gene that encodes the 140,000-dalton subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II was isolated and studied in detail to obtain clues to the protein's function. This gene, RPB2, exists in a single copy in the haploid genome. Disruption of the gene is lethal to the yeast cell. RPB2 encodes a protein of 138,750 daltons, which contains sequences implicated in binding purine nucleotides and zinc ions and exhibits striking sequence homology with the beta subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. These observations suggest that the yeast and the E. coli subunit have similar roles in RNA synthesis, as the beta subunit contains binding sites for nucleotide substrates and a portion of the catalytic site for RNA synthesis. The subunit homologies reported here, and those observed previously with the largest RNA polymerase subunit, indicate that components of the prokaryotic RNA polymerase "core" enzyme have counterparts in eukaryotic RNA polymerases. PMID:3547406

  3. RNA polymerase II subunit composition, stoichiometry, and phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziej, P A; Woychik, N; Liao, S M; Young, R A

    1990-01-01

    RNA polymerase II subunit composition, stoichiometry, and phosphorylation were investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by attaching an epitope coding sequence to a well-characterized RNA polymerase II subunit gene (RPB3) and by immunoprecipitating the product of this gene with its associated polypeptides. The immunopurified enzyme catalyzed alpha-amanitin-sensitive RNA synthesis in vitro. The 10 polypeptides that immunoprecipitated were identical in size and number to those previously described for RNA polymerase II purified by conventional column chromatography. The relative stoichiometry of the subunits was deduced from knowledge of the sequence of the subunits and from the extent of labeling with [35S]methionine. Immunoprecipitation from 32P-labeled cell extracts revealed that three of the subunits, RPB1, RPB2, and RPB6, are phosphorylated in vivo. Phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of RPB1 could be distinguished; approximately half of the RNA polymerase II molecules contained a phosphorylated RPB1 subunit. These results more precisely define the subunit composition and phosphorylation of a eucaryotic RNA polymerase II enzyme. Images PMID:2183013

  4. Genetic exploration of interactive domains in RNA polymerase II subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C; Okamura, S; Young, R

    1990-01-01

    The two large subunits of RNA polymerase II, RPB1 and RPB2, contain regions of extensive homology to the two large subunits of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. These homologous regions may represent separate protein domains with unique functions. We investigated whether suppressor genetics could provide evidence for interactions between specific segments of RPB1 and RPB2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A plasmid shuffle method was used to screen thoroughly for mutations in RPB2 that suppress a temperature-sensitive mutation, rpb1-1, which is located in region H of RPB1. All six RPB2 mutations that suppress rpb1-1 were clustered in region I of RPB2. The location of these mutations and the observation that they were allele specific for suppression of rpb1-1 suggests an interaction between region H of RPB1 and region I of RPB2. A similar experiment was done to isolate and map mutations in RPB1 that suppress a temperature-sensitive mutation, rpb2-2, which occurs in region I of RPB2. These suppressor mutations were not clustered in a particular region. Thus, fine structure suppressor genetics can provide evidence for interactions between specific segments of two proteins, but the results of this type of analysis can depend on the conditional mutation to be suppressed. Images PMID:2183012

  5. Comparison of Large Subunits of Type II DNA-dependent RNA Polymerases from Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Kidd, G H; Link, G; Bogorad, L

    1979-10-01

    Two-dimensional tryptic mapping of (125)I-labeled polypeptides has been employed to compare the large subunits of type II DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from maize, parsley (Petroselinum sativum), and wheat. Maps of the 220 kilodalton (kd) and 140 kd subunits from wheat RNA polymerase II differ from those of the corresponding subunits from parsley enzyme II. The 180 kd subunits from maize and parsley type II enzymes also yield dissimilar tryptic maps. Thus, despite similarities in molecular mass, the large subunits of wheat, parsley, and maize type II RNA polymerases are unique to each individual plant species. PMID:16661032

  6. Evolutionary connection between the catalytic subunits of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases and eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and the origin of RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Koonin, Eugene V; Aravind, L

    2003-01-01

    Background The eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) is involved in the amplification of regulatory microRNAs during post-transcriptional gene silencing. This enzyme is highly conserved in most eukaryotes but is missing in archaea and bacteria. No evolutionary relationship between RDRP and other polymerases has been reported so far, hence the origin of this eukaryote-specific polymerase remains a mystery. Results Using extensive sequence profile searches, we identified bacteriophage homologs of the eukaryotic RDRP. The comparison of the eukaryotic RDRP and their homologs from bacteriophages led to the delineation of the conserved portion of these enzymes, which is predicted to harbor the catalytic site. Further, detailed sequence comparison, aided by examination of the crystal structure of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (DDRP), showed that the RDRP and the β' subunit of DDRP (and its orthologs in archaea and eukaryotes) contain a conserved double-psi β-barrel (DPBB) domain. This DPBB domain contains the signature motif DbDGD (b is a bulky residue), which is conserved in all RDRPs and DDRPs and contributes to catalysis via a coordinated divalent cation. Apart from the DPBB domain, no similarity was detected between RDRP and DDRP, which leaves open two scenarios for the origin of RDRP: i) RDRP evolved at the onset of the evolution of eukaryotes via a duplication of the DDRP β' subunit followed by dramatic divergence that obliterated the sequence similarity outside the core catalytic domain and ii) the primordial RDRP, which consisted primarily of the DPBB domain, evolved from a common ancestor with the DDRP at a very early stage of evolution, during the RNA world era. The latter hypothesis implies that RDRP had been subsequently eliminated from cellular life forms and might have been reintroduced into the eukaryotic genomes through a bacteriophage. Sequence and structure analysis of the DDRP led to further insights into the evolution of RNA polymerases

  7. Structure and sequence of the gene for the largest subunit of trypanosomal RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed Central

    Köck, J; Evers, R; Cornelissen, A W

    1988-01-01

    As the first step in the analysis of the transcription process in the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, we have started to characterise the trypanosomal RNA polymerases. We have previously described the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and found that two almost identical RNA polymerase II genes are encoded within the genome of T. brucei. Here we present the identification, cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase III. This gene contains a single open reading frame encoding a polypeptide with a Mr of 170 kD. In total, eight encoding a polypeptide with a Mr of 170 kD. In total, eight highly conserved regions with significant homology to those previously reported in other eukaryotic RNA polymerase largest subunits were identified. Some of these domains contain functional sites, which are conserved among all eukaryotic largest subunit genes analysed thus far. Since these domains make up a large part of each polypeptide, independent of the RNA polymerase class, these data strongly support the hypothesis that these domains provide a major part of the transcription machinery of the RNA polymerase complex. The additional domains which are uniquely present in the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I and II, respectively, two large hydrophylic insertions and a C-terminal extension, might be a determining factor in specific transcription of the gene classes. Images PMID:3174432

  8. An enlarged largest subunit of Plasmodium falciparum RNA polymerase II defines conserved and variable RNA polymerase domains.

    PubMed Central

    Li, W B; Bzik, D J; Gu, H M; Tanaka, M; Fox, B A; Inselburg, J

    1989-01-01

    We have isolated the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II from Plasmodium falciparum. The RPII gene is expressed in the asexual erythrocytic stages of the parasite as a 9 kb mRNA, and is present as a single copy gene located on chromosome 3. The P. falciparum RPII subunit is the largest (2452 amino acids) eukaryotic RPII subunit, and it contains enlarged variable regions that clearly separate and define five conserved regions of the eukaryotic RPII largest subunits. A distinctive carboxyl-terminal domain contains a short highly conserved heptapeptide repeat domain which is bounded on its 5' side by a highly diverged heptapeptide repeat domain, and is bounded on its 3' side by a long carboxyl-terminal extension. Images PMID:2690004

  9. An enlarged largest subunit of Plasmodium falciparum RNA polymerase II defines conserved and variable RNA polymerase domains.

    PubMed

    Li, W B; Bzik, D J; Gu, H M; Tanaka, M; Fox, B A; Inselburg, J

    1989-12-11

    We have isolated the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II from Plasmodium falciparum. The RPII gene is expressed in the asexual erythrocytic stages of the parasite as a 9 kb mRNA, and is present as a single copy gene located on chromosome 3. The P. falciparum RPII subunit is the largest (2452 amino acids) eukaryotic RPII subunit, and it contains enlarged variable regions that clearly separate and define five conserved regions of the eukaryotic RPII largest subunits. A distinctive carboxyl-terminal domain contains a short highly conserved heptapeptide repeat domain which is bounded on its 5' side by a highly diverged heptapeptide repeat domain, and is bounded on its 3' side by a long carboxyl-terminal extension. PMID:2690004

  10. The influenza A virus PB2 polymerase subunit is required for the replication of viral RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Perales, B; Ortín, J

    1997-01-01

    The transcription and replication of influenza virus RNA (vRNA) were reconstituted in vivo. The experimental approach involved the transfection of plasmids encoding the viral subunits of the polymerase and the nucleoprotein into cells infected with a vaccinia virus recombinant virus expressing the T7 RNA polymerase. As templates, one of two model RNAs was transfected: vNSZ or cNSZ RNA. The RNAs were 240 nucleotides in length, contained the terminal sequences of the NS viral segment, and were of negative or positive polarity, respectively. The accumulation of cRNA and mRNA in cells transfected with vNSZ RNA and the accumulation of vRNA and mRNA in cells transfected with cNSZ RNA were determined by RNase protection assays with labeled vNSZ-L or cNSZ-L probes. The patterns of protected bands obtained indicated that both cRNA replication intermediate and mRNA accumulated when the system was reconstituted with vNSZ RNA. Likewise, both vRNA and mRNA accumulated after reconstitution with cNSZ RNA. The reconstitution of incomplete systems in which any of the subunits of the polymerase or the model RNA were omitted was completely negative for the accumulation of cRNA or vRNA, indicating that the presence of the PB2 subunit in the polymerase is required for replication of vRNA. PMID:8995663

  11. Functional diversification of maize RNA polymerase IV and V subtypes via alternative catalytic subunits.

    PubMed

    Haag, Jeremy R; Brower-Toland, Brent; Krieger, Elysia K; Sidorenko, Lyudmila; Nicora, Carrie D; Norbeck, Angela D; Irsigler, Andre; LaRue, Huachun; Brzeski, Jan; McGinnis, Karen; Ivashuta, Sergey; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Chandler, Vicki L; Pikaard, Craig S

    2014-10-01

    Unlike nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases I, II, and III, whose subunit compositions are conserved throughout eukaryotes, plant RNA polymerases IV and V are nonessential, Pol II-related enzymes whose subunit compositions are still evolving. Whereas Arabidopsis Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in four or five of their 12 subunits, respectively, and differ from one another in three subunits, proteomic analyses show that maize Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in six subunits but differ from each other only in their largest subunits. Use of alternative catalytic second subunits, which are nonredundant for development and paramutation, yields at least two subtypes of Pol IV and three subtypes of Pol V in maize. Pol IV/Pol V associations with MOP1, RMR1, AGO121, Zm_DRD1/CHR127, SHH2a, and SHH2b extend parallels between paramutation in maize and the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway in Arabidopsis. PMID:25284785

  12. Functional Diversification of Maize RNA Polymerase IV and V subtypes via Alternative Catalytic Subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Brower-Toland, Brent; Krieger, Elysia K.; Sidorenko, Lyudmila; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Irsigler, Andre; LaRue, Huachun; Brzeski, Jan; Mcginnis, Karen A.; Ivashuta, Sergey; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Chandler, Vicki L.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2014-10-01

    Unlike nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases I, II, and III, whose subunit compositions are conserved throughout eukaryotes, plant RNA polymerases IV and V are nonessential, Pol II-related enzymes whose subunit compositions are still evolving. Whereas Arabidopsis Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in four or five of their 12 subunits, respectively, and differ from one another in three subunits, proteomic ana- lyses show that maize Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in six subunits but differ from each other only in their largest subunits. Use of alternative catalytic second subunits, which are nonredundant for development and paramutation, yields at least two sub- types of Pol IV and three subtypes of Pol V in maize. Pol IV/Pol V associations with MOP1, RMR1, AGO121, Zm_DRD1/CHR127, SHH2a, and SHH2b extend parallels between paramutation in maize and the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway in Arabidopsis.

  13. A protein kinase from wheat germ that phosphorylates the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Guilfoyle, T J

    1989-01-01

    A protein kinase from wheat germ that phosphorylates the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IIA has been partially purified and characterized. The kinase has a native molecular weight of about 200 kilodaltons. This kinase utilizes Mg2+ and ATP and transfers about 20 phosphates to the heptapeptide repeats Pro-Thr-Ser-Pro-Ser-Tyr-Ser in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the 220-kilodalton subunit of soybean RNA polymerase II. This phosphorylation results in a mobility shift of the 220-kilodalton subunits of a variety of eukaryotic RNA polymerases to polypeptides ranging in size from greater than 220 kilodaltons to 240 kilodaltons on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The phosphorylation is highly specific to the heptapeptide repeats since a degraded subunit polypeptide of 180 kilodaltons that lacks the heptapeptide repeats is poorly phosphorylated. Synthetic heptapeptide repeat multimers inhibit the phosphorylation of the 220-kilodalton subunit. PMID:2535525

  14. Active RNA Polymerase I of Trypanosoma brucei Harbors a Novel Subunit Essential for Transcription▿

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tu N.; Schimanski, Bernd; Günzl, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    A unique characteristic of the protistan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is a multifunctional RNA polymerase I which, in addition to synthesizing rRNA as in other eukaryotes, transcribes gene units encoding the major cell surface antigens variant surface glycoprotein and procyclin. Thus far, purification of this enzyme has revealed nine orthologues of known subunits but no active enzyme. Here, we have epitope tagged the specific subunit RPB6z and tandem affinity purified RNA polymerase I from crude extract. The purified enzyme was active in both a nonspecific and a promoter-dependent transcription assay and exhibited enriched protein bands with apparent sizes of 31, 29, and 27 kDa. p31 and its trypanosomatid orthologues were identified, but their amino acid sequences have no similarity to proteins of other eukaryotes, nor do they contain a conserved sequence motif. Nevertheless, p31 cosedimented with purified RNA polymerase I, and RNA interferance-mediated silencing of p31 was lethal, affecting the abundance of rRNA. Moreover, extract of p31-silenced cells exhibited a specific defect in transcription of class I templates, which was remedied by the addition of purified RNA polymerase I, and an anti-p31 serum completely blocked RNA polymerase I-mediated transcription. We therefore dubbed this novel functional component of T. brucei RNA polymerase I TbRPA31. PMID:17606628

  15. Subunits of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe RNA polymerase II: enzyme purification and structure of the subunit 3 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Y; Yamagishi, M; Ishihama, A

    1993-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the structure and function of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II, we purified the enzyme from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The highly purified RNA polymerase II contained more than eleven polypeptides. The sizes of the largest the second-, and the third-largest polypeptides as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were about 210, 150, and 40 kilodaltons (kDa), respectively, and are similar to those of RPB1, 2, and 3 subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II. Using the degenerated primers designed after amino acid micro-sequencing of the 40 kDa third-largest polypeptide (subunit 3), we cloned the subunit 3 gene (rpb3) and determined its DNA sequence. Taken together with the sequence of parts of PCR-amplified cDNA, the predicted coding sequence of rpb3, interrupted by two introns, was found to encode a polypeptide of 297 amino acid residues in length with a molecular weight of 34 kDa. The S. pombe subunit 3 contains four structural domains conserved for the alpha-subunit family of RNA polymerase from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. A putative leucine zipper motif was found to exist in the C-terminal proximal conserved region (domain D). Possible functions of the conserved domains are discussed. Images PMID:8367291

  16. RNA polymerase II subunit RPB3 is an essential component of the mRNA transcription apparatus.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziej, P; Young, R A

    1989-01-01

    To improve our understanding of RNA polymerase II, the gene that encodes its third-largest subunit, RPB3, was isolated from a lambda gt11 DNA library by using antibody probes. The RPB3 DNA sequence predicts a 318-amino-acid protein whose sequence was confirmed, in part, by microsequence analysis of the gel-purified RNA polymerase II subunit. RPB3 was found to be an essential single-copy gene that is tightly linked to HIS6 on chromosome IX. An RPB3 temperature-sensitive mutant that arrested growth after three to four generations at the restrictive temperature was isolated. When the mutant was shifted to the restrictive temperature, RNA polymerase II could no longer assemble, previously assembled functional enzyme was depleted, and mRNA levels were consequently reduced. These results demonstrate that RPB3 is an essential component of the mRNA transcription apparatus. Finally, the RPB3 protein is similar in sequence and length to RPC5, a subunit common to RNA polymerases I and III, suggesting that these subunits may play similar roles in RNA polymerases I, II, and III. Images PMID:2685562

  17. Identification of subunits of gonococcal RNA polymerase by immunoblot analysis: evidence for multiple sigma factors.

    PubMed Central

    Klimpel, K W; Lesley, S A; Clark, V L

    1989-01-01

    Heparin-agarose and single-stranded DNA-cellulose chromatography were used to purify RNA polymerase 25-fold from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and the activity of the polymerase was characterized in altered assay systems. The core subunits (beta, beta', and alpha) were tentatively identified as major proteins copurifying with polymerase activity. The identification of the core subunits was confirmed by Western (immunoblot) analysis with polyclonal antisera to Escherichia coli core RNA polymerase. Gonococcal sigma factor heterogeneity was examined by Western blot analysis with polyclonal antiserum to the major E. coli sigma factor, sigma 70, to the E. coli heat shock sigma factor, sigma 32, and with a monoclonal antiserum to Salmonella typhimurium NtrA (sigma 54). Purified RNA polymerase and whole-cell extracts from type 1, type 4, heat-shocked, and anaerobically grown gonococci were examined. Four putative gonococcal sigma factors were detected in purified RNA polymerase preparations and in whole-cell extracts from all cell types. Two of these bands appeared as a doublet, which had an estimated Mr of 80,000. A single lower-Mr band, estimated to be 40,000, was also present. All three of these bands reacted with antisera to E. coli sigma 70 and to E. coli sigma 32. A fourth gonococcal protein reacted solely with a highly specific monoclonal antibody to sigma 54 and had an Mr of 90,000. We conclude that N. gonorrhoeae may contain multiple sigma factors, which it may use to regulate gene expression. Images PMID:2472377

  18. Functional Consequences of Subunit Diversity in RNA Polymerases II and V

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Ek Han; Blevins, Todd; Ream, Thomas S.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2012-03-01

    Multisubunit RNA polymerases IV and V (Pol IV and Pol V) evolved as specialized forms of Pol II that mediate RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and transcriptional silencing of transposons, viruses, and endogenous repeats in plants. Among the subunits common to Arabidopsis thaliana Pols II, IV, and V are 93% identical alternative ninth subunits, NRP(B/D/E)9a and NRP(B/D/E)9b. The 9a and 9b subunit variants are incompletely redundant with respect to Pol II; whereas double mutants are embryo lethal, single mutants are viable, yet phenotypically distinct. Likewise, 9a or 9b can associate with Pols IV or V but RNA-directed DNA methylation is impaired only in 9b mutants. Based on genetic and molecular tests, we attribute the defect in RdDM to impaired Pol V function. Collectively, our results reveal a role for the ninth subunit in RNA silencing and demonstrate that subunit diversity generates functionally distinct subtypes of RNA polymerases II and V.

  19. ε, a New Subunit of RNA Polymerase Found in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Andrew N.; Yang, Xiao; Wiedermannová, Jana; Delumeau, Olivier; Krásný, Libor

    2014-01-01

    RNA polymerase in bacteria is a multisubunit protein complex that is essential for gene expression. We have identified a new subunit of RNA polymerase present in the high-A+T Firmicutes phylum of Gram-positive bacteria and have named it ε. Previously ε had been identified as a small protein (ω1) that copurified with RNA polymerase. We have solved the structure of ε by X-ray crystallography and show that it is not an ω subunit. Rather, ε bears remarkable similarity to the Gp2 family of phage proteins involved in the inhibition of host cell transcription following infection. Deletion of ε shows no phenotype and has no effect on the transcriptional profile of the cell. Determination of the location of ε within the assembly of RNA polymerase core by single-particle analysis suggests that it binds toward the downstream side of the DNA binding cleft. Due to the structural similarity of ε with Gp2 and the fact they bind similar regions of RNA polymerase, we hypothesize that ε may serve a role in protection from phage infection. PMID:25092033

  20. A mutation in the C31 subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III affects transcription initiation.

    PubMed Central

    Thuillier, V; Stettler, S; Sentenac, A; Thuriaux, P; Werner, M

    1995-01-01

    The C31 subunit belongs to a complex of three subunits (C31, C34 and C82) specific to RNA polymerase (pol) III that have no counterparts in other RNA polymerases. This complex is thought to play a role in transcription initiation since it interacts with the general initiation factor TFIIIB via subunit C34. We have obtained a conditional mutation of pol III by partially deleting the acidic C-terminus of the C31 subunit. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying this truncated C31 subunit is impaired in in vivo transcription of tRNAs and failed to grow at 37 degrees C. This conditional growth phenotype was suppressed by overexpression of the gene coding for the largest subunit of pol III (C160), suggesting an interaction between C160 and C31. The mutant pol III enzyme transcribed non-specific templates at wild-type rates in vitro, but was impaired in its capacity to transcribe tRNA genes in the presence of general initiation factors. Transcription initiation, but not termination or recycling of the enzyme, was affected in the mutant, suggesting that it could be altered on interaction with initiation factors or on the formation of the open complex. Interestingly, the C-terminal deletion was also suppressed by a high gene dosage of the DED1 gene encoding a putative helicase. Images PMID:7835345

  1. Subunit Compositions of the RNA-Silencing Enzymes Pol IV and Pol V Reveal Their Origins as Specialized Forms of RNA Polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, J. R.; Wierzbicki, A. T.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Zhu, J. K.; Hagen, G.; Guilfoyle, T. J.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2009-01-30

    In addition to RNA polymerases I, II and III, which are multi-subunit RNA polymerases found in all eukaryotes, plants have catalytic subunits for two additional nuclear RNA polymerases, abbreviated as Pol IV and Pol V (formerly Pol IVa and Pol IVb, respectively). Pol IV and Pol V play non-redundant roles in siRNA-directed DNA methylation and gene silencing pathways.

  2. Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit during Xenopus laevis oocyte maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Bellier, S; Dubois, M F; Nishida, E; Almouzni, G; Bensaude, O

    1997-01-01

    Xenopus laevis oogenesis is characterized by an active transcription which ceases abruptly upon maturation. To survey changes in the characteristics of the transcriptional machinery which might contribute to this transcriptional arrest, the phosphorylation status of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1 subunit) was analyzed during oocyte maturation. We found that the RPB1 subunit accumulates in large quantities from previtellogenic early diplotene oocytes up to fully grown oocytes. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the RPB1 subunit was essentially hypophosphorylated in growing oocytes from Dumont stage IV to stage VI. Upon maturation, the proportion of hyperphosphorylated RPB1 subunits increased dramatically and abruptly. The hyperphosphorylated RPB1 subunits were dephosphorylated within 1 h after fertilization or heat shock of the matured oocytes. Extracts from metaphase II-arrested oocytes showed a much stronger CTD kinase activity than extracts from prophase stage VI oocytes. Most of this kinase activity was attributed to the activated Xp42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, a MAP kinase of the ERK type. Making use of artificial maturation of the stage VI oocyte through microinjection of a recombinant stable cyclin B1, we observed a parallel activation of Xp42 MAP kinase and phosphorylation of RPB1. Both events required protein synthesis, which demonstrated that activation of p34(cdc2)off kinase was insufficient to phosphorylate RPB1 ex vivo and was consistent with a contribution of the Xp42 MAP kinase to RPB1 subunit phosphorylation. These results further support the possibility that the largest RNA polymerase II subunit is a substrate of the ERK-type MAP kinases during oocyte maturation, as previously proposed during stress or growth factor stimulation of mammalian cells. PMID:9032270

  3. Characterization of the gene encoding the largest subunit of Plasmodium falciparum RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Li, W B; Bzik, D J; Tanaka, M; Gu, H M; Fox, B A; Inselburg, J

    1991-06-01

    We report here the isolation, sequence analysis, structure, and expression of the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase III (RPIII) from Plasmodium falciparum. The P. falciparum RPIII gene consists of 5 exons and 4 introns, is expressed in all of the asexual erythrocytic stages of the parasite as a 8.5-kb mRNA, and is present in a single copy on chromosome 13. The predicted 2339 amino acid residue RPIII subunit contained 5 regions that were conserved between different eukaryotic RPIII subunits, and 4 variable regions that separated the conserved regions. Three of the variable regions were greatly enlarged in comparison to the corresponding variable regions in other RPIII subunits. Variable region C' represented nearly one-third of the P. falciparum RPIII subunit (750 amino acid residues), included a unique repeated decapeptide sequence, and had some homology with yeast DNA topoisomerase II. Noteworthy amino acid sequences and structures were identified in both the conserved regions and in the enlarged variable regions, and their possible role(s) as domains that regulate RPIII enzyme activity is discussed. PMID:1656254

  4. In vivo degradation of RNA polymerase II largest subunit triggered by alpha-amanitin.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, V T; Giannoni, F; Dubois, M F; Seo, S J; Vigneron, M; Kédinger, C; Bensaude, O

    1996-01-01

    Alpha-Amanitin is a well-known specific inhibitor of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in vitro and in vivo. It is a cyclic octapeptide which binds with high affinity to the largest subunit of RNAPII, RPB1. We have found that in murine fibroblasts exposure to alpha-amanitin triggered degradation of the RPB1 subunit, while other RNAPII subunits, RPB5 and RPB8, remained almost unaffected. Transcriptional inhibition in alpha-amanitin-treated cells was slow and closely followed the disappearance of RPB1. The degradation rate of RPB1 was alpha-amanitin dose dependent and was not a consequence of transcriptional arrest. Alpha-Amanitin-promoted degradation of RPB1 was prevented in cells exposed to actinomycin D, another transcriptional inhibitor. Epitope-tagged recombinant human RPB1 subunits were expressed in mouse fibroblasts. In cells exposed to alpha-amanitin the wild-type recombinant subunit was degraded like the endogenous protein, but a mutated alpha-amanitin-resistant subunit remained unaffected. Hence, alpha-amanitin did not activate a proteolytic system, but instead its binding to mRPB1 likely represented a signal for degradation. Thus, in contrast to other inhibitors, such as actinomycin D or 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole, which reversibly act on transcription, inhibition by alpha-amanitin cannot be but an irreversible process because of the destruction of RNAPII. PMID:8760875

  5. Structure of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase α subunit C-terminal domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-González, Samuel; Birktoft, Jens J.; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-07-01

    The crystal structure of the dimethyllysine derivative of the E. coli RNA polymerase α subunit C-terminal domain is reported at 2.0 Å resolution. The α subunit C-terminal domain (αCTD) of RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a key element in transcription activation in Escherichia coli, possessing determinants responsible for the interaction of RNAP with DNA and with transcription factors. Here, the crystal structure of E. coli αCTD (α subunit residues 245–329) determined to 2.0 Å resolution is reported. Crystals were obtained after reductive methylation of the recombinantly expressed domain. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1} and possessed both pseudo-translational symmetry and pseudo-merohedral twinning. The refined coordinate model (R factor = 0.193, R{sub free} = 0.236) has improved geometry compared with prior lower resolution determinations of the αCTD structure [Jeon et al. (1995 ▶), Science, 270, 1495–1497; Benoff et al. (2002 ▶), Science, 297, 1562–1566]. An extensive dimerization interface formed primarily by N- and C-terminal residues is also observed. The new coordinates will facilitate the improved modeling of αCTD-containing multi-component complexes visualized at lower resolution using X-ray crystallography and electron-microscopy reconstruction.

  6. Subunit Compositions of the RNA-Silencing Enzymes Pol IV and Pol V Reveal Their Origins as Specialized Forms of RNA Polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, J. R.; Wierzbicki, A. T.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Hagen, Gretchen; Guilfoyle, Thomas J.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2009-01-30

    In addition to RNA polymerases I, II, and III, the essential RNA polymerases present in all eukaryotes, plants have two additional nuclear RNA polymerases, abbreviated as Pol IV and Pol V, that play nonredundant roles in siRNA-directed DNA methylation and gene silencing. We show that Arabidopsis Pol IV and Pol V are composed of subunits that are paralogous or identical to the 12 subunits of Pol II. Four subunits of Pol IV are distinct from their Pol II paralogs, six subunits of Pol V are distinct from their Pol II paralogs, and four subunits differ between Pol IV and Pol V. Importantly, the subunit differences occur in key positions relative to the template entry and RNA exit paths. Our findings support the hypothesis that Pol IV and Pol V are Pol II-like enzymes that evolved specialized roles in the production of noncoding transcripts for RNA silencing and genome defense.

  7. Subunit Compositions of the RNA-Silencing Enzymes PoI IV and PoI V Reveal Their Origins as Specialized Forms of RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, Jeremy R.; Wierzbicki, Andrzej T.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Hagen, Gretchen; Guilfoyle, Thomas J.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY In addition to RNA polymerases I, II, and III, the essential RNA polymerases present in all eukaryotes, plants have two additional nuclear RNA polymerases, abbreviated as Pol IV and Pol V, that play nonredundant roles in siRNA-directed DNA methylation and gene silencing. We show that Arabidopsis Pol IV and Pol V are composed of subunits that are paralogous or identical to the 12 subunits of Pol II. Four subunits of Pol IV are distinct from their Pol II paralogs, six subunits of Pol V are distinct from their Pol II paralogs, and four subunits differ between Pol IV and Pol V. Importantly, the subunit differences occur in key positions relative to the template entry and RNA exit paths. Our findings support the hypothesis that Pol IV and Pol V are Pol II-like enzymes that evolved specialized roles in the production of noncoding transcripts for RNA silencing and genome defense. PMID:19110459

  8. Virus-induced gene silencing of RPC5-like subunit of RNA polymerase III caused pleiotropic effects in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In eukaryotic cells, RNA polymerase III is highly conserved, contains 17 subunits and transcribes housekeeping genes such as ribosomal 50S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs. Functional roles of the RPC5 are poorly characterized in the literature. In this work, we report that virus-induced gene silenci...

  9. The δ Subunit of RNA Polymerase Guides Promoter Selectivity and Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Andy; Ibarra, J. Antonio; Paoletti, Jessica; Carroll, Ronan K.

    2014-01-01

    In Gram-positive bacteria, and particularly the Firmicutes, the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) complex contains an additional subunit, termed the δ factor, or RpoE. This enigmatic protein has been studied for more than 30 years for various organisms, but its function is still not well understood. In this study, we investigated its role in the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. We showed conservation of important structural regions of RpoE in S. aureus and other species and demonstrated binding to core RNAP that is mediated by the β and/or β′ subunits. To identify the impact of the δ subunit on transcription, we performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis and observed 191 differentially expressed genes in the rpoE mutant. Ontological analysis revealed, quite strikingly, that many of the downregulated genes were known virulence factors, while several mobile genetic elements (SaPI5 and prophage ϕSA3usa) were strongly upregulated. Phenotypically, the rpoE mutant had decreased accumulation and/or activity of a number of key virulence factors, including alpha toxin, secreted proteases, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). We further observed significantly decreased survival of the mutant in whole human blood, increased phagocytosis by human leukocytes, and impaired virulence in a murine model of infection. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the δ subunit of RNAP is a critical component of the S. aureus transcription machinery and plays an important role during infection. PMID:24491578

  10. Diverse gene-silencing mechanisms with distinct requirements for RNA polymerase subunits in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Amy E; Sidorenko, Lyudmila; McGinnis, Karen M

    2014-11-01

    In Zea mays, transcriptional regulation of the b1 (booster1) gene requires a distal enhancer and MEDIATOR OF PARAMUTATION1 (MOP1), MOP2, and MOP3 proteins orthologous to Arabidopsis components of the RNA-dependent DNA methylation pathway. We compared the genetic requirements for MOP1, MOP2, and MOP3 for endogenous gene silencing by two hairpin transgenes with inverted repeats of the a1 (anthocyaninless1) gene promoter (a1pIR) and the b1 gene enhancer (b1IR), respectively. The a1pIR transgene induced silencing of endogenous A1 in mop1-1 and mop3-1, but not in Mop2-1 homozygous plants. This finding suggests that transgene-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) circumvented the requirement for MOP1, a predicted RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and MOP3, the predicted largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV). Because the Arabidopsis protein orthologous to MOP2 is the second largest subunit of Pol IV and V, our results may indicate that hairpin-induced siRNAs cannot bypass the requirement for the predicted scaffolding activity of Pol V. In contrast to a1pIR, the b1IR transgene silenced endogenous B1 in all three homozygous mutant genotypes--mop1-1, Mop2-1, and mop3-1--suggesting that transgene mediated b1 silencing did not involve MOP2-containing Pol V complexes. Based on the combined results for a1, b1, and three previously described loci, we propose a speculative hypothesis of locus-specific deployment of Pol II, MOP2-containing Pol V, or alternative versions of Pol V with second largest subunits other than MOP2 to explain the mechanistic differences in silencing at specific loci, including one example associated with paramutation. PMID:25164883

  11. The Trypanosoma brucei protein phosphatase gene: polycistronic transcription with the RNA polymerase II largest subunit gene.

    PubMed Central

    Evers, R; Cornelissen, A W

    1990-01-01

    We have previously described the trypanosomal gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and found that two almost identical genes are encoded within the Trypanosoma brucei genome. Here we show by Southern analyses that the 5' breakpoint between both loci is located approximately 7.5 kb upstream of the RNAP II genes. Northern analyses revealed that the 5' duplicated segment contains at least four other genes, which are transcribed in both bloodstream and procyclic trypanosomes. The gene located immediately upstream of the RNAP II gene in both loci was characterized by sequence analyses. The deduced amino acid sequences show a high degree of similarity to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase class 1 (PP1) genes. S1 mapping provided strong evidence in support of the fact that the PP1 and RNAP II genes belong to a single transcription unit. Images PMID:2169604

  12. Cloning, soluble expression, and purification of the RNA polymerase II subunit RPB5 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Gaurav; Ghosh, Arabinda; Chinta, Ramesh; Akhtar, Sohail; Tripathi, Timir

    2015-01-01

    We report the molecular cloning, expression, and single-step homogeneous purification of RNA polymerase II subunit RPB5 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RPB5 is a 210 amino acid nuclear protein that functions as the fifth largest subunit of polymerase II and plays a central role in transcription. The gene that codes for RPB5 was generated by amplification by polymerase chain reaction. It was then inserted in the expression vector pET28a(+) under the transcriptional control of the bacteriophage T7 promoter and lac operator. BL21(DE3) Escherichia coli strain transformed with the rpb5 expression vector pET28a(+)-rpb5 accumulates large amounts of a soluble protein of about 30 kDa (25 kDa plus 5 kDa double His6-Tag at N and C-terminal). The protein was purified to homogeneity using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. RPB5 recombinant protein was further confirmed by immunoblotting with anti-His antibody. In this study, the expression and purification procedures have provided a simple and efficient method to obtain pure RPB5 in large quantities. This will provide an opportunity to study the role of S. cerevisiae RPB5 in gene expression and transcription regulation. Furthermore, it can provide additional knowledge of the interaction partners of RPB5 during various steps of transcription and gene expression. PMID:25551420

  13. Molecular characterization of the largest subunit of Plasmodium falciparum RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Fox, B A; Li, W B; Tanaka, M; Inselburg, J; Bzik, D J

    1993-09-01

    Plasmodium species possess developmentally regulated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. This report describes the expression and gene structure of the largest subunit of P. falciparum RNA polymerase I (RNAPI), which is responsible for the synthesis of rRNA. The RNAPI largest subunit gene was present as a single copy gene on chromosome 9. Three exons encode the 2910-amino acid RNAPI polypeptide (340 140 Da). A comparison of Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear RNAP largest subunits identified conserved amino acid positions and class-specific amino acid positions. Novel amino acid insertions were found between RNAPI conserved regions A and B (region A'), D and DE1 (region D'), DE2 and E (region DE2'), and F and G (region F'). Leucine zipper domains were found within regions D', DE2, and DE2'. A novel serine-rich repeat domain, a domain with homology to the C-terminal domain of eukaryotic upstream binding factor (UBF), and 4 highly conserved casein kinase II (CKII) Ser/Thr phosphorylation motifs were found within a 127-amino acid sub-region of enlarged region F'. The novel RNAPI serine-rich repeat contained a conserved motif, Ser-X3-Ser, which was also identified in the serine-rich repeat domains of the P. falciparum RNAPII and RNAPIII largest subunits, as well as within a highly homologous serine-rich repeat from trophozoite antigen R45. The results of this molecular analysis indicate that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mechanisms regulate the activity of P. falciparum RNAPI. PMID:8259131

  14. The RNA polymerase II 15-kilodalton subunit is essential for viability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, D A; Mortin, M A; Corces, V G

    1992-01-01

    A small, divergently transcribed gene is located 500 bp upstream of the suppressor of Hairy-wing locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Sequencing of a full-length cDNA clone of the predominant 850-nucleotide transcript reveals that this gene encodes a 15,100-Da protein with high homology to a subunit of RNA polymerase II. The RpII15 protein is 46% identical to the RPB9 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the smallest subunits of RNA polymerase II from that species. Among those identical residues are four pairs of cysteines whose spacing is suggestive of two metal-binding "finger" domains. The gene is expressed at all developmental stages and in all tissues. Two deletions within the RpII15 gene are multiphasic lethal deletions, with accumulation of dead animals commencing at the second larval instar. Ovary transplantation experiments indicate that survival of mutant animals to this stage is due to the persistence of maternal gene product throughout embryogenesis and early larval development. The RpII15 gene product is thus necessary for viability of D. melanogaster. Images PMID:1545824

  15. Structural requirements for the interdomain linker of alpha subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Fujita, N; Endo, S; Ishihama, A

    2000-05-23

    The carboxy-terminal domain of the alpha subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase, which is connected with the core part of RNA polymerase through a long flexible linker, plays decisive roles in transcription activation by directly interacting with a large number of transcription factors and upstream (UP) element DNA. Here we constructed a set of mutant RNA polymerases, each containing a mutant alpha subunit with an altered interdomain linker. Deletion of three amino acids from the linker exhibited 50% inhibition of cAMP receptor protein- (CRP-) dependent lac P1 transcription. Deletion of six amino acids completely knocked out the activity. Insertion of three amino acids did not affect the activity, whereas 40-60% inhibition was observed after insertion of one, two, or four amino acids. Substitution of 10 consecutive glycine residues resulted in nearly 90% reduction of the CRP-dependent activity, whereas 50% activity was retained after substitution of 10 proline residues or a sequence expected to form a strong alpha-helix. Essentially the same results were obtained with UP element-dependent rrnB P1 transcription. These observations altogether suggest that (i) sufficient length of the interdomain linker is required for transcription activation mediated by the alpha carboxy-terminal domain, (ii) the linker is not totally unstructured but has structural and torsional preferences to facilitate positioning of the carboxy-terminal domain to a proper location for the interaction with CRP and UP element, and (iii) CRP-dependent activation and UP element-dependent activation share a common intermediary state in which the positioning of the alpha carboxy-terminal domain is of primary importance. PMID:10821700

  16. CBR antimicrobials alter coupling between the bridge helix and the β subunit in RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Malinen, Anssi M.; NandyMazumdar, Monali; Turtola, Matti; Malmi, Henri; Grocholski, Thadee; Artsimovitch, Irina; Belogurov, Georgiy A

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a validated target for antibacterial drugs. CBR703 series antimicrobials allosterically inhibit transcription by binding to a conserved α helix (β′ bridge helix, BH) that interconnects the two largest RNAP subunits. Here we show that disruption of the BH-β subunit contacts by amino-acid substitutions invariably results in accelerated catalysis, slowed-down forward translocation and insensitivity to regulatory pauses. CBR703 partially reverses these effects in CBR-resistant RNAPs while inhibiting catalysis and promoting pausing in CBR-sensitive RNAPs. The differential response of variant RNAPs to CBR703 suggests that the inhibitor binds in a cavity walled by the BH, the β′ F-loop and the β fork loop. Collectively, our data are consistent with a model in which the β subunit fine tunes RNAP elongation activities by altering the BH conformation, whereas CBRs deregulate transcription by increasing coupling between the BH and the β subunit. PMID:24598909

  17. Identification of a nucleic acid-binding region within the largest subunit of Drosophila melanogaster RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Kontermann, R. E.; Kobor, M.; Bautz, E. K.

    1993-01-01

    The largest and the second-largest subunit of the multisubunit eukaryotic RNA polymerases are involved in interaction with the DNA template and the nascent RNA chain. Using Southwestern DNA-binding techniques and nitrocellulose filter binding assays of bacterially expressed fusion proteins, we have identified a region of the largest, 215-kDa, subunit of Drosophila RNA polymerase II that has the potential to bind nucleic acids nonspecifically. This nucleic acid-binding region is located between amino acid residues 309-384 and is highly conserved within the largest subunits of eukaryotic and bacterial RNA polymerases. A homology to a region of the DNA-binding cleft of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I involved in binding of the newly synthesized DNA duplex provides indirect evidence that the nucleic acid-binding region of the largest subunit participates in interaction with double-stranded nucleic acids during transcription. The nonspecific DNA-binding behavior of the region is similar to that observed for the native enzyme in nitrocellulose filter binding assays and that of the separated largest subunit in Southwestern assays. A high content of basic amino acid residues is consistent with the electrostatic nature of nonspecific DNA binding by RNA polymerases. PMID:8443600

  18. Suppressor analysis of temperature-sensitive mutations of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a suppressor gene encodes the second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed Central

    Yano, R; Nomura, M

    1991-01-01

    The SRP3-1 mutation is an allele-specific suppressor of temperature-sensitive mutations in the largest subunit (A190) of RNA polymerase I from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two mutations known to be suppressed by SRP3-1 are in the putative zinc-binding domain of A190. We have cloned the SRP3 gene by using its suppressor activity and determined its complete nucleotide sequence. We conclude from the following evidence that the SRP3 gene encodes the second-largest subunit (A135) of RNA polymerase I. First, the deduced amino acid sequence of the gene product contains several regions with high homology to the corresponding regions of the second-largest subunits of RNA polymerases of various origins, including those of RNA polymerase II and III from S. cerevisiae. Second, the deduced amino acid sequence contains known amino acid sequences of two tryptic peptides from the A135 subunit of RNA polymerase I purified from S. cerevisiae. Finally, a strain was constructed in which transcription of the SRP3 gene was controlled by the inducible GAL7 promoter. When this strain, which can grow on galactose but not on glucose, was shifted from galactose medium to glucose medium, a large decrease in the cellular concentration of A135 was observed by Western blot analysis. We have also identified the specific amino acid alteration responsible for suppression by SRP3-1 and found that it is located within the putative zinc-binding domain conserved among the second-largest subunits of eucaryotic RNA polymerases. From these results, it is suggested that this putative zinc-binding domain is in physical proximity to and interacts with the putative zinc-binding domain of the A190 subunit. Images PMID:1990281

  19. Promoter Structure of the RNA Polymerase II Large Subunit Gene in Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae

    PubMed Central

    Bird, D. McK.; Kaloshian, I.; Molinari, S.

    1997-01-01

    The 5'-end of the Caenorhabditis elegans ama-1 gene transcript, which encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, was cloned. Sequencing revealed that the message is trans-spliced. To characterize the Ce-ama-1 promoter, DNA sequence spanning 3 kb upstream from the initiation codon was determined. Typical elements, such as TATA and Spl sites, were absent. The homologue of ama-1 in C. briggsae, Cb-ama-1, was isolated and its 5' flanking sequence compared with that of Ce-ama-1, revealing only limited similarity, although both sequences included a potential initiator-class transcriptional regulator and phased repeats of an AT₃C motif. The latter elements are postulated to facilitate DNA bending and may play a role in transcription regulation. PMID:19274143

  20. Retrotransposons. An RNA polymerase III subunit determines sites of retrotransposon integration.

    PubMed

    Bridier-Nahmias, Antoine; Tchalikian-Cosson, Aurélie; Baller, Joshua A; Menouni, Rachid; Fayol, Hélène; Flores, Amando; Saïb, Ali; Werner, Michel; Voytas, Daniel F; Lesage, Pascale

    2015-05-01

    Mobile genetic elements are ubiquitous. Their integration site influences genome stability and gene expression. The Ty1 retrotransposon of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae integrates upstream of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-transcribed genes, yet the primary determinant of target specificity has remained elusive. Here we describe an interaction between Ty1 integrase and the AC40 subunit of Pol III and demonstrate that AC40 is the predominant determinant targeting Ty1 integration upstream of Pol III-transcribed genes. Lack of an integrase-AC40 interaction dramatically alters target site choice, leading to a redistribution of Ty1 insertions in the genome, mainly to chromosome ends. The mechanism of target specificity allows Ty1 to proliferate and yet minimizes genetic damage to its host. PMID:25931562

  1. Molecular Basis of mRNA Cap Recognition by Influenza B Polymerase PB2 Subunit.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lili; Wartchow, Charles; Shia, Steven; Uehara, Kyoko; Steffek, Micah; Warne, Robert; Sutton, James; Muiru, Gladys T; Leonard, Vincent H J; Bussiere, Dirksen E; Ma, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus polymerase catalyzes the transcription of viral mRNAs by a process known as "cap-snatching," where the 5'-cap of cellular pre-mRNA is recognized by the PB2 subunit and cleaved 10-13 nucleotides downstream of the cap by the endonuclease PA subunit. Although this mechanism is common to both influenza A (FluA) and influenza B (FluB) viruses, FluB PB2 recognizes a wider range of cap structures including m(7)GpppGm-, m(7)GpppG-, and GpppG-RNA, whereas FluA PB2 utilizes methylated G-capped RNA specifically. Biophysical studies with isolated PB2 cap-binding domain (PB2(cap)) confirm that FluB PB2 has expanded mRNA cap recognition capability, although the affinities toward m(7)GTP are significantly reduced when compared with FluA PB2. The x-ray co-structures of the FluB PB2(cap) with bound cap analogs m(7)GTP and GTP reveal an inverted GTP binding mode that is distinct from the cognate m(7)GTP binding mode shared between FluA and FluB PB2. These results delineate the commonalities and differences in the cap-binding site between FluA and FluB PB2 and will aid structure-guided drug design efforts to identify dual inhibitors of both FluA and FluB PB2. PMID:26559973

  2. Distinct functions of the RNA polymerase σ subunit region 3.2 in RNA priming and promoter escape

    PubMed Central

    Pupov, Danil; Kuzin, Ivan; Bass, Irina; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    The σ subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) has been implicated in all steps of transcription initiation, including promoter recognition and opening, priming of RNA synthesis, abortive initiation and promoter escape. The post-promoter-recognition σ functions were proposed to depend on its conserved region σ3.2 that directly contacts promoter DNA immediately upstream of the RNAP active centre and occupies the RNA exit path. Analysis of the transcription effects of substitutions and deletions in this region in Escherichia coli σ70 subunit, performed in this work, suggests that (i) individual residues in the σ3.2 finger collectively contribute to RNA priming by RNAP, likely by the positioning of the template DNA strand in the active centre, but are not critical to promoter escape; (ii) the physical presence of σ3.2 in the RNA exit channel is important for promoter escape; (iii) σ3.2 promotes σ dissociation during initiation and suppresses σ-dependent promoter-proximal pausing; (iv) σ3.2 contributes to allosteric inhibition of the initiating NTP binding by rifamycins. Thus, region σ3.2 performs distinct functions in transcription initiation and its inhibition by antibiotics. The B-reader element of eukaryotic factor TFIIB likely plays similar roles in RNAPII transcription, revealing common principles in transcription initiation in various domains of life. PMID:24452800

  3. A single RNA-dependent RNA polymerase assembles with mutually exclusive nucleotidyl transferase subunits to direct different pathways of small RNA biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suzanne Rebecca; Talsky, Kristin Benjamin; Collins, Kathleen

    2009-07-01

    Members of the conserved family of eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (Rdrs) synthesize double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) intermediates in diverse pathways of small RNA (sRNA) biogenesis and RNA-mediated silencing. Rdr-dependent pathways of sRNA production are poorly characterized relative to Rdr-independent pathways, and the Rdr enzymes themselves are poorly characterized relative to their viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase counterparts. We previously described a physical and functional coupling of the Tetrahymena thermophila Rdr, Rdr1, and a Dicer enzyme, Dcr2, in the production of approximately 24-nucleotide (nt) sRNA in vitro. Here we characterize the endogenous complexes that harbor Rdr1, termed RDRCs. Distinct RDRCs assemble to contain Rdr1 and subsets of the total of four tightly Rdr1-associated proteins. Of particular interest are two RDRC subunits, Rdn1 and Rdn2, which possess noncanonical ribonucleotidyl transferase motifs. We show that the two Rdn proteins are uridine-specific polymerases of separate RDRCs. Two additional RDRC subunits, Rdf1 and Rdf2, are present only in RDRCs containing Rdn1. Rdr1 catalytic activity is retained in RDRCs purified from cell extracts lacking any of the nonessential RDRC subunits (Rdn2, Rdf1, Rdf2) or if the RDRC harbors a catalytically inactive Rdn. However, specific disruption of each RDRC imposes distinct loss-of-function consequences at the cellular level and has a differential impact on the accumulation of specific 23-24-nt sRNA sequences in vivo. The biochemical and biological phenotypes of RDRC subunit disruption reveal a previously unanticipated complexity of Rdr-dependent sRNA biogenesis in vivo. PMID:19451546

  4. Termination-altering mutations in the second-largest subunit of yeast RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed Central

    Shaaban, S A; Krupp, B M; Hall, B D

    1995-01-01

    In order to identify catalytically important amino acid changes within the second-largest subunit of yeast RNA polymerase III, we mutagenized selected regions of its gene (RET1) and devised in vivo assays for both increased and decreased transcription termination by this enzyme. Using as the reporter gene a mutant SUP4-o tRNA gene that in one case terminates prematurely and in the other case fails to terminate, we screened mutagenized RET1 libraries for reduced and increased transcription termination, respectively. The gain in suppression phenotype was in both cases scored as a reduction in the accumulation of red pigment in yeast strains harboring the ade2-1 ochre mutation. Termination-altering mutations were obtained in regions of the RET1 gene encoding amino acids 300 to 325, 455 to 486, 487 to 521, and 1061 to 1082 of the protein. In degree of amino acid sequence conservation, these range from highly variable in the first to highly conserved in the last two regions. Residues 300 to 325 yielded mainly reduced-termination mutants, while in region 1061 to 1082, increased-termination mutants were obtained exclusively. All mutants recovered, while causing gain of suppression with one SUP4 allele, brought about a reduction in suppression with the other allele, thus confirming that the phenotype is due to altered termination rather than an elevated level of transcription initiation. In vitro transcription reactions performed with extracts from several strong mutants demonstrated that the mutant polymerases respond to RNA terminator sequences in a manner that matches their in vivo termination phenotypes. PMID:7862140

  5. A role for interaction of the RNA polymerase flap domain with the sigma subunit in promoter recognition.

    PubMed

    Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Minakhin, Leonid; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Dove, Simon L; Rogulja, Dragana; Nickels, Bryce E; Hochschild, Ann; Heyduk, Tomasz; Severinov, Konstantin

    2002-02-01

    In bacteria, promoter recognition depends on the RNA polymerase sigma subunit, which combines with the catalytically proficient RNA polymerase core to form the holoenzyme. The major class of bacterial promoters is defined by two conserved elements (the -10 and -35 elements, which are 10 and 35 nucleotides upstream of the initiation point, respectively) that are contacted by sigma in the holoenzyme. We show that recognition of promoters of this class depends on the "flexible flap" domain of the RNA polymerase beta subunit. The flap interacts with conserved region 4 of sigma and triggers a conformational change that moves region 4 into the correct position for interaction with the -35 element. Because the flexible flap is evolutionarily conserved, this domain may facilitate promoter recognition by specificity factors in eukaryotes as well. PMID:11823642

  6. Structure of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase a Subunit C-terminal Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Gonzalez, S.; Birktoft, J; Lawson, C

    2010-01-01

    The {alpha} subunit C-terminal domain ({alpha}CTD) of RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a key element in transcription activation in Escherichia coli, possessing determinants responsible for the interaction of RNAP with DNA and with transcription factors. Here, the crystal structure of E. coli {alpha}CTD ({alpha} subunit residues 245-329) determined to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution is reported. Crystals were obtained after reductive methylation of the recombinantly expressed domain. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1} and possessed both pseudo-translational symmetry and pseudo-merohedral twinning. The refined coordinate model (R factor = 0.193, R{sub free} = 0.236) has improved geometry compared with prior lower resolution determinations of the {alpha}CTD structure [Jeon et al. (1995), Science, 270, 1495-1497; Benoff et al. (2002), Science, 297, 1562-1566]. An extensive dimerization interface formed primarily by N- and C-terminal residues is also observed. The new coordinates will facilitate the improved modeling of {alpha}CTD-containing multi-component complexes visualized at lower resolution using X-ray crystallography and electron-microscopy reconstruction.

  7. Structure of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase α subunit C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Lara-González, Samuel; Birktoft, Jens J.; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    The α subunit C-terminal domain (αCTD) of RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a key element in transcription activation in Escherichia coli, possessing determinants responsible for the interaction of RNAP with DNA and with transcription factors. Here, the crystal structure of E. coli αCTD (α subunit residues 245–329) determined to 2.0 Å resolution is reported. Crystals were obtained after reductive methylation of the recombinantly expressed domain. The crystals belonged to space group P21 and possessed both pseudo-translational symmetry and pseudo-merohedral twinning. The refined coordinate model (R factor = 0.193, R free = 0.236) has improved geometry compared with prior lower resolution determinations of the αCTD structure [Jeon et al. (1995 ▶), Science, 270, 1495–1497; Benoff et al. (2002 ▶), Science, 297, 1562–1566]. An extensive dimerization interface formed primarily by N- and C-terminal residues is also observed. The new coordinates will facilitate the improved modeling of αCTD-containing multi-component complexes visualized at lower resolution using X-ray crystallo­graphy and electron-microscopy reconstruction. PMID:20606261

  8. Identification of Leptospira serovars by RFLP of the RNA polymerase beta subunit gene (rpoB)

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Lenice Roteia Cardoso; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini

    2015-01-01

    Leptospires are usually classified by methods based on DNA-DNA hybridization and the conventional cross-agglutination absorption test, which uses polyclonal antibodies against lipopolysaccharides. In this study, the amplification of the rpoB gene, which encodes the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase, was used as an alternative tool to identify Leptospira. DNA extracts from sixty-eight serovars were obtained, and the hypervariable region located between 1990 and 2500-bp in the rpoB gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 600-bp amplicons of the rpoB gene were digested with the restriction endonucleases TaqI, Tru1I, Sau3AI and MslI, and the restriction fragments were separated by 6% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Thirty-five fragment patters were obtained from the combined data of restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the Leptospira species and serovars. The species assignments obtained were in full agreement with the established taxonomic classifications. Twenty-two serovars were effectively identified based on differences in their molecular profiles. However, the other 46 serovars remained clustered in groups that included more than one serovar of different species. This study demonstrates the value of RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified rpoB as an initial method for identifying Leptospira species and serovars. PMID:26273261

  9. Structure of the gene encoding the 14.5 kDa subunit of human RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Acker, J; Wintzerith, M; Vigneron, M; Kedinger, C

    1993-01-01

    The structure of the gene encoding the 14.5 kDa subunit of the human RNA polymerase II (or B) has been elucidated. The gene consists of six exons, ranging from 52 to over 101 bp, interspaced with five introns ranging from 84 to 246 bp. It is transcribed into three major RNA species, present at low abundance in exponentially growing HeLa cells. The corresponding messenger RNAs contain the same open reading frame encoding a 125 amino acid residue protein, with a calculated molecular weight of 14,523 Da. This protein (named hRPB14.5) shares strong homologies with the homologous polymerase subunits encoded by the Drosophila (RpII15) and yeast (RPB9) genes. Cysteines characteristic of two zinc fingers are conserved in all three corresponding sequences and, like the yeast protein, the hRPB14.5 subunit exhibits zinc-binding activity. Images PMID:8265347

  10. Divergence of RNA polymerase α subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Blazier, J Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K; Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the rpoA sequences are likely functional despite retaining as low as 30% nucleotide sequence identity with rpoA genes from outgroups in the same angiosperm order. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions indicated that these genes are under purifying selection, and bioinformatic prediction of conserved domains indicated that functional domains are preserved. One of the lineages (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) contains species with multiple rpoA-like ORFs that show evidence of ongoing inter-paralog gene conversion. The plastid genomes containing these divergent rpoA genes have experienced extensive structural rearrangement, including large expansions of the inverted repeat. We propose that illegitimate recombination, not positive selection, has driven the divergence of rpoA. PMID:27087667

  11. Structural Basis for Promoter ;#8722;10 Element Recognition by the Bacterial RNA Polymerase [sigma] Subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Feklistov, Andrey; Darst, Seth A.

    2011-12-15

    The key step in bacterial promoter opening is recognition of the -10 promoter element (T-{sub 12}A-{sub 11}T-{sub 10}A-{sub 9}A-{sub 8}T{sub -7} consensus sequence) by the RNA polymerase {alpha} subunit. We determined crystal structures of {alpha} domain 2 bound to single-stranded DNA bearing -10 element sequences. Extensive interactions occur between the protein and the DNA backbone of every -10 element nucleotide. Base-specific interactions occur primarily with A{sub -11} and T{sub -7}, which are flipped out of the single-stranded DNA base stack and buried deep in protein pockets. The structures, along with biochemical data, support a model where the recognition of the -10 element sequence drives initial promoter opening as the bases of the nontemplate strand are extruded from the DNA double-helix and captured by {alpha}. These results provide a detailed structural basis for the critical roles of A{sub -11} and T{sub -7} in promoter melting and reveal important insights into the initiation of transcription bubble formation.

  12. Divergence of RNA polymerase α subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Blazier, J. Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A.; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the rpoA sequences are likely functional despite retaining as low as 30% nucleotide sequence identity with rpoA genes from outgroups in the same angiosperm order. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions indicated that these genes are under purifying selection, and bioinformatic prediction of conserved domains indicated that functional domains are preserved. One of the lineages (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) contains species with multiple rpoA-like ORFs that show evidence of ongoing inter-paralog gene conversion. The plastid genomes containing these divergent rpoA genes have experienced extensive structural rearrangement, including large expansions of the inverted repeat. We propose that illegitimate recombination, not positive selection, has driven the divergence of rpoA. PMID:27087667

  13. Structural basis for promoter –10 element recognition by the bacterial RNA polymerase σ subunit

    PubMed Central

    Feklistov, Andrey; Darst, Seth A.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The key step in bacterial promoter opening is recognition of the -10 promoter element (T-12A-11T-10A-9A-8T-7 consensus sequence) by the RNA polymerase σ subunit. We determined crystal structures of σ domain 2 bound to single-stranded DNA bearing -10 element sequences. Extensive interactions occur between the protein and the DNA backbone of every -10 element nucleotide. Base-specific interactions occur primarily with A-11, and T-7, which are flipped out of the single-stranded DNA base-stack and buried deep in protein pockets. The structures, along with biochemical data, support a model where the recognition of the -10 element sequence drives initial promoter opening as the bases of the non-template strand are extruded from the DNA double-helix and captured by σ. These results provide a detailed structural basis for the critical roles of A-11 and T-7 in promoter melting, and reveal important insights into the initiation of transcription bubble formation. PMID:22136875

  14. Determinants of RNA polymerase alpha subunit for interaction with beta, beta', and sigma subunits: hydroxyl-radical protein footprinting.

    PubMed Central

    Heyduk, T; Heyduk, E; Severinov, K; Tang, H; Ebright, R H

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) alpha subunit serves as the initiator for RNAP assembly, which proceeds according to the pathway 2 alpha-->alpha 2-->alpha 2 beta-->alpha 2 beta beta'-->alpha 2 beta beta' sigma. In this work, we have used hydroxyl-radical protein footprinting to define determinants of alpha for interaction with beta, beta', and sigma. Our results indicate that amino acids 30-75 of alpha are protected from hydroxyl-radical-mediated proteolysis upon interaction with beta (i.e., in alpha 2 beta, alpha 2 beta beta', and alpha 2 beta beta' sigma), and amino acids 175-210 of alpha are protected from hydroxyl-radical-mediated proteolysis upon interaction with beta' (i.e., in alpha 2 beta beta' and alpha 2 beta beta' sigma). The protected regions are conserved in the alpha homologs of prokaryotic, eukaryotic, archaeal, and chloroplast RNAPs and contain sites of substitutions that affect RNAP assembly. We conclude that the protected regions define determinants of alpha for direct functional interaction with beta and beta'. The observed maximal magnitude of protection upon interaction with beta and the observed maximal magnitude of protection upon interaction with beta' both correspond to the expected value for complete protection of one of the two alpha protomers of RNAP (i.e., 50% protection). We propose that only one of the two alpha protomers of RNAP interacts with beta and that only one of the two alpha protomers of RNAP interacts with beta'. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:8816769

  15. Transcription initiation complexes and upstream activation with RNA polymerase II lacking the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Buratowski, S; Sharp, P A

    1990-01-01

    RNA polymerase II assembles with other factors on the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter to generate pairs of transcription initiation complexes resolvable by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. The pairing of the complexes is caused by the presence or absence of the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit. This domain is not required for transcription stimulation by the major late transcription factor in vitro. Images PMID:2398901

  16. Lack of the Delta Subunit of RNA Polymerase Increases Virulence Related Traits of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiaoli; Sztajer, Helena; Buddruhs, Nora; Petersen, Jörn; Rohde, Manfred; Talay, Susanne R.; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The delta subunit of the RNA polymerase, RpoE, maintains the transcriptional specificity in Gram-positive bacteria. Lack of RpoE results in massive changes in the transcriptome of the human dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. In this study, we analyzed traits of the ΔrpoE mutant which are important for biofilm formation and interaction with oral microorganisms and human cells and performed a global phenotypic analysis of its physiological functions. The ΔrpoE mutant showed higher self-aggregation compared to the wild type and coaggregated with other oral bacteria and Candida albicans. It formed a biofilm with a different matrix structure and an altered surface attachment. The amount of the cell surface antigens I/II SpaP and the glucosyltransferase GtfB was reduced. The ΔrpoE mutant displayed significantly stronger adhesion to human extracellular matrix components, especially to fibronectin, than the wild type. Its adhesion to human epithelial cells HEp-2 was reduced, probably due to the highly aggregated cell mass. The analysis of 1248 physiological traits using phenotype microarrays showed that the ΔrpoE mutant metabolized a wider spectrum of carbon sources than the wild type and had acquired resistance to antibiotics and inhibitory compounds with various modes of action. The reduced antigenicity, increased aggregation, adherence to fibronection, broader substrate spectrum and increased resistance to antibiotics of the ΔrpoE mutant reveal the physiological potential of S. mutans and show that some of its virulence related traits are increased. PMID:21625504

  17. Modeling RNA polymerase competition: the effect of σ-subunit knockout and heat shock on gene transcription level

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Modeling of a complex biological process can explain the results of experimental studies and help predict its characteristics. Among such processes is transcription in the presence of competing RNA polymerases. This process involves RNA polymerases collision followed by transcription termination. Results A mathematical and computer simulation model is developed to describe the competition of RNA polymerases during genes transcription on complementary DNA strands. E.g., in the barley Hordeum vulgare the polymerase competition occurs in the locus containing plastome genes psbA, rpl23, rpl2 and four bacterial type promoters. In heat shock experiments on isolated chloroplasts, a twofold decrease of psbA transcripts and even larger increase of rpl23-rpl2 transcripts were observed, which is well reproduced in the model. The model predictions are in good agreement with virtually all relevant experimental data (knockout, heat shock, chromatogram data, etc.). The model allows to hypothesize a mechanism of cell response to knockout and heat shock, as well as a mechanism of gene expression regulation in presence of RNA polymerase competition. The model is implemented for multiprocessor platforms with MPI and supported on Linux and MS Windows. The source code written in C++ is available under the GNU General Public License from the laboratory website. A user-friendly GUI version is also provided at http://lab6.iitp.ru/en/rivals. Conclusions The developed model is in good agreement with virtually all relevant experimental data. The model can be applied to estimate intensities of binding of the holoenzyme and phage type RNA polymerase to their promoters using data on gene transcription levels, as well as to predict characteristics of RNA polymerases and the transcription process that are difficult to measure directly, e.g., the intensity (frequency) of holoenzyme binding to the promoter in correlation to its nucleotide composition and the type of σ-subunit, the

  18. Crystal Structure in the Vivo-Assembled Bacillus subtilis Spx/RNA Polymerase alpha Subunit C-Terminal Domain Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Lamour, V.; Westblade, L; Campbell, E; Darst, S

    2009-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis Spx protein is a global transcription factor that interacts with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase {alpha} subunit ({alpha}CTD) and regulates transcription of genes involved in thiol-oxidative stress, sporulation, competence, and organosulfur metabolism. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the Spx/{alpha}CTD complex from an entirely new crystal form than previously reported [Newberry, K.J., Nakano, S., Zuber, P., Brennan, R.G., 2005. Crystal structure of the Bacillus subtilis anti-alpha, global transcriptional regulator, Spx, in complex with the alpha C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15839-15844]. Comparison of the previously reported sulfate-bound complex and our sulfate-free complex reveals subtle conformational changes that may be important for the role of Spx in regulating organosulfur metabolism.

  19. A protein kinase that phosphorylates the C-terminal repeat domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J M; Greenleaf, A L

    1989-01-01

    The unique C-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of the largest subunit (IIa) of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II consists of multiple repeats of the heptapeptide consensus sequence Tyr-Ser-Pro-Thr-Ser-Pro-Ser. The number of repeats ranges from 26 in yeast to 42 in Drosophila to 52 in mouse. The CTD is essential in vivo, but its structure and function are not yet understood. The CTD can be phosphorylated at multiple serine and threonine residues, generating a form of the largest subunit (II0) with markedly reduced mobility in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gels. To investigate this extensive phosphorylation, which presumably modulates functional properties of RNA polymerase II, we began efforts to purify a specific CTD kinase. Using CTD-containing fusion proteins as substrates, we have purified a CTD kinase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzyme extensively phosphorylates the CTD portion of both the fusion proteins and intact subunit IIa, producing products with reduced electrophoretic mobilities. The properties of the CTD kinase suggest that it is distinct from previously described protein kinases. Analogous activities were also detected in Drosophila and HeLa cell extracts. Images PMID:2657724

  20. Virus-induced gene silencing of the RPC5-like subunit of RNA polymerase III caused pleiotropic effects in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Nemchinov, Lev G; Boutanaev, Alexander M; Postnikova, Olga A

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, RNA polymerase III is highly conserved and transcribes housekeeping genes such as ribosomal 5S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs. The RPC5-like subunit is one of the 17 subunits forming RNAPIII and its exact functional roles in the transcription are poorly understood. In this work, we report that virus-induced gene silencing of transcripts encoding a putative RPC5-like subunit of the RNA Polymerase III in a model species Nicotiana benthamiana had pleiotropic effects, including but not limited to severe dwarfing appearance, chlorosis, nearly complete reduction of internodes and abnormal leaf shape. Using transcriptomic analysis, we identified genes and pathways affected by RPC5 silencing and thus presumably related to the cellular roles of the subunit as well as to the downstream cascade of reactions in response to partial loss of RNA Polymerase III function. Our results suggest that silencing of the RPC5L in N. benthamiana disrupted not only functions commonly associated with the core RNA Polymerase III transcripts, but also more diverse cellular processes, including responses to stress. We believe this is the first demonstration that activity of the RPC5 subunit is critical for proper functionality of RNA Polymerase III and normal plant development. PMID:27282827

  1. Virus-induced gene silencing of the RPC5-like subunit of RNA polymerase III caused pleiotropic effects in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Nemchinov, Lev G.; Boutanaev, Alexander M.; Postnikova, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, RNA polymerase III is highly conserved and transcribes housekeeping genes such as ribosomal 5S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs. The RPC5-like subunit is one of the 17 subunits forming RNAPIII and its exact functional roles in the transcription are poorly understood. In this work, we report that virus-induced gene silencing of transcripts encoding a putative RPC5-like subunit of the RNA Polymerase III in a model species Nicotiana benthamiana had pleiotropic effects, including but not limited to severe dwarfing appearance, chlorosis, nearly complete reduction of internodes and abnormal leaf shape. Using transcriptomic analysis, we identified genes and pathways affected by RPC5 silencing and thus presumably related to the cellular roles of the subunit as well as to the downstream cascade of reactions in response to partial loss of RNA Polymerase III function. Our results suggest that silencing of the RPC5L in N. benthamiana disrupted not only functions commonly associated with the core RNA Polymerase III transcripts, but also more diverse cellular processes, including responses to stress. We believe this is the first demonstration that activity of the RPC5 subunit is critical for proper functionality of RNA Polymerase III and normal plant development. PMID:27282827

  2. Localization of an alpha-amanitin resistance mutation in the gene encoding the largest subunit of mouse RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Bartolomei, M S; Corden, J L

    1987-01-01

    RNA polymerase II is inhibited by the mushroom toxin alpha-amanitin. A mouse BALB/c 3T3 cell line was selected for resistance to alpha-amanitin and characterized in detail. This cell line, designated A21, was heterozygous, possessing both amanitin-sensitive and -resistant forms of RNA polymerase II; the mutant form was 500 times more resistant to alpha-amanitin than the sensitive form. By using the wild-type mouse RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPII215) gene (J.A. Ahearn, M.S. Bartolomei, M. L. West, and J. L. Corden, submitted for publication) as the probe, RPII215 genes were isolated from an A21 genomic DNA library. The mutant allele was identified by its ability to transfer amanitin resistance in a transfection assay. Genomic reconstructions between mutant and wild-type alleles localized the mutation to a 450-base-pair fragment that included parts of exons 14 and 15. This fragment was sequenced and compared with the wild-type sequence; a single AT-to-GC transition was detected at nucleotide 6819, corresponding to an asparagine-to-aspartate substitution at amino acid 793 of the predicted protein sequence. Knowledge of the position of the A21 mutation should facilitate the study of the mechanism of alpha-amanitin resistance. Furthermore, the A21 gene will be useful for studying the phenotype of site-directed mutations in the RPII215 gene. Images PMID:3821724

  3. A partial loss-of-function mutation in an Arabidopsis RNA polymerase III subunit leads to pleiotropic defects

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kaeli C. M.; Yu, Yu; Gao, Lei; Eng, Ryan C.; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.; Chen, Xuemei; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Plants employ five DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (Pols) in transcription. One of these polymerases, Pol III, has previously been reported to transcribe 5S rRNA, tRNAs, and a number of small RNAs. However, in-depth functional analysis is complicated by the fact that knockout mutations in Pol subunits are typically lethal. Here, we report the characterization of the first known viable Pol III subunit mutant, nrpc7-1. This mutant was originally isolated from a forward genetic screen designed to identify enhancers of the autoimmune mutant snc1, which contains a gain-of-function mutation in a nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptor-encoding gene. The nrpc7-1 mutation occurs in an intron–exon splice site and results in intron retention in some NRPC7 transcripts. There is a global disruption in RNA equilibrium in nrpc7-1, exemplified by the altered expression of a number of RNA molecules, some of which are not reported to be transcribed by Pol III. There are developmental defects associated with the mutation, as homozygous mutant plants are dwarf, have stunted roots and siliques, and possess serrated leaves. These defects are possibly due to altered small RNA stability or activity. Additionally, the nrpc7-1 mutation confers an NLR-specific alternative splicing defect that correlates with enhanced disease resistance, highlighting the importance of alternative splicing in regulating NLR activity. Altogether, these results reveal novel roles for Pol III in maintaining RNA homeostasis, adjusting the expression of a diverse suite of genes, and indirectly modulating gene splicing. Future analyses using the nrpc7-1 mutant will be instrumental in examining other unknown Pol III functions. PMID:26865731

  4. A partial loss-of-function mutation in an Arabidopsis RNA polymerase III subunit leads to pleiotropic defects.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kaeli C M; Yu, Yu; Gao, Lei; Eng, Ryan C; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O; Chen, Xuemei; Li, Xin

    2016-04-01

    Plants employ five DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (Pols) in transcription. One of these polymerases, Pol III, has previously been reported to transcribe 5S rRNA, tRNAs, and a number of small RNAs. However, in-depth functional analysis is complicated by the fact that knockout mutations in Pol subunits are typically lethal. Here, we report the characterization of the first known viable Pol III subunit mutant,nrpc7-1 This mutant was originally isolated from a forward genetic screen designed to identify enhancers of the autoimmune mutantsnc1, which contains a gain-of-function mutation in a nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptor-encoding gene. Thenrpc7-1mutation occurs in an intron-exon splice site and results in intron retention in someNRPC7transcripts. There is a global disruption in RNA equilibrium innrpc7-1, exemplified by the altered expression of a number of RNA molecules, some of which are not reported to be transcribed by Pol III. There are developmental defects associated with the mutation, as homozygous mutant plants are dwarf, have stunted roots and siliques, and possess serrated leaves. These defects are possibly due to altered small RNA stability or activity. Additionally, thenrpc7-1mutation confers anNLR-specific alternative splicing defect that correlates with enhanced disease resistance, highlighting the importance of alternative splicing in regulating NLR activity. Altogether, these results reveal novel roles for Pol III in maintaining RNA homeostasis, adjusting the expression of a diverse suite of genes, and indirectly modulating gene splicing. Future analyses using thenrpc7-1mutant will be instrumental in examining other unknown Pol III functions. PMID:26865731

  5. The RNA cleavage activity of RNA polymerase III is mediated by an essential TFIIS-like subunit and is important for transcription termination

    PubMed Central

    Chédin, Stéphane; Riva, Michel; Schultz, Patrick; Sentenac, André; Carles, Christophe

    1998-01-01

    Budding yeast RNA polymerase III (Pol III) contains a small, essential subunit, named C11, that is conserved in humans and shows a strong homology to TFIIS. A mutant Pol III, heterocomplemented with Schizosaccharomyces pombe C11, was affected in transcription termination in vivo. A purified form of the enzyme (Pol III Δ), deprived of C11 subunit, initiated properly but ignored pause sites and was defective in termination. Remarkably, Pol III Δ lacked the intrinsic RNA cleavage activity of complete Pol III. In vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrated that Pol III RNA cleavage activity is mediated by C11. Mutagenesis in C11 of two conserved residues, which are critical for the TFIIS-dependent cleavage activity of Pol II, is lethal. Immunoelectron microscopy data suggested that C11 is localized on the mobile thumb-like stalk of the polymerase. We propose that C11 allows the enzyme to switch between an RNA elongation and RNA cleavage mode and that the essential role of the Pol III RNA cleavage activity is to remove the kinetic barriers to the termination process. The integration of TFIIS function into a specific Pol III subunit may stem from the opposite requirements of Pol III and Pol II in terms of transcript length and termination efficiency. PMID:9869639

  6. Specific Residues of PB2 and PA Influenza Virus Polymerase Subunits Confer the Ability for RNA Polymerase II Degradation and Virus Pathogenicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Llompart, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza virus transcription requires functional coupling with cellular transcription for the cap-snatching process. Despite this fact, RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) is degraded during infection in a process triggered by the viral polymerase. Reassortant viruses from the A/PR/8/34 (PR8) strain that induce (hvPR8) or do not induce (lvPR8) RNAP II degradation led to the identification of PA and PB2 subunits as responsible for the degradation process. Three changes in the PB2 sequence (I105M, N456D, and I504V) and two in PA (Q193H and I550L) differentiate PA and PB2 of lvPR8 from those of hvPR8. Using recombinant viruses, we observed that changes at position 504 of PB2, together with 550 of PA, confer the ability on lvPR8 for RNAP II degradation and, conversely, abolish hvPR8 degradation capacity. Since hvPR8 is more pathogenic than lvPR8 in mice, we tested the potential contribution of RNAP II degradation in a distant viral strain, the 2009 pandemic A/California/04/09 (CAL) virus, whose PA and PB2 subunits are of avian origin. As in the hvPR8 virus, mutations at positions 504 of PB2 and 550 of PA in CAL virus abolished its RNAP II degradation capacity. Moreover, in an in vivo model, the CAL-infected mice lost more body weight, and 75% lethality was observed in this situation compared with 100% survival in mutant-CAL- or mock-infected animals. These results confirm the involvement of specific PB2 and PA residues in RNAP II degradation, which correlates with pathogenicity in mice of viruses containing human or avian polymerase PB2 and PA subunits. IMPORTANCE The influenza virus polymerase induces the degradation of RNAP II, which probably cooperates to avoid the antiviral response. Here, we have characterized two specific residues located in the PA and PB2 polymerase subunits that mediate this degradation in different influenza viruses. Moreover, a clear correlation between RNAP II degradation and in vivo pathogenicity in mice was observed, indicating that the

  7. Interactions between the cyclic AMP receptor protein and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase at the Escherichia coli galactose operon P1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Attey, A; Belyaeva, T; Savery, N; Hoggett, J; Fujita, N; Ishihama, A; Busby, S

    1994-10-25

    DNAase I footprinting has been used to study open complexes between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the galactose operon P1 promoter, both in the absence and the presence of CRP (the cyclic AMP receptor protein, a transcription activator). From the effects of deletion of the C-terminal part of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit, we deduce that alpha binds at the upstream end of both the binary RNA polymerase-galP1 and ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes. Disruption of the alpha-upstream contact suppresses open complex formation at galP1 at lower temperatures. In ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes, alpha appears to make direct contact with Activating Region 1 in CRP. DNAase I footprinting has been used to detect and quantify interactions between purified alpha and CRP bound at galP1. PMID:7971267

  8. Interactions between the cyclic AMP receptor protein and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase at the Escherichia coli galactose operon P1 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Attey, A; Belyaeva, T; Savery, N; Hoggett, J; Fujita, N; Ishihama, A; Busby, S

    1994-01-01

    DNAase I footprinting has been used to study open complexes between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the galactose operon P1 promoter, both in the absence and the presence of CRP (the cyclic AMP receptor protein, a transcription activator). From the effects of deletion of the C-terminal part of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit, we deduce that alpha binds at the upstream end of both the binary RNA polymerase-galP1 and ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes. Disruption of the alpha-upstream contact suppresses open complex formation at galP1 at lower temperatures. In ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes, alpha appears to make direct contact with Activating Region 1 in CRP. DNAase I footprinting has been used to detect and quantify interactions between purified alpha and CRP bound at galP1. Images PMID:7971267

  9. Functional interaction between TFIIB and the Rpb9 (Ssu73) subunit of RNA polymerase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Z W; Tessmer, A; Hampsey, M

    1996-01-01

    Recessive mutations in the SSU71, SSU72 and SSU73 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified as either suppressors or enhancers of a TFIIB defect (sua7-1) that confers both a cold-sensitive growth phenotype and a downstream shift in transcription start site selection. The SSU71 (TFG1) gene encodes the largest subunit of TFIIF and SSU72 encodes a novel protein that is essential for cell viability. Here we report that SSU73 is identical to RPB9, the gene encoding the 14.2 kDa subunit of RNA polymerase II. The ssu73-1 suppressor compensates for both the growth defect and the downstream shift in start site selection associated with sua7-1. These effects are similar to those of the ssu71-1 suppressor and distinct from the ssu72-1 enhancer. The ssu73-1 allele was retrieved and sequenced, revealing a nonsense mutation at codon 107. Consequently, ssu73-1 encodes a truncated form of Rpb9 lacking the C-terminal 16 amino acids. This Rpb9 derivative retains at least partial function since the ssu73-1 mutant exhibits none of the growth defects associated with rpb9 null mutants. However, in a SUA7+ background, ssu73-1 confers the same upstream shift at ADH1 as an rpb9 null allele. This suggests that the C-terminus of Rpb9 functions in start site selection and demonstrates that the previously observed effects of rpb9 mutations on start site selection are not necessarily due to complete loss of function. These results establish a functional interaction between TFIIB and the Rpb9 subunit of RNA polymerase II and suggest that these two components of the preinitiation complex interact during transcription start site selection. PMID:8692696

  10. The JNKs differentially regulate RNA polymerase III transcription by coordinately modulating the expression of all TFIIIB subunits.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shuping; Johnson, Deborah L

    2009-08-01

    RNA polymerase (pol) III-dependent transcription is subject to stringent regulation by tumor suppressors and oncogenic proteins and enhanced RNA pol III transcription is essential for cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. Since the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) display both oncogenic and tumor suppressor properties, the roles of these proteins in regulating RNA pol III transcription were examined. In both mouse and human cells, loss or reduction in JNK1 expression represses RNA pol III transcription. In contrast, loss or reduction in JNK2 expression induces transcription. The JNKs coordinately regulate expression of all 3 TFIIIB subunits. While JNK1 positively regulates TBP expression, the RNA pol III-specific factors, Brf1 and Bdp1, JNK2 negatively regulates their expression. Brf1 is coregulated with TBP through the JNK target, Elk-1. Reducing Elk-1 expression decreases Brf1 expression. Decreasing JNK1 expression reduces Elk-1 occupancy at the Brf1 promoter, while decreasing JNK2 expression enhances recruitment of Elk-1 to the Brf1 promoter. In contrast, regulation of Bdp1 occurs through JNK-mediated alterations in TBP expression. Altered TBP expression mimics the effect of reduced JNK1 or JNK2 levels on Bdp1 expression. Decreasing JNK1 expression reduces the occupancy of TBP at the Bdp1 promoter, while decreasing JNK2 expression enhances recruitment of TBP to the Bdp1 promoter. Together, these results provide a molecular mechanism for regulating RNA pol III transcription through the coordinate control of TFIIIB subunit expression and elucidate opposing functions for the JNKs in regulating a large class of genes that dictate the biosynthetic capacity of cells. PMID:19620725

  11. Identification of Essential Subunits in the Plastid-Encoded RNA Polymerase Complex Reveals Building Blocks for Proper Plastid Development1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Sebastian; Schröter, Yvonne; Pfalz, Jeannette; Pfannschmidt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The major RNA polymerase activity in mature chloroplasts is a multisubunit, Escherichia coli-like protein complex called PEP (for plastid-encoded RNA polymerase). Its subunit structure has been extensively investigated by biochemical means. Beside the “prokaryotic” subunits encoded by the plastome-located RNA polymerase genes, a number of additional nucleus-encoded subunits of eukaryotic origin have been identified in the PEP complex. These subunits appear to provide additional functions and regulation modes necessary to adapt transcription to the varying functional situations in chloroplasts. However, despite the enormous progress in genomic data and mass spectrometry techniques, it is still under debate which of these subunits belong to the core complex of PEP and which ones represent rather transient or peripheral components. Here, we present a catalog of true PEP subunits that is based on comparative analyses from biochemical purifications, protein mass spectrometry, and phenotypic analyses. We regard reproducibly identified protein subunits of the basic PEP complex as essential when the corresponding knockout mutants reveal an albino or pale-green phenotype. Our study provides a clearly defined subunit catalog of the basic PEP complex, generating the basis for a better understanding of chloroplast transcription regulation. In addition, the data support a model that links PEP complex assembly and chloroplast buildup during early seedling development in vascular plants. PMID:21949211

  12. The nuclear matrix protein p255 is a highly phosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II largest subunit which associates with spliceosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, M; Lauriault, P; Dubois, M F; Lavoie, S; Bensaude, O; Chabot, B

    1996-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody CC-3 recognizes a phosphodependent epitope on a 255 kDa nuclear matrix protein (p255) recently shown to associate with splicing complexes as part of the [U4/U6.U5] tri-snRNP particle [Chabot et al. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 3206-3213]. In mouse and Drosophila cultured cells the electrophoretic mobility of p255, faster in the latter species, was identical to that of the hyperphosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II largest subunit (IIo). The CC-3 immunoreactivity of p255 was abolished by 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, which is known to cause the dephosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of subunit IIo by inhibiting the TFIIH-associated kinase. The identity of p255 was confirmed by showing that CC-3-immunoprecipitated p255 was recognized by POL3/3 and 8WG16, two antibodies specific to RNA polymerase II largest subunit. Lastly, the recovery of RNA polymerase II largest subunit from HeLa splicing mixtures was compromised by EDTA, which prevents the interaction of p255 with splicing complexes and inhibits splicing. Our results indicate that p255 represents a highly phosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II largest subunit physically associated with spliceosomes and possibly involved in coupling transcription to RNA processing. PMID:8972849

  13. NRPB3, the third largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, is essential for stomatal patterning and differentiation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Guan, Liping; Qian, Pingping; Xu, Fan; Wu, Zhongliang; Wu, Yujun; He, Kai; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Jia; Hou, Suiwen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stomata are highly specialized epidermal structures that control transpiration and gas exchange between plants and the environment. Signal networks underlying stomatal development have been previously uncovered but much less is known about how signals involved in stomatal development are transmitted to RNA polymerase II (Pol II or RPB), which plays a central role in the transcription of mRNA coding genes. Here, we identify a partial loss-of-function mutation of the third largest subunit of nuclear DNA-dependent Pol II (NRPB3) that exhibits an increased number of stomatal lineage cells and paired stomata. Phenotypic and genetic analyses indicated that NRPB3 is not only required for correct stomatal patterning, but is also essential for stomatal differentiation. Protein-protein interaction assays showed that NRPB3 directly interacts with two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, FAMA and INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1), indicating that NRPB3 serves as an acceptor for signals from transcription factors involved in stomatal development. Our findings highlight the surprisingly conserved activating mechanisms mediated by the third largest subunit of Pol II in eukaryotes. PMID:26989174

  14. NRPB3, the third largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, is essential for stomatal patterning and differentiation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Guan, Liping; Qian, Pingping; Xu, Fan; Wu, Zhongliang; Wu, Yujun; He, Kai; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Jia; Hou, Suiwen

    2016-05-01

    Stomata are highly specialized epidermal structures that control transpiration and gas exchange between plants and the environment. Signal networks underlying stomatal development have been previously uncovered but much less is known about how signals involved in stomatal development are transmitted to RNA polymerase II (Pol II or RPB), which plays a central role in the transcription of mRNA coding genes. Here, we identify a partial loss-of-function mutation of the third largest subunit of nuclear DNA-dependent Pol II (NRPB3) that exhibits an increased number of stomatal lineage cells and paired stomata. Phenotypic and genetic analyses indicated that NRPB3 is not only required for correct stomatal patterning, but is also essential for stomatal differentiation. Protein-protein interaction assays showed that NRPB3 directly interacts with two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, FAMA and INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1), indicating that NRPB3 serves as an acceptor for signals from transcription factors involved in stomatal development. Our findings highlight the surprisingly conserved activating mechanisms mediated by the third largest subunit of Pol II in eukaryotes. PMID:26989174

  15. T7-RNA Polymerase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    T7-RNA Polymerase grown on STS-81. Structure-Function Relationships of RNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent RNA polymerase is the key enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of RNA, a process known as transcription. Principal Investigator's include Dr. Dan Carter, Dr. B.C. Wang, and Dr. John Rose of New Century Pharmaceuticals.

  16. BRF1, a subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription factor TFIIIB, is essential for cell growth of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Ramírez, D E; Florencio-Martínez, L E; Romero-Meza, G; Rojas-Sánchez, S; Moreno-Campos, R; Arroyo, R; Ortega-López, J; Manning-Cela, R; Martínez-Calvillo, S

    2015-11-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) synthesizes small RNA molecules that are essential for cell viability. Accurate initiation of transcription by Pol III requires general transcription factor TFIIIB, which is composed of three subunits: TFIIB-related factor BRF1, TATA-binding protein and BDP1. Here we report the molecular characterization of BRF1 in Trypanosoma brucei (TbBRF1), a parasitic protozoa that shows distinctive transcription characteristics. In silico analysis allowed the detection in TbBRF1 of the three conserved domains located in the N-terminal region of all BRF1 orthologues, namely a zinc ribbon motif and two cyclin repeats. Homology modelling suggested that, similarly to other BRF1 and TFIIB proteins, the TbBRF1 cyclin repeats show the characteristic structure of five α-helices per repeat, connected by a short random-coiled linker. As expected for a transcription factor, TbBRF1 was localized in the nucleus. Knock-down of TbBRF1 by RNA interference (RNAi) showed that this protein is essential for the viability of procyclic forms of T. brucei, since ablation of TbBRF1 led to growth arrest of the parasites. Nuclear run-on and quantitative real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that transcription of all the Pol III-dependent genes analysed was reduced, at different levels, after RNAi induction. PMID:26337955

  17. Underproduction of the Largest Subunit of RNA Polymerase II Causes Temperature Sensitivity, Slow Growth, and Inositol Auxotrophy in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, J.; Jansma, D. B.; Friesen, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutations in genes encoding subunits of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) often give rise to a set of pleiotropic phenotypes that includes temperature sensitivity, slow growth and inositol auxotrophy. In this study, we show that these phenotypes can be brought about by a reduction in the intracellular concentration of RNAPII. Underproduction of RNAPII was achieved by expressing the gene (RPO21), encoding the largest subunit of the enzyme, from the LEU2 promoter or a weaker derivative of it, two promoters that can be repressed by the addition of leucine to the growth medium. We found that cells that underproduced RPO21 were unable to derepress fully the expression of a reporter gene under the control of the INO1 UAS. Our results indicate that temperature sensitivity, slow growth and inositol auxotrophy is a set of phenotypes that can be caused by lowering the steadystate amount of RNAPII; these results also lead to the prediction that some of the previously identified RNAPII mutations that confer this same set of phenotypes affect the assembly/stability of the enzyme. We propose a model to explain the hypersensitivity of INO1 transcription to mutations that affect components of the RNAPII transcriptional machinery. PMID:8849884

  18. Amino Acid Substitutions in the Caenorhabditis elegans RNA Polymerase II Large Subunit AMA-1/RPB-1 that Result in α-Amanitin Resistance and/or Reduced Function.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Elizabeth Anne; Riddle, Donald L; Kelly, William

    2011-11-01

    Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans RNA polymerase II AMA-1/RPB-1 subunit that cause α-amanitin resistance and/or developmental defects were isolated previously. We identified 12 of these mutations and mapped them onto the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPB1 structure to provide insight into AMA-1 regions that are essential for development in a multicellular organism. PMID:22384351

  19. Essential roles of Bdp1, a subunit of RNA polymerase III initiation factor TFIIIB, in transcription and tRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Akira; Kassavetis, George A; Geiduschek, E Peter

    2002-05-01

    The essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene BDP1 encodes a subunit of RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription factor (TFIIIB); TATA box binding protein (TBP) and Brf1 are the other subunits of this three-protein complex. Deletion analysis defined three segments of Bdp1 that are essential for viability. A central segment, comprising amino acids 327 to 353, was found to be dispensable, and cells making Bdp1 that was split within this segment, at amino acid 352, are viable. Suppression of bdp1 conditional viability by overexpressing SPT15 and BRF1 identified functional interactions of specific Bdp1 segments with TBP and Brf1, respectively. A Bdp1 deletion near essential segment I was synthetically lethal with overexpression of PCF1-1, a dominant gain-of-function mutation in the second tetracopeptide repeat motif (out of 11) of the Tfc4 (tau(131)) subunit of TFIIIC. The analysis also identifies a connection between Bdp1 and posttranscriptional processing of Pol III transcripts. Yeast genomic library screening identified RPR1 as the specific overexpression suppressor of very slow growth at 37 degrees C due to deletion of Bdp1 amino acids 253 to 269. RPR1 RNA, a Pol III transcript, is the RNA subunit of RNase P, which trims pre-tRNA transcript 5' ends. Maturation of tRNA was found to be aberrant in bdp1-Delta 253-269 cells, and RPR1 transcription with the highly resolved Pol III transcription system in vitro was also diminished when recombinant Bdp1 Delta 253-269 replaced wild-type Bdp1. Physical interaction of RNase P with Bdp1 was demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and pull-down assays. PMID:11971960

  20. Essential Roles of Bdp1, a Subunit of RNA Polymerase III Initiation Factor TFIIIB, in Transcription and tRNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Akira; Kassavetis, George A.; Geiduschek, E. Peter

    2002-01-01

    The essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene BDP1 encodes a subunit of RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription factor (TFIIIB); TATA box binding protein (TBP) and Brf1 are the other subunits of this three-protein complex. Deletion analysis defined three segments of Bdp1 that are essential for viability. A central segment, comprising amino acids 327 to 353, was found to be dispensable, and cells making Bdp1 that was split within this segment, at amino acid 352, are viable. Suppression of bdp1 conditional viability by overexpressing SPT15 and BRF1 identified functional interactions of specific Bdp1 segments with TBP and Brf1, respectively. A Bdp1 deletion near essential segment I was synthetically lethal with overexpression of PCF1-1, a dominant gain-of-function mutation in the second tetracopeptide repeat motif (out of 11) of the Tfc4 (τ131) subunit of TFIIIC. The analysis also identifies a connection between Bdp1 and posttranscriptional processing of Pol III transcripts. Yeast genomic library screening identified RPR1 as the specific overexpression suppressor of very slow growth at 37°C due to deletion of Bdp1 amino acids 253 to 269. RPR1 RNA, a Pol III transcript, is the RNA subunit of RNase P, which trims pre-tRNA transcript 5′ ends. Maturation of tRNA was found to be aberrant in bdp1-Δ253-269 cells, and RPR1 transcription with the highly resolved Pol III transcription system in vitro was also diminished when recombinant Bdp1Δ253-269 replaced wild-type Bdp1. Physical interaction of RNase P with Bdp1 was demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and pull-down assays. PMID:11971960

  1. Sequence diversity in the large subunit of RNA polymerase I contributes to Mefenoxam insensitivity in Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Randall, Eva; Young, Vanessa; Sierotzki, Helge; Scalliet, Gabriel; Birch, Paul R J; Cooke, David E L; Csukai, Michael; Whisson, Stephen C

    2014-09-01

    Phenylamide fungicides have been widely used for the control of oomycete-incited plant diseases for over 30 years. Insensitivity to this chemical class of fungicide was recorded early in its usage history, but the precise protein(s) conditioning insensitivity has proven difficult to determine. To determine the genetic basis of insensitivity and to inform strategies for the cloning of the gene(s) responsible, genetic crosses were established between Mefenoxam sensitive and intermediate insensitive isolates of Phytophthora infestans, the potato late blight pathogen. F1 progeny showed the expected semi-dominant phenotypes for Mefenoxam insensitivity and suggested the involvement of multiple loci, complicating the positional cloning of the gene(s) conditioning insensitivity to Mefenoxam. Instead, a candidate gene strategy was used, based on previous observations that the primary effect of phenylamide compounds is to inhibit ribosomal RNA synthesis. The subunits of RNA polymerase I (RNApolI) were sequenced from sensitive and insensitive isolates and F1 progeny. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific to insensitive field isolates were identified in the gene encoding the large subunit of RNApolI. In a survey of field isolates, SNP T1145A (Y382F) showed an 86% association with Mefenoxam insensitivity. Isolates not showing this association belonged predominantly to one P. infestans genotype. The transfer of the 'insensitive' allele of RPA190 to a sensitive isolate yielded transgenic lines that were insensitive to Mefenoxam. These results demonstrate that sequence variation in RPA190 contributes to insensitivity to Mefenoxam in P. infestans. PMID:24521429

  2. Conditional expression of RPA190, the gene encoding the largest subunit of yeast RNA polymerase I: effects of decreased rRNA synthesis on ribosomal protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Wittekind, M; Kolb, J M; Dodd, J; Yamagishi, M; Mémet, S; Buhler, J M; Nomura, M

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of ribosomal proteins (r proteins) under the conditions of greatly reduced RNA synthesis were studied by using a strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which the production of the largest subunit (RPA190) of RNA polymerase I was controlled by the galactose promoter. Although growth on galactose medium was normal, the strain was unable to sustain growth when shifted to glucose medium. This growth defect was shown to be due to a preferential decrease in RNA synthesis caused by deprivation of RNA polymerase I. Under these conditions, the accumulation of r proteins decreased to match the rRNA synthesis rate. When proteins were pulse-labeled for short periods, no or only a weak decrease was observed in the differential synthesis rate of several r proteins (L5, L39, L29 and/or L28, L27 and/or S21) relative to those of control cells synthesizing RPA190 from the normal promoter. Degradation of these r proteins synthesized in excess was observed during subsequent chase periods. Analysis of the amounts of mRNAs for L3 and L29 and their locations in polysomes also suggested that the synthesis of these proteins relative to other cellular proteins were comparable to those observed in control cells. However, Northern analysis of several r-protein mRNAs revealed that the unspliced precursor mRNA for r-protein L32 accumulated when rRNA synthesis rates were decreased. This result supports the feedback regulation model in which excess L32 protein inhibits the splicing of its own precursor mRNA, as proposed by previous workers (M. D. Dabeva, M. A. Post-Beittenmiller, and J. R. Warner, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:5854-5857, 1986). Images PMID:2183018

  3. Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 19 promotes osteosarcoma growth and metastasis and associates with prognosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenxi; Zhang, Zhichang; Min, Daliu; Yang, Qingcheng; Du, Xuefei; Tang, Lina; Lin, Feng; Sun, Yuanjue; Zhao, Hui; Zheng, Shuier; He, Aina; Li, Hongtao; Yao, Yang; Shen, Zan

    2014-04-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumour of bone. Nearly 30-40% of OS patients have a poor prognosis despite multimodal treatments. Because the carcinogenesis of OS remains unclear, the identification of new oncogenes that control the tumourigenesis and progression of OS is crucial for developing new therapies. Here, we found that the expression of Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 19 (Med19) was increased in OS samples from patients compared to normal bone tissues. Cyclin D1 and cyclin B1 are upregulated in Med19 positive OS tissues. Importantly, among 97 OS patients of Enneking stage IIB or IIIB, Med19 expression was correlated with metastasis (P<0.05) and poor prognosis (P<0.01). Med19 knockdown significantly induced growth inhibition, reduced colony-forming ability and suppressed migration in the OS cell lines Saos-2 and U2OS, along with the downregulated expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1. Med19 knockdown also induced apoptosis in Saos-2 cells via induction of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). In addition, Med19 knockdown significantly suppressed tumour growth in an OS xenograft nude mouse model via suppression of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1. Simultaneously, Med19 downregulation decreased the expression of Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in tumour samples from OS xenograft nude mice. Med19 depletion remarkably reduced tumour metastasis in a model of OS metastatic spreading. Taken together, our data suggest that Med19 acts as an oncogene in OS via a possible cyclin D1/cyclin B1 modulation pathway. PMID:24565852

  4. Helicobacter pylori RNA polymerase α-subunit C-terminal domain shows features unique to ɛ-proteobacteria and binds NikR/DNA complexes

    PubMed Central

    Borin, Brendan N; Tang, Wei; Krezel, Andrzej M

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial RNA polymerase is a large, multi-subunit enzyme responsible for transcription of genomic information. The C-terminal domain of the α subunit of RNA polymerase (αCTD) functions as a DNA and protein recognition element localizing the polymerase on certain promoter sequences and is essential in all bacteria. Although αCTD is part of RNA polymerase, it is thought to have once been a separate transcription factor, and its primary role is the recruitment of RNA polymerase to various promoters. Despite the conservation of the subunits of RNA polymerase among bacteria, the mechanisms of regulation of transcription vary significantly. We have determined the tertiary structure of Helicobacter pylori αCTD. It is larger than other structurally determined αCTDs due to an extra, highly amphipathic helix near the C-terminal end. Residues within this helix are highly conserved among ɛ-proteobacteria. The surface of the domain that binds A/T rich DNA sequences is conserved and showed binding to DNA similar to αCTDs of other bacteria. Using several NikR dependent promoter sequences, we observed cooperative binding of H. pylori αCTD to NikR:DNA complexes. We also produced αCTD lacking the 19 C-terminal residues, which showed greatly decreased stability, but maintained the core domain structure and binding affinity to NikR:DNA at low temperatures. The modeling of H. pylori αCTD into the context of transcriptional complexes suggests that the additional amphipathic helix mediates interactions with transcriptional regulators. PMID:24442709

  5. The interaction of ω2 with the RNA polymerase β’ subunit functions as an activation to repression switch

    PubMed Central

    Volante, Andrea; Carrasco, Begoña; Tabone, Mariangela; Alonso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    The ω gene is encoded in broad-host range and low-copy plasmids. It is genetically linked to antibiotic resistance genes of the major human pathogens of phylum Firmicutes. The homodimeric forms of ω (ω2) coordinate the plasmid copy number control, faithful partition (ω2 and δ2) and better-than-random segregation (ζϵ2ζ) systems. The promoter (P) of the ωϵζ operon (Pω) transiently interacts with ω2. Adding δ2 facilitates the formation of stable ω2·Pω complexes. Here we show that limiting ω2 interacts with the N-terminal domain of the β’ subunit of the Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase (RNAP-σA) vegetative holoenzyme. In this way ω2 recruits RNAP-σA onto Pω DNA. Partial Pω occupancy by ω2 increases the rate at which RNAP-σA complex shifts from its closed (RPC) to open (RPO) form. This shift increases transcription activation. Adding δ2 further increases the rate of Pω transcription initiation, perhaps by stabilizing the ω2·Pω complex. In contrast, full operator occupancy by ω2 facilitates RPC formation, but it blocks RPO isomerization and represses Pω utilization. The stimulation and inhibition of RPO formation is the mechanism whereby ω2 mediates copy number fluctuation and stable plasmid segregation. By this mechanism, ω2 also indirectly influences the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:26243774

  6. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase III from the fungus Podospora comata. Purification, subunit structure and comparison with the homologous enzyme of a related species.

    PubMed

    Barreau, C; Begueret, J

    1982-12-15

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerase III has been purified to homogeneity from the filamentous fungus Podospora comata. The enzyme was extracted at low ionic strength, separated from the polymerases I and II by DEAE-Sephadex chromatography and purified by heparin-Sepharose and phosphocellulose chromatography; 0.1-0.2 mg highly purified homogeneous enzyme with a specific activity of 220 units/mg could be obtained from 2 kg wet mycelium. The subunit composition of the enzyme was determined after sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; thirteen putative subunits of molecular weight 174000 (a), 129000 b), 87000 (c), 50000 (d), 39000 (e), 23500 (f), 21000 (g), 19000 (h), 17000 (i), 16500 (j), 13500 (k), 11000 (l) and 10000 (m) were identified. All of the polypeptide components of the enzyme are present in about integral stoichiometric amounts as judged by dye binding. The presence of subunit Mr = 87000 in a molar ratio 1:1 is necessary to obtain very active enzyme. Thirteen homologous subunits were observed in a preparation of RNA polymerase III from Podospora anserina, which is a related species. Only subunit i is different in the two species. PMID:7151805

  7. Shared active site architecture between archaeal PolD and multi-subunit RNA polymerases revealed by X-ray crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Sauguet, Ludovic; Raia, Pierre; Henneke, Ghislaine; Delarue, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Archaeal replicative DNA polymerase D (PolD) constitute an atypical class of DNA polymerases made of a proofreading exonuclease subunit (DP1) and a larger polymerase catalytic subunit (DP2), both with unknown structures. We have determined the crystal structures of Pyrococcus abyssi DP1 and DP2 at 2.5 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively, revealing a catalytic core strikingly different from all other known DNA polymerases (DNAPs). Rather, the PolD DP2 catalytic core has the same ‘double-psi β-barrel' architecture seen in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) superfamily, which includes multi-subunit transcriptases of all domains of life, homodimeric RNA-silencing pathway RNAPs and atypical viral RNAPs. This finding bridges together, in non-viral world, DNA transcription and DNA replication within the same protein superfamily. This study documents further the complex evolutionary history of the DNA replication apparatus in different domains of life and proposes a classification of all extant DNAPs. PMID:27548043

  8. Structure-Based Drug Design Targeting a Subunit Interaction of Influenza Virus RNA Polymerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Kanako; Obayashi, Eiji; Yoshida, Hisashi; Park, Sam-Yong

    Influenza A virus is a major human and animal pathogen with the potential to cause catastrophic loss of life. Influenza virus reproduces rapidly, mutates frequently, and occasionally crosses species barriers. The recent emergence of swine-origin influenza H1N1 and avian influenza related to highly pathogenic forms of the human virus has highlighted the urgent need for new effective treatments. Here, we describe two crystal structures of complexes made by fragments of PA and PB1, and PB1 and PB2. These novel interfaces are surprisingly small, yet they play a crucial role in regulating the 250 kDa polymerase complex, and are completely conserved among swine, avian and human influenza viruses. Given their importance to viral replication and strict conservation, the PA/PB1 and PB1/PB2 interfaces appear to be promising targets for novel anti-influenza drugs of use against all strains of influenza A virus. It is hoped that the structures presented here will assist the search for such compounds.

  9. Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutations in RPA190, the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Wittekind, M; Dodd, J; Vu, L; Kolb, J M; Buhler, J M; Sentenac, A; Nomura, M

    1988-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutations in RNA polymerase I from Saccharomyces cerevisiae are described. A plasmid carrying RPA190, the gene encoding the largest subunit of the enzyme, was subjected to in vitro mutagenesis with hydroxylamine. Using a plasmid shuffle screening system, five different plasmids were isolated which conferred a temperature-sensitive phenotype in haploid yeast strains carrying the disrupted chromosomal RPA190 gene. These temperature-sensitive alleles were transferred to the chromosomal RPA190 locus for mapping and physiology experiments. Accumulation of RNA was found to be defective in all mutant strains at the nonpermissive temperature. In addition, analysis of pulse-labeled RNA from two mutant strains at 37 degrees C showed that the transcription of rRNA genes was decreased, while that of 5S RNA was relatively unaffected. RNA polymerase I was partially purified from several of the mutant strains grown at the nonpermissive temperature and was shown to be deficient when assayed in vitro. Fine-structure mapping and sequencing of the mutant alleles demonstrated that all five mutations were unique. The rpa190-1 and rpa190-5 mutations are tightly clustered in region I (S.S. Broyles and B. Moss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:3141-3145, 1986), the putative zinc-binding region that is common to all eucaryotic RNA polymerase large subunits. The rpa190-3 mutation is located between regions III and IV, and a strain carrying it behaves as a mutant that is defective in the synthesis of the enzyme. This mutation lies within a previously unidentified segment of highly conserved amino acid sequence homology that is shared among the largest subunits of eucaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases. Another temperature-sensitive mutation, rpa190-2, creates a UGA nonsense codon. Images PMID:3054507

  10. NRPD4, a Protein Related to the RPB4 Subunit of RNA Polymerase II, is a Component of RNA Polymerases IV and V and is Required for RNA-directed DNA methylation

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xin-Jian; Hsu, Yi-Feng; Pontes, Olga; Zhu, Jianhua; Lu, Jian; Bressan, Ray A.; Pikaard, Craig S.; Wang, Co-Shine; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2009-01-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is an RNAi-based mechanism for establishing transcriptional gene silencing in plants. The plant-specific RNA polymerases IV and V are required for the generation of 24-nucleotide (nt) siRNAs and for guiding sequence-specific DNA methylation by the siRNAs, respectively. However, unlike the extensively studied multisubunit Pol II, our current knowledge about Pol IV and Pol V is restricted to only the two largest subunits NRPD1a/NRPD1 and NRPD1b/NRPE1 and the one second-largest subunit NRPD2a. It is unclear whether other subunits may be required for the functioning of Pol IV and Pol V in RdDM. From a genetic screen for second-site suppressors of the DNA demethylase mutant ros1, we identified a new component (referred to as RDM2) as well as seven known components (NRPD1, NRPE1, NRPD2a, AGO4, HEN1, DRD1, and HDA6) of the RdDM pathway. The differential effects of the mutations on two mechanistically distinct transcriptional silencing reporters suggest that RDM2, NRPD1, NRPE1, NRPD2a, HEN1, and DRD1 function only in the siRNA-dependent pathway of transcriptional silencing, whereas HDA6 and AGO4 have roles in both siRNA-dependent and -independent pathways of transcriptional silencing. In the rdm2 mutants, DNA methylation and siRNA accumulation were reduced substantially at loci previously identified as endogenous targets of Pol IV and Pol V, including 5S rDNA, MEA-ISR, AtSN1, AtGP1, and AtMU1. The amino acid sequence of RDM2 is similar to that of RPB4 subunit of Pol II, but we show evidence that RDM2 has diverged significantly from RPB4 and cannot function in Pol II. An association of RDM2 with both NRPD1 and NRPE1 was observed by coimmunoprecipitation and coimmunolocalization assays. Our results show that RDM2/NRPD4/NRPE4 is a new component of the RdDM pathway in Arabidopsis and that it functions as part of Pol IV and Pol V.

  11. Aptamers to Escherichia coli core RNA polymerase that sense its interaction with rifampicin, sigma-subunit and GreB.

    PubMed

    Kulbachinskiy, Andrey; Feklistov, Andrey; Krasheninnikov, Igor; Goldfarb, Alex; Nikiforov, Vadim

    2004-12-01

    Bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the central enzyme of gene expression that is responsible for the synthesis of all types of cellular RNAs. The process of transcription is accompanied by complex structural rearrangements of RNAP. Despite the recent progress in structural studies of RNAP, detailed mechanisms of conformational changes of RNAP that occur at different stages of transcription remain unknown. The goal of this work was to obtain novel ligands to RNAP which would target different epitopes of the enzyme and serve as specific probes to study the mechanism of transcription and conformational flexibility of RNAP. Using in vitro selection methods, we obtained 13 classes of ssDNA aptamers against Escherichia coli core RNAP. The minimal nucleic acid scaffold (an oligonucleotide construct imitating DNA and RNA in elongation complex), rifampicin and the sigma70-subunit inhibited binding of the aptamers to RNAP core but did not affect the dissociation rate of preformed RNAP-aptamer complexes. We argue that these ligands sterically block access of the aptamers to their binding sites within the main RNAP channel. In contrast, transcript cleavage factor GreB increased the rate of dissociation of preformed RNAP-aptamer complexes. This suggested that GreB that binds RNAP outside the main channel actively disrupts RNAP-aptamer complexes by inducing conformational changes in the channel. We propose that the aptamers obtained in this work will be useful for studying the interactions of RNAP with various ligands and regulatory factors and for investigating the conformational flexibility of the enzyme. PMID:15606780

  12. Two Routes to Genetic Suppression of RNA Trimethylguanosine Cap Deficiency via C-Terminal Truncation of U1 snRNP Subunit Snp1 or Overexpression of RNA Polymerase Subunit Rpo26.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhicheng R; Schwer, Beate; Shuman, Stewart

    2015-07-01

    The trimethylguanosine (TMG) caps of small nuclear (sn) RNAs are synthesized by the enzyme Tgs1 via sequential methyl additions to the N2 atom of the m(7)G cap. Whereas TMG caps are inessential for Saccharomyces cerevisiae vegetative growth at 25° to 37°, tgs1∆ cells that lack TMG caps fail to thrive at 18°. The cold-sensitive defect correlates with ectopic stoichiometric association of nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC) with the residual m(7)G cap of the U1 snRNA and is suppressed fully by Cbc2 mutations that weaken cap binding. Here, we show that normal growth of tgs1∆ cells at 18° is also restored by a C-terminal deletion of 77 amino acids from the Snp1 subunit of yeast U1 snRNP. These results underscore the U1 snRNP as a focal point for TMG cap function in vivo. Casting a broader net, we conducted a dosage suppressor screen for genes that allowed survival of tgs1∆ cells at 18°. We thereby recovered RPO26 (encoding a shared subunit of all three nuclear RNA polymerases) and RPO31 (encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase III) as moderate and weak suppressors of tgs1∆ cold sensitivity, respectively. A structure-guided mutagenesis of Rpo26, using rpo26∆ complementation and tgs1∆ suppression as activity readouts, defined Rpo26-(78-155) as a minimized functional domain. Alanine scanning identified Glu89, Glu124, Arg135, and Arg136 as essential for rpo26∆ complementation. The E124A and R135A alleles retained tgs1∆ suppressor activity, thereby establishing a separation-of-function. These results illuminate the structure activity profile of an essential RNA polymerase component. PMID:25911228

  13. Subunit compositions of Arabidopsis RNA polymerases I and III reveal Pol I- and Pol III-specific forms of the AC40 subunit and alternative forms of the C53 subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, Jeremy R.; Pontvianne, Frederic; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2015-05-02

    Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified the subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana multisubunit RNA Polymerases I and III (abbreviated as Pol I and Pol III), providing the first description of their physical compositions in plants. AC40 and AC19 subunits are typically common to Pol I (a.k.a. Pol A) and Pol III (a.k.a. Pol C) and are encoded by single genes whose mutation, in humans, is a cause of the craniofacial disorder, Treacher-Collins Syndrome. Surprisingly, A. thaliana, and related species, express two distinct AC40 paralogs, one of which assembles into Pol I and the other of which assembles into Pol III. Changes at eight amino acid positions correlate with this functional divergence of Pol I and Pol III-specific AC40 paralogs. Two genes encode homologs of the yeast C53 subunit, and either variant can assemble into Pol III. By contrast, only one of two potential C17 variants, and one of two potential C31 variants were detected in Pol III. We introduce a new nomenclature system for plant Pol I and Pol III subunits in which the twelve subunits that are structurally and functionally homologous among Pols I through V are assigned equivalent numbers.

  14. Subunit compositions of Arabidopsis RNA polymerases I and III reveal Pol I- and Pol III-specific forms of the AC40 subunit and alternative forms of the C53 subunit

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, Jeremy R.; Pontvianne, Frederic; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2015-05-02

    Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified the subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana multisubunit RNA Polymerases I and III (abbreviated as Pol I and Pol III), providing the first description of their physical compositions in plants. AC40 and AC19 subunits are typically common to Pol I (a.k.a. Pol A) and Pol III (a.k.a. Pol C) and are encoded by single genes whose mutation, in humans, is a cause of the craniofacial disorder, Treacher-Collins Syndrome. Surprisingly, A. thaliana, and related species, express two distinct AC40 paralogs, one of which assembles into Pol I and the other of which assembles into Polmore » III. Changes at eight amino acid positions correlate with this functional divergence of Pol I and Pol III-specific AC40 paralogs. Two genes encode homologs of the yeast C53 subunit, and either variant can assemble into Pol III. By contrast, only one of two potential C17 variants, and one of two potential C31 variants were detected in Pol III. We introduce a new nomenclature system for plant Pol I and Pol III subunits in which the twelve subunits that are structurally and functionally homologous among Pols I through V are assigned equivalent numbers.« less

  15. Subunit compositions of Arabidopsis RNA polymerases I and III reveal Pol I- and Pol III-specific forms of the AC40 subunit and alternative forms of the C53 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, Jeremy R.; Pontvianne, Frederic; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified the subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana multisubunit RNA polymerases I and III (abbreviated as Pol I and Pol III), the first analysis of their physical compositions in plants. In all eukaryotes examined to date, AC40 and AC19 subunits are common to Pol I (a.k.a. Pol A) and Pol III (a.k.a. Pol C) and are encoded by single genes. Surprisingly, A. thaliana and related species express two distinct AC40 paralogs, one of which assembles into Pol I and the other of which assembles into Pol III. Changes at eight amino acid positions correlate with the functional divergence of Pol I- and Pol III-specific AC40 paralogs. Two genes encode homologs of the yeast C53 subunit and either protein can assemble into Pol III. By contrast, only one of two potential C17 variants, and one of two potential C31 variants were detected in Pol III. We introduce a new nomenclature system for plant Pol I and Pol III subunits in which the 12 subunits that are structurally and functionally homologous among Pols I through V are assigned equivalent numbers. PMID:25813043

  16. The structure and role of RNA polymerases in Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Bzik, D J

    1991-08-01

    During the past few years the characterization of several Plasmodium falciparum RNA polymerase subunits has revealed potentially significant differences between the corresponding subunits of the host and parasite enzymes(1-3). The largest subunits of P. falciparum RNA polymerase II and III contain enlarged variable domains that separate conserved domains in these subunits. The partially characterized beta and beta '-like subunits of an organellar P. falciparum RNA polymerase also appear to be distinct from the host RNA polymerases. In this review David Bzik discusses the structure and role of RNA polymerases in Plasmodium. PMID:15463499

  17. RNA Polymerase I-Specific Subunit CAST/hPAF49 Has a Role in the Activation of Transcription by Upstream Binding Factor

    PubMed Central

    Panov, Kostya I.; Panova, Tatiana B.; Gadal, Olivier; Nishiyama, Kaori; Saito, Takashi; Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C. B. M.

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerases are large complexes, 12 subunits of which are structurally or functionally homologous across the three polymerase classes. Each class has a set of specific subunits, likely targets of their cognate transcription factors. We have identified and characterized a human RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-specific subunit, previously identified as ASE-1 (antisense of ERCC1) and as CD3ɛ-associated signal transducer (CAST), and here termed CAST or human Pol I-associated factor of 49 kDa (hPAF49), after mouse orthologue PAF49. We provide evidence for growth-regulated Tyr phosphorylation of CAST/hPAF49, specifically in initiation-competent Pol Iβ complexes in HeLa cells, at a conserved residue also known to be important for signaling during T-cell activation. CAST/hPAF49 can interact with activator upstream binding factor (UBF) and, weakly, with selectivity factor 1 (SL1) at the rDNA (ribosomal DNA repeat sequence encoding the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA genes) promoter. CAST/hPAF49-specific antibodies and excess CAST/hPAF49 protein, which have no effect on basal Pol I transcription, inhibit UBF-activated transcription following functional SL1-Pol I-rDNA complex assembly and disrupt the interaction of UBF with CAST/hPAF49, suggesting that interaction of this Pol I-specific subunit with UBF is crucial for activation. Drawing on parallels between mammalian and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol I transcription machineries, we advance one model for CAST/hPAF49 function in which the network of interactions of Pol I-specific subunits with UBF facilitates conformational changes of the polymerase, leading to stabilization of the Pol I-template complex and, thereby, activation of transcription. PMID:16809778

  18. von Hippel–Lindau protein binds hyperphosphorylated large subunit of RNA polymerase II through a proline hydroxylation motif and targets it for ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Anna V.; Meller, Jaroslaw; Schnell, Phillip O.; Nash, James A.; Ignacak, Monika L.; Sanchez, Yolanda; Conaway, Joan W.; Conaway, Ronald C.; Czyzyk-Krzeska, Maria F.

    2003-01-01

    The transition from transcription initiation to elongation involves phosphorylation of the large subunit (Rpb1) of RNA polymerase II on the repetitive carboxyl-terminal domain. The elongating hyperphosphorylated Rpb1 is subject to ubiquitination, particularly in response to UV radiation and DNA-damaging agents. By using computer modeling, we identified regions of Rpb1 and the adjacent subunit 6 of RNA polymerase II (Rpb6) that share sequence and structural similarity with the domain of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1α (HIF-1α) that binds von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL). pVHL confers substrate specificity to the E3 ligase complex, which ubiquitinates HIF-α and targets it for proteasomal degradation. In agreement with the computational model, we show biochemical evidence that pVHL specifically binds the hyperphosphorylated Rpb1 in a proline-hydroxylation-dependent manner, targeting it for ubiquitination. This interaction is regulated by UV radiation. PMID:12604794

  19. von Hippel-Lindau protein binds hyperphosphorylated large subunit of RNA polymerase II through a proline hydroxylation motif and targets it for ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Anna V; Meller, Jaroslaw; Schnell, Phillip O; Nash, James A; Ignacak, Monika L; Sanchez, Yolanda; Conaway, Joan W; Conaway, Ronald C; Czyzyk-Krzeska, Maria F

    2003-03-01

    The transition from transcription initiation to elongation involves phosphorylation of the large subunit (Rpb1) of RNA polymerase II on the repetitive carboxyl-terminal domain. The elongating hyperphosphorylated Rpb1 is subject to ubiquitination, particularly in response to UV radiation and DNA-damaging agents. By using computer modeling, we identified regions of Rpb1 and the adjacent subunit 6 of RNA polymerase II (Rpb6) that share sequence and structural similarity with the domain of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) that binds von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL). pVHL confers substrate specificity to the E3 ligase complex, which ubiquitinates HIF-alpha and targets it for proteasomal degradation. In agreement with the computational model, we show biochemical evidence that pVHL specifically binds the hyperphosphorylated Rpb1 in a proline-hydroxylation-dependent manner, targeting it for ubiquitination. This interaction is regulated by UV radiation. PMID:12604794

  20. Signal Transduction and Regulatory Mechanisms Involved in Control of the σS (RpoS) Subunit of RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Hengge-Aronis, Regine

    2002-01-01

    The σS (RpoS) subunit of RNA polymerase is the master regulator of the general stress response in Escherichia coli and related bacteria. While rapidly growing cells contain very little σS, exposure to many different stress conditions results in rapid and strong σS induction. Consequently, transcription of numerous σS-dependent genes is activated, many of which encode gene products with stress-protective functions. Multiple signal integration in the control of the cellular σS level is achieved by rpoS transcriptional and translational control as well as by regulated σS proteolysis, with various stress conditions differentially affecting these levels of σS control. Thus, a reduced growth rate results in increased rpoS transcription whereas high osmolarity, low temperature, acidic pH, and some late-log-phase signals stimulate the translation of already present rpoS mRNA. In addition, carbon starvation, high osmolarity, acidic pH, and high temperature result in stabilization of σS, which, under nonstress conditions, is degraded with a half-life of one to several minutes. Important cis-regulatory determinants as well as trans-acting regulatory factors involved at all levels of σS regulation have been identified. rpoS translation is controlled by several proteins (Hfq and HU) and small regulatory RNAs that probably affect the secondary structure of rpoS mRNA. For σS proteolysis, the response regulator RssB is essential. RssB is a specific direct σS recognition factor, whose affinity for σS is modulated by phosphorylation of its receiver domain. RssB delivers σS to the ClpXP protease, where σS is unfolded and completely degraded. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the molecular functions and interactions of these components and tries to establish a framework for further research on the mode of multiple signal input into this complex regulatory system. PMID:12208995

  1. Step-wise and lineage-specific diversification of plant RNA polymerase genes and origin of the largest plant-specific subunits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqiong; Ma, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Proteins often function as complexes, yet little is known about the evolution of dissimilar subunits of complexes. DNA-directed RNA polymerases (RNAPs) are multisubunit complexes, with distinct eukaryotic types for different classes of transcripts. In addition to Pol I-III, common in eukaryotes, plants have Pol IV and V for epigenetic regulation. Some RNAP subunits are specific to one type, whereas other subunits are shared by multiple types. We have conducted extensive phylogenetic and sequence analyses, and have placed RNAP gene duplication events in land plant history, thereby reconstructing the subunit compositions of the novel RNAPs during land plant evolution. We found that Pol IV/V have experienced step-wise duplication and diversification of various subunits, with increasingly distinctive subunit compositions. Also, lineage-specific duplications have further increased RNAP complexity with distinct copies in different plant families and varying divergence for subunits of different RNAPs. Further, the largest subunits of Pol IV/V probably originated from a gene fusion in the ancestral land plants. We propose a framework of plant RNAP evolution, providing an excellent model for protein complex evolution. PMID:25921392

  2. The yeast TFB1 and SSL1 genes, which encode subunits of transcription factor IIH, are required for nucleotide excision repair and RNA polymerase II transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z; Buratowski, S; Svejstrup, J Q; Feaver, W J; Wu, X; Kornberg, R D; Donahue, T F; Friedberg, E C

    1995-01-01

    The essential TFB1 and SSL1 genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode two subunits of the RNA polymerase II transcription factor TFIIH (factor b). Here we show that extracts of temperature-sensitive mutants carrying mutations in both genes (tfb1-101 and ssl1-1) are defective in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and RNA polymerase II transcription but are proficient for base excision repair. RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription at the CYC1 promoter was normal at permissive temperatures but defective in extracts preincubated at a restrictive temperature. In contrast, defective NER was observed at temperatures that are permissive for growth. Additionally, both mutants manifested increased sensitivity to UV radiation at permissive temperatures. The extent of this sensitivity was not increased in a tfb1-101 strain and was only slightly increased in a ssl1-1 strain at temperatures that are semipermissive for growth. Purified factor TFIIH complemented defective NER in both tfb1-101 and ssl1-1 mutant extracts. These results define TFB1 and SSL1 as bona fide NER genes and indicate that, as is the case with the yeast Rad3 and Ss12 (Rad25) proteins, Tfb1 and Ssl1 are required for both RNA polymerase II basal transcription and NER. Our results also suggest that the repair and transcription functions of Tfb1 and Ssl1 are separable. PMID:7891722

  3. A gene-specific effect of an internal deletion in the Bdp1 subunit of the RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor TFIIIB.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Akira; Kassavetis, George A

    2003-07-31

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPR1 gene encodes the RNA subunit of its RNase P, which processes RNA polymerase (pol) III primary transcripts. RPR1, which is transcribed by pol III, has been isolated as a multicopy suppressor of a specific small internal deletion (amino acids 253-269) in the Bdp1 subunit of transcription factor TFIIIB, the core pol III transcription factor. The selective effect of this Bdp1 deletion on RPR1 transcription has been analyzed in vitro. It is shown that TFIIIC-dependent assembly of TFIIIB on the RPR1 promoter is specifically sensitive to this Bdp1 deletion, leading to gene-specifically defective single-round and multiple-round transcription. PMID:12885403

  4. The Arabidopsis mediator complex subunits MED16, MED14, and MED2 regulate mediator and RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Piers A; Hurst, Charlotte H; Kaliyadasa, Ewon; Lamb, Rebecca; Knight, Marc R; De Cothi, Elizabeth A; Steele, John F; Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The Mediator16 (MED16; formerly termed SENSITIVE TO FREEZING6 [SFR6]) subunit of the plant Mediator transcriptional coactivator complex regulates cold-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, acting downstream of the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) transcription factors to recruit the core Mediator complex to cold-regulated genes. Here, we use loss-of-function mutants to show that RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes requires MED16, MED2, and MED14 subunits. Transcription of genes known to be regulated via CBFs binding to the C-repeat motif/drought-responsive element promoter motif requires all three Mediator subunits, as does cold acclimation-induced freezing tolerance. In addition, these three subunits are required for low temperature-induced expression of some other, but not all, cold-responsive genes, including genes that are not known targets of CBFs. Genes inducible by darkness also required MED16 but required a different combination of Mediator subunits for their expression than the genes induced by cold. Together, our data illustrate that plants control transcription of specific genes through the action of subsets of Mediator subunits; the specific combination defined by the nature of the stimulus but also by the identity of the gene induced. PMID:24415770

  5. Mutations affecting two adjacent amino acid residues in the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase block transcriptional activation by the bacteriophage P2 Ogr protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, D J; Sunshine, M G; Six, E W; Christie, G E

    1994-01-01

    The bacteriophage P2 ogr gene product is a positive regulator of transcription from P2 late promoters. The ogr gene was originally defined by compensatory mutations that overcame the block to P2 growth imposed by a host mutation, rpoA109, in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase. DNA sequence analysis has confirmed that this mutation affects the C-terminal region of the alpha subunit, changing a leucine residue at position 290 to a histidine (rpoAL290H). We have employed a reporter plasmid system to screen other, previously described, rpoA mutants for effects on activation of a P2 late promoter and have identified a second allele, rpoA155, that blocks P2 late transcription. This mutation lies just upstream of rpoAL290H, changing the leucine residue at position 289 to a phenylalanine (rpoAL289F). The effect of the rpoAL289F mutation is not suppressed by the rpoAL290H-compensatory P2 ogr mutation. P2 ogr mutants that overcome the block imposed by rpoAL289F were isolated and characterized. Our results are consistent with a direct interaction between Ogr and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase and support a model in which transcription factor contact sites within the C terminus of alpha are discrete and tightly clustered. PMID:8002564

  6. A Novel Functional Site in the PB2 Subunit of Influenza A Virus Essential for Acetyl-CoA Interaction, RNA Polymerase Activity, and Viral Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Dai; Shoji, Masaki; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Hirota, Takenori; Nagae, Monami; Yanagisawa, Shin; Nakano, Masahiro; Ohmi, Naho; Noda, Takeshi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Kuzuhara, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The PA, PB1, and PB2 subunits, components of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza A virus, are essential for viral transcription and replication. The PB2 subunit binds to the host RNA cap (7-methylguanosine triphosphate (m7GTP)) and supports the endonuclease activity of PA to “snatch” the cap from host pre-mRNAs. However, the structure of PB2 is not fully understood, and the functional sites remain unknown. In this study, we describe a novel Val/Arg/Gly (VRG) site in the PB2 cap-binding domain, which is involved in interaction with acetyl-CoA found in eukaryotic histone acetyltransferases (HATs). In vitro experiments revealed that the recombinant PB2 cap-binding domain that includes the VRG site interacts with acetyl-CoA; moreover, it was found that this interaction could be blocked by CoA and various HAT inhibitors. Interestingly, m7GTP also inhibited this interaction, suggesting that the same active pocket is capable of interacting with acetyl-CoA and m7GTP. To elucidate the importance of the VRG site on PB2 function and viral replication, we constructed a PB2 recombinant protein and recombinant viruses including several patterns of amino acid mutations in the VRG site. Substitutions of the valine and arginine residues or of all 3 residues of the VRG site to alanine significantly reduced the binding ability of PB2 to acetyl-CoA and its RNA polymerase activity. Recombinant viruses containing the same mutations could not be replicated in cultured cells. These results indicate that the PB2 VRG sequence is a functional site that is essential for acetyl-CoA interaction, RNA polymerase activity, and viral replication. PMID:25063805

  7. Transcription activation at Escherichia coli promoters dependent on the cyclic AMP receptor protein: effects of binding sequences for the RNA polymerase alpha-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Savery, N J; Rhodius, V A; Wing, H J; Busby, S J

    1995-01-01

    Transcription activation at two semi-synthetic Escherichia coli promoters, CC(-41.5) and CC(-72.5), is dependent on the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) that binds to sites centred 41.5 and 72.5 bp upstream from the respective transcription startpoints. An UP-element that can bind the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) alpha-subunit was cloned upstream of the DNA site for CRP at CC(-41.5) and downstream of the DNA site for CRP at CC(-72.5). In both cases CRP-dependent promoter activity was increased by the UP-element, but CRP-independent activity was not increased. DNase I footprinting was exploited to investigate the juxtaposition of bound CRP and RNAP alpha-subunits. In both cases, CRP and RNAP alpha-subunits occupy their cognate binding sites in ternary CRP-RNAP promoter complexes. RNAP alpha-subunits can occupy the UP-element in the absence of CRP, but this is not sufficient for open complex formation. The positive effects of binding RNAP alpha-subunits upstream of the DNA site for CRP at -41.5 are suppressed if the UP-element is incorrectly positioned. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7619086

  8. A Sequence-Specific Interaction between the Saccharomyces cerevisiae rRNA Gene Repeats and a Locus Encoding an RNA Polymerase I Subunit Affects Ribosomal DNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Cahyani, Inswasti; Cridge, Andrew G.; Engelke, David R.; Ganley, Austen R. D.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial organization of eukaryotic genomes is linked to their functions. However, how individual features of the global spatial structure contribute to nuclear function remains largely unknown. We previously identified a high-frequency interchromosomal interaction within the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome that occurs between the intergenic spacer of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats and the intergenic sequence between the locus encoding the second largest RNA polymerase I subunit and a lysine tRNA gene [i.e., RPA135-tK(CUU)P]. Here, we used quantitative chromosome conformation capture in combination with replacement mapping to identify a 75-bp sequence within the RPA135-tK(CUU)P intergenic region that is involved in the interaction. We demonstrate that the RPA135-IGS1 interaction is dependent on the rDNA copy number and the Msn2 protein. Surprisingly, we found that the interaction does not govern RPA135 transcription. Instead, replacement of a 605-bp region within the RPA135-tK(CUU)P intergenic region results in a reduction in the RPA135-IGS1 interaction level and fluctuations in rDNA copy number. We conclude that the chromosomal interaction that occurs between the RPA135-tK(CUU)P and rDNA IGS1 loci stabilizes rDNA repeat number and contributes to the maintenance of nucleolar stability. Our results provide evidence that the DNA loci involved in chromosomal interactions are composite elements, sections of which function in stabilizing the interaction or mediating a functional outcome. PMID:25421713

  9. Reverse Genetics of Drosophila RNA Polymerase II: Identification and Characterization of Rpii140, the Genomic Locus for the Second-Largest Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, B. J.; Mortin, M. A.; Greenleaf, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    We have used a reverse genetics approach to isolate genes encoding two subunits of Drosophila melanogaster RNA polymerase II. RpII18 encodes the 18-kDa subunit and maps cytogenetically to polytene band region 83A. RpII140 encodes the 140-kDa subunit and maps to polytene band region 88A10:B1,2. Focusing on RpII140, we used in situ hybridization to map this gene to a small subinterval defined by the endpoints of a series of deficiencies impinging on the 88A/B region and showed that it does not represent a previously known genetic locus. Two recently defined complementation groups, A5 and Z6, reside in the same subinterval and thus were candidates for the RpII140 locus. Phenotypes of A5 mutants suggested that they affect RNA polymerase II, in that the lethal phase and the interaction with developmental loci such as Ubx resemble those of mutants in the gene for the largest subunit, RpII215. Indeed, we have achieved complete genetic rescue of representative recessive lethal mutations of A5 with a P-element construct containing a 9.1-kb genomic DNA fragment carrying RpII140. Interestingly, the initial construct also rescued lethal alleles in the neighboring complementation group, Z6, revealing that the 9.1-kb insert carries two genes. Deleting coding region sequences of RpII140, however, yielded a transformation vector that failed to rescue A5 alleles but continued to rescue Z6 alleles. These results strongly support the conclusion that the A5 complementation group is equivalent to the genomic RpII140 locus. PMID:8325487

  10. Preferential interaction of the his pause RNA hairpin with RNA polymerase β subunit residues 904–950 correlates with strong transcriptional pausing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Daguang; Severinov, Konstantin; Landick, Robert

    1997-01-01

    RNA secondary structures (hairpins) that form as the nascent RNA emerges from RNA polymerase are important components of many signals that regulate transcription, including some pause sites, all ρ-independent terminators, and some antiterminators. At the his leader pause site, a 5-bp-stem, 8-nt-loop pause RNA hairpin forms 11 nt from the RNA 3′ end and stabilizes a transcription complex conformation slow to react with NTP substrate. This stabilization appears to depend at least in part on an interaction with RNA polymerase. We tested for RNA hairpin interaction with the paused polymerase by crosslinking 5-iodoUMP positioned specifically in the hairpin loop. In the paused conformation, strong and unusual crosslinking of the pause hairpin to β904–950 replaced crosslinking to β′ and to other parts of β that occurred in nonpaused complexes prior to hairpin formation. These changes in nascent RNA interactions may inhibit reactive alignment of the RNA 3′ end in the paused complex and be related to events at ρ-independent terminators. PMID:9237994

  11. Spacing requirements for interactions between the C-terminal domain of the alpha subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the cAMP receptor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, G S; Busby, S J; Savery, N J

    1998-01-01

    During transcription initiation at bacterial promoters, the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (alphaCTD) can interact with DNA-sequence elements (known as UP elements) and with activator proteins. We have constructed a series of semi-synthetic promoters carrying both an UP element and a consensus DNA-binding site for the Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein (CRP; a factor that activates transcription by making direct contacts with alphaCTD). At these promoters, the UP element was located at a variety of distances upstream of the CRP-binding site, which was fixed at position -41.5 bp upstream of the transcript start. At some positions, the UP element caused enhanced promoter activity whereas, at other positions, it had very little effect. In no case was the CRP-dependence of the promoter relieved. DNase I and hydroxyl-radical footprinting were used to study ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-promoter complexes formed at two of the most active of these promoters, and co-operativity between the binding of CRP and purified alpha subunits was studied. The footprints show that alphaCTD binds to the UP element as it is displaced upstream but that this displacement does not prevent alphaCTD from being contacted by CRP. Models to account for this are discussed. PMID:9461538

  12. Surface for Catalysis by Poliovirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Lyle, John M.; Bullitt, Esther

    2013-01-01

    The poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, 3Dpol, replicates the viral genomic RNA on the surface of virus-induced intracellular membranes. Macromolecular assemblies of 3Dpol form linear array of subunits that propagate along a strong protein-protein interaction called interface-I, as was observed in the crystal structure of wild-type poliovirus polymerase. These “filaments” recur with slight modifications in planar sheets and, with additional modifications that accommodate curvature, in helical tubes of the polymerase, by packing filaments together via a second set of interactions. Periodic variations of subunit orientations within 3Dpol tubes give rise to “ghost reflections” in diffraction patterns computed from electron cryomicrographs of helical arrays. The ghost reflections reveal that polymerase tubes are formed by bundles of 4–6 interface-I filaments, which are then connected to the next bundle of filaments with a perturbation of interface interactions between bundles. While enzymatically inactive polymerase is also capable of oligomerization, much thinner tubes are formed that lack interface-I interactions between adjacent subunits, suggesting that long-range allostery produces conformational changes that extend from the active site to the protein-protein interface. Macromolecular assemblies of poliovirus polymerase show repeated use of flexible interface interactions for polymerase lattice formation, suggesting that adaptability of polymerase-polymerase interactions facilitates RNA replication. In addition, the presence of a positively charged groove identified in polymerase arrays may help position and stabilize the RNA template during replication. PMID:23583774

  13. The 25 kDa Subunit of Cleavage Factor Im Is a RNA-Binding Protein That Interacts with the Poly(A) Polymerase in Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Pezet-Valdez, Marisol; Fernández-Retana, Jorge; Ospina-Villa, Juan David; Ramírez-Moreno, María Esther; Orozco, Esther; Charcas-López, Socorro; Soto-Sánchez, Jacqueline; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; López-Casamicha, Mavil; López-Camarillo, César; Marchat, Laurence A.

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, polyadenylation of pre-mRNA 3´ end is essential for mRNA export, stability and translation. Taking advantage of the knowledge of genomic sequences of Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, we previously reported the putative polyadenylation machinery of this parasite. Here, we focused on the predicted protein that has the molecular features of the 25 kDa subunit of the Cleavage Factor Im (CFIm25) from other organisms, including the Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked to another moiety X) domain, as well as the RNA binding domain and the PAP/PAB interacting region. The recombinant EhCFIm25 protein (rEhCFIm25) was expressed in bacteria and used to generate specific antibodies in rabbit. Subcellular localization assays showed the presence of the endogenous protein in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. In RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays, rEhCFIm25 was able to form specific RNA-protein complexes with the EhPgp5 mRNA 3´ UTR used as probe. In addition, Pull-Down and LC/ESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry assays evidenced that the putative EhCFIm25 was able to interact with the poly(A) polymerase (EhPAP) that is responsible for the synthesis of the poly(A) tail in other eukaryotic cells. By Far-Western experiments, we confirmed the interaction between the putative EhCFIm25 and EhPAP in E. histolytica. Taken altogether, our results showed that the putative EhCFIm25 is a conserved RNA binding protein that interacts with the poly(A) polymerase, another member of the pre-mRNA 3´ end processing machinery in this protozoan parasite. PMID:23840799

  14. The 25 kDa subunit of cleavage factor Im Is a RNA-binding protein that interacts with the poly(A) polymerase in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Pezet-Valdez, Marisol; Fernández-Retana, Jorge; Ospina-Villa, Juan David; Ramírez-Moreno, María Esther; Orozco, Esther; Charcas-López, Socorro; Soto-Sánchez, Jacqueline; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; López-Casamicha, Mavil; López-Camarillo, César; Marchat, Laurence A

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, polyadenylation of pre-mRNA 3' end is essential for mRNA export, stability and translation. Taking advantage of the knowledge of genomic sequences of Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, we previously reported the putative polyadenylation machinery of this parasite. Here, we focused on the predicted protein that has the molecular features of the 25 kDa subunit of the Cleavage Factor Im (CFIm25) from other organisms, including the Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked to another moiety X) domain, as well as the RNA binding domain and the PAP/PAB interacting region. The recombinant EhCFIm25 protein (rEhCFIm25) was expressed in bacteria and used to generate specific antibodies in rabbit. Subcellular localization assays showed the presence of the endogenous protein in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. In RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays, rEhCFIm25 was able to form specific RNA-protein complexes with the EhPgp5 mRNA 3´ UTR used as probe. In addition, Pull-Down and LC/ESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry assays evidenced that the putative EhCFIm25 was able to interact with the poly(A) polymerase (EhPAP) that is responsible for the synthesis of the poly(A) tail in other eukaryotic cells. By Far-Western experiments, we confirmed the interaction between the putative EhCFIm25 and EhPAP in E. histolytica. Taken altogether, our results showed that the putative EhCFIm25 is a conserved RNA binding protein that interacts with the poly(A) polymerase, another member of the pre-mRNA 3' end processing machinery in this protozoan parasite. PMID:23840799

  15. Mycobacterium RbpA cooperates with the stress-response σB subunit of RNA polymerase in promoter DNA unwinding

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yangbo; Morichaud, Zakia; Sudalaiyadum Perumal, Ayyappasamy; Roquet-Baneres, Françoise; Brodolin, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    RbpA, a transcriptional activator that is essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis replication and survival during antibiotic treatment, binds to RNA polymerase (RNAP) in the absence of promoter DNA. It has been hypothesized that RbpA stimulates housekeeping gene expression by promoting assembly of the σA subunit with core RNAP. Here, using a purified in vitro transcription system of M. tuberculosis, we show that RbpA functions in a promoter-dependent manner as a companion of RNAP essential for promoter DNA unwinding and formation of the catalytically active open promoter complex (RPo). Screening for RbpA activity using a full panel of the M. tuberculosis σ subunits demonstrated that RbpA targets σA and stress-response σB, but not the alternative σ subunits from the groups 3 and 4. In contrast to σA, the σB subunit activity displayed stringent dependency upon RbpA. These results suggest that RbpA-dependent control of RPo formation provides a mechanism for tuning gene expression during the switch between different physiological states, and in the stress response. PMID:25122744

  16. Regulation of acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit variants in human myasthenia gravis. Quantification of steady-state levels of messenger RNA in muscle biopsy using the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Guyon, T; Levasseur, P; Truffault, F; Cottin, C; Gaud, C; Berrih-Aknin, S

    1994-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease mediated by auto-antibodies that attack the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the decrease in AChR levels at the neuromuscular junction, we investigated the regulation of AChR expression by analyzing mRNA of the two AChR alpha subunit isoforms (P3A+ and P3A-) in muscle samples from myasthenic patients relative to controls. We applied a quantitative method based on reverse transcription of total RNA followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using an internal standard we constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. An increased expression of mRNA coding for the alpha subunit of the AChR isoforms was observed in severely affected patients (P < 0.003 versus controls) but not in moderately affected patients, independently of the anti-AChR antibody titer. Study of mRNA precursor levels indicates a higher expression in severely affected patients compared to controls, suggesting an enhanced rate of transcription of the message coding for the alpha subunit isoforms in these patients. We have also reported that mRNA encoding both isoforms are expressed at an approximate 1:1 ratio in controls and in patients. We have thus identified a new biological parameter correlated with disease severity, and provide evidence of a compensatory mechanism to balance the loss of AChR in human myasthenia gravis, which is probably triggered only above a certain degree of AChR loss. Images PMID:8040257

  17. RPC53 encodes a subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase C (III) whose inactivation leads to a predominantly G1 arrest.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, C; Micouin, J Y; Chiannilkulchai, N; Treich, I; Buhler, J M; Sentenac, A

    1992-01-01

    RPC53 is shown to be an essential gene encoding the C53 subunit specifically associated with yeast RNA polymerase C (III). Temperature-sensitive rpc53 mutants were generated and showed a rapid inhibition of tRNA synthesis after transfer to the restrictive temperature. Unexpectedly, the rpc53 mutants preferentially arrested their cell division in the G1 phase as large, round, unbudded cells. The RPC53 DNA sequence is predicted to code for a hydrophilic M(r)-46,916 protein enriched in charged amino acid residues. The carboxy-terminal 136 amino acids of C53 are significantly similar (25% identical amino acid residues) to the same region of the human BN51 protein. The BN51 cDNA was originally isolated by its ability to complement a temperature-sensitive hamster cell mutant that undergoes a G1 cell division arrest, as is true for the rpc53 mutants. Images PMID:1406624

  18. The Roles of RNA Polymerase I and III Subunits Polr1c and Polr1d in Craniofacial Development and in Zebrafish Models of Treacher Collins Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Noack Watt, Kristin E; Achilleos, Annita; Neben, Cynthia L; Merrill, Amy E; Trainor, Paul A

    2016-07-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a global process required for growth and proliferation of all cells, yet perturbation of ribosome biogenesis during human development often leads to tissue-specific defects termed ribosomopathies. Transcription of the ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) by RNA polymerases (Pol) I and III, is considered a rate limiting step of ribosome biogenesis and mutations in the genes coding for RNA Pol I and III subunits, POLR1C and POLR1D cause Treacher Collins syndrome, a rare congenital craniofacial disorder. Our understanding of the functions of individual RNA polymerase subunits, however, remains poor. We discovered that polr1c and polr1d are dynamically expressed during zebrafish embryonic development, particularly in craniofacial tissues. Consistent with this pattern of activity, polr1c and polr1d homozygous mutant zebrafish exhibit cartilage hypoplasia and cranioskeletal anomalies characteristic of humans with Treacher Collins syndrome. Mechanistically, we discovered that polr1c and polr1d loss-of-function results in deficient ribosome biogenesis, Tp53-dependent neuroepithelial cell death and a deficiency of migrating neural crest cells, which are the primary progenitors of the craniofacial skeleton. More importantly, we show that genetic inhibition of tp53 can suppress neuroepithelial cell death and ameliorate the skeletal anomalies in polr1c and polr1d mutants, providing a potential avenue to prevent the pathogenesis of Treacher Collins syndrome. Our work therefore has uncovered tissue-specific roles for polr1c and polr1d in rRNA transcription, ribosome biogenesis, and neural crest and craniofacial development during embryogenesis. Furthermore, we have established polr1c and polr1d mutant zebrafish as models of Treacher Collins syndrome together with a unifying mechanism underlying its pathogenesis and possible prevention. PMID:27448281

  19. The Roles of RNA Polymerase I and III Subunits Polr1c and Polr1d in Craniofacial Development and in Zebrafish Models of Treacher Collins Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Achilleos, Annita; Neben, Cynthia L.; Merrill, Amy E.; Trainor, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a global process required for growth and proliferation of all cells, yet perturbation of ribosome biogenesis during human development often leads to tissue-specific defects termed ribosomopathies. Transcription of the ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) by RNA polymerases (Pol) I and III, is considered a rate limiting step of ribosome biogenesis and mutations in the genes coding for RNA Pol I and III subunits, POLR1C and POLR1D cause Treacher Collins syndrome, a rare congenital craniofacial disorder. Our understanding of the functions of individual RNA polymerase subunits, however, remains poor. We discovered that polr1c and polr1d are dynamically expressed during zebrafish embryonic development, particularly in craniofacial tissues. Consistent with this pattern of activity, polr1c and polr1d homozygous mutant zebrafish exhibit cartilage hypoplasia and cranioskeletal anomalies characteristic of humans with Treacher Collins syndrome. Mechanistically, we discovered that polr1c and polr1d loss-of-function results in deficient ribosome biogenesis, Tp53-dependent neuroepithelial cell death and a deficiency of migrating neural crest cells, which are the primary progenitors of the craniofacial skeleton. More importantly, we show that genetic inhibition of tp53 can suppress neuroepithelial cell death and ameliorate the skeletal anomalies in polr1c and polr1d mutants, providing a potential avenue to prevent the pathogenesis of Treacher Collins syndrome. Our work therefore has uncovered tissue-specific roles for polr1c and polr1d in rRNA transcription, ribosome biogenesis, and neural crest and craniofacial development during embryogenesis. Furthermore, we have established polr1c and polr1d mutant zebrafish as models of Treacher Collins syndrome together with a unifying mechanism underlying its pathogenesis and possible prevention. PMID:27448281

  20. Abundant Intergenic TAACTGA Direct Repeats and Putative Alternate RNA Polymerase β′ Subunits in Marine Beggiatoaceae Genomes: Possible Regulatory Roles and Origins

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequences of several giant marine sulfur-oxidizing bacteria present evidence of a possible post-transcriptional regulatory network that may have been transmitted to or from two distantly related bacteria lineages. The draft genome of a Cand. “Maribeggiatoa” filament from the Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California, Mexico) seafloor contains 169 sets of TAACTGA direct repeats and one indirect repeat, with two to six copies per set. Related heptamers are rarely or never found as direct repeats. TAACTGA direct repeats are also found in some other Beggiatoaceae, Thiocystis violascens, a range of Cyanobacteria, and five Bacteroidetes. This phylogenetic distribution suggests they may have been transmitted horizontally, but no mechanism is evident. There is no correlation between total TAACTGA occurrences and repeats per genome. In most species the repeat units are relatively short, but longer arrays of up to 43 copies are found in several Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria. The majority of TAACTGA repeats in the Cand. “Maribeggiatoa” Orange Guaymas (BOGUAY) genome are within several nucleotides upstream of a putative start codon, suggesting they may be binding sites for a post-transcriptional regulator. Candidates include members of the ribosomal protein S1, Csp (cold shock protein), and Csr (carbon storage regulator) families. No pattern was evident in the predicted functions of the open reading frames (ORFs) downstream of repeats, but some encode presumably essential products such as ribosomal proteins. Among these is an ORF encoding a possible alternate or modified RNA polymerase beta prime subunit, predicted to have the expected subunit interaction domains but lacking most catalytic residues. A similar ORF was found in the Thioploca ingrica draft genome, but in no others. In both species they are immediately upstream of putative sensor kinase genes with nearly identical domain structures. In the marine Beggiatoaceae, a role for the TAACTGA repeats in

  1. Abundant Intergenic TAACTGA Direct Repeats and Putative Alternate RNA Polymerase β' Subunits in Marine Beggiatoaceae Genomes: Possible Regulatory Roles and Origins.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequences of several giant marine sulfur-oxidizing bacteria present evidence of a possible post-transcriptional regulatory network that may have been transmitted to or from two distantly related bacteria lineages. The draft genome of a Cand. "Maribeggiatoa" filament from the Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California, Mexico) seafloor contains 169 sets of TAACTGA direct repeats and one indirect repeat, with two to six copies per set. Related heptamers are rarely or never found as direct repeats. TAACTGA direct repeats are also found in some other Beggiatoaceae, Thiocystis violascens, a range of Cyanobacteria, and five Bacteroidetes. This phylogenetic distribution suggests they may have been transmitted horizontally, but no mechanism is evident. There is no correlation between total TAACTGA occurrences and repeats per genome. In most species the repeat units are relatively short, but longer arrays of up to 43 copies are found in several Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria. The majority of TAACTGA repeats in the Cand. "Maribeggiatoa" Orange Guaymas (BOGUAY) genome are within several nucleotides upstream of a putative start codon, suggesting they may be binding sites for a post-transcriptional regulator. Candidates include members of the ribosomal protein S1, Csp (cold shock protein), and Csr (carbon storage regulator) families. No pattern was evident in the predicted functions of the open reading frames (ORFs) downstream of repeats, but some encode presumably essential products such as ribosomal proteins. Among these is an ORF encoding a possible alternate or modified RNA polymerase beta prime subunit, predicted to have the expected subunit interaction domains but lacking most catalytic residues. A similar ORF was found in the Thioploca ingrica draft genome, but in no others. In both species they are immediately upstream of putative sensor kinase genes with nearly identical domain structures. In the marine Beggiatoaceae, a role for the TAACTGA repeats in translational

  2. The last CTD repeat of the mammalian RNA polymerase II large subunit is important for its stability

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Rob D.; Palancade, Benoit; Lang, Andreas; Bensaude, Olivier; Eick, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) has been shown to affect the initiation, and transition to elongation of the Pol II complex. The differential phosphorylation of serines within this domain coincides with the recruitment of factors important for pre-mRNA processing and transcriptional elongation. A role for tyrosine and threonine phosphorylation has yet to be described. The discovery of kinases that express a preference for specific residues within this sequence suggests a mechanism for the controlled recruitment and displacement of CTD-interacting partners during the transcription cycle. The last CTD repeat (CTD52) contains unique interaction sites for the only known CTD tyrosine kinases, Abl1/c-Abl and Abl2/Arg, and the serine/threonine kinase casein kinase II (CKII). Here, we show that removal or severe disruption of the last CTD repeat, but not point mutation of its CKII sites, results in its proteolytic degradation to the Pol IIb form in vivo, but does not appear to affect the specific transcription of genes. These results suggest a possible mechanism of transcription control through the proteolytic removal of the Pol II CTD. PMID:14704341

  3. Analysis of the Interaction of the Novel RNA Polymerase II (pol II) Subunit hsRPB4 with Its Partner hsRPB7 and with pol II

    PubMed Central

    Khazak, Vladimir; Estojak, Joanne; Cho, Helen; Majors, Jenifer; Sonoda, Gonosuke; Testa, Joseph R.; Golemis, Erica A.

    1998-01-01

    Under conditions of environmental stress, prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae selectively utilize particular subunits of RNA polymerase II (pol II) to alter transcription to patterns favoring survival. In S. cerevisiae, a complex of two such subunits, RPB4 and RPB7, preferentially associates with pol II during stationary phase; of these two subunits, RPB4 is specifically required for survival under nonoptimal growth conditions. Previously, we have shown that RPB7 possesses an evolutionarily conserved human homolog, hsRPB7, which was capable of partially interacting with RPB4 and the yeast transcriptional apparatus. Using this as a probe in a two-hybrid screen, we have now established that hsRPB4 is also conserved in higher eukaryotes. In contrast to hsRPB7, hsRPB4 has diverged so that it no longer interacts with yeast RPB7, although it partially complements rpb4− phenotypes in yeast. However, hsRPB4 associates strongly and specifically with hsRPB7 when expressed in yeast or in mammalian cells and copurifies with intact pol II. hsRPB4 expression in humans parallels that of hsRPB7, supporting the idea that the two proteins may possess associated functions. Structure-function studies of hsRPB4-hsRPB7 are used to establish the interaction interface between the two proteins. This identification completes the set of human homologs for RNA pol II subunits defined in yeast and should provide the basis for subsequent structural and functional characterization of the pol II holoenzyme. PMID:9528765

  4. RNA Polymerase II Second Largest Subunit Molecular Identification of Boletus griseipurpureus Corner From Thailand and Antibacterial Activity of Basidiocarp Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Aung-aud-chariya, Amornrat; Bangrak, Phuwadol; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Phupong, Worrapong; Aggangan, Nelly Siababa; Kamlangdee, Niyom

    2015-01-01

    Background: Boletus griseipurpureus Corner, an edible mushroom, is a putative ectomycorrhizal fungus. Currently, the taxonomic boundary of this mushroom is unclear and its bitter taste makes it interesting for evaluating its antibacterial properties. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic variation of this mushroom and also to evaluate any antibacterial activities. Materials and Methods: Basidiocarps were collected from 2 north-eastern provinces, Roi Et and Ubon Ratchathani, and from 2 southern provinces, Songkhla and Surat Thani, in Thailand. Genomic DNA was extracted and molecular structure was examined using the RNA polymerase II (RPB2) analysis. Antibacterial activities of basidiocarp extracts were conducted with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29523 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 189 using the agar-well diffusion method. Results: All the samples collected for this study constituted a monophyletic clade, which was closely related with the Boletus group of polypore fungi. For the antibacterial study, it was found that the crude methanol extract of basidiomes inhibited the growth of all bacteria in vitro more than the crude ethyl acetate extract. Conclusions: Basidomes collected from four locations in Thailand had low genetic variation and their extracts inhibited the growth of all tested bacteria. The health benefits of this edible species should be evaluated further. PMID:25834720

  5. Identification of beta-subunit of bacterial RNA-polymerase--a non-species-specific bacterial protein--as target of antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Roesler, Kai-Wolfgang; Schmider, Wolfgang; Kist, Manfred; Batsford, Stephen; Schiltz, Emile; Oelke, Mathias; Tuczek, Anja; Dettenborn, Therese; Behringer, Dirk; Kreisel, Wolfgang

    2003-03-01

    Several observations suggest that bacteria induce autoimmunity in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Since no PBC-specific bacterial species could be identified, it can be speculated that the triggers are non-species-specific bacterial proteins. This hypothesis would imply that several or even all bacterial species can trigger PBC. Therefore, we investigated whether PBC exhibits immune reactions to non-species-specific bacterial antigens. Yersinia enterocolitica O3 was screened for the presence of proteins that were labeled by immunoblotting using PBC sera. We focused our investigations on a 160-kDa protein, which was further enriched and characterized by partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The prevalence of antibodies to this protein was determined by immunoblotting in a variety of diseases. The 160-kDa protein was identified as the beta-subunit of bacterial RNA-polymerase, a highly conserved bacterial protein with a very high degree of sequence identity among all bacterial species. Antibodies to the beta-subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase were specific for this protein. Until now no mammalian protein could be found that cross-reacts with these antibodies. The prevalence of antibodies to the beta-subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (ARPA) using the protein from Yersinia enterocolitica O3 (serum dilution 1:1000) was: healthy controls (HC, N = 101) 7.9%, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, N = 61) 32.8%, autoimmune hepatitis type 1 (AIH, N = 46) 26.1%, alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC, N = 44) 9.1%, Crohn's disease (CD, N = 38) 7.9%, ulcerative colitis (UC, N = 24) 8.3%, primary sclerosing cholangitis + UC (PSC/UC, N = 11) 0%, acute yersiniosis (Yers, N = 36) 19.4%, acute infection with Campylobacter jejuni (Camp, N = 10) 0%, acute Q-fever (QF, N = 16) 6.25%, chronic hepatitis C (HCV, N = 39) 7.7%, c-ANCA-positive vasculitis (Vasc, N = 40) 15%, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, N = 28) 10.7%, and malaria tropica (MT, N = 24) 16.7%. There was no significant

  6. Evidence that sigma factors are components of chloroplast RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Troxler, R F; Zhang, F; Hu, J; Bogorad, L

    1994-01-01

    Plastid genes are transcribed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase(s), which have been incompletely characterized and have been examined in a limited number of species. Plastid genomes contain rpoA, rpoB, rpoC1, and rpoC2 coding for alpha, beta, beta', and beta" RNA polymerase subunits that are homologous to the alpha, beta, and beta' subunits that constitute the core moiety of RNA polymerase in bacteria. However, genes with homology to sigma subunits in bacteria have not been found in plastid genomes. An antibody directed against the principal sigma subunit of RNA polymerase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was used to probe western blots of purified chloroplast RNA polymerase from maize, rice, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Cyanidium caldarium. Chloroplast RNA polymerase from maize and rice contained an immunoreactive 64-kD protein. Chloroplast RNA polymerase from C. reinhardtii contained immunoreactive 100- and 82-kD proteins, and chloroplast RNA polymerase from C. caldarium contained an immunoreactive 32-kD protein. The elution profile of enzyme activity of both algal chloroplast RNA polymerases coeluted from DEAE with the respective immunoreactive proteins, indicating that they are components of the enzyme. These results provide immunological evidence for sigma-like factors in chloroplast RNA polymerase in higher plants and algae. PMID:8159791

  7. Optimal Replication Activity of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus RNA Polymerase Requires Phosphorylation of a Residue(s) at Carboxy-Terminal Domain II of Its Accessory Subunit, Phosphoprotein P

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Leroy N.; Englund, Nathan; Das, Tapas; Banerjee, Amiya K.; Pattnaik, Asit K.

    1999-01-01

    The phosphoprotein, P, of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a key subunit of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex. The protein is phosphorylated at multiple sites in two different domains. We recently showed that specific serine and threonine residues within the amino-terminal acidic domain I of P protein must be phosphorylated for in vivo transcription activity, but not for replication activity, of the polymerase complex. To examine the role of phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain II residues of the P protein in transcription and replication, we have used a panel of mutant P proteins in which the phosphate acceptor sites (Ser-226, Ser-227, and Ser-233) were altered to alanines either individually or in various combinations. Analyses of the mutant proteins for their ability to support replication of a VSV minigenomic RNA suggest that phosphorylation of either Ser-226 or Ser-227 is necessary for optimal replication activity of the protein. The mutant protein (P226/227) in which both of these residues were altered to alanines was only about 8% active in replication compared to the wild-type (wt) protein. Substitution of alanine for Ser-233 did not have any adverse effect on replication activity of the protein. In contrast, all the mutant proteins showed activities similar to that of the wt protein in transcription. These results indicate that phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain II residues of P protein are required for optimal replication activity but not for transcription activity. Furthermore, substitution of glutamic acid residues for Ser-226 and Ser-227 resulted in a protein that was only 14% active in replication but almost fully active in transcription. Taken together, these results, along with our earlier studies, suggest that phosphorylation of residues at two different domains in the P protein regulates its activity in transcription and replication of the VSV genome. PMID:10364310

  8. Pivotal Role for a Tail Subunit of the RNA Polymerase II Mediator Complex CgMed2 in Azole Tolerance and Adherence in Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Sapan; Shivarathri, Raju; Srivastava, Vivek Kumar; Ferrari, Sélène; Sanglard, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Antifungal therapy failure can be associated with increased resistance to the employed antifungal agents. Candida glabrata, the second most common cause of invasive candidiasis, is intrinsically less susceptible to the azole class of antifungals and accounts for 15% of all Candida bloodstream infections. Here, we show that C. glabrata MED2 (CgMED2), which codes for a tail subunit of the RNA polymerase II Mediator complex, is required for resistance to azole antifungal drugs in C. glabrata. An inability to transcriptionally activate genes encoding a zinc finger transcriptional factor, CgPdr1, and multidrug efflux pump, CgCdr1, primarily contributes to the elevated susceptibility of the Cgmed2Δ mutant toward azole antifungals. We also report for the first time that the Cgmed2Δ mutant exhibits sensitivity to caspofungin, a constitutively activated protein kinase C-mediated cell wall integrity pathway, and elevated adherence to epithelial cells. The increased adherence of the Cgmed2Δ mutant was attributed to the elevated expression of the EPA1 and EPA7 genes. Further, our data demonstrate that CgMED2 is required for intracellular proliferation in human macrophages and modulates survival in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis. Lastly, we show an essential requirement for CgMed2, along with the Mediator middle subunit CgNut1 and the Mediator cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin subunit CgSrb8, for the high-level fluconazole resistance conferred by the hyperactive allele of CgPdr1. Together, our findings underscore a pivotal role for CgMed2 in basal tolerance and acquired resistance to azole antifungals. PMID:25070095

  9. Exploring RNA polymerase regulation by NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Drögemüller, Johanna; Strauß, Martin; Schweimer, Kristian; Wöhrl, Birgitta M.; Knauer, Stefan H.; Rösch, Paul

    2015-01-01

    RNA synthesis is a central process in all organisms, with RNA polymerase (RNAP) as the key enzyme. Multisubunit RNAPs are evolutionary related and are tightly regulated by a multitude of transcription factors. Although Escherichia coli RNAP has been studied extensively, only little information is available about its dynamics and transient interactions. This information, however, are crucial for the complete understanding of transcription regulation in atomic detail. To study RNAP by NMR spectroscopy we developed a highly efficient procedure for the assembly of active RNAP from separately expressed subunits that allows specific labeling of the individual constituents. We recorded [1H,13C] correlation spectra of isoleucine, leucine, and valine methyl groups of complete RNAP and the separately labeled β’ subunit within reconstituted RNAP. We further produced all RNAP subunits individually, established experiments to determine which RNAP subunit a certain regulator binds to, and identified the β subunit to bind NusE. PMID:26043358

  10. Multisubunit RNA Polymerases IV and V: Purveyors of Non-Coding RNA for Plant Gene Silencing

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2011-08-01

    In all eukaryotes, nuclear DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II and III synthesize the myriad RNAs that are essential for life. Remarkably, plants have evolved two additional multisubunit RNA polymerases, RNA polymerases IV and V, which orchestrate non-coding RNA-mediated gene silencing processes affecting development, transposon taming, antiviral defence and allelic crosstalk. Biochemical details concerning the templates and products of RNA polymerases IV and V are lacking. However, their subunit compositions reveal that they evolved as specialized forms of RNA polymerase II, which provides the unique opportunity to study the functional diversification of a eukaryotic RNA polymerase family.

  11. Evaluation of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase ß-subunit gene (rpoB) for phytoplasma classification and phylogeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoplasmas are classified into 16Sr groups, subgroups, and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species, largely or entirely based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Yet, distinctions among closely related ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species and strains based on 16S rRNA gene sequences alone has limitation...

  12. Phenotypic characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of vaccinia virus with mutations in a 135,000-Mr subunit of the virion-associated DNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Ensinger, M J

    1987-01-01

    The phenotypic defects of three temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of vaccinia virus, the ts mutations of which were mapped to the gene for one of the high-molecular-weight subunits of the virion-associated DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, were characterized. Because the virion RNA polymerase is required for the initiation of the viral replication cycle, it has been predicted that this type of mutant is defective in viral DNA replication and the synthesis of early viral proteins at the nonpermissive temperature. However, all three mutants synthesized both DNA and early proteins, and two of the three synthesized late proteins as well. RNA synthesis in vitro by permeabilized mutant virions was not more ts than that by the wild type. Furthermore, only one of three RNA polymerase activities that was partially purified from virions assembled at the permissive temperature displayed altered biochemical properties in vitro that could be correlated with its ts mutation: the ts13 activity had reduced specific activity, increased temperature sensitivity, and increased thermolability under a variety of preincubation conditions. Although the partially purified polymerase activity of a second mutant, ts72, was also more thermolabile than the wild-type activity, the thermolability was shown to be the result of a second mutation within the RNA polymerase gene. These results suggest that the defects in these mutants affect the assembly of newly synthesized polymerase subunits into active enzyme or the incorporation of RNA polymerase into maturing virions; once synthesized at the permissive temperature, the mutant polymerases are able to function in the initiation of subsequent rounds of infection at the nonpermissive temperature. Images PMID:3573151

  13. Evasion of the Innate Immune Response: the Old World Alphavirus nsP2 Protein Induces Rapid Degradation of Rpb1, a Catalytic Subunit of RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Akhrymuk, Ivan; Kulemzin, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    The Old World alphaviruses are emerging human pathogens with an ability to cause widespread epidemics. The latest epidemic of Chikungunya virus, from 2005 to 2007, affected over 40 countries in Africa, Asia, and Europe. The Old World alphaviruses are highly cytopathic and known to evade the cellular antiviral response by inducing global inhibition of transcription in vertebrate cells. This function was shown to be mediated by their nonstructural nsP2 protein; however, the detailed mechanism of this phenomenon has remained unknown. Here, we report that nsP2 proteins of Sindbis, Semliki Forest, and Chikungunya viruses inhibit cellular transcription by inducing rapid degradation of Rpb1, a catalytic subunit of the RNAPII complex. This degradation of Rpb1 is independent of the nsP2-associated protease activity, but, instead, it proceeds through nsP2-mediated Rpb1 ubiquitination. This function of nsP2 depends on the integrity of the helicase and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase-like domains, and point mutations in either of these domains abolish Rpb1 degradation. We go on to show that complete degradation of Rpb1 in alphavirus-infected cells occurs within 6 h postinfection, before other previously described virus-induced changes in cell physiology, such as apoptosis, autophagy, and inhibition of STAT1 phosphorylation, are detected. Since Rpb1 is a subunit that catalyzes the polymerase reaction during RNA transcription, degradation of Rpb1 plays an indispensable role in blocking the activation of cellular genes and downregulating cellular antiviral response. This indicates that the nsP2-induced degradation of Rpb1 is a critical mechanism utilized by the Old World alphaviruses to subvert the cellular antiviral response. PMID:22514352

  14. Interaction of T4 AsiA with its target sites in the RNA polymerase sigma70 subunit leads to distinct and opposite effects on transcription.

    PubMed

    Minakhin, Leonid; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Adelman, Karen; Urbauer, Jeffrey L; Heyduk, Tomasz; Severinov, Konstantin

    2003-02-21

    Bacteriophage T4 AsiA is a homodimeric protein that orchestrates a switch from the host and early viral transcription to middle viral transcription by binding to the sigma(70) subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme (Esigma(70)) and preventing promoter complex formation on most E.coli and early T4 promoters. In addition, Esigma(70)AsiA, but not Esigma(70), is a substrate of transcription activation by T4-encoded DNA-binding protein MotA, a co-activator of transcription from middle viral promoters. The molecular determinants of sigma(70)-AsiA interaction necessary for transcription inhibition reside in the sigma(70) conserved region 4.2, which recognizes the -35 promoter consensus element. The molecular determinants of sigma(70)-AsiA interaction necessary for MotA-dependent transcription activation have not been identified. Here, we show that in the absence of sigma(70) region 4.2, AsiA interacts with sigma(70) conserved region 4.1 and activates transcription in a MotA-independent manner. Further, we show that the AsiA dimer must dissociate to interact with either region 4.2 or region 4.1 of sigma(70). We propose that MotA may co-activate transcription by restricting AsiA binding to sigma(70) region 4.1. PMID:12581632

  15. A Mutation of RNA Polymerase β′ Subunit (RpoC) Converts Heterogeneously Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) into “Slow VISA”

    PubMed Central

    Hishinuma, Tomomi; Katayama, Yuki; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Various mutations in the rpoB gene, which encodes the RNA polymerase β subunit, are associated with increased vancomycin (VAN) resistance in vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and heterogeneously VISA (hVISA) strains. We reported that rpoB mutations are also linked to the expression of the recently found “slow VISA” (sVISA) phenotype (M. Saito, Y. Katayama, T. Hishinuma, A. Iwamoto, Y. Aiba, K Kuwahara-Arai, L. Cui, M. Matsuo, N. Aritaka, and K. Hiramatsu, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58:5024–5035, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02470-13). Because RpoC and RpoB are components of RNA polymerase, we examined the effect of the rpoC(P440L) mutation on the expression of the sVISA phenotype in the Mu3fdh2*V6-5 strain (V6-5), which was derived from a previously reported hVISA strain with the VISA phenotype. V6-5 had an extremely prolonged doubling time (DT) (72 min) and high vancomycin MIC (16 mg/liter). However, the phenotype of V6-5 was unstable, and the strain frequently reverted to hVISA with concomitant loss of low growth rate, cell wall thickness, and reduced autolysis. Whole-genome sequencing of phenotypic revertant strain V6-5-L1 and comparison with V6-5 revealed a second mutation, F562L, in rpoC. Introduction of the wild-type (WT) rpoC gene using a multicopy plasmid resolved the sVISA phenotype of V6-5, indicating that the rpoC(P440L) mutant expressed the sVISA phenotype in hVISA. To investigate the mechanisms of resistance in the sVISA strain, we independently isolated an additional 10 revertants to hVISA and VISA. In subsequent whole-genome analysis, we identified compensatory mutations in the genes of three distinct functional categories: the rpoC gene itself as regulatory mutations, peptidoglycan biosynthesis genes, and relQ, which is involved in the stringent response. It appears that the rpoC(P440L) mutation causes the sVISA phenotype by augmenting cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis and through the control of the stringent

  16. Thermoinducible filamentation in Escherichia coli due to an altered RNA polymerase beta subunit is suppressed by high levels of ppGpp.

    PubMed Central

    Vinella, D; D'Ari, R

    1994-01-01

    The Escherichia coli strain known as GC2553, FB8, UTH1038, or K12S (Luria), considered an F- lambda- wild-type strain, is shown here to carry a cryptic mutation, ftsR1, causing nonlethal filamentation during exponential growth in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth at 42 degrees C and the inability to grow in salt-free LB broth at 42 degrees C. The ftsR1 mutation is completely suppressed in genetic backgrounds which increase RelA-dependent synthesis of the nucleotide ppGpp, i.e., argS201 (Mecr) and alaS21 (Mecr) mutations, affecting aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, or the presence of a plac-relA' plasmid. These backgrounds also confer resistance in LB broth to the beta-lactam mecillinam, an antibiotic which specifically inhibits penicillin-binding protein 2 and, in wild-type cells, causes an indirect block in cell division. Furthermore, the ftsR1 mutant (but not an isogenic ftsR+ strain) is sensitive to mecillinam in minimal glucose medium at 37 degrees C. Since the division block caused by mecillinam can be overcome by overproduction of the cell division protein FtsZ, we tested the effect of plasmid pZAQ (carrying the ftsZ, ftsA, and ftsQ genes) on the ftsR1 mutant; it suppressed the filamentation in LB broth and the mecillinam sensitivity on minimal glucose medium at 37 degrees C but not the growth defect in salt-free LB broth at 42 degrees C. Genetic analysis indicated that the full phenotype of the ftsR1 mutant is due to a single mutation in the rpoB gene (90 min), coding for the beta subunit of RNA polymerase; we call this allele rpoB369(Fts). We propose that the rpoB369(Fts) mutation alters the specificity of the polymerase and that the mutant enzyme can recover normal activity in the presence of high salt concentrations or via interaction with the nucleotide ppGpp. PMID:8106339

  17. A multiprotein complex that interacts with RNA polymerase II elongator.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Takagi, Y; Jiang, Y; Tokunaga, M; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Tempst, P; Kornberg, R D

    2001-08-10

    A three-subunit Hap complex that interacts with the RNA polymerase II Elongator was isolated from yeast. Deletions of genes for two Hap subunits, HAP1 and HAP3, confer pGKL killer-insensitive and weak Elongator phenotypes. Preferential interaction of the Hap complex with free rather than RNA polymerase II-associated Elongator suggests a role in the regulation of Elongator activity. PMID:11390369

  18. The PB2 Subunit of the Influenza Virus RNA Polymerase Affects Virulence by Interacting with the Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling Protein and Inhibiting Expression of Beta Interferon▿

    PubMed Central

    Graef, Katy M.; Vreede, Frank T.; Lau, Yuk-Fai; McCall, Amber W.; Carr, Simon M.; Subbarao, Kanta; Fodor, Ervin

    2010-01-01

    The PB2 subunit of the influenza virus RNA polymerase is a major virulence determinant of influenza viruses. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. It was previously shown that the PB2 protein, in addition to its nuclear localization, also accumulates in the mitochondria. Here, we demonstrate that the PB2 protein interacts with the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein, MAVS (also known as IPS-1, VISA, or Cardif), and inhibits MAVS-mediated beta interferon (IFN-β) expression. In addition, we show that PB2 proteins of influenza viruses differ in their abilities to associate with the mitochondria. In particular, the PB2 proteins of seasonal human influenza viruses localize to the mitochondria while PB2 proteins of avian influenza viruses are nonmitochondrial. This difference in localization is caused by a single amino acid polymorphism in the PB2 mitochondrial targeting signal. In order to address the functional significance of the mitochondrial localization of the PB2 protein in vivo, we have generated two recombinant human influenza viruses encoding either mitochondrial or nonmitochondrial PB2 proteins. We found that the difference in the mitochondrial localization of the PB2 proteins does not affect the growth of these viruses in cell culture. However, the virus encoding the nonmitochondrial PB2 protein induces higher levels of IFN-β and, in an animal model, is attenuated compared to the isogenic virus encoding a mitochondrial PB2. Overall this study implicates the PB2 protein in the regulation of host antiviral innate immune pathways and suggests an important role for the mitochondrial association of the PB2 protein in determining virulence. PMID:20538852

  19. NMR structure of a complex containing the TFIIF subunit RAP74 and the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain phosphatase FCP1

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Bao D.; Abbott, Karen L.; Potempa, Krzysztof; Kobor, Michael S.; Archambault, Jacques; Greenblatt, Jack; Legault, Pascale; Omichinski, James G.

    2003-01-01

    FCP1 [transcription factor IIF (TFIIF)-associated carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase] is the only identified phosphatase specific for the phosphorylated CTD of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). The phosphatase activity of FCP1 is enhanced in the presence of the large subunit of TFIIF (RAP74 in humans). It has been demonstrated that the CTD of RAP74 (cterRAP74; residues 436–517) directly interacts with the highly acidic CTD of FCP1 (cterFCP; residues 879–961 in human). In this manuscript, we have determined a high-resolution solution structure of a cterRAP74/cterFCP complex by NMR spectroscopy. Interestingly, the cterFCP protein is completely disordered in the unbound state, but forms an α-helix (H1′; E945–M961) in the complex. The cterRAP74/cterFCP binding interface relies extensively on van der Waals contacts between hydrophobic residues from the H2 and H3 helices of cterRAP74 and hydrophobic residues from the H1′ helix of cterFCP. The binding interface also contains two critical electrostatic interactions involving aspartic acid residues from H1′ of cterFCP and lysine residues from both H2 and H3 of cterRAP74. There are also three additional polar interactions involving highly conserved acidic residues from the H1′ helix. The cterRAP74/cterFCP complex is the first high-resolution structure between an acidic residue-rich domain from a holoenzyme-associated regulatory protein and a general transcription factor. The structure defines a clear role for both hydrophobic and acidic residues in protein/protein complexes involving acidic residue-rich domains in transcription regulatory proteins. PMID:12732728

  20. NMR structure of a complex containing the TFIIF subunit RAP74 and the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain phosphatase FCP1.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Bao D; Abbott, Karen L; Potempa, Krzysztof; Kobor, Michael S; Archambault, Jacques; Greenblatt, Jack; Legault, Pascale; Omichinski, James G

    2003-05-13

    FCP1 [transcription factor IIF (TFIIF)-associated carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase] is the only identified phosphatase specific for the phosphorylated CTD of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). The phosphatase activity of FCP1 is enhanced in the presence of the large subunit of TFIIF (RAP74 in humans). It has been demonstrated that the CTD of RAP74 (cterRAP74; residues 436-517) directly interacts with the highly acidic CTD of FCP1 (cterFCP; residues 879-961 in human). In this manuscript, we have determined a high-resolution solution structure of a cterRAP74cterFCP complex by NMR spectroscopy. Interestingly, the cterFCP protein is completely disordered in the unbound state, but forms an alpha-helix (H1'; E945-M961) in the complex. The cterRAP74cterFCP binding interface relies extensively on van der Waals contacts between hydrophobic residues from the H2 and H3 helices of cterRAP74 and hydrophobic residues from the H1' helix of cterFCP. The binding interface also contains two critical electrostatic interactions involving aspartic acid residues from H1' of cterFCP and lysine residues from both H2 and H3 of cterRAP74. There are also three additional polar interactions involving highly conserved acidic residues from the H1' helix. The cterRAP74cterFCP complex is the first high-resolution structure between an acidic residue-rich domain from a holoenzyme-associated regulatory protein and a general transcription factor. The structure defines a clear role for both hydrophobic and acidic residues in proteinprotein complexes involving acidic residue-rich domains in transcription regulatory proteins. PMID:12732728

  1. The rpoZ Gene, Encoding the RNA Polymerase Omega Subunit, Is Required for Antibiotic Production and Morphological Differentiation in Streptomyces kasugaensis

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Ikuo; Kasuga, Kano; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Fukasawa, Akira; Mizuno, Satoshi; Arisawa, Akira; Akagawa, Hisayoshi

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of pleiotropic mutants that are defective in both antibiotic production and aerial mycelium formation is peculiar to streptomycetes. Pleiotropic mutant KSB was isolated from wild-type Streptomyces kasugaensis A1R6, which produces kasugamycin, an antifungal aminoglycoside antibiotic. A 9.3-kb DNA fragment was cloned from the chromosomal DNA of strain A1R6 by complementary restoration of kasugamycin production and aerial hypha formation to mutant KSB. Complementation experiments with deletion plasmids and subsequent DNA analysis indicated that orf5, encoding 90 amino acids, was responsible for the restoration. A protein homology search revealed that orf5 was a homolog of rpoZ, the gene that is known to encode RNA polymerase subunit omega (ω), thus leading to the conclusion that orf5 was rpoZ in S. kasugaensis. The pleiotropy of mutant KSB was attributed to a 2-bp frameshift deletion in the rpoZ region of mutant KSB, which probably resulted in a truncated, incomplete ω of 47 amino acids. Furthermore, rpoZ-disrupted mutant R6D4 obtained from strain A1R6 by insertion of Tn5 aphII into the middle of the rpoZ-coding region produced neither kasugamycin nor aerial mycelia, similar to mutant KSB. When rpoZ of S. kasugaensis and Streptomyces coelicolor, whose deduced products differed in the sixth amino acid residue, were introduced into mutant R6D4 via a plasmid, both transformants produced kasugamycin and aerial hyphae without significant differences. This study established that rpoZ is required for kasugamycin production and aerial mycelium formation in S. kasugaensis and responsible for pleiotropy. PMID:12426327

  2. Basic mechanism of transcription by RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Svetlov, Vladimir; Nudler, Evgeny

    2012-01-01

    RNA polymerase II-like enzymes carry out transcription of genomes in Eukaryota, Archaea, and some viruses. They also exhibit fundamental similarity to RNA polymerases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. In this review we take an inventory of recent studiesilluminating different steps of basic transcription mechanism, likely common for most multi-subunit RNA polymerases. Through the amalgamation of structural and computational chemistry data we attempt to highlight the most feasible reaction pathway for the two-metal nucleotidyl transfer mechanism, and to evaluate the way catalysis can be linked to translocation in the mechano-chemical cycle catalyzed by RNA polymerase II. PMID:22982365

  3. Solving the RNA polymerase I structural puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno-Morcillo, María; Taylor, Nicholas M. I.; Gruene, Tim; Legrand, Pierre; Rashid, Umar J.; Ruiz, Federico M.; Steuerwald, Ulrich; Müller, Christoph W.; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Details of the RNA polymerase I crystal structure determination provide a framework for solution of the structures of other multi-subunit complexes. Simple crystallographic experiments are described to extract relevant biological information such as the location of the enzyme active site. Knowing the structure of multi-subunit complexes is critical to understand basic cellular functions. However, when crystals of these complexes can be obtained they rarely diffract beyond 3 Å resolution, which complicates X-ray structure determination and refinement. The crystal structure of RNA polymerase I, an essential cellular machine that synthesizes the precursor of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus of eukaryotic cells, has recently been solved. Here, the crucial steps that were undertaken to build the atomic model of this multi-subunit enzyme are reported, emphasizing how simple crystallographic experiments can be used to extract relevant biological information. In particular, this report discusses the combination of poor molecular replacement and experimental phases, the application of multi-crystal averaging and the use of anomalous scatterers as sequence markers to guide tracing and to locate the active site. The methods outlined here will likely serve as a reference for future structural determination of large complexes at low resolution.

  4. E. coli RNA polymerase, deleted in the C-terminal part of its alpha-subunit, interacts differently with the cAMP-CRP complex at the lacP1 and at the galP1 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, A; Igarashi, K; Ishihama, A; Lavigne, M; Buckle, M; Buc, H

    1993-01-01

    A deletion of the C-terminal part of the alpha-subunit of RNA polymerase is known to affect differently promoters activated by CRP depending on the location of the CRP binding site at the promoter. When the CRP binding site is located at -61.5, as at lacP1 (a type I promoter), activation is strongly impaired while it is not significantly affected at galP1 where CRP binds 41.5 bp upstream of the start of the message (type II promoter). We have investigated the differences in the architecture of the corresponding open complexes by comparing the positioning of holoenzymes reconstituted respectively with native or with truncated alpha-subunits (containing the first 235 or 256 residues of a) at two 'up' promoter mutants of the lacP1 and galP1 promoters (respectively lacUV5 and gal9A16C). First, the affinity of wild-type RNA polymerase for both promoters is increased by the presence of CRP and cAMP. By contrast, holoenzymes reconstituted with truncated alpha-subunits, show cooperative binding at the galP1 promoter only. Second, footprinting data confirm these observations and indicate that the truncated holoenzymes are unable to recognize regions of the promoter upstream from position -40. The absence of contacts between the truncated enzymes and CRP at the lacP1 promoter can explain the deficiency in activation. At the galP1 promoter, where the CRP site is closer to the initiation site, protein-protein contacts can still occur with the truncated polymerases, showing that the C-terminal part of the alpha-subunit is not involved in activation. Images PMID:8382795

  5. Transcription Initiation in a Single-subunit RNA Polymerase proceeds through DNA Scrunching and Rotation of the N-terminal subdomains†

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Guo-Qing; Roy, Rahul; Ha, Taekjip; Patel, Smita S.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Elucidating the mechanism of transcription initiation by RNA polymerases (RNAP) is essential for understanding gene transcription and regulation. Although several models such as DNA scrunching, RNAP translation, and RNAP rotation have been proposed, the mechanism of initiation by T7 RNAP has remained unclear. Using ensemble and single molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies, we provide evidence for concerted DNA scrunching and rotation during initiation by T7 RNAP. A constant spatial distance between the upstream and downstream edges of initiation complexes making 4-7 nt RNA supports the DNA scrunching model, but not the RNAP translation or the pure rotation model. DNA scrunching is accompanied by moderate hinging motion (18 ± 4°) of the promoter towards the downstream DNA. The observed step-wise conformational changes provide a basis to understand abortive RNA synthesis during early stages of initiation and promoter escape during the later stages that allows transition to processive elongation. PMID:18538655

  6. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III recruitment factor subunits Brf1 and Bdp1 impose a strict sequence preference for the downstream half of the TATA box.

    PubMed

    Tsihlis, Nick D; Grove, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Association of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) with its cognate site within eukaryotic promoters is key to accurate and efficient transcriptional initiation. To achieve recruitment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III, TBP is associated with two additional factors, Brf1 and Bdp1, to form the initiation factor TFIIIB. Previous data have suggested that the structure or dynamics of the TBP-DNA complex may be altered upon entry of Brf1 and Bdp1 into the complex. We show here, using the altered specificity TBP mutant TBPm3 and an iterative in vitro selection assay, that entry of Brf1 and Bdp1 into the complex imposes a strict sequence preference for the downstream half of the TATA box. Notably, the selected sequence (TGTAAATA) is a perfect match to the TATA box of the RNA polymerase III-transcribed U6 small nuclear RNA (SNR6) gene. We suggest that the selected T*A base pair step at the downstream end of the 8 bp TBP site may provide a DNA flexure that promotes TFIIIB-DNA complex formation. PMID:17028095

  7. The epitope for the polyol-responsive monoclonal antibody 8RB13 is in the flap-domain of the beta-subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase and can be used as an epitope tag for immunoaffinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Elizabeth S; Nagy, Lauren H; Batalla, Pilar; Arthur, Terrance M; Thompson, Nancy E; Burgess, Richard R

    2011-05-01

    Polyol-responsive monoclonal antibodies (PR-mAbs) are useful for the purification of proteins in an easy, one step immunoaffinity step. These antibodies allow for gentle purification of proteins and protein complexes using a combination of a low molecular weight polyhydroxylated compound (polyol) and a nonchaotrophic salt in the eluting buffer. mAb 8RB13 has been characterized as one of these PR-mAbs and has been used to purify RNA polymerase from five species of bacteria. Here the epitope for 8RB13 has been identified as PEEKLLRAIFGEKAS, a sequence that is highly conserved in the β-subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase. This sequence is located in the "beta-flap" domain of RNA polymerase (and essentially comprises the "flap-tip helix"), an important binding site for sigma70. This location explains why only the core RNAP is purified using this mAb. This amino acid sequence has been developed into an epitope tag that can be used to purify a target protein from either bacterial or eukaryotic cells when genetically fused to a protein of interest. PMID:21215316

  8. Med8, a subunit of the mediator CTD complex of RNA polymerase II, directly binds to regulatory elements of SUC2 and HXK2 genes.

    PubMed

    Chaves, R S; Herrero, P; Moreno, F

    1999-01-19

    In a search to identify new factors required for expression of SUC2 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have partially purified a 27 kDa protein (p27) that bound both the DRSs of the HXK2 gene and the UASs of SUC2 gene. The amino terminal sequence of p27 identified the MED8 gene (open reading frame YBR193C), located in chromosome II of S. cerevisiae, as the gene coding for the protein. Disruption of this gene has demonstrated that is an essential gene for yeast growth. To determine whether the p27 protein represents the Med8 product, we expressed MED8 gene in E. coli and demonstrated that the heterologous synthesized protein specifically binds to both UASSUC2 and DRS2HXK2. This observation suggests that Med8 may be important for the coupling of the glucose repression pathway of SUC2 gene to the HXK2 gene expression. Med8 has been described as a mediator protein interacting with the CTD of the RNA polymerase II. Thus, the role of Med8 could be to act as coupling factor by linking activating and repressing transcription complexes to the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme transcriptional machinery. PMID:9918841

  9. The RNA Polymerase of Marine Cyanophage Syn5*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Tabor, Stanley; Raytcheva, Desislava A.; Hernandez, Alfredo; King, Jonathan A.; Richardson, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    A single subunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was identified and purified to apparent homogeneity from cyanophage Syn5 that infects the marine cyanobacteria Synechococcus. Syn5 is homologous to bacteriophage T7 that infects Escherichia coli. Using the purified enzyme its promoter has been identified by examining transcription of segments of Syn5 DNA and sequencing the 5′-termini of the transcripts. Only two Syn5 RNAP promoters, having the sequence 5′-ATTGGGCACCCGTAA-3′, are found within the Syn5 genome. One promoter is located within the Syn5 RNA polymerase gene and the other is located close to the right genetic end of the genome. The purified enzyme and its promoter have enabled a determination of the requirements for transcription. Unlike the salt-sensitive bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, this marine RNA polymerase requires 160 mm potassium for maximal activity. The optimal temperature for Syn5 RNA polymerase is 24 °C, much lower than that for T7 RNA polymerase. Magnesium is required as a cofactor although some activity is observed with ferrous ions. Syn5 RNA polymerase is more efficient in utilizing low concentrations of ribonucleotides than T7 RNA polymerase. PMID:23258537

  10. Molecular characterization of a gene POLR2H encoded an essential subunit for RNA polymerase II from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda Melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Du, Yu-Jie; Hou, Yi-Ling; Hou, Wan-Ru

    2013-02-01

    The Giant Panda is an endangered and valuable gene pool in genetic, its important functional gene POLR2H encodes an essential shared peptide H of RNA polymerases. The genomic DNA and cDNA sequences were cloned successfully for the first time from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) adopting touchdown-PCR and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The length of the genomic sequence of the Giant Panda is 3,285 bp, including five exons and four introns. The cDNA fragment cloned is 509 bp in length, containing an open reading frame of 453 bp encoding 150 amino acids. Alignment analysis indicated that both the cDNA and its deduced amino acid sequence were highly conserved. Protein structure prediction showed that there was one protein kinase C phosphorylation site, four casein kinase II phosphorylation sites and one amidation site in the POLR2H protein, further shaping advanced protein structure. The cDNA cloned was expressed in Escherichia coli, which indicated that POLR2H fusion with the N-terminally His-tagged form brought about the accumulation of an expected 20.5 kDa polypeptide in line with the predicted protein. On the basis of what has already been achieved in this study, further deep-in research will be conducted, which has great value in theory and practical significance. PMID:23070920

  11. Conformational changes in E. coli RNA polymerase during promoter recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Brodolin, K L; Studitsky, V M; Mirzabekov, A D

    1993-01-01

    We analysed complexes formed during recognition of the lacUV5 promoter by E. coli RNA polymerase using formaldehyde as a DNA-protein and protein-protein cross-linking reagent. Most of the cross-linked complexes specific for the open complex (RPO) contain the beta' subunit of RNA polymerase cross-linked with promoter DNA in the regions: -50 to -49; -5 to -10; + 5 to +8 and +18 to +21. The protein-protein cross-linking pattern of contacting subunits is the same for the RNA polymerase in solution and in RPO: there are strong sigma-beta' and beta-beta' interactions. In contrast, only beta-beta' cross-links were detected in the closed (RPC) and intermediate (RPI) complexes. In presence of lac repressor before or after formation of the RPO cross-linking pattern is similar with that of RPI (RPC) complex. Images PMID:8284224

  12. Ancient origin, functional conservation and fast evolution of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase III

    PubMed Central

    Proshkina, Galina M.; Shematorova, Elena K.; Proshkin, Sergey A.; Zaros, Cécile; Thuriaux, Pierre; Shpakovski, George V.

    2006-01-01

    RNA polymerase III contains seventeen subunits in yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and in human cells. Twelve of them are akin to the core RNA polymerase I or II. The five other are RNA polymerase III-specific and form the functionally distinct groups Rpc31-Rpc34-Rpc82 and Rpc37-Rpc53. Currently sequenced eukaryotic genomes revealed significant homology to these seventeen subunits in Fungi, Animals, Plants and Amoebozoans. Except for subunit Rpc31, this also extended to the much more distantly related genomes of Alveolates and Excavates, indicating that the complex subunit organization of RNA polymerase III emerged at a very early stage of eukaryotic evolution. The Sch.pombe subunits were expressed in S.cerevisiae null mutants and tested for growth. Ten core subunits showed heterospecific complementation, but the two largest catalytic subunits (Rpc1 and Rpc2) and all five RNA polymerase III-specific subunits (Rpc82, Rpc53, Rpc37, Rpc34 and Rpc31) were non-functional. Three highly conserved RNA polymerase III-specific domains were found in the twelve-subunit core structure. They correspond to the Rpc17-Rpc25 dimer, involved in transcription initiation, to an N-terminal domain of the largest subunit Rpc1 important to anchor Rpc31, Rpc34 and Rpc82, and to a C-terminal domain of Rpc1 that presumably holds Rpc37, Rpc53 and their Rpc11 partner. PMID:16877568

  13. Binding interface between the Salmonella σS/RpoS subunit of RNA polymerase and Crl: hints from bacterial species lacking crl

    PubMed Central

    Cavaliere, Paola; Sizun, Christina; Levi-Acobas, Fabienne; Nowakowski, Mireille; Monteil, Véronique; Bontems, François; Bellalou, Jacques; Mayer, Claudine; Norel, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    In many Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), the sigma factor RpoS/σS accumulates during stationary phase of growth, and associates with the core RNA polymerase enzyme (E) to promote transcription initiation of genes involved in general stress resistance and starvation survival. Whereas σ factors are usually inactivated upon interaction with anti-σ proteins, σS binding to the Crl protein increases σS activity by favouring its association to E. Taking advantage of evolution of the σS sequence in bacterial species that do not contain a crl gene, like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we identified and assigned a critical arginine residue in σS to the S. Typhimurium σS-Crl binding interface. We solved the solution structure of S. Typhimurium Crl by NMR and used it for NMR binding assays with σS and to generate in silico models of the σS-Crl complex constrained by mutational analysis. The σS-Crl models suggest that the identified arginine in σS interacts with an aspartate of Crl that is required for σS binding and is located inside a cavity enclosed by flexible loops, which also contribute to the interface. This study provides the basis for further structural investigation of the σS-Crl complex. PMID:26338235

  14. Solving the RNA polymerase I structural puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Morcillo, María; Taylor, Nicholas M. I.; Gruene, Tim; Legrand, Pierre; Rashid, Umar J.; Ruiz, Federico M.; Steuerwald, Ulrich; Müller, Christoph W.; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the structure of multi-subunit complexes is critical to understand basic cellular functions. However, when crystals of these complexes can be obtained they rarely diffract beyond 3 Å resolution, which complicates X-ray structure determination and refinement. The crystal structure of RNA polymerase I, an essential cellular machine that synthesizes the precursor of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus of eukaryotic cells, has recently been solved. Here, the crucial steps that were undertaken to build the atomic model of this multi-subunit enzyme are reported, emphasizing how simple crystallographic experiments can be used to extract relevant biological information. In particular, this report discusses the combination of poor molecular replacement and experimental phases, the application of multi-crystal averaging and the use of anomalous scatterers as sequence markers to guide tracing and to locate the active site. The methods outlined here will likely serve as a reference for future structural determination of large complexes at low resolution. PMID:25286842

  15. Characterization by automated DNA sequencing of mutations in the gene (rpoB) encoding the RNA polymerase beta subunit in rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from New York City and Texas.

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, V; Li, L L; Iordanescu, S; Hamrick, M R; Wanger, A; Kreiswirth, B N; Musser, J M

    1994-01-01

    Automated DNA sequencing was used to characterize mutations associated with rifampin resistance in a 69-bp region of the gene, rpoB, encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The data confirmed that greater than 90% of rifampin-resistant strains have sequence alterations in this region and showed that most are missense mutations. The analysis also identified several mutant rpoB alleles not previously associated with resistant organisms and one short region of rpoB that had an unusually high frequency of insertions and deletions. Although many strains with an identical IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern have the same variant rpoB allele, some do not, a result that suggests the occurrence of evolutionary divergence at the clone level. PMID:8027320

  16. The sua8 suppressors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode replacements of conserved residues within the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and affect transcription start site selection similarly to sua7 (TFIIB) mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Berroteran, R W; Ware, D E; Hampsey, M

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sua8 gene were found to be suppressors of an aberrant ATG translation initiation codon in the leader region of the cyc1 gene. Analysis of cyc1 transcripts from sua8 mutants revealed that suppression is a consequence of diminished transcription initiation at the normal start sites in favor of initiation at downstream sites, including a site between the aberrant and normal ATG start codons. This effect is not cyc1 gene specific since initiation at other genes, including ADH1, CYC7, and HIS4, was similarly affected, although initiation at HIS3 and SPT15 was unaffected. The SUA8 gene was cloned and partially sequenced, revealing identity to RPB1, which encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. The sua8 suppressors are the result of single amino acid replacements of highly conserved residues. Three replacements were found either within or immediately preceding homology block D, and a fourth was found adjacent to homology block H, indicating that these regions play a role in defining start sites in vivo. Nearly identical effects on start site selection were observed for sua7 suppressors, which encode altered forms of TFIIB. Synthetic lethality was associated with double sua7 sua8 suppressor mutations, and recessive sua7 mutants failed to fully complement recessive sua8 mutants in heterozygous diploids (nonallelic noncomplementation). These data indicate that the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and TFIIB are important determinants of transcription start site selection in S. cerevisiae and suggest that this function might be conferred by interaction between these two proteins. Images PMID:8264591

  17. Repeated tertiary fold of RNA polymerase II and implications for DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Fu, J; Gerstein, M; David, P R; Gnatt, A L; Bushnell, D A; Edwards, A M; Kornberg, R D

    1998-07-17

    X-ray diffraction data from two forms of yeast RNA polymerase II crystals indicate that the two largest subunits of the polymerase, Rpb1 and Rpb2, may have similar folds, as is suggested by secondary structure predictions. DNA may bind between the two subunits with its 2-fold axis aligned to a pseudo 2-fold axis of the protein. PMID:9665838

  18. A bridge to transcription by RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Craig D; Kornberg, Roger D

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of single amino-acid substitution mutations critical for RNA polymerase function published in Journal of Biology supports a proposed mechanism for polymerase action in which movement of the polymerase 'bridge helix' promotes transcriptional activity in cooperation with a critical substrate-interaction domain, the 'trigger loop'. PMID:19090964

  19. Structure of transcribing mammalian RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Bernecky, Carrie; Herzog, Franz; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Cramer, Patrick

    2016-01-28

    RNA polymerase (Pol) II produces messenger RNA during transcription of protein-coding genes in all eukaryotic cells. The Pol II structure is known at high resolution from X-ray crystallography for two yeast species. Structural studies of mammalian Pol II, however, remain limited to low-resolution electron microscopy analysis of human Pol II and its complexes with various proteins. Here we report the 3.4 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of mammalian Pol II in the form of a transcribing complex comprising DNA template and RNA transcript. We use bovine Pol II, which is identical to the human enzyme except for seven amino-acid residues. The obtained atomic model closely resembles its yeast counterpart, but also reveals unknown features. Binding of nucleic acids to the polymerase involves 'induced fit' of the mobile Pol II clamp and active centre region. DNA downstream of the transcription bubble contacts a conserved 'TPSA motif' in the jaw domain of the Pol II subunit RPB5, an interaction that is apparently already established during transcription initiation. Upstream DNA emanates from the active centre cleft at an angle of approximately 105° with respect to downstream DNA. This position of upstream DNA allows for binding of the general transcription elongation factor DSIF (SPT4-SPT5) that we localize over the active centre cleft in a conserved position on the clamp domain of Pol II. Our results define the structure of mammalian Pol II in its functional state, indicate that previous crystallographic analysis of yeast Pol II is relevant for understanding gene transcription in all eukaryotes, and provide a starting point for a mechanistic analysis of human transcription. PMID:26789250

  20. RNA polymerase gene, microorganism having said gene and the production of RNA polymerase by the use of said microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Kotani, Hirokazu; Hiraoka, Nobutsugu; Obayashi, Akira

    1991-01-01

    SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase is produced by cultivating a new microorganism (particularly new strains of Escherichia coli) harboring a plasmid that carries SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase gene and recovering SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase from the culture broth. SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase gene is provided as are new microorganisms harboring a plasmid that carries SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase gene.

  1. Post-Transcriptional Regulation of RNA Polymerase II Levels in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Dalley, B. K.; Rogalski, T. M.; Tullis, G. E.; Riddle, D. L.; Golomb, M.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the regulation of RNA polymerase II levels in Caenorhabditis elegans, we have constructed nematode strains having one, two, or three copies of ama-1, the gene for the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Steady-state levels of RNA polymerase II polypeptides and solubilized enzyme activity are invariant with gene dosage, indicating regulatory compensation. However, steady-state levels of ama-1 mRNA are directly proportional to gene dosage. These results imply that RNA polymerase II levels in C. elegans are regulated post-transcriptionally. PMID:8436272

  2. RNA polymerase II mediated transcription from the polymerase III promoters in short hairpin RNA expression vector

    SciTech Connect

    Rumi, Mohammad; Ishihara, Shunji . E-mail: si360405@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Aziz, Monowar; Kazumori, Hideaki; Ishimura, Norihisa; Yuki, Takafumi; Kadota, Chikara; Kadowaki, Yasunori; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-13

    RNA polymerase III promoters of human ribonuclease P RNA component H1, human U6, and mouse U6 small nuclear RNA genes are commonly used in short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vectors due their precise initiation and termination sites. During transient transfection of shRNA vectors, we observed that H1 or U6 promoters also express longer transcripts enough to express several reporter genes including firefly luciferase, green fluorescent protein EGFP, and red fluorescent protein JRed. Expression of such longer transcripts was augmented by upstream RNA polymerase II enhancers and completely inhibited by downstream polyA signal sequences. Moreover, the transcription of firefly luciferase from human H1 promoter was sensitive to RNA polymerase II inhibitor {alpha}-amanitin. Our findings suggest that commonly used polymerase III promoters in shRNA vectors are also prone to RNA polymerase II mediated transcription, which may have negative impacts on their targeted use.

  3. RNA Polymerase I Stability Couples Cellular Growth to Metal Availability

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yueh-Jung; Lee, Chrissie Young; Grzechnik, Agnieszka; Gonzales-Zubiate, Fernando; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Lee, Albert; Wohlschlegel, James; Chanfreau, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Summary Zinc is an essential cofactor of all major eukaryotic RNA polymerases. How the activity of these enzymes is coordinated or regulated according to cellular zinc levels is largely unknown. Here we show that the stability of RNA Polymerase I (RNAPI) is tightly coupled to zinc availability in vivo. In zinc deficiency, RNAPI is specifically degraded by proteolysis in the vacuole in a pathway dependent on the exportin Xpo1p and deubiquitination of the RNAPI large subunit Rpa190p by Ubp2p and Ubp4p. RNAPII is unaffected, which allows for expression of genes required in zinc deficiency. RNAPI export to the vacuole is required for survival during zinc starvation, suggesting that degradation of zinc-binding subunits might provide a last resort zinc reservoir. These results reveal a hierarchy of cellular transcriptional activities during zinc starvation, and show that degradation of the most active cellular transcriptional machinery couples cellular growth and proliferation to zinc availability. PMID:23747013

  4. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of escherichia coli RNA polymerase and polymerase-DNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Heyduk, T; Niedziela-Majka, A

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a technique allowing measurements of atomic-scale distances in diluted solutions of macromolecules under native conditions. This feature makes FRET a powerful tool to study complicated biological assemblies. In this report we review the applications of FRET to studies of transcription initiation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. The versatility of FRET for studies of a large macromolecular assembly such as RNA polymerase is illustrated by examples of using FRET to address several different aspects of transcription initiation by polymerase. FRET has been used to determine the architecture of polymerase, its complex with single-stranded DNA, and the conformation of promoter fragment bound to polymerase. FRET has been also used as a binding assay to determine the thermodynamics of promoter DNA fragment binding to the polymerase. Functional conformational changes in the specificity subunit of polymerase responsible for the modulation of the promoter binding activity of the enzyme and the mechanistic aspects of the transition from the initiation to the elongation complex were also investigated. PMID:11987181

  5. Mediator Architecture and RNA Polymerase II Interaction.

    PubMed

    Plaschka, Clemens; Nozawa, Kayo; Cramer, Patrick

    2016-06-19

    Integrated structural biology recently elucidated the architecture of Mediator and its position on RNA polymerase II. Here we summarize these achievements and list open questions on Mediator structure and mechanism. PMID:26851380

  6. Wolbachia Transcription Elongation Factor “Wol GreA” Interacts with α2ββ′σ Subunits of RNA Polymerase through Its Dimeric C-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Jeetendra Kumar; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Chahar, Dhanvantri; Gupta, Chhedi Lal; Bajpai, Preeti; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Wolbachia, an endosymbiont of filarial nematode, is considered a promising target for therapy against lymphatic filariasis. Transcription elongation factor GreA is an essential factor that mediates transcriptional transition from abortive initiation to productive elongation by stimulating the escape of RNA polymerase (RNAP) from native prokaryotic promoters. Upon screening of 6257 essential bacterial genes, 57 were suggested as potential future drug targets, and GreA is among these. The current study emphasized the characterization of Wol GreA with its domains. Methodology/Principal Findings Biophysical characterization of Wol GreA with its N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) was performed with fluorimetry, size exclusion chromatography, and chemical cross-linking. Filter trap and far western blotting were used to determine the domain responsible for the interaction with α2ββ′σ subunits of RNAP. Protein-protein docking studies were done to explore residual interaction of RNAP with Wol GreA. The factor and its domains were found to be biochemically active. Size exclusion and chemical cross-linking studies revealed that Wol GreA and CTD exist in a dimeric conformation while NTD subsists in monomeric conformation. Asp120, Val121, Ser122, Lys123, and Ser134 are the residues of CTD through which monomers of Wol GreA interact and shape into a dimeric conformation. Filter trap, far western blotting, and protein-protein docking studies revealed that dimeric CTD of Wol GreA through Lys82, Ser98, Asp104, Ser105, Glu106, Tyr109, Glu116, Asp120, Val121, Ser122, Ser127, Ser129, Lys140, Glu143, Val147, Ser151, Glu153, and Phe163 residues exclusively participates in binding with α2ββ′σ subunits of polymerase. Conclusions/Significance To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first documentation of the residual mode of action in wolbachial mutualist. Therefore, findings may be crucial to understanding the transcription mechanism of

  7. RNA polymerase and the regulation of transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Reznikoff, W.S.; Gross, C.A.; Burgess, R.R.; Record, M.T.; Dahlberg, J.E.; Wickens, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book consists of eight sections, each containing several papers. The section titles are: RNA Polymerases; Transcription Initiation - Bacterial; Regulation of Bacterial Transcription Initiation; Stable RNA Synthesis in Eukaryotes: Chromatin Structure; Promoters; Enhancers; and the Global Control of Eukaryotic Transcription; Specific Eukaryotic Transcription Factors; Termination of Transcription; and Short Communications.

  8. Interaction between the RNA-dependent ATPase and poly(A) polymerase subunits of the TRAMP complex is mediated by short peptides and important for snoRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Losh, Jillian S.; King, Alejandra Klauer; Bakelar, Jeremy; Taylor, Lacy; Loomis, John; Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Johnson, Sean J.; van Hoof, Ambro

    2015-01-01

    The RNA exosome is one of the main 3′ to 5′ exoribonucleases in eukaryotic cells. Although it is responsible for degradation or processing of a wide variety of substrate RNAs, it is very specific and distinguishes between substrate and non-substrate RNAs as well as between substrates that need to be 3′ processed and those that need to be completely degraded. This specificity does not appear to be determined by the exosome itself but rather by about a dozen other proteins. Four of these exosome cofactors have enzymatic activity, namely, the nuclear RNA-dependent ATPase Mtr4, its cytoplasmic paralog Ski2 and the nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerases, Trf4 and Trf5. Mtr4 and either Trf4 or Trf5 assemble into a TRAMP complex. However, how these enzymes assemble into a TRAMP complex and the functional consequences of TRAMP complex assembly remain unknown. Here, we identify an important interaction site between Mtr4 and Trf5, and show that disrupting the Mtr4/Trf interaction disrupts specific TRAMP and exosome functions, including snoRNA processing. PMID:25589546

  9. Interaction between the RNA-dependent ATPase and poly(A) polymerase subunits of the TRAMP complex is mediated by short peptides and important for snoRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Losh, Jillian S; King, Alejandra Klauer; Bakelar, Jeremy; Taylor, Lacy; Loomis, John; Rosenzweig, Jason A; Johnson, Sean J; van Hoof, Ambro

    2015-02-18

    The RNA exosome is one of the main 3′ to 5′ exoribonucleases in eukaryotic cells. Although it is responsible for degradation or processing of a wide variety of substrate RNAs, it is very specific and distinguishes between substrate and non-substrate RNAs as well as between substrates that need to be 3′ processed and those that need to be completely degraded. This specificity does not appear to be determined by the exosome itself but rather by about a dozen other proteins. Four of these exosome cofactors have enzymatic activity, namely, the nuclear RNA-dependent ATPase Mtr4, its cytoplasmic paralog Ski2 and the nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerases, Trf4 and Trf5. Mtr4 and either Trf4 or Trf5 assemble into a TRAMP complex. However, how these enzymes assemble into a TRAMP complex and the functional consequences of TRAMP complex assembly remain unknown. Here, we identify an important interaction site between Mtr4 and Trf5, and show that disrupting the Mtr4/Trf interaction disrupts specific TRAMP and exosome functions, including snoRNA processing. PMID:25589546

  10. Amplification of RNA by an RNA polymerase ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Horning, David P; Joyce, Gerald F

    2016-08-30

    In all extant life, genetic information is stored in nucleic acids that are replicated by polymerase proteins. In the hypothesized RNA world, before the evolution of genetically encoded proteins, ancestral organisms contained RNA genes that were replicated by an RNA polymerase ribozyme. In an effort toward reconstructing RNA-based life in the laboratory, in vitro evolution was used to improve dramatically the activity and generality of an RNA polymerase ribozyme by selecting variants that can synthesize functional RNA molecules from an RNA template. The improved polymerase ribozyme is able to synthesize a variety of complex structured RNAs, including aptamers, ribozymes, and, in low yield, even tRNA. Furthermore, the polymerase can replicate nucleic acids, amplifying short RNA templates by more than 10,000-fold in an RNA-catalyzed form of the PCR. Thus, the two prerequisites of Darwinian life-the replication of genetic information and its conversion into functional molecules-can now be accomplished with RNA in the complete absence of proteins. PMID:27528667

  11. Single-molecule Studies of RNA Polymerase: Motoring Along

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Kristina M.; Greenleaf, William J.; Block, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Single-molecule techniques have advanced our understanding of transcription by RNA polymerase. A new arsenal of approaches, including single-molecule fluorescence, atomic-force microscopy, magnetic tweezers, and optical traps have been employed to probe the many facets of the transcription cycle. These approaches supply fresh insights into the means by which RNA polymerase identifies a promoter; initiates transcription, translocates and pauses along the DNA template, proofreads errors, and ultimately terminates transcription. Results from single-molecule experiments complement knowledge gained from biochemical and genetic assays by facilitating the observation of states that are otherwise obscured by ensemble averaging, such as those resulting from heterogeneity in molecular structure, elongation rate, or pause propensity. Most studies to date have been performed with bacterial RNA polymerase, but work is also being carried out with eukaryotic polymerase (Pol II) and single-subunit polymerases from bacteriophages. We discuss recent progress achieved by single-molecule studies, highlighting some of the unresolved questions and ongoing debates. PMID:18410247

  12. Cloning and physical mapping of RNA polymerase genes from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and comparison of homologies and gene orders with those of RNA polymerase genes from other methanogenic archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schallenberg, J.; Moes, M.; Truss, M.; Reiser, W.; Thomm, M.; Stetter, K.O.; Klein, A.

    1988-05-01

    The structural genes encoding the four largest subunits of RNA polymerase, A, B', B'', and C, were physically mapped in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Winter. The genes formed a cluster in the order B'', B', A, C and had a common orientation. DNA hybridization experiments yielded different degrees of homology between RNA polymerase gene sequences of different species of Methanobacterium and Methanococcus voltae. No homology was detectable between Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and Methanosarcina barkeri. From Southern hybridization experiments in which probes of the four genes from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Winter and restriction digests of the genomic DNAs of the different methanogens were used, a common gene order of the RNA polymerase genes could be deduced.

  13. Inhibition of RNA polymerase III transcription by BRCA1.

    PubMed

    Veras, Ingrid; Rosen, Eliot M; Schramm, Laura

    2009-04-01

    RNA polymerase III (RNA pol III) transcribes structural RNAs involved in RNA processing (U6 snRNA) and translation (tRNA), thereby regulating the growth rate of cells. Proper initiation by RNA pol III requires the transcription factor TFIIIB. Gene-external U6 snRNA transcription requires TFIIIB consisting of Bdp1, TBP, and Brf2. Transcription from the gene-internal tRNA promoter requires TFIIIB composed of Bdp1, TBP, and Brf1. TFIIIB is a target of tumor suppressors, including PTEN, ARF, p53, and RB, and RB-related pocket proteins. Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) tumor suppressor plays a role in DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, genome integrity, and ubiquitination. BRCA1 has a conserved amino-terminal RING domain, an activation domain 1 (AD1), and an acidic carboxyl-terminal domain (BRCA1 C-terminal region). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TFIIB interacts with the BRCA1 C-terminal region domain of Fcp1p, an RNA polymerase II phosphatase. The TFIIIB subunits Brf1 and Brf2 are structurally similar to TFIIB. Hence, we hypothesize that RNA pol III may be regulated by BRCA1 via the TFIIB family members Brf1 and Brf2. Here we report that: (1) BRCA1 inhibits both VAI (tRNA) and U6 snRNA RNA pol III transcription; (2) the AD1 of BRCA1 is responsible for inhibition of U6 snRNA transcription, whereas the RING domain and AD1 of BRCA1 are required for VAI transcription inhibition; and (3) overexpression of Brf1 and Brf2 alleviates inhibition of U6 snRNA and VAI transcription by BRCA1. Taken together, these data suggest that BRCA1 is a general repressor of RNA pol III transcription. PMID:19361418

  14. Mechanisms of backtrack recovery by RNA polymerases I and II

    PubMed Central

    Lisica, Ana; Engel, Christoph; Jahnel, Marcus; Roldán, Édgar; Galburt, Eric A.; Cramer, Patrick; Grill, Stephan W.

    2016-01-01

    During DNA transcription, RNA polymerases often adopt inactive backtracked states. Recovery from backtracks can occur by 1D diffusion or cleavage of backtracked RNA, but how polymerases make this choice is unknown. Here, we use single-molecule optical tweezers experiments and stochastic theory to show that the choice of a backtrack recovery mechanism is determined by a kinetic competition between 1D diffusion and RNA cleavage. Notably, RNA polymerase I (Pol I) and Pol II recover from shallow backtracks by 1D diffusion, use RNA cleavage to recover from intermediary depths, and are unable to recover from extensive backtracks. Furthermore, Pol I and Pol II use distinct mechanisms to avoid nonrecoverable backtracking. Pol I is protected by its subunit A12.2, which decreases the rate of 1D diffusion and enables transcript cleavage up to 20 nt. In contrast, Pol II is fully protected through association with the cleavage stimulatory factor TFIIS, which enables rapid recovery from any depth by RNA cleavage. Taken together, we identify distinct backtrack recovery strategies of Pol I and Pol II, shedding light on the evolution of cellular functions of these key enzymes. PMID:26929337

  15. Functional analysis of Drosophila DNA polymerase ε p58 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Sahashi, Ritsuko; Matsuda, Risa; Suyari, Osamu; Kawai, Mieko; Yoshida, Hideki; Cotterill, Sue; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2013-01-01

    DNA polymerase ε (polε) plays a central role in DNA replication in eukaryotic cells, and has been suggested to the main synthetic polymerase on the leading strand. It is a hetero-tetrameric enzyme, comprising a large catalytic subunit (the A subunit ~250 kDa), a B subunit of ~60 kDa in most species (~80 kDa in budding yeast) and two smaller subunits (each ~20 kDa). In Drosophila, two subunits of polε (dpolε) have been identified. One is the 255 kDa catalytic subunit (dpolεp255), and the other is the 58 kDa subunit (dpolεp58). The functions of the B subunit have been mainly studied in budding yeast and mammalian cell culture, few studies have been performed in the context of an intact multicellular organism and therefore its functions in this context remain poorly understood. To address this we examined the in vivo role of dpolεp58 in Drosophila. A homozygous dpolεp58 mutant is pupal lethal, and the imaginal discs are less developed in the third instar larvae. In the eye discs of this mutant S phases, as measured by BrdU incorporation assays, were significantly reduced. In addition staining with an anti-phospho histone H3 (PH3) antibody, (a marker of M phase), was increased in the posterior region of eye discs, where usually cells stop replicating and start differentiation. These results indicate that dpolεp58 is essential for Drosophila development and plays an important role in progression of S phase in mitotic cell cycles. We also observed that the size of nuclei in salivary gland cells were decreased in dpolεp58 mutant, indicating that dpolεp58 also plays a role in endoreplication. Furthermore we detect a putative functional interaction between dpolε and ORC2 in discs suggesting that polε plays a role in the initiation of DNA replication in Drosophila. PMID:24224125

  16. Purification and lipid-layer crystallization of yeast RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A M; Darst, S A; Feaver, W J; Thompson, N E; Burgess, R R; Kornberg, R D

    1990-01-01

    Yeast RNA polymerase II was purified to homogeneity by a rapid procedure involving immunoaffinity chromatography. The purified enzyme contained 10 subunits, as reported for conventional preparations, but with no detectable proteolysis of the largest subunit. In assays of initiation of transcription at the yeast CYC1 promoter, the enzyme complemented the deficiency of an extract from a strain that produces a temperature-sensitive polymerase II. Mammalian RNA polymerase II was inactive in this initiation assay. The purified yeast enzyme formed two-dimensional crystals on positively charged lipid layers, as previously found for Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Image analysis of electron micrographs of crystals in negative stain, which diffracted to about 30-A resolution, showed protein densities of dimensions consistent with those of single polymerase molecules. Images PMID:2179949

  17. A movie of RNA polymerase II transcription.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Alan C M; Cramer, Patrick

    2012-06-22

    We provide here a molecular movie that captures key aspects of RNA polymerase II initiation and elongation. To create the movie, we combined structural snapshots of the initiation-elongation transition and of elongation, including nucleotide addition, translocation, pausing, proofreading, backtracking, arrest, reactivation, and inhibition. The movie reveals open questions about the mechanism of transcription and provides a useful teaching tool. PMID:22726432

  18. Biogenesis of RNA Polymerases II and III Requires the Conserved GPN Small GTPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Minaker, Sean W.; Filiatrault, Megan C.; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The GPN proteins are a poorly characterized and deeply evolutionarily conserved family of three paralogous small GTPases, Gpn1, 2, and 3. The founding member, GPN1/NPA3/XAB1, is proposed to function in nuclear import of RNA polymerase II along with a recently described protein called Iwr1. Here we show that the previously uncharacterized protein Gpn2 binds both Gpn3 and Npa3/Gpn1 and that temperature-sensitive alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPN2 and GPN3 exhibit genetic interactions with RNA polymerase II mutants, hypersensitivity to transcription inhibition, and defects in RNA polymerase II nuclear localization. Importantly, we identify previously unrecognized RNA polymerase III localization defects in GPN2, GPN3, and IWR1 mutant backgrounds but find no localization defects of unrelated nuclear proteins or of RNA polymerase I. Previously, it was unclear whether the GPN proteins and Iwr1 had overlapping function in RNA polymerase II assembly or import. In this study, we show that the nuclear import defect of iwr1Δ, but not the GPN2 or GPN3 mutant defects, is partially suppressed by fusion of a nuclear localization signal to the RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb3. These data, combined with strong genetic interactions between GPN2 and IWR1, suggest that the GPN proteins function upstream of Iwr1 in RNA polymerase II and III biogenesis. We propose that the three GPN proteins execute a common, and likely essential, function in RNA polymerase assembly and transport. PMID:23267056

  19. A Cross-chiral RNA Polymerase Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Sczepanski, Jonathan T.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago it was shown that the non-enzymatic, template-directed polymerization of activated mononucleotides proceeds readily in a homochiral system, but is severely inhibited by the presence of the opposing enantiomer.1 This finding poses a severe challenge for the spontaneous emergence of RNA-based life, and has led to the suggestion that either RNA was preceded by some other genetic polymer that is not subject to chiral inhibition2 or chiral symmetry was broken through chemical processes prior to the origin of RNA-based life.3,4 Once an RNA enzyme arose that could catalyze the polymerization of RNA, it would have been possible to distinguish among the two enantiomers, enabling RNA replication and RNA-based evolution to occur. It is commonly thought that the earliest RNA polymerase and its substrates would have been of the same handedness, but this is not necessarily the case. Replicating D-and L-RNA molecules may have emerged together, based on the ability of structured RNAs of one handedness to catalyze the templated polymerization of activated mononucleotides of the opposite handedness. Such a cross-chiral RNA polymerase has now been developed using in vitro evolution. The D-RNA enzyme, consisting of 83 nucleotides, catalyzes the joining of L-mono- or oligonucleotide substrates on a complementary L-RNA template, and similarly for the L-enzyme with D-substrates and a D-template. Chiral inhibition is avoided because the 106-fold rate acceleration of the enzyme only pertains to cross-chiral substrates. The enzyme's activity is sufficient to generate full-length copies of its enantiomer through the templated joining of 11 component oligonucleotides. PMID:25363769

  20. [Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rna polymerase III holoenzyme are modifications regulating the level of transcription in vitro].

    PubMed

    Nikitina, T V; Tishchenko, L I; Sedova, V M

    2002-01-01

    Two subforms of RNA polymerase III-IIIa and IIIb--were identified in human placenta nuclei. These subforms differed in molecular weight of one subunit, and in buoyant density in glycerol concentration gradient. Protein kinase activity, which phosphorylates at least four subunits of RNA polymerase IIIa and three subunits of RNA polymerase IIIb in vitro, was copurified with both the subforms. Protein kinase activity was inhibited by wortmannin, a specific PI3-kinase inhibitor. RNA polymerase III dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase in vitro decrease the transcription level on specific Alu-template. The associated protein kinase was not able to phosphorylate dephosphorylated RNA polymerase IIIa and to restore the transcription level up to the control one. PMID:12094766

  1. Promoter analysis of influenza virus RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Parvin, J D; Palese, P; Honda, A; Ishihama, A; Krystal, M

    1989-01-01

    Influenza virus polymerase, which was prepared depleted of viral RNA, was used to copy small RNA templates prepared from plasmid-encoded sequences. Template constructions containing only the 3' end of genomic RNA were shown to be efficiently copied, indicating that the promoter lay solely within the 15-nucleotide 3' terminus. Sequences not specific for the influenza virus termini were not copied, and, surprisingly, RNAs containing termini identical to those from plus-sense cRNA were copied at low levels. The specificity for recognition of the virus sense promoter was further defined by site-specific mutagenesis. It was also found that increased levels of viral protein were required in order to catalyze both the cap endonuclease-primed and primer-free RNA synthesis from these model templates, as well as from genomic-length RNAs. This finding indicates that the reconstituted system has catalytic properties very similar to those of native viral ribonucleoprotein complexes. Images PMID:2585601

  2. Functional Studies of the Carboxy-Terminal Repeat Domain of Drosophila RNA Polymerase II in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Brickey, W. J.; Greenleaf, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    To understand the in vivo function of the unique and conserved carboxy-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RpII215), we have studied RNA polymerase II biosynthesis, activity and genetic function in Drosophila RpII215 mutants that possessed all (C4), half (W81) or none (IIt) of the CTD repeats. We have discovered that steady-state mRNA levels from transgenes encoding a fully truncated, CTD-less subunit (IIt) are essentially equal to wild-type levels, whereas the levels of the CTD-less subunit itself and the amount of polymerase harboring it (Pol IIT) are significantly lower than wild type. In contrast, for the half-CTD mutant (W81), steady-state mRNA levels are somewhat lower than for wild type or IIt, while W81 subunit and polymerase amounts are much less than wild type. Finally, we have tested genetically the ability of CTD mutants to complement (rescue) partially functional RpII215 alleles and have found that IIt fails to complement whereas W81 complements partially to completely. These results suggest that removal of the entire CTD renders polymerase completely defective in vivo, whereas eliminating half of the CTD results in a polymerase with significant in vivo activity. PMID:7498740

  3. Nascent transcription affected by RNA polymerase IV in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Erhard, Karl F; Talbot, Joy-El R B; Deans, Natalie C; McClish, Allison E; Hollick, Jay B

    2015-04-01

    All eukaryotes use three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) to create cellular RNAs from DNA templates. Plants have additional RNAPs related to Pol II, but their evolutionary role(s) remain largely unknown. Zea mays (maize) RNA polymerase D1 (RPD1), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), is required for normal plant development, paramutation, transcriptional repression of certain transposable elements (TEs), and transcriptional regulation of specific alleles. Here, we define the nascent transcriptomes of rpd1 mutant and wild-type (WT) seedlings using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to identify the broader targets of RPD1-based regulation. Comparisons of WT and rpd1 mutant GRO-seq profiles indicate that Pol IV globally affects transcription at both transcriptional start sites and immediately downstream of polyadenylation addition sites. We found no evidence of divergent transcription from gene promoters as seen in mammalian GRO-seq profiles. Statistical comparisons identify genes and TEs whose transcription is affected by RPD1. Most examples of significant increases in genic antisense transcription appear to be initiated by 3'-proximal long terminal repeat retrotransposons. These results indicate that maize Pol IV specifies Pol II-based transcriptional regulation for specific regions of the maize genome including genes having developmental significance. PMID:25653306

  4. Nascent Transcription Affected by RNA Polymerase IV in Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Erhard, Karl F.; Talbot, Joy-El R. B.; Deans, Natalie C.; McClish, Allison E.; Hollick, Jay B.

    2015-01-01

    All eukaryotes use three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) to create cellular RNAs from DNA templates. Plants have additional RNAPs related to Pol II, but their evolutionary role(s) remain largely unknown. Zea mays (maize) RNA polymerase D1 (RPD1), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), is required for normal plant development, paramutation, transcriptional repression of certain transposable elements (TEs), and transcriptional regulation of specific alleles. Here, we define the nascent transcriptomes of rpd1 mutant and wild-type (WT) seedlings using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to identify the broader targets of RPD1-based regulation. Comparisons of WT and rpd1 mutant GRO-seq profiles indicate that Pol IV globally affects transcription at both transcriptional start sites and immediately downstream of polyadenylation addition sites. We found no evidence of divergent transcription from gene promoters as seen in mammalian GRO-seq profiles. Statistical comparisons identify genes and TEs whose transcription is affected by RPD1. Most examples of significant increases in genic antisense transcription appear to be initiated by 3ʹ-proximal long terminal repeat retrotransposons. These results indicate that maize Pol IV specifies Pol II-based transcriptional regulation for specific regions of the maize genome including genes having developmental significance. PMID:25653306

  5. Architecture of RNA polymerase II and implications for the transcription mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cramer, P; Bushnell, D A; Fu, J; Gnatt, A L; Maier-Davis, B; Thompson, N E; Burgess, R R; Edwards, A M; David, P R; Kornberg, R D

    2000-04-28

    A backbone model of a 10-subunit yeast RNA polymerase II has been derived from x-ray diffraction data extending to 3 angstroms resolution. All 10 subunits exhibit a high degree of identity with the corresponding human proteins, and 9 of the 10 subunits are conserved among the three eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II, and III. Notable features of the model include a pair of jaws, formed by subunits Rpb1, Rpb5, and Rpb9, that appear to grip DNA downstream of the active center. A clamp on the DNA nearer the active center, formed by Rpb1, Rpb2, and Rpb6, may be locked in the closed position by RNA, accounting for the great stability of transcribing complexes. A pore in the protein complex beneath the active center may allow entry of substrates for polymerization and exit of the transcript during proofreading and passage through pause sites in the DNA. PMID:10784442

  6. RNA Pol II subunit Rpb7 promotes centromeric transcription and RNAi-directed chromatin silencing

    PubMed Central

    Djupedal, Ingela; Portoso, Manuela; Spåhr, Henrik; Bonilla, Carolina; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Allshire, Robin C.; Ekwall, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Fission yeast centromeric repeats are transcribed into small interfering RNA (siRNA) precursors (pre-siRNAs), which are processed by Dicer to direct heterochromatin formation. Recently, Rpb1 and Rpb2 subunits of RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) were shown to mediate RNA interference (RNAi)-directed chromatin modification but did not affect pre-siRNA levels. Here we show that another Pol II subunit, Rpb7 has a specific role in pre-siRNA transcription. We define a centromeric pre-siRNA promoter from which initiation is exquisitely sensitive to the rpb7-G150D mutation. In contrast to other Pol II subunits, Rpb7 promotes pre-siRNA transcription required for RNAi-directed chromatin silencing. PMID:16204182

  7. Directed evolution of novel polymerase activities: Mutation of a DNA polymerase into an efficient RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Gang; Chen, Liangjing; Sera, Takashi; Fa, Ming; Schultz, Peter G.; Romesberg, Floyd E.

    2002-01-01

    The creation of novel enzymatic function is of great interest, but remains a challenge because of the large sequence space of proteins. We have developed an activity-based selection method to evolve DNA polymerases with RNA polymerase activity. The Stoffel fragment (SF) of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I is displayed on a filamentous phage by fusing it to a pIII coat protein, and the substrate DNA template/primer duplexes are attached to other adjacent pIII coat proteins. Phage particles displaying SF polymerases, which are able to extend the attached oligonucleotide primer by incorporating ribonucleoside triphosphates and biotinylated UTP, are immobilized to streptavidin-coated magnetic beads and subsequently recovered. After four rounds of screening an SF library, three SF mutants were isolated and shown to incorporate ribonucleoside triphosphates virtually as efficiently as the wild-type enzyme incorporates dNTP substrates. PMID:12011423

  8. Maize RNA polymerase IV defines trans-generational epigenetic variation.

    PubMed

    Erhard, Karl F; Parkinson, Susan E; Gross, Stephen M; Barbour, Joy-El R; Lim, Jana P; Hollick, Jay B

    2013-03-01

    The maize (Zea mays) RNA Polymerase IV (Pol IV) largest subunit, RNA Polymerase D1 (RPD1 or NRPD1), is required for facilitating paramutations, restricting expression patterns of genes required for normal development, and generating small interfering RNA (siRNAs). Despite this expanded role for maize Pol IV relative to Arabidopsis thaliana, neither the general characteristics of Pol IV-regulated haplotypes, nor their prevalence, are known. Here, we show that specific haplotypes of the purple plant1 locus, encoding an anthocyanin pigment regulator, acquire and retain an expanded expression domain following transmission from siRNA biogenesis mutants. This conditioned expression pattern is progressively enhanced over generations in Pol IV mutants and then remains heritable after restoration of Pol IV function. This unusual genetic behavior is associated with promoter-proximal transposon fragments but is independent of sequences required for paramutation. These results indicate that trans-generational Pol IV action defines the expression patterns of haplotypes using co-opted transposon-derived sequences as regulatory elements. Our results provide a molecular framework for the concept that induced changes to the heterochromatic component of the genome are coincident with heritable changes in gene regulation. Alterations of this Pol IV-based regulatory system can generate potentially desirable and adaptive traits for selection to act upon. PMID:23512852

  9. Molecular structures of unbound and transcribing RNA polymerase III

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Niklas A.; Jakobi, Arjen J.; Moreno-Morcillo, Maria; Glatt, Sebastian; Kosinski, Jan; Hagen, Wim J. H.; Sachse, Carsten; Müller, Christoph W.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription of genes encoding small structured RNAs such as tRNAs, spliceosomal U6 snRNA and ribosomal 5S RNA is carried out by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), the largest yet structurally least characterized eukaryotic RNA polymerase. The cryo-EM structures of the S. cerevisiae Pol III elongating complex at 3.9 Å resolution and the apo Pol III enzyme in two different conformations at 4.6 and 4.7 Å resolution, respectively, allow for the first time to build a 17-subunit atomic model of Pol III. The reconstructions reveal the precise orientation of the C82/C34/C31 heterotrimer in close proximity to the stalk. The C53/C37 heterodimer positions residues involved in transcription termination close to the non-template DNA strand. In the apo Pol III structures, the stalk adopts different orientations coupled with closed and open conformations of the clamp. Our results provide novel insights into Pol III-specific transcription and the adaptation of Pol III towards its small transcriptional targets. PMID:26605533

  10. Metal A and Metal B Sites of Nuclear RNA Polymerases Pol IV and Pol V Are Required for siRNA-Dependent DNA Methylation and Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Pontes, Olga; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2009-01-01

    Plants are unique among eukaryotes in having five multi-subunit nuclear RNA polymerases: the ubiquitous RNA polymerases I, II and III plus two plant-specific activities, nuclear RNA polymerases IV and V (previously known as Polymerases IVa and IVb). Pol IV and Pol V are not required for viability but play non-redundant roles in small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated pathways, including a pathway that silences retrotransposons and endogenous repeats via siRNA-directed DNA methylation. RNA polymerase activity has not been demonstrated for Polymerases IV or V in vitro, making it unclear whether they are catalytically active enzymes. Their largest and second-largest subunit sequences have diverged considerably from Pol I, II and III in the vicinity of the catalytic center, yet retain the invariant Metal A and Metal B amino acid motifs that bind magnesium ions essential for RNA polymerization. By using site-directed mutagenesis in conjunction with in vivo functional assays, we show that the Metal A and Metal B motifs of Polymerases IV and V are essential for siRNA production, siRNA-directed DNA methylation, retrotransposon silencing, and the punctate nuclear localization patterns typical of both polymerases. Collectively, these data show that the minimal core sequences of polymerase active sites, the Metal A and B sites, are essential for Pol IV and Pol V biological functions, implying that both are catalytically active. PMID:19119310

  11. Interactions between the Influenza A Virus RNA Polymerase Components and Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene I

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weizhong; Chen, Hongjun; Sutton, Troy; Obadan, Adebimpe

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influenza A virus genome possesses eight negative-strand RNA segments in the form of viral ribonucleoprotein particles (vRNPs) in association with the three viral RNA polymerase subunits (PB2, PB1, and PA) and the nucleoprotein (NP). Through interactions with multiple host factors, the RNP subunits play vital roles in replication, host adaptation, interspecies transmission, and pathogenicity. In order to gain insight into the potential roles of RNP subunits in the modulation of the host's innate immune response, the interactions of each RNP subunit with retinoic acid-inducible gene I protein (RIG-I) from mammalian and avian species were investigated. Studies using coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFc), and colocalization using confocal microscopy provided direct evidence for the RNA-independent binding of PB2, PB1, and PA with RIG-I from various hosts (human, swine, mouse, and duck). In contrast, the binding of NP with RIG-I was found to be RNA dependent. Expression of the viral NS1 protein, which interacts with RIG-I, did not interfere with the association of RNA polymerase subunits with RIG-I. The association of each individual virus polymerase component with RIG-I failed to significantly affect the interferon (IFN) induction elicited by RIG-I and 5′ triphosphate (5′ppp) RNA in reporter assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and IRF3 phosphorylation tests. Taken together, these findings indicate that viral RNA polymerase components PB2, PB1, and PA directly target RIG-I, but the exact biological significance of these interactions in the replication and pathogenicity of influenza A virus needs to be further clarified. IMPORTANCE RIG-I is an important RNA sensor to elicit the innate immune response in mammals and some bird species (such as duck) upon influenza A virus infection. Although the 5′-triphosphate double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) panhandle structure at the end of viral genome RNA is

  12. Analysis of S. cerevisiae RNA Polymerase I Transcription In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Pilsl, Michael; Merkl, Philipp E; Milkereit, Philipp; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Tschochner, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) activity is crucial to provide cells with sufficient amounts of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Synthesis of rRNA takes place in the nucleolus, is tightly regulated and is coordinated with synthesis and assembly of ribosomal proteins, finally resulting in the formation of mature ribosomes. Many studies on Pol I mechanisms and regulation in the model organism S. cerevisiae were performed using either complex in vitro systems reconstituted from more or less purified fractions or genetic analyses. While providing many valuable insights these strategies did not always discriminate between direct and indirect effects in transcription initiation and termination, when mutated forms of Pol I subunits or transcription factors were investigated. Therefore, a well-defined minimal system was developed which allows to reconstitute highly efficient promoter-dependent Pol I initiation and termination of transcription. Transcription can be initiated at a minimal promoter only in the presence of recombinant core factor and extensively purified initiation competent Pol I. Addition of recombinant termination factors triggers transcriptional pausing and release of the ternary transcription complex. This minimal system represents a valuable tool to investigate the direct impact of (lethal) mutations in components of the initiation and termination complexes on the mechanism and regulation of rRNA synthesis. PMID:27576713

  13. Ratcheting of RNA polymerase toward structural principles of RNA polymerase operations

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Shun-ichi; Murayama, Yuko; Svetlov, Vladimir; Nudler, Evgeny; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) performs various tasks during transcription by changing its conformational states, which are gradually becoming clarified. A recent study focusing on the conformational transition of RNAP between the ratcheted and tight forms illuminated the structural principles underlying its functional operations. PMID:26226152

  14. Molecular phylogeny of Fusarium inferred from partial RNA polymerase II gene sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently there are no robust phylogenetic hypotheses for Fusarium based on large-scale sampling across the breadth of this important group of mycotoxigenic phytopathogens. Nucleotide variation within the second largest RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2) protein-coding gene, however, has clearly demonst...

  15. Modification of RNA polymerase IIO subspecies after poliovirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, L M; Fernandez-Tomas, C; Dahmus, M E; Gariglio, P

    1987-01-01

    Infection of HeLa cells with poliovirus results in a shutdown of host transcription. In an effort to understand the mechanism(s) that underlies this process, we analyzed the distribution of RNA polymerase IIO before and after viral infection. Analysis of free and chromatin-bound enzyme indicated that there is a significant reduction in RNA polymerase IIO following infection. This observation, together with increasing evidence that transcription is catalyzed by RNA polymerase IIO, supports the hypothesis that poliovirus-induced inhibition of host transcription occurs at the level of RNA chain initiation and involves the direct modification of RNA polymerase II. Images PMID:3029396

  16. Rpb4/7 facilitates RNA polymerase II CTD dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Allepuz-Fuster, Paula; Martínez-Fernández, Verónica; Garrido-Godino, Ana I.; Alonso-Aguado, Sergio; Hanes, Steven D.; Navarro, Francisco; Calvo, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The Rpb4 and Rpb7 subunits of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) participate in a variety of processes from transcription, DNA repair, mRNA export and decay, to translation regulation and stress response. However, their mechanism(s) of action remains unclear. Here, we show that the Rpb4/7 heterodimer in Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a key role in controlling phosphorylation of the carboxy terminal domain (CTD) of the Rpb1 subunit of RNAPII. Proper phosphorylation of the CTD is critical for the synthesis and processing of RNAPII transcripts. Deletion of RPB4, and mutations that disrupt the integrity of Rpb4/7 or its recruitment to the RNAPII complex, increased phosphorylation of Ser2, Ser5, Ser7 and Thr4 within the CTD. RPB4 interacted genetically with genes encoding CTD phosphatases (SSU72, FCP1), CTD kinases (KIN28, CTK1, SRB10) and a prolyl isomerase that targets the CTD (ESS1). We show that Rpb4 is important for Ssu72 and Fcp1 phosphatases association, recruitment and/or accessibility to the CTD, and that this correlates strongly with Ser5P and Ser2P levels, respectively. Our data also suggest that Fcp1 is the Thr4P phosphatase in yeast. Based on these and other results, we suggest a model in which Rpb4/7 helps recruit and potentially stimulate the activity of CTD-modifying enzymes, a role that is central to RNAPII function. PMID:25416796

  17. Characterization of new RNA polymerase III and RNA polymerase II transcriptional promoters in the Bovine Leukemia Virus genome.

    PubMed

    Van Driessche, Benoit; Rodari, Anthony; Delacourt, Nadège; Fauquenoy, Sylvain; Vanhulle, Caroline; Burny, Arsène; Rohr, Olivier; Van Lint, Carine

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus latency is a viral strategy used to escape from the host immune system and contribute to tumor development. However, a highly expressed BLV micro-RNA cluster has been reported, suggesting that the BLV silencing is not complete. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo recruitment of RNA polymerase III to the BLV miRNA cluster both in BLV-latently infected cell lines and in ovine BLV-infected primary cells, through a canonical type 2 RNAPIII promoter. Moreover, by RPC6-knockdown, we showed a direct functional link between RNAPIII transcription and BLV miRNAs expression. Furthermore, both the tumor- and the quiescent-related isoforms of RPC7 subunits were recruited to the miRNA cluster. We showed that the BLV miRNA cluster was enriched in positive epigenetic marks. Interestingly, we demonstrated the in vivo recruitment of RNAPII at the 3'LTR/host genomic junction, associated with positive epigenetic marks. Functionally, we showed that the BLV LTR exhibited a strong antisense promoter activity and identified cis-acting elements of an RNAPII-dependent promoter. Finally, we provided evidence for an in vivo collision between RNAPIII and RNAPII convergent transcriptions. Our results provide new insights into alternative ways used by BLV to counteract silencing of the viral 5'LTR promoter. PMID:27545598

  18. Characterization of new RNA polymerase III and RNA polymerase II transcriptional promoters in the Bovine Leukemia Virus genome

    PubMed Central

    Van Driessche, Benoit; Rodari, Anthony; Delacourt, Nadège; Fauquenoy, Sylvain; Vanhulle, Caroline; Burny, Arsène; Rohr, Olivier; Van Lint, Carine

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus latency is a viral strategy used to escape from the host immune system and contribute to tumor development. However, a highly expressed BLV micro-RNA cluster has been reported, suggesting that the BLV silencing is not complete. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo recruitment of RNA polymerase III to the BLV miRNA cluster both in BLV-latently infected cell lines and in ovine BLV-infected primary cells, through a canonical type 2 RNAPIII promoter. Moreover, by RPC6-knockdown, we showed a direct functional link between RNAPIII transcription and BLV miRNAs expression. Furthermore, both the tumor- and the quiescent-related isoforms of RPC7 subunits were recruited to the miRNA cluster. We showed that the BLV miRNA cluster was enriched in positive epigenetic marks. Interestingly, we demonstrated the in vivo recruitment of RNAPII at the 3′LTR/host genomic junction, associated with positive epigenetic marks. Functionally, we showed that the BLV LTR exhibited a strong antisense promoter activity and identified cis-acting elements of an RNAPII-dependent promoter. Finally, we provided evidence for an in vivo collision between RNAPIII and RNAPII convergent transcriptions. Our results provide new insights into alternative ways used by BLV to counteract silencing of the viral 5′LTR promoter. PMID:27545598

  19. Tagetitoxin Inhibits RNA Polymerase through Trapping of the Trigger Loop*

    PubMed Central

    Artsimovitch, Irina; Svetlov, Vladimir; Nemetski, Sondra Maureen; Epshtein, Vitaly; Cardozo, Timothy; Nudler, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    Tagetitoxin (Tgt) inhibits multisubunit chloroplast, bacterial, and some eukaryotic RNA polymerases (RNAPs). A crystallographic structure of Tgt bound to bacterial RNAP apoenzyme shows that Tgt binds near the active site but does not explain why Tgt acts only at certain sites. To understand the Tgt mechanism, we constructed a structural model of Tgt bound to the transcription elongation complex. In this model, Tgt interacts with the β′ subunit trigger loop (TL), stabilizing it in an inactive conformation. We show that (i) substitutions of the Arg residue of TL contacted by Tgt confer resistance to inhibitor; (ii) Tgt inhibits RNAP translocation, which requires TL movements; and (iii) paused complexes and a “slow” enzyme, in which the TL likely folds into an altered conformation, are resistant to Tgt. Our studies highlight the role of TL as a target through which accessory proteins and antibiotics can alter the elongation complex dynamics. PMID:21976682

  20. Coliphage HK022 Nun protein inhibits RNA polymerase translocation.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Christal L; Kireeva, Maria L; Lubkowska, Lucyna; Kashlev, Mikhail; Gottesman, Max

    2014-06-10

    The Nun protein of coliphage HK022 arrests RNA polymerase (RNAP) in vivo and in vitro at pause sites distal to phage λ N-Utilization (nut) site RNA sequences. We tested the activity of Nun on ternary elongation complexes (TECs) assembled with templates lacking the λ nut sequence. We report that Nun stabilizes both translocation states of RNAP by restricting lateral movement of TEC along the DNA register. When Nun stabilized TEC in a pretranslocated register, immediately after NMP incorporation, it prevented binding of the next NTP and stimulated pyrophosphorolysis of the nascent transcript. In contrast, stabilization of TEC by Nun in a posttranslocated register allowed NTP binding and nucleotidyl transfer but inhibited pyrophosphorolysis and the next round of forward translocation. Nun binding to and action on the TEC requires a 9-bp RNA-DNA hybrid. We observed a Nun-dependent toe print upstream to the TEC. In addition, mutations in the RNAP β' subunit near the upstream end of the transcription bubble suppress Nun binding and arrest. These results suggest that Nun interacts with RNAP near the 5' edge of the RNA-DNA hybrid. By stabilizing translocation states through restriction of TEC lateral mobility, Nun represents a novel class of transcription arrest factors. PMID:24853501

  1. Is it easy to stop RNA polymerase?

    PubMed

    Artsimovitch, Irina; Vassylyev, Dmitry G

    2006-02-01

    Among transcription factors that bind to bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) and modulate its activity, a number of small molecules irreversibly inhibit RNAP thereby causing cell death. To be of clinical significance such inhibitors must (1) inhibit a broad range of bacterial RNAPs but not affect human cells, (2) penetrate bacterial cell walls and (3) circumvent bacterial resistance mechanisms. Rifamycins, the only class of RNAP inhibitors that have found their way into clinical practice, are widely used in the treatment of tuberculosis and leprosy. However, the practical value of this class of antibiotics is limited by a rapid rise in resistant bacterial isolates. In this review we focus on recent advances in studies of prokaryotic transcription that allow a detailed structural and functional characterization of a number of RNAP/rifamycins complexes, thereby opening new opportunities for the design of superior antibacterial agents. PMID:16479153

  2. A novel bacteriophage-encoded RNA polymerase binding protein inhibits transcription initiation and abolishes transcription termination by host RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Nechaev, Sergei; Yuzenkova, Yulia; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Heyduk, Tomasz; Severinov, Konstantin

    2002-06-28

    Xp10 is a lytic bacteriophage of Xanthomonas oryzae, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes rice blight. We purified an Xp10 protein, p7, that binds to and inhibits X. oryzae RNA polymerase (RNAP). P7 is a novel 73 amino acid-long protein; it does not bind to and hence does not affect transcription by Escherichia coli RNAP. Analysis of E. coli/X. oryzae RNAP hybrids locates the p7 binding site to the largest X. oryzae RNAP subunit, beta'. Binding of p7 to X. oryzae RNAP holoenzyme prevents large conformational change that places the sigma subunit region 4 into the correct position for interaction with the -35 promoter element. As a result, open promoter complex formation on the -10/-35 class promoters is inhibited. Inhibition of promoter complex formation on the extended -10 class promoters is less efficient. The p7 protein also abolishes factor-independent transcription termination by X. oryzae RNAP by preventing the release of nascent RNA at terminators. Further physiological and mechanistic studies of this novel transcription factor should provide additional insights into its biological role and the processes of promoter recognition and transcription termination. PMID:12079331

  3. The Second Subunit of DNA Polymerase Delta Is Required for Genomic Stability and Epigenetic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jixiang; Xie, Shaojun; Cheng, Jinkui; Lai, Jinsheng; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Gong, Zhizhong

    2016-06-01

    DNA polymerase δ plays crucial roles in DNA repair and replication as well as maintaining genomic stability. However, the function of POLD2, the second small subunit of DNA polymerase δ, has not been characterized yet in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). During a genetic screen for release of transcriptional gene silencing, we identified a mutation in POLD2. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing indicated that POLD2 is not involved in the regulation of DNA methylation. POLD2 genetically interacts with Ataxia Telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related and DNA polymerase α The pold2-1 mutant exhibits genomic instability with a high frequency of homologous recombination. It also exhibits hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging reagents and short telomere length. Whole-genome chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA sequencing analyses suggest that pold2-1 changes H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 modifications, and these changes are correlated with the gene expression levels. Our study suggests that POLD2 is required for maintaining genome integrity and properly establishing the epigenetic markers during DNA replication to modulate gene expression. PMID:27208288

  4. Accommodation of profound sequence differences at the interfaces of eubacterial RNA polymerase multi-protein assembly.

    PubMed

    Swapna, Lakshmipuram Seshadri; Rekha, Nambudiry; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionarily divergent proteins have been shown to change their interacting partners. RNA polymerase assembly is one of the rare cases which retain its component proteins in the course of evolution. This ubiquitous molecular assembly, involved in transcription, consists of four core subunits (alpha, beta, betaprime, and omega), which assemble to form the core enzyme. Remarkably, the orientation of the four subunits in the complex is conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes although their sequence similarity is low. We have studied how the sequence divergence of the core subunits of RNA polymerase is accommodated in the formation of the multi-molecular assembly, with special reference to eubacterial species. Analysis of domain composition and order of the core subunits in >85 eubacterial species indicates complete conservation. However, sequence analysis indicates that interface residues of alpha and omega subunits are more divergent than those of beta, betaprime, and sigma70 subunits. Although beta and betaprime are generally well-conserved, residues involved in interaction with divergent subunits are not conserved. Insertions/deletions are also observed near interacting regions even in case of the most conserved subunits, beta and betaprime. Homology modelling of three divergent RNA polymerase complexes, from Helicobacter pylori, Mycoplasma pulmonis and Onion yellows phytoplasma, indicates that insertions/deletions can be accommodated near the interface as they generally occur at the periphery. Evaluation of the modeled interfaces indicates that they are physico-chemically similar to that of the template interfaces in Thermus thermophilus, indicating that nature has evolved to retain the obligate complex in spite of substantial substitutions and insertions/deletions. PMID:22359428

  5. Involvement of RNA Polymerase III in Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    White, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation in the tumor microenvironment has many tumor-promoting effects. In particular, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) produce many cytokines which can support tumor growth by promoting survival of malignant cells, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Enhanced cytokine production by TAMs is tightly coupled with protein synthesis. In turn, translation of proteins depends on tRNAs, short abundant transcripts that are made by RNA polymerase III (Pol III). Here, we connect these facts by showing that stimulation of mouse macrophages with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from the bacterial cell wall causes transcriptional upregulation of tRNA genes. The transcription factor NF-κB is a key transcription factor mediating inflammatory signals, and we report that LPS treatment causes an increased association of the NF-κB subunit p65 with tRNA genes. In addition, we show that p65 can directly associate with the Pol III transcription factor TFIIIB and that overexpression of p65 induces Pol III-dependent transcription. As a consequence of these effects, we show that inhibition of Pol III activity in macrophages restrains cytokine secretion and suppresses phagocytosis, two key functional characteristics of these cells. These findings therefore identify a radical new function for Pol III in the regulation of macrophage function which may be important for the immune responses associated with both normal and malignant cells. PMID:25776554

  6. Compilation of small ribosomal subunit RNA structures.

    PubMed Central

    Neefs, J M; Van de Peer, Y; De Rijk, P; Chapelle, S; De Wachter, R

    1993-01-01

    The database on small ribosomal subunit RNA structure contained 1804 nucleotide sequences on April 23, 1993. This number comprises 365 eukaryotic, 65 archaeal, 1260 bacterial, 30 plastidial, and 84 mitochondrial sequences. These are stored in the form of an alignment in order to facilitate the use of the database as input for comparative studies on higher-order structure and for reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. The elements of the postulated secondary structure for each molecule are indicated by special symbols. The database is available on-line directly from the authors by ftp and can also be obtained from the EMBL nucleotide sequence library by electronic mail, ftp, and on CD ROM disk. PMID:8332525

  7. Specific Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA Polymerase by Helical Peptides Corresponding to the Subunit Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digard, Paul; Williams, Kevin P.; Hensley, Preston; Brooks, Ian S.; Dahl, Charles E.; Coen, Donald M.

    1995-02-01

    The herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase consists of two subunits-a catalytic subunit and an accessory subunit, UL42, that increases processivity. Mutations affecting the extreme C terminus of the catalytic subunit specifically disrupt subunit interactions and ablate virus replication, suggesting that new antiviral drugs could be rationally designed to interfere with polymerase heterodimerization. To aid design, we performed circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation studies, which revealed that a 36-residue peptide corresponding to the C terminus of the catalytic subunit folds into a monomeric structure with partial α-helical character. CD studies of shorter peptides were consistent with a model where two separate regions of α-helix interact to form a hairpin-like structure. The 36-residue peptide and a shorter peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 18 residues blocked UL42-dependent long-chain DNA synthesis at concentrations that had no effect on synthesis by the catalytic subunit alone or by calf thymus DNA polymerase δ and its processivity factor. These peptides, therefore, represent a class of specific inhibitors of herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase that act by blocking accessory-subunit-dependent synthesis. These peptides or their structures may form the basis for the synthesis of clinically effective drugs.

  8. RNA polymerase II is aberrantly phosphorylated and localized to viral replication compartments following herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, S A; Long, M C; Lam, V; Spencer, C A

    1994-01-01

    During lytic infection, herpes simplex virus subverts the host cell RNA polymerase II transcription machinery to efficiently express its own genome while repressing the expression of most cellular genes. The mechanism by which RNA polymerase II is directed to the viral delayed-early and late genes is still unresolved. We report here that RNA polymerase II is preferentially localized to viral replication compartments early after infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Concurrent with recruitment of RNA polymerase II into viral compartments is a rapid and aberrant phosphorylation of the large subunit carboxy-terminal domain (CTD). Aberrant phosphorylation of the CTD requires early viral gene expression but is not dependent on viral DNA replication or on the formation of viral replication compartments. Localization of RNA polymerase II and modifications to the CTD may be instrumental in favoring transcription of viral genes and repressing specific transcription of cellular genes. Images PMID:8289400

  9. Template-free generation of RNA species that replicate with bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Biebricher, C K; Luce, R

    1996-01-01

    A large variety of different RNA species that are replicated by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from bacteriophage T7 have been generated by incubating high concentrations of this enzyme with substrate for extended time periods. The products differed from sample to sample in molecular weight and sequence, their chain lengths ranging from 60 to 120. The mechanism of autocatalytic amplification of RNA by T7 RNA polymerase proved to be analogous to that observed with viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (replicases): only single-stranded templates are accepted and complementary replica strands are synthesized. With enzyme in excess, exponential growth was observed; linear growth resulted when the enzyme was saturated by RNA template. The plus strands, present at 90% of the replicating RNA species, were found to have GG residues at both termini. Consensus sequences were not found among the sequences of the replicating RNA species. The secondary structures of all species sequenced turned out to be hairpins. The RNA species were specifically replicated by T7 RNA polymerase; they were not accepted as templates by the RNA polymerases from Escherichia coli or bacteriophage SP6 or by Qbeta replicase; T3 RNA polymerase was partially active. Template-free production of RNA was completely suppressed by addition of DNA to the incubation mixture. When both DNA and RNA templates were present, transcription and replication competed, but T7 RNA polymerase preferred DNA as a template. No replicating RNA species were detected in vivo in cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase. Images PMID:8670848

  10. Characterization of PA-N terminal domain of Influenza A polymerase reveals sequence specific RNA cleavage.

    PubMed

    Datta, Kausiki; Wolkerstorfer, Andrea; Szolar, Oliver H J; Cusack, Stephen; Klumpp, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    Influenza virus uses a unique cap-snatching mechanism characterized by hijacking and cleavage of host capped pre-mRNAs, resulting in short capped RNAs, which are used as primers for viral mRNA synthesis. The PA subunit of influenza polymerase carries the endonuclease activity that catalyzes the host mRNA cleavage reaction. Here, we show that PA is a sequence selective endonuclease with distinct preference to cleave at the 3' end of a guanine (G) base in RNA. The G specificity is exhibited by the native influenza polymerase complex associated with viral ribonucleoprotein particles and is conferred by an intrinsic G specificity of the isolated PA endonuclease domain PA-Nter. In addition, RNA cleavage site choice by the full polymerase is also guided by cap binding to the PB2 subunit, from which RNA cleavage preferentially occurs at the 12th nt downstream of the cap. However, if a G residue is present in the region of 10-13 nucleotides from the cap, cleavage preferentially occurs at G. This is the first biochemical evidence of influenza polymerase PA showing intrinsic sequence selective endonuclease activity. PMID:23847103

  11. A new family of polymerases related to superfamily A DNA polymerases and T7-like DNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Aravind, L

    2008-01-01

    Using sequence profile methods and structural comparisons we characterize a previously unknown family of nucleic acid polymerases in a group of mobile elements from genomes of diverse bacteria, an algal plastid and certain DNA viruses, including the recently reported Sputnik virus. Using contextual information from domain architectures and gene-neighborhoods we present evidence that they are likely to possess both primase and DNA polymerase activity, comparable to the previously reported prim-pol proteins. These newly identified polymerases help in defining the minimal functional core of superfamily A DNA polymerases and related RNA polymerases. Thus, they provide a framework to understand the emergence of both DNA and RNA polymerization activity in this class of enzymes. They also provide evidence that enigmatic DNA viruses, such as Sputnik, might have emerged from mobile elements coding these polymerases. PMID:18834537

  12. A new family of polymerases related to superfamily A DNA polymerases and T7-like DNA-dependent RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Aravind, L

    2008-01-01

    Using sequence profile methods and structural comparisons we characterize a previously unknown family of nucleic acid polymerases in a group of mobile elements from genomes of diverse bacteria, an algal plastid and certain DNA viruses, including the recently reported Sputnik virus. Using contextual information from domain architectures and gene-neighborhoods we present evidence that they are likely to possess both primase and DNA polymerase activity, comparable to the previously reported prim-pol proteins. These newly identified polymerases help in defining the minimal functional core of superfamily A DNA polymerases and related RNA polymerases. Thus, they provide a framework to understand the emergence of both DNA and RNA polymerization activity in this class of enzymes. They also provide evidence that enigmatic DNA viruses, such as Sputnik, might have emerged from mobile elements coding these polymerases. This article was reviewed by Eugene Koonin and Mark Ragan. PMID:18834537

  13. In-ice evolution of RNA polymerase ribozyme activity

    PubMed Central

    Attwater, James; Wochner, Aniela; Holliger, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of molecular self-replication have the potential to shed light upon the origins of life. In particular, self-replication through RNA-catalysed templated RNA synthesis is thought to have supported a primordial ‘RNA World’. However, existing polymerase ribozymes lack the capacity to synthesise RNAs approaching their own size. Here we report the in vitro evolution of such catalysts directly in the RNA-stabilising medium of water-ice, which yielded RNA polymerase ribozymes specifically adapted to sub-zero temperatures and able to synthesise RNA in ices at temperatures as low as −19°C. Combination of cold-adaptive mutations with a previously described 5′ extension operating at ambient temperatures enabled the design of a first polymerase ribozyme capable of catalysing the accurate synthesis of an RNA sequence longer than itself (adding up to 206 nucleotides), an important stepping stone towards RNA self-replication. PMID:24256864

  14. Structural basis of transcription: RNA polymerase II at 2.8 angstrom resolution.

    PubMed

    Cramer, P; Bushnell, D A; Kornberg, R D

    2001-06-01

    Structures of a 10-subunit yeast RNA polymerase II have been derived from two crystal forms at 2.8 and 3.1 angstrom resolution. Comparison of the structures reveals a division of the polymerase into four mobile modules, including a clamp, shown previously to swing over the active center. In the 2.8 angstrom structure, the clamp is in an open state, allowing entry of straight promoter DNA for the initiation of transcription. Three loops extending from the clamp may play roles in RNA unwinding and DNA rewinding during transcription. A 2.8 angstrom difference Fourier map reveals two metal ions at the active site, one persistently bound and the other possibly exchangeable during RNA synthesis. The results also provide evidence for RNA exit in the vicinity of the carboxyl-terminal repeat domain, coupling synthesis to RNA processing by enzymes bound to this domain. PMID:11313498

  15. Targeting mitochondrial RNA polymerase in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bralha, Fernando N.; Liyanage, Sanduni U.; Hurren, Rose; Wang, Xiaoming; Son, Meong Hi; Fung, Thomas A.; Chingcuanco, Francine B.; Tung, Aveline Y. W.; Andreazza, Ana C.; Psarianos, Pamela; Schimmer, Aaron D.; Salmena, Leonardo; Laposa, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells have high oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial mass and low respiratory chain spare reserve capacity. We reasoned that targeting the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT), which indirectly controls oxidative phosphorylation, represents a therapeutic strategy for AML. POLRMT-knockdown OCI-AML2 cells exhibited decreased mitochondrial gene expression, decreased levels of assembled complex I, decreased levels of mitochondrially-encoded Cox-II and decreased oxidative phosphorylation. POLRMT-knockdown cells exhibited an increase in complex II of the electron transport chain, a complex comprised entirely of subunits encoded by nuclear genes, and POLRMT-knockdown cells were resistant to a complex II inhibitor theonyltrifluoroacetone. POLRMT-knockdown cells showed a prominent increase in cell death. Treatment of OCI-AML2 cells with 10-50 μM 2-C-methyladenosine (2-CM), a chain terminator of mitochondrial transcription, reduced mitochondrial gene expression and oxidative phosphorylation, and increased cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of normal human hematopoietic cells with 2-CM at concentrations of up to 100 μMdid not alter clonogenic growth, suggesting a therapeutic window. In an OCI-AML2 xenograft model, treatment with 2-CM (70 mg/kg, i.p., daily) decreased the volume and mass of tumours to half that of vehicle controls. 2-CM did not cause toxicity to major organs. Overall, our results in a preclinical model contribute to the functional validation of the utility of targeting the mitochondrial RNA polymerase as a therapeutic strategy for AML. PMID:26484416

  16. Conserved structures of mediator and RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Asturias, F J; Jiang, Y W; Myers, L C; Gustafsson, C M; Kornberg, R D

    1999-02-12

    Single particles of the mediator of transcriptional regulation (Mediator) and of RNA polymerase II holoenzyme were revealed by electron microscopy and image processing. Mediator alone appeared compact, but at high pH or in the presence of RNA polymerase II it displayed an extended conformation. Holoenzyme contained Mediator in a fully extended state, partially enveloping the globular polymerase, with points of apparent contact in the vicinity of the polymerase carboxyl-terminal domain and the DNA-binding channel. A similarity in appearance and conformational behavior of yeast and murine complexes indicates a conservation of Mediator structure among eukaryotes. PMID:9974391

  17. Dysregulation of RNA polymerase I transcription during disease.

    PubMed

    Hannan, K M; Sanij, E; Rothblum, L I; Hannan, R D; Pearson, R B

    2013-01-01

    Transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes by the dedicated RNA polymerase I enzyme and subsequent processing of the ribosomal RNA are fundamental control steps in the synthesis of functional ribosomes. Dysregulation of Pol I transcription and ribosome biogenesis is linked to the etiology of a broad range of human diseases. Diseases caused by loss of function mutations in the molecular constituents of the ribosome, or factors intimately associated with RNA polymerase I transcription and processing are collectively termed ribosomopathies. Ribosomopathies are generally rare and treatment options are extremely limited tending to be more palliative than curative. Other more common diseases are associated with profound changes in cellular growth such as cardiac hypertrophy, atrophy or cancer. In contrast to ribosomopathies, altered RNA polymerase I transcriptional activity in these diseases largely results from dysregulated upstream oncogenic pathways or by direct modulation by oncogenes or tumor suppressors at the level of the RNA polymerase I transcription apparatus itself. Ribosomopathies associated with mutations in ribosomal proteins and ribosomal RNA processing or assembly factors have been covered by recent excellent reviews. In contrast, here we review our current knowledge of human diseases specifically associated with dysregulation of RNA polymerase I transcription and its associated regulatory apparatus, including some cases where this dysregulation is directly causative in disease. We will also provide insight into and discussion of possible therapeutic approaches to treat patients with dysregulated RNA polymerase I transcription. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Transcription by Odd Pols. PMID:23153826

  18. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells. PMID:27258298

  19. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells. PMID:27258298

  20. RNA-Free and Ribonucleoprotein-Associated Influenza Virus Polymerases Directly Bind the Serine-5-Phosphorylated Carboxyl-Terminal Domain of Host RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Alonso, Mónica; Hengrung, Narin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza viruses subvert the transcriptional machinery of their hosts to synthesize their own viral mRNA. Ongoing transcription by cellular RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is required for viral mRNA synthesis. By a process known as cap snatching, the virus steals short 5′ capped RNA fragments from host capped RNAs and uses them to prime viral transcription. An interaction between the influenza A virus RNA polymerase and the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of Pol II has been established, but the molecular details of this interaction remain unknown. We show here that the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex binds to the CTD of transcriptionally engaged Pol II. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the viral polymerase binds directly to the serine-5-phosphorylated form of the Pol II CTD, both in the presence and in the absence of viral RNA, and show that this interaction is conserved in evolutionarily distant influenza viruses. We propose a model in which direct binding of the viral RNA polymerase in the context of vRNPs to Pol II early in infection facilitates cap snatching, while we suggest that binding of free viral polymerase to Pol II late in infection may trigger Pol II degradation. IMPORTANCE Influenza viruses cause yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics that pose a threat to human health, as well as represent a large economic burden to health care systems globally. Existing vaccines are not always effective, as they may not exactly match the circulating viruses. Furthermore, there are a limited number of antivirals available, and development of resistance to these is a concern. New measures to combat influenza are needed, but before they can be developed, it is necessary to better understand the molecular interactions between influenza viruses and their host cells. By providing further insights into the molecular details of how influenza viruses hijack the host transcriptional machinery, we aim to uncover novel targets for

  1. Expression of Functional Influenza Virus RNA Polymerase in the Methylotrophic Yeast Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung-Shan; Yamada, Kazunori; Honda, Ayae; Nakade, Kohji; Ishihama, Akira

    2000-01-01

    Influenza virus RNA polymerase with the subunit composition PB1-PB2-PA is a multifunctional enzyme with the activities of both synthesis and cleavage of RNA and is involved in both transcription and replication of the viral genome. In order to produce large amounts of the functional viral RNA polymerase sufficient for analysis of its structure-function relationships, the cDNAs for RNA segments 1, 2, and 3 of influenza virus A/PR/8, each under independent control of the alcohol oxidase gene promoter, were integrated into the chromosome of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Simultaneous expression of all three P proteins in the yeast P. pastoris was achieved by the addition of methanol. To purify the P protein complexes, a sequence coding for a histidine tag was added to the PB2 protein gene at its N terminus. Starting from the induced P. pastoris cell lysate, we partially purified a 3P complex by Ni2+-agarose affinity column chromatography. The 3P complex showed influenza virus model RNA-directed and ApG-primed RNA synthesis in vitro but was virtually inactive without addition of template or primer. The kinetic properties of model template-directed RNA synthesis and the requirements for template sequence were analyzed using the 3P complex. Furthermore, the 3P complex showed capped RNA-primed RNA synthesis. Thus, we conclude that functional influenza virus RNA polymerase with the catalytic properties of a transcriptase is formed in the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris. PMID:10756019

  2. DNA replication defect in Salmonella typhimurium mutants lacking the editing (epsilon) subunit of DNA polymerase III.

    PubMed Central

    Lifsics, M R; Lancy, E D; Maurer, R

    1992-01-01

    In Salmonella typhimurium, dnaQ null mutants (encoding the epsilon editing subunit of DNA polymerase III [Pol III]) exhibit a severe growth defect when the genetic background is otherwise wild type. Suppression of the growth defect requires both a mutation affecting the alpha (polymerase) subunit of DNA polymerase III and adequate levels of DNA polymerase I. In the present paper, we report on studies that clarify the nature of the physiological defect imposed by the loss of epsilon and the mechanism of its suppression. Unsuppressed dnaQ mutants exhibited chronic SOS induction, indicating exposure of single-stranded DNA in vivo, most likely as gaps in double-stranded DNA. Suppression of the growth defect was associated with suppression of SOS induction. Thus, Pol I and the mutant Pol III combined to reduce the formation of single-stranded DNA or accelerate its maturation to double-stranded DNA. Studies with mutants in major DNA repair pathways supported the view that the defect in DNA metabolism in dnaQ mutants was at the level of DNA replication rather than of repair. The requirement for Pol I was satisfied by alleles of the gene for Pol I encoding polymerase activity or by rat DNA polymerase beta (which exhibits polymerase activity only). Consequently, normal growth is restored to dnaQ mutants when sufficient polymerase activity is provided and this compensatory polymerase activity can function independently of Pol III. The high level of Pol I polymerase activity may be required to satisfy the increased demand for residual DNA synthesis at regions of single-stranded DNA generated by epsilon-minus pol III. The emphasis on adequate polymerase activity in dnaQ mutants is also observed in the purified alpha subunit containing the suppressor mutation, which exhibits a modestly elevated intrinsic polymerase activity relative to that of wild-type alpha. Images PMID:1400246

  3. Backtracking behavior in viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase provides the basis for a second initiation site

    PubMed Central

    Dulin, David; Vilfan, Igor D.; Berghuis, Bojk A.; Poranen, Minna M.; Depken, Martin; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription in RNA viruses is highly dynamic, with a variety of pauses interrupting nucleotide addition by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). For example, rare but lengthy pauses (>20 s) have been linked to backtracking for viral single-subunit RdRps. However, while such backtracking has been well characterized for multi-subunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs) from bacteria and yeast, little is known about the details of viral RdRp backtracking and its biological roles. Using high-throughput magnetic tweezers, we quantify the backtracking by RdRp from the double-stranded (ds) RNA bacteriophage Φ6, a model system for RdRps. We characterize the probability of entering long backtracks as a function of force and propose a model in which the bias toward backtracking is determined by the base paring at the dsRNA fork. We further discover that extensive backtracking provides access to a new 3′-end that allows for the de novo initiation of a second RdRp. This previously unidentified behavior provides a new mechanism for rapid RNA synthesis using coupled RdRps and hints at a possible regulatory pathway for gene expression during viral RNA transcription. PMID:26496948

  4. Protein kinase activity of RNA polymerase I purified from a rat hepatoma: probable function of Mr 42,000 and 24,600 polypeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, K M; Stetler, D A; Jacob, S T

    1981-01-01

    RNA polymerase I was purified to homogeneity from Morris hepatoma 3924A. Purified RNA polymerase I contained a protein kinase activity but comigrated with the polymerase in nondenaturing gels. RNA polymerase II, purified from the same hepatoma, lacked protein kinase activity. Analysis of the subunit composition of the RNA polymerase I showed the presence of eight polypeptides: S1, Mr 190,000; S2, Mr 120,000; S3, Mr 62,000; S4, Mr 42,000; S5, Mr 24,600; S6, Mr 21,000; S7, Mr 19,500; and S8, Mr 17,500. Antibodies prepared against purified polymerase I specifically inhibited RNA synthesis catalyzed by RNA polymerase I. When subunits of the enzyme were covalently linked to diazobenzyloxymethyl paper, complexes between the antibody preparation and S1-S6 were visualized. No immune complexes were formed between RNA polymerase I antibodies and RNA polymerase II subunits. The antibody preparation was able to inhibit both the protein phosphorylation catalyzed by RNA polymerase I and that catalyzed by a nuclear kinase (NII) purified from the same hepatoma. The two polypeptides of the nuclear kinase--Mr 42,000 and 24,600 (identical in size to S4 and S5 of polymerase I)--formed visible complexes with the RNA polymerase I antibodies. Both S4 and S5 of the polymerase contained an ATP binding site, a property associated with protein phosphorylation and also exhibited by the polypeptides of the purified kinase. These data suggest that polypeptides of Mr 42,000 and 24,600 associated with polymerase I are responsible for its kinase activity. Images PMID:6942406

  5. The human RNA polymerase II interacts with the terminal stem-loop regions of the hepatitis delta virus RNA genome

    SciTech Connect

    Greco-Stewart, Valerie S.; Miron, Paul; Abrahem, Abrahem; Pelchat, Martin . E-mail: mpelchat@uottawa.ca

    2007-01-05

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is an RNA virus that depends on DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) for its transcription and replication. While it is generally accepted that RNAP II is involved in HDV replication, its interaction with HDV RNA requires confirmation. A monoclonal antibody specific to the carboxy terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNAP II was used to establish the association of RNAP II with both polarities of HDV RNA in HeLa cells. Co-immunoprecipitations using HeLa nuclear extract revealed that RNAP II interacts with HDV-derived RNAs at sites located within the terminal stem-loop domains of both polarities of HDV RNA. Analysis of these regions revealed a strong selection to maintain a rod-like conformation and demonstrated several conserved features. These results provide the first direct evidence of an association between human RNAP II and HDV RNA and suggest two transcription start sites on both polarities of HDV RNA.

  6. Role of RNA polymerase IV in plant small RNA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Henderson, Ian R; Lu, Cheng; Green, Pamela J; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2007-03-13

    In addition to the three RNA polymerases (RNAP I-III) shared by all eukaryotic organisms, plant genomes encode a fourth RNAP (RNAP IV) that appears to be specialized in the production of siRNAs. Available data support a model in which dsRNAs are generated by RNAP IV and RNA-dependent RNAP 2 (RDR2) and processed by DICER (DCL) enzymes into 21- to 24-nt siRNAs, which are associated with different ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins for transcriptional or posttranscriptional gene silencing. However, it is not yet clear what fraction of genomic siRNA production is RNAP IV-dependent, and to what extent these siRNAs are preferentially processed by certain DCL(s) or associated with specific AGOs for distinct downstream functions. To address these questions on a genome-wide scale, we sequenced approximately 335,000 siRNAs from wild-type and RNAP IV mutant Arabidopsis plants by using 454 technology. The results show that RNAP IV is required for the production of >90% of all siRNAs, which are faithfully produced from a discrete set of genomic loci. Comparisons of these siRNAs with those accumulated in rdr2 and dcl2 dcl3 dcl4 and those associated with AGO1 and AGO4 provide important information regarding the processing, channeling, and functions of plant siRNAs. We also describe a class of RNAP IV-independent siRNAs produced from endogenous single-stranded hairpin RNA precursors. PMID:17360559

  7. The thumb subdomain of yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase is involved in processivity, transcript fidelity and mitochondrial transcription factor binding

    PubMed Central

    Velazquez, Gilberto; Sousa, Rui; Brieba, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    Single subunit RNA polymerases have evolved 2 mechanisms to synthesize long transcripts without falling off a DNA template: binding of nascent RNA and interactions with an RNA:DNA hybrid. Mitochondrial RNA polymerases share a common ancestor with T-odd bacteriophage single subunit RNA polymerases. Herein we characterized the role of the thumb subdomain of the yeast mtRNA polymerase gene (RPO41) in complex stability, processivity, and fidelity. We found that deletion and point mutants of the thumb subdomain of yeast mtRNA polymerase increase the synthesis of abortive transcripts and the probability that the polymerase will disengage from the template during the formation of the late initial transcription and elongation complexes. Mutations in the thumb subdomain increase the amount of slippage products from a homopolymeric template and, unexpectedly, thumb subdomain deletions decrease the binding affinity for mitochondrial transcription factor (Mtf1). The latter suggests that the thumb subdomain is part of an extended binding surface area involved in binding Mtf1. PMID:25654332

  8. In situ structures of the segmented genome and RNA polymerase complex inside a dsRNA virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Ding, Ke; Yu, Xuekui; Chang, Winston; Sun, Jingchen; Hong Zhou, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Viruses in the Reoviridae, like the triple-shelled human rotavirus and the single-shelled insect cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV), all package a genome of segmented double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) inside the viral capsid and carry out endogenous messenger RNA synthesis through a transcriptional enzyme complex (TEC). By direct electron-counting cryoelectron microscopy and asymmetric reconstruction, we have determined the organization of the dsRNA genome inside quiescent CPV (q-CPV) and the in situ atomic structures of TEC within CPV in both quiescent and transcribing (t-CPV) states. We show that the ten segmented dsRNAs in CPV are organized with ten TECs in a specific, non-symmetric manner, with each dsRNA segment attached directly to a TEC. The TEC consists of two extensively interacting subunits: an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and an NTPase VP4. We find that the bracelet domain of RdRP undergoes marked conformational change when q-CPV is converted to t-CPV, leading to formation of the RNA template entry channel and access to the polymerase active site. An amino-terminal helix from each of two subunits of the capsid shell protein (CSP) interacts with VP4 and RdRP. These findings establish the link between sensing of environmental cues by the external proteins and activation of endogenous RNA transcription by the TEC inside the virus.

  9. In situ structures of the segmented genome and RNA polymerase complex inside a dsRNA virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing; Ding, Ke; Yu, Xuekui; Chang, Winston; Sun, Jingchen; Zhou, Z Hong

    2015-11-26

    Viruses in the Reoviridae, like the triple-shelled human rotavirus and the single-shelled insect cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV), all package a genome of segmented double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) inside the viral capsid and carry out endogenous messenger RNA synthesis through a transcriptional enzyme complex (TEC). By direct electron-counting cryoelectron microscopy and asymmetric reconstruction, we have determined the organization of the dsRNA genome inside quiescent CPV (q-CPV) and the in situ atomic structures of TEC within CPV in both quiescent and transcribing (t-CPV) states. We show that the ten segmented dsRNAs in CPV are organized with ten TECs in a specific, non-symmetric manner, with each dsRNA segment attached directly to a TEC. The TEC consists of two extensively interacting subunits: an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and an NTPase VP4. We find that the bracelet domain of RdRP undergoes marked conformational change when q-CPV is converted to t-CPV, leading to formation of the RNA template entry channel and access to the polymerase active site. An amino-terminal helix from each of two subunits of the capsid shell protein (CSP) interacts with VP4 and RdRP. These findings establish the link between sensing of environmental cues by the external proteins and activation of endogenous RNA transcription by the TEC inside the virus. PMID:26503045

  10. Catching RNA Polymerase in the act of Binding: Intermediates in Transcription Illuminated by Synchrotron Footprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Brenowitz,M.; Erie, D.; Chance, M.

    2005-01-01

    The article by Sclavi et al. in this issue of PNAS addresses 'initiation, ' the first step in transcription. Gene transcription is catalyzed in cells by large multisubunit proteins called RNA polymerases (RNAP). The eubacteria holoenzyme of RNAP is composed of five core subunits ({alpha}, {alpha}2, {beta}, {beta}', and {omega}) that contain the amino acid residues required for the enzyme's catalytic activity. A sixth subunit ({sigma}) guides RNAP to specific sequences on the genomic DNA (promoters) that mark the beginning of a gene or group of genes.

  11. relA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ryals, J; Bremer, H

    1982-01-01

    Parameters relating to RNA synthesis were measured after a temperature shift from 30 to 42 degrees C, in a relA+ and relA- isogenic pair of Escherichia coli strains containing a temperature-sensitive valyl tRNA synthetase. The following results were obtained: (i) the rRNA chain growth rate increased 2-fold in both strains; (ii) newly synthesized rRNA became unstable in both strains; (iii) the stable RNA gene activity (rRNA and tRNA, measured as stable RNA synthesis rate relative to the total instantaneous rate of RNA synthesis) decreased 1.7-fold in the relA+ strain and increased 1.9-fold in the relA mutant; and (iv) the RNA polymerase activity (measured by the percentage of total RNA polymerase enzyme active in transcription an any instant) decreased from 20 to 3.6% in the relA+ strain and remained unchanged (or increased at most to 22%) in the relA mutant. It is suggested that both rRNA gene activity and the RNA polymerase activity depend on the intracellular concentration of guanosine tetraphosphate, whereas the altered chain elongation rate and stability of rRNA are temperature or amino acid starvation effects, respectively, without involvement of relA function. PMID:6174501

  12. Sequences homologous to yeast mitochondrial and bacteriophage T3 and T7 RNA polymerases are widespread throughout the eukaryotic lineage.

    PubMed Central

    Cermakian, N; Ikeda, T M; Cedergren, R; Gray, M W

    1996-01-01

    Although mitochondria and chloroplasts are considered to be descendants of eubacteria-like endo- symbionts, the mitochondrial RNA polymerase of yeast is a nucleus-encoded, single-subunit enzyme homologous to bacteriophage T3 and T7 RNA polymerases, rather than a multi-component, eubacterial-type alpha 2 beta beta' enzyme, as encoded in chloroplast DNA. To broaden our knowledge of the mitochondrial transcriptional apparatus, we have used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach designed to amplify an internal portion of phage T3/T7-like RNA polymerase genes. Using this strategy, we have recovered sequences homologous to yeast mitochondrial and phage T3/T7 RNA polymerases from a phylogenetically broad range of multicellular and unicellular eukaryotes. These organisms display diverse patterns of mitochondrial genome organization and expression, and include species that separated from the main eukaryotic line early in the evolution of this lineage. In certain cases, we can deduce that PCR-amplified sequences, some of which contain small introns, are localized in nuclear DNA. We infer that the T3/T7-like RNA polymerase sequences reported here are likely derived from genes encoding the mitochondrial RNA polymerase in the organisms in which they occur, suggesting a phage T3/T7-like RNA polymerase was recruited to act in transcription in the mitochondrion at an early stage in the evolution of this organelle. PMID:8604305

  13. Differential binding of ppGpp and pppGpp to E. coli RNA polymerase: photo-labeling and mass spectral studies.

    PubMed

    Syal, Kirtimaan; Chatterji, Dipankar

    2015-12-01

    (p)ppGpp, a secondary messenger, is induced under stress and shows pleiotropic response. It binds to RNA polymerase and regulates transcription in Escherichia coli. More than 25 years have passed since the first discovery was made on the direct interaction of ppGpp with E. coli RNA polymerase. Several lines of evidence suggest different modes of ppGpp binding to the enzyme. Earlier cross-linking experiments suggested that the β-subunit of RNA polymerase is the preferred site for ppGpp, whereas recent crystallographic studies pinpoint the interface of β'/ω-subunits as the site of action. With an aim to validate the binding domain and to follow whether tetra- and pentaphosphate guanosines have different location on RNA polymerase, this work was initiated. RNA polymerase was photo-labeled with 8-azido-ppGpp/8-azido-pppGpp, and the product was digested with trypsin and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. We observed three new peptides in the trypsin digest of the RNA polymerase labeled with 8-azido-ppGpp, of which two peptides correspond to the same pocket on β'-subunit as predicted by X-ray structural analysis, whereas the third peptide was mapped on the β-subunit. In the case of 8-azido-pppGpp-labeled RNA polymerase, we have found only one cross-linked peptide from the β'-subunit. However, we were unable to identify any binding site of pppGpp on the β-subunit. Interestingly, we observed that pppGpp at high concentration competes out ppGpp bound to RNA polymerase more efficiently, whereas ppGpp cannot titrate out pppGpp. The competition between tetraphosphate guanosine and pentaphosphate guanosine for E. coli RNA polymerase was followed by gel-based assay as well as by a new method known as DRaCALA assay. PMID:26606426

  14. Architecture of the S. cerevisiae RNA polymerase I Core Factor complex

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Bruce A.; Luo, Jie; Ranish, Jeffrey; Hahn, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Core Factor (CF) is a conserved RNA polymerase (Pol) I general transcription factor and is comprised of Rrn6, Rrn11, and the TFIIB-related subunit Rrn7. CF binds TBP, Pol I, and the regulatory factors Rrn3 and UAF. We used chemical crosslinking-mass spectrometry (CXMS) to determine the molecular architecture of CF and its interactions with TBP. The CF subunits assemble through an interconnected network of interactions between five structural domains that are conserved in orthologous subunits of the human Pol I factor SL1. The crosslinking-derived model was validated through a series of genetic and biochemical assays. Our combined results show the architecture of CF and the functions of the CF subunits in assembly of the complex. We extend these findings to model how CF assembles into the Pol I preinitiation complex, providing new insight into the roles of CF, TBP and Rrn3. PMID:25132180

  15. Pin1 Interacts with the Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Polymerase Catalytic Subunit and Regulates Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Yohei; Ryo, Akihide; Kawashima, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Kanda, Teru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) protein is known as a regulator which recognizes phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs and increases the rate of cis and trans amide isomer interconversion, thereby altering the conformation of its substrates. We found that Pin1 knockdown using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology resulted in strong suppression of productive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA replication. We further identified the EBV DNA polymerase catalytic subunit, BALF5, as a Pin1 substrate in glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown and immunoprecipitation assays. Lambda protein phosphatase treatment abolished the binding of BALF5 to Pin1, and mutation analysis of BALF5 revealed that replacement of the Thr178 residue by Ala (BALF5 T178A) disrupted the interaction with Pin1. To further test the effects of Pin1 in the context of virus infection, we constructed a BALF5-deficient recombinant virus. Exogenous supply of wild-type BALF5 in HEK293 cells with knockout recombinant EBV allowed efficient synthesis of viral genome DNA, but BALF5 T178A could not provide support as efficiently as wild-type BALF5. In conclusion, we found that EBV DNA polymerase BALF5 subunit interacts with Pin1 through BALF5 Thr178 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Pin1 might modulate EBV DNA polymerase conformation for efficient, productive viral DNA replication. PMID:23221557

  16. The POLD3 subunit of DNA polymerase δ can promote translesion synthesis independently of DNA polymerase ζ.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Kouji; Yoshikiyo, Kazunori; Guilbaud, Guillaume; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Murai, Junko; Tsuda, Masataka; Phillips, Lara G; Narita, Takeo; Nishihara, Kana; Kobayashi, Kaori; Yamada, Kouich; Nakamura, Jun; Pommier, Yves; Lehmann, Alan; Sale, Julian E; Takeda, Shunichi

    2015-02-18

    The replicative DNA polymerase Polδ consists of a catalytic subunit POLD1/p125 and three regulatory subunits POLD2/p50, POLD3/p66 and POLD4/p12. The ortholog of POLD3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pol32, is required for a significant proportion of spontaneous and UV-induced mutagenesis through its additional role in translesion synthesis (TLS) as a subunit of DNA polymerase ζ. Remarkably, chicken DT40 B lymphocytes deficient in POLD3 are viable and able to replicate undamaged genomic DNA with normal kinetics. Like its counterpart in yeast, POLD3 is required for fully effective TLS, its loss resulting in hypersensitivity to a variety of DNA damaging agents, a diminished ability to maintain replication fork progression after UV irradiation and a significant decrease in abasic site-induced mutagenesis in the immunoglobulin loci. However, these defects appear to be largely independent of Polζ, suggesting that POLD3 makes a significant contribution to TLS independently of Polζ in DT40 cells. Indeed, combining polη, polζ and pold3 mutations results in synthetic lethality. Additionally, we show in vitro that POLD3 promotes extension beyond an abasic by the Polδ holoenzyme suggesting that while POLD3 is not required for normal replication, it may help Polδ to complete abasic site bypass independently of canonical TLS polymerases. PMID:25628356

  17. Recombinant Thermus aquaticus RNA Polymerase for Structural Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Juznedelov,K.; Lamour, V.; Patikoglou, G.; Chlenov, M.; Darst, S.; Severinov, K.

    2006-01-01

    Advances in the structural biology of bacterial transcription have come from studies of RNA polymerases (RNAPs) from the thermophilic eubacteria Thermus aquaticus (Taq) and Thermus thermophilus (Tth). These structural studies have been limited by the fact that only endogenous Taq or Tth RNAP, laboriously purified from large quantities of Taq or Tth cell paste and offering few options for genetic modification, is suitable for structural studies. Recombinant systems for the preparation of Taq RNAP by co-overexpression and assembly in the heterologous host, Escherichia coli, have been described, but these did not yield enzyme suitable for crystallographic studies. Here we describe recombinant systems for the preparation of Taq RNAP harboring full or partial deletions of the Taq {beta}' non-conserved domain (NCD), yielding enzyme suitable for crystallographic studies. This opens the way for structural studies of genetically manipulated enzymes, allowing the preparation of more crystallizable enzymes and facilitating detailed structure/function analysis. Characterization of the Taq{beta}'NCD deletion mutants generated in this study showed that the {beta}'NCD is important for the efficient binding of the s subunit, confirming previous hypotheses. Finally, preliminary structural analysis (at 4.1 Angstroms resolution) of one of the recombinant mutants revealed a previously unobserved conformation of the {beta}-flap, further defining the range of conformations accessible to this flexible structural element.

  18. The non-coding B2 RNA binds to the DNA cleft and active-site region of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Ponicsan, Steven L; Houel, Stephane; Old, William M; Ahn, Natalie G; Goodrich, James A; Kugel, Jennifer F

    2013-10-01

    The B2 family of short interspersed elements is transcribed into non-coding RNA by RNA polymerase III. The ~180-nt B2 RNA has been shown to potently repress mRNA transcription by binding tightly to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and assembling with it into complexes on promoter DNA, where it keeps the polymerase from properly engaging the promoter DNA. Mammalian Pol II is an ~500-kDa complex that contains 12 different protein subunits, providing many possible surfaces for interaction with B2 RNA. We found that the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest Pol II subunit was not required for B2 RNA to bind Pol II and repress transcription in vitro. To identify the surface on Pol II to which the minimal functional region of B2 RNA binds, we coupled multi-step affinity purification, reversible formaldehyde cross-linking, peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry, and analysis of peptide enrichment. The Pol II peptides most highly recovered after cross-linking to B2 RNA mapped to the DNA binding cleft and active-site region of Pol II. These studies determine the location of a defined nucleic acid binding site on a large, native, multi-subunit complex and provide insight into the mechanism of transcriptional repression by B2 RNA. PMID:23416138

  19. In vivo dynamics of RNA polymerase II transcription

    PubMed Central

    Darzacq, Xavier; Shav-Tal, Yaron; de Turris, Valeria; Brody, Yehuda; Shenoy, Shailesh M; Phair, Robert D; Singer, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    We imaged transcription in living cells using a locus-specific reporter system, which allowed precise, single-cell kinetic measurements of promoter binding, initiation and elongation. Photobleaching of fluorescent RNA polymerase II revealed several kinetically distinct populations of the enzyme interacting with a specific gene. Photobleaching and photoactivation of fluorescent MS2 proteins used to label nascent messenger RNAs provided sensitive elongation measurements. A mechanistic kinetic model that fits our data was validated using specific inhibitors. Polymerases elongated at 4.3 kilobases min−1, much faster than previously documented, and entered a paused state for unexpectedly long times. Transcription onset was inefficient, with only 1% of polymerase-gene interactions leading to completion of an mRNA. Our systems approach, quantifying both polymerase and mRNA kinetics on a defined DNA template in vivo with high temporal resolution, opens new avenues for studying regulation of transcriptional processes in vivo. PMID:17676063

  20. Differential Phosphorylation of RNA Polymerase III and the Initiation Factor TFIIIB in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehoon; Moir, Robyn D.; Willis, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    The production of ribosomes and tRNAs for protein synthesis has a high energetic cost and is under tight transcriptional control to ensure that the level of RNA synthesis is balanced with nutrient availability and the prevailing environmental conditions. In the RNA polymerase (pol) III system in yeast, nutrients and stress affect transcription through a bifurcated signaling pathway in which protein kinase A (PKA) and TORC1 activity directly or indirectly, through downstream kinases, alter the phosphorylation state and function of the Maf1 repressor and Rpc53, a TFIIF-like subunit of the polymerase. However, numerous lines of evidence suggest greater complexity in the regulatory network including the phosphoregulation of other pol III components. To address this issue, we systematically examined all 17 subunits of pol III along with the three subunits of the initiation factor TFIIIB for evidence of differential phosphorylation in response to inhibition of TORC1. A relatively high stoichiometry of phosphorylation was observed for several of these proteins and the Rpc82 subunit of the polymerase and the Bdp1 subunit of TFIIIB were found to be differentially phosphorylated. Bdp1 is phosphorylated on four major sites during exponential growth and the protein is variably dephosphorylated under conditions that inhibit tRNA gene transcription. PKA, the TORC1-regulated kinase Sch9 and protein kinase CK2 are all implicated in the phosphorylation of Bdp1. Alanine substitutions at the four phosphosites cause hyper-repression of transcription indicating that phosphorylation of Bdp1 opposes Maf1-mediated repression. The new findings suggest an integrated regulatory model for signaling events controlling pol III transcription. PMID:25970584

  1. Differential Phosphorylation of RNA Polymerase III and the Initiation Factor TFIIIB in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Moir, Robyn D; Willis, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    The production of ribosomes and tRNAs for protein synthesis has a high energetic cost and is under tight transcriptional control to ensure that the level of RNA synthesis is balanced with nutrient availability and the prevailing environmental conditions. In the RNA polymerase (pol) III system in yeast, nutrients and stress affect transcription through a bifurcated signaling pathway in which protein kinase A (PKA) and TORC1 activity directly or indirectly, through downstream kinases, alter the phosphorylation state and function of the Maf1 repressor and Rpc53, a TFIIF-like subunit of the polymerase. However, numerous lines of evidence suggest greater complexity in the regulatory network including the phosphoregulation of other pol III components. To address this issue, we systematically examined all 17 subunits of pol III along with the three subunits of the initiation factor TFIIIB for evidence of differential phosphorylation in response to inhibition of TORC1. A relatively high stoichiometry of phosphorylation was observed for several of these proteins and the Rpc82 subunit of the polymerase and the Bdp1 subunit of TFIIIB were found to be differentially phosphorylated. Bdp1 is phosphorylated on four major sites during exponential growth and the protein is variably dephosphorylated under conditions that inhibit tRNA gene transcription. PKA, the TORC1-regulated kinase Sch9 and protein kinase CK2 are all implicated in the phosphorylation of Bdp1. Alanine substitutions at the four phosphosites cause hyper-repression of transcription indicating that phosphorylation of Bdp1 opposes Maf1-mediated repression. The new findings suggest an integrated regulatory model for signaling events controlling pol III transcription. PMID:25970584

  2. Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    De Rijk, P; Van de Peer, Y; Chapelle, S; De Wachter, R

    1994-01-01

    A database on large ribosomal subunit RNA is made available. It contains 258 sequences. It provides sequence, alignment and secondary structure information in computer-readable formats. Files can be obtained using ftp. PMID:7524023

  3. Evolution of Tertiary Structure of Viral RNA Dependent Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Černý, Jiří; Černá Bolfíková, Barbora; Valdés, James J.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Viral RNA dependent polymerases (vRdPs) are present in all RNA viruses; unfortunately, their sequence similarity is too low for phylogenetic studies. Nevertheless, vRdP protein structures are remarkably conserved. In this study, we used the structural similarity of vRdPs to reconstruct their evolutionary history. The major strength of this work is in unifying sequence and structural data into a single quantitative phylogenetic analysis, using powerful a Bayesian approach. The resulting phylogram of vRdPs demonstrates that RNA-dependent DNA polymerases (RdDPs) of viruses within Retroviridae family cluster in a clearly separated group of vRdPs, while RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) of dsRNA and +ssRNA viruses are mixed together. This evidence supports the hypothesis that RdRPs replicating +ssRNA viruses evolved multiple times from RdRPs replicating +dsRNA viruses, and vice versa. Moreover, our phylogram may be presented as a scheme for RNA virus evolution. The results are in concordance with the actual concept of RNA virus evolution. Finally, the methods used in our work provide a new direction for studying ancient virus evolution. PMID:24816789

  4. RNAs nonspecifically inhibit RNA polymerase II by preventing binding to the DNA template

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Dave A.; Kaplan, Craig D.; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Murakami, Kenji; Andrews, Philip C.; Engelke, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Many RNAs are known to act as regulators of transcription in eukaryotes, including certain small RNAs that directly inhibit RNA polymerases both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We have examined the potential for a variety of RNAs to directly inhibit transcription by yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and find that unstructured RNAs are potent inhibitors of purified yeast Pol II. Inhibition by RNA is achieved by blocking binding of the DNA template and requires binding of the RNA to Pol II prior to open complex formation. RNA is not able to displace a DNA template that is already stably bound to Pol II, nor can RNA inhibit elongating Pol II. Unstructured RNAs are more potent inhibitors than highly structured RNAs and can also block specific transcription initiation in the presence of basal transcription factors. Crosslinking studies with ultraviolet light show that unstructured RNA is most closely associated with the two large subunits of Pol II that comprise the template binding cleft, but the RNA has contacts in a basic residue channel behind the back wall of the active site. These results are distinct from previous observations of specific inhibition by small, structured RNAs in that they demonstrate a sensitivity of the holoenzyme to inhibition by unstructured RNA products that bind to a surface outside the DNA cleft. These results are discussed in terms of the need to prevent inhibition by RNAs, either though sequestration of nascent RNA or preemptive interaction of Pol II with the DNA template. PMID:24614752

  5. Continuous in vitro evolution of bacteriophage RNA polymerase promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, R. R.; Banerji, A.; Joyce, G. F.

    1994-01-01

    Rapid in vitro evolution of bacteriophage T7, T3, and SP6 RNA polymerase promoters was achieved by a method that allows continuous enrichment of DNAs that contain functional promoter elements. This method exploits the ability of a special class of nucleic acid molecules to replicate continuously in the presence of both a reverse transcriptase and a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Replication involves the synthesis of both RNA and cDNA intermediates. The cDNA strand contains an embedded promoter sequence, which becomes converted to a functional double-stranded promoter element, leading to the production of RNA transcripts. Synthetic cDNAs, including those that contain randomized promoter sequences, can be used to initiate the amplification cycle. However, only those cDNAs that contain functional promoter sequences are able to produce RNA transcripts. Furthermore, each RNA transcript encodes the RNA polymerase promoter sequence that was responsible for initiation of its own transcription. Thus, the population of amplifying molecules quickly becomes enriched for those templates that encode functional promoters. Optimal promoter sequences for phage T7, T3, and SP6 RNA polymerase were identified after a 2-h amplification reaction, initiated in each case with a pool of synthetic cDNAs encoding greater than 10(10) promoter sequence variants.

  6. The transcription factor TFIIS zinc ribbon dipeptide Asp-Glu is critical for stimulation of elongation and RNA cleavage by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, C; Yoon, H; Agarwal, K

    1994-01-01

    The eukaryotic transcription factor TFIIS enhances elongation and nascent transcript cleavage activities of RNA polymerase II in a stalled elongation complex. By site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated that invariant residues Asp-261 and Glu-262 of the nucleic acid-binding TFIIS Zn ribbon are critical for stimulation of both elongation and RNA cleavage activities of RNA polymerase II. Substitution of either of these residues inactivates both TFIIS functions, suggesting a related role in both activities. These acidic residues may participate in phosphoryl transfer reactions by a two-metal-ion mechanism in a manner analogous to Klenow fragment. The RNA polymerase II itself may contain a Zn ribbon, in as much as the polymerase's 15-kDa subunit contains a sequence that aligns well with the TFIIS Zn ribbon sequence, including a similarly placed pair of acidic residues. Images PMID:8090778

  7. A cinematographic view of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, W; Schickor, P; Heumann, H

    1989-01-01

    A series of RNA synthesizing transcription complexes, initiated at the T7 A1 promoter and halted at specific base positions ranging from +12 to +40, were analyzed by footprinting techniques; exonuclease III was used to determine the position of the bound RNA polymerase on the DNA and hydroxyl radicals were used to visualize the protein--DNA contact sites within the protected areas. In the binding (open) complex without RNA there are two DNA-domains, differing in their protection pattern. The first, extending from position +18 to -13, termed 'melting domain', is fully protected, whereas the second, extending from -14 to -55, termed 'recognition domain', shows only partial protection. At this domain, RNA polymerase is attached to one side of the DNA only, as indicated by the 10-bp periodicity of the protection pattern. Our data show that the formation of a mature RNA transcribing complex is characterized by dissociation of the RNA polymerase from the recognition domain, whereby the size of the melting domain remains constant. This process is accomplished if the nascent RNA has reached a length of 11 bases. As the RNA reaches a length of 20 bases, the size of the melting domain decreases from approximately 30 to 23 bp. Further RNA synthesis leaves the protection pattern essentially unchanged. These data demonstrate that the formation of a mature RNA transcribing complex can be described by at least two transitions. Images PMID:2555184

  8. Directed evolution of DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase activity in a single polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jennifer L; Loakes, David; Jaroslawski, Szymon; Too, Kathleen; Holliger, Philipp

    2006-08-18

    DNA polymerases enable key technologies in modern biology but for many applications, native polymerases are limited by their stringent substrate recognition. Here we describe short-patch compartmentalized self-replication (spCSR), a novel strategy to expand the substrate spectrum of polymerases in a targeted way. spCSR is based on the previously described CSR, but unlike CSR only a short region (a "patch") of the gene under investigation is diversified and replicated. This allows the selection of polymerases under conditions where catalytic activity and processivity are compromised to the extent that full self-replication is inefficient. We targeted two specific motifs involved in substrate recognition in the active site of DNA polymerase I from Thermus aquaticus (Taq) and selected for incorporation of both ribonucleotide- (NTP) and deoxyribonucleotide-triphosphates (dNTPs) using spCSR. This allowed the isolation of multiple variants of Taq with apparent dual substrate specificity. They were able to synthesize RNA, while still retaining essentially wild-type (wt) DNA polymerase activity as judged by PCR. One such mutant (AA40: E602V, A608V, I614M, E615G) was able to incorporate both NTPs and dNTPs with the same catalytic efficiency as the wt enzyme incorporates dNTPs. AA40 allowed the generation of mixed RNA-DNA amplification products in PCR demonstrating DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase as well as reverse transcriptase activity within the same polypeptide. Furthermore, AA40 displayed an expanded substrate spectrum towards other 2'-substituted nucleotides and was able to synthesize nucleic acid polymers in which each base bore a different 2'-substituent. Our results suggest that spCSR will be a powerful strategy for the generation of polymerases with altered substrate specificity for applications in nano- and biotechnology and in the enzymatic synthesis of antisense and RNAi probes. PMID:16859707

  9. Association of the polioviral RNA polymerase complex with phospholipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Butterworth, B E; Shimshick, E J; Yin, F H

    1976-01-01

    Polioviral RNA polymerase complex, which consists of enzyme, template, and nascent RNA, is membrane bound in vivo. The solubilized RNA polymerase complex associated spontaneously in vitro with phospholipid bilayer membranes (liposomes) of defined composition. The degree of association at 37 degrees C was greater for those membranes that were more fluid, suggesting that the binding involves the interaction of the RNA polymerase complex with the hydrocarbon chains in the interior of the lipid bilayer. The polymerase activity was not enhanced by addition of the lipid; in fact, the addition of some of the longer-chain lipids resulted in up to a 40% inhibition of the polymerase activity. Spin-label electron paramagnetic resonance experiments, which measured the membrane fluidity, and kinetic experiments on the rate of incorporation of tritiated UTP into RNA by the polymerase were performed as a function of temperature. The results indicated that the activity of the polymerase was not affected by the physical state of the phospholipid membrane and that its active site was not intimately associated with the membrane. Analysis of both the viral and host polypeptides associated with the smooth membrane-bound polymerase indicated that X was the primary viral polypeptide present. In addition, host polypeptides of molecular weight 86,000, 62,000, 54,000, and 46,000 were also present. If the membrane was disrupted with detergent, polypeptide X was released from the polymerase activity, suggesting that X may play a role in binding the polymerase to the membrane. In an analogous manner, polypeptide X associated spontaneously with phospholipid membranes to a greater extent than the capsid polypeptides. Analysis of both the host and viral polypeptides associated with the viral RNA polymerase purified by precipitation in 2 M LiCl indicated that host polypeptides of molecular weight 106,000, 38,000, 33,000, and 14,000 were the major constituents, whereas relatively small amounts of

  10. Structural Basis for Telomerase Catalytic Subunit TERT Binding to RNA Template and Telomeric DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.; Gillis, A; Futahashi, M; Fujiwara, H; Skordalakes, E

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase is a specialized DNA polymerase that extends the 3{prime} ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, a process required for genomic stability and cell viability. Here we present the crystal structure of the active Tribolium castaneum telomerase catalytic subunit, TERT, bound to an RNA-DNA hairpin designed to resemble the putative RNA-templating region and telomeric DNA. The RNA-DNA hybrid adopts a helical structure, docked in the interior cavity of the TERT ring. Contacts between the RNA template and motifs 2 and B{prime} position the solvent-accessible RNA bases close to the enzyme active site for nucleotide binding and selectivity. Nucleic acid binding induces rigid TERT conformational changes to form a tight catalytic complex. Overall, TERT-RNA template and TERT-telomeric DNA associations are remarkably similar to those observed for retroviral reverse transcriptases, suggesting common mechanistic aspects of DNA replication between the two families of enzymes.

  11. Mutations in RNA polymerase II enhance or suppress mutations in GAL4.

    PubMed Central

    Allison, L A; Ingles, C J

    1989-01-01

    The activation domains of eukaryotic DNA-binding transcription factors, such as GAL4, may regulate transcription by contacting RNA polymerase II. One potential site on RNA polymerase II for such interactions is the C-terminal tandemly repeated heptapeptide domain in the largest subunit (RPO21). We have changed the number of heptapeptide repeats in this yeast RPO21 C-terminal domain and have expressed these mutant RNA polymerase II polypeptides in yeast cells containing either wild-type or defective GAL4 proteins. Although the number of RPO21 heptapeptide repeats had no effect on the activity of wild-type GAL4, changing the length of the C-terminal domain modified the ability of mutant GAL4 proteins to activate transcription. Shorter or longer RPO21 C-terminal domains enhanced or partially suppressed, respectively, the effects of deletions in the transcriptional-activation domains of GAL4. The same RPO21 mutations also affected transcriptional activation by a GAL4-GCN4 chimera. These data suggest that the activation domains of DNA-binding transcription factors could interact, either directly or indirectly, with the heptapeptide repeats of RNA polymerase II. Images PMID:2495535

  12. Structure and Function of the N-Terminal Domain of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shihong; Ogino, Minako; Luo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses have various mechanisms to duplicate their genomes and produce virus-specific mRNAs. Negative-strand RNA viruses encode their own polymerases to perform each of these processes. For the nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, the polymerase is comprised of the large polymerase subunit (L) and the phosphoprotein (P). L proteins from members of the Rhabdoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Filoviridae share sequence and predicted secondary structure homology. Here, we present the structure of the N-terminal domain (conserved region I) of the L protein from a rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, at 1.8-Å resolution. The strictly and strongly conserved residues in this domain cluster in a single area of the protein. Serial mutation of these residues shows that many of the amino acids are essential for viral transcription but not for mRNA capping. Three-dimensional alignments show that this domain shares structural homology with polymerases from other viral families, including segmented negative-strand RNA and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. IMPORTANCE Negative-strand RNA viruses include a diverse set of viral families that infect animals and plants, causing serious illness and economic impact. The members of this group of viruses share a set of functionally conserved proteins that are essential to their replication cycle. Among this set of proteins is the viral polymerase, which performs a unique set of reactions to produce genome- and subgenome-length RNA transcripts. In this article, we study the polymerase of vesicular stomatitis virus, a member of the rhabdoviruses, which has served in the past as a model to study negative-strand RNA virus replication. We have identified a site in the N-terminal domain of the polymerase that is essential to viral transcription and that shares sequence homology with members of the paramyxoviruses and the filoviruses. Newly identified sites such as that described here could prove to be useful targets in the

  13. Direct Characterization of Transcription Elongation by RNA Polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Ucuncuoglu, Suleyman; Engel, Krysta L; Purohit, Prashant K; Dunlap, David D; Schneider, David A; Finzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcribes ribosomal DNA and is responsible for more than 60% of transcription in a growing cell. Despite this fundamental role that directly impacts cell growth and proliferation, the kinetics of transcription by Pol I are poorly understood. This study provides direct characterization of S. Cerevisiae Pol I transcription elongation using tethered particle microscopy (TPM). Pol I was shown to elongate at an average rate of approximately 20 nt/s. However, the maximum speed observed was, in average, about 60 nt/s, comparable to the rate calculated based on the in vivo number of active genes, the cell division rate and the number of engaged polymerases observed in EM images. Addition of RNA endonucleases to the TPM elongation assays enhanced processivity. Together, these data suggest that additional transcription factors contribute to efficient and processive transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I in vivo. PMID:27455049

  14. Direct Characterization of Transcription Elongation by RNA Polymerase I

    PubMed Central

    Ucuncuoglu, Suleyman; Engel, Krysta L.; Purohit, Prashant K.; Dunlap, David D.; Schneider, David A.

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcribes ribosomal DNA and is responsible for more than 60% of transcription in a growing cell. Despite this fundamental role that directly impacts cell growth and proliferation, the kinetics of transcription by Pol I are poorly understood. This study provides direct characterization of S. Cerevisiae Pol I transcription elongation using tethered particle microscopy (TPM). Pol I was shown to elongate at an average rate of approximately 20 nt/s. However, the maximum speed observed was, in average, about 60 nt/s, comparable to the rate calculated based on the in vivo number of active genes, the cell division rate and the number of engaged polymerases observed in EM images. Addition of RNA endonucleases to the TPM elongation assays enhanced processivity. Together, these data suggest that additional transcription factors contribute to efficient and processive transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I in vivo. PMID:27455049

  15. TFIIH plays an essential role in RNA polymerase I transcription.

    PubMed

    Iben, Sebastian; Tschochner, Herbert; Bier, Mirko; Hoogstraten, Deborah; Hozák, Pavel; Egly, Jean Marc; Grummt, Ingrid

    2002-05-01

    TFIIH is a multisubunit protein complex that plays an essential role in nucleotide excision repair and transcription of protein-coding genes. Here, we report that TFIIH is also required for ribosomal RNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro. In yeast, pre-rRNA synthesis is impaired in TFIIH ts strains. In a mouse, part of cellular TFIIH is localized within the nucleolus and is associated with subpopulations of both RNA polymerase I and the basal factor TIF-IB. Transcription systems lacking TFIIH are inactive and exogenous TFIIH restores transcriptional activity. TFIIH is required for productive but not abortive rDNA transcription, implying a postinitiation role in transcription. The results provide a molecular link between RNA polymerase I transcription and transcription-coupled repair of active ribosomal RNA genes. PMID:12015980

  16. RNA template-directed RNA synthesis by T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Cazenave, C; Uhlenbeck, O C

    1994-01-01

    In an attempt to synthesize an oligoribonucleotide by run-off transcription by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, a major transcript was produced that was much longer than expected. Analysis of the reaction indicated that the product resulted from initial DNA-directed run-off transcription followed by RNA template-directed RNA synthesis. This reaction occurred because the RNA made from the DNA template displayed self-complementarity at its 3' end and therefore could form an intra- or intermolecular primed template. In reactions containing only an RNA template, the rate of incorporation of NTPs was quite comparable to DNA-dependent transcription. RNA template-directed RNA synthesis has been found to occur with a great number of oligoribonucleotides, even with primed templates that are only marginally stable. In one instance, we observed a multistep extension reaction converting the oligonucleotide into a final product longer than twice its original length. Presumably, such a process could have generated some of the RNAs found to be efficiently replicated by T7 RNA polymerase. Images PMID:7518923

  17. Structure of wild-type yeast RNA polymerase II and location of Rpb4 and Rpb7.

    PubMed

    Jensen, G J; Meredith, G; Bushnell, D A; Kornberg, R D

    1998-04-15

    The three-dimensional structure of wild-type yeast RNA polymerase II has been determined at a nominal resolution of 24 A. A difference map between this structure and that of the polymerase lacking subunits Rpb4 and Rpb7 showed these two subunits forming part of the floor of the DNA-binding (active center) cleft, and revealed a slight inward movement of the protein domain surrounding the cleft. Surface plasmon resonance measurements showed that Rpb4 and Rpb7 stabilize a minimal pre-initiation complex containing promoter DNA, TATA box-binding protein (TBP), transcription factor TFIIB and the polymerase. These findings suggest that Rpb4 and Rpb7 play a role in coupling the entry of DNA into the active center cleft to closure of the cleft. Such a role can explain why these subunits are necessary for promoter-specific transcription in vitro and for a normal stress response in vivo. PMID:9545247

  18. Conformational selection and induced fit for RNA polymerase and RNA/DNA hybrid backtracked recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Ye, Wei; Yang, Jingxu; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase catalyzes transcription with a high fidelity. If DNA/RNA mismatch or DNA damage occurs downstream, a backtracked RNA polymerase can proofread this situation. However, the backtracked mechanism is still poorly understood. Here we have performed multiple explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on bound and apo DNA/RNA hybrid to study backtracked recognition. MD simulations at room temperature suggest that specific electrostatic interactions play key roles in the backtracked recognition between the polymerase and DNA/RNA hybrid. Kinetics analysis at high temperature shows that bound and apo DNA/RNA hybrid unfold via a two-state process. Both kinetics and free energy landscape analyses indicate that bound DNA/RNA hybrid folds in the order of DNA/RNA contracting, the tertiary folding and polymerase binding. The predicted Φ-values suggest that C7, G9, dC12, dC15, and dT16 are key bases for the backtracked recognition of DNA/RNA hybrid. The average RMSD values between the bound structures and the corresponding apo ones and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) P-test analyses indicate that the recognition between DNA/RNA hybrid and polymerase might follow an induced fit mechanism for DNA/RNA hybrid and conformation selection for polymerase. Furthermore, this method could be used to relative studies of specific recognition between nucleic acid and protein. PMID:26594643

  19. Transcription inactivation through local refolding of the RNA polymerase structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belogurov, Georgiy A.; Vassylyeva, Marina N.; Sevostyanova, Anastasiya; Appleman, James R.; Xiang, Alan X.; Lira, Ricardo; Webber, Stephen E.; Klyuyev, Sergiy; Nudler, Evgeny; Artsimovitch, Irina; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.

    2009-02-12

    Structural studies of antibiotics not only provide a shortcut to medicine allowing for rational structure-based drug design, but may also capture snapshots of dynamic intermediates that become 'frozen' after inhibitor binding. Myxopyronin inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) by an unknown mechanism. Here we report the structure of dMyx - a desmethyl derivative of myxopyronin B - complexed with a Thermus thermophilus RNAP holoenzyme. The antibiotic binds to a pocket deep inside the RNAP clamp head domain, which interacts with the DNA template in the transcription bubble. Notably, binding of dMyx stabilizes refolding of the {beta}'-subunit switch-2 segment, resulting in a configuration that might indirectly compromise binding to, or directly clash with, the melted template DNA strand. Consistently, footprinting data show that the antibiotic binding does not prevent nucleation of the promoter DNA melting but instead blocks its propagation towards the active site. Myxopyronins are thus, to our knowledge, a first structurally characterized class of antibiotics that target formation of the pre-catalytic transcription initiation complex - the decisive step in gene expression control. Notably, mutations designed in switch-2 mimic the dMyx effects on promoter complexes in the absence of antibiotic. Overall, our results indicate a plausible mechanism of the dMyx action and a stepwise pathway of open complex formation in which core enzyme mediates the final stage of DNA melting near the transcription start site, and that switch-2 might act as a molecular checkpoint for DNA loading in response to regulatory signals or antibiotics. The universally conserved switch-2 may have the same role in all multisubunit RNAPs.

  20. Termination and antitermination: RNA polymerase runs a stop sign

    PubMed Central

    Santangelo, Thomas J.; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Termination signals induce rapid and irreversible dissociation of the nascent transcript from RNA polymerase. Terminators at the end of genes prevent unintended transcription into the downstream genes, whereas terminators in the upstream regulatory leader regions adjust expression of the structural genes in response to metabolic and environmental signals. Premature termination within an operon leads to potentially deleterious defects in the expression of the downstream genes, but also provides an important surveillance mechanism. This Review discusses the actions of bacterial and phage antiterminators that allow RNA polymerase to override a terminator when the circumstances demand it. PMID:21478900

  1. Stochastic resetting in backtrack recovery by RNA polymerases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Édgar; Lisica, Ana; Sánchez-Taltavull, Daniel; Grill, Stephan W.

    2016-06-01

    Transcription is a key process in gene expression, in which RNA polymerases produce a complementary RNA copy from a DNA template. RNA polymerization is frequently interrupted by backtracking, a process in which polymerases perform a random walk along the DNA template. Recovery of polymerases from the transcriptionally inactive backtracked state is determined by a kinetic competition between one-dimensional diffusion and RNA cleavage. Here we describe backtrack recovery as a continuous-time random walk, where the time for a polymerase to recover from a backtrack of a given depth is described as a first-passage time of a random walker to reach an absorbing state. We represent RNA cleavage as a stochastic resetting process and derive exact expressions for the recovery time distributions and mean recovery times from a given initial backtrack depth for both continuous and discrete-lattice descriptions of the random walk. We show that recovery time statistics do not depend on the discreteness of the DNA lattice when the rate of one-dimensional diffusion is large compared to the rate of cleavage.

  2. A dynamic model for PC4 coactivator function in RNA polymerase II transcription

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Sohail; Guermah, Mohamed; Roeder, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Human positive cofactor (PC4) acts as a general coactivator for activator-dependent transcription by RNA polymerase II. Here we show that PC4 coactivator function, in contrast to basal (activator-independent) transcription, is dependent both on TATA binding protein (TBP)-associated factors (TAFs) in TFIID and on TFIIH. Surprisingly, PC4 strongly represses transcription initiation by minimal preinitiation complexes in the absence of TAFs and TFIIH, while simultaneously promoting the formation of these complexes. Furthermore, TFIIH and TAFII250, the largest subunit of TFIID, can both phosphorylate PC4. These results provide evidence for an inactive, PC4-induced intermediate in preinitiation complex assembly and point to TFIIH and TAF requirements for its progression into a functional preinitiation complex. Thus PC4 coactivator activity is realized in a stepwise series of events reminiscent of prokaryotic activation pathways involving conversion of inactive RNA polymerase-promoter complexes to an initiation-competent state. PMID:9482861

  3. Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein bridges RNA and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Vienna L; Choi, Mehee; Petrillo, Jessica E; Gehrke, Lee

    2007-07-20

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNA replication requires the viral coat protein (CP). AMV CP is an integral component of the viral replicase; moreover, it binds to the viral RNA 3'-termini and induces the formation of multiple new base pairs that organize the RNA conformation. The results described here suggest that AMV coat protein binding defines template selection by organizing the 3'-terminal RNA conformation and by positioning the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) at the initiation site for minus strand synthesis. RNA-protein interactions were analyzed by using a modified Northwestern blotting protocol that included both viral coat protein and labeled RNA in the probe solution ("far-Northwestern blotting"). We observed that labeled RNA alone bound the replicase proteins poorly; however, complex formation was enhanced significantly in the presence of AMV CP. The RNA-replicase bridging function of the AMV CP may represent a mechanism for accurate de novo initiation in the absence of canonical 3' transfer RNA signals. PMID:17400272

  4. Influenza virus RNA polymerase: insights into the mechanisms of viral RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Te Velthuis, Aartjan J W; Fodor, Ervin

    2016-08-01

    The genomes of influenza viruses consist of multiple segments of single-stranded negative-sense RNA. Each of these segments is bound by the heterotrimeric viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and multiple copies of nucleoprotein, which form viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. It is in the context of these vRNPs that the viral RNA polymerase carries out transcription of viral genes and replication of the viral RNA genome. In this Review, we discuss our current knowledge of the structure of the influenza virus RNA polymerase, and insights that have been gained into the molecular mechanisms of viral transcription and replication, and their regulation by viral and host factors. Furthermore, we discuss how advances in our understanding of the structure and function of polymerases could help in identifying new antiviral targets. PMID:27396566

  5. Enzymatic and nonenzymatic functions of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases within oligomeric arrays

    PubMed Central

    Spagnolo, Jeannie F.; Rossignol, Evan; Bullitt, Esther; Kirkegaard, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Few antivirals are effective against positive-strand RNA viruses, primarily because the high error rate during replication of these viruses leads to the rapid development of drug resistance. One of the favored current targets for the development of antiviral compounds is the active site of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. However, like many subcellular processes, replication of the genomes of all positive-strand RNA viruses occurs in highly oligomeric complexes on the cytosolic surfaces of the intracellular membranes of infected host cells. In this study, catalytically inactive polymerases were shown to participate productively in functional oligomer formation and catalysis, as assayed by RNA template elongation. Direct protein transduction to introduce either active or inactive polymerases into cells infected with mutant virus confirmed the structural role for polymerase molecules during infection. Therefore, we suggest that targeting the active sites of polymerase molecules is not likely to be the best antiviral strategy, as inactivated polymerases do not inhibit replication of other viruses in the same cell and can, in fact, be useful in RNA replication complexes. On the other hand, polymerases that could not participate in functional RNA replication complexes were those that contained mutations in the amino terminus, leading to altered contacts in the folded polymerase and mutations in a known polymerase–polymerase interaction in the two-dimensional protein lattice. Thus, the functional nature of multimeric arrays of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase supplies a novel target for antiviral compounds and provides a new appreciation for enzymatic catalysis on membranous surfaces within cells. PMID:20051491

  6. A non-canonical multisubunit RNA polymerase encoded by a giant bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Yakunina, Maria; Artamonova, Tatyana; Borukhov, Sergei; Makarova, Kira S; Severinov, Konstantin; Minakhin, Leonid

    2015-12-01

    The infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the giant bacteriophage phiKZ is resistant to host RNA polymerase (RNAP) inhibitor rifampicin. phiKZ encodes two sets of polypeptides that are distantly related to fragments of the two largest subunits of cellular multisubunit RNAPs. Polypeptides of one set are encoded by middle phage genes and are found in the phiKZ virions. Polypeptides of the second set are encoded by early phage genes and are absent from virions. Here, we report isolation of a five-subunit RNAP from phiKZ-infected cells. Four subunits of this enzyme are cellular RNAP subunits homologs of the non-virion set; the fifth subunit is a protein of unknown function. In vitro, this complex initiates transcription from late phiKZ promoters in rifampicin-resistant manner. Thus, this enzyme is a non-virion phiKZ RNAP responsible for transcription of late phage genes. The phiKZ RNAP lacks identifiable assembly and promoter specificity subunits/factors characteristic for eukaryal, archaeal and bacterial RNAPs and thus provides a unique model for comparative analysis of the mechanism, regulation and evolution of this important class of enzymes. PMID:26490960

  7. The RNA polymerase activity of SARS-coronavirus nsp12 is primer dependent

    PubMed Central

    te Velthuis, Aartjan J. W.; Arnold, Jamie J.; Cameron, Craig E.; van den Worm, Sjoerd H. E.; Snijder, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is the central catalytic subunit of the RNA-synthesizing machinery of all positive-strand RNA viruses. Usually, RdRp domains are readily identifiable by comparative sequence analysis, but biochemical confirmation and characterization can be hampered by intrinsic protein properties and technical complications. It is presumed that replication and transcription of the ∼30-kb severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) RNA genome are catalyzed by an RdRp domain in the C-terminal part of nonstructural protein 12 (nsp12), one of 16 replicase subunits. However, thus far full-length nsp12 has proven refractory to expression in bacterial systems, which has hindered both the biochemical characterization of coronavirus RNA synthesis and RdRp-targeted antiviral drug design. Here, we describe a combined strategy involving bacterial expression of an nsp12 fusion protein and its in vivo cleavage to generate and purify stable SARS-CoV nsp12 (106 kDa) with a natural N-terminus and C-terminal hexahistidine tag. This recombinant protein possesses robust in vitro RdRp activity, as well as a significant DNA-dependent activity that may facilitate future inhibitor studies. The SARS-CoV nsp12 is primer dependent on both homo- and heteropolymeric templates, supporting the likeliness of a close enzymatic collaboration with the intriguing RNA primase activity that was recently proposed for coronavirus nsp8. PMID:19875418

  8. A carboxyl-terminal-domain kinase associated with RNA polymerase II transcription factor delta from rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Serizawa, H; Conaway, R C; Conaway, J W

    1992-01-01

    We previously purified RNA polymerase II transcription factor delta from rat liver and found that it has an associated DNA-dependent ATPase (dATPase) activity. In this report, we show that delta is also closely associated with a protein kinase activity that catalyzes phosphorylation of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Kinase activity copurifies with transcription and DNA-dependent ATPase (dATPase) activities when delta is analyzed by anion- and cation-exchange HPLC as well as by sucrose gradient sedimentation, arguing that delta possesses all three activities. Phosphorylation of the largest subunits of both rat and yeast RNA polymerase II is stimulated by DNA, whereas phosphorylation of a synthetic peptide containing multiple copies of the carboxyl-terminal heptapeptide repeat is not. Although both ATP and GTP appear to function as phosphate donors, GTP is utilized less than 10% as well as ATP. These findings suggest that delta may exert its action in transcription at least in part through a mechanism involving phosphorylation of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Images PMID:1386928

  9. A Perspective on the Enhancer Dependent Bacterial RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Buck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Here we review recent findings and offer a perspective on how the major variant RNA polymerase of bacteria, which contains the sigma54 factor, functions for regulated gene expression. We consider what gaps exist in our understanding of its genetic, biochemical and biophysical functioning and how they might be addressed. PMID:26010401

  10. A perspective on the enhancer dependent bacterial RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Buck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Here we review recent findings and offer a perspective on how the major variant RNA polymerase of bacteria, which contains the sigma54 factor, functions for regulated gene expression. We consider what gaps exist in our understanding of its genetic, biochemical and biophysical functioning and how they might be addressed. PMID:26010401

  11. RNA cleavage and chain elongation by Escherichia coli DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in a binary enzyme.RNA complex.

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, C R; Solow-Cordero, D E; Chamberlin, M J

    1994-01-01

    In the absence of DNA, Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) can bind RNA to form an equimolar binary complex with the concomitant release of the sigma factor. We show now that E. coli RNA polymerase binds at a region near the 3' terminus of the RNA and that an RNA in such RNA.RNA polymerase complexes undergoes reactions previously thought to be unique to nascent RNA in ternary complexes with DNA. These include GreA/GreB-dependent cleavage of the RNA and elongation by 3'-terminal addition of NMP from NTP. Both of these reactions are inhibited by rifampicin. Hence, by several criteria, the RNA in binary complexes is bound to the polymerase in a manner quite similar to that in ternary complexes. These findings can be explained by a model for the RNA polymerase ternary complex in which the RNA is bound at the 3' terminus through two protein binding sites located up to 10 nt apart. In this model, the stability of RNA binding to the polymerase in the ternary complex is due primarily to its interaction with the protein. Images PMID:7513426

  12. Effects of bacteriophage T4-induced modification of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase on gene expression in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Mailhammer, R; Yang, H L; Reiness, G; Zubay, G

    1975-01-01

    After T4 bacteriophage infection of E. coli a complex series of events take place in the bacterium, including gross inhibition of host transcription and discrete changes in the classes of the genes of T4 that are transcribed. Accompanying these changes in the pattern of transcription one finds T4-induced changes in the RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6; nucleosidetriphosphate:RNA nucleotidyltransferase). The effects of modified polymerase on transcription can be advantageously analyzed in a DNA-directed cell-free system for protein synthesis. In this system gene activity is measured indirectly by the amounts and types of proteins sythesized. In the DNA-directed cell-free system this modified polymerase, like normal polymerase, transcribes T4 DNA with a high efficiency but transcribes bacteriophage lambda and host DNA very poorly. Polymerase reconstruction experiments show that modification of the alpha subunit of the RNA polymerase is sufficient for inhibition of host transcription. Host transcription is also inhibited in vitro by T4 DNA. This latter type of inhibition is presumed to involve competition between host DNA and T4 DNA for some factor essential for transcription. The T4-modified polymerase transcribes from T4 DNA many of the same genes as normal unmodified polymerase; it also shows a capability for transcribing certain "non-early" T4 genes which is enhanced in the presence of protein-containing extracts from T4-infected cells. PMID:1108008

  13. Ancient Origin and Recent Innovations of RNA Polymerase IV and V

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi; Kendall, Timmy; Forsythe, Evan S.; Dorantes-Acosta, Ana; Li, Shaofang; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Chen, Xuemei; Arteaga-Vázquez, Mario; Beilstein, Mark A.; Mosher, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA-mediated chromatin modification is a conserved feature of eukaryotes. In flowering plants, the short interfering (si)RNAs that direct transcriptional silencing are abundant and subfunctionalization has led to specialized machinery responsible for synthesis and action of these small RNAs. In particular, plants possess polymerase (Pol) IV and Pol V, multi-subunit homologs of the canonical DNA-dependent RNA Pol II, as well as specialized members of the RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (RDR), Dicer-like (DCL), and Argonaute (AGO) families. Together these enzymes are required for production and activity of Pol IV-dependent (p4-)siRNAs, which trigger RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) at homologous sequences. p4-siRNAs accumulate highly in developing endosperm, a specialized tissue found only in flowering plants, and are rare in nonflowering plants, suggesting that the evolution of flowers might coincide with the emergence of specialized RdDM machinery. Through comprehensive identification of RdDM genes from species representing the breadth of the land plant phylogeny, we describe the ancient origin of Pol IV and Pol V, suggesting that a nearly complete and functional RdDM pathway could have existed in the earliest land plants. We also uncover innovations in these enzymes that are coincident with the emergence of seed plants and flowering plants, and recent duplications that might indicate additional subfunctionalization. Phylogenetic analysis reveals rapid evolution of Pol IV and Pol V subunits relative to their Pol II counterparts and suggests that duplicates were retained and subfunctionalized through Escape from Adaptive Conflict. Evolution within the carboxy-terminal domain of the Pol V largest subunit is particularly striking, where illegitimate recombination facilitated extreme sequence divergence. PMID:25767205

  14. Plastid RNA polymerases: orchestration of enzymes with different evolutionary origins controls chloroplast biogenesis during the plant life cycle.

    PubMed

    Pfannschmidt, Thomas; Blanvillain, Robert; Merendino, Livia; Courtois, Florence; Chevalier, Fabien; Liebers, Monique; Grübler, Björn; Hommel, Elisabeth; Lerbs-Mache, Silva

    2015-12-01

    Chloroplasts are the sunlight-collecting organelles of photosynthetic eukaryotes that energetically drive the biosphere of our planet. They are the base for all major food webs by providing essential photosynthates to all heterotrophic organisms including humans. Recent research has focused largely on an understanding of the function of these organelles, but knowledge about the biogenesis of chloroplasts is rather limited. It is known that chloroplasts develop from undifferentiated precursor plastids, the proplastids, in meristematic cells. This review focuses on the activation and action of plastid RNA polymerases, which play a key role in the development of new chloroplasts from proplastids. Evolutionarily, plastids emerged from the endosymbiosis of a cyanobacterium-like ancestor into a heterotrophic eukaryote. As an evolutionary remnant of this process, they possess their own genome, which is expressed by two types of plastid RNA polymerase, phage-type and prokaryotic-type RNA polymerase. The protein subunits of these polymerases are encoded in both the nuclear and plastid genomes. Their activation and action therefore require a highly sophisticated regulation that controls and coordinates the expression of the components encoded in the plastid and nucleus. Stoichiometric expression and correct assembly of RNA polymerase complexes is achieved by a combination of developmental and environmentally induced programmes. This review highlights the current knowledge about the functional coordination between the different types of plastid RNA polymerases and provides working models of their sequential expression and function for future investigations. PMID:26355147

  15. Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    De Rijk, P; Caers, A; Van de Peer, Y; De Wachter, R

    1998-01-01

    The rRNA WWW Server at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ now provides a database of 496 large subunit ribosomal RNA sequences. All these sequences are aligned, incorporate secondary structure information, and can be obtained in a number of formats. Other information about the sequences, such as literature references, accession numbers and taxonomic information is also available and searchable. If necessary, the data on the server can also be obtained by anonymous ftp. PMID:9399830

  16. RNA polymerase III dependence of the human L1 promoter and possible participation of the RNA polymerase II factor YY1 in the RNA polymerase III transcription system.

    PubMed Central

    Kurose, K; Hata, K; Hattori, M; Sakaki, Y

    1995-01-01

    From the general views of the eukaryotic transcription systems, L1 (or L1-like) retrotransposons that encode some proteins are unusual. L1, unlike other protein-coding elements, is transcribed through an internal promoter. And the L1 internal promoter, unlike other internal promoters, is thought to be RNA polymerase II (pol II) dependent, because the L1 transcript has a large size (approximately 6 kb), protein coding capacity and a 3' terminal polyadenylation signal followed by a poly(A) tail, and also because transcription from the promoter of Drosophila L1-like element jockey was highly sensitive to alpha-amanitin. However, our in vitro transcription study reveals that transcription from the human L1 promoter is highly sensitive to tagetitoxin, a selective inhibitor of RNA polymerase III (pol III), but insensitive to 1 micrograms/ml of alpha-amanitin, indicating that the human L1 promoter is pol III-dependent. The pol III dependence is further supported by our observation that L1 and pol III-dependent tRNA gene promoters share a common nuclear factor YY1. There is evidence that YY1 is also a pol II transcription factor. We thus propose that YY1 is a possible member of the pol III transcription system. Images PMID:7479000

  17. Purification of Crystallization-Grade RNA Polymerase I from S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Engel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Purification of RNA polymerase (Pol) I is essential for functional as well as for structural studies. The product needs to be extremely pure in order to exclude secondary effects, e.g., caused by copurified nucleic acids in subsequent experiments. For this purpose, the method presented here was originally introduced nearly a decade ago but underwent constant optimization [1]. The polymerase is extracted from its endogenous source, since no overexpression system for the entire 590 kDa, 14-subunit complex is available thus far. Following yeast cultivation, a number of standard protein purification techniques are applied and combined to a robust but elaborate procedure that takes 3 days. In brief, a yeast strain with histidine-tagged RNA polymerase I is fermented, cells are broken by bead beating, and cell debris is removed by a two-step centrifugation. The lysate is then dialyzed, the Pol-I-containing pellet resuspended, and polymerase I enriched by a His-trap affinity step, followed by sequential purification via anion and cation exchange and a final size exclusion chromatography. PMID:27576712

  18. In vitro RNA synthesis by infectious pancreatic necrosis virus-associated RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Mertens, P P; Jamieson, P B; Dobos, P

    1982-03-01

    The presence of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was demonstrated in purified infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The enzyme was active in vitro without any pretreatment of the virus. Optimum activity was shown at 30 degrees C, pH 8 and in the presence of 6 mM-magnesium ions. Approx. 50% of the polymerase product remained associated with the dsRNA template of the virions. The remainder was found as extravirion ssRNA broken down to 5S to 7S fragments by virus-associated RNase(s). Although the addition of bentonite considerably reduced the amount of RNA synthesized, it protected the ssRNA product from degradation. This, in turn, permitted the synthesis of small amounts of ssRNA, which when analysed by sucrose gradient centrifugation or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis behaved identically to the 24S single-stranded virus mRNA produced in infected cells. The virion polymerase was not stimulated by S-adenosyl-L-methionine or the addition of cellular or capped reovirus ssRNA. Several other modifications of the assay system were tried in an attempt to increase 24S RNA synthesis, but with little success. When [3H]uridine-labelled virus was used in the polymerase reaction, some labelled 24S ssRNA was obtained, indicating that in vitro transcription may proceed by a semi-conservative (displacement) mechanism. PMID:6175731

  19. RNA degradation paths in a 12-subunit nuclear exosome complex.

    PubMed

    Makino, Debora Lika; Schuch, Benjamin; Stegmann, Elisabeth; Baumgärtner, Marc; Basquin, Claire; Conti, Elena

    2015-08-01

    The eukaryotic exosome is a conserved RNA-degrading complex that functions in RNA surveillance, turnover and processing. How the same machinery can either completely degrade or precisely trim RNA substrates has long remained unexplained. Here we report the crystal structures of a yeast nuclear exosome containing the 9-subunit core, the 3'-5' RNases Rrp44 and Rrp6, and the obligate Rrp6-binding partner Rrp47 in complex with different RNAs. The combined structural and biochemical data of this 12-subunit complex reveal how a single-stranded RNA can reach the Rrp44 or Rrp6 active sites directly or can bind Rrp6 and be threaded via the central channel towards the distal RNase Rrp44. When a bulky RNA is stalled at the entrance of the channel, Rrp6-Rrp47 swings open. The results suggest how the same molecular machine can coordinate processive degradation and partial trimming in an RNA-dependent manner by a concerted swinging mechanism of the two RNase subunits. PMID:26222026

  20. Different pathways for the nuclear import of yeast RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Navarro, Natalia; Estruch, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) has to be fully assembled before being imported into the nucleus, while other reports indicate a distinct mechanism to import large and small subunits. In yeast, Iwr1 binds to the holoenzyme assembled in the cytoplasm and directs its nuclear entry. However, as IWR1 is not an essential gene, Iwr1-independent pathway(s) for the nuclear import of Pol II must exist. In this paper, we investigate the transport into the nucleus of several large and small Pol II subunits in the mutants of genes involved in Pol II biogenesis. We also analyse subcellular localization in the presence of drugs that can potentially affect Pol II nuclear import. Our results show differences in the cellular distribution between large and small subunits when Pol II biogenesis was impaired. Our data suggest that, in addition to the fully assembled holoenzyme, Pol II subunits can be imported to the nucleus, either independently or as partial assemblies, through different pathways, including passive diffusion for the small subunits. PMID:26455955

  1. The Second Subunit of DNA Polymerase Delta Is Required for Genomic Stability and Epigenetic Regulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jinkui; Lai, Jinsheng; Gong, Zhizhong

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerase δ plays crucial roles in DNA repair and replication as well as maintaining genomic stability. However, the function of POLD2, the second small subunit of DNA polymerase δ, has not been characterized yet in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). During a genetic screen for release of transcriptional gene silencing, we identified a mutation in POLD2. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing indicated that POLD2 is not involved in the regulation of DNA methylation. POLD2 genetically interacts with Ataxia Telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related and DNA polymerase α. The pold2-1 mutant exhibits genomic instability with a high frequency of homologous recombination. It also exhibits hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging reagents and short telomere length. Whole-genome chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA sequencing analyses suggest that pold2-1 changes H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 modifications, and these changes are correlated with the gene expression levels. Our study suggests that POLD2 is required for maintaining genome integrity and properly establishing the epigenetic markers during DNA replication to modulate gene expression. PMID:27208288

  2. The mRNA capping enzyme of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has dual specificity to interact with CTD of RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Bharati, Akhilendra Pratap; Singh, Neha; Kumar, Vikash; Kashif, Md; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Tripathi, Timir; Akhtar, Md Sohail

    2016-01-01

    RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) uniquely possesses an extended carboxy terminal domain (CTD) on its largest subunit, Rpb1, comprising a repetitive Tyr1Ser2Pro3Thr4 Ser5Pro6Ser7 motif with potential phosphorylation sites. The phosphorylation of the CTD serves as a signal for the binding of various transcription regulators for mRNA biogenesis including the mRNA capping complex. In eukaryotes, the 5 prime capping of the nascent transcript is the first detectable mRNA processing event, and is crucial for the productive transcript elongation. The binding of capping enzyme, RNA guanylyltransferases to the transcribing RNAPII is known to be primarily facilitated by the CTD, phosphorylated at Ser5 (Ser5P). Here we report that the Saccharomyces cerevesiae RNA guanylyltransferase (Ceg1) has dual specificity and interacts not only with Ser5P but also with Ser7P of the CTD. The Ser7 of CTD is essential for the unconditional growth and efficient priming of the mRNA capping complex. The Arg159 and Arg185 of Ceg1 are the key residues that interact with the Ser5P, while the Lys175 with Ser7P of CTD. These interactions appear to be in a specific pattern of Ser5PSer7PSer5P in a tri-heptad CTD (YSPTSPPS YSPTSPSP YSPTSPPS) and provide molecular insights into the Ceg1-CTD interaction for mRNA transcription. PMID:27503426

  3. The mRNA capping enzyme of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has dual specificity to interact with CTD of RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Bharati, Akhilendra Pratap; Singh, Neha; Kumar, Vikash; Kashif, Md.; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Tripathi, Timir; Akhtar, Md. Sohail

    2016-01-01

    RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) uniquely possesses an extended carboxy terminal domain (CTD) on its largest subunit, Rpb1, comprising a repetitive Tyr1Ser2Pro3Thr4 Ser5Pro6Ser7 motif with potential phosphorylation sites. The phosphorylation of the CTD serves as a signal for the binding of various transcription regulators for mRNA biogenesis including the mRNA capping complex. In eukaryotes, the 5 prime capping of the nascent transcript is the first detectable mRNA processing event, and is crucial for the productive transcript elongation. The binding of capping enzyme, RNA guanylyltransferases to the transcribing RNAPII is known to be primarily facilitated by the CTD, phosphorylated at Ser5 (Ser5P). Here we report that the Saccharomyces cerevesiae RNA guanylyltransferase (Ceg1) has dual specificity and interacts not only with Ser5P but also with Ser7P of the CTD. The Ser7 of CTD is essential for the unconditional growth and efficient priming of the mRNA capping complex. The Arg159 and Arg185 of Ceg1 are the key residues that interact with the Ser5P, while the Lys175 with Ser7P of CTD. These interactions appear to be in a specific pattern of Ser5PSer7PSer5P in a tri-heptad CTD (YSPTSPPS YSPTSPSP YSPTSPPS) and provide molecular insights into the Ceg1-CTD interaction for mRNA transcription. PMID:27503426

  4. Structure of an RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Kenji; Tsai, Kuang-Lei; Kalisman, Nir; Bushnell, David A.; Asturias, Francisco J.; Kornberg, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of a 33-protein, 1.5-MDa RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex (PIC) was determined by cryo-EM and image processing at a resolution of 6–11 Å. Atomic structures of over 50% of the mass were fitted into the electron density map in a manner consistent with protein–protein cross-links previously identified by mass spectrometry. The resulting model of the PIC confirmed the main conclusions from previous cryo-EM at lower resolution, including the association of promoter DNA only with general transcription factors and not with the polymerase. Electron density due to DNA was identifiable by the grooves of the double helix and exhibited sharp bends at points downstream of the TATA box, with an important consequence: The DNA at the downstream end coincides with the DNA in a transcribing polymerase. The structure of the PIC is therefore conducive to promoter melting, start-site scanning, and the initiation of transcription. PMID:26483468

  5. Structure of an RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kenji; Tsai, Kuang-Lei; Kalisman, Nir; Bushnell, David A; Asturias, Francisco J; Kornberg, Roger D

    2015-11-01

    The structure of a 33-protein, 1.5-MDa RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex (PIC) was determined by cryo-EM and image processing at a resolution of 6-11 Å. Atomic structures of over 50% of the mass were fitted into the electron density map in a manner consistent with protein-protein cross-links previously identified by mass spectrometry. The resulting model of the PIC confirmed the main conclusions from previous cryo-EM at lower resolution, including the association of promoter DNA only with general transcription factors and not with the polymerase. Electron density due to DNA was identifiable by the grooves of the double helix and exhibited sharp bends at points downstream of the TATA box, with an important consequence: The DNA at the downstream end coincides with the DNA in a transcribing polymerase. The structure of the PIC is therefore conducive to promoter melting, start-site scanning, and the initiation of transcription. PMID:26483468

  6. Cloning DPB3, the gene encoding the third subunit of DNA polymerase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Araki, H; Hamatake, R K; Morrison, A; Johnson, A L; Johnston, L H; Sugino, A

    1991-01-01

    DNA polymerase II purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of greater than 200, 80, 34, 30 and 29 kDa, the two largest of which (subunits A and B) are encoded by the essential genes POL2 and DPB2. By probing a lambda gt11 expression library of yeast DNA with antiserum against DNA polymerase II, we isolated a single gene, DPB3, that encodes both the 34- and 30-kDa polypeptides (subunit C and C'). The nucleotide sequence of DPB3 contained an open reading frame encoding a 23-kDa protein, significantly smaller than the observed molecular masses, 34- or 30-kDa, which might represent post-translationally modified forms of the DPB3 product. The predicted amino acid sequence contained a possible NTP-binding motif and a glutamate-rich region. NTP-binding motif and a glutamate-rich region. A dpb3 deletion mutant (dpb3 delta) was viable and yielded a DNA polymerase II lacking the 34- and 30-kDa polypeptides. dpb3 delta strains exhibited an increased spontaneous mutation rate, suggesting that the DPB3 product is required to maintain fidelity of chromosomal replication. Since a fifth, 29-kDa polypeptide was present in DNA polymerase II preparations from wild-type cell extracts throughout purification, the subunit composition appears to be A, B, C (or C and C') and D. The 5' nontranscribed region of DPB3 contained the MulI-related sequence ACGCGA, while the 0.9-kb DPB3 transcript accumulated periodically during the cell cycle and peaked at the G1/S boundary. The level of DPB3 transcript thus appears to be under the same cell cycle control as those of POL2, DPB2 and other DNA replication genes. DPB3 was mapped to chromosome II, 30 cM distal to his7. Images PMID:1923754

  7. Interaction of amatoxins with plant cells and RNA polymerases II: selection of amanitin-resistant cell lines and synthesis of amanitin-based affinity ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Little, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments directed toward deriving basic information regarding plant RNA polymerase II is presented. The experiments described relate to the potential of isolating RNA polymerase II mutants in plants, using carrot cell cultures as models. Additionally, the synthesis of amanitin-based affinity ligands to immobilize isolated plant RNA polymerase II and associated transcriptional complexes is described. RNA polymerase II activities have been isolated from suspension cultures of carrot and compared to other plant RNA polymerases II with respect to subunit analysis and inhibition with ..cap alpha..-amanitin. RNA polymerase II purified by polymin P absorption, DE52, phosphocellulose, and RNA-agarose chromatography is shown to copurify with proteins of 175 (and 200), 135, 70, 43, 28, 22, and 17 kdaltons apparent molecular weights. Conditions for accurate determination of amanitin inhibition of the enzyme are established using /sup 3/H-amanitin and are presented for the first time for plant RNA polymerase II; RNA polymerase II from these cultures is shown to be inhibited by 50% at 3-5 nM by ..cap alpha..-amanitin, a value 10-50 times lower than previously reported.

  8. Architecture of TFIIIC and its role in RNA polymerase III pre-initiation complex assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Male, Gary; von Appen, Alexander; Glatt, Sebastian; Taylor, Nicholas M. I.; Cristovao, Michele; Groetsch, Helga; Beck, Martin; Müller, Christoph W.

    2015-06-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA Polymerase III (Pol III) is specifically responsible for transcribing genes encoding tRNAs and other short non-coding RNAs. The recruitment of Pol III to tRNA-encoding genes requires the transcription factors (TF) IIIB and IIIC. TFIIIC has been described as a conserved, multi-subunit protein complex composed of two subcomplexes, called τA and τB. How these two subcomplexes are linked and how their interaction affects the formation of the Pol III pre-initiation complex (PIC) is poorly understood. Here we use chemical crosslinking mass spectrometry and determine the molecular architecture of TFIIIC. We further report the crystal structure of the essential TPR array from τA subunit τ131 and characterize its interaction with a central region of τB subunit τ138. The identified τ131-τ138 interacting region is essential in vivo and overlaps with TFIIIB-binding sites, revealing a crucial interaction platform for the regulation of tRNA transcription initiation.

  9. Architecture of TFIIIC and its role in RNA polymerase III pre-initiation complex assembly

    PubMed Central

    Male, Gary; von Appen, Alexander; Glatt, Sebastian; Taylor, Nicholas M. I.; Cristovao, Michele; Groetsch, Helga; Beck, Martin; Müller, Christoph W.

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA Polymerase III (Pol III) is specifically responsible for transcribing genes encoding tRNAs and other short non-coding RNAs. The recruitment of Pol III to tRNA-encoding genes requires the transcription factors (TF) IIIB and IIIC. TFIIIC has been described as a conserved, multi-subunit protein complex composed of two subcomplexes, called τA and τB. How these two subcomplexes are linked and how their interaction affects the formation of the Pol III pre-initiation complex (PIC) is poorly understood. Here we use chemical crosslinking mass spectrometry and determine the molecular architecture of TFIIIC. We further report the crystal structure of the essential TPR array from τA subunit τ131 and characterize its interaction with a central region of τB subunit τ138. The identified τ131–τ138 interacting region is essential in vivo and overlaps with TFIIIB-binding sites, revealing a crucial interaction platform for the regulation of tRNA transcription initiation. PMID:26060179

  10. Mitochondrial DNA polymerase from embryos of Drosophila melanogaster: purification, subunit structure, and partial characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, C.M.; Kaguni, L.S.

    1986-11-05

    The mitochondrial DNA polymerase has been purified to near-homogeneity from early embryos of Drosophila melanogaster. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of the highly purified enzyme reveals two polypeptides with molecular masses of 125,000 and 35,000 daltons, in a ratio of 1:1. The enzyme has a sedimentation coefficient of 7.6 S and a stokes radius of 51 A. Taken together, the data suggest that the D. melanogaster DNA polymerase ..gamma.. is a heterodimer. DNA polymerase activity gel analysis has allowed the assignment of the DNA polymerization function to the large subunit. The DNA polymerase exhibits a remarkable ability to utilize efficiently a variety of template-primers including gapped DNA, poly(rA).oligo(dT) and singly primed phiX174 DNA. Both the crude and the highly purified enzymes are stimulated by KCl, and inhibited by dideoxythymidine triphosphate and by N-ethylmaleimide. Thus, the catalytic properties of the near-homogeneous Drosophila enzyme are consistent with those of DNA polymerase ..gamma.. as partially purified from several vertebrates.

  11. Coupling of RNA Polymerase II Transcription Elongation with Pre-mRNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Saldi, Tassa; Cortazar, Michael A; Sheridan, Ryan M; Bentley, David L

    2016-06-19

    Pre-mRNA maturation frequently occurs at the same time and place as transcription by RNA polymerase II. The co-transcriptionality of mRNA processing has permitted the evolution of mechanisms that functionally couple transcription elongation with diverse events that occur on the nascent RNA. This review summarizes the current understanding of the relationship between transcriptional elongation through a chromatin template and co-transcriptional splicing including alternative splicing decisions that affect the expression of most human genes. PMID:27107644

  12. Yeast RNA polymerase II at 5 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Fu, J; Gnatt, A L; Bushnell, D A; Jensen, G J; Thompson, N E; Burgess, R R; David, P R; Kornberg, R D

    1999-09-17

    Appropriate treatment of X-ray diffraction from an unoriented 18-heavy atom cluster derivative of a yeast RNA polymerase II crystal gave significant phase information to 5 A resolution. The validity of the phases was shown by close similarity of a 6 A electron density map to a 16 A molecular envelope of the polymerase from electron crystallography. Comparison of the 6 A X-ray map with results of electron crystallography of a paused transcription elongation complex suggests functional roles for two mobile protein domains: the tip of a flexible arm forms a downstream DNA clamp; and a hinged domain may serve as an RNA clamp, enclosing the transcript from about 8-18 residues upstream of the 3'-end in a tunnel. PMID:10499797

  13. A heteromeric transcription factor required for mammalian RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, S; Tanaka, Y; Kawaguchi, T; Nagaoka, T; Weissman, S M; Yasukochi, Y

    1990-01-01

    A general transcription factor, FC, essential for specific initiation of in vitro transcription by mammalian RNA polymerase II was identified and a procedure developed to purify it to near homogeneity from HeLa cell nuclei. Purified FC is composed of two polypeptides of apparent molecular masses 80 kDa and 30 kDa, on SDS-PAGE, and has a native size of 280 kDa estimated by gel filtration column. Both polypeptides were shown to be essential for reconstituting in vitro transcription activity. Biochemical analysis showed that the 80 kDa and 30 kDa components were present in a 1:1 molar ratio. FC was also demonstrated to interact directly or indirectly with purified RNA polymerase II. Similarities between FC and transcription factors reported by others from human, rat or Drosophila cells are discussed. Images PMID:2395645

  14. Live cell immunogold labelling of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Orlov, Igor; Schertel, Andreas; Zuber, Guy; Klaholz, Bruno; Drillien, Robert; Weiss, Etienne; Schultz, Patrick; Spehner, Danièle

    2015-01-01

    Labeling nuclear proteins with electron dense probes in living cells has been a major challenge due to their inability to penetrate into nuclei. We developed a lipid-based approach for delivering antibodies coupled to 0.8 nm ultrasmall gold particles into the nucleus to label RNA polymerase II. Focussed Ion Beam slicing coupled to Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB/SEM) enabled visualization of entire cells with probe localization accuracy in the 10 nm range. PMID:25662860

  15. Transcribing RNA polymerase III observed by electron cryomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Niklas A; Jakobi, Arjen J; Vorländer, Matthias K; Sachse, Carsten; Müller, Christoph W

    2016-08-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy reconstructions of elongating RNA polymerase (Pol) III at 3.9 Å resolution and of unbound Pol III (apo Pol III) in two distinct conformations at 4.6 Å and 4.7 Å resolution allow the construction of complete atomic models of Pol III and provide new functional insights into the adaption of Pol III to fulfill its specific transcription tasks. PMID:27059519

  16. Polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcomas: comparison of fetal type acetylcholine receptor subunits and myogenin.

    PubMed

    Gattenlöhner, S; Müller-Hermelink, H K; Marx, A

    1998-06-01

    The diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is usually straight-forward when light microscopy and immunohistochemistry are used. However, tumors that exhibit a low degree of differentiation and small biopsies can lead to confusion. In such patients and for the detection of minimal (residual) disease, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach would be a valuable diagnostic adjunct. This type of approach would be highly sensitive and should be free from the risk for contamination of the tumor sample with normal tissue. Because myogenin and the alpha and gamma subunit of the fetal type acetylcholine receptor (AChR) are specific immunohistochemical markers for RMS, their expression on the mRNA level in RMS, other childhood and adult tumors, and normal tissues was studied. Although the sensitivity of both approaches was 100% in embryonal and alveolar RMS, detection of myogenin mRNA was not specific for RMS but occurred in normal muscle and the majority of the other normal tissues and childhood tumors. Conversely, detection of fetal AChR mRNA as defined by an alpha/tau ratio of < 1 was encountered only in RMS and denervated muscle. The authors conclude that mRNA of the fetal type AChR but not myogenin is a highly specific and sensitive target for the PCR-based diagnosis of RMS. PMID:9836066

  17. Stress Induces Changes in the Phosphorylation of Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Polymerase II, Affecting Its Association with Chromatin and RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Antônio Augusto; Moretti, Nilmar Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal heptapeptide repeats of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) controls several transcription-related events in eukaryotes. Trypanosomatids lack these typical repeats and display an unusual transcription control. RNA Pol II associates with the transcription site of the spliced leader (SL) RNA, which is used in the trans-splicing of all mRNAs transcribed on long polycistronic units. We found that Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Pol II associated with chromatin is highly phosphorylated. When transcription is inhibited by actinomycin D, the enzyme runs off from SL genes, remaining hyperphosphorylated and associated with polycistronic transcription units. Upon heat shock, the enzyme is dephosphorylated and remains associated with the chromatin. Transcription is partially inhibited with the accumulation of housekeeping precursor mRNAs, except for heat shock genes. DNA damage caused dephosphorylation and transcription arrest, with RNA Pol II dissociating from chromatin although staying at the SL. In the presence of calyculin A, the hyperphosphorylated form detached from chromatin, including the SL loci. These results indicate that in trypanosomes, the unusual RNA Pol II is phosphorylated during the transcription of SL and polycistronic operons. Different types of stresses modify its phosphorylation state, affecting pre-RNA processing. PMID:24813189

  18. Recent advances in understanding transcription termination by RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Loya, Travis J.; Reines, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Transcription termination is a fundamental process in which RNA polymerase ceases RNA chain extension and dissociates from the chromatin template, thereby defining the end of the transcription unit. Our understanding of the biological role and functional importance of termination by RNA polymerase II and the range of processes in which it is involved has grown significantly in recent years. A large set of nucleic acid-binding proteins and enzymes have been identified as part of the termination machinery. A greater appreciation for the coupling of termination to RNA processing and metabolism has been recognized. In addition to serving as an essential step at the end of the transcription cycle, termination is involved in the regulation of a broad range of cellular processes. More recently, a role for termination in pervasive transcription, non-coding RNA regulation, genetic stability, chromatin remodeling, the immune response, and disease has come to the fore. Interesting mechanistic questions remain, but the last several years have resulted in significant insights into termination and an increasing recognition of its biological importance. PMID:27408690

  19. Recessive mutations in POLR1C cause a leukodystrophy by impairing biogenesis of RNA polymerase III

    PubMed Central

    Thiffault, Isabelle; Wolf, Nicole I.; Forget, Diane; Guerrero, Kether; Tran, Luan T.; Choquet, Karine; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Poitras, Christian; Brais, Bernard; Yoon, Grace; Sztriha, Laszlo; Webster, Richard I.; Timmann, Dagmar; van de Warrenburg, Bart P.; Seeger, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Alíz; Máté, Adrienn; Goizet, Cyril; Fung, Eva; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Fribourg, Sébastien; Vanderver, Adeline; Simons, Cas; Taft, Ryan J.; Yates III, John R.; Coulombe, Benoit; Bernard, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    A small proportion of 4H (Hypomyelination, Hypodontia and Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism) or RNA polymerase III (POLR3)-related leukodystrophy cases are negative for mutations in the previously identified causative genes POLR3A and POLR3B. Here we report eight of these cases carrying recessive mutations in POLR1C, a gene encoding a shared POLR1 and POLR3 subunit, also mutated in some Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) cases. Using shotgun proteomics and ChIP sequencing, we demonstrate that leukodystrophy-causative mutations, but not TCS mutations, in POLR1C impair assembly and nuclear import of POLR3, but not POLR1, leading to decreased binding to POLR3 target genes. This study is the first to show that distinct mutations in a gene coding for a shared subunit of two RNA polymerases lead to selective modification of the enzymes' availability leading to two different clinical conditions and to shed some light on the pathophysiological mechanism of one of the most common hypomyelinating leukodystrophies, POLR3-related leukodystrophy. PMID:26151409

  20. Distinguishing Core and Holoenzyme Mechanisms of Transcription Termination by RNA Polymerase III

    PubMed Central

    Arimbasseri, Aneeshkumar G.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription termination by RNA polymerase (Pol) III serves multiple purposes; it delimits interference with downstream genes, forms 3′ oligo(U) binding sites for the posttranscriptional processing factor, La protein, and resets the polymerase complex for reinitiation. Although an interplay of several Pol III subunits is known to collectively control these activities, how they affect molecular function of the active center during termination is incompletely understood. We have approached this using immobilized Pol III-nucleic acid scaffolds to examine the two major components of termination, transcription pausing and RNA release. This allowed us to distinguish two mechanisms of termination by isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol III. A core mechanism can operate in the absence of C53/37 and C11 subunits but requires synthesis of 8 or more 3′ U nucleotides, apparently reflecting inherent sensitivity to an oligo(rU·dA) hybrid that is the termination signal proper. The holoenzyme mechanism requires fewer U nucleotides but uses C53/37 and C11 to slow elongation and prevent terminator arrest. N-terminal truncation of C53 or point mutations that disable the cleavage activity of C11 impair their antiarrest activities. The data are consistent with a model in which C53, C37, and C11 activities are functionally integrated with the active center of Pol III during termination. PMID:23401852

  1. TFIIH kinase places bivalent marks on the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, M. Sohail; Heidemann, Martin; Tietjen, Joshua; Zhang, David; Chapman, Rob D.; Eick, Dirk; Ansari, Aseem Z.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Post-translational modifications of the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) specify a molecular recognition code that is deciphered by proteins involved in RNA biogenesis. The CTD is comprised of a repeating heptapeptide (Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7). Recently, phosphorylation of Serine7 was shown to be important for co-transcriptional processing of two snRNAs in mammalian cells. Here, we report that Kin28/Cdk7, a subunit of the evolutionarily conserved TFIIH complex, is a Ser7 kinase. The ability of Kin28/Cdk7 to phosphorylate Ser7 is particularly surprising because this kinase functions at promoters of protein-coding genes, rather than being restricted to promoter-distal regions of snRNA genes. Kin28/Cdk7 is also known to phosphorylate Ser5 residues of the CTD at gene promoters. Taken together, our results implicate the TFIIH kinase in placing bivalent Ser5 and Ser7 marks early in gene transcription. These bivalent CTD marks, in concert with cues within nascent transcripts, specify the co-transcriptional engagement of the relevant RNA processing machinery. PMID:19450536

  2. Maize RNA Polymerase IV Defines trans-Generational Epigenetic Variation[W

    PubMed Central

    Erhard, Karl F.; Parkinson, Susan E.; Gross, Stephen M.; Barbour, Joy-El R.; Lim, Jana P.; Hollick, Jay B.

    2013-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays) RNA Polymerase IV (Pol IV) largest subunit, RNA Polymerase D1 (RPD1 or NRPD1), is required for facilitating paramutations, restricting expression patterns of genes required for normal development, and generating small interfering RNA (siRNAs). Despite this expanded role for maize Pol IV relative to Arabidopsis thaliana, neither the general characteristics of Pol IV–regulated haplotypes, nor their prevalence, are known. Here, we show that specific haplotypes of the purple plant1 locus, encoding an anthocyanin pigment regulator, acquire and retain an expanded expression domain following transmission from siRNA biogenesis mutants. This conditioned expression pattern is progressively enhanced over generations in Pol IV mutants and then remains heritable after restoration of Pol IV function. This unusual genetic behavior is associated with promoter-proximal transposon fragments but is independent of sequences required for paramutation. These results indicate that trans-generational Pol IV action defines the expression patterns of haplotypes using co-opted transposon-derived sequences as regulatory elements. Our results provide a molecular framework for the concept that induced changes to the heterochromatic component of the genome are coincident with heritable changes in gene regulation. Alterations of this Pol IV–based regulatory system can generate potentially desirable and adaptive traits for selection to act upon. PMID:23512852

  3. Structural alterations of the nucleolus in mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae defective in RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, M; Nogi, Y; Clark, M W; Nomura, M

    1993-01-01

    We have previously constructed mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which the gene for the second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is deleted. In these mutants, rRNA is synthesized by RNA polymerase II from a hybrid gene consisting of the 35S rRNA coding region fused to the GAL7 promoter on a plasmid. These strains thus grow in galactose but not glucose media. By immunofluorescence microscopy using antibodies against the known nucleolar proteins SSB1 and fibrillarin, we found that the intact crescent-shaped nucleolar structure is absent in these mutants; instead, several granules (called mininucleolar bodies [MNBs]) that stained with these antibodies were seen in the nucleus. Conversion of the intact nucleolar structure to MNBs was also observed in Pol I temperature-sensitive mutants at nonpermissive temperatures. These MNBs may structurally resemble prenucleolar bodies observed in higher eukaryotic cells and may represent a constituent of the normal nucleolus. Furthermore, cells under certain conditions that inhibit rRNA synthesis did not cause conversion of the nucleolus to MNBs. Thus, the role of Pol I in the maintenance of the intact nucleolar structure might include a role as a structural element in addition to (or instead of) a functional role to produce rRNA transcripts. Our study also shows that the intact nucleolar structure is not absolutely required for rRNA processing, ribosome assembly, or cell growth and that MNBs are possibly functional in rRNA processing in the Pol I deletion mutants. Images PMID:8455621

  4. Stable interactions between DNA polymerase δ catalytic and structural subunits are essential for efficient DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Brocas, Clémentine; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Dhérin, Claudine; Gangloff, Serge; Maloisel, Laurent

    2010-10-01

    Eukaryotic DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ) activity is crucial for chromosome replication and DNA repair and thus, plays an essential role in genome stability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pol δ is a heterotrimeric complex composed of the catalytic subunit Pol3, the structural B subunit Pol31, and Pol32, an additional auxiliary subunit. Pol3 interacts with Pol31 thanks to its C-terminal domain (CTD) and this interaction is of functional importance both in DNA replication and DNA repair. Interestingly, deletion of the last four C-terminal Pol3 residues, LSKW, in the pol3-ct mutant does not affect DNA replication but leads to defects in homologous recombination and in break-induced replication (BIR) repair pathways. The defect associated with pol3-ct could result from a defective interaction between Pol δ and a protein involved in recombination. However, we show that the LSKW motif is required for the interaction between Pol3 C-terminal end and Pol31. This loss of interaction is relevant in vivo since we found that pol3-ct confers HU sensitivity on its own and synthetic lethality with a POL32 deletion. Moreover, pol3-ct shows genetic interactions, both suppression and synthetic lethality, with POL31 mutant alleles. Structural analyses indicate that the B subunit of Pol δ displays a major conserved region at its surface and that pol31 alleles interacting with pol3-ct, correspond to substitutions of Pol31 amino acids that are situated in this particular region. Superimposition of our Pol31 model on the 3D architecture of the phylogenetically related DNA polymerase α (Pol α) suggests that Pol3 CTD interacts with the conserved region of Pol31, thus providing a molecular basis to understand the defects associated with pol3-ct. Taken together, our data highlight a stringent dependence on Pol δ complex stability in DNA repair. PMID:20813592

  5. A conserved RNA polymerase III promoter required for gammaherpesvirus TMER transcription and microRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Diebel, Kevin W.; Claypool, David J.; van Dyk, Linda F.

    2014-01-01

    Canonical RNA polymerase III (pol III) type 2 promoters contain a single A and B box and are well documented for their role in tRNA and SINE transcription in eukaryotic cells. The genome of Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) contains eight polycistronic tRNA-microRNA encoded RNA (TMER) genes that are transcribed from a RNA pol III type 2-like promoter containing triplicated A box elements. Here, we demonstrate that the triplicated A box sequences are required in their entirety to produce functional MuHV-4 miRNAs. We also identify that these RNA pol III type 2-like promoters are conserved in eukaryotic genomes. Human and mouse predicted tRNA genes containing these promoters also show enrichment of alternative RNA pol III transcription termination sequences and are predicted to give rise to longer tRNA primary transcripts. PMID:24747015

  6. The Pseudorabies Virus DNA Polymerase Accessory Subunit UL42 Directs Nuclear Transport of the Holoenzyme

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Ping; Du, Wen-Juan; Huang, Li-Ping; Wei, Yan-Wu; Wu, Hong-Li; Feng, Li; Liu, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) DNA replication occurs in the nuclei of infected cells and requires the viral DNA polymerase. The PRV DNA polymerase comprises a catalytic subunit, UL30, and an accessory subunit, UL42, that confers processivity to the enzyme. Its nuclear localization is a prerequisite for its enzymatic function in the initiation of viral DNA replication. However, the mechanisms by which the PRV DNA polymerase holoenzyme enters the nucleus have not been determined. In this study, we characterized the nuclear import pathways of the PRV DNA polymerase catalytic and accessory subunits. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that UL42 localizes independently in the nucleus, whereas UL30 alone predominantly localizes in the cytoplasm. Intriguingly, the localization of UL30 was completely shifted to the nucleus when it was coexpressed with UL42, demonstrating that nuclear transport of UL30 occurs in an UL42-dependent manner. Deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the two proteins showed that UL42 contains a functional and transferable bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at amino acids 354–370 and that K354, R355, and K367 are important for the NLS function, whereas UL30 has no NLS. Coimmunoprecipitation assays verified that UL42 interacts with importins α3 and α4 through its NLS. In vitro nuclear import assays demonstrated that nuclear accumulation of UL42 is a temperature- and energy-dependent process and requires both importins α and β, confirming that UL42 utilizes the importin α/β-mediated pathway for nuclear entry. In an UL42 NLS-null mutant, the UL42/UL30 heterodimer was completely confined to the cytoplasm when UL42 was coexpressed with UL30, indicating that UL30 utilizes the NLS function of UL42 for its translocation into the nucleus. Collectively, these findings suggest that UL42 contains an importin α/β-mediated bipartite NLS that transports the viral DNA polymerase holoenzyme into the nucleus in an in vitro expression system

  7. Molecular Genetics of the RNA Polymerase II General Transcriptional Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Hampsey, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) requires interaction between cis-acting promoter elements and trans-acting factors. The eukaryotic promoter consists of core elements, which include the TATA box and other DNA sequences that define transcription start sites, and regulatory elements, which either enhance or repress transcription in a gene-specific manner. The core promoter is the site for assembly of the transcription preinitiation complex, which includes RNA pol II and the general transcription fctors TBP, TFIIB, TFIIE, TFIIF, and TFIIH. Regulatory elements bind gene-specific factors, which affect the rate of transcription by interacting, either directly or indirectly, with components of the general transcriptional machinery. A third class of transcription factors, termed coactivators, is not required for basal transcription in vitro but often mediates activation by a broad spectrum of activators. Accordingly, coactivators are neither gene-specific nor general transcription factors, although gene-specific coactivators have been described in metazoan systems. Transcriptional repressors include both gene-specific and general factors. Similar to coactivators, general transcriptional repressors affect the expression of a broad spectrum of genes yet do not repress all genes. General repressors either act through the core transcriptional machinery or are histone related and presumably affect chromatin function. This review focuses on the global effectors of RNA polymerase II transcription in yeast, including the general transcription factors, the coactivators, and the general repressors. Emphasis is placed on the role that yeast genetics has played in identifying these factors and their associated functions. PMID:9618449

  8. Site-specific incorporation of probes into RNA polymerase by unnatural-amino-acid mutagenesis and Staudinger-Bertozzi ligation

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Mazumder, Abhishek; Lin, Miaoxin; Hasemeyer, Adam; Xu, Qumiao; Wang, Dongye; Ebright, Yon W.; Ebright, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A three-step procedure comprising (i) unnatural-amino-acid mutagenesis with 4-azido-phenylalanine, (ii) Staudinger-Bertozzi ligation with a probe-phosphine derivative, and (iii) in vitro reconstitution of RNA polymerase (RNAP) enables the efficient site-specific incorporation of a fluorescent probe, a spin label, a crosslinking agent, a cleaving agent, an affinity tag, or any other biochemical or biophysical probe, at any site of interest in RNAP. Straightforward extensions of the procedure enable the efficient site-specific incorporation of two or more different probes in two or more different subunits of RNAP. We present protocols for synthesis of probe-phosphine derivatives, preparation of RNAP subunits and the transcription initiation factor σ, unnatural amino acid mutagenesis of RNAP subunits and σ, Staudinger ligation with unnatural-amino-acid-containing RNAP subunits and σ, quantitation of labelling efficiency and labelling specificity, and reconstitution of RNAP. PMID:25665560

  9. Identification of proteins associated with RNA polymerase III using a modified tandem chromatin affinity purification.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Thuy-Trinh; Saguez, Cyril; Conesa, Christine; Lefebvre, Olivier; Acker, Joël

    2015-02-01

    To identify the proteins associated with the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) machinery in exponentially growing yeast cells, we developed our own tandem chromatin affinity purification procedure (TChAP) after in vivo cross-link, allowing a reproducible and good recovery of the protein bait and its associated partners. In contrast to TFIIIA that could only be purified as a free protein, this protocol allows us to capture free Pol III together with Pol III bound on its target genes. Transcription factors, elongation factors, RNA-associated proteins and proteins involved in Pol III biogenesis were identified by mass spectrometry. Interestingly, the presence of all the TFIIIB subunits found associated with Pol III together with the absence of TFIIIC and chromatin factors including histones suggest that DNA-bound Pol III purified using TChAP is mainly engaged in transcription reinitiation. PMID:25086199

  10. Exploring the molecular mechanism of action between drug and RNA polymerase based on partially-resolved spatial structures.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yajun; Zhang, Chen; Qiu, Xingye; Zheng, Wei; Ruan, Jishou; Shao, Yiming

    2013-12-01

    The RNA polymerase of Influenza A virus (IAV), which is comprised of three units PA, PB1 and PB2, is involved in transcription and replication of the influenza virus. In order to develop effective treatment for IAV, researchers have focused on designing drugs targeting IAV polymerase. Currently, crystal structures of the IAV polymerase PA-PB1, PB1-PB2 complexes and the PA subunit have been obtained by several groups, providing useful information regarding potential binding sites in drug design. However, to gain full understanding of the molecular mechanism of IAV polymerase in viral transcription and replication, thereby aiding drug development, a complete atomistic structure of the RNA polymerase is required. In this paper, we employed computer-aided drug design tools to describe the complete structure of the RNA polymerase and proposed a putative mechanism. We predict that the combination of Vancomycin and Oseltamivir will be an effective drug to universally treat IAVs with no resultant drug resistance if this putative mechanism is true. PMID:24138396

  11. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Caers, A; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1998-01-01

    About 8600 complete or nearly complete sequences are now available from the Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA. All these sequences are aligned with one another on the basis of the adopted secondary structure model, which is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. The database can be consulted via the World Wide Web at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ssu/ PMID:9399829

  12. Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    De Rijk, P; Van de Peer, Y; De Wachter, R

    1996-01-01

    Our database on large ribosomal subunit RNA contained 334 sequences in July, 1995. All sequences in the database are aligned, taking into account secondary structure. The aligned sequences are provided, together with incorporated secondary structure information, in several computer-readable formats. These data can easily be obtained through the World Wide Web. The files in the database are also available via anonymous ftp. PMID:8594610

  13. Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    De Rijk, P; Van de Peer, Y; De Wachter, R

    1997-01-01

    The latest release of the large ribosomal subunit RNA database contains 429 sequences. All these sequences are aligned, and incorporate secondary structure information. The rRNA WWW Server at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ provides researchers with an easily accessible resource to obtain the data in this database in a number of computer-readable formats. A new query interface has been added to the server. If necessary, the data can also be obtained by anonymous ftp from the same site. PMID:9016517

  14. Characterization of the RNA polymerase II and III complexes in Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Calvillo, Santiago; Saxena, Alka; Green, Amanda; Leland, Aaron; Myler, Peter J

    2007-04-01

    Transcription of protein-coding genes in Leishmania major and other trypanosomatids differs from that in most eukaryotes and bioinformatic analyses have failed to identify several components of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) complexes. To increase our knowledge about this basic cellular process, we used tandem affinity purification (TAP) to identify subunits of RNAP II and III. Mass spectrometric analysis of the complexes co-purified with TAP-tagged LmRPB2 (encoded by LmjF31.0160) identified seven RNAP II subunits: RPB1, RPB2, RPB3, RPB5, RPB7, RPB10 and RPB11. With the exception of RPB10 and RPB11, and the addition of RPB8, these were also identified using TAP-tagged constructs of one (encoded by LmjF34.0890) of the two LmRPB6 orthologues. The latter experiments also identified the RNAP III subunits RPC1 (C160), RPC2 (C128), RPC3 (C82), RPC4 (C53), RPC5 (C37), RPC6 (C34), RPC9 (C17), RPAC1 (AC40) and RPAC2 (AC19). Significantly, the complexes precipitated by TAP-tagged LmRPB6 did not contain any RNAP I-specific subunits, suggesting that, unlike in other eukaryotes, LmRPB6 is not shared by all three polymerases but is restricted to RNAP II and III, while the LmRPB6z (encoded by LmjF25.0140) isoform is limited to RNAP I. Similarly, we identified peptides from only one (encoded by LmjF18.0780) of the two RPB5 orthologues and one (LmjF13.1120) of the two RPB10 orthologues, suggesting that LmRPB5z (LmjF18.0790) and LmRPB10z (LmjF13.1120) are also restricted to RNAP I. In addition to these RNAP subunits, we also identified a number of other proteins that co-purified with the RNAP II and III complexes, including a potential transcription factor, several histones, an ATPase involved in chromosome segregation, an endonuclease, four helicases, RNA splicing factor PTSR-1, at least two RNA binding proteins and several proteins of unknown function. PMID:17275824

  15. An Oligonucleotide Affinity Column for RNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase from RNA Tumor Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gerwin, Brenda I.; Milstien, Julie B.

    1972-01-01

    Columns of (dT)12-18-cellulose provide a one-step enrichment procedure for RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. The enzyme of the virus from RD-114 cells, as well as that from Rauscher murine leukemia virus, have been purified in this way. The preference of viral as compared to cellular DNA polymerases for (dT)12-18 as a primer is reflected in the fact that the DNA polymerases of uninfected cells do not bind to this column. Viral enzymes have been purified and identified from crude cellular extracts. PMID:4506781

  16. Characterization of the interactions between the bacteriophage T4 AsiA protein and RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, Mario F; Bieber Urbauer, Ramona J; Gilmore, Joshua M; Adelman, Karen; Brody, Edward N; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Minakhin, Leonid; Heyduk, Tomasz; Urbauer, Jeffrey L

    2003-07-01

    The anti-sigma factor AsiA effects a change in promoter specificity of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase via interactions with two conserved regions of the sigma(70) subunit, denoted 4.1 and 4.2. Free AsiA is a symmetrical homodimer. Here, we show that AsiA is monomeric when bound to sigma(70) and that a subset of the residues that contribute to the homodimer interface also contributes to the interface with sigma(70). AsiA interacts primarily with C-terminal sections of regions 4.1 and 4.2, which show remarkable sequence similarity. An AsiA monomer can simultaneously, and apparently cooperatively, bind both isolated regions 4.1 and 4.2 at preferred, distinct subsites, whereas region 4.1 alone or region 4.2 alone can interact with either subsite. These results suggest structural and functional plasticity in the interaction of AsiA with sigma(70) and support the notion of discrete roles for regions 4.1 and 4.2 in transcription regulation by AsiA. Furthermore, we show that AsiA inhibits recognition of the -35 consensus promoter element by region 4 of sigma(70) indirectly, as the residues on region 4 responsible for AsiA binding are distinct from those involved in DNA binding. Finally, we show that AsiA must directly disrupt the interaction of region 4 with the RNA polymerase beta subunit flap domain, resulting in a distance change between region 2 and region 4 of sigma(70). Thus, a new paradigm for transcription regulation by AsiA is emerging, whereby the distance between the DNA binding domains in sigma(70) is regulated, and promoter recognition specificity is modulated, by mediating the interactions of the sigma region 4 with the beta subunit flap domain. PMID:12820881

  17. Ccr4-Not Regulates RNA Polymerase I Transcription and Couples Nutrient Signaling to the Control of Ribosomal RNA Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Laribee, R. Nicholas; Hosni-Ahmed, Amira; Workman, Jason J.; Chen, Hongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA synthesis is controlled by nutrient signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway. mTORC1 regulates ribosomal RNA expression by affecting RNA Polymerase I (Pol I)-dependent transcription of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) but the mechanisms involved remain obscure. This study provides evidence that the Ccr4-Not complex, which regulates RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) transcription, also functions downstream of mTORC1 to control Pol I activity. Ccr4-Not localizes to the rDNA and physically associates with the Pol I holoenzyme while Ccr4-Not disruption perturbs rDNA binding of multiple Pol I transcriptional regulators including core factor, the high mobility group protein Hmo1, and the SSU processome. Under nutrient rich conditions, Ccr4-Not suppresses Pol I initiation by regulating interactions with the essential transcription factor Rrn3. Additionally, Ccr4-Not disruption prevents reduced Pol I transcription when mTORC1 is inhibited suggesting Ccr4-Not bridges mTORC1 signaling with Pol I regulation. Analysis of the non-essential Pol I subunits demonstrated that the A34.5 subunit promotes, while the A12.2 and A14 subunits repress, Ccr4-Not interactions with Pol I. Furthermore, ccr4Δ is synthetically sick when paired with rpa12Δ and the double mutant has enhanced sensitivity to transcription elongation inhibition suggesting that Ccr4-Not functions to promote Pol I elongation. Intriguingly, while low concentrations of mTORC1 inhibitors completely inhibit growth of ccr4Δ, a ccr4Δ rpa12Δ rescues this growth defect suggesting that the sensitivity of Ccr4-Not mutants to mTORC1 inhibition is at least partially due to Pol I deregulation. Collectively, these data demonstrate a novel role for Ccr4-Not in Pol I transcriptional regulation that is required for bridging mTORC1 signaling to ribosomal RNA synthesis. PMID:25815716

  18. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Davanloo, P.; Rosenberg, A.H.; Moffatt, B.A.; Dunn, J.J.

    1999-02-09

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells. 10 figs.

  19. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Davanloo, Parichehre; Rosenberg, Alan H.; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Dunn, John J.

    1990-01-01

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the T7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells.

  20. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Davanloo, P.; Rosenberg, A.H.; Moffatt, B.A.; Dunn, J.J.

    1997-12-02

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells. 10 figs.

  1. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Davanloo, Parichehre; Rosenberg, Alan H.; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Dunn, John J.

    1997-12-02

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells.

  2. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Davanloo, Parichehre; Rosenberg, Alan H.; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Dunn, John J.

    1999-02-09

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells.

  3. Antimutator Mutations in the α Subunit of Escherichia Coli DNA Polymerase III: Identification of the Responsible Mutations and Alignment with Other DNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Fijalkowska, I. J.; Schaaper, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The dnaE gene of Escherichia coli encodes the DNA polymerasesubunit) of the main replicative enzyme, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. We have previously identified this gene as the site of a series of seven antimutator mutations that specifically decrease the level of DNA replication errors. Here we report the nucleotide sequence changes in each of the different antimutator dnaE alleles. For each a single, but different, amino acid substitution was found among the 1,160 amino acids of the protein. The observed substitutions are generally nonconservative. All affected residues are located in the central one-third of the protein. Some insight into the function of the regions of polymerase III containing the affected residues was obtained by amino acid alignment with other DNA polymerases. We followed the principles developed in 1990 by M. Delarue et al. who have identified in DNA polymerases from a large number of prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources three highly conserved sequence motifs, which are suggested to contain components of the polymerase active site. We succeeded in finding these three conserved motifs in polymerase III as well. However, none of the amino acid substitutions responsible for the antimutator phenotype occurred at these sites. This and other observations suggest that the effect of these mutations may be exerted indirectly through effects on polymerase conformation and/or DNA/polymerase interactions. PMID:8375647

  4. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7-like bacteriophages

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Dubendorff, J.W.

    1998-10-20

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods. 12 figs.

  5. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7-like bacteriophages

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Dubendorff, J.W.

    1998-11-03

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods. 12 figs.

  6. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7-like bacteriophages

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Dubendorff, John W.

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods.

  7. Accessory subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase from Drosophila embryos. Cloning, molecular analysis, and association in the native enzyme.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Farr, C L; Kaguni, L S

    1997-05-23

    A full-length cDNA of the accessory (beta) subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase from Drosophila embryos has been obtained, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The cDNA clone encodes a polypeptide with a deduced amino acid sequence of 361 residues and a predicted molecular mass of 41 kDa. The gene encoding the beta subunit lies within 4 kilobase pairs of that for the catalytic subunit in the Drosophila genome, on the left arm of chromosome 2. The two genes have similar structural features and share several common DNA sequence elements in their upstream regions, suggesting the possibility of coordinate regulation. A human cDNA homolog of the accessory subunit was identified, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The human sequence encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 43 kDa that shows a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity to the Drosophila beta subunit. Subunit-specific rabbit antisera, directed against the recombinant catalytic and accessory subunit polypeptides overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli, recognize specifically and immunoprecipitate the native enzyme from Drosophila embryos. Demonstration of the physical association of the two subunits in the Drosophila enzyme and identification of a human accessory subunit homolog provide evidence for a common heterodimeric structure for animal mitochondrial DNA polymerases. PMID:9153213

  8. Unusual properties of adenovirus E2E transcription by RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenlin; Flint, S J

    2003-04-01

    In adenovirus type 5-infected cells, RNA polymerase III transcription of a gene superimposed on the 5' end of the E2E RNA polymerase II transcription unit produces two small (<100-nucleotide) RNAs that accumulate to low steady-state concentrations (W. Huang, R. Pruzan, and S. J. Flint, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:1265-1269, 1984). To gain a better understanding of the function of this RNA polymerase III transcription, we have examined the properties of the small E2E RNAs and E2E RNA polymerase III transcription in more detail. The accumulation of cytoplasmic E2E RNAs and the rates of E2E transcription by the two RNA polymerases during the infectious cycle were analyzed by using RNase T(1) protection and run-on transcription assays, respectively. Although the RNA polymerase III transcripts were present at significantly lower concentrations than E2E mRNA throughout the period examined, E2E transcription by RNA polymerase III was found to be at least as efficient as that by RNA polymerase II. The short half-lifes of the small E2E RNAs estimated by using the actinomycin D chase method appear to account for their limited accumulation. The transcription of E2E sequences by RNA polymerase II and III in cells infected by recombinant adenoviruses carrying ectopic E2E-CAT (chloramphenicol transferase) reporter genes with mutations in E2E promoter sequences was also examined. The results of these experiments indicate that recognition of the E2E promoter by the RNA polymerase II transcriptional machinery in infected cells limits transcription by RNA polymerase III, and vice versa. Such transcriptional competition and the properties of E2E RNAs made by RNA polymerase III suggest that the function of this viral RNA polymerase III transcription unit is unusual. PMID:12634361

  9. DksA regulates RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli through a network of interactions in the secondary channel that includes Sequence Insertion 1.

    PubMed

    Parshin, Andrey; Shiver, Anthony L; Lee, Jookyung; Ozerova, Maria; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Gross, Carol A; Borukhov, Sergei

    2015-12-15

    Sensing and responding to nutritional status is a major challenge for microbial life. In Escherichia coli, the global response to amino acid starvation is orchestrated by guanosine-3',5'-bisdiphosphate and the transcription factor DksA. DksA alters transcription by binding to RNA polymerase and allosterically modulating its activity. Using genetic analysis, photo-cross-linking, and structural modeling, we show that DksA binds and acts upon RNA polymerase through prominent features of both the nucleotide-access secondary channel and the active-site region. This work is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of a molecular function for Sequence Insertion 1 in the β subunit of RNA polymerase and significantly advances our understanding of how DksA binds to RNA polymerase and alters transcription. PMID:26604313

  10. DksA regulates RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli through a network of interactions in the secondary channel that includes Sequence Insertion 1

    PubMed Central

    Parshin, Andrey; Shiver, Anthony L.; Lee, Jookyung; Ozerova, Maria; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Gross, Carol A.; Borukhov, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Sensing and responding to nutritional status is a major challenge for microbial life. In Escherichia coli, the global response to amino acid starvation is orchestrated by guanosine-3′,5′-bisdiphosphate and the transcription factor DksA. DksA alters transcription by binding to RNA polymerase and allosterically modulating its activity. Using genetic analysis, photo–cross-linking, and structural modeling, we show that DksA binds and acts upon RNA polymerase through prominent features of both the nucleotide-access secondary channel and the active-site region. This work is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of a molecular function for Sequence Insertion 1 in the β subunit of RNA polymerase and significantly advances our understanding of how DksA binds to RNA polymerase and alters transcription. PMID:26604313

  11. Guanosine tetraphosphate as a global regulator of bacterial RNA synthesis: a model involving RNA polymerase pausing and queuing.

    PubMed

    Bremer, H; Ehrenberg, M

    1995-05-17

    A recently reported comparison of stable RNA (rRNA, tRNA) and mRNA synthesis rates in ppGpp-synthesizing and ppGpp-deficient (delta relA delta spoT) bacteria has suggested that ppGpp inhibits transcription initiation from stable RNA promoters, as well as synthesis of (bulk) mRNA. Inhibition of stable RNA synthesis occurs mainly during slow growth of bacteria when cytoplasmic levels of ppGpp are high. In contrast, inhibition of mRNA occurs mainly during fast growth when ppGpp levels are low, and it is associated with a partial inactivation of RNA polymerase. To explain these observations it has been proposed that ppGpp causes transcriptional pausing and queuing during the synthesis of mRNA. Polymerase queuing requires high rates of transcription initiation in addition to polymerase pausing, and therefore high concentrations of free RNA polymerase. These conditions are found in fast growing bacteria. Furthermore, the RNA polymerase queues lead to a promoter blocking when RNA polymerase molecules stack up from the pause site back to the (mRNA) promoter. This occurs most frequently at pause sites close to the promoter. Blocking of mRNA promoters diverts RNA polymerase to stable RNA promoters. In this manner ppGpp could indirectly stimulate synthesis of stable RNA at high growth rates. In the present work a mathematical analysis, based on the theory of queuing, is presented and applied to the global control of transcription in bacteria. This model predicts the in vivo distribution of RNA polymerase over stable RNA and mRNA genes for both ppGpp-synthesizing and ppGpp-deficient bacteria in response to different environmental conditions. It also shows how small changes in basal ppGpp concentrations can produce large changes in the rate of stable RNA synthesis. PMID:7539631

  12. Initiation of minus-strand RNA synthesis by the brome mosaicvirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: use of oligoribonucleotide primers.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, C C; Sun, J H

    1996-01-01

    Various DNA- and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases have been reported to use oligoribonucleotide primers to initiate nucleic acid synthesis. For the brome mosaic virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), we determined that in reactions performed with limited GTP concentrations, minus-strand RNA synthesis can be stimulated by the inclusion of guanosine monophosphate or specific oligoribonucleotides. Furthermore, guanylyl-3',5'-guanosine (GpG) was incorporated into minus-strand RNA and increased the rate of minus-strand RNA synthesis. In the presence of GpG, RdRp's Km for GTP decreased from 50 microM to approximately 3 microM while the Kms for other nucleotides were unaffected. These results have implications for the mechanism of initiation by RdRp. PMID:8794323

  13. NMR solution structure of the theta subunit of DNA polymerase III from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Keniry, M. A.; Berthon, H. A.; Yang, J. Y.; Miles, C. S.; Dixon, N. E.

    2000-01-01

    The catalytic core of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III contains three tightly associated subunits (alpha, epsilon, and theta). The theta subunit is the smallest, but the least understood of the three. As a first step in a program aimed at understanding its function, the structure of the theta subunit has been determined by triple-resonance multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. Although only a small protein, theta was difficult to assign fully because approximately one-third of the protein is unstructured, and some sections of the remaining structured parts undergo intermediate intramolecular exchange. The secondary structure was deduced from the characteristic nuclear Overhauser effect patterns, the 3J(HN alpha) coupling constants and the consensus chemical shift index. The C-terminal third of the protein, which has many charged and hydrophilic amino acid residues, has no well-defined secondary structure and exists in a highly dynamic state. The N-terminal two-thirds has three helical segments (Gln10-Asp19, Glu38-Glu43, and His47-Glu54), one short extended segment (Pro34-Ala37), and a long loop (Ala20-Glu29), of which part may undergo intermediate conformational exchange. Solution of the three-dimensional structure by NMR techniques revealed that the helices fold in such a way that the surface of theta is bipolar, with one face of the protein containing most of the acidic residues and the other face containing most of the long chain basic residues. Preliminary chemical shift mapping experiments with a domain of the epsilon subunit have identified a loop region (Ala20-Glu29) in theta as the site of association with epsilon. PMID:10794414

  14. Improved crystallization of the coxsackievirus B3 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Jabafi, Ilham; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; De Palma, Armando M.; Neyts, Johan; Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Grisel, Sacha; Dalle, Karen; Campanacci, Valerie; Spinelli, Silvia; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Gruez, Arnaud

    2007-06-01

    The first crystal of a coxsackievirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is reported. The Picornaviridae virus family contains a large number of human pathogens such as poliovirus, hepatitis A virus and rhinoviruses. Amongst the viruses belonging to the genus Enterovirus, several serotypes of coxsackievirus coexist for which neither vaccine nor therapy is available. Coxsackievirus B3 is involved in the development of acute myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy and is thought to be an important cause of sudden death in young adults. Here, the first crystal of a coxsackievirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is reported. Standard crystallization methods yielded crystals that were poorly suited to X-ray diffraction studies, with one axis being completely disordered. Crystallization was improved by testing crystallization solutions from commercial screens as additives. This approach yielded crystals that diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and that were suitable for structure determination.

  15. Rice RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 acts in small RNA biogenesis and spikelet development.

    PubMed

    Song, Xianwei; Wang, Dekai; Ma, Lijia; Chen, Zhiyu; Li, Pingchuan; Cui, Xia; Liu, Chunyan; Cao, Shouyun; Chu, Chengcai; Tao, Yuezhi; Cao, Xiaofeng

    2012-08-01

    Higher plants have evolved multiple RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs), which work with Dicer-like (DCL) proteins to produce different classes of small RNAs with specialized molecular functions. Here we report that OsRDR6, the rice (Oryza sativa L.) homolog of Arabidopsis RDR6, acts in the biogenesis of various types and sizes of small RNAs. We isolated a rice osrdr6-1 mutant, which was temperature sensitive and showed spikelet defects. This mutant displays reduced accumulation of tasiR-ARFs, the conserved trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) derived from the TAS3 locus, and ectopic expression of tasiR-ARF target genes, the Auxin Response Factors (including ARF2 and ARF3/ETTIN). The loss of tasiR-mediated repression of ARFs in osrdr6-1 can explain its morphological defects, as expression of two non-targeted ARF3 gene constructs (ARF3muts) in a wild-type background mimics the osrdr6 and osdcl4-1 mutant phenotypes. Small RNA high-throughput sequencing also reveals that besides tasiRNAs, 21-nucleotide (nt) phased small RNAs are also largely dependent on OsRDR6. Unexpectedly, we found that osrdr6-1 has a strong impact on the accumulation of 24-nt phased small RNAs, but not on unphased ones. Our work uncovers the key roles of OsRDR6 in small RNA biogenesis and directly illustrates the crucial functions of tasiR-ARFs in rice development. PMID:22443269

  16. Structure of the initiation-competent RNA polymerase I and its implication for transcription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilsl, Michael; Crucifix, Corinne; Papai, Gabor; Krupp, Ferdinand; Steinbauer, Robert; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Milkereit, Philipp; Tschochner, Herbert; Schultz, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is specialized in rRNA gene transcription synthesizing up to 60% of cellular RNA. High level rRNA production relies on efficient binding of initiation factors to the rRNA gene promoter and recruitment of Pol I complexes containing initiation factor Rrn3. Here, we determine the cryo-EM structure of the Pol I-Rrn3 complex at 7.5 Å resolution, and compare it with Rrn3-free monomeric and dimeric Pol I. We observe that Rrn3 contacts the Pol I A43/A14 stalk and subunits A190 and AC40, that association re-organizes the Rrn3 interaction interface, thereby preventing Pol I dimerization; and Rrn3-bound and monomeric Pol I differ from the dimeric enzyme in cleft opening, and localization of the A12.2 C-terminus in the active centre. Our findings thus support a dual role for Rrn3 in transcription initiation to stabilize a monomeric initiation competent Pol I and to drive pre-initiation complex formation.

  17. Structure of the initiation-competent RNA polymerase I and its implication for transcription

    PubMed Central

    Pilsl, Michael; Crucifix, Corinne; Papai, Gabor; Krupp, Ferdinand; Steinbauer, Robert; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Milkereit, Philipp; Tschochner, Herbert; Schultz, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is specialized in rRNA gene transcription synthesizing up to 60% of cellular RNA. High level rRNA production relies on efficient binding of initiation factors to the rRNA gene promoter and recruitment of Pol I complexes containing initiation factor Rrn3. Here, we determine the cryo-EM structure of the Pol I-Rrn3 complex at 7.5 Å resolution, and compare it with Rrn3-free monomeric and dimeric Pol I. We observe that Rrn3 contacts the Pol I A43/A14 stalk and subunits A190 and AC40, that association re-organizes the Rrn3 interaction interface, thereby preventing Pol I dimerization; and Rrn3-bound and monomeric Pol I differ from the dimeric enzyme in cleft opening, and localization of the A12.2 C-terminus in the active centre. Our findings thus support a dual role for Rrn3 in transcription initiation to stabilize a monomeric initiation competent Pol I and to drive pre-initiation complex formation. PMID:27418187

  18. Structure of the initiation-competent RNA polymerase I and its implication for transcription.

    PubMed

    Pilsl, Michael; Crucifix, Corinne; Papai, Gabor; Krupp, Ferdinand; Steinbauer, Robert; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Milkereit, Philipp; Tschochner, Herbert; Schultz, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is specialized in rRNA gene transcription synthesizing up to 60% of cellular RNA. High level rRNA production relies on efficient binding of initiation factors to the rRNA gene promoter and recruitment of Pol I complexes containing initiation factor Rrn3. Here, we determine the cryo-EM structure of the Pol I-Rrn3 complex at 7.5 Å resolution, and compare it with Rrn3-free monomeric and dimeric Pol I. We observe that Rrn3 contacts the Pol I A43/A14 stalk and subunits A190 and AC40, that association re-organizes the Rrn3 interaction interface, thereby preventing Pol I dimerization; and Rrn3-bound and monomeric Pol I differ from the dimeric enzyme in cleft opening, and localization of the A12.2 C-terminus in the active centre. Our findings thus support a dual role for Rrn3 in transcription initiation to stabilize a monomeric initiation competent Pol I and to drive pre-initiation complex formation. PMID:27418187

  19. The X-ray Crystal Structure of RNA Polymerase from Archaea

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata,A.; Klein, B.; Murakami, K.

    2008-01-01

    The transcription apparatus in Archaea can be described as a simplified version of its eukaryotic RNA polymerase (RNAP) II counterpart, comprising an RNAPII-like enzyme as well as two general transcription factors, the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and the eukaryotic TFIIB orthologue TFB. It has been widely understood that precise comparisons of cellular RNAP crystal structures could reveal structural elements common to all enzymes and that these insights would be useful in analysing components of each enzyme that enable it to perform domain-specific gene expression. However, the structure of archaeal RNAP has been limited to individual subunits3, 4. Here we report the first crystal structure of the archaeal RNAP from Sulfolobus solfataricus at 3.4 Angstroms resolution, completing the suite of multi-subunit RNAP structures from all three domains of life. We also report the high-resolution (at 1.76 Angstroms ) crystal structure of the D/L subcomplex of archaeal RNAP and provide the first experimental evidence of any RNAP possessing an iron-sulphur (Fe-S) cluster, which may play a structural role in a key subunit of RNAP assembly. The striking structural similarity between archaeal RNAP and eukaryotic RNAPII highlights the simpler archaeal RNAP as an ideal model system for dissecting the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription.

  20. Maf1, a New Player in the Regulation of Human RNA Polymerase III Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Nouria

    2006-01-01

    Background Human RNA polymerase III (pol III) transcription is regulated by several factors, including the tumor suppressors P53 and Rb, and the proto-oncogene c-Myc. In yeast, which lacks these proteins, a central regulator of pol III transcription, called Maf1, has been described. Maf1 is required for repression of pol III transcription in response to several signal transduction pathways and is broadly conserved in eukaryotes. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that human endogenous Maf1 can be co-immunoprecipitated with pol III and associates in vitro with two pol III subunits, the largest subunit RPC1 and the α-like subunit RPAC2. Maf1 represses pol III transcription in vitro and in vivo and is required for maximal pol III repression after exposure to MMS or rapamycin, treatments that both lead to Maf1 dephosphorylation. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that Maf1 is a major regulator of pol III transcription in human cells. PMID:17205138

  1. Organization, Function, and Therapeutic Targeting of the Morbillivirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Complex.

    PubMed

    Sourimant, Julien; Plemper, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    The morbillivirus genus comprises major human and animal pathogens, including the highly contagious measles virus. Morbilliviruses feature single stranded negative sense RNA genomes that are wrapped by a plasma membrane-derived lipid envelope. Genomes are encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein forming ribonucleoprotein complexes, and only the encapsidated RNA is transcribed and replicated by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). In this review, we discuss recent breakthroughs towards the structural and functional understanding of the morbillivirus polymerase complex. Considering the clinical burden imposed by members of the morbillivirus genus, the development of novel antiviral therapeutics is urgently needed. The viral polymerase complex presents unique structural and enzymatic properties that can serve as attractive candidates for druggable targets. We evaluate distinct strategies for therapeutic intervention and examine how high-resolution insight into the organization of the polymerase complex may pave the path towards the structure-based design and optimization of next-generation RdRp inhibitors. PMID:27626440

  2. Comparative overview of RNA polymerase II and III transcription cycles, with focus on RNA polymerase III termination and reinitiation

    PubMed Central

    Arimbasseri, Aneeshkumar G; Rijal, Keshab; Maraia, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase (RNAP) III transcribes hundreds of genes for tRNAs and 5S rRNA, among others, which share similar promoters and stable transcription initiation complexes (TIC), which support rapid RNAP III recycling. In contrast, RNAP II transcribes a large number of genes with highly variable promoters and interacting factors, which exert fine regulatory control over TIC lability and modifications of RNAP II at different transitional points in the transcription cycle. We review data that illustrate a relatively smooth continuity of RNAP III initiation-elongation-termination and reinitiation toward its function to produce high levels of tRNAs and other RNAs that support growth and development. PMID:25764110

  3. Functional insights from molecular modeling, docking, and dynamics study of a cypoviral RNA dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Anirban; Dutta, Anirudha; Biswas, Poulomi; Das, Amit Kumar; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV) contains 11 double stranded RNA genome segments and infects tasar silkworm A. mylitta. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is reported as a key enzyme responsible for propagation of the virus in the host cell but its structure function relationship still remains elusive. Here a computational approach has been taken to compare sequence and secondary structure of AmCPV RdRp with other viral RdRps to identify consensus motifs. Then a reliable pairwise sequence alignment of AmCPV RdRp with its closest sequence structure homologue λ3 RdRp is done to predict three dimensional structure of AmCPV RdRp. After comparing with other structurally known viral RdRps, important sequence and/or structural features involved in substrate entry or binding, polymerase reaction and the product release events have been identified. A conserved RNA pentanucleotide (5'-AGAGC-3') at the 3'-end of virus genome is predicted as cis-acting signal for RNA synthesis and its docking and simulation study along with the model of AmCPV RdRp has allowed to predict mode of template binding by the viral polymerase. It is found that template RNA enters into the catalytic center through nine sequence-independent and two sequence-dependent interactions with the specific amino acid residues. However, number of sequence dependent interactions remains almost same during 10 nano-second simulation time while total number of interactions decreases. Further, docking of N(7)-methyl-GpppG (mRNA cap) on the model as well as prediction of RNA secondary structure has shown the template entry process in the active site. These findings have led to postulate the mechanism of RNA-dependent RNA polymerization process by AmCPV RdRp. To our knowledge, this is the first report to evaluate structure function relationship of a cypoviral RdRp. PMID:26264734

  4. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Jansen, J; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1997-01-01

    The Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA now offers more than 6000 nucleotide sequences (August 1996). All these sequences are stored in the form of an alignment based on the adopted secondary structure model, which is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Besides the primary and secondary structure information, literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. For ease of use, the complete database is made available to the scientific community via World Wide Web at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ssu/ . PMID:9016516

  5. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Van den Broeck, I; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1994-01-01

    The database on small ribosomal subunit RNA structure contains (June 1994) 2824 nucleotide sequences. All these sequences are stored in the form of an alignment based on the adopted secondary structure model, which in turn is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. The complete database is made available to the scientific community through anonymous ftp on our server in Antwerp. A special effort was made to improve electronic retrieval and a program is supplied that allows to create different file formats. The database can also be obtained from the EMBL nucleotide sequence library. PMID:7524022

  6. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Nicolaï, S; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1996-01-01

    The Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA offers over 4300 nucleotide sequences (August 1995). All these sequences are stored in the form of an alignment based on the adopted secondary structure model, which in turn is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Besides the primary and secondary structure information, literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. The complete database is made available to the scientific community through anonymous ftp and World Wide Web(WWW). PMID:8594609

  7. DNA Bending and Wrapping around RNA Polymerase: a “Revolutionary” Model Describing Transcriptional Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Coulombe, Benoit; Burton, Zachary F.

    1999-01-01

    A model is proposed in which bending and wrapping of DNA around RNA polymerase causes untwisting of the DNA helix at the RNA polymerase catalytic center to stimulate strand separation prior to initiation. During elongation, DNA bending through the RNA polymerase active site is proposed to lower the energetic barrier to the advance of the transcription bubble. Recent experiments with mammalian RNA polymerase II along with accumulating evidence from studies of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase indicate the importance of DNA bending and wrapping in transcriptional mechanisms. The DNA-wrapping model describes specific roles for general RNA polymerase II transcription factors (TATA-binding protein [TBP], TFIIB, TFIIF, TFIIE, and TFIIH), provides a plausible explanation for preinitiation complex isomerization, suggests mechanisms underlying the synergy between transcriptional activators, and suggests an unforseen role for TBP-associating factors in transcription. PMID:10357858

  8. Multiple mechanisms contribute to the activation of RNA polymerase III transcription in cells transformed by papovaviruses.

    PubMed

    Felton-Edkins, Zoë A; White, Robert J

    2002-12-13

    RNA polymerase (pol) III transcription is abnormally active in fibroblasts transformed by polyomavirus (Py) or simian virus 40 (SV40). Several distinct mechanisms contribute to this effect. In untransformed fibroblasts, the basal pol III transcription factor (TF) IIIB is repressed through association with the retinoblastoma protein RB; this restraint is overcome by large T antigens of Py and SV40. Furthermore, cells transformed by these papovaviruses overexpress the BDP1 subunit of TFIIIB, at both the protein and mRNA levels. Despite the overexpression of BDP1, the abundance of the other TFIIIB components is unperturbed following papovavirus transformation. In contrast, mRNAs encoding all five subunits of the basal factor TFIIIC2 are found at elevated levels in fibroblasts transformed by Py or SV40. Thus, both papovaviruses stimulate pol III transcription by boosting production of selected components of the basal machinery. Py differs from SV40 in encoding a highly oncogenic middle T antigen that localizes outside the nucleus and activates several signal transduction pathways. Middle T can serve as a potent activator of a pol III reporter in transfected cells. Several distinct mechanisms therefore contribute to the high levels of pol III transcription that accompany transformation by Py and SV40. PMID:12370195

  9. Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive RNA polymerase II mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelfarb, H J; Simpson, E M; Friesen, J D

    1987-01-01

    Three independent, recessive, temperature-sensitive (Ts-) conditional lethal mutations in the largest subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) have been isolated after replacement of a portion of the wild-type gene (RPO21) by a mutagenized fragment of the cloned gene. Measurements of cell growth, viability, and total RNA and protein synthesis showed that rpo21-1, rpo21-2, and rpo21-3 mutations caused a slow shutoff of RNAP II activity in cells shifted to the nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees C). Each mutant displayed a distinct phenotype, and one of the mutant enzymes (rpo21-1) was completely deficient in RNAP II activity in vitro. RNAP I and RNAP III in vitro activities were not affected. These results were consistent with the notion that the genetic lesions affect RNAP II assembly or holoenzyme stability. DNA sequencing revealed that in each case the mutations involved nonconservative amino acid substitutions, resulting in charge changes. The lesions harbored by all three rpo21 Ts- alleles lie in DNA sequence domains that are highly conserved among genes that encode the largest subunits of RNAP from a variety of eucaryotes; one mutation lies in a possible Zn2+ binding domain. PMID:3299061

  10. Structural Basis for DNA-Hairpin Promoter Recognition by the Bacteriophage N4 Virion RNA Polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Gleghorn, M.; Davydova, E; Rothman-Denes, L; Murakami, K

    2008-01-01

    Coliphage N4 virion-encapsidated RNA polymerase (vRNAP) is a member of the phage T7-like single-subunit RNA polymerase (RNAP) family. Its central domain (mini-vRNAP) contains all RNAP functions of the full-length vRNAP, which recognizes a 5 to 7 base pair stem and 3 nucleotide loop hairpin DNA promoter. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of mini-vRNAP bound to promoters. Mini-vRNAP uses four structural motifs to recognize DNA sequences at the hairpin loop and stem and to unwind DNA. Despite their low sequence similarity, three out of four motifs are shared with T7 RNAP that recognizes a double-stranded DNA promoter. The binary complex structure and results of engineered disulfide linkage experiments reveal that the plug and motif B loop, which block the access of template DNA to the active site in the apo-form mini-vRNAP, undergo a large-scale conformational change upon promoter binding, explaining the restricted promoter specificity that is critical for N4 phage early transcription.

  11. E3-ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 determines the fate of AID-associated RNA polymerase II in B cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianbo; Keim, Celia D; Wang, Jiguang; Kazadi, David; Oliver, Paula M; Rabadan, Raul; Basu, Uttiya

    2013-08-15

    Programmed mutagenesis of the immunoglobulin locus of B lymphocytes during class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation requires RNA polymerase II (polII) transcription complex-dependent targeting of the DNA mutator activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). AID deaminates cytidine residues on substrate sequences in the immunoglobulin (Ig) locus via a transcription-dependent mechanism, and this activity is stimulated by the RNA polII stalling cofactor Spt5 and the 11-subunit cellular noncoding RNA 3'-5' exonucleolytic processing complex RNA exosome. The mechanism by which the RNA exosome recognizes immunoglobulin locus RNA substrates to stimulate AID DNA deamination activity on its in vivo substrate sequences is an important question. Here we report that E3-ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 destabilizes AID-associated RNA polII by a ubiquitination event, leading to generation of 3' end free RNA exosome RNA substrates at the Ig locus and other AID target sequences genome-wide. We found that lack of Nedd4 activity in B cells leads to accumulation of RNA exosome substrates at AID target genes and defective CSR. Taken together, our study links noncoding RNA processing following RNA polII pausing with regulation of the mutator AID protein. Our study also identifies Nedd4 as a regulator of noncoding RNAs that are generated by stalled RNA polII genome-wide. PMID:23964096

  12. Intragenic and Extragenic Suppressors of Mutations in the Heptapeptide Repeat Domain of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Nonet, M. L.; Young, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    The largest subunit of RNA polymerase II contains a repeated heptapeptide sequence at its carboxy terminus. Yeast mutants with certain partial deletions of the carboxy-terminal repeat (CTR) domain are temperature-sensitive, cold-sensitive and are inositol auxotrophs. Intragenic and extragenic suppressors of the cold-sensitive phenotype of CTR domain deletion mutants were isolated and studied to investigate the function of this domain. Two types of intragenic suppressing mutations suppress the temperature-sensitivity, cold-sensitivity and inositol auxotrophy of CTR domain deletion mutants. Most intragenic mutations enlarge the repeat domain by duplicating various portions of the repeat coding sequence. Other intragenic suppressing mutations are point mutations in a conserved segment of the large subunit. An extragenic suppressing mutation (SRB2-1) was isolated that strongly suppresses the conditional and auxotrophic phenotypes of CTR domain mutations. The SRB2 gene was isolated and mapped, and an SRB2 partial deletion mutation (srb2Δ10) was constructed. The srb2Δ10 mutants are temperature-sensitive, cold-sensitive and are inositol auxotrophs. These phenotypes are characteristic of mutations in genes encoding components of the transcription apparatus. We propose that the SRB2 gene encodes a factor that is involved in RNA synthesis and may interact with the CTR domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. PMID:2693207

  13. Determination of lysine residues affinity labeled in the active site of yeast RNA polymerase II(B) by mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Treich, I; Carles, C; Sentenac, A; Riva, M

    1992-01-01

    In a previous study, yeast RNA polymerase II(B) was affinity labeled with two nucleotide derivatives (III and VIII) (1). In both cases, the labeled site was localized to the C-terminal part of the B150 subunit. The potential target lysyl residues of derivative III were mapped to the conserved domain H, between Asn946 and Met999. In the present work, we have mutagenized to arginine the five lysines present in domain H. Three lysines can be replaced, individually or simultaneously, without affecting cell growth, and each mutated enzyme can still be affinity labeled. Hence one or both of the other two lysyl residues, Lys979 and Lys987, is the target of the affinity reagent. These two lysines were each found to be essential for cell viability. Derivative VIII labeled another domain in addition to domain H. Supported by analogous results obtained for E. coli RNA polymerase using derivative VIII (2), we hypothesized that the second domain labeled by this derivative in the B150 subunit was domain I. Mutagenesis of the unique lysine present in domain I demonstrated that Lys 1102 was the target of derivative VIII. These results indicate that in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases, domains H and I are in close proximity and participate to the active site. Images PMID:1408783

  14. Active Center Control of Termination by RNA Polymerase III and tRNA Gene Transcription Levels In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Rijal, Keshab; Maraia, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    The ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) III to efficiently recycle from termination to reinitiation is critical for abundant tRNA production during cellular proliferation, development and cancer. Yet understanding of the unique termination mechanisms used by RNAP III is incomplete, as is its link to high transcription output. We used two tRNA-mediated suppression systems to screen for Rpc1 mutants with gain- and loss- of termination phenotypes in S. pombe. 122 point mutation mutants were mapped to a recently solved 3.9 Å structure of yeast RNAP III elongation complex (EC); they cluster in the active center bridge helix and trigger loop, as well as the pore and funnel, the latter of which indicate involvement of the RNA cleavage domain of the C11 subunit in termination. Purified RNAP III from a readthrough (RT) mutant exhibits increased elongation rate. The data strongly support a kinetic coupling model in which elongation rate is inversely related to termination efficiency. The mutants exhibit good correlations of terminator RT in vitro and in vivo, and surprisingly, amounts of transcription in vivo. Because assessing in vivo transcription can be confounded by various parameters, we used a tRNA reporter with a processing defect and a strong terminator. By ruling out differences in RNA decay rates, the data indicate that mutants with the RT phenotype synthesize more RNA than wild type cells, and than can be accounted for by their increased elongation rate. Finally, increased activity by the mutants appears unrelated to the RNAP III repressor, Maf1. The results show that the mobile elements of the RNAP III active center, including C11, are key determinants of termination, and that some of the mutations activate RNAP III for overall transcription. Similar mutations in spontaneous cancer suggest this as an unforeseen mechanism of RNAP III activation in disease. PMID:27518095

  15. Active Center Control of Termination by RNA Polymerase III and tRNA Gene Transcription Levels In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rijal, Keshab; Maraia, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) III to efficiently recycle from termination to reinitiation is critical for abundant tRNA production during cellular proliferation, development and cancer. Yet understanding of the unique termination mechanisms used by RNAP III is incomplete, as is its link to high transcription output. We used two tRNA-mediated suppression systems to screen for Rpc1 mutants with gain- and loss- of termination phenotypes in S. pombe. 122 point mutation mutants were mapped to a recently solved 3.9 Å structure of yeast RNAP III elongation complex (EC); they cluster in the active center bridge helix and trigger loop, as well as the pore and funnel, the latter of which indicate involvement of the RNA cleavage domain of the C11 subunit in termination. Purified RNAP III from a readthrough (RT) mutant exhibits increased elongation rate. The data strongly support a kinetic coupling model in which elongation rate is inversely related to termination efficiency. The mutants exhibit good correlations of terminator RT in vitro and in vivo, and surprisingly, amounts of transcription in vivo. Because assessing in vivo transcription can be confounded by various parameters, we used a tRNA reporter with a processing defect and a strong terminator. By ruling out differences in RNA decay rates, the data indicate that mutants with the RT phenotype synthesize more RNA than wild type cells, and than can be accounted for by their increased elongation rate. Finally, increased activity by the mutants appears unrelated to the RNAP III repressor, Maf1. The results show that the mobile elements of the RNAP III active center, including C11, are key determinants of termination, and that some of the mutations activate RNAP III for overall transcription. Similar mutations in spontaneous cancer suggest this as an unforeseen mechanism of RNAP III activation in disease. PMID:27518095

  16. A Targeting Modality for Destruction of RNA Polymerase I that Possesses Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Peltonen, Karita; Colis, Laureen; Liu, Hester; Trivedi, Rishi; Moubarek, Michael S.; Moore, Henna M.; Bai, Bayoan; Rudek, Michelle A.; Bieberich, Charles J.; Laiho, Marikki

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY We define here the activity and mechanisms of action of a small molecule lead compound for cancer targeting. We show that the compound, BMH-21, has wide and potent antitumorigenic activity across NCI60 cancer cell lines and represses tumor growth in vivo. BMH-21 binds GC-rich sequences, which is present at high frequency in ribosomal DNA genes, and potently and rapidly represses RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription. Strikingly, we find that BMH-21 causes proteasome-dependent destruction of RPA194, the large catalytic subunit protein of Pol I holocomplex, and this correlates with cancer cell killing. Our results show that Pol I activity is under proteasome-mediated control, which reveals an unexpected therapeutic opportunity. PMID:24434211

  17. RNA Polymerase III Advances: Structural and tRNA Functional Views.

    PubMed

    Arimbasseri, Aneeshkumar G; Maraia, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    RNA synthesis in eukaryotes is divided among three RNA polymerases (RNAPs). RNAP III transcribes hundreds of tRNA genes and fewer additional short RNA genes. We survey recent work on transcription by RNAP III including an atomic structure, mechanisms of action, interactions with chromatin and retroposons, and a conserved link between its activity and a tRNA modification that enhances mRNA decoding. Other new work suggests important mechanistic connections to oxidative stress, autoimmunity and cancer, embryonic stem cell pluripotency, and tissue-specific developmental effects. We consider that, for some of its complex functions, variation in RNAP III activity levels lead to nonuniform changes in tRNAs that can shift the translation profiles of key codon-biased mRNAs with resultant phenotypes or disease states. PMID:27068803

  18. Maf1 protein, repressor of RNA polymerase III, indirectly affects tRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Karkusiewicz, Iwona; Turowski, Tomasz W; Graczyk, Damian; Towpik, Joanna; Dhungel, Nripesh; Hopper, Anita K; Boguta, Magdalena

    2011-11-11

    Maf1 is negative regulator of RNA polymerase III in yeast. We observed high levels of both primary transcript and end-matured, intron-containing pre-tRNAs in the maf1Δ strain. This pre-tRNA accumulation could be overcome by transcription inhibition, arguing against a direct role of Maf1 in tRNA maturation and suggesting saturation of processing machinery by the increased amounts of primary transcripts. Saturation of the tRNA exportin, Los1, is one reason why end-matured intron-containing pre-tRNAs accumulate in maf1Δ cells. However, it is likely possible that other components of the processing pathway are also limiting when tRNA transcription is increased. According to our model, Maf1-mediated transcription control and nuclear export by Los1 are two major stages of tRNA biosynthesis that are regulated by environmental conditions in a coordinated manner. PMID:21940626

  19. Maf1 Protein, Repressor of RNA Polymerase III, Indirectly Affects tRNA Processing*

    PubMed Central

    Karkusiewicz, Iwona; Turowski, Tomasz W.; Graczyk, Damian; Towpik, Joanna; Dhungel, Nripesh; Hopper, Anita K.; Boguta, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Maf1 is negative regulator of RNA polymerase III in yeast. We observed high levels of both primary transcript and end-matured, intron-containing pre-tRNAs in the maf1Δ strain. This pre-tRNA accumulation could be overcome by transcription inhibition, arguing against a direct role of Maf1 in tRNA maturation and suggesting saturation of processing machinery by the increased amounts of primary transcripts. Saturation of the tRNA exportin, Los1, is one reason why end-matured intron-containing pre-tRNAs accumulate in maf1Δ cells. However, it is likely possible that other components of the processing pathway are also limiting when tRNA transcription is increased. According to our model, Maf1-mediated transcription control and nuclear export by Los1 are two major stages of tRNA biosynthesis that are regulated by environmental conditions in a coordinated manner. PMID:21940626

  20. Dissecting chemical interactions governing RNA polymerase II transcriptional fidelity.

    PubMed

    Kellinger, Matthew W; Ulrich, Sébastien; Chong, Jenny; Kool, Eric T; Wang, Dong

    2012-05-16

    Maintaining high transcriptional fidelity is essential to life. For all eukaryotic organisms, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is responsible for messenger RNA synthesis from the DNA template. Three key checkpoint steps are important in controlling Pol II transcriptional fidelity: nucleotide selection and incorporation, RNA transcript extension, and proofreading. Some types of DNA damage significantly reduce transcriptional fidelity. However, the chemical interactions governing each individual checkpoint step of Pol II transcriptional fidelity and the molecular basis of how subtle DNA base damage leads to significant losses of transcriptional fidelity are not fully understood. Here we use a series of "hydrogen bond deficient" nucleoside analogues to dissect chemical interactions governing Pol II transcriptional fidelity. We find that whereas hydrogen bonds between a Watson-Crick base pair of template DNA and incoming NTP are critical for efficient incorporation, they are not required for efficient transcript extension from this matched 3'-RNA end. In sharp contrast, the fidelity of extension is strongly dependent on the discrimination of an incorrect pattern of hydrogen bonds. We show that U:T wobble base interactions are critical to prevent extension of this mismatch by Pol II. Additionally, both hydrogen bonding and base stacking play important roles in controlling Pol II proofreading activity. Strong base stacking at the 3'-RNA terminus can compensate for loss of hydrogen bonds. Finally, we show that Pol II can distinguish very subtle size differences in template bases. The current work provides the first systematic evaluation of electrostatic and steric effects in controlling Pol II transcriptional fidelity. PMID:22509745

  1. Structural basis of transcription: separation of RNA from DNA by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Westover, Kenneth D; Bushnell, David A; Kornberg, Roger D

    2004-02-13

    The structure of an RNA polymerase II-transcribing complex has been determined in the posttranslocation state, with a vacancy at the growing end of the RNA-DNA hybrid helix. At the opposite end of the hybrid helix, the RNA separates from the template DNA. This separation of nucleic acid strands is brought about by interaction with a set of proteins loops in a strand/loop network. Formation of the network must occur in the transition from abortive initiation to promoter escape. PMID:14963331

  2. Structure of a bacterial RNA polymerase holoenzyme open promoter complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Brian; Feklistov, Andrey; Lass-Napiorkowska, Agnieszka; Landick, Robert; Darst, Seth A.

    2015-09-08

    Initiation of transcription is a primary means for controlling gene expression. In bacteria, the RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme binds and unwinds promoter DNA, forming the transcription bubble of the open promoter complex (RPo). We have determined crystal structures, refined to 4.14 Å-resolution, of RPo containing Thermus aquaticus RNAP holoenzyme and promoter DNA that includes the full transcription bubble. The structures, combined with biochemical analyses, reveal key features supporting the formation and maintenance of the double-strand/single-strand DNA junction at the upstream edge of the -10 element where bubble formation initiates. The results also reveal RNAP interactions with duplex DNA just upstream of the -10 element and potential protein/DNA interactions that direct the DNA template strand into the RNAP active site. Additionally a RNA primer to yield a 4 base-pair post-translocated RNA:DNA hybrid mimics an initially transcribing complex at the point where steric clash initiates abortive initiation and σA dissociation.

  3. Structure of a bacterial RNA polymerase holoenzyme open promoter complex

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bae, Brian; Feklistov, Andrey; Lass-Napiorkowska, Agnieszka; Landick, Robert; Darst, Seth A.

    2015-09-08

    Initiation of transcription is a primary means for controlling gene expression. In bacteria, the RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme binds and unwinds promoter DNA, forming the transcription bubble of the open promoter complex (RPo). We have determined crystal structures, refined to 4.14 Å-resolution, of RPo containing Thermus aquaticus RNAP holoenzyme and promoter DNA that includes the full transcription bubble. The structures, combined with biochemical analyses, reveal key features supporting the formation and maintenance of the double-strand/single-strand DNA junction at the upstream edge of the -10 element where bubble formation initiates. The results also reveal RNAP interactions with duplex DNA just upstreammore » of the -10 element and potential protein/DNA interactions that direct the DNA template strand into the RNAP active site. Additionally a RNA primer to yield a 4 base-pair post-translocated RNA:DNA hybrid mimics an initially transcribing complex at the point where steric clash initiates abortive initiation and σA dissociation.« less

  4. Retrotransposon profiling of RNA polymerase III initiation sites.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaojie; Daily, Kenneth; Nguyen, Kim; Wang, Haoyi; Mayhew, David; Rigor, Paul; Forouzan, Sholeh; Johnston, Mark; Mitra, Robi David; Baldi, Pierre; Sandmeyer, Suzanne

    2012-04-01

    Although retroviruses are relatively promiscuous in choice of integration sites, retrotransposons can display marked integration specificity. In yeast and slime mold, some retrotransposons are associated with tRNA genes (tDNAs). In the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, the long terminal repeat retrotransposon Ty3 is found at RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription start sites of tDNAs. Ty1, 2, and 4 elements also cluster in the upstream regions of these genes. To determine the extent to which other Pol III-transcribed genes serve as genomic targets for Ty3, a set of 10,000 Ty3 genomic retrotranspositions were mapped using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Integrations occurred at all known tDNAs, two tDNA relics (iYGR033c and ZOD1), and six non-tDNA, Pol III-transcribed types of genes (RDN5, SNR6, SNR52, RPR1, RNA170, and SCR1). Previous work in vitro demonstrated that the Pol III transcription factor (TF) IIIB is important for Ty3 targeting. However, seven loci that bind the TFIIIB loader, TFIIIC, were not targeted, underscoring the unexplained absence of TFIIIB at those sites. Ty3 integrations also occurred in two open reading frames not previously associated with Pol III transcription, suggesting the existence of a small number of additional sites in the yeast genome that interact with Pol III transcription complexes. PMID:22287102

  5. Multiscale Spatial Organization of RNA Polymerase in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Endesfelder, Ulrike; Finan, Kieran; Holden, Seamus J.; Cook, Peter R.; Kapanidis, Achillefs N.; Heilemann, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid synthesis is spatially organized in many organisms. In bacteria, however, the spatial distribution of transcription remains obscure, owing largely to the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy (200–300 nm). Here, we use photoactivated localization microscopy to localize individual molecules of RNA polymerase (RNAP) in Escherichia coli with a spatial resolution of ∼40 nm. In cells growing rapidly in nutrient-rich media, we find that RNAP is organized in 2–8 bands. The band number scaled directly with cell size (and so with the chromosome number), and bands often contained clusters of >70 tightly packed RNAPs (possibly engaged on one long ribosomal RNA operon of 6000 bp) and clusters of such clusters (perhaps reflecting a structure like the eukaryotic nucleolus where many different ribosomal RNA operons are transcribed). In nutrient-poor media, RNAPs were located in only 1–2 bands; within these bands, a disproportionate number of RNAPs were found in clusters containing ∼20–50 RNAPs. Apart from their importance for bacterial transcription, our studies pave the way for molecular-level analysis of several cellular processes at the nanometer scale. PMID:23823236

  6. Impact of template backbone heterogeneity on RNA polymerase II transcription

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Lu; Chong, Jenny; Huang, Xuhui; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the sugar component (ribose or deoxyribose) and the nature of the phosphodiester linkage (3′-5′ or 2′-5′ orientation) have been a challenge for genetic information transfer from the very beginning of evolution. RNA polymerase II (pol II) governs the transcription of DNA into precursor mRNA in all eukaryotic cells. How pol II recognizes DNA template backbone (phosphodiester linkage and sugar) and whether it tolerates the backbone heterogeneity remain elusive. Such knowledge is not only important for elucidating the chemical basis of transcriptional fidelity but also provides new insights into molecular evolution. In this study, we systematically and quantitatively investigated pol II transcriptional behaviors through different template backbone variants. We revealed that pol II can well tolerate and bypass sugar heterogeneity sites at the template but stalls at phosphodiester linkage heterogeneity sites. The distinct impacts of these two backbone components on pol II transcription reveal the molecular basis of template recognition during pol II transcription and provide the evolutionary insight from the RNA world to the contemporary ‘imperfect’ DNA world. In addition, our results also reveal the transcriptional consequences from ribose-containing genomic DNA. PMID:25662224

  7. Structure of a bacterial RNA polymerase holoenzyme open promoter complex

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Brian; Feklistov, Andrey; Lass-Napiorkowska, Agnieszka; Landick, Robert; Darst, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    Initiation of transcription is a primary means for controlling gene expression. In bacteria, the RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme binds and unwinds promoter DNA, forming the transcription bubble of the open promoter complex (RPo). We have determined crystal structures, refined to 4.14 Å-resolution, of RPo containing Thermus aquaticus RNAP holoenzyme and promoter DNA that includes the full transcription bubble. The structures, combined with biochemical analyses, reveal key features supporting the formation and maintenance of the double-strand/single-strand DNA junction at the upstream edge of the −10 element where bubble formation initiates. The results also reveal RNAP interactions with duplex DNA just upstream of the −10 element and potential protein/DNA interactions that direct the DNA template strand into the RNAP active site. Addition of an RNA primer to yield a 4 base-pair post-translocated RNA:DNA hybrid mimics an initially transcribing complex at the point where steric clash initiates abortive initiation and σA dissociation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08504.001 PMID:26349032

  8. The Small Ribosomal Subunit RNA Isoforms in Plasmodium Cynomolgi

    PubMed Central

    Corredor, V.; Enea, V.

    1994-01-01

    We report the isolation, characterization and analysis of the small subunit rRNA genes in Plasmodium cynomolgi (Ceylon). As in other Plasmodium species, these genes are present in low copy number, are unlinked and form two types that are distinct in sequence and are expressed stage specifically. The asexually expressed (type A) genes are present in four copies in the Ceylon(-) and in five copies in the Berok(-) strain. Surprisingly, the sexually expressed (type B) gene is present in a single copy. The vast majority of the differences between gene types is confined to the variable regions. The pattern of divergence is different from that observed in Plasmodium berghei or in Plasmodium falciparum. Analysis of the small subunit rRNA sequences of P. cynomolgi, P. berghei and P. falciparum, indicates that the two gene types do not evolve independently but rather interact (through gene conversion or some form of recombination) to such an extent as to erase whatever stage-specific sequence signatures they may have had in the last common ancestor. PMID:8005440

  9. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Davanloo, P.; Rosenberg, A.H.

    1984-03-30

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the T7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties.

  10. The hepatitis C virus core protein can modulate RNA-dependent RNA synthesis by the 2a polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Y.; Cheng Kao, C.

    2014-01-01

    RNA replication enzymes are multi-subunit protein complexes whose activity can be modulated by other viral and cellular factors. For genotype 1b Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) subunit of the replicase, NS5B, has been reported to interact with the HCV Core protein to decrease RNA synthesis (Kang et al., 2009). Here we used a cell-based assay for RNA synthesis to examine the Core–NS5B interaction of genotype 2a HCV. Unlike the 1b NS5B, the activity of the 2a NS5B was stimulated by the Core protein. Using the bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, the 2a Core co-localized with 2a NS5B when they were transiently expressed in cells. The two proteins can form a coimmunoprecipitable complex. Deletion analysis showed that the N-terminal 75 residues of 2a Core were required to contact 2a NS5B to modulate its activity. The C-terminal transmembrane helix of 2a NS5B also contributes to the interaction with the 2a Core. To determine the basis for the differential effects of the Core–RdRp interaction, we found that the 2a RdRp activity was enhanced by both the 1b Core and 2a Core. However, the 1b NS5B activity was slightly inhibited by either Core protein. The replication of the 2a JFH-1 replicon was increased by co-expressed 2a Core while the genotype 1b Con1 replicon was not significantly affected by the corresponding Core. Mutations in 2a NS5B that affected the closed RdRp structure were found to be less responsive to 2a Core. Finally, we determined that RNA synthesis by the RdRps from genotypes 2a, 3a and 4a HCV were increased by the Core proteins from HCV of genotypes 1–4. These results reveal another difference between RNA syntheses by the different genotype RdRps and add additional examples of a viral structural protein regulating viral RNA synthesis. PMID:24874198

  11. Defining the status of RNA polymerase at promoters.

    PubMed

    Core, Leighton J; Waterfall, Joshua J; Gilchrist, Daniel A; Fargo, David C; Kwak, Hojoong; Adelman, Karen; Lis, John T

    2012-10-25

    Recent genome-wide studies in metazoans have shown that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) accumulates to high densities on many promoters at a rate-limited step in transcription. However, the status of this Pol II remains an area of debate. Here, we compare quantitative outputs of a global run-on sequencing assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing assays and demonstrate that the majority of the Pol II on Drosophila promoters is transcriptionally engaged; very little exists in a preinitiation or arrested complex. These promoter-proximal polymerases are inhibited from further elongation by detergent-sensitive factors, and knockdown of negative elongation factor, NELF, reduces their levels. These results not only solidify the notion that pausing occurs at most promoters, but demonstrate that it is the major rate-limiting step in early transcription at these promoters. Finally, the divergent elongation complexes seen at mammalian promoters are far less prevalent in Drosophila, and this specificity in orientation correlates with directional core promoter elements, which are abundant in Drosophila. PMID:23062713

  12. Structural insights into transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Grünberg, Sebastian; Hahn, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is one of the most important steps in control of cell identity, growth, differentiation and development. Many signaling pathways controlling these processes ultimately target the core transcription machinery that, for protein coding genes, consists of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and the general transcription factors (GTFs). New studies on the structure and mechanism of the core assembly and how it interfaces with promoter DNA and coactivator complexes have given tremendous insight into early steps in the initiation process, genome-wide binding, and mechanisms conserved for all nuclear and archaeal Pols. Here we review recent developments in dissecting the architecture of the Pol II core machinery with a focus on early and regulated steps in transcription initiation. PMID:24120742

  13. Small RNA Deep Sequencing Reveals Role for Arabidopsis thaliana RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases in Viral siRNA Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaopeng; Bao, Forrest Sheng; Xie, Zhixin

    2009-01-01

    RNA silencing functions as an important antiviral defense mechanism in a broad range of eukaryotes. In plants, biogenesis of several classes of endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) requires RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (RDR) activities. Members of the RDR family proteins, including RDR1and RDR6, have also been implicated in antiviral defense, although a direct role for RDRs in viral siRNA biogenesis has yet to be demonstrated. Using a crucifer-infecting strain of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV-Cg) and Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system, we analyzed the viral small RNA profile in wild-type plants as well as rdr mutants by applying small RNA deep sequencing technology. Over 100,000 TMV-Cg-specific small RNA reads, mostly of 21- (78.4%) and 22-nucleotide (12.9%) in size and originating predominately (79.9%) from the genomic sense RNA strand, were captured at an early infection stage, yielding the first high-resolution small RNA map for a plant virus. The TMV-Cg genome harbored multiple, highly reproducible small RNA-generating hot spots that corresponded to regions with no apparent local hairpin-forming capacity. Significantly, both the rdr1 and rdr6 mutants exhibited globally reduced levels of viral small RNA production as well as reduced strand bias in viral small RNA population, revealing an important role for these host RDRs in viral siRNA biogenesis. In addition, an informatics analysis showed that a large set of host genes could be potentially targeted by TMV-Cg-derived siRNAs for posttranscriptional silencing. Two of such predicted host targets, which encode a cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF30) and an unknown protein similar to translocon-associated protein alpha (TRAP α), respectively, yielded a positive result in cleavage validation by 5′RACE assays. Our data raised the interesting possibility for viral siRNA-mediated virus-host interactions that may contribute to viral pathogenicity and host specificity. PMID:19308254

  14. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its relationship to other plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lydia J R; Brockington, Samuel F; Murphy, Alex M; Pate, Adrienne E; Gruden, Kristina; MacFarlane, Stuart A; Palukaitis, Peter; Carr, John P

    2016-01-01

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) catalyze synthesis of double-stranded RNAs that can serve to initiate or amplify RNA silencing. Arabidopsis thaliana has six RDR genes; RDRs 1, 2 and 6 have roles in anti-viral RNA silencing. RDR6 is constitutively expressed but RDR1 expression is elevated following plant treatment with defensive phytohormones. RDR1 also contributes to basal virus resistance. RDR1 has been studied in several species including A. thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), N. benthamiana, N. attenuata and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) but not to our knowledge in potato (S. tuberosum). StRDR1 was identified and shown to be salicylic acid-responsive. StRDR1 transcript accumulation decreased in transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing a hairpin construct and these plants were challenged with three viruses: potato virus Y, potato virus X, and tobacco mosaic virus. Suppression of StRDR1 gene expression did not increase the susceptibility of potato to these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of RDR genes present in potato and in a range of other plant species identified a new RDR gene family, not present in potato and found only in Rosids (but apparently lost in the Rosid A. thaliana) for which we propose the name RDR7. PMID:26979928

  15. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its relationship to other plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lydia J. R.; Brockington, Samuel F.; Murphy, Alex M.; Pate, Adrienne E.; Gruden, Kristina; MacFarlane, Stuart A.; Palukaitis, Peter; Carr, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) catalyze synthesis of double-stranded RNAs that can serve to initiate or amplify RNA silencing. Arabidopsis thaliana has six RDR genes; RDRs 1, 2 and 6 have roles in anti-viral RNA silencing. RDR6 is constitutively expressed but RDR1 expression is elevated following plant treatment with defensive phytohormones. RDR1 also contributes to basal virus resistance. RDR1 has been studied in several species including A. thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), N. benthamiana, N. attenuata and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) but not to our knowledge in potato (S. tuberosum). StRDR1 was identified and shown to be salicylic acid-responsive. StRDR1 transcript accumulation decreased in transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing a hairpin construct and these plants were challenged with three viruses: potato virus Y, potato virus X, and tobacco mosaic virus. Suppression of StRDR1 gene expression did not increase the susceptibility of potato to these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of RDR genes present in potato and in a range of other plant species identified a new RDR gene family, not present in potato and found only in Rosids (but apparently lost in the Rosid A. thaliana) for which we propose the name RDR7. PMID:26979928

  16. TAF1B is a TFIIB-like component of the basal transcription machinery for RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Srivatsava; Friedrich, J Karsten; Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C B M

    2011-09-16

    Transcription by eukaryotic RNA polymerases (Pols) II and III and archaeal Pol requires structurally related general transcription factors TFIIB, Brf1, and TFB, respectively, which are essential for polymerase recruitment and initiation events. A TFIIB-like protein was not evident in the Pol I basal transcription machinery. We report that TAF1B, a subunit of human Pol I basal transcription factor SL1, is structurally related to TFIIB/TFIIB-like proteins, through predicted amino-terminal zinc ribbon and cyclin-like fold domains. SL1, essential for Pol I recruitment to the ribosomal RNA gene promoter, also has an essential postpolymerase recruitment role, operating through TAF1B. Therefore, a TFIIB-related protein is implicated in preinitiation complex assembly and postpolymerase recruitment events in Pol I transcription, underscoring the parallels between eukaryotic Pol I, II, and III and archaeal transcription machineries. PMID:21921199

  17. The Crystal Structure of a Cardiovirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Reveals an Unusual Conformation of the Polymerase Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Vives-Adrian, Laia; Lujan, Celia; Oliva, Baldo; van der Linden, Lonneke; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a member of the Cardiovirus genus within the large Picornaviridae family, which includes a number of important human and animal pathogens. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) 3Dpol is a key enzyme for viral genome replication. In this study, we report the X-ray structures of two different crystal forms of the EMCV RdRp determined at 2.8- and 2.15-Å resolution. The in vitro elongation and VPg uridylylation activities of the purified enzyme have also been demonstrated. Although the overall structure of EMCV 3Dpol is shown to be similar to that of the known RdRps of other members of the Picornaviridae family, structural comparisons show a large reorganization of the active-site cavity in one of the crystal forms. The rearrangement affects mainly motif A, where the conserved residue Asp240, involved in ribonucleoside triphosphate (rNTP) selection, and its neighbor residue, Phe239, move about 10 Å from their expected positions within the ribose binding pocket toward the entrance of the rNTP tunnel. This altered conformation of motif A is stabilized by a cation-π interaction established between the aromatic ring of Phe239 and the side chain of Lys56 within the finger domain. Other contacts, involving Phe239 and different residues of motif F, are also observed. The movement of motif A is connected with important conformational changes in the finger region flanked by residues 54 to 63, harboring Lys56, and in the polymerase N terminus. The structures determined in this work provide essential information for studies on the cardiovirus RNA replication process and may have important implications for the development of new antivirals targeting the altered conformation of motif A. IMPORTANCE The Picornaviridae family is one of the largest virus families known, including many important human and animal pathogens. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) 3Dpol is a key enzyme for picornavirus genome replication and a validated

  18. In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage-T7-induced protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Zillig, W; Fujiki, H; Blum, W; Janeković, D; Schweiger, M; Rahmsdorf, H; Ponta, H; Hirsch-Kauffmann, M

    1975-01-01

    After infection with bacteriophage T7 the beta' and to a lesser extent the beta subunits of E. coli DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nucleosidetriphosphate:RNA nucleotidyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.6) are phosphorylated by a phage-gene-encoded protein kinase (ATP:protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37). The phosphorylation occurs on threonine residues and appears site-specific. It is probably the molecular basis of the early transcriptional control. Images PMID:1101258

  19. Genetic analysis of the Drosophila DNAprim gene. The function of the 60-kd primase subunit of DNA polymerase opposes the fat facets signaling pathway in the developing eye.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X; Li, Q; Fischer, J A

    2000-01-01

    The Drosophila DNAprim gene encodes the large subunit (60 kD) of DNA primase, the part of DNA polymerase alpha that synthesizes RNA primers during DNA replication. The precise function of the 60-kD subunit is unknown. In a mutagenesis screen for suppressors of the fat facets (faf) mutant eye phenotype, we identified mutations in DNAprim. The faf gene encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme required specifically for patterning the compound eye. The DNA sequences of four DNAprim alleles were determined and these define essential protein domains. We show that while flies lacking DNAprim activity are lethal, flies with reduced DNAprim activity display morphological defects in their eyes, and unlike faf mutants, cell cycle abnormalities in larval eye discs. Mechanisms by which DNA primase levels might influence the faf-dependent cell communication pathway are discussed. PMID:11102374

  20. Isolation of an RNA-directed RNA polymerase-specific cDNA clone from tomato.

    PubMed Central

    Schiebel, W; Pélissier, T; Riedel, L; Thalmeir, S; Schiebel, R; Kempe, D; Lottspeich, F; Sänger, H L; Wassenegger, M

    1998-01-01

    A 3600-bp RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP)-specific cDNA comprising an open reading frame (ORF) of 1114 amino acids was isolated from tomato. The putative protein encoded by this ORF does not share homology with any characterized proteins. Antibodies that were raised against synthetic peptides whose sequences have been deduced from the ORF were shown to specifically detect the 127-kD tomato RdRP protein. The immunoresponse to the antibodies correlated with the enzymatic activity profile of the RdRP after chromatography on Q-, poly(A)-, and poly(U)-Sepharose, hydroxyapatite, and Sephadex G-200 columns. DNA gel blot analysis revealed a single copy of the RdRP gene in tomato. RdRP homologs from petunia, Arabidopsis, tobacco, and wheat were identified by using polymerase chain reaction. A sequence comparison indicated that sequences homologous to RdRP are also present in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The previously described induction of RdRP activity upon viroid infection is shown to be correlated with an increased steady state level of the corresponding mRNA. The possible involvement of this heretofore functionally elusive plant RNA polymerase in homology-dependent gene silencing is discussed. PMID:9836747

  1. Defining the RNA polymerase III transcriptome: Genome-wide localization of the RNA polymerase III transcription machinery in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Canella, Donatella; Praz, Viviane; Reina, Jaime H.; Cousin, Pascal; Hernandez, Nouria

    2010-01-01

    Our view of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription machinery in mammalian cells arises mostly from studies of the RN5S (5S) gene, the Ad2 VAI gene, and the RNU6 (U6) gene, as paradigms for genes with type 1, 2, and 3 promoters. Recruitment of Pol III onto these genes requires prior binding of well-characterized transcription factors. Technical limitations in dealing with repeated genomic units, typically found at mammalian Pol III genes, have so far hampered genome-wide studies of the Pol III transcription machinery and transcriptome. We have localized, genome-wide, Pol III and some of its transcription factors. Our results reveal broad usage of the known Pol III transcription machinery and define a minimal Pol III transcriptome in dividing IMR90hTert fibroblasts. This transcriptome consists of some 500 actively transcribed genes including a few dozen candidate novel genes, of which we confirmed nine as Pol III transcription units by additional methods. It does not contain any of the microRNA genes previously described as transcribed by Pol III, but reveals two other microRNA genes, MIR886 (hsa-mir-886) and MIR1975 (RNY5, hY5, hsa-mir-1975), which are genuine Pol III transcription units. PMID:20413673

  2. Subgenomic promoter recognition by the norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Thorne, Lucy; Jin, Zhinan; Hammad, Loubna A.; Li, Serena; Deval, Jerome; Goodfellow, Ian G.; Kao, C. Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The replication enzyme of RNA viruses must preferentially recognize their RNAs in an environment that contains an abundance of cellular RNAs. The factors responsible for specific RNA recognition are not well understood, in part because viral RNA synthesis takes place within enzyme complexes associated with modified cellular membrane compartments. Recombinant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) from the human norovirus and the murine norovirus (MNV) were found to preferentially recognize RNA segments that contain the promoter and a short template sequence for subgenomic RNA synthesis. Both the promoter and template sequence contribute to stable RdRp binding, accurate initiation of the subgenomic RNAs and efficient RNA synthesis. Using a method that combines RNA crosslinking and mass spectrometry, residues near the template channel of the MNV RdRp were found to contact the hairpin RNA motif. Mutations in the hairpin contact site in the MNV RdRp reduced MNV replication and virus production in cells. This work demonstrates that the specific recognition of the norovirus subgenomic promoter is through binding by the viral RdRp. PMID:25520198

  3. Initiation of RNA Polymerization and Polymerase Encapsidation by a Small dsRNA Virus.

    PubMed

    Collier, Aaron M; Lyytinen, Outi L; Guo, Yusong R; Toh, Yukimatsu; Poranen, Minna M; Tao, Yizhi J

    2016-04-01

    During the replication cycle of double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) replicates and transcribes the viral genome from within the viral capsid. How the RdRP molecules are packaged within the virion and how they function within the confines of an intact capsid are intriguing questions with answers that most likely vary across the different dsRNA virus families. In this study, we have determined a 2.4 Å resolution structure of an RdRP from the human picobirnavirus (hPBV). In addition to the conserved polymerase fold, the hPBV RdRP possesses a highly flexible 24 amino acid loop structure located near the C-terminus of the protein that is inserted into its active site. In vitro RNA polymerization assays and site-directed mutagenesis showed that: (1) the hPBV RdRP is fully active using both ssRNA and dsRNA templates; (2) the insertion loop likely functions as an assembly platform for the priming nucleotide to allow de novo initiation; (3) RNA transcription by the hPBV RdRP proceeds in a semi-conservative manner; and (4) the preference of virus-specific RNA during transcription is dictated by the lower melting temperature associated with the terminal sequences. Co-expression of the hPBV RdRP and the capsid protein (CP) indicated that, under the conditions used, the RdRP could not be incorporated into the recombinant capsids in the absence of the viral genome. Additionally, the hPBV RdRP exhibited higher affinity towards the conserved 5'-terminal sequence of the viral RNA, suggesting that the RdRP molecules may be encapsidated through their specific binding to the viral RNAs during assembly. PMID:27078841

  4. Initiation of RNA Polymerization and Polymerase Encapsidation by a Small dsRNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yusong R.; Toh, Yukimatsu; Poranen, Minna M.; Tao, Yizhi J.

    2016-01-01

    During the replication cycle of double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) replicates and transcribes the viral genome from within the viral capsid. How the RdRP molecules are packaged within the virion and how they function within the confines of an intact capsid are intriguing questions with answers that most likely vary across the different dsRNA virus families. In this study, we have determined a 2.4 Å resolution structure of an RdRP from the human picobirnavirus (hPBV). In addition to the conserved polymerase fold, the hPBV RdRP possesses a highly flexible 24 amino acid loop structure located near the C-terminus of the protein that is inserted into its active site. In vitro RNA polymerization assays and site-directed mutagenesis showed that: (1) the hPBV RdRP is fully active using both ssRNA and dsRNA templates; (2) the insertion loop likely functions as an assembly platform for the priming nucleotide to allow de novo initiation; (3) RNA transcription by the hPBV RdRP proceeds in a semi-conservative manner; and (4) the preference of virus-specific RNA during transcription is dictated by the lower melting temperature associated with the terminal sequences. Co-expression of the hPBV RdRP and the capsid protein (CP) indicated that, under the conditions used, the RdRP could not be incorporated into the recombinant capsids in the absence of the viral genome. Additionally, the hPBV RdRP exhibited higher affinity towards the conserved 5’-terminal sequence of the viral RNA, suggesting that the RdRP molecules may be encapsidated through their specific binding to the viral RNAs during assembly. PMID:27078841

  5. Mapping the domain structure of the influenza A virus polymerase acidic protein (PA) and its interaction with the basic protein 1 (PB1) subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Guu, Tom S.Y.; Dong Liping; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla; Tao, Yizhi J.

    2008-09-15

    The influenza A virus polymerase consists of three subunits (PA, PB1, and PB2) necessary for viral RNA synthesis. The heterotrimeric polymerase complex forms through PA interacting with PB1 and PB1 interacting with PB2. PA has been shown to play critical roles in the assembly, catalysis, and nuclear localization of the polymerase. To probe the structure of PA, we isolated recombinant PA from insect cells. Limited proteolysis revealed that PA contained two domains connected by a 20-residue linker (residues 257-276). Far-UV circular dichroism established that the two domains folded into a mixed {alpha}/{beta} structure when separately expressed. In vitro pull-down assays showed that neither individually nor cooperatively expressed PA domains, without the linker, could assure PA-PB1 interaction. Protease treatment of PA-PB1 complex indicated that its PA subunit was significantly more stable than free PA, suggesting that the linker is protected and it constitutes an essential component of the PA-PB1 interface.

  6. Global analysis of transcriptionally engaged yeast RNA polymerase III reveals extended tRNA transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Turowski, Tomasz W.; Leśniewska, Ewa; Delan-Forino, Clementine; Sayou, Camille; Boguta, Magdalena; Tollervey, David

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) synthesizes a range of highly abundant small stable RNAs, principally pre-tRNAs. Here we report the genome-wide analysis of nascent transcripts attached to RNAPIII under permissive and restrictive growth conditions. This revealed strikingly uneven polymerase distributions across transcription units, generally with a predominant 5′ peak. This peak was higher for more heavily transcribed genes, suggesting that initiation site clearance is rate-limiting during RNAPIII transcription. Down-regulation of RNAPIII transcription under stress conditions was found to be uneven; a subset of tRNA genes showed low response to nutrient shift or loss of the major transcription regulator Maf1, suggesting potential “housekeeping” roles. Many tRNA genes were found to generate long, 3′-extended forms due to read-through of the canonical poly(U) terminators. The degree of read-through was anti-correlated with the density of U-residues in the nascent tRNA, and multiple, functional terminators can be located far downstream. The steady-state levels of 3′-extended pre-tRNA transcripts are low, apparently due to targeting by the nuclear surveillance machinery, especially the RNA binding protein Nab2, cofactors for the nuclear exosome, and the 5′-exonuclease Rat1. PMID:27206856

  7. Global analysis of transcriptionally engaged yeast RNA polymerase III reveals extended tRNA transcripts.

    PubMed

    Turowski, Tomasz W; Leśniewska, Ewa; Delan-Forino, Clementine; Sayou, Camille; Boguta, Magdalena; Tollervey, David

    2016-07-01

    RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) synthesizes a range of highly abundant small stable RNAs, principally pre-tRNAs. Here we report the genome-wide analysis of nascent transcripts attached to RNAPIII under permissive and restrictive growth conditions. This revealed strikingly uneven polymerase distributions across transcription units, generally with a predominant 5' peak. This peak was higher for more heavily transcribed genes, suggesting that initiation site clearance is rate-limiting during RNAPIII transcription. Down-regulation of RNAPIII transcription under stress conditions was found to be uneven; a subset of tRNA genes showed low response to nutrient shift or loss of the major transcription regulator Maf1, suggesting potential "housekeeping" roles. Many tRNA genes were found to generate long, 3'-extended forms due to read-through of the canonical poly(U) terminators. The degree of read-through was anti-correlated with the density of U-residues in the nascent tRNA, and multiple, functional terminators can be located far downstream. The steady-state levels of 3'-extended pre-tRNA transcripts are low, apparently due to targeting by the nuclear surveillance machinery, especially the RNA binding protein Nab2, cofactors for the nuclear exosome, and the 5'-exonuclease Rat1. PMID:27206856

  8. Functional Evolution in Orthologous Cell-encoded RNA-dependent RNA Polymerases.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xinlei; Hamid, Fursham M; El Sahili, Abbas; Darwis, Dina Amallia; Wong, Yee Hwa; Bhushan, Shashi; Makeyev, Eugene V; Lescar, Julien

    2016-04-22

    Many eukaryotic organisms encode more than one RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) that probably emerged as a result of gene duplication. Such RdRP paralogs often participate in distinct RNA silencing pathways and show characteristic repertoires of enzymatic activities in vitro However, to what extent members of individual paralogous groups can undergo functional changes during speciation remains an open question. We show that orthologs of QDE-1, an RdRP component of the quelling pathway in Neurospora crassa, have rapidly diverged in evolution at the amino acid sequence level. Analyses of purified QDE-1 polymerases from N. crassa (QDE-1(Ncr)) and related fungi, Thielavia terrestris (QDE-1(Tte)) and Myceliophthora thermophila (QDE-1(Mth)), show that all three enzymes can synthesize RNA, but the precise modes of their action differ considerably. Unlike their QDE-1(Ncr) counterpart favoring processive RNA synthesis, QDE-1(Tte) and QDE-1(Mth) produce predominantly short RNA copies via primer-independent initiation. Surprisingly, a 3.19 Å resolution crystal structure of QDE-1(Tte) reveals a quasisymmetric dimer similar to QDE-1(Ncr) Further electron microscopy analyses confirm that QDE-1(Tte) occurs as a dimer in solution and retains this status upon interaction with a template. We conclude that divergence of orthologous RdRPs can result in functional innovation while retaining overall protein fold and quaternary structure. PMID:26907693

  9. Functional Evolution in Orthologous Cell-encoded RNA-dependent RNA Polymerases*

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinlei; Hamid, Fursham M.; El Sahili, Abbas; Darwis, Dina Amallia; Wong, Yee Hwa; Bhushan, Shashi; Makeyev, Eugene V.; Lescar, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Many eukaryotic organisms encode more than one RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) that probably emerged as a result of gene duplication. Such RdRP paralogs often participate in distinct RNA silencing pathways and show characteristic repertoires of enzymatic activities in vitro. However, to what extent members of individual paralogous groups can undergo functional changes during speciation remains an open question. We show that orthologs of QDE-1, an RdRP component of the quelling pathway in Neurospora crassa, have rapidly diverged in evolution at the amino acid sequence level. Analyses of purified QDE-1 polymerases from N. crassa (QDE-1Ncr) and related fungi, Thielavia terrestris (QDE-1Tte) and Myceliophthora thermophila (QDE-1Mth), show that all three enzymes can synthesize RNA, but the precise modes of their action differ considerably. Unlike their QDE-1Ncr counterpart favoring processive RNA synthesis, QDE-1Tte and QDE-1Mth produce predominantly short RNA copies via primer-independent initiation. Surprisingly, a 3.19 Å resolution crystal structure of QDE-1Tte reveals a quasisymmetric dimer similar to QDE-1Ncr. Further electron microscopy analyses confirm that QDE-1Tte occurs as a dimer in solution and retains this status upon interaction with a template. We conclude that divergence of orthologous RdRPs can result in functional innovation while retaining overall protein fold and quaternary structure. PMID:26907693

  10. Roles of POLD4, smallest subunit of DNA polymerase {delta}, in nuclear structures and genomic stability of human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qin Miao; Akashi, Tomohiro; Masuda, Yuji; Kamiya, Kenji; Takahashi, Takashi; Suzuki, Motoshi

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian DNA polymerase {delta} (pol {delta}) is essential for DNA replication, though the functions of this smallest subunit of POLD4 have been elusive. We investigated pol {delta} activities in vitro and found that it was less active in the absence of POLD4, irrespective of the presence of the accessory protein PCNA. shRNA-mediated reduction of POLD4 resulted in a marked decrease in colony formation activity by Calu6, ACC-LC-319, and PC-10 cells. We also found that POLD4 reduction was associated with an increased population of karyomere-like cells, which may be an indication of DNA replication stress and/or DNA damage. The karyomere-like cells retained an ability to progress through the cell cycle, suggesting that POLD4 reduction induces modest genomic instability, while allowing cells to grow until DNA damage reaches an intolerant level. Our results indicate that POLD4 is required for the in vitro pol {delta} activity, and that it functions in cell proliferation and maintenance of genomic stability of human cells.

  11. DnaJA1/Hsp40 Is Co-Opted by Influenza A Virus To Enhance Its Viral RNA Polymerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Mengmeng; Wei, Candong; Zhao, Lili; Wang, Jingfeng; Jia, Qiannan; Wang, Xue

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of influenza A virus is a heterotrimeric complex composed of the PB1, PB2, and PA subunits. The interplay between host factors and the three subunits of the RdRp is critical to enable viral RNA synthesis to occur in the nuclei of infected cells. In this study, we newly identified host factor DnaJA1, a member of the type I DnaJ/Hsp40 family, acting as a positive regulator for influenza virus replication. We found that DnaJA1 associates with the bPB2 and PA subunits and enhances viral RNA synthesis both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, DnaJA1 could be translocated from cytoplasm into the nucleus upon influenza virus infection. The translocation of DnaJA1 is specifically accompanied by PB1-PA nuclear import. Interestingly, we observed that the effect of DnaJA1 on viral RNA synthesis is mainly dependent on its C-terminal substrate-binding domain and not on its typical J domain, while the J domain normally mediates the Hsp70-DnaJ interaction required for regulating Hsp70 ATPase activity. Therefore, we propose that DnaJA1 is co-opted by the influenza A virus to enter the nucleus and to enhance its RNA polymerase activity in an Hsp70 cochaperone-independent manner. IMPORTANCE The interplay between host factors and influenza virus RNA polymerase plays a critical role in determining virus pathogenicity and host adaptation. In this study, we newly identified a host protein, DnaJA1/Hsp40, that is co-opted by influenza A virus RNA polymerase to enhance its viral RNA synthesis in the nuclei of infected cells. We found that DnaJA1 associates with both PB2 and PA subunits and translocates into the nucleus along with the nuclear import of the PB1-PA dimer during influenza virus replication. Interestingly, the effect of DnaJA1 is mainly dependent on its C-terminal substrate-binding domain and not on its typical J domain, which is required for its Hsp70 cochaperone function. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a member of the

  12. Structural basis of initial RNA polymerase II transcription

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Alan C M; Sainsbury, Sarah; Cramer, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    During transcription initiation by RNA polymerase (Pol) II, a transient open promoter complex (OC) is converted to an initially transcribing complex (ITC) containing short RNAs, and to a stable elongation complex (EC). We report structures of a Pol II–DNA complex mimicking part of the OC, and of complexes representing minimal ITCs with 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 nucleotide (nt) RNAs, with and without a non-hydrolyzable nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) in the insertion site +1. The partial OC structure reveals that Pol II positions the melted template strand opposite the active site. The ITC-mimicking structures show that two invariant lysine residues anchor the 3′-proximal phosphate of short RNAs. Short DNA–RNA hybrids adopt a tilted conformation that excludes the +1 template nt from the active site. NTP binding induces complete DNA translocation and the standard hybrid conformation. Conserved NTP contacts indicate a universal mechanism of NTP selection. The essential residue Q1078 in the closed trigger loop binds the NTP 2′-OH group, explaining how the trigger loop couples catalysis to NTP selection, suppressing dNTP binding and DNA synthesis. PMID:22056778

  13. RNA polymerase II ternary transcription complexes generated in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, S; Bunick, D; Zandomeni, R; Weinmann, R

    1983-01-01

    Ternary transcription complexes have been formed with a HeLa cell extract, a specific DNA template, and nucleoside triphosphates. The assay depends on the formation of sarkosyl-resistant initiation complexes which contain RNA polymerase II, template DNA, and radioactive nucleoside triphosphates. Separation from the other elements in the in vitro reaction is achieved by electrophoresis in agarose - 0.25% sarkosyl gels. The mobility of the ternary complexes in this system cannot be distinguished from naked DNA. Formation of this complex is dependent on all parameters necessary for faithful in vitro transcription. Complexes are formed with both the plasmid vector and the specific adenovirus DNA insert containing a eucaryotic promoter. The formation of the complex on the eucaryotic DNA is sequence-dependent. An undecaribonucleotide predicted from the template DNA sequence remains associated with the DNA in the ternary complex and can be isolated if the chain terminator 3'-0-methyl GTP is used, or after T1 ribonuclease treatment of the RNA, or if exogenous GTP is omitted from the in vitro reaction. This oligonucleotide is not detected in association with the plasmid vector. Phosphocellulose fractionation of the extract indicates that at least one of the column fractions required for faithful runoff transcription is required for complex formation. A large molar excess of abortive initiation events was detected relative to the level of productive transcription events, indicating a 40-fold higher efficiency of transcription initiation vs. elongation. Images PMID:6193489

  14. Bacterial RNA polymerase can retain σ70 throughout transcription.

    PubMed

    Harden, Timothy T; Wells, Christopher D; Friedman, Larry J; Landick, Robert; Hochschild, Ann; Kondev, Jane; Gelles, Jeff

    2016-01-19

    Production of a messenger RNA proceeds through sequential stages of transcription initiation and transcript elongation and termination. During each of these stages, RNA polymerase (RNAP) function is regulated by RNAP-associated protein factors. In bacteria, RNAP-associated σ factors are strictly required for promoter recognition and have historically been regarded as dedicated initiation factors. However, the primary σ factor in Escherichia coli, σ(70), can remain associated with RNAP during the transition from initiation to elongation, influencing events that occur after initiation. Quantitative studies on the extent of σ(70) retention have been limited to complexes halted during early elongation. Here, we used multiwavelength single-molecule fluorescence-colocalization microscopy to observe the σ(70)-RNAP complex during initiation from the λ PR' promoter and throughout the elongation of a long (>2,000-nt) transcript. Our results provide direct measurements of the fraction of actively transcribing complexes with bound σ(70) and the kinetics of σ(70) release from actively transcribing complexes. σ(70) release from mature elongation complexes was slow (0.0038 s(-1)); a substantial subpopulation of elongation complexes retained σ(70) throughout transcript elongation, and this fraction depended on the sequence of the initially transcribed region. We also show that elongation complexes containing σ(70) manifest enhanced recognition of a promoter-like pause element positioned hundreds of nucleotides downstream of the promoter. Together, the results provide a quantitative framework for understanding the postinitiation roles of σ(70) during transcription. PMID:26733675

  15. A serine/arginine-rich nuclear matrix cyclophilin interacts with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Bourquin, J P; Stagljar, I; Meier, P; Moosmann, P; Silke, J; Baechi, T; Georgiev, O; Schaffner, W

    1997-01-01

    The largest subunit of RNA polymerase II shows a striking difference in the degree of phosphorylation, depending on its functional state: initiating and elongating polymerases are unphosphorylated and highly phosphorylated respectively. Phosphorylation mostly occurs at the C-terminal domain (CTD), which consists of a repetitive heptapeptide structure. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have selected for mammalian proteins that interact with the phosphorylated CTD of mammalian RNA polymerase II. A prominent isolate, designated SRcyp/CASP10, specifically interacts with the CTD not only in vivo but also in vitro . It contains a serine/arginine-rich (SR) domain, similar to that found in the SR protein family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which is required for interaction with the CTD. Most remarkably, the N-terminal region of SRcyp includes a peptidyl-prolyl cis - trans isomerase domain characteristic of immunophilins/cyclophilins (Cyp), a protein family implicated in protein folding, assembly and transport. SRcyp is a nuclear protein with a characteristic distribution in large irregularly shaped nuclear speckles and co-localizes perfectly with the SR domain-containing splicing factor SC35. Recent independent investigations have provided complementary data, such as an association of the phosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II with the nuclear speckles, impaired splicing in a CTD deletion background and inhibition of in vitro splicing by CTD peptides. Taken together, these data indicate that factors directly or indirectly involved in splicing are associated with the elongating RNA polymerases, from where they might translocate to the nascent transcripts to ensure efficient splicing, concomitant with transcription. PMID:9153302

  16. Structural basis of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalysis and translocation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bo; Gong, Peng

    2016-07-12

    Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) play essential roles in viral genome replication and transcription. We previously reported several structural states of the poliovirus RdRP nucleotide addition cycle (NAC) that revealed a unique palm domain-based active site closure mechanism and proposed a six-state NAC model including a hypothetical state representing translocation intermediates. Using the RdRP from another human enterovirus, enterovirus 71, here we report seven RdRP elongation complex structures derived from a crystal lattice that allows three NAC events. These structures suggested a key order of events in initial NTP binding and NTP-induced active site closure and revealed a bona fide translocation intermediate featuring asymmetric movement of the template-product duplex. Our work provides essential missing links in understanding NTP recognition and translocation mechanisms in viral RdRPs and emphasizes the uniqueness of the viral RdRPs compared with other processive polymerases. PMID:27339134

  17. PTEN represses RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription by targeting the TFIIIB complex.

    PubMed

    Woiwode, Annette; Johnson, Sandra A S; Zhong, Shuping; Zhang, Cheng; Roeder, Robert G; Teichmann, Martin; Johnson, Deborah L

    2008-06-01

    PTEN, a tumor suppressor whose function is frequently lost in human cancers, possesses a lipid phosphatase activity that represses phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, controlling cell growth, proliferation, and survival. The potential for PTEN to regulate the synthesis of RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcription products, including tRNAs and 5S rRNAs, was evaluated. The expression of PTEN in PTEN-deficient cells repressed RNA Pol III transcription, whereas decreased PTEN expression enhanced transcription. Transcription repression by PTEN was uncoupled from PTEN-mediated effects on the cell cycle and was independent of p53. PTEN acts through its lipid phosphatase activity, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6K pathway to decrease transcription. PTEN, through the inactivation of mTOR, targets the TFIIIB complex, disrupting the association between TATA-binding protein and Brf1. Kinetic analysis revealed that PTEN initially induces a decrease in the serine phosphorylation of Brf1, leading to a selective reduction in the occupancy of all TFIIIB subunits on tRNA(Leu) genes, whereas prolonged PTEN expression results in the enhanced serine phosphorylation of Bdp1. Together, these results demonstrate a new class of genes regulated by PTEN through its ability to repress the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6K signaling. PMID:18391023

  18. BRF1 mutations alter RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription and cause neurodevelopmental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Borck, Guntram; Hög, Friederike; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Tan, Perciliz L; Sowada, Nadine; Medeira, Ana; Gueneau, Lucie; Thiele, Holger; Kousi, Maria; Lepri, Francesca; Wenzeck, Larissa; Blumenthal, Ian; Radicioni, Antonio; Schwarzenberg, Tito Livio; Mandriani, Barbara; Fischetto, Rita; Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J; Altmüller, Janine; Reymond, Alexandre; Nürnberg, Peter; Merla, Giuseppe; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Katsanis, Nicholas; Cramer, Patrick; Kubisch, Christian

    2015-02-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) synthesizes tRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs to regulate protein synthesis. Dysregulation of Pol III transcription has been linked to cancer, and germline mutations in genes encoding Pol III subunits or tRNA processing factors cause neurogenetic disorders in humans, such as hypomyelinating leukodystrophies and pontocerebellar hypoplasia. Here we describe an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia and intellectual disability, as well as facial dysmorphic features, short stature, microcephaly, and dental anomalies. Whole-exome sequencing revealed biallelic missense alterations of BRF1 in three families. In support of the pathogenic potential of the discovered alleles, suppression or CRISPR-mediated deletion of brf1 in zebrafish embryos recapitulated key neurodevelopmental phenotypes; in vivo complementation showed all four candidate mutations to be pathogenic in an apparent isoform-specific context. BRF1 associates with BDP1 and TBP to form the transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB), which recruits Pol III to target genes. We show that disease-causing mutations reduce Brf1 occupancy at tRNA target genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and impair cell growth. Moreover, BRF1 mutations reduce Pol III-related transcription activity in vitro. Taken together, our data show that BRF1 mutations that reduce protein activity cause neurodevelopmental anomalies, suggesting that BRF1-mediated Pol III transcription is required for normal cerebellar and cognitive development. PMID:25561519

  19. BRF1 mutations alter RNA polymerase III–dependent transcription and cause neurodevelopmental anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Hög, Friederike; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Tan, Perciliz L.; Sowada, Nadine; Medeira, Ana; Gueneau, Lucie; Thiele, Holger; Kousi, Maria; Lepri, Francesca; Wenzeck, Larissa; Blumenthal, Ian; Radicioni, Antonio; Schwarzenberg, Tito Livio; Mandriani, Barbara; Fischetto, Rita; Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J.; Altmüller, Janine; Reymond, Alexandre; Nürnberg, Peter; Merla, Giuseppe; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Katsanis, Nicholas; Cramer, Patrick; Kubisch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) synthesizes tRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs to regulate protein synthesis. Dysregulation of Pol III transcription has been linked to cancer, and germline mutations in genes encoding Pol III subunits or tRNA processing factors cause neurogenetic disorders in humans, such as hypomyelinating leukodystrophies and pontocerebellar hypoplasia. Here we describe an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia and intellectual disability, as well as facial dysmorphic features, short stature, microcephaly, and dental anomalies. Whole-exome sequencing revealed biallelic missense alterations of BRF1 in three families. In support of the pathogenic potential of the discovered alleles, suppression or CRISPR-mediated deletion of brf1 in zebrafish embryos recapitulated key neurodevelopmental phenotypes; in vivo complementation showed all four candidate mutations to be pathogenic in an apparent isoform-specific context. BRF1 associates with BDP1 and TBP to form the transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB), which recruits Pol III to target genes. We show that disease-causing mutations reduce Brf1 occupancy at tRNA target genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and impair cell growth. Moreover, BRF1 mutations reduce Pol III–related transcription activity in vitro. Taken together, our data show that BRF1 mutations that reduce protein activity cause neurodevelopmental anomalies, suggesting that BRF1-mediated Pol III transcription is required for normal cerebellar and cognitive development. PMID:25561519

  20. Methylation of RNA polymerase II non-consensus Lysine residues marks early transcription in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Dias, João D; Rito, Tiago; Torlai Triglia, Elena; Kukalev, Alexander; Ferrai, Carmelo; Chotalia, Mita; Brookes, Emily; Kimura, Hiroshi; Pombo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic post-translational modification of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) coordinates the co-transcriptional recruitment of enzymatic complexes that regulate chromatin states and processing of nascent RNA. Extensive phosphorylation of serine residues at the largest RNAPII subunit occurs at its structurally-disordered C-terminal domain (CTD), which is composed of multiple heptapeptide repeats with consensus sequence Y1-S2-P3-T4-S5-P6-S7. Serine-5 and Serine-7 phosphorylation mark transcription initiation, whereas Serine-2 phosphorylation coincides with productive elongation. In vertebrates, the CTD has eight non-canonical substitutions of Serine-7 into Lysine-7, which can be acetylated (K7ac). Here, we describe mono- and di-methylation of CTD Lysine-7 residues (K7me1 and K7me2). K7me1 and K7me2 are observed during the earliest transcription stages and precede or accompany Serine-5 and Serine-7 phosphorylation. In contrast, K7ac is associated with RNAPII elongation, Serine-2 phosphorylation and mRNA expression. We identify an unexpected balance between RNAPII K7 methylation and acetylation at gene promoters, which fine-tunes gene expression levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11215.001 PMID:26687004

  1. Microarray data analyses of yeast RNA Pol I subunit RPA12 deletion strain.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kamlesh Kumar; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2016-06-01

    The ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biosynthesis is the most energy consuming process in all living cells and the majority of total transcription activity is dedicated for synthesizing rRNA. The cells may adjust the synthesis of rRNA with the availability of resources. rRNA is mainly synthesized by RNA polymerase I that is composed of 14 subunits. Deletion of RPA12, 14, 39 and 49 are viable. RPA12 is a very small protein (13.6 kDa), and the amount of protein in the cells is very high (12,000 molecules per cell), but the role of this protein is unknown in other cellular metabolic processes (Kulak et al., 2014 [1]). RPA12 consists of two zinc-binding domains and it is required for the termination of rRNA synthesis (Mullem et al., 2002 [2]). Deletions of RPA12 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cause a conditional growth defect (Nogi et al., 1993 [3]). In S. pombe, C-terminal deletion behaves like wild-type (Imazawa et al., 2001 [4]). This prompted us to investigate in detail the physiological role of RPA12 in S. cerevisiae, we performed the microarray of rpa12 ∆ strain and deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus under GSE68731. The analysis of microarray data revealed that the expression of major cellular metabolism genes is high. The amino acid biosynthesis, nonpolar lipid biosynthesis and glucose metabolic genes are highly expressed. The analyses also revealed that the rpa12 ∆ cells have an uncontrolled synthesis of cell metabolites, so RPA12 could be a master regulator for whole cellular metabolism. PMID:27222810

  2. Phosphorylation at the N-terminal finger subdomain of a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Sergio; Figueroa, Daniella; Correa, Simón; Díaz, Ariel; Aguayo, Daniel; Villanueva, Rodrigo A

    2015-10-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV), named NS5B, is phosphorylated by the cellular protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PRK2) at two serine residues (Ser29 and Ser42) of the finger subdomain (genotype 1b). Herein, using bioinformatics, we selected four potential phosphorylation residues (Ser46, Ser76, Ser96 and Ser112) of NS5B (genotype 2a) for study. Whereas the NS5B Ser46D and Ser76D substitutions seemed to improve polymerase activity, the Ser96D mutation decreased colony formation efficiency. Active WT NS5B was utilized in in vitro kinase assays, and phosphopeptides were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Interestingly, the data indicated that both the NS5B Ser29 and Ser76 residues resulted phosphorylated. Thus, as Ser76 is absolutely conserved across HCV genotypes, our results confirmed the relevance of these sites for both genotypes and suggested that Ser76 becomes phosphorylated by a cellular kinase different from PRK2. By molecular dynamic simulations, we show that new interactions between space-adjacent amino acid chains could be established by the presence of a di-anionic phosphate group on the analyzed serines to possibly modify RNA polymerase activity. Together, our data present novel evidence on the complex regulation at the finger subdomain of HCV NS5B via phosphorylation. PMID:26301630

  3. Epstein-Barr virus induces cellular transcription factors to allow active expression of EBER genes by RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Felton-Edkins, Zoë A; Kondrashov, Alexander; Karali, Dimitra; Fairley, Jennifer A; Dawson, Christopher W; Arrand, John R; Young, Lawrence S; White, Robert J

    2006-11-10

    The EBER genes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are transcribed by RNA polymerase (pol) III to produce untranslated RNAs that are implicated in oncogenesis. These EBER transcripts are the most highly expressed viral gene products in EBV-transformed cells. We have identified changes to the cellular transcription machinery that may contribute to the high levels of EBER RNA. These include phosphorylation of ATF2, which interacts with EBER promoters. A second is induction of TFIIIC, a pol III-specific factor that activates EBER genes; all five subunits of TFIIIC are overexpressed in EBV-positive cells. In addition, EBV induces BDP1, a subunit of the pol III-specific factor TFIIIB. Although BDP1 is the only TFIIIB subunit induced by EBV, its induction is sufficient to stimulate EBER expression in vivo, implying a limiting function. The elevated levels of BDP1 and TFIIIC in EBV-positive cells stimulate production of tRNA, 7SL, and 5S rRNA. Abnormally high expression of these cellular pol III products may contribute to the ability of EBV to enhance growth potential. PMID:16956891

  4. Yeast DEAD box protein Mss116p is a transcription elongation factor that modulates the activity of mitochondrial RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Markov, Dmitriy A; Wojtas, Ireneusz D; Tessitore, Kassandra; Henderson, Simmone; McAllister, William T

    2014-07-01

    DEAD box proteins have been widely implicated in regulation of gene expression. Here, we show that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae DEAD box protein Mss116p, previously known as a mitochondrial splicing factor, also acts as a transcription factor that modulates the activity of the single-subunit mitochondrial RNA polymerase encoded by RPO41. Binding of Mss116p stabilizes paused mitochondrial RNA polymerase elongation complexes in vitro and favors the posttranslocated state of the enzyme, resulting in a lower concentration of nucleotide substrate required to escape the pause; this mechanism of action is similar to that of elongation factors that enhance the processivity of multisubunit RNA polymerases. In a yeast strain in which the RNA splicing-related functions of Mss116p are dispensable, overexpression of RPO41 or MSS116 increases cell survival from colonies that were exposed to low temperature, suggesting a role for Mss116p in enhancing the efficiency of mitochondrial transcription under stress conditions. PMID:24732805

  5. Specific threonine-4 phosphorylation and function of RNA polymerase II CTD during M phase progression

    PubMed Central

    Hintermair, Corinna; Voß, Kirsten; Forné, Ignasi; Heidemann, Martin; Flatley, Andrew; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Imhof, Axel; Eick, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic phosphorylation of Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 heptad-repeats in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit coordinates progression of RNA polymerase (Pol) II through the transcription cycle. Here, we describe an M phase-specific form of Pol II phosphorylated at Thr4, but not at Tyr1, Ser2, Ser5, and Ser7 residues. Thr4 phosphorylated Pol II binds to centrosomes and midbody and interacts with the Thr4-specific Polo-like kinase 1. Binding of Pol II to centrosomes does not require the CTD but may involve subunits of the non-canonical R2TP-Prefoldin-like complex, which bind to and co-localize with Pol II at centrosomes. CTD Thr4 mutants, but not Ser2 and Ser5 mutants, display severe mitosis and cytokinesis defects characterized by multipolar spindles and polyploid cells. We conclude that proper M phase progression of cells requires binding of Pol II to centrosomes to facilitate regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis in a CTD Thr4-P dependent manner. PMID:27264542

  6. Mass spectrometry and biochemical analysis of RNA polymerase II: targeting by protein phosphatase-1

    PubMed Central

    Jerebtsova, Marina; Klotchenko, Sergei A.; Artamonova, Tatiana O.; Ammosova, Tatiana; Washington, Kareem; Egorov, Vladimir V.; Shaldzhyan, Aram A.; Sergeeva, Maria V.; Zatulovskiy, Evgeny A.; Temkina, Olga A.; Petukhov, Mikhail G.; Vasin, Andrei V.; Khodorkovskii, Mikhail A.; Orlov, Yuri N.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription of eukaryotic genes is regulated by phosphorylation of serine residues of heptapeptide repeats of the carboxyterminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). We previously reported that protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) dephosphorylates RNAPII CTD in vitro and inhibition of nuclear PP1-blocked viral transcription. In this article, we analyzed the targeting of RNAPII by PP1 using biochemical and mass spectrometry analysis of RNAPII-associated regulatory subunits of PP1. Immunoblotting showed that PP1 co-elutes with RNAPII. Mass spectrometry approach showed the presence of U2 snRNP. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis points to NIPP1 and PNUTS as candidate regulatory subunits. Because NIPP1 was previously shown to target PP1 to U2 snRNP, we analyzed the effect of NIPP1 on RNAPII phosphorylation in cultured cells. Expression of mutant NIPP1 promoted RNAPII phosphorylation suggesting that the deregulation of cellular NIPP1/PP1 holoenzyme affects RNAPII phosphorylation and pointing to NIPP1 as a potential regulatory factor in RNAPII-mediated transcription. PMID:20941529

  7. The genome of AR9, a giant transducing Bacillus phage encoding two multisubunit RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Lavysh, Daria; Sokolova, Maria; Minakhin, Leonid; Yakunina, Maria; Artamonova, Tatjana; Kozyavkin, Sergei; Makarova, Kira S; Koonin, Eugene V; Severinov, Konstantin

    2016-08-01

    Bacteriophage AR9 and its close relative PBS1 have been extensively used to construct early Bacillus subtilis genetic maps. Here, we present the 251,042bp AR9 genome, a linear, terminally redundant double-stranded DNA containing deoxyuridine instead of thymine. Multiple AR9 genes are interrupted by non-coding sequences or sequences encoding putative endonucleases. We show that these sequences are group I and group II self-splicing introns. Eight AR9 proteins are homologous to fragments of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) subunits β/β'. These proteins comprise two sets of paralogs of RNAP largest subunits, with each paralog encoded by two disjoint phage genes. Thus, AR9 is a phiKZ-related giant phage that relies on two multisubunit viral RNAPs to transcribe its genome independently of host transcription apparatus. Purification of one of PBS1/AR9 RNAPs has been reported previously, which makes AR9 a promising object for further studies of RNAP evolution, assembly and mechanism. PMID:27236306

  8. RNA Polymerase II cluster dynamics predict mRNA output in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Ki; Jayanth, Namrata; English, Brian P; Inoue, Takuma; Andrews, J Owen; Conway, William; Grimm, Jonathan B; Spille, Jan-Hendrik; Lavis, Luke D; Lionnet, Timothée; Cisse, Ibrahim I

    2016-01-01

    Protein clustering is a hallmark of genome regulation in mammalian cells. However, the dynamic molecular processes involved make it difficult to correlate clustering with functional consequences in vivo. We developed a live-cell super-resolution approach to uncover the correlation between mRNA synthesis and the dynamics of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) clusters at a gene locus. For endogenous β-actin genes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we observe that short-lived (~8 s) Pol II clusters correlate with basal mRNA output. During serum stimulation, a stereotyped increase in Pol II cluster lifetime correlates with a proportionate increase in the number of mRNAs synthesized. Our findings suggest that transient clustering of Pol II may constitute a pre-transcriptional regulatory event that predictably modulates nascent mRNA output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13617.001 PMID:27138339

  9. RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases of Picornaviruses: From the Structure to Regulatory Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Orta, Cristina; Ferrero, Diego; Verdaguer, Núria

    2015-01-01

    RNA viruses typically encode their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to ensure genome replication within the infected cells. RdRP function is critical not only for the virus life cycle but also for its adaptive potential. The combination of low fidelity of replication and the absence of proofreading and excision activities within the RdRPs result in high mutation frequencies that allow these viruses a rapid adaptation to changing environments. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about structural and functional aspects on RdRP catalytic complexes, focused mainly in the Picornaviridae family. The structural data currently available from these viruses provided high-resolution snapshots for a range of conformational states associated to RNA template-primer binding, rNTP recognition, catalysis and chain translocation. As these enzymes are major targets for the development of antiviral compounds, such structural information is essential for the design of new therapies. PMID:26258787

  10. RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases of Picornaviruses: From the Structure to Regulatory Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Orta, Cristina; Ferrero, Diego; Verdaguer, Núria

    2015-08-01

    RNA viruses typically encode their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to ensure genome replication within the infected cells. RdRP function is critical not only for the virus life cycle but also for its adaptive potential. The combination of low fidelity of replication and the absence of proofreading and excision activities within the RdRPs result in high mutation frequencies that allow these viruses a rapid adaptation to changing environments. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about structural and functional aspects on RdRP catalytic complexes, focused mainly in the Picornaviridae family. The structural data currently available from these viruses provided high-resolution snapshots for a range of conformational states associated to RNA template-primer binding, rNTP recognition, catalysis and chain translocation. As these enzymes are major targets for the development of antiviral compounds, such structural information is essential for the design of new therapies. PMID:26258787

  11. Identifying a Core RNA Polymerase Surface Critical for Interactions with a Sigma-Like Specificity Factor

    PubMed Central

    Cliften, Paul F.; Jang, Sei-Heon; Jaehning, Judith A.

    2000-01-01

    Cyclic interactions occurring between a core RNA polymerase (RNAP) and its initiation factors are critical for transcription initiation, but little is known about subunit interaction. In this work we have identified regions of the single-subunit yeast mitochondrial RNAP (Rpo41p) important for interaction with its sigma-like specificity factor (Mtf1p). Previously we found that the whole folded structure of both polypeptides as well as specific amino acids in at least three regions of Mtf1p are required for interaction. In this work we started with an interaction-defective point mutant in Mtf1p (V135A) and used a two-hybrid selection to isolate suppressing mutations in the core polymerase. We identified suppressors in three separate regions of the RNAP which, when modeled on the structure of the closely related phage T7 RNAP, appear to lie on one surface of the protein. Additional point mutations and biochemical assays were used to confirm the importance of each region for Rpo41p-Mtf1p interactions. Remarkably, two of the three suppressors are found in regions required by T7 RNAP for DNA sequence recognition and promoter melting. Although these essential regions of the phage RNAP are poorly conserved with the mitochondrial RNAPs, they are conserved among the mitochondrial enzymes. The organellar RNAPs appear to use this surface in an alternative way for interactions with their separate sigma-like specificity factor, which, like its bacterial counterpart, provides promoter recognition and DNA melting functions to the holoenzyme. PMID:10958696

  12. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli to RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkney, M; Hoggett, J G

    1988-01-01

    Fluorescence polarization studies were used to study the interaction of a fluorescein-labelled conjugate of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (F-CRP) and RNA polymerase. Under conditions of physiological ionic strength, F-CRP binds to RNA polymerase holoenzyme in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner; the dissociation constant was about 3 microM in the presence of cyclic AMP and about 100 microM in its absence. Binding to core RNA polymerase under the same conditions was weak (Kdiss. approx. 80-100 microM) and independent of cyclic AMP. Competition experiments established that native CRP and F-CRP compete for the same binding site on RNA polymerase holoenzyme and that the native protein binds about 3 times more strongly than does F-CRP. Analytical ultracentrifuge studies showed that CRP binds predominantly to the monomeric rather than the dimeric form of RNA polymerase. PMID:2839152

  13. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli to RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, M; Hoggett, J G

    1988-03-15

    Fluorescence polarization studies were used to study the interaction of a fluorescein-labelled conjugate of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (F-CRP) and RNA polymerase. Under conditions of physiological ionic strength, F-CRP binds to RNA polymerase holoenzyme in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner; the dissociation constant was about 3 microM in the presence of cyclic AMP and about 100 microM in its absence. Binding to core RNA polymerase under the same conditions was weak (Kdiss. approx. 80-100 microM) and independent of cyclic AMP. Competition experiments established that native CRP and F-CRP compete for the same binding site on RNA polymerase holoenzyme and that the native protein binds about 3 times more strongly than does F-CRP. Analytical ultracentrifuge studies showed that CRP binds predominantly to the monomeric rather than the dimeric form of RNA polymerase. PMID:2839152

  14. MYC Regulation of Cell Growth through Control of Transcription by RNA Polymerases I and III

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Kirsteen J.; White, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    MYC’s tumorigenic potential involves increased ribosome biogenesis and translational capacity, which supply the cell with protein required for enhanced cell growth and subsequent cell division. In addition to activation of protein-encoding genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, MYC must stimulate transcription by RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III to meet this synthetic demand. In the past decade our knowledge of the mechanisms and importance of MYC regulation of RNA polymerases I and III has flourished. Here we discuss MYC’s influence on transcription by these “odd” RNA polymerases and the physiological impact of this regulation is evaluated with relevance to cancer development and treatment. PMID:24789877

  15. Sites and roles of phosphorylation of the human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase subunit UL44

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Laurie A.; Strang, Blair L.; Lin, Eric W.; Kamil, Jeremy P.; Coen, Donald M.

    2011-09-01

    The human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase subunit UL44 is a phosphoprotein, but its sites and roles of phosphorylation have not been investigated. We compared sites of phosphorylation of UL44 in vitro by the viral protein kinase UL97 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 with those in infected cells. Transient treatment of infected cells with a UL97 inhibitor greatly reduced labeling of two minor UL44 phosphopeptides. Viruses containing alanine substitutions of most UL44 residues that are phosphorylated in infected cells exhibited at most modest effects on viral DNA synthesis and yield. However, substitution of highly phosphorylated sites adjacent to the nuclear localization signal abolished viral replication. The results taken together are consistent with UL44 being phosphorylated directly by UL97 during infection, and a crucial role for phosphorylation-mediated nuclear localization of UL44 for viral replication, but lend little support to the widely held hypothesis that UL97-mediated phosphorylation of UL44 is crucial for viral DNA synthesis.

  16. RNA polymerase III-specific general transcription factor IIIC contains a heterodimer resembling TFIIF Rap30/Rap74

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Nicholas M. I.; Baudin, Florence; von Scheven, Gudrun; Müller, Christoph W.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription of tRNA-encoding genes by RNA polymerase (Pol) III requires the six-subunit general transcription factor IIIC that uses subcomplexes τA and τB to recognize two gene-internal promoter elements named A- and B-box. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe τA subcomplex comprises subunits Sfc1, Sfc4 and Sfc7. The crystal structure of the Sfc1/Sfc7 heterodimer reveals similar domains and overall domain architecture to the Pol II-specific general transcription factor TFIIF Rap30/Rap74. The N-terminal Sfc1/Sfc7 dimerization module consists of a triple β-barrel similar to the N-terminal TFIIF Rap30/Rap74 dimerization module, whereas the C-terminal Sfc1 DNA-binding domain contains a winged-helix domain most similar to the TFIIF Rap30 C-terminal winged-helix domain. Sfc1 DNA-binding domain recognizes single and double-stranded DNA by an unknown mechanism. Several features observed for A-box recognition by τA resemble the recognition of promoters by bacterial RNA polymerase, where σ factor unfolds double-stranded DNA and stabilizes the non-coding DNA strand in an open conformation. Such a function has also been proposed for TFIIF, suggesting that the observed structural similarity between Sfc1/Sfc7 and TFIIF Rap30/Rap74 might also reflect similar functions. PMID:23921640

  17. Transcriptional organization and in vivo role of the Escherichia coli rsd gene, encoding the regulator of RNA polymerase sigma D.

    PubMed

    Jishage, M; Ishihama, A

    1999-06-01

    The regulator of sigma D (Rsd) was identified as an RNA polymerase sigma70-associated protein in stationary-phase Escherichia coli with the inhibitory activity of sigma70-dependent transcription in vitro (M. Jishage and A. Ishihama, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:4953-4958, 1998). Primer extension analysis of rsd mRNA indicated the presence of two promoters, sigmaS-dependent P1 and sigma70-dependent P2 with the gearbox sequence. To get insight into the in vivo role of Rsd, the expression of a reporter gene fused to either the sigma70- or sigmaS-dependent promoter was analyzed in the absence of Rsd or the presence of overexpressed Rsd. In the rsd null mutant, the sigma70- and sigmaS-dependent gene expression was increased or decreased, respectively. On the other hand, the sigma70- or sigmaS-dependent transcription was reduced or enhanced, respectively, after overexpression of Rsd. The repression of the sigmaS-dependent transcription in the rsd mutant is overcome by increased production of the sigmaS subunit. Together these observations support the prediction that Rsd is involved in replacement of the RNA polymerase sigma subunit from sigma70 to sigmaS during the transition from exponential growth to the stationary phase. PMID:10368152

  18. Differential regulation of RNA polymerases I, II, and III by the TBP-binding repressor Dr1.

    PubMed

    White, R J; Khoo, B C; Inostroza, J A; Reinberg, D; Jackson, S P

    1994-10-21

    RNA polymerases I, II, and III each use the TATA-binding protein (TBP). Regulators that target this shared factor may therefore provide a means to coordinate the activities of the three nuclear RNA polymerases. The repressor Dr1 binds to TBP and blocks the interaction of TBP with polymerase II- and polymerase III-specific factors. This enables Dr1 to coordinately regulate transcription by RNA polymerases II and III. Under the same conditions, Dr1 does not inhibit polymerase I transcription. By selectively repressing polymerases II and III, Dr1 may shift the physiological balance of transcriptional output in favor of polymerase I. PMID:7939686

  19. Contributions of in vitro transcription to the understanding of human RNA polymerase III transcription

    PubMed Central

    Dumay-Odelot, Hélène; Durrieu-Gaillard, Stéphanie; El Ayoubi, Leyla; Parrot, Camila; Teichmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Human RNA polymerase III transcribes small untranslated RNAs that contribute to the regulation of essential cellular processes, including transcription, RNA processing and translation. Analysis of this transcription system by in vitro transcription techniques has largely contributed to the discovery of its transcription factors and to the understanding of the regulation of human RNA polymerase III transcription. Here we review some of the key steps that led to the identification of transcription factors and to the definition of minimal promoter sequences for human RNA polymerase III transcription. PMID:25764111

  20. Phosphorylation of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and its role in replication of a plus-strand RNA virus.

    PubMed

    Jakubiec, Anna; Tournier, Vincent; Drugeon, Gabrièle; Pflieger, Stéphanie; Camborde, Laurent; Vinh, Joëlle; Héricourt, François; Redeker, Virginie; Jupin, Isabelle

    2006-07-28

    Central to the process of plus-strand RNA virus genome amplification is the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Understanding its regulation is of great importance given its essential function in viral replication and the common architecture and catalytic mechanism of polymerases. Here we show that Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) RdRp is phosphorylated, when expressed both individually and in the context of viral infection. Using a comprehensive biochemical approach, including metabolic labeling and mass spectrometry analyses, phosphorylation sites were mapped within an N-terminal PEST sequence and within the highly conserved palm subdomain of RNA polymerases. Systematic mutational analysis of the corresponding residues in a reverse genetic system demonstrated their importance for TYMV infectivity. Upon mutation of the phosphorylation sites, distinct steps of the viral cycle appeared affected, but in contrast to other plus-strand RNA viruses, the interaction between viral replication proteins was unaltered. Our results also highlighted the role of another TYMV-encoded replication protein as an antagonistic protein that may prevent the inhibitory effect of RdRp phosphorylation on viral infectivity. Based on these data, we propose that phosphorylation-dependent regulatory mechanisms are essential for viral RdRp function and virus replication. PMID:16717096

  1. Rsp5 WW domains interact directly with the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Chang, A; Cheang, S; Espanel, X; Sudol, M

    2000-07-01

    RSP5 is an essential gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was recently shown to form a physical and functional complex with RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II). The amino-terminal half of Rsp5 consists of four domains: a C2 domain, which binds membrane phospholipids; and three WW domains, which are protein interaction modules that bind proline-rich ligands. The carboxyl-terminal half of Rsp5 contains a HECT (homologous to E6-AP carboxyl terminus) domain that catalytically ligates ubiquitin to proteins and functionally classifies Rsp5 as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. The C2 and WW domains are presumed to act as membrane localization and substrate recognition modules, respectively. We report that the second (and possibly third) Rsp5 WW domain mediates binding to the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the RNA pol II large subunit. The CTD comprises a heptamer (YSPTSPS) repeated 26 times and a PXY core that is critical for interaction with a specific group of WW domains. An analysis of synthetic peptides revealed a minimal CTD sequence that is sufficient to bind to the second Rsp5 WW domain (Rsp5 WW2) in vitro and in yeast two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, we found that specific "imperfect" CTD repeats can form a complex with Rsp5 WW2. In addition, we have shown that phosphorylation of this minimal CTD sequence on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues acts as a negative regulator of the Rsp5 WW2-CTD interaction. In view of the recent data pertaining to phosphorylation-driven interactions between the RNA pol II CTD and the WW domain of Ess1/Pin1, we suggest that CTD dephosphorylation may be a prerequisite for targeted RNA pol II degradation. PMID:10781604

  2. Isolation of a soluble and template-dependent poliovirus RNA polymerase that copies virion RNA in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Flanegan, J B; Van Dyke, T A

    1979-01-01

    A soluble RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was isolated from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells and was shown to copy poliovirus RNA in vitro. The enzyme was purified from a 200,000-X-g supernatant of a cytoplasmic extract of infected cells. The activity of the enzyme was measured throughout the purification by using a polyadenylic acid template and oligouridylic acid primer. The enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, glycerol gradient centrifugation, and phosphocellulose chromatography. The polymerase precipitated in a 35% saturated solution of ammonium sulfate, sedimented at about 7S on a glycerol gradient, and eluted from phosphocellulose with 0.15 M KC1. The polymerase was purified about 40-fold and was shown to be totally dependent on exogenous RNA for activity and relatively free of contaminating nuclease. The partially purified polymerase was able to use purified polio virion RNA as well as a template. Under the reaction conditions used, the polymerase required an oligouridylic acid primer and all four ribonucleside triphosphates for activity. The optimum ratio of oligouridylic acid molecules to poliovirus RNA molecules for priming activity was about 16:1. A nearest-neighbor analysis of the in vitro RNA product shows it to be heteropolymeric. Annealing the in vitro product with poliovirus RNA product shows it to be heteropolymeric. Annealing the in vitro product with poliovirus RNA rendered it resistant to RNase digestion, thus suggesting that the product RNA was complementary to the virion RNA template. PMID:232168

  3. Genome-Wide Mapping of Yeast RNA Polymerase II Termination

    PubMed Central

    Schaughency, Paul; Merran, Jonathan; Corden, Jeffry L.

    2014-01-01

    Yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) terminates transcription of coding transcripts through the polyadenylation (pA) pathway and non-coding transcripts through the non-polyadenylation (non-pA) pathway. We have used PAR-CLIP to map the position of Pol II genome-wide in living yeast cells after depletion of components of either the pA or non-pA termination complexes. We show here that Ysh1, responsible for cleavage at the pA site, is required for efficient removal of Pol II from the template. Depletion of Ysh1 from the nucleus does not, however, lead to readthrough transcription. In contrast, depletion of the termination factor Nrd1 leads to widespread runaway elongation of non-pA transcripts. Depletion of Sen1 also leads to readthrough at non-pA terminators, but in contrast to Nrd1, this readthrough is less processive, or more susceptible to pausing. The data presented here provide delineation of in vivo Pol II termination regions and highlight differences in the sequences that signal termination of different classes of non-pA transcripts. PMID:25299594

  4. Genetic interaction between transcription elongation factor TFIIS and RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, J; Lacroute, F; Ruet, A; Friesen, J D

    1992-01-01

    Little is known about the regions of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) that are involved in the process of transcript elongation and interaction with elongation factors. One elongation factor, TFIIS, stimulates transcript elongation by binding to RNAPII and facilitating its passage through intrinsic pausing sites in vitro. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TFIIS is encoded by the PPR2 gene. Deletion of PPR2 from the yeast genome is not lethal but renders cells sensitive to the uracil analog 6-azauracil (6AU). Here, we show that mutations conferring 6AU sensitivity can also be isolated in the gene encoding the largest subunit of S. cerevisiae RNAPII (RPO21). A screen for mutations in RPO21 that confer 6AU sensitivity identified seven mutations that had been generated by either linker-insertion or random chemical mutagenesis. All seven mutational alterations are clustered within one region of the largest subunit that is conserved among eukaryotic RNAPII. The finding that six of the seven rpo21 mutants failed to grow at elevated temperature underscores the importance of this region for the functional and/or structural integrity of RNAPII. We found that the 6AU sensitivity of the rpo21 mutants can be suppressed by increasing the dosage of the wild-type PPR2 gene, presumably as a result of overexpression of TFIIS. These results are consistent with the proposal that in the rpo21 mutants, the formation of the RNAPII-TFIIS complex is rate limiting for the passage of the mutant enzyme through pausing sites. In addition to implicating a region of the largest subunit of RNAPII in the process of transcript elongation, our observations provide in vivo evidence that TFIIS is involved in transcription by RNAPII. Images PMID:1508210

  5. The RNA polymerase bridge helix YFI motif in catalysis, fidelity and translocation

    PubMed Central

    Nedialkov, Yuri A.; Opron, Kristopher; Assaf, Fadi; Artsimovitch, Irina; Kireeva, Maria L.; Kashlev, Mikhail; Cukier, Robert I.; Nudler, Evgeny; Burton, Zachary F.

    2013-01-01

    The bridge α-helix in the β′ subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP) borders the active site and may have roles in catalysis and translocation. In Escherichia coli RNAP, a bulky hydrophobic segment near the N-terminal end of the bridge helix is identified (β′ 772-YFI-774; the YFI motif). YFI is located at a distance from the active center and adjacent to a glycine hinge (β′ 778-GARKG-782) involved in dynamic bending of the bridge helix. Remarkably, amino acid substitutions in YFI significantly alter intrinsic termination, pausing, fidelity and translocation of RNAP. F773V RNAP largely ignores the λ tR2 terminator at 200 µM NTPs and is strongly reduced in λ tR2 recognition at 1 µM NTPs. F773V alters RNAP pausing and backtracking and favors misincorporation. By contrast, the adjacent Y772A substitution increases fidelity and exhibits other transcriptional defects generally opposite to those of F773V. All atom molecular dynamics simulation revealed two separate functional connections emanating from YFI explaining the distinct effects of substitutions: Y772 communicates with the active site through the link domain in the β subunit, whereas F773 communicates through the fork domain in the β subunit. I774 interacts with the F-loop, which also contacts the glycine hinge of the bridge helix. These results identified negative and positive circuits coupled at YFI and employed for regulation of catalysis, elongation, termination and translocation. PMID:23202476

  6. Activation of the catBCA promoter: probing the interaction of CatR and RNA polymerase through in vitro transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Chugani, S A; Parsek, M R; Hershberger, C D; Murakami, K; Ishihama, A; Chakrabarty, A M

    1997-01-01

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida is capable of degrading many aromatic compounds, including benzoate, through catechol as an intermediate. The catabolism of catechol is mediated by the catBCA operon, whose induction requires the pathway intermediate cis,cis-muconate as an inducer and the regulatory protein, CatR. CatR also regulates the plasmid-borne pheBA operon of P. putida PaW85, which is involved in phenol catabolism. We have used an in vitro transcription system to study the roles of CatR, cis,cis-muconate, Escherichia coli RNA polymerase, and promoter sequences in expression of the cat and phe operons. The assay confirmed the requirement of both CatR and cis,cis-muconate for transcript formation. We also examined the in vitro transcription of three site-directed mutants of the catBCA promoter; the results obtained compared favorably with previous in vivo data. The requirement of the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase for expression of the catBCA and the pheBA transcripts was also examined. The C-terminal region of the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase has been implicated in direct protein-protein contact with transcriptional regulatory proteins and/or direct contact with the DNA. We show that the carboxyl terminus of the alpha subunit is required for the expression of the catBCA and the pheBA operons because RNA polymerases with truncated alpha subunits were deficient in activation. Further experiments demonstrated the arginine at position 265 and the asparagine at position 268 of the alpha subunit as possible amino acids involved in activation. On the basis of these and previous results, we propose a model to explain the interaction of the different regulatory components leading to CatR-dependent activation of the catBCA operon. PMID:9079907

  7. Lineage-specific variations in the trigger loop modulate RNA proofreading by bacterial RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Esyunina, Daria; Turtola, Matti; Pupov, Danil; Bass, Irina; Klimašauskas, Saulius; Belogurov, Georgiy; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    RNA cleavage by bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) has been implicated in transcriptional proofreading and reactivation of arrested transcription elongation complexes but its molecular mechanism is less understood than the mechanism of nucleotide addition, despite both reactions taking place in the same active site. RNAP from the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is characterized by highly efficient intrinsic RNA cleavage in comparison with Escherichia coli RNAP. We find that the enhanced RNA cleavage activity largely derives from amino acid substitutions in the trigger loop (TL), a mobile element of the active site involved in various RNAP activities. The differences in RNA cleavage between these RNAPs disappear when the TL is deleted, or in the presence of GreA cleavage factors, which replace the TL in the active site. We propose that the TL substitutions modulate the RNA cleavage activity by altering the TL folding and its contacts with substrate RNA and that the resulting differences in transcriptional proofreading may play a role in bacterial stress adaptation. PMID:26733581

  8. Characterization of novel hepadnaviral RNA species accumulated in hepatoma cells treated with viral DNA polymerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pinghu; Liu, Fei; Guo, Fang; Zhao, Qiong; Chang, Jinhong; Guo, Ju-Tao

    2016-07-01

    Inhibitors of hepadnaviral DNA polymerases are predicted to inhibit both minus and plus strand of viral DNA synthesis and arrest viral DNA replication at the stage of pregenomic (pg) RNA-containing nucleocapsids. However, analyses of the RNA species of human and duck hepatitis B viruses (HBV and DHBV, respectively) in hepatoma cells treated with viral DNA polymerase inhibitors revealed the genesis of novel RNA species migrating slightly faster than the full-length pgRNA. The DNA polymerase inhibitor-induced accumulation of these RNA species were abolished in the presence of alpha-interferon or HBV nucleocapsid assembly inhibitors. Moreover, they were protected from microccocal nuclease digestion and devoid of a poly-A tail. These characteristics suggest that the novel RNA species are most likely generated from RNase H cleavage of encapsidated pgRNA, after primer translocation and synthesis of the 5' terminal portion of minus strand DNA. In support of this hypothesis, DNA polymerase inhibitor treatment of chicken hepatoma cells transfected with a DHBV genome encoding an RNase H inactive DNA polymerase (E696H) failed to produce such RNA species. Our results thus suggest that the currently available DNA polymerase inhibitors do not efficiently arrest minus strand DNA synthesis at the early stage in hepatocytes. Hence, development of novel antiviral agents that more potently suppress viral DNA synthesis or viral nucleocapsid assembly inhibitors that are mechanistically complementary to the currently available DNA polymerase inhibitors are warranted. PMID:27083116

  9. Expression of GABA A receptor alpha1 subunit mRNA and protein in rat neocortex following photothrombotic infarction.

    PubMed

    Kharlamov, Elena A; Downey, Kathy L; Jukkola, Peter I; Grayson, Dennis R; Kelly, Kevin M

    2008-05-19

    Photothrombotic infarcts of the neocortex result in structural and functional alterations of cortical networks, including decreased GABAergic inhibition, and can generate epileptic seizures within 1 month of lesioning. In our study, we assessed the involvement and potential changes of cortical GABA A receptor (GABA AR) alpha1 subunits at 1, 3, 7, and 30 days after photothrombosis. Quantitative competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) and semi-quantitative Western blot analysis were used to investigate GABA AR alpha1 subunit mRNA and protein levels in proximal and distal regions of perilesional cortex and in homotopic areas of young adult Sprague-Dawley rats. GABA AR alpha1 subunit mRNA levels were decreased ipsilateral and contralateral to the infarct at 7 days, but were increased bilaterally at 30 days. GABA AR alpha1 subunit protein levels revealed no significant change in neocortical areas of both hemispheres of lesioned animals compared with protein levels of sham-operated controls at 1, 3, 7, and 30 days. At 30 days, GABA AR alpha1 subunit protein expression was significantly increased in lesioned animals within proximal and distal regions of perilesional cortex compared with distal neocortical areas contralaterally (Student's t-test, p<0.05). Short- and long-term alterations of mRNA and protein levels of the GABA AR alpha1 subunit ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion may influence alterations in cell surface receptor subtype expression and GABA AR function following ischemic infarction and may be associated with formative mechanisms of poststroke epileptogenesis. PMID:18407248

  10. Cloning of the cDNAs for the small subunits of bovine and human DNA polymerase {delta} and chromosomal location of the human gene (POLD2)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Tan, Cheng-Keat; Downey, K.M.

    1995-09-01

    cDNAs encoding the small subunit of bovine and human DNA polymerase {delta} have been cloned and sequenced. The predicted polypeptides, 50,885 and 51,289 Daltons, respectively, are 94% identical, similar to the catalytic subunits. The high degree of conservation of the polypeptides suggests an essential function for the small subunit in the heterodimeric core enzyme. Although the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase 5 shares significant homology with those of the herpes virus family of DNA polymerases, the small subunit of mammalian DNA polymerase 6 is not homologous to the small subunit of either herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA polymerase (UL42 protein) or the Epstein-Barr virus DNA polymerase (BMRF1 protein). Searches of the protein databases failed to detect significant homology with any protein sequenced thus far. PCR analysis of DNA from a panel of human-hamster hybrid cell lines localized the gene (POLD2) for the small subunit of DNA polymerase 5 to human chromosome 7. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. RNA polymerase pausing regulates translation initiation by providing additional time for TRAP-RNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Yakhnin, Alexander V; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul

    2006-11-17

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) pause sites have been identified in several prokaryotic genes. Although the presumed biological function of RNAP pausing is to allow synchronization of RNAP position with regulatory factor binding and/or RNA folding, a direct causal link between pausing and changes in gene expression has been difficult to establish. RNAP pauses at two sites in the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon leader. Pausing at U107 and U144 participates in transcription attenuation and trpE translation control mechanisms, respectively. Substitution of U144 caused a substantial pausing defect in vitro and in vivo. These mutations led to increased trp operon expression that was suppressed by overproduction of TRAP, indicating that pausing at U144 provides additional time for TRAP to bind to the nascent transcript and promote formation of an RNA structure that blocks translation of trpE. These results establish that pausing is capable of playing a role in regulating translation in bacteria. PMID:17114058

  12. Specific initiation by RNA polymerase I in a whole-cell extract from yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, M C; Choe, S Y; Reeder, R H

    1991-01-01

    A protocol is described for making a soluble whole-cell extract from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that supports active and specific transcription initiation by RNA polymerases I, II, and III. Specific initiation by polymerase I decreases in high-density cultures, paralleling the decrease in abundance of the endogenous 35S rRNA precursor. This extract should be useful for studying the molecular mechanisms that regulate rRNA transcription in yeast. Images PMID:1992452

  13. Structural Analysis of Monomeric RNA-Dependent Polymerases: Evolutionary and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jácome, Rodrigo; Becerra, Arturo; Ponce de León, Samuel; Lazcano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of monomeric RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases of more than 20 different viruses are available in the Protein Data Bank. They all share the characteristic right-hand shape of DNA- and RNA polymerases formed by the fingers, palm and thumb subdomains, and, in many cases, “fingertips” that extend from the fingers towards the thumb subdomain, giving the viral enzyme a closed right-hand appearance. Six conserved structural motifs that contain key residues for the proper functioning of the enzyme have been identified in all these RNA-dependent polymerases. These enzymes share a two divalent metal-ion mechanism of polymerization in which two conserved aspartate residues coordinate the interactions with the metal ions to catalyze the nucleotidyl transfer reaction. The recent availability of crystal structures of polymerases of the Orthomyxoviridae and Bunyaviridae families allowed us to make pairwise comparisons of the tertiary structures of polymerases belonging to the four main RNA viral groups, which has led to a phylogenetic tree in which single-stranded negative RNA viral polymerases have been included for the first time. This has also allowed us to use a homology-based structural prediction approach to develop a general three-dimensional model of the Ebola virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Our model includes several of the conserved structural motifs and residues described in other viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that define the catalytic and highly conserved palm subdomain, as well as portions of the fingers and thumb subdomains. The results presented here help to understand the current use and apparent success of antivirals, i.e. Brincidofovir, Lamivudine and Favipiravir, originally aimed at other types of polymerases, to counteract the Ebola virus infection. PMID:26397100

  14. The Structure of Fcp1, an Essential RNA Polymerase II CTD Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.; Shuman, S.; Lima, C.D.

    2009-03-27

    Kinases and phosphatases regulate mRNA synthesis and processing by phosphorylating and dephosphorylating the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Fcp1 is an essential CTD phosphatase that preferentially hydrolyzes Ser2-PO{sub 4} of the tandem YSPTSPS CTD heptad array. Fcp1 crystal structures were captured at two stages of the reaction pathway: a Mg-BeF{sub 3} complex that mimics the aspartylphosphate intermediate and a Mg-AlF{sub 4}{sup -} complex that mimics the transition state of the hydrolysis step. Fcp1 is a Y-shaped protein composed of an acylphosphatase domain located at the base of a deep canyon formed by flanking modules that are missing from the small CTD phosphatase (SCP) clade: an Fcp1-specific helical domain and a C-terminal BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domain. The structure and mutational analysis reveals that Fcp1 and Scp1 (a Ser5-selective phosphatase) adopt different CTD-binding modes; we surmise the CTD threads through the Fcp1 canyon to access the active site.

  15. Transcription Start Site Scanning and the Requirement for ATP during Transcription Initiation by RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Fishburn, James; Galburt, Eric; Hahn, Steven

    2016-06-17

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase (Pol) II locates transcription start sites (TSS) at TATA-containing promoters by scanning sequences downstream from the site of preinitiation complex formation, a process that involves the translocation of downstream promoter DNA toward Pol II. To investigate a potential role of yeast Pol II transcription in TSS scanning, HIS4 promoter derivatives were generated that limited transcripts in the 30-bp scanned region to two nucleotides in length. Although we found that TSS scanning does not require RNA synthesis, our results revealed that transcription in the purified yeast basal system is largely ATP-independent despite a requirement for the TFIIH DNA translocase subunit Ssl2. This result is rationalized by our finding that, although they are poorer substrates, UTP and GTP can also be utilized by Ssl2. ATPγS is a strong inhibitor of rNTP-fueled translocation, and high concentrations of ATPγS make transcription completely dependent on added dATP. Limiting Pol II function with low ATP concentrations shifted the TSS position downstream. Combined with prior work, our results show that Pol II transcription plays an important role in TSS selection but is not required for the scanning reaction. PMID:27129284

  16. Deuterium incorporation into Escherichia coli proteins. A neutron-scattering study of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Lederer, H; May, R P; Kjems, J K; Schaefer, W; Crespi, H L; Heumann, H

    1986-05-01

    Neutron small-angle scattering studies of single protein subunits in a protein-DNA complex require the adjustment of the neutron scattering-length densities of protein and DNA, which is attainable by specific deuteration of the protein. The neutron scattering densities of unlabelled DNA and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli match when RNA polymerase is isolated from cells grown in a medium containing 46% D2O and unlabelled glucose as carbon source. Their contrasts vanish simultaneously in a dialysis buffer containing 65% D2O. An expression was evaluated which allows the calculation of the degree of deuteration and match point of any E. coli protein from the D2O content of the growth medium, taking the 2H incorporation into RNA polymerase amino acids to be representative for all amino acids in E. coli proteins. The small-angle scattering results, on which the calculation of the degree of deuteration is based, were confirmed by mass spectrometric measurements. PMID:3516697

  17. Modifications of both selectivity factor and upstream binding factor contribute to poliovirus-mediated inhibition of RNA polymerase I transcription.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rajeev; Weidman, Mary K; Navarro, Sonia; Comai, Lucio; Dasgupta, Asim

    2005-08-01

    Soon after infection, poliovirus (PV) shuts off host-cell transcription, which is catalysed by all three cellular RNA polymerases. rRNA constitutes more than 50 % of all cellular RNA and is transcribed from rDNA by RNA polymerase I (pol I). Here, evidence has been provided suggesting that both pol I transcription factors, SL-1 (selectivity factor) and UBF (upstream binding factor), are modified and inactivated in PV-infected cells. The viral protease 3C(pro) appeared to cleave the TATA-binding protein-associated factor 110 (TAF(110)), a subunit of the SL-1 complex, into four fragments in vitro. In vitro protease-cleavage assays using various mutants of TAF(110) and purified 3C(pro) indicated that the Q(265)G(266) and Q(805)G(806) sites were cleaved by 3C(pro). Both SL-1 and UBF were depleted in PV-infected cells and their disappearance correlated with pol I transcription inhibition. rRNA synthesis from a template containing a human pol I promoter demonstrated that both SL-1 and UBF were necessary to restore pol I transcription fully in PV-infected cell extracts. These results suggested that both SL-1 and UBF are transcriptionally inactivated in PV-infected HeLa cells. PMID:16033979

  18. A Caenorhabditis Elegans RNA Polymerase II Gene, Ama-1 Iv, and Nearby Essential Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, T. M.; Riddle, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The amanitin-binding subunit of RNA polymerase II in Caenorhabditis elegans is encoded by the ama-1 gene, located approximately 0.05 map unit to the right of dpy-13 IV. Using the amanitin-resistant ama-1(m118) strain as a parent, we have isolated amanitin-sensitive mutants that carry recessive-lethal ama-1 alleles. Of the six ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutants examined, two are arrested late in embryogenesis. One of these is a large deficiency, mDf9, but the second may be a novel point mutation. The four other mutants are hypomorphs, and presumably produce altered RNA polymerase II enzymes with some residual function. Two of these mutants develop into sterile adults at 20° but are arrested as larvae at 25°, and two others are fertile at 20° and sterile at 25°. Temperature-shift experiments performed with the adult sterile mutant, ama-1(m118m238ts), have revealed a temperature-sensitive period that begins late in gonadogenesis and is centered around the initiation of egg-laying. Postembryonic development at 25° is slowed by 30%. By contrast, the amanitin-resistant allele of ama-1 has very little effect on developmental rate or fertility. We have identified 15 essential genes in an interval of 4.5 map units surrounding ama-1, as well as four γ-ray-induced deficiencies and two duplications that include the ama-1 gene. The larger duplication, mDp1, may include the entire left arm of chromosome IV, and it recombines with the normal homologue at a low frequency. The smallest deficiency, mDf10, complements all but three identified genes: let-278, dpy-13 and ama-1, which define an interval of only 0.1 map unit. The terminal phenotype of mDf10 homozygotes is developmental arrest during the first larval stage, suggesting that there is sufficient maternal RNA polymerase II to complete embryonic development. PMID:8608933

  19. Cutoff Suppresses RNA Polymerase II Termination to Ensure Expression of piRNA Precursors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chia Ariel; Stuwe, Evelyn; Luo, Yicheng; Ninova, Maria; Le Thomas, Adrien; Rozhavskaya, Ekaterina; Li, Sisi; Vempati, Sivani; Laver, John D; Patel, Dinshaw J; Smibert, Craig A; Lipshitz, Howard D; Fejes Toth, Katalin; Aravin, Alexei A

    2016-07-01

    Small non-coding RNAs called piRNAs serve as guides for an adaptable immune system that represses transposable elements in germ cells of Metazoa. In Drosophila the RDC complex, composed of Rhino, Deadlock and Cutoff (Cuff) bind chromatin of dual-strand piRNA clusters, special genomic regions, which encode piRNA precursors. The RDC complex is required for transcription of piRNA precursors, though the mechanism by which it licenses transcription remained unknown. Here, we show that Cuff prevents premature termination of RNA polymerase II. Cuff prevents cleavage of nascent RNA at poly(A) sites by interfering with recruitment of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) complex. Cuff also protects processed transcripts from degradation by the exonuclease Rat1. Our work reveals a conceptually different mechanism of transcriptional enhancement. In contrast to other factors that regulate termination by binding to specific signals on nascent RNA, the RDC complex inhibits termination in a chromatin-dependent and sequence-independent manner. PMID:27292797

  20. Ms1, a novel sRNA interacting with the RNA polymerase core in mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hnilicová, Jarmila; Jirát Matějčková, Jitka; Šiková, Michaela; Pospíšil, Jiří; Halada, Petr; Pánek, Josef; Krásný, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are molecules essential for a number of regulatory processes in the bacterial cell. Here we characterize Ms1, a sRNA that is highly expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis during stationary phase of growth. By glycerol gradient ultracentrifugation, RNA binding assay, and RNA co-immunoprecipitation, we show that Ms1 interacts with the RNA polymerase (RNAP) core that is free of the primary sigma factor (σA) or any other σ factor. This contrasts with the situation in most other species where it is 6S RNA that interacts with RNAP and this interaction requires the presence of σA. The difference in the interaction of the two types of sRNAs (Ms1 or 6S RNA) with RNAP possibly reflects the difference in the composition of the transcriptional machinery between mycobacteria and other species. Unlike Escherichia coli, stationary phase M. smegmatis cells contain relatively few RNAP molecules in complex with σA. Thus, Ms1 represents a novel type of small RNAs interacting with RNAP. PMID:25217589

  1. Inhibition of RNA binding to hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: a new mechanism for antiviral intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed-Belkacem, Abdelhakim; Guichou, Jean-François; Brillet, Rozenn; Ahnou, Nazim; Hernandez, Eva; Pallier, Coralie; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a key target for antiviral intervention. The goal of this study was to identify the binding site and unravel the molecular mechanism by which natural flavonoids efficiently inhibit HCV RdRp. Screening identified the flavonol quercetagetin as the most potent inhibitor of HCV RdRp activity. Quercetagetin was found to inhibit RdRp through inhibition of RNA binding to the viral polymerase, a yet unknown antiviral mechanism. X-ray crystallographic structure analysis of the RdRp-quercetagetin complex identified quercetagetin's binding site at the entrance of the RNA template tunnel, confirming its original mode of action. This antiviral mechanism was associated with a high barrier to resistance in both site-directed mutagenesis and long-term selection experiments. In conclusion, we identified a new mechanism for non-nucleoside inhibition of HCV RdRp through inhibition of RNA binding to the enzyme, a mechanism associated with broad genotypic activity and a high barrier to resistance. Our results open the way to new antiviral approaches for HCV and other viruses that use an RdRp based on RNA binding inhibition, that could prove to be useful in human, animal or plant viral infections. PMID:25053847

  2. Episodic adaptive diversification of classical swine fever virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5B.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yang, Zexiao

    2015-12-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the pathogen that causes a highly infectious disease of pigs and has led to disastrous losses to pig farms and related industries. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) NS5B is a central component of the replicase complex (RC) in some single-stranded RNA viruses, including CSFV. On the basis of genetic variation, the CSFV RdRps could be clearly divided into 2 major groups and a minor group, which is consistent with the phylogenetic relationships and virulence diversification of the CSFV isolates. However, the adaptive signature underlying such an evolutionary profile of the polymerase and the virus is still an interesting open question. We analyzed the evolutionary trajectory of the CSFV RdRps over different timescales to evaluate the potential adaptation. We found that adaptive selection has driven the diversification of the RdRps between, but not within, CSFV major groups. Further, the major adaptive divergence-related sites are located in the surfaces relevant to the interaction with other component(s) of RC and the entrance and exit of the template-binding channel. These results might shed some light on the nature of the RdRp in virulence diversification of CSFV groups. PMID:26485449

  3. Upstream Binding of Idling RNA Polymerase Modulates Transcription Initiation from a Nearby Promoter*

    PubMed Central

    Gerganova, Veneta; Maurer, Sebastian; Stoliar, Liubov; Japaridze, Aleksandre; Dietler, Giovanni; Nasser, William; Kutateladze, Tamara; Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial gene regulatory regions often demonstrate distinctly organized arrays of RNA polymerase binding sites of ill-defined function. Previously we observed a module of closely spaced polymerase binding sites upstream of the canonical promoter of the Escherichia coli fis operon. FIS is an abundant nucleoid-associated protein involved in adjusting the chromosomal DNA topology to changing cellular physiology. Here we show that simultaneous binding of the polymerase at the canonical fis promoter and an upstream transcriptionally inactive site stabilizes a RNAP oligomeric complex in vitro. We further show that modulation of the upstream binding of RNA polymerase affects the fis promoter activity both in vivo and in vitro. The effect of the upstream RNA polymerase binding on the fis promoter activity depends on the spatial arrangement of polymerase binding sites and DNA supercoiling. Our data suggest that a specific DNA geometry of the nucleoprotein complex stabilized on concomitant binding of RNA polymerase molecules at the fis promoter and the upstream region acts as a topological device regulating the fis transcription. We propose that transcriptionally inactive RNA polymerase molecules can act as accessory factors regulating the transcription initiation from a nearby promoter. PMID:25648898

  4. Structure of the DNA-binding and RNA polymerase-binding region of transcription antitermination factor λQ

    PubMed Central

    Vorobiev, Sergey M.; Gensler, Yocheved; Vahedian-Movahed, Hanif; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Su, Min; Huang, Janet Y.; Xiao, Rong; Kornhaber, Gregory; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Tong, Liang; Ebright, Richard H.; Nickels, Bryce E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The bacteriophage λ Q protein is a transcription antitermination factor that controls expression of the phage late genes as a stable component of the transcription elongation complex. To join the elongation complex, λQ binds a specific DNA sequence element and interacts with RNA polymerase that is paused during early elongation. λQ’s interaction with the paused early elongation complex involves interactions between λQ and two regions of RNA polymerase: region 4 of the σ70 subunit and the flap domain of the β subunit. We present the 2.1 Å resolution crystal structure of a portion of λQ containing determinants for interaction with DNA, interaction with region 4 of σ70, and interaction with the β flap. The structure provides a framework for interpreting prior genetic and biochemical analysis and sets the stage for future structural studies to elucidate the mechanism by which λQ alters the functional properties of the transcription elongation complex. PMID:24440517

  5. Preparation of fluorinated RNA nucleotide analogs potentially stable to enzymatic hydrolysis in RNA and DNA polymerase assays

    PubMed Central

    Shakhmin, Anton; Jones, John-Paul; Bychinskaya, Inessa; Zibinsky, Mikhail; Oertell, Keriann; Goodman, Myron F.; Prakash, G.K. Surya

    2015-01-01

    Analogs of ribonucleotides (RNA) stable to enzymatic hydrolysis were prepared and characterized. Computational investigations revealed that this class of compounds with a modified triphosphate exhibits the correct polarity and minimal steric effects compared to the natural molecule. Non-hydrolysable properties as well as the ability of the modified nucleotide to be recognized by enzymes were probed by performing single-turnover gap filling assays with T7 RNA polymerase and DNA polymerase β. PMID:26279588

  6. Interaction of nucleolin with ribosomal RNA genes and its role in RNA polymerase I transcription

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Rong; Das, Sadhan; Ugrinova, Iva; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mongelard, Fabien; Wong, Jiemin; Bouvet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Nucleolin is a multi-functional nucleolar protein that is required for ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) transcription in vivo, but the mechanism by which nucleolin modulates RNA polymerase I (RNAPI) transcription is not well understood. Nucleolin depletion results in an increase in the heterochromatin mark H3K9me2 and a decrease in H4K12Ac and H3K4me3 euchromatin histone marks in rRNA genes. ChIP-seq experiments identified an enrichment of nucleolin in the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) coding and promoter region. Nucleolin is preferentially associated with unmethylated rRNA genes and its depletion leads to the accumulation of RNAPI at the beginning of the transcription unit and a decrease in UBF along the coding and promoter regions. Nucleolin is able to affect the binding of transcription termination factor-1 on the promoter-proximal terminator T0, thus inhibiting the recruitment of TIP5 and HDAC1 and the establishment of a repressive heterochromatin state. These results reveal the importance of nucleolin for the maintenance of the euchromatin state and transcription elongation of rDNA. PMID:22859736

  7. The RNA polymerase II of an alpha-amanitin-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line.

    PubMed

    Lobban, P E; Siminovitch, L; Ingles, C J

    1976-05-01

    Amal, an alpha-amanitin-resistant mutant of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line, contains an RNA polymerase activity which elutes from DEAE-Sephadex at a salt concentration characteristic of an RNA polymerase II, but which is not sensitive to alpha-amanitin at levels where the polymerase II of wild-type cells is strongly inhibited. This result suggests that Amal owes its amanitin-resistant phenotype to a mutation affecting one of its genes for RNA polymerase II. To test this hypothesis, we purified the enzyme from Amal and then compared its properties with those of the wild-type enzyme. The mutant enzyme is indeed a polymerase II, and is over 600 times less sensitive to alpha-amanitin and more thermolabile than the wild-type enzyme. PMID:954093

  8. The SAGA coactivator complex acts on the whole transcribed genome and is required for RNA polymerase II transcription

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Jacques; Wang, Chen-Yi; Baptista, Tiago; Vincent, Stéphane D.; Hsiao, Wei-Chun; Stierle, Matthieu; Kao, Cheng-Fu; Tora, László

    2014-01-01

    The SAGA (Spt–Ada–Gcn5 acetyltransferase) coactivator complex contains distinct chromatin-modifying activities and is recruited by DNA-bound activators to regulate the expression of a subset of genes. Surprisingly, recent studies revealed little overlap between genome-wide SAGA-binding profiles and changes in gene expression upon depletion of subunits of the complex. As indicators of SAGA recruitment on chromatin, we monitored in yeast and human cells the genome-wide distribution of histone H3K9 acetylation and H2B ubiquitination, which are respectively deposited or removed by SAGA. Changes in these modifications after inactivation of the corresponding enzyme revealed that SAGA acetylates the promoters and deubiquitinates the transcribed region of all expressed genes. In agreement with this broad distribution, we show that SAGA plays a critical role for RNA polymerase II recruitment at all expressed genes. In addition, through quantification of newly synthesized RNA, we demonstrated that SAGA inactivation induced a strong decrease of mRNA synthesis at all tested genes. Analysis of the SAGA deubiquitination activity further revealed that SAGA acts on the whole transcribed genome in a very fast manner, indicating a highly dynamic association of the complex with chromatin. Thus, our study uncovers a new function for SAGA as a bone fide cofactor for all RNA polymerase II transcription. PMID:25228644

  9. Relationships among the positive strand and double-strand RNA viruses as viewed through their RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed Central

    Bruenn, J A

    1991-01-01

    The sequences of 50 RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRPs) from 43 positive strand and 7 double strand RNA (dsRNA) viruses have been compared. The alignment permitted calculation of distances among the 50 viruses and a resultant dendrogram based on every amino acid, rather than just those amino acids in the conserved motifs. Remarkably, a large subgroup of these viruses, including vertebrate, plant, and insect viruses, forms a single cluster whose only common characteristic is exploitation of insect hosts or vectors. This similarity may be due to molecular constraints associated with a present and/or past ability to infect insects and/or to common descent from insect viruses. If common descent is important, as it appears to be, all the positive strand RNA viruses of eucaryotes except for the picornaviruses may have evolved from an ancestral dsRNA virus. Viral RDRPs appear to be inherited as modules rather than as portions of single RNA segments, implying that RNA recombination has played an important role in their dissemination. PMID:2014162

  10. Critical Function of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Putative Polyphosphate Polymerase Subunit during Nutrient Deprivation[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Munevver; Pootakham, Wirulda; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2014-01-01

    Forward genetics was used to isolate Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants with altered abilities to acclimate to sulfur (S) deficiency. The ars76 mutant has a deletion that eliminates several genes, including VACUOLAR TRANSPORTER CHAPERONE1 (VTC1), which encodes a component of a polyphosphate polymerase complex. The ars76 mutant cannot accumulate arylsulfatase protein or mRNA and shows marked alterations in levels of many transcripts encoded by genes induced during S deprivation. The mutant also shows little acidocalcisome formation compared with wild-type, S-deprived cells and dies more rapidly than wild-type cells following exposure to S-, phosphorus-, or nitrogen (N)-deficient conditions. Furthermore, the mutant does not accumulate periplasmic l-amino acid oxidase during N deprivation. Introduction of the VTC1 gene specifically complements the ars76 phenotypes, suggesting that normal acidocalcisome formation in cells deprived of S requires VTC1. Our data also indicate that a deficiency in acidocalcisome function impacts trafficking of periplasmic proteins, which can then feed back on the transcription of the genes encoding these proteins. These results and the reported function of vacuoles in degradation processes suggest a major role of the acidocalcisome in reshaping the cell during acclimation to changing environmental conditions. PMID:25281687

  11. Substitution of Ribonucleotides in the T7 RNA Polymerase Promoter Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2001-01-01

    A systematic analysis was carried out to examine the effects of ribonucleotide substitution at various locations within the promoter element for T7 RNA polymerase. Ribonucleotides could be introduced at most positions without significantly decreasing transcription efficiency. A critical window of residues that were intolerant of RNA substitution was defined for both the non-template and template strands of the promoter. These residues are involved in important contacts with the AT-rich recognition loop, specificity loop, and P-intercalating hairpin of the polymerase. These results highlight the malleability of T7 RNA polymerase in recognizing its promoter element and suggest that promoters with altered backbone conformations may be used in molecular biology applications that employ T7 RNA polymerase for in vitro transcription.

  12. Use of DNA, RNA, and Chimeric Templates by a Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase: Evolutionary Implications for the Transition from the RNA to the DNA World

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Robert W.; Bellon, Laurent; Beigelman, Leonid; Kao, C. Cheng

    1999-01-01

    All polynucleotide polymerases have a similar structure and mechanism of catalysis, consistent with their evolution from one progenitor polymerase. Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) are expected to have properties comparable to those from this progenitor and therefore may offer insight into the commonalities of all classes of polymerases. We examined RNA synthesis by the brome mosaic virus RdRp on DNA, RNA, and hybrid templates and found that precise initiation of RNA synthesis can take place from all of these templates. Furthermore, initiation can take place from either internal or penultimate initiation sites. Using a template competition assay, we found that the BMV RdRp interacts with DNA only three- to fourfold less well than it interacts with RNA. Moreover, a DNA molecule with a ribonucleotide at position −11 relative to the initiation nucleotide was able to interact with RdRp at levels comparable to that observed with RNA. These results suggest that relatively few conditions were needed for an ancestral RdRp to replicate DNA genomes. PMID:10400735

  13. Small molecule BMH-compounds that inhibit RNA polymerase I and cause nucleolar stress.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Karita; Colis, Laureen; Liu, Hester; Jäämaa, Sari; Zhang, Zhewei; Af Hällström, Taija; Moore, Henna M; Sirajuddin, Paul; Laiho, Marikki

    2014-11-01

    Activation of the p53 pathway has been considered a therapeutic strategy to target cancers. We have previously identified several p53-activating small molecules in a cell-based screen. Two of the compounds activated p53 by causing DNA damage, but this modality was absent in the other four. We recently showed that one of these, BMH-21, inhibits RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription, causes the degradation of Pol I catalytic subunit RPA194, and has potent anticancer activity. We show here that three remaining compounds in this screen, BMH-9, BMH-22, and BMH-23, cause reorganization of nucleolar marker proteins consistent with segregation of the nucleolus, a hallmark of Pol I transcription stress. Further, the compounds destabilize RPA194 in a proteasome-dependent manner and inhibit nascent rRNA synthesis and expression of the 45S rRNA precursor. BMH-9- and BMH-22-mediated nucleolar stress was detected in ex vivo-cultured human prostate tissues indicating good tissue bioactivity. Testing of closely related analogues showed that their activities were chemically constrained. Viability screen for BMH-9, BMH-22, and BMH-23 in the NCI60 cancer cell lines showed potent anticancer activity across many tumor types. Finally, we show that the Pol I transcription stress by BMH-9, BMH-22, and BMH-23 is independent of p53 function. These results highlight the dominant impact of Pol I transcription stress on p53 pathway activation and bring forward chemically novel lead molecules for Pol I inhibition, and, potentially, cancer targeting. PMID:25277384

  14. Subunit-selective mutagenesis indicates minimal polymerase activity in heterodimer-associated p51 HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Le Grice, S F; Naas, T; Wohlgensinger, B; Schatz, O

    1991-12-01

    We have purified and determined functional parameters of reconstituted, recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) heterodimers within which either the p66 or p51 polypeptide was selectively mutated in one or both aspartic acid residues constituting the proposed polymerase active site (-Y-M-D-D-). Heterodimers containing a mutated p51 polypeptide retain almost wild type levels of both RNA-dependent DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H (RNaseH) activity. In contrast, heterodimers whose p66 polypeptide was likewise mutated exhibit wild type RNaseH activity but are deficient in RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. These results indicate that in heterodimer RT, the p51 component cannot compensate for active site mutations eliminating the activity of p66, indirectly implying that solely the p66 aspartic acid residues of heterodimer are crucial for catalysis. PMID:1718745

  15. DNA polymerase-α regulates the activation of type I interferons through cytosolic RNA:DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Starokadomskyy, Petro; Gemelli, Terry; Rios, Jonathan J; Xing, Chao; Wang, Richard C; Li, Haiying; Pokatayev, Vladislav; Dozmorov, Igor; Khan, Shaheen; Miyata, Naoteru; Fraile, Guadalupe; Raj, Prithvi; Xu, Zhe; Xu, Zigang; Ma, Lin; Lin, Zhimiao; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Yong; Ben-Amitai, Dan; Orenstein, Naama; Mussaffi, Huda; Baselga, Eulalia; Tadini, Gianluca; Grunebaum, Eyal; Sarajlija, Adrijan; Krzewski, Konrad; Wakeland, Edward K; Yan, Nan; de la Morena, Maria Teresa; Zinn, Andrew R; Burstein, Ezra

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant nucleic acids generated during viral replication are the main trigger for antiviral immunity, and mutations that disrupt nucleic acid metabolism can lead to autoinflammatory disorders. Here we investigated the etiology of X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (XLPDR), a primary immunodeficiency with autoinflammatory features. We discovered that XLPDR is caused by an intronic mutation that disrupts the expression of POLA1, which encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase-α. Unexpectedly, POLA1 deficiency resulted in increased production of type I interferons. This enzyme is necessary for the synthesis of RNA:DNA primers during DNA replication and, strikingly, we found that POLA1 is also required for the synthesis of cytosolic RNA:DNA, which directly modulates interferon activation. Together this work identifies POLA1 as a critical regulator of the type I interferon response. PMID:27019227

  16. CMG helicase and DNA polymerase ε form a functional 15-subunit holoenzyme for eukaryotic leading-strand DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Langston, Lance D; Zhang, Dan; Yurieva, Olga; Georgescu, Roxana E; Finkelstein, Jeff; Yao, Nina Y; Indiani, Chiara; O'Donnell, Mike E

    2014-10-28

    DNA replication in eukaryotes is asymmetric, with separate DNA polymerases (Pol) dedicated to bulk synthesis of the leading and lagging strands. Pol α/primase initiates primers on both strands that are extended by Pol ε on the leading strand and by Pol δ on the lagging strand. The CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) helicase surrounds the leading strand and is proposed to recruit Pol ε for leading-strand synthesis, but to date a direct interaction between CMG and Pol ε has not been demonstrated. While purifying CMG helicase overexpressed in yeast, we detected a functional complex between CMG and native Pol ε. Using pure CMG and Pol ε, we reconstituted a stable 15-subunit CMG-Pol ε complex and showed that it is a functional polymerase-helicase on a model replication fork in vitro. On its own, the Pol2 catalytic subunit of Pol ε is inefficient in CMG-dependent replication, but addition of the Dpb2 protein subunit of Pol ε, known to bind the Psf1 protein subunit of CMG, allows stable synthesis with CMG. Dpb2 does not affect Pol δ function with CMG, and thus we propose that the connection between Dpb2 and CMG helps to stabilize Pol ε on the leading strand as part of a 15-subunit leading-strand holoenzyme we refer to as CMGE. Direct binding between Pol ε and CMG provides an explanation for specific targeting of Pol ε to the leading strand and provides clear mechanistic evidence for how strand asymmetry is maintained in eukaryotes. PMID:25313033

  17. Independent RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex dynamics and nucleosome turnover at promoter sites in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Yoselin; Ferrari, Paolo; Strubin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Transcription by all three eukaryotic RNA polymerases involves the assembly of a large preinitiation complex (PIC) at gene promoters. The PIC comprises several general transcription factors (GTFs), including TBP, and the respective RNA polymerase. It has been suggested that some GTFs remain stably bound at active promoters to facilitate multiple transcription events. Here we used two complementary approaches to show that, in G1-arrested yeast cells, TBP exchanges very rapidly even at the most highly active RNA Pol II promoters. A similar situation is observed at RNA Pol III promoters. In contrast, TBP remains stably bound at RNA Pol I promoters. We also provide evidence that, unexpectedly, PIC dynamics are neither the cause nor the consequence of nucleosome exchange at most of the RNA Pol II promoters we analyzed. These results point to a stable reinitiation complex at RNA Pol I promoters and suggest independent PIC and nucleosome turnover at many RNA Pol II promoters. PMID:24298073

  18. Complete architecture of the archaeal RNA polymerase open complex from single-molecule FRET and NPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Julia; Grohmann, Dina; Cheung, Alan C. M.; Schulz, Sarah; Smollett, Katherine; Werner, Finn; Michaelis, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The molecular architecture of RNAP II-like transcription initiation complexes remains opaque due to its conformational flexibility and size. Here we report the three-dimensional architecture of the complete open complex (OC) composed of the promoter DNA, TATA box-binding protein (TBP), transcription factor B (TFB), transcription factor E (TFE) and the 12-subunit RNA polymerase (RNAP) from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. By combining single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer and the Bayesian parameter estimation-based Nano-Positioning System analysis, we model the entire archaeal OC, which elucidates the path of the non-template DNA (ntDNA) strand and interaction sites of the transcription factors with the RNAP. Compared with models of the eukaryotic OC, the TATA DNA region with TBP and TFB is positioned closer to the surface of the RNAP, likely providing the mechanism by which DNA melting can occur in a minimal factor configuration, without the dedicated translocase/helicase encoding factor TFIIH.

  19. Complete architecture of the archaeal RNA polymerase open complex from single-molecule FRET and NPS.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Julia; Grohmann, Dina; Cheung, Alan C M; Schulz, Sarah; Smollett, Katherine; Werner, Finn; Michaelis, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The molecular architecture of RNAP II-like transcription initiation complexes remains opaque due to its conformational flexibility and size. Here we report the three-dimensional architecture of the complete open complex (OC) composed of the promoter DNA, TATA box-binding protein (TBP), transcription factor B (TFB), transcription factor E (TFE) and the 12-subunit RNA polymerase (RNAP) from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. By combining single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer and the Bayesian parameter estimation-based Nano-Positioning System analysis, we model the entire archaeal OC, which elucidates the path of the non-template DNA (ntDNA) strand and interaction sites of the transcription factors with the RNAP. Compared with models of the eukaryotic OC, the TATA DNA region with TBP and TFB is positioned closer to the surface of the RNAP, likely providing the mechanism by which DNA melting can occur in a minimal factor configuration, without the dedicated translocase/helicase encoding factor TFIIH. PMID:25635909

  20. A novel intermediate in transcription initiation by human mitochondrial RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Morozov, Yaroslav I.; Agaronyan, Karen; Cheung, Alan C. M.; Anikin, Michael; Cramer, Patrick; Temiakov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome is transcribed by a single-subunit T7 phage-like RNA polymerase (mtRNAP), structurally unrelated to cellular RNAPs. In higher eukaryotes, mtRNAP requires two transcription factors for efficient initiation—TFAM, a major nucleoid protein, and TFB2M, a transient component of mtRNAP catalytic site. The mechanisms behind assembly of the mitochondrial transcription machinery and its regulation are poorly understood. We isolated and identified a previously unknown human mitochondrial transcription intermediate—a pre-initiation complex that includes mtRNAP, TFAM and promoter DNA. Using protein–protein cross-linking, we demonstrate that human TFAM binds to the N-terminal domain of mtRNAP, which results in bending of the promoter DNA around mtRNAP. The subsequent recruitment of TFB2M induces promoter melting and formation of an open initiation complex. Our data indicate that the pre-initiation complex is likely to be an important target for transcription regulation and provide basis for further structural, biochemical and biophysical studies of mitochondrial transcription. PMID:24393772

  1. Mutant cohesin affects RNA polymerase II regulation in Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mannini, Linda; C. Lamaze, Fabien; Cucco, Francesco; Amato, Clelia; Quarantotti, Valentina; Rizzo, Ilaria M; Krantz, Ian D; Bilodeau, Steve; Musio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In addition to its role in sister chromatid cohesion, genome stability and integrity, the cohesin complex is involved in gene transcription. Mutations in core cohesin subunits SMC1A, SMC3 and RAD21, or their regulators NIPBL and HDAC8, cause Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). Recent evidence reveals that gene expression dysregulation could be the underlying mechanism for CdLS. These findings raise intriguing questions regarding the potential role of cohesin-mediated transcriptional control and pathogenesis. Here, we identified numerous dysregulated genes occupied by cohesin by combining the transcriptome of CdLS cell lines carrying mutations in SMC1A gene and ChIP-Seq data. Genome-wide analyses show that genes changing in expression are enriched for cohesin-binding. In addition, our results indicate that mutant cohesin impairs both RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription initiation at promoters and elongation in the gene body. These findings highlight the pivotal role of cohesin in transcriptional regulation and provide an explanation for the typical gene dysregulation observed in CdLS patients. PMID:26581180

  2. The RNA Polymerase II CTD: The Increasing Complexity of a Low-Complexity Protein Domain.

    PubMed

    Jeronimo, Célia; Collin, Pierre; Robert, François

    2016-06-19

    The largest subunit of RNA polymerase II contains a C-terminal domain (CTD) that plays key roles in coordinating transcription with co-transcriptional events. The heptapeptide repeats that form the CTD are dynamically phosphorylated on serine, tyrosine and threonine residues during the various steps of transcription, thereby regulating the recruitment of various proteins involved in gene expression. In this "Perspective," we review the recent literature related to the function of the CTD, to CTD kinases (Kin28, CDK7, CDK9, CDK12, ERK1/2 and DYRK1A) and to CTD phosphatases (Rtr1, RPAP2, Ssu72, Fcp1 and Gcl7). We discuss unresolved and controversial issues and try to provide constructive suggestions. This review also highlights emerging themes in the CTD field, such as crosstalk and feedback mechanisms, as well as gene-specific and tissue-specific functions of the CTD. Finally, promising therapeutic avenues for a recently developed CTD kinase inhibitor are discussed. PMID:26876604

  3. Repressor activity of the RpoS/σS-dependent RNA polymerase requires DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Lévi-Meyrueis, Corinne; Monteil, Véronique; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Kolb, Annie; Monot, Marc; Dupuy, Bruno; Duarte, Sara Serradas; Jagla, Bernd; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Beraud, Mélanie; Norel, Françoise

    2015-02-18

    The RpoS/σ(S) sigma subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP) activates transcription of stationary phase genes in many Gram-negative bacteria and controls adaptive functions, including stress resistance, biofilm formation and virulence. In this study, we address an important but poorly understood aspect of σ(S)-dependent control, that of a repressor. Negative regulation by σ(S) has been proposed to result largely from competition between σ(S) and other σ factors for binding to a limited amount of core RNAP (E). To assess whether σ(S) binding to E alone results in significant downregulation of gene expression by other σ factors, we characterized an rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium producing a σ(S) protein proficient for Eσ(S) complex formation but deficient in promoter DNA binding. Genome expression profiling and physiological assays revealed that this mutant was defective for negative regulation, indicating that gene repression by σ(S) requires its binding to DNA. Although the mechanisms of repression by σ(S) are likely specific to individual genes and environmental conditions, the study of transcription downregulation of the succinate dehydrogenase operon suggests that σ competition at the promoter DNA level plays an important role in gene repression by Eσ(S). PMID:25578965

  4. Repressor activity of the RpoS/σS-dependent RNA polymerase requires DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Lévi-Meyrueis, Corinne; Monteil, Véronique; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Kolb, Annie; Monot, Marc; Dupuy, Bruno; Duarte, Sara Serradas; Jagla, Bernd; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Beraud, Mélanie; Norel, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The RpoS/σS sigma subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP) activates transcription of stationary phase genes in many Gram-negative bacteria and controls adaptive functions, including stress resistance, biofilm formation and virulence. In this study, we address an important but poorly understood aspect of σS-dependent control, that of a repressor. Negative regulation by σS has been proposed to result largely from competition between σS and other σ factors for binding to a limited amount of core RNAP (E). To assess whether σS binding to E alone results in significant downregulation of gene expression by other σ factors, we characterized an rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium producing a σS protein proficient for EσS complex formation but deficient in promoter DNA binding. Genome expression profiling and physiological assays revealed that this mutant was defective for negative regulation, indicating that gene repression by σS requires its binding to DNA. Although the mechanisms of repression by σS are likely specific to individual genes and environmental conditions, the study of transcription downregulation of the succinate dehydrogenase operon suggests that σ competition at the promoter DNA level plays an important role in gene repression by EσS. PMID:25578965

  5. Structural Rearrangement and Subunit Composition of RNA from Released Soehner-Dmochowski Murine Sarcoma Virions

    PubMed Central

    East, James L.; Allen, Patton T.; Knesek, John E.; Chan, James C.; Bowen, James M.; Dmochowski, Leon

    1973-01-01

    Two types of genomic, high-molecular-weight RNA species were found in Soehner-Dmochowski murine sarcoma virions released from virus-induced rat tumor cells grown in tissue culture. The type of RNA species observed depended on the length of exposure of the tumor cells to radioactive precursor. Early RNA of virions labeled up to 4 h with radioactive uridine had a sedimentation coefficient of 50S, and late RNA of virions labeled for 24 h had a sedimentation coefficient of 58S. Thermal transitions of early and late RNA indicated a difference in the configuration or structure of these two types of RNA. The late RNA may represent either a different configurational state of the early RNA or an aggregate molecule of two early RNA components joined together. Heat dissociation revealed that the major subunit of both RNA types was a 28S species, which was not susceptible to degradation by the addition of micrococcal nuclease to virions. A transitional, intermediate RNA species with a sedimentation coefficient of 37 to 40S was detected when early RNA was dissociated by dimethyl sulfoxide or heat at temperatures suboptimal for complete conversion. No free RNA subunit components were detected in virions harvested at intervals as short as 30 s or 5 min. A model for the assembly of genomic RNA from 28S RNA subunits is proposed. PMID:4350715

  6. Complete Structural Model of Escherichia coli RNA Polymerase from a Hybrid Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Opalka, N.; Brown, J; Lane, W; Twist, K; Landick, R; Asturias, F; Darst, S

    2010-01-01

    The Escherichia coli transcription system is the best characterized from a biochemical and genetic point of view and has served as a model system. Nevertheless, a molecular understanding of the details of E. coli transcription and its regulation, and therefore its full exploitation as a model system, has been hampered by the absence of high-resolution structural information on E. coli RNA polymerase (RNAP). We use a combination of approaches, including high-resolution X-ray crystallography, ab initio structural prediction, homology modeling, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy, to generate complete atomic models of E. coli core RNAP and an E. coli RNAP ternary elongation complex. The detailed and comprehensive structural descriptions can be used to help interpret previous biochemical and genetic data in a new light and provide a structural framework for designing experiments to understand the function of the E. coli lineage-specific insertions and their role in the E. coli transcription program. Transcription, or the synthesis of RNA from DNA, is one of the most important processes in the cell. The central enzyme of transcription is the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP), a large, macromolecular assembly consisting of at least five subunits. Historically, much of our fundamental information on the process of transcription has come from genetic and biochemical studies of RNAP from the model bacterium Escherichia coli. More recently, major breakthroughs in our understanding of the mechanism of action of RNAP have come from high resolution crystal structures of various bacterial, archaebacterial, and eukaryotic enzymes. However, all of our high-resolution bacterial RNAP structures are of enzymes from the thermophiles Thermus aquaticus or T. thermophilus, organisms with poorly characterized transcription systems. It has thus far proven impossible to obtain a high-resolution structure of E. coli RNAP, which has made it difficult to relate the large collection

  7. DIS3 shapes the RNA polymerase II transcriptome in humans by degrading a variety of unwanted transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Szczepińska, Teresa; Kalisiak, Katarzyna; Tomecki, Rafal; Labno, Anna; Borowski, Lukasz S.; Kulinski, Tomasz M.; Adamska, Dorota; Kosinska, Joanna; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Human DIS3, the nuclear catalytic subunit of the exosome complex, contains exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic active domains. To identify DIS3 targets genome-wide, we combined comprehensive transcriptomic analyses of engineered HEK293 cells that expressed mutant DIS3, with Photoactivatable Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) experiments. In cells expressing DIS3 with both catalytic sites mutated, RNAs originating from unannotated genomic regions increased ∼2.5-fold, covering ∼70% of the genome and allowing for thousands of novel transcripts to be discovered. Previously described pervasive transcription products, such as Promoter Upstream Transcripts (PROMPTs), accumulated robustly upon DIS3 dysfunction, representing a significant fraction of PAR-CLIP reads. We have also detected relatively long putative premature RNA polymerase II termination products of protein-coding genes whose levels in DIS3 mutant cells can exceed the mature mRNAs, indicating that production of such truncated RNA is a common phenomenon. In addition, we found DIS3 to be involved in controlling the formation of paraspeckles, nuclear bodies that are organized around NEAT1 lncRNA, whose short form was overexpressed in cells with mutated DIS3. Moreover, the DIS3 mutations resulted in misregulation of expression of ∼50% of transcribed protein-coding genes, probably as a secondary effect of accumulation of various noncoding RNA species. Finally, cells expressing mutant DIS3 accumulated snoRNA precursors, which correlated with a strong PAR-CLIP signal, indicating that DIS3 is the main snoRNA-processing enzyme. EXOSC10 (RRP6) instead controls the levels of the mature snoRNAs. Overall, we show that DIS3 has a major nucleoplasmic function in shaping the human RNA polymerase II transcriptome. PMID:26294688

  8. DIS3 shapes the RNA polymerase II transcriptome in humans by degrading a variety of unwanted transcripts.

    PubMed

    Szczepińska, Teresa; Kalisiak, Katarzyna; Tomecki, Rafal; Labno, Anna; Borowski, Lukasz S; Kulinski, Tomasz M; Adamska, Dorota; Kosinska, Joanna; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    Human DIS3, the nuclear catalytic subunit of the exosome complex, contains exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic active domains. To identify DIS3 targets genome-wide, we combined comprehensive transcriptomic analyses of engineered HEK293 cells that expressed mutant DIS3, with Photoactivatable Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) experiments. In cells expressing DIS3 with both catalytic sites mutated, RNAs originating from unannotated genomic regions increased ∼2.5-fold, covering ∼70% of the genome and allowing for thousands of novel transcripts to be discovered. Previously described pervasive transcription products, such as Promoter Upstream Transcripts (PROMPTs), accumulated robustly upon DIS3 dysfunction, representing a significant fraction of PAR-CLIP reads. We have also detected relatively long putative premature RNA polymerase II termination products of protein-coding genes whose levels in DIS3 mutant cells can exceed the mature mRNAs, indicating that production of such truncated RNA is a common phenomenon. In addition, we found DIS3 to be involved in controlling the formation of paraspeckles, nuclear bodies that are organized around NEAT1 lncRNA, whose short form was overexpressed in cells with mutated DIS3. Moreover, the DIS3 mutations resulted in misregulation of expression of ∼50% of transcribed protein-coding genes, probably as a secondary effect of accumulation of various noncoding RNA species. Finally, cells expressing mutant DIS3 accumulated snoRNA precursors, which correlated with a strong PAR-CLIP signal, indicating that DIS3 is the main snoRNA-processing enzyme. EXOSC10 (RRP6) instead controls the levels of the mature snoRNAs. Overall, we show that DIS3 has a major nucleoplasmic function in shaping the human RNA polymerase II transcriptome. PMID:26294688

  9. Silencing of Inducible Immunoproteasome Subunit Expression by Chemically Modified siRNA and shRNA.

    PubMed

    Gvozdeva, Olga V; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Zenkova, Marina A; Vlassov, Valentin V; Chernolovskaya, Elena L

    2016-08-01

    Overexpression of inducible subunits of immunoproteasome is related to pathogenesis of some chronic diseases. Specific inhibition of the immunosubunits may be used for the treatment of these diseases and RNA interference is one of the potent methods used in this area. We designed 2'-O-methyl modified siRNAs with selectively protected nuclease-sensitive sites, which efficiently silence LMP2, LMP7, and MECL-1 genes expression. To provide stable long-lasting inhibition of target genes, short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA) expressed by lentiviral vectors were constructed. Our results demonstrated that chemically modified siRNAs inhibited the expression of target genes with similar efficiency or with efficiency exceeding that of corresponding shRNAs and provide silencing effect for 5 days. PMID:27351110

  10. Inhibition of mammalian RNA polymerase by 5,6-dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) and DRB triphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, C; Hausen, P

    1978-01-01

    DRB triphosphate inhibits activity of isolated RNA polymerase B, and, to a lesser extent, that of polymerase A. The same holds true for transcription in isolated nuclei. It does not act as an initiation inhibitor. In all cases, high concentrations of DRB triphosphate are required. Cells do not phosphorylate DRB to a measurable extent. hn RNA resistant to DRB is initiated with both ATP and GTP in the presence of the drug. These experiments render the hypothesis unlikely that DRB triphosphate in the cell specifically interferes with the initiation reaction of polymerase B. PMID:704359

  11. Genetic Transformation of Citrus Paradisi with Antisense and untranslatable RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Genes of Citrus Tristeza Closterovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied in vivo and in vitro using a polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant CTV-RdRp protein. Although 56 kDa CTV-RdRp is thought to be expressed by a +1 translational frameshift at the carboxyl te...

  12. The Whole Set of Constitutive Promoters Recognized by RNA Polymerase RpoD Holoenzyme of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Tanaka, Kan; Ishihama, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The promoter selectivity of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is determined by the sigma subunit with promoter recognition activity. The model prokaryote Escherichia coli contains seven species of the sigma subunit, each recognizing a specific set of promoters. The major sigma subunit, sigma-70 encoded by rpoD, plays a major role in transcription of growth-related genes. Concomitant with the increase in detection of promoters functioning in vivo under various stressful conditions, the variation is expanding in the consensus sequence of RpoD promoters. In order to identify the canonical sequence of “constitutive promoters” that are recognized by the RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma in the absence of supporting transcription factors, an in vitro mixed transcription assay was carried out using a whole set of variant promoters, each harboring one base replacement, within the model promoter with the conserved -35 and -10 sequences of RpoD promoters. The co