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Sample records for rna-binding protein conserved

  1. Functional Advantages of Conserved Intrinsic Disorder in RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Varadi, Mihaly; Zsolyomi, Fruzsina; Guharoy, Mainak; Tompa, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Proteins form large macromolecular assemblies with RNA that govern essential molecular processes. RNA-binding proteins have often been associated with conformational flexibility, yet the extent and functional implications of their intrinsic disorder have never been fully assessed. Here, through large-scale analysis of comprehensive protein sequence and structure datasets we demonstrate the prevalence of intrinsic structural disorder in RNA-binding proteins and domains. We addressed their functionality through a quantitative description of the evolutionary conservation of disordered segments involved in binding, and investigated the structural implications of flexibility in terms of conformational stability and interface formation. We conclude that the functional role of intrinsically disordered protein segments in RNA-binding is two-fold: first, these regions establish extended, conserved electrostatic interfaces with RNAs via induced fit. Second, conformational flexibility enables them to target different RNA partners, providing multi-functionality, while also ensuring specificity. These findings emphasize the functional importance of intrinsically disordered regions in RNA-binding proteins. PMID:26439842

  2. Evolutionary Conservation and Diversification of Puf RNA Binding Proteins and Their mRNA Targets

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Gregory J.; Brown, Patrick O.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming of a gene’s expression pattern by acquisition and loss of sequences recognized by specific regulatory RNA binding proteins may be a major mechanism in the evolution of biological regulatory programs. We identified that RNA targets of Puf3 orthologs have been conserved over 100–500 million years of evolution in five eukaryotic lineages. Focusing on Puf proteins and their targets across 80 fungi, we constructed a parsimonious model for their evolutionary history. This model entails extensive and coordinated changes in the Puf targets as well as changes in the number of Puf genes and alterations of RNA binding specificity including that: 1) Binding of Puf3 to more than 200 RNAs whose protein products are predominantly involved in the production and organization of mitochondrial complexes predates the origin of budding yeasts and filamentous fungi and was maintained for 500 million years, throughout the evolution of budding yeast. 2) In filamentous fungi, remarkably, more than 150 of the ancestral Puf3 targets were gained by Puf4, with one lineage maintaining both Puf3 and Puf4 as regulators and a sister lineage losing Puf3 as a regulator of these RNAs. The decrease in gene expression of these mRNAs upon deletion of Puf4 in filamentous fungi (N. crassa) in contrast to the increase upon Puf3 deletion in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) suggests that the output of the RNA regulatory network is different with Puf4 in filamentous fungi than with Puf3 in budding yeast. 3) The coregulated Puf4 target set in filamentous fungi expanded to include mitochondrial genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and other nuclear-encoded RNAs with mitochondrial function not bound by Puf3 in budding yeast, observations that provide additional evidence for substantial rewiring of post-transcriptional regulation. 4) Puf3 also expanded and diversified its targets in filamentous fungi, gaining interactions with the mRNAs encoding the mitochondrial electron transport

  3. Evolutionary Conservation and Expression of Human RNA-Binding Proteins and Their Role in Human Genetic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gerstberger, Stefanie; Hafner, Markus; Ascano, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are effectors and regulators of posttranscriptional gene regulation (PTGR). RBPs regulate stability, maturation, and turnover of all RNAs, often binding thousands of targets at many sites. The importance of RBPs is underscored by their dysregulation or mutations causing a variety of developmental and neurological diseases. This chapter globally discusses human RBPs and provides a brief introduction to their identification and RNA targets. We review RBPs based on common structural RNA-binding domains, study their evolutionary conservation and expression, and summarize disease associations of different RBP classes. PMID:25201102

  4. RNA-binding proteins in eye development and disease: implication of conserved RNA granule components.

    PubMed

    Dash, Soma; Siddam, Archana D; Barnum, Carrie E; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Lachke, Salil A

    2016-07-01

    The molecular biology of metazoan eye development is an area of intense investigation. These efforts have led to the surprising recognition that although insect and vertebrate eyes have dramatically different structures, the orthologs or family members of several conserved transcription and signaling regulators such as Pax6, Six3, Prox1, and Bmp4 are commonly required for their development. In contrast, our understanding of posttranscriptional regulation in eye development and disease, particularly regarding the function of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), is limited. We examine the present knowledge of RBPs in eye development in the insect model Drosophila as well as several vertebrate models such as fish, frog, chicken, and mouse. Interestingly, of the 42 RBPs that have been investigated for their expression or function in vertebrate eye development, 24 (~60%) are recognized in eukaryotic cells as components of RNA granules such as processing bodies, stress granules, or other specialized ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. We discuss the distinct developmental and cellular events that may necessitate potential RBP/RNA granule-associated RNA regulon models to facilitate posttranscriptional control of gene expression in eye morphogenesis. In support of these hypotheses, three RBPs and RNP/RNA granule components Tdrd7, Caprin2, and Stau2 are linked to ocular developmental defects such as congenital cataract, Peters anomaly, and microphthalmia in human patients or animal models. We conclude by discussing the utility of interdisciplinary approaches such as the bioinformatics tool iSyTE (integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery) to prioritize RBPs for deriving posttranscriptional regulatory networks in eye development and disease. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:527-557. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1355 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27133484

  5. The mRNA-binding protein which controls ferritin and transferrin receptor expression is conserved during evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberger, S; Müllner, E W; Kühn, L C

    1990-01-01

    A post-transcriptional regulatory protein, termed iron regulatory factor (IRF), that binds specifically to the iron-responsive elements of ferritin and transferrin receptor mRNA, has recently been identified in the cytoplasm of human and mouse cells. Activation of this factor by low intracellular iron levels leads to inhibition of ferritin translation and an increase of TR mRNA stability. To investigate whether these feedback regulatory mechanisms are conserved during evolution, we analysed cytoplasmic extracts from 12 different species for a specific IRE-binding activity. We found mRNA-binding proteins in chicken, frog, fish and fly, which are equivalent to human and mouse IRF in gel-retardation assays with radiolabeled RNA transcripts. Competition experiments, molecular weight determinations, and modulation of the mRNA-binding activity in response to intracellular iron levels or reduction by beta-mercaptoethanol indicate that IRF has similar structural and functional properties in these different species. Images PMID:2157191

  6. Autoantibodies define a family of proteins with conserved double-stranded RNA-binding domains as well as DNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Satoh, M; Shaheen, V M; Kao, P N; Okano, T; Shaw, M; Yoshida, H; Richards, H B; Reeves, W H

    1999-12-01

    Cellular responses to viral infection are signaled by double-stranded (ds) RNA, which is not found in substantial amounts in uninfected cells. Although cellular dsRNA-binding proteins have been described, their characterization is incomplete. We show that dsRNA-binding proteins are prominent autoantigens. Sera from B6 and B10.S mice with pristane-induced lupus and human autoimmune sera immunoprecipitated a novel set of 130-, 110-, 90-, 80-, and 45-kDa proteins. The proteins were all major cellular poly(IC)-binding factors. N-terminal amino acid sequences of p110 and p90 were identical and matched nuclear factor (NF) 90 and M phase phosphoprotein 4. p45 and p90 were identified as the NF45.NF90 complex, which binds the interleukin-2 promoter as well as certain highly structured viral RNAs. NF90.NF45 and M phase phosphoprotein 4 belong to a large group of proteins with conserved dsRNA-binding motifs. Besides binding dsRNA, NF90.NF45, p110, and p130 had single-stranded and dsDNA binding activity. Some sera contained autoantibodies whose binding was inhibited by poly(IC) but not single-stranded DNA or vice versa, suggesting that the DNA- and RNA-binding sites are different. These autoantibodies will be useful probes of the function of dsRNA-binding proteins. Their interaction with dsRNA, an immunological adjuvant, also could promote autoimmunity. PMID:10574923

  7. Conserved Surface Features Form the Double-stranded RNA Binding Site of Non-structural Protein 1 (NS1) from Influenza A and B Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Yin,C.; Khan, J.; Swapna, G.; Ertekin, A.; Krug, R.; Tong, L.; Montelione, G.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause a highly contagious respiratory disease in humans and are responsible for periodic widespread epidemics with high mortality rates. The influenza A virus NS1 protein (NS1A) plays a key role in countering host antiviral defense and in virulence. The 73-residue N-terminal domain of NS1A (NS1A-(1-73)) forms a symmetric homodimer with a unique six-helical chain fold. It binds canonical A-form double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Mutational inactivation of this dsRNA binding activity of NS1A highly attenuates virus replication. Here, we have characterized the unique structural features of the dsRNA binding surface of NS1A-(1-73) using NMR methods and describe the 2.1-{angstrom} x-ray crystal structure of the corresponding dsRNA binding domain from human influenza B virus NS1B-(15-93). These results identify conserved dsRNA binding surfaces on both NS1A-(1-73) and NS1B-(15-93) that are very different from those indicated in earlier 'working models' of the complex between dsRNA and NS1A-(1-73). The combined NMR and crystallographic data reveal highly conserved surface tracks of basic and hydrophilic residues that interact with dsRNA. These tracks are structurally complementary to the polyphosphate backbone conformation of A-form dsRNA and run at an {approx}45{sup o} angle relative to the axes of helices {alpha}2/{alpha}2'. At the center of this dsRNA binding epitope, and common to NS1 proteins from influenza A and B viruses, is a deep pocket that includes both hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids. This pocket provides a target on the surface of the NS1 protein that is potentially suitable for the development of antiviral drugs targeting both influenza A and B viruses.

  8. Conserved surface features form the double-stranded RNA binding site of non-structural protein 1 (NS1) from influenza A and B viruses.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cuifeng; Khan, Javed A; Swapna, G V T; Ertekin, Asli; Krug, Robert M; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2007-07-13

    Influenza A viruses cause a highly contagious respiratory disease in humans and are responsible for periodic widespread epidemics with high mortality rates. The influenza A virus NS1 protein (NS1A) plays a key role in countering host antiviral defense and in virulence. The 73-residue N-terminal domain of NS1A (NS1A-(1-73)) forms a symmetric homodimer with a unique six-helical chain fold. It binds canonical A-form double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Mutational inactivation of this dsRNA binding activity of NS1A highly attenuates virus replication. Here, we have characterized the unique structural features of the dsRNA binding surface of NS1A-(1-73) using NMR methods and describe the 2.1-A x-ray crystal structure of the corresponding dsRNA binding domain from human influenza B virus NS1B-(15-93). These results identify conserved dsRNA binding surfaces on both NS1A-(1-73) and NS1B-(15-93) that are very different from those indicated in earlier "working models" of the complex between dsRNA and NS1A-(1-73). The combined NMR and crystallographic data reveal highly conserved surface tracks of basic and hydrophilic residues that interact with dsRNA. These tracks are structurally complementary to the polyphosphate backbone conformation of A-form dsRNA and run at an approximately 45 degrees angle relative to the axes of helices alpha2/alpha2'. At the center of this dsRNA binding epitope, and common to NS1 proteins from influenza A and B viruses, is a deep pocket that includes both hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids. This pocket provides a target on the surface of the NS1 protein that is potentially suitable for the development of antiviral drugs targeting both influenza A and B viruses. PMID:17475623

  9. SpoVG Is a Conserved RNA-Binding Protein That Regulates Listeria monocytogenes Lysozyme Resistance, Virulence, and Swarming Motility

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we sought to characterize the targets of the abundant Listeria monocytogenes noncoding RNA Rli31, which is required for L. monocytogenes lysozyme resistance and pathogenesis. Whole-genome sequencing of lysozyme-resistant suppressor strains identified loss-of-expression mutations in the promoter of spoVG, and deletion of spoVG rescued lysozyme sensitivity and attenuation in vivo of the rli31 mutant. SpoVG was demonstrated to be an RNA-binding protein that interacted with Rli31 in vitro. The relationship between Rli31 and SpoVG is multifaceted, as both the spoVG-encoded protein and the spoVG 5′-untranslated region interacted with Rli31. In addition, we observed that spoVG-deficient bacteria were nonmotile in soft agar and suppressor mutations that restored swarming motility were identified in the gene encoding a major RNase in Gram-positive bacteria, RNase J1. Collectively, these findings suggest that SpoVG is similar to global posttranscriptional regulators, a class of RNA-binding proteins that interact with noncoding RNA, regulate genes in concert with RNases, and control pleiotropic aspects of bacterial physiology. PMID:27048798

  10. The chicken FMR1 gene is highly conserved with a CCT 5{prime} - untranslated repeat and encodes an RNA-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.K.; Zhang, F.; Ashley, C.T. Jr.; Warren, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The transcriptional silencing of the human gene, fragile X metal retardation 1 (FMR1), is due to abnormal methylation in response to an expanded 5{prime}-untranslated CGG trinucleotide repeat and accounts for most cases of fragile X syndrome, a frequent inherited form of metal retardation. Although the encoded fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is known to have properties of a RNA-binding protein, the precise function of FMRP remains to be elucidated. We report the cloning of the chicken homolog of FMR1 and show strong evolutionary conservation, with nucleotide and amino acid identities of 85 and 92%, respectively, between chicken and human. In place of the mammalian CGG trinucleotide repeat, a 99-nt tripartite repetitive element containing a CCT trinucleotide repeat flanked on both sides by dinucleotide repeats was identified. Blocks of highly conserved 3{prime}-untranslated sequence were also found. Within the coding region, two copies each of the highly conserved K homology motif and the Arg-Gly-Gly (RGG) box motif, both ribonucleotide particle family domains implicated in RNA binding, were identified. Chicken FMRP was found to bind RNA in vitro, and this activity correlated with the presence of the carboxy-terminal portion of the protein that includes the RGG motifs. 49 refs., 7 figs.

  11. A conserved role for the zinc finger polyadenosine RNA binding protein, ZC3H14, in control of poly(A) tail length

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Seth M.; Leung, Sara W.; Pak, ChangHui; Banerjee, Ayan; Moberg, Kenneth H.; Corbett, Anita H.

    2014-01-01

    The ZC3H14 gene, which encodes a ubiquitously expressed, evolutionarily conserved, nuclear, zinc finger polyadenosine RNA-binding protein, was recently linked to autosomal recessive, nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Although studies have been carried out to examine the function of putative orthologs of ZC3H14 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the protein is termed Nab2, and Drosophila, where the protein has been designated dNab2, little is known about the function of mammalian ZC3H14. Work from both budding yeast and flies implicates Nab2/dNab2 in poly(A) tail length control, while a role in poly(A) RNA export from the nucleus has been reported only for budding yeast. Here we provide the first functional characterization of ZC3H14. Analysis of ZC3H14 function in a neuronal cell line as well as in vivo complementation studies in a Drosophila model identify a role for ZC3H14 in proper control of poly(A) tail length in neuronal cells. Furthermore, we show here that human ZC3H14 can functionally substitute for dNab2 in fly neurons and can rescue defects in development and locomotion that are present in dNab2 null flies. These rescue experiments provide evidence that this zinc finger-containing class of nuclear polyadenosine RNA-binding proteins plays an evolutionarily conserved role in controlling the length of the poly(A) tail in neurons. PMID:24671764

  12. Spatial control of translation repression and polarized growth by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 and RNA-binding protein Sts5

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez Pino, Marbelys; Wiley, David J; Das, Maitreyi E; Chen, Chuan; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kume, Kazunori; Hirata, Dai; Toda, Takashi; Verde, Fulvia

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins contribute to the formation of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules by phase transition, but regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Conserved fission yeast NDR (Nuclear Dbf2-Related) kinase Orb6 governs cell morphogenesis in part by spatially controlling Cdc42 GTPase. Here we describe a novel, independent function for Orb6 kinase in negatively regulating the recruitment of RNA-binding protein Sts5 into RNPs to promote polarized cell growth. We find that Orb6 kinase inhibits Sts5 recruitment into granules, its association with processing (P) bodies, and degradation of Sts5-bound mRNAs by promoting Sts5 interaction with 14-3-3 protein Rad24. Many Sts5-bound mRNAs encode essential factors for polarized cell growth, and Orb6 kinase spatially and temporally controls the extent of Sts5 granule formation. Disruption of this control system affects cell morphology and alters the pattern of polarized cell growth, revealing a role for Orb6 kinase in the spatial control of translational repression that enables normal cell morphogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14216.001 PMID:27474797

  13. Spatial control of translation repression and polarized growth by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 and RNA-binding protein Sts5.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez Pino, Marbelys; Wiley, David J; Das, Maitreyi E; Chen, Chuan; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kume, Kazunori; Hirata, Dai; Toda, Takashi; Verde, Fulvia

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins contribute to the formation of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules by phase transition, but regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Conserved fission yeast NDR (Nuclear Dbf2-Related) kinase Orb6 governs cell morphogenesis in part by spatially controlling Cdc42 GTPase. Here we describe a novel, independent function for Orb6 kinase in negatively regulating the recruitment of RNA-binding protein Sts5 into RNPs to promote polarized cell growth. We find that Orb6 kinase inhibits Sts5 recruitment into granules, its association with processing (P) bodies, and degradation of Sts5-bound mRNAs by promoting Sts5 interaction with 14-3-3 protein Rad24. Many Sts5-bound mRNAs encode essential factors for polarized cell growth, and Orb6 kinase spatially and temporally controls the extent of Sts5 granule formation. Disruption of this control system affects cell morphology and alters the pattern of polarized cell growth, revealing a role for Orb6 kinase in the spatial control of translational repression that enables normal cell morphogenesis. PMID:27474797

  14. Role of conserved nucleotides in building the 16 S rRNA binding site for ribosomal protein S15.

    PubMed

    Serganov, A; Bénard, L; Portier, C; Ennifar, E; Garber, M; Ehresmann, B; Ehresmann, C

    2001-01-26

    Ribosomal protein S15 recognizes a highly conserved target on 16 S rRNA, which consists of two distinct binding regions. Here, we used extensive site-directed mutagenesis on a Escherichia coli 16 S rRNA fragment containing the S15 binding site, to investigate the role of conserved nucleotides in protein recognition and to evaluate the relative contribution of the two sites. The effect of mutations on S15 recognition was studied by measuring the relative binding affinity, RNA probing and footprinting. The crystallographic structure of the Thermus thermophilus complex allowed molecular modelling of the E. coli complex and facilitated interpretation of biochemical data. Binding is essentially driven by site 1, which includes a three-way junction constrained by a conserved base triple and cross-strand stacking. Recognition is based mainly on shape complementarity, and the role of conserved nucleotides is to maintain a unique backbone geometry. The wild-type base triple is absolutely required for protein interaction, while changes in the conserved surrounding nucleotides are partially tolerated. Site 2, which provides functional groups in a conserved G-U/G-C motif, contributes only modestly to the stability of the interaction. Binding to this motif is dependent on binding at site 1 and is allowed only if the two sites are in the correct relative orientation. Non-conserved bulged nucleotides as well as a conserved purine interior loop, although not directly involved in recognition, are used to provide an appropriate flexibility between the two sites. In addition, correct binding at the two sites triggers conformational adjustments in the purine interior loop and in a distal region, which are known to be involved for subsequent binding of proteins S6 and S18. Thus, the role of site 1 is to anchor S15 to the rRNA, while binding at site 2 is aimed to induce a cascade of events required for subunit assembly. PMID:11162092

  15. Functional equivalence of an evolutionarily conserved RNA binding module.

    PubMed

    Wells, Melissa L; Hicks, Stephanie N; Perera, Lalith; Blackshear, Perry J

    2015-10-01

    Members of the tristetraprolin (TTP) family of proteins participate in the regulation of mRNA turnover after initially binding to AU-rich elements in target mRNAs. Related proteins from most groups of eukaryotes contain a conserved tandem zinc finger (TZF) domain consisting of two closely spaced, similar CCCH zinc fingers that form the primary RNA binding domain. There is considerable sequence variation within the TZF domains from different family members within a single organism and from different organisms, raising questions about sequence-specific effects on RNA binding and decay promotion. We hypothesized that TZF domains from evolutionarily distant species are functionally interchangeable. The single family member expressed in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Zfs1, promotes the turnover of several dozen transcripts, some of which are involved in cell-cell interactions. Using knockin techniques, we replaced the TZF domain of S. pombe Zfs1 with the equivalent domains from human TTP and the single family member proteins expressed in the silkworm Bombyx mori, the pathogenic yeast Candida guilliermondii, and the plant Chromolaena odorata. We found that the TZF domains from these widely disparate species could completely substitute for the native S. pombe TZF domain, as determined by measurement of target transcript levels and the flocculation phenotype characteristic of Zfs1 deletion. Recombinant TZF domain peptides from several of these species bound to an AU-rich RNA oligonucleotide with comparably high affinity. We conclude that the TZF domains from TTP family members in these evolutionarily widely divergent species are functionally interchangeable in mRNA binding and decay. PMID:26292216

  16. Regulation of Pluripotency by RNA Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Julia; Blelloch, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Establishment, maintenance, and exit from pluripotency require precise coordination of a cell’s molecular machinery. Substantial headway has been made in deciphering many aspects of this elaborate system, particularly with respect to epigenetics, transcription, and noncoding RNAs. Less attention has been paid to posttranscriptional regulatory processes such as alternative splicing, RNA processing and modification, nuclear export, regulation of transcript stability, and translation. Here, we introduce the RNA binding proteins that enable the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, summarizing current and ongoing research on their roles at different regulatory points and discussing how they help script the fate of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25192462

  17. RNA-binding protein nucleolin in disease.

    PubMed

    Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Gorospe, Myriam

    2012-06-01

    Nucleolin is a multifunctional protein localized primarily in the nucleolus, but also found in the nucleoplasm, cytoplasm and cell membrane. It is involved in several aspects of DNA metabolism, and participates extensively in RNA regulatory mechanisms, including transcription, ribosome assembly, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing. Nucleolin's implication in disease is linked to its ability to associate with target RNAs via its four RNA-binding domains and its arginine/glycin-rich domain. By modulating the post-transcriptional fate of target mRNAs, which typically bear AU-rich and/or G-rich elements, nucleolin has been linked to cellular events that influence disease, notably cell proliferation and protection against apoptotic death. Through its diverse RNA functions, nucleolin is increasingly implicated in pathological processes, particularly cancer and viral infection. Here, we review the RNA-binding activities of nucleolin, its influence on gene expression patterns, and its impact upon diseases. We also discuss the rising interest in targeting nucleolin therapeutically. PMID:22617883

  18. RNA-binding protein nucleolin in disease

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Gorospe, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Nucleolin is a multifunctional protein localized primarily in the nucleolus, but also found in the nucleoplasm, cytoplasm and cell membrane. It is involved in several aspects of DNA metabolism, and participates extensively in RNA regulatory mechanisms, including transcription, ribosome assembly, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing. Nucleolin’s implication in disease is linked to its ability to associate with target RNAs via its four RNA-binding domains and its arginine/glycin-rich domain. By modulating the post-transcriptional fate of target mRNAs, which typically bear AU-rich and/or G-rich elements, nucleolin has been linked to cellular events that influence disease, notably cell proliferation and protection against apoptotic death. Through its diverse RNA functions, nucleolin is increasingly implicated in pathological processes, particularly cancer and viral infection. Here, we review the RNA-binding activities of nucleolin, its influence on gene expression patterns, and its impact upon diseases. We also discuss the rising interest in targeting nucleolin therapeutically. PMID:22617883

  19. Systematic discovery of Xist RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ci; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Flynn, Ryan A; Bharadwaj, Maheetha; Calabrese, J Mauro; Magnuson, Terry; Heard, Edith; Chang, Howard Y

    2015-04-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function with associated proteins to effect complex structural and regulatory outcomes. To reveal the composition and dynamics of specific noncoding RNA-protein complexes (RNPs) in vivo, we developed comprehensive identification of RNA binding proteins by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS). ChIRP-MS analysis of four ncRNAs captures key protein interactors, including a U1-specific link to the 3' RNA processing machinery. Xist, an essential lncRNA for X chromosome inactivation (XCI), interacts with 81 proteins from chromatin modification, nuclear matrix, and RNA remodeling pathways. The Xist RNA-protein particle assembles in two steps coupled with the transition from pluripotency to differentiation. Specific interactors include HnrnpK, which participates in Xist-mediated gene silencing and histone modifications but not Xist localization, and Drosophila Split ends homolog Spen, which interacts via the A-repeat domain of Xist and is required for gene silencing. Thus, Xist lncRNA engages with proteins in a modular and developmentally controlled manner to coordinate chromatin spreading and silencing. PMID:25843628

  20. Systematic discovery of Xist RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ci; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Flynn, Ryan A.; Bharadwaj, Maheetha; Calabrese, J. Mauro; Magnuson, Terry; Heard, Edith; Chang, Howard Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function with associated proteins to effect complex structural and regulatory outcomes. To reveal the composition and dynamics of specific noncoding RNA- protein complexes (RNPs) in vivo, we developed comprehensive identification of RNA-binding proteins by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS). ChIRP-MS analysis of four ncRNAs captures key protein interactors, including a U1-specific link to the 3′ RNA processing machinery. Xist, an essential lncRNA for X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), interacts with 81 proteins from chromatin modification, nuclear matrix, and RNA remodeling pathways. The Xist RNA-protein particle assembles in two steps coupled with the transition from pluripotency to differentiation. Specific interactors include HnrnpK that participates in Xist-mediated gene silencing and histone modifications, but not Xist localization and Drosophila Split ends homolog Spen that interacts via the A-repeat domain of Xist and is required for gene silencing. Thus, Xist lncRNA engages with proteins in a modular and developmentally controlled manner to coordinate chromatin spreading and silencing. PMID:25843628

  1. PRBP: Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins Using a Random Forest Algorithm Combined with an RNA-Binding Residue Predictor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Guo, Jing; Xiao, Ke; Sun, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of RNA-binding proteins is an incredibly challenging problem in computational biology. Although great progress has been made using various machine learning approaches with numerous features, the problem is still far from being solved. In this study, we attempt to predict RNA-binding proteins directly from amino acid sequences. A novel approach, PRBP predicts RNA-binding proteins using the information of predicted RNA-binding residues in conjunction with a random forest based method. For a given protein, we first predict its RNA-binding residues and then judge whether the protein binds RNA or not based on information from that prediction. If the protein cannot be identified by the information associated with its predicted RNA-binding residues, then a novel random forest predictor is used to determine if the query protein is a RNA-binding protein. We incorporated features of evolutionary information combined with physicochemical features (EIPP) and amino acid composition feature to establish the random forest predictor. Feature analysis showed that EIPP contributed the most to the prediction of RNA-binding proteins. The results also showed that the information from the RNA-binding residue prediction improved the overall performance of our RNA-binding protein prediction. It is anticipated that the PRBP method will become a useful tool for identifying RNA-binding proteins. A PRBP Web server implementation is freely available at http://www.cbi.seu.edu.cn/PRBP/. PMID:26671809

  2. Alternative polyadenylation and RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Erson-Bensan, Ayse Elif

    2016-08-01

    Our understanding of the extent of microRNA-based gene regulation has expanded in an impressive pace over the past decade. Now, we are beginning to better appreciate the role of 3'-UTR (untranslated region) cis-elements which harbor not only microRNA but also RNA-binding protein (RBP) binding sites that have significant effect on the stability and translational rate of mRNAs. To add further complexity, alternative polyadenylation (APA) emerges as a widespread mechanism to regulate gene expression by producing shorter or longer mRNA isoforms that differ in the length of their 3'-UTRs or even coding sequences. Resulting shorter mRNA isoforms generally lack cis-elements where trans-acting factors bind, and hence are differentially regulated compared with the longer isoforms. This review focuses on the RBPs involved in APA regulation and their action mechanisms on APA-generated isoforms. A better understanding of the complex interactions between APA and RBPs is promising for mechanistic and clinical implications including biomarker discovery and new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27208003

  3. Conservation of functional domains involved in RNA binding and protein-protein interactions in human and Saccharomyces cerevisiae pre-mRNA splicing factor SF1.

    PubMed Central

    Rain, J C; Rafi, Z; Rhani, Z; Legrain, P; Krämer, A

    1998-01-01

    The modular structure of splicing factor SF1 is conserved from yeast to man and SF1 acts at early stages of spliceosome assembly in both organisms. The hnRNP K homology (KH) domain of human (h) SF1 is the major determinant for RNA binding and is essential for the activity of hSF1 in spliceosome assembly, supporting the view that binding of SF1 to RNA is essential for its function. Sequences N-terminal to the KH domain mediate the interaction between hSF1 and U2AF65, which binds to the polypyrimidine tract upstream of the 3' splice site. Moreover, yeast (y) SF1 interacts with Mud2p, the presumptive U2AF65 homologue in yeast, and the interaction domain is conserved in ySF1. The C-terminal degenerate RRMs in U2AF65 and Mud2p mediate the association with hSF1 and ySF1, respectively. Analysis of chimeric constructs of hSF1 and ySF indicates that the KH domain may serve a similar function in both systems, whereas sequences C-terminal to the KH domain are not exchangeable. Thus, these results argue for hSF1 and ySF1, as well as U2AF65 and Mud2p, being functional homologues. PMID:9582097

  4. The RNA-binding proteomes from yeast to man harbour conserved enigmRBPs

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Benedikt M.; Horos, Rastislav; Fischer, Bernd; Castello, Alfredo; Eichelbaum, Katrin; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Schwarzl, Thomas; Curk, Tomaž; Foehr, Sophia; Huber, Wolfgang; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Hentze, Matthias W.

    2015-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) exert a broad range of biological functions. To explore the scope of RBPs across eukaryotic evolution, we determined the in vivo RBP repertoire of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified 678 RBPs from yeast and additionally 729 RBPs from human hepatocytic HuH-7 cells. Combined analyses of these and recently published data sets define the core RBP repertoire conserved from yeast to man. Conserved RBPs harbour defined repetitive motifs within disordered regions, which display striking evolutionary expansion. Only 60% of yeast and 73% of the human RBPs have functions assigned to RNA biology or structural motifs known to convey RNA binding, and many intensively studied proteins surprisingly emerge as RBPs (termed ‘enigmRBPs'), including almost all glycolytic enzymes, pointing to emerging connections between gene regulation and metabolism. Analyses of the mitochondrial hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B10) uncover the RNA-binding specificity of an enigmRBP. PMID:26632259

  5. Guardian of Genetic Messenger-RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2016-01-01

    RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins. PMID:26751491

  6. AU-rich RNA binding proteins in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baou, Maria; Norton, John D; Murphy, John J

    2011-11-24

    Posttranscriptional mechanisms are now widely acknowledged to play a central role in orchestrating gene-regulatory networks in hematopoietic cell growth, differentiation, and tumorigenesis. Although much attention has focused on microRNAs as regulators of mRNA stability/translation, recent data have highlighted the role of several diverse classes of AU-rich RNA-binding protein in the regulation of mRNA decay/stabilization. AU-rich elements are found in the 3'-untranslated region of many mRNAs that encode regulators of cell growth and survival, such as cytokines and onco/tumor-suppressor proteins. These are targeted by a burgeoning number of different RNA-binding proteins. Three distinct types of AU-rich RNA binding protein (ARE poly-U-binding degradation factor-1/AUF1, Hu antigen/HuR/HuA/ELAVL1, and the tristetraprolin/ZFP36 family of proteins) are essential for normal hematopoiesis. Together with 2 further AU-rich RNA-binding proteins, nucleolin and KHSRP/KSRP, the functions of these proteins are intimately associated with pathways that are dysregulated in various hematopoietic malignancies. Significantly, all of these AU-rich RNA-binding proteins function via an interconnected network that is integrated with microRNA functions. Studies of these diverse types of RNA binding protein are providing novel insight into gene-regulatory mechanisms in hematopoiesis in addition to offering new opportunities for developing mechanism-based targeted therapeutics in leukemia and lymphoma. PMID:21917750

  7. RNA-binding protein Lin28 in cancer and immunity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuai; Baltimore, David

    2016-05-28

    The highly conserved RNA-binding protein, Lin28, is involved in many biological processes, including development, reprogramming, pluripotency, and metabolism. Importantly, Lin28 functions as an oncogene, promoting tumor progression and metastasis in various human cancers. Lin28 can regulate gene expression either by directly binding to mRNAs or by blocking microRNA biogenesis, and the underlying mechanisms include Let-7-dependent and Let-7-independent modes of action. Recent evidence shows that Lin28 also plays a fundamental role in immunity. The roles of Lin28 in disease are complex and require characterization of its physiological functions in cancer and immunological contexts. Here we review emerging information on the role of Lin28 in cancer and immunity and the molecular mechanisms it uses. We discuss our present knowledge of the system and highlight remaining mysteries related to the functions of this small RNA-binding protein. This knowledge may lead to Lin28 becoming a diagnostic marker for cancer or immune-related diseases and a possible therapeutic target. PMID:26945970

  8. RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

    2014-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80 % of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein. PMID:24878641

  9. RNA Bind-n-Seq: Measuring the Binding Affinity Landscape of RNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Nicole J; Robertson, Alex D; Burge, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) coordinate post-transcriptional control of gene expression, often through sequence-specific recognition of primary transcripts or mature messenger RNAs. Hundreds of RBPs are encoded in the human genome, most with undefined or incompletely defined biological roles. Understanding the function of these factors will require the identification of each RBP's distinct RNA binding specificity. RNA Bind-n-Seq (RBNS) is a high-throughput, cost-effective in vitro method capable of resolving sequence and secondary structure preferences of RBPs. Dissociation constants can also be inferred from RBNS data when provided with additional experimental information. Here, we describe the experimental procedures to perform RBNS and discuss important parameters of the method and ways that the experiment can be tailored to the specific RBP under study. Additionally, we present the conceptual framework and execution of the freely available RBNS computational pipeline and describe the outputs of the pipeline. Different approaches to quantify binding specificity, quality control metrics, and estimation of binding constants are also covered. PMID:26068750

  10. Primary structure of human nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle C proteins: conservation of sequence and domain structures in heterogeneous nuclear RNA, mRNA, and pre-rRNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, M S; Nakagawa, T Y; LeVan, K; Dreyfuss, G

    1987-01-01

    RNA-binding site, and a carboxy terminus that is very negatively charged, contains no aromatic amino acids or prolines, and contains a putative nucleoside triphosphate-binding fold, as well as a phosphorylation site for casein kinase type II. The RNP consensus sequence was also found in the yeast poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), the heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding proteins A1 and A2, and the pre-rRNA binding protein C23. All of these proteins are also composed of at least two distinct domains: an amino terminus, which possesses one or more RNP consensus sequences, and a carboxy terminus, which is unique to each protein, being very acidic in the C proteins and rich in glycine in A1, and C23 and rich in proline in the poly(A)-binding protein. These findings suggest that the amino terminus of these proteins possesses a highly conserved RNA-binding domain, whereas the carboxy terminus contains a region essential to the unique function and interactions of each of the RNA-binding proteins. Images PMID:3110598

  11. The RNA-binding protein repertoire of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Marondedze, Claudius; Thomas, Ludivine; Serrano, Natalia L; Lilley, Kathryn S; Gehring, Chris

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have essential roles in determining the fate of RNA from synthesis to decay and have been studied on a protein-by-protein basis, or computationally based on a number of well-characterised RNA-binding domains. Recently, high-throughput methods enabled the capture of mammalian RNA-binding proteomes. To gain insight into the role of Arabidopsis thaliana RBPs at the systems level, we have employed interactome capture techniques using cells from different ecotypes grown in cultures and leaves. In vivo UV-crosslinking of RNA to RBPs, oligo(dT) capture and mass spectrometry yielded 1,145 different proteins including 550 RBPs that either belong to the functional category 'RNA-binding', have known RNA-binding domains or have orthologs identified in mammals, C. elegans, or S. cerevisiae in addition to 595 novel candidate RBPs. We noted specific subsets of RBPs in cultured cells and leaves and a comparison of Arabidopsis, mammalian, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae RBPs reveals a common set of proteins with a role in intermediate metabolism, as well as distinct differences suggesting that RBPs are also species and tissue specific. This study provides a foundation for studies that will advance our understanding of the biological significance of RBPs in plant developmental and stimulus specific responses. PMID:27405932

  12. RNA binding proteins in neurodegeneration: Seq and you shall receive

    PubMed Central

    Nussbacher, Julia K.; Batra, Ranjan; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Yeo, Gene W.

    2015-01-01

    As critical players in gene regulation, RNA binding proteins are taking center stage in our understanding of cellular function and disease. In our era of bench-top sequencers and unprecedented computational power, biological questions can be addressed in a systematic, genome-wide manner. Development of high-throughput sequencing methodologies provides unparalleled potential to discover new mechanisms of disease-associated perturbations of RNA homeostasis. Complementary to candidate single-gene studies, these innovative technologies may elicit the discovery of unexpected mechanisms, and allow us to determine the widespread influence of the multifunctional RNA binding proteins on their targets. As disruption of RNA processing is increasingly implicated in neurological diseases, these approaches will continue to provide insights into the roles of RNA binding proteins in disease pathogenesis. PMID:25765321

  13. The RNA-binding protein repertoire of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Marondedze, Claudius; Thomas, Ludivine; Serrano, Natalia L.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Gehring, Chris

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have essential roles in determining the fate of RNA from synthesis to decay and have been studied on a protein-by-protein basis, or computationally based on a number of well-characterised RNA-binding domains. Recently, high-throughput methods enabled the capture of mammalian RNA-binding proteomes. To gain insight into the role of Arabidopsis thaliana RBPs at the systems level, we have employed interactome capture techniques using cells from different ecotypes grown in cultures and leaves. In vivo UV-crosslinking of RNA to RBPs, oligo(dT) capture and mass spectrometry yielded 1,145 different proteins including 550 RBPs that either belong to the functional category ‘RNA-binding’, have known RNA-binding domains or have orthologs identified in mammals, C. elegans, or S. cerevisiae in addition to 595 novel candidate RBPs. We noted specific subsets of RBPs in cultured cells and leaves and a comparison of Arabidopsis, mammalian, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae RBPs reveals a common set of proteins with a role in intermediate metabolism, as well as distinct differences suggesting that RBPs are also species and tissue specific. This study provides a foundation for studies that will advance our understanding of the biological significance of RBPs in plant developmental and stimulus specific responses. PMID:27405932

  14. The RNA binding site of bacteriophage MS2 coat protein.

    PubMed Central

    Peabody, D S

    1993-01-01

    The coat protein of the RNA bacteriophage MS2 binds a specific stem-loop structure in viral RNA to accomplish encapsidation of the genome and translational repression of replicase synthesis. In order to identify the structural components of coat protein required for its RNA binding function, a series of repressor-defective mutants has been isolated. To ensure that the repressor defects were due to substitution of binding site residues, the mutant coat proteins were screened for retention of the ability to form virus-like particles. Since virus assembly presumably requires native structure, this approach eliminated mutants whose repressor defects were secondary consequences of protein folding or stability defects. Each of the variant coat proteins was purified and its ability to bind operator RNA in vitro was measured. DNA sequence analysis identified the nucleotide and amino acid substitutions responsible for reduced RNA binding affinity. Localization of the substituted sites in the three-dimensional structure of coat protein reveals that amino acid residues on three adjacent strands of the coat protein beta-sheet are required for translational repression and RNA binding. The sidechains of the affected residues form a contiguous patch on the interior surface of the viral coat. Images PMID:8440248

  15. Computational Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins and Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jingna; Cui, Jing; Cheng, Jin; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Proteins and RNA interaction have vital roles in many cellular processes such as protein synthesis, sequence encoding, RNA transfer, and gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Approximately 6%–8% of all proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Distinguishing these RBPs or their binding residues is a major aim of structural biology. Previously, a number of experimental methods were developed for the determination of protein–RNA interactions. However, these experimental methods are expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Alternatively, researchers have developed many computational approaches to predict RBPs and protein–RNA binding sites, by combining various machine learning methods and abundant sequence and/or structural features. There are three kinds of computational approaches, which are prediction from protein sequence, prediction from protein structure, and protein-RNA docking. In this paper, we review all existing studies of predictions of RNA-binding sites and RBPs and complexes, including data sets used in different approaches, sequence and structural features used in several predictors, prediction method classifications, performance comparisons, evaluation methods, and future directions. PMID:26540053

  16. General RNA binding proteins render translation cap dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Svitkin, Y V; Ovchinnikov, L P; Dreyfuss, G; Sonenberg, N

    1996-01-01

    Translation in rabbit reticulocyte lysate is relatively independent of the presence of the mRNA m7G cap structure and the cap binding protein, eIF-4E. In addition, initiation occurs frequently at spurious internal sites. Here we show that a critical parameter which contributes to cap-dependent translation is the amount of general RNA binding proteins in the extract. Addition of several general RNA binding proteins, such as hnRNP A1, La autoantigen, pyrimidine tract binding protein (hnRNP I/PTB) and the major core protein of cytoplasmic mRNP (p50), rendered translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate cap dependent. These proteins drastically inhibited the translation of an uncapped mRNA, but had no effect on translation of a capped mRNA. Based on these and other results, we suggest that one function of general mRNA binding proteins in the cytoplasm is to promote ribosome binding by a 5' end, cap-mediated mechanism, and prevent spurious initiations at aberrant translation start sites. Images PMID:9003790

  17. The anti-trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (Anti-TRAP), AT, recognizes the tryptophan-activated RNA binding domain of the TRAP regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Valbuzzi, Angela; Gollnick, Paul; Babitzke, Paul; Yanofsky, Charles

    2002-03-22

    In Bacillus subtilis, the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) regulates expression of genes involved in tryptophan metabolism in response to the accumulation of l-tryptophan. Tryptophan-activated TRAP negatively regulates expression by binding to specific mRNA sequences and either promoting transcription termination or blocking translation initiation. Conversely, the accumulation of uncharged tRNA(Trp) induces synthesis of an anti-TRAP protein (AT), which forms a complex with TRAP and inhibits its activity. In this report, we investigate the structural features of TRAP required for AT recognition. A collection of TRAP mutant proteins was examined that were known to be partially or completely defective in tryptophan binding and/or RNA binding. Analyses of AT interactions with these proteins were performed using in vitro transcription termination assays and cross-linking experiments. We observed that TRAP mutant proteins that had lost the ability to bind RNA were no longer recognized by AT. Our findings suggest that AT acts by competing with messenger RNA for the RNA binding domain of TRAP. B. subtilis AT was also shown to interact with TRAP proteins from Bacillus halodurans and Bacillus stearothermophilus, implying that the structural elements required for AT recognition are conserved in the TRAP proteins of these species. Analyses of AT interaction with B. stearothermophilus TRAP at 60 degrees C demonstrated that AT is active at this elevated temperature. PMID:11786553

  18. Mammalian synthetic circuits with RNA binding proteins delivered by RNA

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewska, Liliana; Kitada, Tasuku; Endo, Kei; Siciliano, Velia; Stillo, Breanna; Saito, Hirohide; Weiss, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic regulatory circuits encoded on RNA rather than DNA could provide a means to control cell behavior while avoiding potentially harmful genomic integration in therapeutic applications. We create post-transcriptional circuits using RNA-binding proteins, which can be wired in a plug-and-play fashion to create networks of higher complexity. We show that the circuits function in mammalian cells when encoded on modified mRNA or self-replicating RNA. PMID:26237515

  19. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis. PMID:26703754

  20. Pumilio and nanos RNA-binding proteins counterbalance the transcriptional consequences of RB1 inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Wayne O; Dyson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) tumor suppressor to repress transcription stimulated by the E2 promoter binding factors (E2F) is integral to its biological functions. Our recent report described a conserved feedback mechanism mediated by the RNA-binding proteins Pumilio and Nanos that increases in importance following RB loss and helps cells to tolerate deregulated E2F. PMID:27308363

  1. RNA-binding proteins in pluripotency, differentiation, and reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    GUALLAR, Diana; WANG, Jianlong

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic stem cell maintenance, differentiation, and somatic cell reprogramming require the interplay of multiple pluripotency factors, epigenetic remodelers, and extracellular signaling pathways. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are involved in a wide range of regulatory pathways, from RNA metabolism to epigenetic modifications. In recent years we have witnessed more and more studies on the discovery of new RBPs and the assessment of their functions in a variety of biological systems, including stem cells. We review the current studies on RBPs and focus on those that have functional implications in pluripotency, differentiation, and/or reprogramming in both the human and mouse systems. PMID:25554730

  2. microRNAs and RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Galardi, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, an ever-growing number of connections between microRNAs (miRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have uncovered a new level of complexity of gene expression regulation in cancer. In this review, we examine several aspects of the functional interactions between miRNAs and RBPs in cancer models. We will provide examples of reciprocal regulation: miRNAs regulating the expression of RBPs, or the converse, where an RNA-binding protein specifically regulates the expression of a specific miRNA, or when an RBP can exert a widespread effect on miRNAs via the modulation of a key protein for miRNA production or function. Moreover, we will focus on the ever-growing number of functional interactions that have been discovered in the last few years: RBPs that were shown to cooperate with microRNAs in the downregulation of shared target mRNAs or, on the contrary, that inhibit microRNA action, thus resulting in a protection of the specific target mRNAs. We surely need to obtain a deeper comprehension of such intricate networks to have a chance of understanding and, thus, fighting cancer. PMID:23696003

  3. Determinants of affinity and specificity in RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Helder, Stephanie; Blythe, Amanda J; Bond, Charles S; Mackay, Joel P

    2016-06-01

    Emerging data suggest that the mechanisms by which RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) interact with RNA and the rules governing specificity might be substantially more complex than those underlying their DNA-binding counterparts. Even our knowledge of what constitutes the RNA-bound proteome is contentious; recent studies suggest that 10-30% of RBPs contain no known RNA-binding domain. Adding to this situation is a growing disconnect between the avalanche of identified interactions between proteins and long noncoding RNAs and the absence of biophysical data on these interactions. RNA-protein interactions are also at the centre of what might emerge as one of the biggest shifts in thinking about cell and molecular biology this century, following from recent reports of ribonucleoprotein complexes that drive reversible membrane-free phase separation events within the cell. Unexpectedly, low-complexity motifs are important in the formation of these structures. Here we briefly survey recent advances in our understanding of the specificity of RBPs. PMID:27315040

  4. UPF201 Archaeal Specific Family Members Reveal Structural Similarity to RNA-Binding Proteins but Low Likelyhood for RNA-Binding Function

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.; Burley, S; Swaminathan, S

    2008-01-01

    We have determined X-ray crystal structures of four members of an archaeal specific family of proteins of unknown function (UPF0201; Pfam classification: DUF54) to advance our understanding of the genetic repertoire of archaea. Despite low pairwise amino acid sequence identities (10-40%) and the absence of conserved sequence motifs, the three-dimensional structures of these proteins are remarkably similar to one another. Their common polypeptide chain fold, encompassing a five-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet and five {alpha}-helices, proved to be quite unexpectedly similar to that of the RRM-type RNA-binding domain of the ribosomal L5 protein, which is responsible for binding the 5S- rRNA. Structure-based sequence alignments enabled construction of a phylogenetic tree relating UPF0201 family members to L5 ribosomal proteins and other structurally similar RNA binding proteins, thereby expanding our understanding of the evolutionary purview of the RRM superfamily. Analyses of the surfaces of these newly determined UPF0201 structures suggest that they probably do not function as RNA binding proteins, and that this domain specific family of proteins has acquired a novel function in archaebacteria, which awaits experimental elucidation.

  5. UPF201 Archaeal Specific Family Members Reveals Structural Similarity to RNA-Binding Proteins but Low Likelihood for RNA-Binding Function

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.N.; Swaminathan, S.; Burley, S. K.

    2008-12-11

    We have determined X-ray crystal structures of four members of an archaeal specific family of proteins of unknown function (UPF0201; Pfam classification: DUF54) to advance our understanding of the genetic repertoire of archaea. Despite low pairwise amino acid sequence identities (10-40%) and the absence of conserved sequence motifs, the three-dimensional structures of these proteins are remarkably similar to one another. Their common polypeptide chain fold, encompassing a five-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet and five {alpha}-helices, proved to be quite unexpectedly similar to that of the RRM-type RNA-binding domain of the ribosomal L5 protein, which is responsible for binding the 5S- rRNA. Structure-based sequence alignments enabled construction of a phylogenetic tree relating UPF0201 family members to L5 ribosomal proteins and other structurally similar RNA binding proteins, thereby expanding our understanding of the evolutionary purview of the RRM superfamily. Analyses of the surfaces of these newly determined UPF0201 structures suggest that they probably do not function as RNA binding proteins, and that this domain specific family of proteins has acquired a novel function in archaebacteria, which awaits experimental elucidation.

  6. Function of RNA-binding protein Musashi-1 in stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Hideyuki . E-mail: hidokano@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp; Kawahara, Hironori; Toriya, Masako; Nakao, Keio; Shibata, Shinsuke; Imai, Takao

    2005-06-10

    Musashi is an evolutionarily conserved family of RNA-binding proteins that is preferentially expressed in the nervous system. The first member of the Musashi family was identified in Drosophila. This protein plays an essential role in regulating the asymmetric cell division of ectodermal precursor cells known as sensory organ precursor cells through the translational regulation of target mRNA. In the CNS of Drosophila larvae, however, Musashi is expressed in proliferating neuroblasts and likely has a different function. Its probable mammalian homologue, Musashi-1, is a neural RNA-binding protein that is strongly expressed in fetal and adult neural stem cells (NSCs). Mammalian Musashi-1 augments Notch signaling through the translational repression of its target mRNA, m-Numb, thereby contributing to the self-renewal of NSCs. In addition to its functions in NSCs, the role of mammalian Musashi-1 protein in epithelial stem cells, including intestinal and mammary gland stem cells, is attracting increasing interest.

  7. RNA-binding proteins in plants: the tip of an iceberg?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedoroff, Nina V.; Federoff, N. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins, which are involved in the synthesis, processing, transport, translation, and degradation of RNA, are emerging as important, often multifunctional, cellular regulatory proteins. Although relatively few RNA-binding proteins have been studied in plants, they are being identified with increasing frequency, both genetically and biochemically. RNA-binding proteins that regulate chloroplast mRNA stability and translation in response to light and that have been elegantly analyzed in Clamydomonas reinhardtii have counterparts with similar functions in higher plants. Several recent reports describe mutations in genes encoding RNA-binding proteins that affect plant development and hormone signaling.

  8. RNA Binding Proteins in the miRNA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Connerty, Patrick; Ahadi, Alireza; Hutvagner, Gyorgy

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short ~22 nucleotides (nt) ribonucleic acids which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. miRNAs are key regulators of all cellular processes, and the correct expression of miRNAs in an organism is crucial for proper development and cellular function. As a result, the miRNA biogenesis pathway is highly regulated. In this review, we outline the basic steps of miRNA biogenesis and miRNA mediated gene regulation focusing on the role of RNA binding proteins (RBPs). We also describe multiple mechanisms that regulate the canonical miRNA pathway, which depends on a wide range of RBPs. Moreover, we hypothesise that the interaction between miRNA regulation and RBPs is potentially more widespread based on the analysis of available high-throughput datasets. PMID:26712751

  9. RNA-Binding Proteins: Splicing Factors and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, Alger M.; Cygan, Kamil J.; Brown, Brian A.; Fairbrother, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is mediated by interactions of the Core Spliceosome and an array of accessory RNA binding proteins with cis-sequence elements. Splicing is a major regulatory component in higher eukaryotes. Disruptions in splicing are a major contributor to human disease. One in three hereditary disease alleles are believed to cause aberrant splicing. Hereditary disease alleles can alter splicing by disrupting a splicing element, creating a toxic RNA, or affecting splicing factors. One of the challenges of medical genetics is identifying causal variants from the thousands of possibilities discovered in a clinical sequencing experiment. Here we review the basic biochemistry of splicing, the mechanisms of splicing mutations, the methods for identifying splicing mutants, and the potential of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25985083

  10. Phosphorylation of the RNA-binding protein Dazl by MAPKAP kinase 2 regulates spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Patrick A; Krug, Michael S; McMillan, Emily A; Peake, Jasmine D; Davis, Tara L; Cocklin, Simon; Strochlic, Todd I

    2016-08-01

    Developing male germ cells are exquisitely sensitive to environmental insults such as heat and oxidative stress. An additional characteristic of these cells is their unique dependence on RNA-binding proteins for regulating posttranscriptional gene expression and translational control. Here we provide a mechanistic link unifying these two features. We show that the germ cell-specific RNA-binding protein deleted in azoospermia-like (Dazl) is phosphorylated by MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2), a stress-induced protein kinase activated downstream of p38 MAPK. We demonstrate that phosphorylation of Dazl by MK2 on an evolutionarily conserved serine residue inhibits its interaction with poly(A)-binding protein, resulting in reduced translation of Dazl-regulated target RNAs. We further show that transgenic expression of wild-type human Dazl but not a phosphomimetic form in the Drosophila male germline can restore fertility to flies deficient in boule, the Drosophila orthologue of human Dazl. These results illuminate a novel role for MK2 in spermatogenesis, expand the repertoire of RNA-binding proteins phosphorylated by this kinase, and suggest that signaling by the p38-MK2 pathway is a negative regulator of spermatogenesis via phosphorylation of Dazl. PMID:27280388

  11. Insights into activation and RNA binding of trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) through all-atom simulations.

    PubMed

    Murtola, Teemu; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Falck, Emma

    2008-06-01

    Tryptophan biosynthesis in Bacillus stearothermophilus is regulated by a trp RNA binding attenuation protein (TRAP). It is a ring-shaped 11-mer of identical 74 residue subunits. Tryptophan binding pockets are located between adjacent subunits, and tryptophan binding activates TRAP to bind RNA. Here, we report results from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the system, complementing existing extensive experimental studies. We focus on two questions. First, we look at the activation mechanism, of which relatively little is known experimentally. We find that the absence of tryptophan allows larger motions close to the tryptophan binding site, and we see indication of a conformational change in the BC loop. However, complete deactivation seems to occur on much longer time scales than the 40 ns studied here. Second, we study the TRAP-RNA interactions. We look at the relative flexibilities of the different bases in the complex and analyze the hydrogen bonds between the protein and RNA. We also study the role of Lys37, Lys56, and Arg58, which have been experimentally identified as essential for RNA binding. Hydrophobic stacking of Lys37 with the nearby RNA base is confirmed, but we do not see direct hydrogen bonding between RNA and the other two residues, in contrast to the crystal structure. Rather, these residues seem to stabilize the RNA-binding surface, and their positive charge may also play a role in RNA binding. Simulations also indicate that TRAP is able to attract RNA nonspecifically, and the interactions are quantified in more detail using binding energy calculations. The formation of the final binding complex is a very slow process: within the simulation time scale of 40 ns, only two guanine bases become bound (and no others), indicating that the binding initiates at these positions. In general, our results are in good agreement with experimental studies, and provide atomic-scale insights into the processes. PMID:18186477

  12. RNA binding by the Wilms tumor suppressor zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Caricasole, A; Duarte, A; Larsson, S H; Hastie, N D; Little, M; Holmes, G; Todorov, I; Ward, A

    1996-01-01

    The Wilms tumor suppressor gene WT1 is implicated in the ontogeny of genito-urinary abnormalities, including Denys-Drash syndrome and Wilms tumor of the kidney. WT1 encodes Kruppel-type zinc finger proteins that can regulate the expression of several growth-related genes, apparently by binding to specific DNA sites located within 5' untranslated leader regions as well as 5' promoter sequences. Both WT1 and a closely related early growth response factor, EGR1, can bind the same DNA sequences from the mouse gene encoding insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf-2). We report that WT1, but not EGR1, can bind specific Igf-2 exonic RNA sequences, and that the zinc fingers are required for this interaction. WT1 zinc finger 1, which is not represented in EGR1, plays a more significant role in RNA binding than zinc finger 4, which does have a counterpart in EGR1. Furthermore, the normal subnuclear localization of WT1 proteins is shown to be RNase, but not DNase, sensitive. Therefore, WT1 might, like the Kruppel-type zinc finger protein TFIIIA, regulate gene expression by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8755514

  13. RNA-Binding Proteins Impacting on Internal Initiation of Translation

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Salas, Encarnación; Lozano, Gloria; Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Francisco-Velilla, Rosario; Galan, Alfonso; Diaz, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are pivotal regulators of all the steps of gene expression. RBPs govern gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level by virtue of their capacity to assemble ribonucleoprotein complexes on certain RNA structural elements, both in normal cells and in response to various environmental stresses. A rapid cellular response to stress conditions is triggered at the step of translation initiation. Two basic mechanisms govern translation initiation in eukaryotic mRNAs, the cap-dependent initiation mechanism that operates in most mRNAs, and the internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent mechanism activated under conditions that compromise the general translation pathway. IRES elements are cis-acting RNA sequences that recruit the translation machinery using a cap-independent mechanism often assisted by a subset of translation initiation factors and various RBPs. IRES-dependent initiation appears to use different strategies to recruit the translation machinery depending on the RNA organization of the region and the network of RBPs interacting with the element. In this review we discuss recent advances in understanding the implications of RBPs on IRES-dependent translation initiation. PMID:24189219

  14. RNA binding proteins, neural development and the addictions

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Camron D.; Yazdani, Neema

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression defines the neurobiological mechanisms that bridge genetic and environmental risk factors with neurobehavioral dysfunction underlying the addictions. More than 1000 genes in the eukaryotic genome code for multifunctional RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that can regulate all levels of RNA biogenesis. More than 50% of these RBPs are expressed in the brain where they regulate alternative splicing, transport, localization, stability, and translation of RNAs during development and adulthood. RBP dysfunction can exert global effects on their targetomes that underlie neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease as well as neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. Here, we consider the evidence that RBPs influence key molecular targets, neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, and neurobehavioral dysfunction underlying the addictions. Increasingly well-powered genome-wide association studies in humans and mammalian model organisms combined with ever more precise transcriptomic and proteomic approaches will continue to uncover novel and possibly selective roles for RBPs in the addictions. Key challenges include identifying the biological functions of the dynamic RBP targetomes from specific cell types throughout subcellular space (e.g., the nuclear spliceome versus the synaptic translatome) and time and manipulating RBP programs through post-transcriptional modifications to prevent or reverse aberrant neurodevelopment and plasticity underlying the addictions. PMID:26643147

  15. Regulation of RNA binding proteins in trypanosomatid protozoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Romaniuk, María Albertina; Cervini, Gabriela; Cassola, Alejandro

    2016-02-26

    Posttranscriptional mechanisms have a critical role in the overall outcome of gene expression. These mechanisms are especially relevant in protozoa from the genus Trypanosoma, which is composed by death threatening parasites affecting people in Sub-saharan Africa or in the Americas. In these parasites the classic view of regulation of transcription initiation to modulate the products of a given gene cannot be applied. This is due to the presence of transcription start sites that give rise to long polycistronic units that need to be processed costranscriptionally by trans-splicing and polyadenylation to give mature monocistronic mRNAs. Posttranscriptional mechanisms such as mRNA degradation and translational repression are responsible for the final synthesis of the required protein products. In this context, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in trypanosomes have a relevant role as modulators of mRNA abundance and translational repression by associating to the 3' untranslated regions in mRNA. Many different RBPs have been proposed to modulate cohorts of mRNAs in trypanosomes. However, the current understanding of their functions lacks a dynamic view on the different steps at which these RBPs are regulated. Here, we discuss different evidences to propose regulatory events for different RBPs in these parasites. These events vary from regulated developmental expression, to biogenesis of cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes in the nucleus, and condensation of RBPs and mRNA into large cytoplasmic granules. Finally, we discuss how newly identified posttranslational modifications of RBPs and mRNA metabolism-related proteins could have an enormous impact on the modulation of mRNA abundance. To understand these modifications is especially relevant in these parasites due to the fact that the enzymes involved could be interesting targets for drug therapy. PMID:26981203

  16. Regulation of RNA binding proteins in trypanosomatid protozoan parasites

    PubMed Central

    Romaniuk, María Albertina; Cervini, Gabriela; Cassola, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Posttranscriptional mechanisms have a critical role in the overall outcome of gene expression. These mechanisms are especially relevant in protozoa from the genus Trypanosoma, which is composed by death threatening parasites affecting people in Sub-saharan Africa or in the Americas. In these parasites the classic view of regulation of transcription initiation to modulate the products of a given gene cannot be applied. This is due to the presence of transcription start sites that give rise to long polycistronic units that need to be processed costranscriptionally by trans-splicing and polyadenylation to give mature monocistronic mRNAs. Posttranscriptional mechanisms such as mRNA degradation and translational repression are responsible for the final synthesis of the required protein products. In this context, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in trypanosomes have a relevant role as modulators of mRNA abundance and translational repression by associating to the 3’ untranslated regions in mRNA. Many different RBPs have been proposed to modulate cohorts of mRNAs in trypanosomes. However, the current understanding of their functions lacks a dynamic view on the different steps at which these RBPs are regulated. Here, we discuss different evidences to propose regulatory events for different RBPs in these parasites. These events vary from regulated developmental expression, to biogenesis of cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes in the nucleus, and condensation of RBPs and mRNA into large cytoplasmic granules. Finally, we discuss how newly identified posttranslational modifications of RBPs and mRNA metabolism-related proteins could have an enormous impact on the modulation of mRNA abundance. To understand these modifications is especially relevant in these parasites due to the fact that the enzymes involved could be interesting targets for drug therapy. PMID:26981203

  17. Roles of RNA-Binding Proteins in DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Mihoko

    2016-01-01

    Living cells experience DNA damage as a result of replication errors and oxidative metabolism, exposure to environmental agents (e.g., ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation (IR)), and radiation therapies and chemotherapies for cancer treatments. Accumulation of DNA damage can lead to multiple diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, immune deficiencies, infertility, and also aging. Cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms to deal with DNA damage. Networks of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are coordinated to detect and repair DNA damage, regulate cell cycle and transcription, and determine the cell fate. Upstream factors of DNA damage checkpoints and repair, “sensor” proteins, detect DNA damage and send the signals to downstream factors in order to maintain genomic integrity. Unexpectedly, we have discovered that an RNA-processing factor is involved in DNA repair processes. We have identified a gene that contributes to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)’s treatment resistance and recurrence. This gene, RBM14, is known to function in transcription and RNA splicing. RBM14 is also required for maintaining the stem-like state of GBM spheres, and it controls the DNA-PK-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway by interacting with KU80. RBM14 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP) with low complexity domains, called intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), and it also physically interacts with PARP1. Furthermore, RBM14 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent manner (unpublished data). DNA-dependent PARP1 (poly-(ADP) ribose polymerase 1) makes key contributions in the DNA damage response (DDR) network. RBM14 therefore plays an important role in a PARP-dependent DSB repair process. Most recently, it was shown that the other RBPs with intrinsically disordered domains are recruited to DNA damage sites in a PAR-dependent manner, and that these RBPs form liquid compartments (also known as

  18. Roles of RNA-Binding Proteins in DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Kai, Mihoko

    2016-01-01

    Living cells experience DNA damage as a result of replication errors and oxidative metabolism, exposure to environmental agents (e.g., ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation (IR)), and radiation therapies and chemotherapies for cancer treatments. Accumulation of DNA damage can lead to multiple diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, immune deficiencies, infertility, and also aging. Cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms to deal with DNA damage. Networks of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are coordinated to detect and repair DNA damage, regulate cell cycle and transcription, and determine the cell fate. Upstream factors of DNA damage checkpoints and repair, "sensor" proteins, detect DNA damage and send the signals to downstream factors in order to maintain genomic integrity. Unexpectedly, we have discovered that an RNA-processing factor is involved in DNA repair processes. We have identified a gene that contributes to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)'s treatment resistance and recurrence. This gene, RBM14, is known to function in transcription and RNA splicing. RBM14 is also required for maintaining the stem-like state of GBM spheres, and it controls the DNA-PK-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway by interacting with KU80. RBM14 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP) with low complexity domains, called intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), and it also physically interacts with PARP1. Furthermore, RBM14 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent manner (unpublished data). DNA-dependent PARP1 (poly-(ADP) ribose polymerase 1) makes key contributions in the DNA damage response (DDR) network. RBM14 therefore plays an important role in a PARP-dependent DSB repair process. Most recently, it was shown that the other RBPs with intrinsically disordered domains are recruited to DNA damage sites in a PAR-dependent manner, and that these RBPs form liquid compartments (also known as "liquid-demixing"). Among the

  19. Divergence of Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA Binding Factor (PUF) Protein Specificity through Variations in an RNA-binding Pocket*

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chen; Kershner, Aaron; Wang, Yeming; Holley, Cynthia P.; Wilinski, Daniel; Keles, Sunduz; Kimble, Judith; Wickens, Marvin; Hall, Traci M. Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    mRNA control networks depend on recognition of specific RNA sequences. Pumilio-fem-3 mRNA binding factor (PUF) RNA-binding proteins achieve that specificity through variations on a conserved scaffold. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Puf3p achieves specificity through an additional binding pocket for a cytosine base upstream of the core RNA recognition site. Here we demonstrate that this chemically simple adaptation is prevalent and contributes to the diversity of RNA specificities among PUF proteins. Bioinformatics analysis shows that mRNAs associated with Caenorhabditis elegans fem-3 mRNA binding factor (FBF)-2 in vivo contain an upstream cytosine required for biological regulation. Crystal structures of FBF-2 and C. elegans PUF-6 reveal binding pockets structurally similar to that of Puf3p, whereas sequence alignments predict a pocket in PUF-11. For Puf3p, FBF-2, PUF-6, and PUF-11, the upstream pockets and a cytosine are required for maximal binding to RNA, but the quantitative impact on binding affinity varies. Furthermore, the position of the upstream cytosine relative to the core PUF recognition site can differ, which in the case of FBF-2 originally masked the identification of this consensus sequence feature. Importantly, other PUF proteins lack the pocket and so do not discriminate upstream bases. A structure-based alignment reveals that these proteins lack key residues that would contact the cytosine, and in some instances, they also present amino acid side chains that interfere with binding. Loss of the pocket requires only substitution of one serine, as appears to have occurred during the evolution of certain fungal species. PMID:22205700

  20. Activities of the Sex-lethal protein in RNA binding and protein:protein interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, M; Deshpande, G; Schedl, P

    1998-01-01

    The Drosophila sex determination gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) controls its own expression, and the expression of downstream target genes such as transformer , by regulating pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. Sxl codes an RNA-binding protein that consists of an N-terminus of approximately 100 amino acids, two 90 amino acid RRM domains, R1 and R2, and an 80 amino acid C-terminus. In the studies reported here we have examined the functional properties of the different Sxl protein domains in RNA binding and in protein:protein interactions. The two RRM domains are responsible for RNA binding. Specificity in the recognition of target RNAs requires both RRM domains, and proteins which consist of the single domains or duplicated domains have anomalous RNA recognition properties. Moreover, the length of the linker between domains can affect RNA recognition properties. Our results indicate that the two RRM domains mediate Sxl:Sxl protein interactions, and that these interactions probably occur both in cis and trans. We speculate that cis interactions between R1 and R2 play a role in RNA recognition by the Sxl protein, while trans interactions stabilize complex formation on target RNAs that contain two or more closely spaced binding sites. Finally, we show that the interaction of Sxl with the snRNP protein Snf is mediated by the R1 RRM domain. PMID:9592147

  1. Structural delineation of stem-loop RNA binding by human TAF15 protein.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Maruthi; Ganguly, Akshay Kumar; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar

    2015-01-01

    Human TATA binding protein associated factor 2 N (TAF15) and Fused in sarcoma (FUS) are nucleic acid binding proteins belonging to the conserved FET family of proteins. They are involved in diverse processes such as pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA transport, and DNA binding. The absence of information regarding the structural mechanism employed by the FET family in recognizing and discriminating their cognate and non-cognate RNA targets has hampered the attainment of consensus on modes of protein-RNA binding for this family. Our study provides a molecular basis of this RNA recognition using a combination of solution-state NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry, docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of TAF15-RRM solution structure and its binding with stem-loop RNA has yielded conclusive evidence of a non-canonical mode of RNA recognition. Rather than classical stacking interactions that occur across nitrogen bases and aromatic amino acids on ribonucleoprotein sites, moderate-affinity hydrogen bonding network between the nitrogen bases in the stem-loop RNA and a concave face on the RRM surface primarily mediate TAF15-RRM RNA interaction. We have compared the binding affinities across a set of single-stranded RNA oligonucleotides to conclusively establish that RNA binding is dependent upon structural elements in the RNA rather than sequence. PMID:26612539

  2. Structural delineation of stem-loop RNA binding by human TAF15 protein

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Maruthi; Ganguly, Akshay Kumar; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar

    2015-01-01

    Human TATA binding protein associated factor 2 N (TAF15) and Fused in sarcoma (FUS) are nucleic acid binding proteins belonging to the conserved FET family of proteins. They are involved in diverse processes such as pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA transport, and DNA binding. The absence of information regarding the structural mechanism employed by the FET family in recognizing and discriminating their cognate and non-cognate RNA targets has hampered the attainment of consensus on modes of protein-RNA binding for this family. Our study provides a molecular basis of this RNA recognition using a combination of solution-state NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry, docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of TAF15-RRM solution structure and its binding with stem-loop RNA has yielded conclusive evidence of a non-canonical mode of RNA recognition. Rather than classical stacking interactions that occur across nitrogen bases and aromatic amino acids on ribonucleoprotein sites, moderate-affinity hydrogen bonding network between the nitrogen bases in the stem-loop RNA and a concave face on the RRM surface primarily mediate TAF15-RRM RNA interaction. We have compared the binding affinities across a set of single-stranded RNA oligonucleotides to conclusively establish that RNA binding is dependent upon structural elements in the RNA rather than sequence. PMID:26612539

  3. Crystal structure of prokaryotic ribosomal protein L9: a bi-lobed RNA-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, D W; Davies, C; Gerchman, S E; Kycia, J H; Porter, S J; White, S W; Ramakrishnan, V

    1994-01-01

    The crystal structure of protein L9 from the Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosome has been determined at 2.8 A resolution using X-ray diffraction methods. This primary RNA-binding protein has a highly elongated and unusual structure consisting of two separated domains joined by a long exposed alpha-helix. Conserved, positively charged and aromatic amino acids on the surfaces of both domains probably represent the sites of specific interactions with 23S rRNA. Comparisons with other prokaryotic L9 sequences show that while the length of the connecting alpha-helix is invariant, the sequence within the exposed central region is not conserved. This suggests that the alpha-helix has an architectural role and serves to fix the relative separation and orientation of the N- and C-terminal domains within the ribosome. The N-terminal domain has structural homology to the smaller ribosomal proteins L7/L12 and L30, and the eukaryotic RNA recognition motif (RRM). Images PMID:8306963

  4. Identification of mRNA bound to RNA binding proteins by differential display.

    PubMed

    Carr-Schmid, Anne; Jiao, Xinfu; Kiledjian, Megerditch

    2006-01-01

    A large number of RNA binding proteins have recently been identified that influence various human genetic disorders. However, the specific function of many of these proteins and what role they may play in a particular disease remains unclear. Identification of the substrate mRNA bound by an RNA binding protein will provide insights into the function of that protein and how its aberrant expression could lead to a disease phenotype. We have developed a technique termed SNAAP, for isolation of specific nucleic acids associated with proteins, to identify natural mRNA substrates for an RNA binding protein. The technique couples affinity purification of specific mRNAs bound by an RNA binding protein, with the identification of that mRNA using differential display (DD). Methods are described herein for the isolation and identification of endogenous mRNAs bound by any RNA binding protein, as well as methodology to validate the specificity of the binding. The availability of technologies to isolate the cognate substrate mRNAs potentially bound and regulated by an RNA binding protein involved in genetic disorders will greatly expedite our etiological understanding of the disorder and provide modalities for intervention. PMID:16264238

  5. The RNA-binding protein Musashi is required intrinsically to maintain stem cell identity.

    PubMed

    Siddall, Nicole A; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Marriner, Neisha L; Hime, Gary R

    2006-05-30

    A key goal of regenerative medicine is an understanding of the genetic factors that define the properties of stem cells. However, stem cell research in mammalian tissue has been hampered by a paucity of stem cell-specific markers. Although increasing evidence suggests that members of the Musashi (Msi) family of RNA-binding proteins play important functions in progenitor cells, it remains unclear whether there is a stem cell-autonomous requirement for Msi because of an inability to distinguish stem cells from early-lineage cells in mammalian tissues. Here, using the Drosophila testis as a model system for the study of stem cell regulation, we show specific evidence for a cell-autonomous requirement for Msi family proteins in regulating stem cell differentiation, leading to the identification of an RNA-binding protein required for spermatogonial stem cell maintenance. We found that loss of Msi function disrupts the balance between germ-line stem cell renewal and differentiation, resulting in the premature differentiation of germ-line stem cells. Moreover, we found that, although Msi is expressed in both somatic and germ cells, Msi function is required intrinsically in stem cells for maintenance of stem cell identity. We also discovered a requirement for Msi function in male meiosis, revealing that Msi has distinct roles at different stages of germ cell differentiation. We describe the complementary expression patterns of the murine Msi paralogues Msi1 and Msi2 during spermatogenesis, which support the idea of distinct, evolutionarily conserved roles of Msi. PMID:16717192

  6. Ribosomal protein L5 has a highly twisted concave surface and flexible arms responsible for rRNA binding.

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, T; Yao, M; Kawamura, S; Iwasaki, K; Kimura, M; Tanaka, I

    2001-01-01

    Ribosomal protein L5 is a 5S rRNA binding protein in the large subunit and plays an essential role in the promotion of a particular conformation of 5S rRNA. The crystal structure of the ribosomal protein L5 from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been determined at 1.8 A resolution. The molecule consists of a five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and four alpha-helices, which fold in a way that is topologically similar to the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) domain. The molecular shape and electrostatic representation suggest that the concave surface and loop regions are involved in 5S rRNA binding. To identify amino acid residues responsible for 5S rRNA binding, we made use of Ala-scanning mutagenesis of evolutionarily conserved amino acids occurring in the beta-strands and loop regions. The mutations of Asn37 at the beta1-strand and Gln63 at the loop between helix 2 and beta3-strand as well as that of Phe77 at the tip of the loop structure between the beta2- and beta3-strands caused a significant reduction in 5S rRNA binding. In addition, the mutations of Thr90 on the beta3-strand and Ile141 and Asp144 at the loop between beta4- and beta5-strands moderately reduced the 5S rRNA-binding affinity. Comparison of these results with the more recently analyzed structure of the 50S subunit from Haloarcula marismortui suggests that there are significant differences in the structure at N- and C-terminal regions and probably in the 5S rRNA binding. PMID:11350033

  7. RNA-binding proteins ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 promote cell quiescence.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Alison; Saveliev, Alexander; Łukasiak, Sebastian; Hodson, Daniel J; Bolland, Daniel; Balmanno, Kathryn; Ahlfors, Helena; Monzón-Casanova, Elisa; Mannurita, Sara Ciullini; Bell, Lewis S; Andrews, Simon; Díaz-Muñoz, Manuel D; Cook, Simon J; Corcoran, Anne; Turner, Martin

    2016-04-22

    Progression through the stages of lymphocyte development requires coordination of the cell cycle. Such coordination ensures genomic integrity while cells somatically rearrange their antigen receptor genes [in a process called variable-diversity-joining (VDJ) recombination] and, upon successful rearrangement, expands the pools of progenitor lymphocytes. Here we show that in developing B lymphocytes, the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 are critical for maintaining quiescence before precursor B cell receptor (pre-BCR) expression and for reestablishing quiescence after pre-BCR-induced expansion. These RBPs suppress an evolutionarily conserved posttranscriptional regulon consisting of messenger RNAs whose protein products cooperatively promote transition into the S phase of the cell cycle. This mechanism promotes VDJ recombination and effective selection of cells expressing immunoglobulin-μ at the pre-BCR checkpoint. PMID:27102483

  8. Metabolic Enzymes Enjoying New Partnerships as RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Castello, Alfredo; Hentze, Matthias W.; Preiss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In the past century, few areas of biology advanced as much as our understanding of the pathways of intermediary metabolism. Initially considered unimportant in terms of gene regulation, crucial cellular fate changes, cell differentiation, or malignant transformation are now known to involve ‘metabolic remodeling’ with profound changes in the expression of many metabolic enzyme genes. This review focuses on the recent identification of RNA-binding activity of numerous metabolic enzymes. We discuss possible roles of this unexpected second activity in feedback gene regulation (‘moonlighting’) and/or in the control of enzymatic function. We also consider how metabolism-driven post-translational modifications could regulate enzyme–RNA interactions. Thus, RNA emerges as a new partner of metabolic enzymes with far-reaching possible consequences to be unraveled in the future. PMID:26520658

  9. The RNA Binding Specificity of Human APOBEC3 Proteins Resembles That of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid.

    PubMed

    York, Ashley; Kutluay, Sebla B; Errando, Manel; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    The APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases are antiretroviral proteins, whose targets include human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Their incorporation into viral particles is critical for antiviral activity and is driven by interactions with the RNA molecules that are packaged into virions. However, it is unclear whether A3 proteins preferentially target RNA molecules that are destined to be packaged and if so, how. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq), we determined the RNA binding preferences of the A3F, A3G and A3H proteins. We found that A3 proteins bind preferentially to RNA segments with particular properties, both in cells and in virions. Specifically, A3 proteins target RNA sequences that are G-rich and/or A-rich and are not scanned by ribosomes during translation. Comparative analyses of HIV-1 Gag, nucleocapsid (NC) and A3 RNA binding to HIV-1 RNA in cells and virions revealed the striking finding that A3 proteins partially mimic the RNA binding specificity of the HIV-1 NC protein. These findings suggest a model for A3 incorporation into HIV-1 virions in which an NC-like RNA binding specificity is determined by nucleotide composition rather than sequence. This model reconciles the promiscuity of A3 RNA binding that has been observed in previous studies with a presumed advantage that would accompany selective binding to RNAs that are destined to be packaged into virions. PMID:27541140

  10. The RNA Binding Specificity of Human APOBEC3 Proteins Resembles That of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid

    PubMed Central

    Errando, Manel; Bieniasz, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases are antiretroviral proteins, whose targets include human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Their incorporation into viral particles is critical for antiviral activity and is driven by interactions with the RNA molecules that are packaged into virions. However, it is unclear whether A3 proteins preferentially target RNA molecules that are destined to be packaged and if so, how. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq), we determined the RNA binding preferences of the A3F, A3G and A3H proteins. We found that A3 proteins bind preferentially to RNA segments with particular properties, both in cells and in virions. Specifically, A3 proteins target RNA sequences that are G-rich and/or A-rich and are not scanned by ribosomes during translation. Comparative analyses of HIV-1 Gag, nucleocapsid (NC) and A3 RNA binding to HIV-1 RNA in cells and virions revealed the striking finding that A3 proteins partially mimic the RNA binding specificity of the HIV-1 NC protein. These findings suggest a model for A3 incorporation into HIV-1 virions in which an NC-like RNA binding specificity is determined by nucleotide composition rather than sequence. This model reconciles the promiscuity of A3 RNA binding that has been observed in previous studies with a presumed advantage that would accompany selective binding to RNAs that are destined to be packaged into virions. PMID:27541140

  11. Functionally related transcripts have common RNA motifs for specific RNA-binding proteins in trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Noé, Griselda; De Gaudenzi, Javier G; Frasch, Alberto C

    2008-01-01

    Background Trypanosomes mostly control gene expression by post-transcriptional events such as modulation of mRNA stability and translational efficiency. These mechanisms involve RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), which associate with transcripts to form messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes. Results In this study, we report the identification of mRNA targets for Trypanosoma cruzi U-rich RBP 1 (TcUBP1) and T. cruzi RBP 3 (TcRBP3), two phylogenetically conserved proteins among Kinetoplastids. Co-immunoprecipitated RBP-associated RNAs were extracted from mRNP complexes and binding of RBPs to several targets was confirmed by independent experimental assays. Analysis of target transcript sequences allowed the identification of different signature RNA motifs for each protein. Cis-elements for RBP binding have a stem-loop structure of 30–35 bases and are more frequently represented in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs. Insertion of the correctly folded RNA elements to a non-specific mRNA rendered it into a target transcript, whereas substitution of the RNA elements abolished RBP interaction. In addition, RBPs competed for RNA-binding sites in accordance with the distribution of different and overlapping motifs in the 3'-UTRs of common mRNAs. Conclusion Functionally related transcripts were preferentially associated with a given RBP; TcUBP1 targets were enriched in genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism, whereas ribosomal protein-encoding transcripts were the largest group within TcRBP3 targets. Together, these results suggest coordinated control of different mRNA subsets at the post-transcriptional level by specific RBPs. PMID:19063746

  12. Predicted structure and phyletic distribution of the RNA-binding protein Hfq

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xueguang; Zhulin, Igor; Wartell, Roger M.

    2002-01-01

    Hfq, a bacterial RNA-binding protein, was recently shown to contain the Sm1 motif, a characteristic of Sm and LSm proteins that function in RNA processing events in archaea and eukaryotes. In this report, comparative structural modeling was used to predict a three-dimensional structure of the Hfq core sequence. The predicted structure aligns with most major features of the Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum LSm protein structure. Conserved residues in Hfq are positioned at the same structural locations responsible for subunit assembly and RNA interaction in Sm proteins. A highly conserved portion of Hfq assumes a structural fold similar to the Sm2 motif of Sm proteins. The evolution of the Hfq protein was explored by conducting a BLAST search of microbial genomes followed by phylogenetic analysis. Approximately half of the 140 complete or nearly complete genomes examined contain at least one gene coding for Hfq. The presence or absence of Hfq closely followed major bacterial clades. It is absent from high-level clades and present in the ancient Thermotogales-Aquificales clade and all proteobacteria except for those that have undergone major reduction in genome size. Residues at three positions in Hfq form signatures for the beta/gamma proteobacteria, alpha proteobacteria and low GC Gram-positive bacteria groups. PMID:12202750

  13. RGG boxes within the TET/FET family of RNA-binding proteins are functionally distinct.

    PubMed

    Chau, Bess Ling; Ng, King Pan; Li, Kim K C; Lee, Kevin A W

    2016-08-01

    The multi-functional TET (TAF15/EWS/TLS) or FET (FUS/EWS/TLS) protein family of higher organisms harbor a transcriptional-activation domain (EAD) and an RNA-binding domain (RBD). The transcriptional activation function is, however, only revealed in oncogenic TET-fusion proteins because in native TET proteins it is auto-repressed by RGG-boxes within the TET RBD. Auto-repression is suggested to involve direct cation-pi interactions between multiple Arg residues within RGG boxes and EAD aromatics. Via analysis of TET transcriptional activity in different organisms, we report herein that repression is not autonomous but instead requires additional trans-acting factors. This finding is not supportive of a proposed model whereby repression occurs via a simple intramolecular EAD/RGG-box interaction. We also show that RGG-boxes present within reiterated YGGDRGG repeats that are unique to TAF15, are defective for repression due to the conserved Asp residue. Thus, RGG boxes within TET proteins can be functionally distinguished. While our results show that YGGDRGG repeats are not involved in TAF15 auto-repression, their remarkable number and conservation strongly suggest that they may confer specialized properties to TAF15 and thus contribute to functional differentiation within the TET/FET protein family. PMID:27159574

  14. Application of RNase in the purification of RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jonghoon; Lee, Myung Soog; Gorenstein, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Basic findings It was found that RNA-binding proteins can be contaminated with host RNA during purification. The contamination of purified RNA-binding protein with RNA was identified by gel electrophoresis and EtBr staining. Our data suggest that applications of appropriate enzymes (DNase or RNase) in the early stage of purification may remove the contaminating nucleic acids. Significance The concept introduced in this research can easily be extended to the purification of other RNA- or DNA-binding proteins by applying RNase or DNase directly to the cell extracts. PMID:17400170

  15. hnRNP G: sequence and characterization of a glycosylated RNA-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Soulard, M; Della Valle, V; Siomi, M C; Piñol-Roma, S; Codogno, P; Bauvy, C; Bellini, M; Lacroix, J C; Monod, G; Dreyfuss, G

    1993-01-01

    The autoantigen p43 is a nuclear protein initially identified with autoantibodies from dogs with a lupus-like syndrome. Here we show that p43 is an RNA-binding protein, and identify it as hnRNP G, a previously described component of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes. We demonstrate that p43/hnRNP G is glycosylated, and identify the modification as O-linked N-acetylglucosamine. A full-length cDNA clone for hnRNP G has been isolated and sequenced, and the predicted amino acid sequence for hnRNP G shows that it contains one RNP-consensus RNA binding domain (RBD) at the amino terminus and a carboxyl domain rich in serines, arginines and glycines. The RBD of human hnRNP G shows striking similarities with the RBDs of several plant RNA-binding proteins. Images PMID:7692398

  16. PUB1: a major yeast poly(A)+ RNA-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Matunis, M J; Matunis, E L; Dreyfuss, G

    1993-01-01

    The expression of RNA polymerase II transcripts can be regulated at the posttranscriptional level by RNA-binding proteins. Although extensively characterized in metazoans, relatively few RNA-binding proteins have been characterized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three major proteins are cross-linked by UV light to poly(A)+ RNA in living S. cerevisiae cells. These are the 72-kDa poly(A)-binding protein and proteins of 60 and 50 kDa (S.A. Adam, T.Y. Nakagawa, M.S. Swanson, T. Woodruff, and G. Dreyfuss, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:2932-2943, 1986). Here, we describe the 60-kDa protein, one of the major poly(A)+ RNA-binding proteins in S. cerevisiae. This protein, PUB1 [for poly(U)-binding protein 1], was purified by affinity chromatography on immobilized poly(rU), and specific monoclonal antibodies to it were produced. UV cross-linking demonstrated that PUB1 is bound to poly(A)+ RNA (mRNA or pre-mRNA) in living cells, and it was detected primarily in the cytoplasm by indirect immunofluorescence. The gene for PUB1 was cloned and sequenced, and the sequence was found to predict a 51-kDa protein with three ribonucleoprotein consensus RNA-binding domains and three glutamine- and asparagine-rich auxiliary domains. This overall structure is remarkably similar to the structures of the Drosophila melanogaster elav gene product, the human neuronal antigen HuD, and the cytolytic lymphocyte protein TIA-1. Each of these proteins has an important role in development and differentiation, potentially by affecting RNA processing. PUB1 was found to be nonessential in S. cerevisiae by gene replacement; however, further genetic analysis should reveal important features of this class of RNA-binding proteins. Images PMID:8413213

  17. Using mutagenesis to explore conserved residues in the RNA-binding groove of influenza A virus nucleoprotein for antiviral drug development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Lin; Hung, Hui-Chen; Lo, Shou-Chen; Chiang, Ching-Hui; Chen, I-Jung; Hsu, John T.-A.; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoprotein (NP) is the most abundant type of RNA-binding viral protein in influenza A virus–infected cells and is necessary for viral RNA transcription and replication. Recent studies demonstrated that influenza NP is a valid target for antiviral drug development. The surface of the groove, covered with numerous conserved residues between the head and body domains of influenza A NP, plays a crucial role in RNA binding. To explore the mechanism by which NP binds RNA, we performed a series of site-directed mutagenesis in the RNA-binding groove, followed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), to characterize the interactions between RNA and NP. Furthermore, a role of Y148 in NP stability and NP-RNA binding was evaluated. The aromatic residue of Y148 was found to stack with a nucleotide base. By interrupting the stacking interaction between Y148 and an RNA base, we identified an influenza virus NP inhibitor, (E, E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) -1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione; this inhibitor reduced the NP’s RNA-binding affinity and hindered viral replication. Our findings will be useful for the development of new drugs that disrupt the interaction between RNA and viral NP in the influenza virus. PMID:26916998

  18. Using mutagenesis to explore conserved residues in the RNA-binding groove of influenza A virus nucleoprotein for antiviral drug development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Lin; Hung, Hui-Chen; Lo, Shou-Chen; Chiang, Ching-Hui; Chen, I-Jung; Hsu, John T-A; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoprotein (NP) is the most abundant type of RNA-binding viral protein in influenza A virus-infected cells and is necessary for viral RNA transcription and replication. Recent studies demonstrated that influenza NP is a valid target for antiviral drug development. The surface of the groove, covered with numerous conserved residues between the head and body domains of influenza A NP, plays a crucial role in RNA binding. To explore the mechanism by which NP binds RNA, we performed a series of site-directed mutagenesis in the RNA-binding groove, followed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), to characterize the interactions between RNA and NP. Furthermore, a role of Y148 in NP stability and NP-RNA binding was evaluated. The aromatic residue of Y148 was found to stack with a nucleotide base. By interrupting the stacking interaction between Y148 and an RNA base, we identified an influenza virus NP inhibitor, (E, E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) -1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione; this inhibitor reduced the NP's RNA-binding affinity and hindered viral replication. Our findings will be useful for the development of new drugs that disrupt the interaction between RNA and viral NP in the influenza virus. PMID:26916998

  19. RNA-binding proteins in mouse male germline stem cells: a mammalian perspective.

    PubMed

    Qi, Huayu

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells that reside in particular types of tissues are responsible for tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Cellular functions of adult stem cells are intricately related to the gene expression programs in those cells. Past research has demonstrated that regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level can decisively alter cell fate of stem cells. However, cellular contents of mRNAs are sometimes not equivalent to proteins, the functional units of cells. It is increasingly realized that post-transcriptional and translational regulation of gene expression are also fundamental for stem cell functions. Compared to differentiated somatic cells, effects on cellular status manifested by varied expression of RNA-binding proteins and global protein synthesis have been demonstrated in several stem cell systems. Through the cooperation of both cis-elements of mRNAs and trans-acting RNA-binding proteins that are intimately associated with them, regulation of localization, stability, and translational status of mRNAs directly influences the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. Previous studies have uncovered some of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the functions of RNA-binding proteins in stem cells in invertebrate species. However, their roles in adult stem cells in mammals are just beginning to be unveiled. This review highlights some of the RNA-binding proteins that play important functions during the maintenance and differentiation of mouse male germline stem cells, the adult stem cells in the male reproductive organ. PMID:26839690

  20. Multiple activities of RNA-binding proteins S1 and Hfq.

    PubMed

    Hajnsdorf, Eliane; Boni, Irina V

    2012-07-01

    In all organisms, RNA-binding proteins participate in modulating all the steps in the life cycle of RNA, including transcription, folding, translation and turnover. In bacteria, RNA-binding proteins may be specific for a few RNA targets (e.g., several ribosomal proteins that recognize both rRNA during ribosome assembly and their own mRNAs when acting as highly specific autogenous repressors) or function as global regulators implicated in numerous regulatory networks. Some RNA-binding proteins combine all these features, and this particularly concerns the ribosomal protein S1 and the Sm-like protein Hfq. S1 is a key mRNA-binding protein in gram-negative bacteria; it recognizes mRNA leaders and provides binding of diverse mRNAs to the ribosome at the initiation step of translation. Moreover, S1 is a highly specific autogenous repressor that is able to distinguish its own mRNA from all the others. Hfq is recognized as a global regulator that facilitates small RNA-mRNA interactions in bacteria; it thereby controls the expression of many mRNAs either positively or negatively. In addition, these two proteins were reported to affect transcription, RNA degradation and other processes. Although they have no sequence specificity, Hfq and S1 preferentially bind A/U-rich single-stranded RNA regions; despite this, they nevertheless carry out very different tasks in the cell. This review is focused on the diversity of functions that can be performed by these abundant RNA-binding bacterial proteins. PMID:22370051

  1. Inhibition of HIV derived lentiviral production by TAR RNA binding domain of TAT protein

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Michael Y; Zhang, Jiying; He, Yukai

    2005-01-01

    Background A critical step in the production of new HIV virions involves the TAT protein binding to the TAR element. The TAT protein contains in close proximity its TAR RNA binding domain and protein transduction domain (PTD). The PTD domain of TAT has been identified as being instrumental in the protein's ability to cross mammalian cell and nuclear membranes. All together, this information led us to form the hypothesis that a protein containing the TAR RNA binding domain could compete with the native full length TAT protein and effectively block the TAR RNA binding site in transduced HIV infected cells. Results We synthesized a short peptide named Tat-P, which contained the TAR RNA binding and PTD domains to examine whether the peptide has the potential of inhibiting TAT dependent HIV replication. We investigated the inhibiting effects of Tat-P in vitro using a HIV derived lentiviral vector model. We found that the TAT PTD domain not only efficiently transduced test cells, but also effectively inhibited the production of lentiviral particles in a TAT dependent manner. These results were also supported by data derived from the TAT activated LTR-luciferase expression model and RNA binding assays. Conclusion Tat-P may become part of a category of anti-HIV drugs that competes with full length TAT proteins to inhibit HIV replication. In addition, this study indicates that the HIV derived lentiviral vector system is a safe and reliable screening method for anti-HIV drugs, especially for those targeting the interaction of TAT and TAR RNAs. PMID:16293193

  2. A Second RNA-Binding Site in the NS1 Protein of Influenza B Virus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Chung; Guan, Rongjin; Hamilton, Keith; Aramini, James M; Mao, Lei; Wang, Shanshan; Krug, Robert M; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2016-09-01

    Influenza viruses cause a highly contagious respiratory disease in humans. The NS1 proteins of influenza A and B viruses (NS1A and NS1B proteins, respectively) are composed of two domains, a dimeric N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain, connected by a flexible polypeptide linker. Here we report the 2.0-Å X-ray crystal structure and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the NS1B C-terminal domain, which reveal a novel and unexpected basic RNA-binding site that is not present in the NS1A protein. We demonstrate that single-site alanine replacements of basic residues in this site lead to reduced RNA-binding activity, and that recombinant influenza B viruses expressing these mutant NS1B proteins are severely attenuated in replication. This novel RNA-binding site of NS1B is required for optimal influenza B virus replication. Most importantly, this study reveals an unexpected RNA-binding function in the C-terminal domain of NS1B, a novel function that distinguishes influenza B viruses from influenza A viruses. PMID:27545620

  3. Uncovering RNA binding proteins associated with age and gender during liver maturation

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Praneet; Neelamraju, Yaseswini; Arif, Waqar; Kalsotra, Auinash; Janga, Sarath Chandra

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we perform an association analysis focusing on the expression changes of 1344 RNA Binding proteins (RBPs) as a function of age and gender in human liver. We identify 88 and 45 RBPs to be significantly associated with age and gender respectively. Experimental verification of several of the predicted associations in mice confirmed our findings. Our results suggest that a small fraction of the gender-associated RBPs (~40%) are expressed higher in males than females. Altogether, these observations show that several of these RBPs are important and conserved regulators in maintaining liver function. Further analysis of the protein interaction network of RBPs associated with age and gender based on the centrality measures like degree, betweenness and closeness revealed that several of these RBPs might be prominent players in aging liver and impart gender specific alterations in gene expression via the formation of protein complexes. Indeed, both age and gender-associated RBPs in liver were found to show significantly higher clustering coefficients and network centrality measures compared to non-associated RBPs. The compendium of RBPs and this study will help us gain insight into the role of post-transcriptional regulatory molecules in aging and gender specific expression of genes. PMID:25824884

  4. Leafy head2, which encodes a putative RNA-binding protein, regulates shoot development of rice.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Guo Sheng; Hu, Xing Ming; Jiao, Yong Qing; Yu, Yan Chun; Chu, Cheng Cai; Li, Jia Yang; Qian, Qian; Wang, Yong Hong

    2006-03-01

    During vegetative development, higher plants continuously form new leaves in regular spatial and temporal patterns. Mutants with abnormal leaf developmental patterns not only provide a great insight into understanding the regulatory mechanism of plant architecture, but also enrich the ways to its modification by which crop yield could be improved. Here, we reported the characterization of the rice leafy-head2 (lhd2) mutant that exhibits shortened plastochron, dwarfism, reduced tiller number, and failure of phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Anatomical and histological study revealed that the rapid emergence of leaves in lhd2 was resulted from the rapid initiation of leaf primordia whereas the reduced tiller number was a consequence of the suppression of the tiller bud outgrowth. The molecular and genetic analysis showed that LHD2 encodes a putative RNA binding protein with 67% similarity to maize TE1. Comparison of genome-scale expression profiles between wild-type and lhd2 plants suggested that LHD2 may regulate rice shoot development through KNOX and hormone-related genes. The similar phenotypes caused by LHD2 mutation and the conserved expression pattern of LHD2 indicated a conserved mechanism in controlling the temporal leaf initiation in grass. PMID:16541125

  5. Polysomes of Trypanosoma brucei: Association with Initiation Factors and RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Cornelia; Terrao, Monica; Inchaustegui Gil, Diana; Clayton, Christine

    2015-01-01

    We report here the results of experiments designed to identify RNA-binding proteins that might be associated with Trypanosoma brucei polysomes. After some preliminary mass spectrometry of polysomal fractions, we investigated the distributions of selected tagged proteins using sucrose gradients and immunofluorescence. As expected, the polysomal fractions contained nearly all annotated ribosomal proteins, the translation-associated protein folding complex, and many translation factors, but also many other abundant proteins. Results suggested that cap-binding proteins EIF4E3 and EIF4E4 were associated with both free and membrane-bound polysomes. The EIF4E binding partners EIF4G4 and EIF4G3 were present but the other EIF4E and EIF4G paralogues were not detected. The dominant EIF4E in the polysomal fraction is EIF4E4 and very few polysomal mRNAs are associated with EIF4G. Thirteen potential mRNA-binding proteins were detected in the polysomes, including the known polysome-associated protein RBP42. The locations of two of the other proteins were tested after epitope tagging: RBP29 was in the nucleus and ZC3H29 was in the cytoplasm. Quantitative analyses showed that specific association of an RNA-binding protein with the polysome fraction in sucrose gradients will not be detected if the protein is in more than 25-fold molar excess over its target binding sites. PMID:26287607

  6. Interaction of tau with the RNA-Binding Protein TIA1 Regulates tau Pathophysiology and Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Vanderweyde, Tara; Apicco, Daniel J; Youmans-Kidder, Katherine; Ash, Peter E A; Cook, Casey; Lummertz da Rocha, Edroaldo; Jansen-West, Karen; Frame, Alissa A; Citro, Allison; Leszyk, John D; Ivanov, Pavel; Abisambra, Jose F; Steffen, Martin; Li, Hu; Petrucelli, Leonard; Wolozin, Benjamin

    2016-05-17

    Dendritic mislocalization of microtubule associated protein tau is a hallmark of tauopathies, but the role of dendritic tau is unknown. We now report that tau interacts with the RNA-binding protein (RBP) TIA1 in brain tissue, and we present the brain-protein interactome network for TIA1. Analysis of the TIA1 interactome in brain tissue from wild-type (WT) and tau knockout mice demonstrates that tau is required for normal interactions of TIA1 with proteins linked to RNA metabolism, including ribosomal proteins and RBPs. Expression studies show that tau regulates the distribution of TIA1, and tau accelerates stress granule (SG) formation. Conversely, TIA1 knockdown or knockout inhibits tau misfolding and associated toxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons, while overexpressing TIA1 induces tau misfolding and stimulates neurodegeneration. Pharmacological interventions that prevent SG formation also inhibit tau pathophysiology. These studies suggest that the pathophysiology of tauopathy requires an intimate interaction with RNA-binding proteins. PMID:27160897

  7. Diverse roles of host RNA binding proteins in RNA virus replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenghe; Nagy, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    Plus-strand +RNA viruses co-opt host RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) to perform many functions during viral replication. A few host RBPs have been identified that affect the recruitment of viral +RNAs for replication. Other subverted host RBPs help the assembly of the membrane-bound replicase complexes, regulate the activity of the replicase and control minus- or plus-strand RNA synthesis. The host RBPs also affect the stability of viral RNAs, which have to escape cellular RNA degradation pathways. While many host RBPs seem to have specialized functions, others participate in multiple events during infection. Several conserved RBPs, such as eEF1A, hnRNP proteins and Lsm 1-7 complex, are co-opted by evolutionarily diverse +RNA viruses, underscoring some common themes in virus-host interactions. On the other hand, viruses also hijack unique RBPs, suggesting that +RNA viruses could utilize different RBPs to perform similar functions. Moreover, different +RNA viruses have adapted unique strategies for co-opting unique RBPs. Altogether, a deeper understanding of the functions of the host RBPs subverted for viral replication will help development of novel antiviral strategies and give new insights into host RNA biology. PMID:21505273

  8. Cbk1 regulation of the RNA binding protein Ssd1 integrates cell fate with translational control

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Jaclyn M.; Wanless, Antony G.; Seidel, Christopher W.; Weiss, Eric L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Spatial control of gene expression, at the level of both transcription and translation, is critical for cellular differentiation [1-4]. In budding yeast, the conserved Ndr/warts kinase Cbk1 localizes to the new daughter cell where it acts as a cell fate determinant. Cbk1 both induces a daughter-specific transcriptional program and promotes morphogenesis in a less well-defined role [5-8]. Cbk1 is essential in cells expressing functional Ssd1, an RNA binding protein of unknown function [9-11]. We show that Cbk1 inhibits Ssd1 in vivo. Loss of this regulation dramatically slows bud expansion, leading to highly aberrant cell wall organization at the site of cell growth. Ssd1 associates with specific mRNAs, a significant number of which encode cell wall remodeling proteins. Translation of these messages is rapidly and specifically suppressed when Cbk1 is inhibited; this suppression requires Ssd1. Transcription of several of these Ssd1-associated mRNAs is also regulated by Cbk1, indicating that the kinase controls both the transcription and translation of daughter-specific mRNAs. This work suggests a novel system by which cells coordinate localized expression of genes involved in processes critical for cell growth and division. PMID:19962308

  9. Targeted inhibition of oncogenic miR-21 maturation with designed RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Yang, Fan; Zubovic, Lorena; Pavelitz, Tom; Yang, Wen; Godin, Katherine; Walker, Matthew; Zheng, Suxin; Macchi, Paolo; Varani, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    The RNA recognition motif (RRM) is the largest family of eukaryotic RNA-binding proteins. Engineered RRMs with well-defined specificity would provide valuable tools and an exacting test of the current understanding of specificity. We have redesigned the specificity of an RRM using rational methods and demonstrated retargeting of its activity in cells. We engineered the conserved RRM of human Rbfox proteins to specifically bind to the terminal loop of a microRNA precursor (pre-miR-21) with high affinity and inhibit its processing by Drosha and Dicer. We further engineered Giardia Dicer by replacing its PAZ domain with the designed RRM. The reprogrammed enzyme degrades pre-miR-21 specifically in vitro and suppresses mature miR-21 levels in cells, which results in increased expression of the tumor suppressor PDCD4 and significantly decreased viability for cancer cells. The results demonstrate the feasibility of rationally engineering the sequence-specificity of RRMs and of using this ubiquitous platform for diverse biological applications. PMID:27428511

  10. Finding the right RNA: identification of cellular mRNA substrates for RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Trifillis, P; Day, N; Kiledjian, M

    1999-01-01

    Defects in RNA-binding proteins have been implicated in human genetic disorders. However, efforts in understanding the functions of these proteins have been hampered by the inability to obtain their mRNA substrates. To identify cognate cellular mRNAs associated with an RNA-binding protein, we devised a strategy termed isolation of specific nucleic acids associated with proteins (SNAAP). The SNAAP technique allows isolation and subsequent identification of these mRNAs. To assess the validity of this approach, we utilized cellular mRNA and protein from K562 cells and alphaCP1, a protein implicated in a-globin mRNA stability, as a model system. Immobilization of an RNA-binding protein with the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) domain enables isolation of mRNA within an mRNP context and the identity of the bound mRNAs is determined by the differential display assay. The specificity of protein-RNA interactions was considerably enhanced when the interactions were carried out in the presence of cellular extract rather than purified components. Two of the mRNAs specifically bound by alphaCP1 were mRNAs encoding the transmembrane receptor protein, TAPA-1, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II enzyme, coxII. A specific poly(C)-sensitive complex formed on the TAPA-1 and coxII 3' UTRs consistent with the binding of aCP1. Furthermore, direct binding of purified alphaCP proteins to these 3' UTRs was demonstrated and the binding sites determined. These results support the feasibility of the SNAAP technique and suggest a broad applicability for the approach in identifying mRNA targets for clinically relevant RNA-binding proteins that will provide insights into their possible functions. PMID:10445881

  11. MicroRNA-binding viral protein interferes with Arabidopsis development.

    PubMed

    Chellappan, Padmanabhan; Vanitharani, Ramachandran; Fauquet, Claude M

    2005-07-19

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (approximately 21 nt), noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate target mRNAs at the posttranscriptional level that are involved in development. In plants, virus-induced disease symptoms often result in developmental abnormalities resembling perturbation of miRNA-mediated function. Here, we report that expression in transgenic plants of a geminivirus-encoded AC4 protein from African cassava mosaic virus Cameroon Strain (ACMV), a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing, was correlated with decreased accumulation of host miRNAs and increased development abnormalities in Arabidopsis. Down-regulation of miRNA correlated with an up-regulation of target mRNA level. In vitro binding assays revealed the ability of AC4 of ACMV (A-AC4) but not East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus AC2 to bind single-stranded forms of miRNAs and short interfering RNAs but not double-stranded RNA forms. Normally, a labile intermediate during the miRNA biogenesis/RNA-induced silencing complex assembly, miRNA*, was below the level of detection, indicating that AC4 might interfere at a point downstream of the miRNA duplex unwinding process. The association of AC4 with miRNA was demonstrated by the association of A-AC4-GFP fusion protein, extracted from Arabidopsis protoplasts, with 2'-O-methyloligonucleotide complementary to miR159 (miR159*) and by the presence of miRNA with the A-AC4-GFP fusion protein after immunoprecipitation with antibody against GFP. In both assays, A-AC4 protein and miRNA complexes were copurified. These results provide direct evidence that AC4 is a unique virus-encoded posttranscriptional gene-silencing suppressor protein that binds to and presumably inactivates mature miRNAs and thus blocks the normal miRNA-mediated regulation of target mRNAs, resulting in developmental defects in Arabidopsis. PMID:16006510

  12. The Human dsRNA binding protein PACT is unable to functionally substitute for the Drosophila dsRNA binding protein R2D2

    PubMed Central

    Dickerman, Benjamin K; McDonald, Jocelyn A; Sen, Ganes C

    2014-01-01

    The dsRNA binding protein (dsRBP) PACT was first described as an activator of the dsRNA dependent protein kinase PKR in response to stress signals.  Additionally, it has been identified as a component of the small RNA processing pathway.  A role for PACT in this pathway represents an important interplay between two modes of post-transcriptional gene regulation.  The function of PACT in this context is poorly understood.  Thus, additional approaches are required to clarify the mechanism by which PACT functions.  In this study, the genetic utility of  Drosophila melanogaster was employed to identify dsRNA-binding proteins that are functionally orthologous to PACT.  Transgenic  Drosophila expressing human PACT were generated to determine whether PACT is capable of functionally substituting for the  Drosophila dsRBP R2D2, which has a well-defined role in small RNA biogenesis.  Results presented here indicate that PACT is unable to substitute for R2D2 at the whole organism level. PMID:24715958

  13. Control of a neuronal morphology program by an RNA-binding zinc finger protein, Unkempt.

    PubMed

    Murn, Jernej; Zarnack, Kathi; Yang, Yawei J; Durak, Omer; Murphy, Elisabeth A; Cheloufi, Sihem; Gonzalez, Dilenny M; Teplova, Marianna; Curk, Tomaž; Zuber, Johannes; Patel, Dinshaw J; Ule, Jernej; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Tsai, Li-Huei; Walsh, Christopher A; Shi, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Cellular morphology is an essential determinant of cellular function in all kingdoms of life, yet little is known about how cell shape is controlled. Here we describe a molecular program that controls the early morphology of neurons through a metazoan-specific zinc finger protein, Unkempt. Depletion of Unkempt in mouse embryos disrupts the shape of migrating neurons, while ectopic expression confers neuronal-like morphology to cells of different nonneuronal lineages. We found that Unkempt is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein and identified its precise binding sites within coding regions of mRNAs linked to protein metabolism and trafficking. RNA binding is required for Unkempt-induced remodeling of cellular shape and is directly coupled to a reduced production of the encoded proteins. These findings link post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression with cellular shape and have general implications for the development and disease of multicellular organisms. PMID:25737280

  14. Control of a neuronal morphology program by an RNA-binding zinc finger protein, Unkempt

    PubMed Central

    Zarnack, Kathi; Durak, Omer; Murphy, Elisabeth A.; Cheloufi, Sihem; Gonzalez, Dilenny M.; Teplova, Marianna; Curk, Tomaž; Zuber, Johannes; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Ule, Jernej; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Tsai, Li-Huei; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular morphology is an essential determinant of cellular function in all kingdoms of life, yet little is known about how cell shape is controlled. Here we describe a molecular program that controls the early morphology of neurons through a metazoan-specific zinc finger protein, Unkempt. Depletion of Unkempt in mouse embryos disrupts the shape of migrating neurons, while ectopic expression confers neuronal-like morphology to cells of different nonneuronal lineages. We found that Unkempt is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein and identified its precise binding sites within coding regions of mRNAs linked to protein metabolism and trafficking. RNA binding is required for Unkempt-induced remodeling of cellular shape and is directly coupled to a reduced production of the encoded proteins. These findings link post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression with cellular shape and have general implications for the development and disease of multicellular organisms. PMID:25737280

  15. In vivo detection, RNA-binding properties and characterization of the RNA-binding domain of the p7 putative movement protein from carnation mottle carmovirus (CarMV).

    PubMed

    Marcos, J F; Vilar, M; Pérez-Payá, E; Pallás, V

    1999-03-15

    Biochemical and structural characterization studies on the p7 putative movement protein from a Spanish isolate of carnation mottle carmovirus (CarMV) have been conducted. The CarMV p7 gene was fused to a sequence coding for a six-histidine tag and expressed in bacteria, allowing the purification of CarMV p7 and the production of a specific antiserum. This antiserum led to the immunological identification of CarMV p7 in infected leaf tissue from the experimental host Chenopodium quinoa. Putative nucleic acid-binding properties of the CarMV p7 have been explored and demonstrated with both electrophoretic mobility shift and RNA-protein blot in vitro assays using digoxigenin-labeled riboprobes. CarMV p7 did not show preferential binding to any of the different regions of the CarMV genomic RNA tested, suggesting that RNA binding was sequence nonspecific. Quantitative analyses of the data allowed calculation of the apparent dissociation constant of the p7-RNA complex (Kd approximately 0.7 microM) and supported a cooperative type of binding. A small 19-amino-acid synthetic peptide whose sequence corresponds to the putative RNA-binding domain of CarMV p7, at the basic central part of the protein, was synthesized, and it was demonstrated that it binds viral RNA probes. Peptide RNA binding was as stable as p7 binding, although data indicated it was not cooperative, thus suggesting that this cooperative binding requires another motif or motifs within the p7 amino acid sequence. The peptide could be induced to fold into an alpha-helix structure in which amino acids that are conserved among carmovirus p7-like proteins are distributed on one side. This alpha-helix motif could define a new and previously uncharacterized RNA-binding domain for plant virus movement proteins. PMID:10069961

  16. Regulatory roles of RNA binding proteins in the nervous system of C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sharifnia, Panid; Jin, Yishi

    2015-01-01

    Neurons have evolved to employ many factors involved in the regulation of RNA processing due to their complex cellular compartments. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) are key regulators in transcription, translation, and RNA degradation. Increasing studies have shown that regulatory RNA processing is critical for the establishment, functionality, and maintenance of neural circuits. Recent advances in high-throughput transcriptomics have rapidly expanded our knowledge of the landscape of RNA regulation, but also raised the challenge for mechanistic dissection of the specific roles of RBPs in complex tissues such as the nervous system. The C. elegans genome encodes many RBPs conserved throughout evolution. The rich analytic tools in molecular genetics and simple neural anatomy of C. elegans offer advantages to define functions of genes in vivo at the level of a single cell. Notably, the discovery of microRNAs has had transformative effects to the understanding of neuronal development, circuit plasticity, and neurological diseases. Here we review recent studies unraveling diverse roles of RBPs in the development, function, and plasticity of C. elegans nervous system. We first summarize the general technologies for studying RBPs in C. elegans. We then focus on the roles of several RBPs that control gene- and cell-type specific production of neuronal transcripts. PMID:25628531

  17. Nucleic acids encoding phloem small RNA-binding proteins and transgenic plants comprising them

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, William J.; Yoo, Byung-Chun; Lough, Tony J.; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2007-03-13

    The present invention provides a polynucleotide sequence encoding a component of the protein machinery involved in small RNA trafficking, Cucurbita maxima phloem small RNA-binding protein (CmPSRB 1), and the corresponding polypeptide sequence. The invention also provides genetic constructs and transgenic plants comprising the polynucleotide sequence encoding a phloem small RNA-binding protein to alter (e.g., prevent, reduce or elevate) non-cell autonomous signaling events in the plants involving small RNA metabolism. These signaling events are involved in a broad spectrum of plant physiological and biochemical processes, including, for example, systemic resistance to pathogens, responses to environmental stresses, e.g., heat, drought, salinity, and systemic gene silencing (e.g., viral infections).

  18. Interactions between RNA-binding proteins and P32 homologues in trypanosomes and human cells.

    PubMed

    Polledo, Juan Manuel; Cervini, Gabriela; Romaniuk, María Albertina; Cassola, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are involved in many aspects of mRNA metabolism such as splicing, nuclear export, translation, silencing, and decay. To cope with these tasks, these proteins use specialized domains such as the RNA recognition motif (RRM), the most abundant and widely spread RNA-binding domain. Although this domain was first described as a dedicated RNA-binding moiety, current evidence indicates these motifs can also engage in direct protein-protein interactions. Here, we discuss recent evidence describing the interaction between the RRM of the trypanosomatid RBP UBP1 and P22, the homolog of the human multifunctional protein P32/C1QBP. Human P32 was also identified while performing a similar interaction screening using both RRMs of TDP-43, an RBP involved in splicing regulation and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Furthermore, we show that this interaction is mediated by RRM1. The relevance of this interaction is discussed in the context of recent TDP-43 interactomic approaches that identified P32, and the numerous evidences supporting interactions between P32 and RBPs. Finally, we discuss the vast universe of interactions involving P32, supporting its role as a molecular chaperone regulating the function of its ligands. PMID:26385742

  19. RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains in ALS and FTLD-U.

    PubMed

    Gitler, Aaron D; Shorter, James

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease) is a debilitating, and universally fatal, neurodegenerative disease that devastates upper and lower motor neurons. The causes of ALS are poorly understood. A central role for RNA-binding proteins and RNA metabolism in ALS has recently emerged. The RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43 and FUS, are principal components of cytoplasmic inclusions found in motor neurons of ALS patients and mutations in TDP-43 and FUS are linked to familial and sporadic ALS. Pathology and genetics also connect TDP-43 and FUS with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U). It was unknown whether mechanisms of FUS aggregation and toxicity were similar or different to those of TDP-43. To address this issue, we have employed yeast models and pure protein biochemistry to define mechanisms underlying TDP-43 and FUS aggregation and toxicity, and to identify genetic modifiers relevant for human disease. We have identified prion-like domains in FUS and TDP-43 and provide evidence that these domains are required for aggregation. Our studies have defined key similarities as well as important differences between the two proteins. Collectively, however, our findings lead us to suggest that FUS and TDP-43, though similar RNA-binding proteins, likely aggregate and confer disease phenotypes via distinct mechanisms. PMID:21847013

  20. Constitutive patterns of gene expression regulated by RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background RNA-binding proteins regulate a number of cellular processes, including synthesis, folding, translocation, assembly and clearance of RNAs. Recent studies have reported that an unexpectedly large number of proteins are able to interact with RNA, but the partners of many RNA-binding proteins are still uncharacterized. Results We combined prediction of ribonucleoprotein interactions, based on catRAPID calculations, with analysis of protein and RNA expression profiles from human tissues. We found strong interaction propensities for both positively and negatively correlated expression patterns. Our integration of in silico and ex vivo data unraveled two major types of protein–RNA interactions, with positively correlated patterns related to cell cycle control and negatively correlated patterns related to survival, growth and differentiation. To facilitate the investigation of protein–RNA interactions and expression networks, we developed the catRAPID express web server. Conclusions Our analysis sheds light on the role of RNA-binding proteins in regulating proliferation and differentiation processes, and we provide a data exploration tool to aid future experimental studies. PMID:24401680

  1. Identification and characterization of the RNA binding surface of the pentatricopeptide repeat protein

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Keiko; Kawabata, Masuyo; Hisano, Keizo; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsuoka, Ken; Sugita, Mamoru; Nakamura, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The expressions of chloroplast and mitochondria genes are tightly controlled by numerous nuclear-encoded proteins, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Recent analyses have identified a large, plant-specific family of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motif-containing proteins that are exclusively involved in RNA metabolism of organelle genes via sequence-specific RNA binding. A tandem array of PPR motifs within the protein is believed to facilitate the RNA interaction, although little is known of the mechanism. Here, we describe the RNA interacting framework of a PPR protein, Arabidopsis HCF152. First, we demonstrated that a Pfam model could be relevant to the PPR motif function. A series of proteins with two PPR motifs showed significant differences in their RNA binding affinities, indicating functional differences among PPR motifs. Mutagenesis and informatics analysis putatively identified five amino acids organizing its RNA binding surface [the 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th and ‘ii’(-2nd) amino acids] and their complex connections. SELEX (Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) and nucleobase preference assays determined the nucleobases with high affinity for HCF152 and suggested several characteristic amino acids that may be involved in determining specificity and/or affinity of the PPR/RNA interaction. PMID:22127869

  2. A mammalian germ cell-specific RNA-binding protein interacts with ubiquitously expressed proteins involved in splice site selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, David J.; Bourgeois, Cyril F.; Klink, Albrecht; Stévenin, James; Cooke, Howard J.

    2000-05-01

    RNA-binding motif (RBM) genes are found on all mammalian Y chromosomes and are implicated in spermatogenesis. Within human germ cells, RBM protein shows a similar nuclear distribution to components of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. To address the function of RBM, we have used protein-protein interaction assays to test for possible physical interactions between these proteins. We find that RBM protein directly interacts with members of the SR family of splicing factors and, in addition, strongly interacts with itself. We have mapped the protein domains responsible for mediating these interactions and expressed the mouse RBM interaction region as a bacterial fusion protein. This fusion protein can pull-down several functionally active SR protein species from cell extracts. Depletion and add-back experiments indicate that these SR proteins are the only splicing factors bound by RBM which are required for the splicing of a panel of pre-mRNAs. Our results suggest that RBM protein is an evolutionarily conserved mammalian splicing regulator which operates as a germ cell-specific cofactor for more ubiquitously expressed pre-mRNA splicing activators.

  3. Characterization of the RNA-binding regions in protein p36 of Heliothis armigera cypovirus 14.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wuguo; Hu, Yuanyang; Li, Yang; Yu, Zheng; Dong, Changjin; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Jiamin

    2007-05-01

    Some proteins of cypovirus (CPV) bind to RNA, probably contributing to the replication of viral genome. However, little is known about whether any protein from Heliothis armigera cypovirus (HaCPV) could bind to RNA. In this study, we cloned the ORF of segment 9 (S9) of HaCPV, serotype 14, into pMAL-c2X for the generation and purification of maltose binding protein (MBP) fused protein p36 (MBP-p36). The analysis of the RNA-binding properties of MBP-p36 revealed that p36, but not MBP alone, bound to ssRNA of CPV. Furthermore, the ssRNA-binding activities of p36 were significantly inhibited or completely eliminated by protein denaturants or unsuitable concentrations of NaCl. Importantly, the formation of ssRNA/p36 was only competitively inhibited by a heavy dose of competitive non-viral ssRNA or dsRNA, but not by ssDNA and dsDNA, suggesting that p36 bound to both ssRNA and dsRNA, but not DNA. Moreover, the characterization of different mutants of p36 revealed that the regions 1-26aa, 154-170aa, and 229-238aa, but not region 291-320aa, may be crucial for the ssRNA-binding ability of p36. Conceivably, the sensitivity of p36 to denaturants and the synergetic effect of different regions suggest that the RNA-binding ability of p36 may be conformation-dependent. Thus, our findings provide new insights into understanding the genomic function of HaCPV-14. PMID:17350708

  4. Substrate recognition and specificity of double-stranded RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Lela; Koh, Hye Ran; Myong, Sua; Schulten, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    Recognition of double-stranded (ds) RNA is an important part of many cellular pathways, including RNA silencing, viral recognition, RNA editing, processing, and transport. dsRNA recognition is often achieved by dsRNA binding domains (dsRBDs). We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to examine the binding interface of the transactivation response RNA binding protein (TRBP) dsRBDs to dsRNA substrates. Our results explain the exclusive selectivity of dsRBDs toward dsRNA and against DNA-RNA hybrid and dsDNA duplexes. We also provide corresponding experimental evidence. The dsRNA duplex is recognized by dsRBDs through the A-form of three duplex grooves and by the chemical properties of RNA bases, which have 2'-hydroxyl groups on their sugar rings. Our simulations show that TRBP dsRBD discriminates dsRNA- from DNA-containing duplexes primarily through interactions at two duplex grooves. The simulations also reveal that the conformation of the DNA-RNA duplex can be altered by dsRBD proteins, resulting in a weak binding of dsRBDs to DNA-RNA hybrids. Our study reveals the structural and molecular basis of protein-RNA interaction that gives rise to the observed substrate specificity of dsRNA binding proteins. PMID:24801449

  5. Identification of Endogenous mRNA-Binding Proteins in Yeast Using Crosslinking and PolyA Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah F; Parker, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The maturation, localization, stability, and translation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are regulated by a wide variety of mRNA-binding proteins. Identification of the complete set of mRNA-binding proteins is a key step in understanding the regulation of gene expression. Herein, we describe a method for identifying yeast mRNA-binding proteins in a systematic manner using UV crosslinking, purification of polyA(+) mRNAs under denaturing conditions, and mass spectrometry to identify covalently bound proteins. PMID:26965264

  6. RNA-binding protein hnRNPLL as a critical regulator of lymphocyte homeostasis and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xing

    2016-05-01

    RNA-binding proteins orchestrate posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, such as messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing, RNA stability regulation, and translation regulation. Heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding proteins (hnRNPs) refer to a collection of unrelated RNA-binding proteins predominantly located in the nucleus (Han et al. Biochem J 2010, 430:379-392). Although canonical functions of hnRNPs are to promote pre-mRNA splicing, they are involved in all the processes of RNA metabolism through recognizing specific cis-elements on RNA (Dreyfuss et al. Annu Rev Biochem 1993, 62:289-321; Huelga et al. Cell Rep 2012, 1:167-178; Krecic and Swanson. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1999, 11:363-371). Heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding protein L like (hnRNPLL) is a tissue-specific hnRNP, which was identified as a regulator of CD45RA to CD45RO switching during memory T-cell development (Oberdoerffer et al. Science 2008, 321:686-691; Topp et al. RNA 2008, 14:2038-2049; Wu et al. Immunity 2008, 29:863-875). Since then, hnRNPLL has emerged as a critical regulator of lymphocyte homeostasis and terminal differentiation, controlling alternative splicing or expression of critical genes for the lymphocytes development (Wu et al. Immunity 2008, 29:863-875; Chang et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2015, 112:E1888-E1897). This review will summarize recent advances in understanding the functions of hnRNPLL, focusing on its biochemical functions and physiological roles in lymphocyte differentiation and homeostasis. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:295-302. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1335 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26821996

  7. Identification of a Male-Specific RNA Binding Protein That Regulates Sex-Specific Splicing of Bmdsx by Increasing RNA Binding Activity of BmPSI▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masataka G.; Imanishi, Shigeo; Dohmae, Naoshi; Asanuma, Miwako; Matsumoto, Shogo

    2010-01-01

    Bmdsx is a sex-determining gene in the silkworm and is alternatively spliced in males and females. CE1 is a splicing silencer element responsible for the sex-specific splicing of Bmdsx. To identify sex-specific factors implicated in the sex-specific splicing of Bmdsx, we performed RNA affinity chromatography using CE1 RNA as a ligand. We have identified BmIMP, a Bombyx homolog of IGF-II mRNA binding protein (IMP), as a male-specific factor that specifically binds to CE1. The gene encoding BmIMP is localized on the Z chromosome and is male-specifically expressed in various tissues. Antisense inhibition of BmIMP expression increased female-specific splicing of Bmdsx pre-mRNA. Coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown analyses demonstrated that BmIMP physically interacts with BmPSI, which has been identified as a factor implicated in the sex-specific splicing of Bmdsx, through the KH domains of BmIMP. The functional consequence of this interaction was examined using RNA mobility shift analysis. BmIMP increased BmPSI-CE1 RNA binding activity by decreasing the rate of BmPSI dissociation from CE1 RNA. Truncation analysis of BmIMP suggested that the KH domains are responsible for enhancing BmPSI-CE1 RNA binding activity. These results suggest that BmIMP may enhance the male-specific splicing of Bmdsx pre-mRNA by increasing RNA binding activity of BmPSI. PMID:20956562

  8. The RNA binding domain of Pumilio antagonizes poly-adenosine binding protein and accelerates deadenylation.

    PubMed

    Weidmann, Chase A; Raynard, Nathan A; Blewett, Nathan H; Van Etten, Jamie; Goldstrohm, Aaron C

    2014-08-01

    PUF proteins are potent repressors that serve important roles in stem cell maintenance, neurological processes, and embryonic development. These functions are driven by PUF protein recognition of specific binding sites within the 3' untranslated regions of target mRNAs. In this study, we investigated mechanisms of repression by the founding PUF, Drosophila Pumilio, and its human orthologs. Here, we evaluated a previously proposed model wherein the Pumilio RNA binding domain (RBD) binds Argonaute, which in turn blocks the translational activity of the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A. Surprisingly, we found that Argonautes are not necessary for repression elicited by Drosophila and human PUFs in vivo. A second model proposed that the RBD of Pumilio represses by recruiting deadenylases to shorten the mRNA's polyadenosine tail. Indeed, the RBD binds to the Pop2 deadenylase and accelerates deadenylation; however, this activity is not crucial for regulation. Rather, we determined that the poly(A) is necessary for repression by the RBD. Our results reveal that poly(A)-dependent repression by the RBD requires the poly(A) binding protein, pAbp. Furthermore, we show that repression by the human PUM2 RBD requires the pAbp ortholog, PABPC1. Pumilio associates with pAbp but does not disrupt binding of pAbp to the mRNA. Taken together, our data support a model wherein the Pumilio RBD antagonizes the ability of pAbp to promote translation. Thus, the conserved function of the PUF RBD is to bind specific mRNAs, antagonize pAbp function, and promote deadenylation. PMID:24942623

  9. A role for the RNA-binding protein, hermes, in the regulation of heart development.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Wendy V; Vokes, Steven A; Zearfoss, N Ruth; Krieg, Paul A

    2002-07-01

    RNA-binding proteins are known to play an important role in a number of aspects of development, although in most cases the precise mechanism of action remains unknown. We have previously described the isolation of an RNA-binding protein, hermes, that is expressed at very high levels in the differentiating myocardium. Here, we report experiments aimed at elucidating the functional role of hermes in development. Utilizing the Xenopus oocyte, we show that hermes is localized primarily to the cytoplasm, can associate in a multiprotein complex, and is able to bind to mature RNA transcripts in vivo. Overexpression of hermes in the developing embryo dramatically and specifically inhibits heart development. In particular, transcripts encoding the myocardial differentiation markers, cardiac troponin I and cardiac alpha-actin, are absent, and overall morphological development of the heart is eliminated. Examination of markers of precardiac tissue showed that expression of GATA-4 is normal, while the levels of Nkx2-5 mRNA are strongly reduced. Overall, these studies suggest that hermes plays a role in the regulation of mature transcripts required for myocardial differentiation. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for an RNA-binding protein playing a direct role in regulation of vertebrate heart development. PMID:12074556

  10. Efficient and dynamic nuclear localization of green fluorescent protein via RNA binding

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, Akira; Nakayama, Yusaku; Kinjo, Masataka

    2015-07-31

    Classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences have been used for artificial localization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus as a positioning marker or for measurement of the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling rate in living cells. However, the detailed mechanism of nuclear retention of GFP-NLS remains unclear. Here, we show that a candidate mechanism for the strong nuclear retention of GFP-NLS is via the RNA-binding ability of the NLS sequence. GFP tagged with a classical NLS derived from Simian virus 40 (GFP-NLS{sup SV40}) localized not only in the nucleoplasm, but also to the nucleolus, the nuclear subdomain in which ribosome biogenesis takes place. GFP-NLS{sup SV40} in the nucleolus was mobile, and intriguingly, the diffusion coefficient, which indicates the speed of diffusing molecules, was 1.5-fold slower than in the nucleoplasm. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analysis showed that GFP-NLS{sup SV40} formed oligomers via RNA binding, the estimated molecular weight of which was larger than the limit for passive nuclear export into the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that the nuclear localization of GFP-NLS{sup SV40} likely results from oligomerization mediated via RNA binding. The analytical technique used here can be applied for elucidating the details of other nuclear localization mechanisms, including those of several types of nuclear proteins. In addition, GFP-NLS{sup SV40} can be used as an excellent marker for studying both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus in living cells. - Highlights: • Nuclear localization signal-tagged GFP (GFP-NLS) showed clear nuclear localization. • The GFP-NLS dynamically localized not only in the nucleoplasm, but also to the nucleolus. • The nuclear localization of GFP-NLS results from transient oligomerization mediated via RNA binding. • Our NLS-tagging procedure is ideal for use in artificial sequestration of proteins in the nucleus.

  11. RBRIdent: An algorithm for improved identification of RNA-binding residues in proteins from primary sequences.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Dapeng; Zeng, Jianyang; Gong, Haipeng

    2015-06-01

    Rapid and correct identification of RNA-binding residues based on the protein primary sequences is of great importance. In most prevalent machine-learning-based identification methods; however, either some features are inefficiently represented, or the redundancy between features is not effectively removed. Both problems may weaken the performance of a classifier system and raise its computational complexity. Here, we addressed the above problems and developed a better classifier (RBRIdent) to identify the RNA-binding residues. In an independent benchmark test, RBRIdent achieved an accuracy of 76.79%, Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.3819 and F-measure of 75.58%, remarkably outperforming all prevalent methods. These results suggest the necessity of proper feature description and the essential role of feature selection in this project. All source data and codes are freely available at http://166.111.152.91/RBRIdent. PMID:25846271

  12. Efficient and dynamic nuclear localization of green fluorescent protein via RNA binding.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Akira; Nakayama, Yusaku; Kinjo, Masataka

    2015-07-31

    Classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences have been used for artificial localization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus as a positioning marker or for measurement of the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling rate in living cells. However, the detailed mechanism of nuclear retention of GFP-NLS remains unclear. Here, we show that a candidate mechanism for the strong nuclear retention of GFP-NLS is via the RNA-binding ability of the NLS sequence. GFP tagged with a classical NLS derived from Simian virus 40 (GFP-NLS(SV40)) localized not only in the nucleoplasm, but also to the nucleolus, the nuclear subdomain in which ribosome biogenesis takes place. GFP-NLS(SV40) in the nucleolus was mobile, and intriguingly, the diffusion coefficient, which indicates the speed of diffusing molecules, was 1.5-fold slower than in the nucleoplasm. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analysis showed that GFP-NLS(SV40) formed oligomers via RNA binding, the estimated molecular weight of which was larger than the limit for passive nuclear export into the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that the nuclear localization of GFP-NLS(SV40) likely results from oligomerization mediated via RNA binding. The analytical technique used here can be applied for elucidating the details of other nuclear localization mechanisms, including those of several types of nuclear proteins. In addition, GFP-NLS(SV40) can be used as an excellent marker for studying both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus in living cells. PMID:26032495

  13. Structure and RNA-binding properties of the bacterial LSm protein Hfq

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) emerged as important modulators of gene expression in bacteria. Guided by partial sequence complementarity, these sRNAs interact with target mRNAs and eventually affect transcript stability and translation. The physiological function of sRNAs depends on the protein Hfq, which binds sRNAs in the cell and promotes the interaction with their mRNA targets. This important physiological function of Hfq as a central hub of sRNA-mediated regulation made it one of the most intensely studied proteins in bacteria. Recently, a new model for sRNA binding by Hfq has been proposed that involves the direct recognition of the sRNA 3′ end and interactions of the sRNA body with the lateral RNA-binding surface of Hfq. This review summarizes the current understanding of the RNA binding properties of Hfq and its (s)RNA complexes. Moreover, the implications of the new binding model for sRNA-mediated regulation are discussed. PMID:23535768

  14. RNA binding properties of the US11 protein from four primate simplexviruses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The protein encoded by the Us11 gene of herpes simplex viruses is a dsRNA binding protein which inhibits protein kinase R activity, thereby preventing the interferon-induced shut down of protein synthesis following viral infection. Us11 protein is not essential for infectivity in vitro and in mice in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), however this virus has a second, and apparently more important, inhibitor of PKR activity, the γ134.5 protein. Recently sequenced simian simplexviruses SA8, HVP2 and B virus do not have an ORF corresponding to the γ134.5 protein, yet they have similar, or greater, infectivity as HSV1 and HSV2. Methods We have expressed the US11 proteins of the simplexviruses HSV1, HSV2, HVP2 and B virus and measured their abilities to bind dsRNA, in order to investigate possible differences that could complement the absence of the γ134.5 protein. We employed a filter binding technique that allows binding of the Us11 protein under condition of excess dsRNA substrate and therefore a measurement of the true Kd value of Us11-dsRNA binding. Results and Conclusions The results show a Kd of binding in the range of 0.89 nM to 1.82 nM, with no significant difference among the four Us11 proteins. PMID:22054255

  15. Prediction of RNA binding proteins comes of age from low resolution to high resolution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiying; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2013-10-01

    Networks of protein-RNA interactions is likely to be larger than protein-protein and protein-DNA interaction networks because RNA transcripts are encoded tens of times more than proteins (e.g. only 3% of human genome coded for proteins), have diverse function and localization, and are controlled by proteins from birth (transcription) to death (degradation). This massive network is evidenced by several recent experimental discoveries of large numbers of previously unknown RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Meanwhile, more than 400 non-redundant protein-RNA complex structures (at 25% sequence identity or less) have been deposited into the protein databank. These sequences and structural resources for RBPs provide ample data for the development of computational techniques dedicated to RBP prediction, as experimentally determining RNA-binding functions is time-consuming and expensive. This review compares traditional machine-learning based approaches with emerging template-based methods at several levels of prediction resolution ranging from two-state binding/non-binding prediction, to binding residue prediction and protein-RNA complex structure prediction. The analysis indicates that the two approaches are complementary and their combinations may lead to further improvements. PMID:23872922

  16. Polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein: a multifunctional RNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Sawicka, Kirsty; Bushell, Martin; Spriggs, Keith A; Willis, Anne E

    2008-08-01

    PTB (polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein) is a ubiquitous RNA-binding protein. It was originally identified as a protein with a role in splicing but it is now known to function in a large number of diverse cellular processes including polyadenylation, mRNA stability and translation initiation. Specificity of PTB function is achieved by a combination of changes in the cellular localization of this protein (its ability to shuttle from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is tightly controlled) and its interaction with additional proteins. These differences in location and trans-acting factor requirements account for the fact that PTB acts both as a suppressor of splicing and an activator of translation. In the latter case, the role of PTB in translation has been studied extensively and it appears that this protein is required for an alternative form of translation initiation that is mediated by a large RNA structural element termed an IRES (internal ribosome entry site) that allows the synthesis of picornaviral proteins and cellular proteins that function to control cell growth and cell death. In the present review, we discuss how PTB regulates these disparate processes. PMID:18631133

  17. Dissecting the expression relationships between RNA-binding proteins and their cognate targets in eukaryotic post-transcriptional regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Nishtala, Sneha; Neelamraju, Yaseswini; Janga, Sarath Chandra

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are pivotal in orchestrating several steps in the metabolism of RNA in eukaryotes thereby controlling an extensive network of RBP-RNA interactions. Here, we employed CLIP (cross-linking immunoprecipitation)-seq datasets for 60 human RBPs and RIP-ChIP (RNP immunoprecipitation-microarray) data for 69 yeast RBPs to construct a network of genome-wide RBP- target RNA interactions for each RBP. We show in humans that majority (~78%) of the RBPs are strongly associated with their target transcripts at transcript level while ~95% of the studied RBPs were also found to be strongly associated with expression levels of target transcripts when protein expression levels of RBPs were employed. At transcript level, RBP - RNA interaction data for the yeast genome, exhibited a strong association for 63% of the RBPs, confirming the association to be conserved across large phylogenetic distances. Analysis to uncover the features contributing to these associations revealed the number of target transcripts and length of the selected protein-coding transcript of an RBP at the transcript level while intensity of the CLIP signal, number of RNA-Binding domains, location of the binding site on the transcript, to be significant at the protein level. Our analysis will contribute to improved modelling and prediction of post-transcriptional networks. PMID:27161996

  18. Dissecting the expression relationships between RNA-binding proteins and their cognate targets in eukaryotic post-transcriptional regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Nishtala, Sneha; Neelamraju, Yaseswini; Janga, Sarath Chandra

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are pivotal in orchestrating several steps in the metabolism of RNA in eukaryotes thereby controlling an extensive network of RBP-RNA interactions. Here, we employed CLIP (cross-linking immunoprecipitation)-seq datasets for 60 human RBPs and RIP-ChIP (RNP immunoprecipitation-microarray) data for 69 yeast RBPs to construct a network of genome-wide RBP- target RNA interactions for each RBP. We show in humans that majority (~78%) of the RBPs are strongly associated with their target transcripts at transcript level while ~95% of the studied RBPs were also found to be strongly associated with expression levels of target transcripts when protein expression levels of RBPs were employed. At transcript level, RBP - RNA interaction data for the yeast genome, exhibited a strong association for 63% of the RBPs, confirming the association to be conserved across large phylogenetic distances. Analysis to uncover the features contributing to these associations revealed the number of target transcripts and length of the selected protein-coding transcript of an RBP at the transcript level while intensity of the CLIP signal, number of RNA-Binding domains, location of the binding site on the transcript, to be significant at the protein level. Our analysis will contribute to improved modelling and prediction of post-transcriptional networks. PMID:27161996

  19. Dissecting the expression relationships between RNA-binding proteins and their cognate targets in eukaryotic post-transcriptional regulatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishtala, Sneha; Neelamraju, Yaseswini; Janga, Sarath Chandra

    2016-05-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are pivotal in orchestrating several steps in the metabolism of RNA in eukaryotes thereby controlling an extensive network of RBP-RNA interactions. Here, we employed CLIP (cross-linking immunoprecipitation)-seq datasets for 60 human RBPs and RIP-ChIP (RNP immunoprecipitation-microarray) data for 69 yeast RBPs to construct a network of genome-wide RBP- target RNA interactions for each RBP. We show in humans that majority (~78%) of the RBPs are strongly associated with their target transcripts at transcript level while ~95% of the studied RBPs were also found to be strongly associated with expression levels of target transcripts when protein expression levels of RBPs were employed. At transcript level, RBP - RNA interaction data for the yeast genome, exhibited a strong association for 63% of the RBPs, confirming the association to be conserved across large phylogenetic distances. Analysis to uncover the features contributing to these associations revealed the number of target transcripts and length of the selected protein-coding transcript of an RBP at the transcript level while intensity of the CLIP signal, number of RNA-Binding domains, location of the binding site on the transcript, to be significant at the protein level. Our analysis will contribute to improved modelling and prediction of post-transcriptional networks.

  20. Archaeal DnaG contains a conserved N-terminal RNA-binding domain and enables tailing of rRNA by the exosome

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Linlin; Klug, Gabriele; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The archaeal exosome is a phosphorolytic 3′–5′ exoribonuclease complex. In a reverse reaction it synthesizes A-rich RNA tails. Its RNA-binding cap comprises the eukaryotic orthologs Rrp4 and Csl4, and an archaea-specific subunit annotated as DnaG. In Sulfolobus solfataricus DnaG and Rrp4 but not Csl4 show preference for poly(rA). Archaeal DnaG contains N- and C-terminal domains (NTD and CTD) of unknown function flanking a TOPRIM domain. We found that the NT and TOPRIM domains have comparable, high conservation in all archaea, while the CTD conservation correlates with the presence of exosome. We show that the NTD is a novel RNA-binding domain with poly(rA)-preference cooperating with the TOPRIM domain in binding of RNA. Consistently, a fusion protein containing full-length Csl4 and NTD of DnaG led to enhanced degradation of A-rich RNA by the exosome. We also found that DnaG strongly binds native and in vitro transcribed rRNA and enables its polynucleotidylation by the exosome. Furthermore, rRNA-derived transcripts with heteropolymeric tails were degraded faster by the exosome than their non-tailed variants. Based on our data, we propose that archaeal DnaG is an RNA-binding protein, which, in the context of the exosome, is involved in targeting of stable RNA for degradation. PMID:25326320

  1. Identification of dengue RNA binding proteins using RNA chromatography and quantitative mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alex M; Gunaratne, J; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in dengue virus (DENV) research has been to understand the interaction of the viral RNA with host cell proteins during infection. Until recently, there were no comprehensive studies identifying host RNA binding proteins that interact with DENV RNA (Ward et al. RNA Biol 8 (6):1173-1186, 2011). Here, we describe a method for identifying proteins that associate with DENV RNA using RNA chromatography and quantitative mass spectrometry. The method utilizes a tobramycin RNA aptamer incorporated into an RNA containing the dengue 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) in order to reversibly bind RNA to a tobramycin matrix. The RNA-tobramycin matrix is incubated with SILAC-labeled cell lysates, and bound proteins are eluted using an excess of tobramycin. The eluate is analyzed using quantitative mass spectrometry, which allows direct and quantitative comparison of proteins bound to DENV UTRs and a control RNA-tobramycin matrix. This technique has the advantage of allowing one to distinguish between specific and nonspecific binding proteins based on the ratio of protein preferentially bound to the DENV UTRs versus the control RNA. This methodology can also be used for validation of quantitative mass spectrometry results using conventional Western blotting for specific proteins. Furthermore, though it was specifically developed to identify DENV RNA binding proteins, the RNA chromatography method described here can be applied to a broad range of viral and cellular RNAs for identification of interacting proteins. PMID:24696342

  2. The RNA binding protein Hfq interacts specifically with tRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taewoo; Feig, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    Hfq is an RNA binding protein that has been studied extensively for its role in the biology of small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in bacteria, where it facilitates post-transcriptional gene regulation during stress responses. We show that Hfq also binds with high specificity and nanomolar affinity to tRNAs despite their lack of a canonical A/U rich single-stranded sequence. This affinity is comparable to that of Hfq for its validated ncRNA targets. Two sites on tRNAs are protected by Hfq binding, one on the D-stem and the other on the T-stem. Mutational analysis and competitive binding experiments indicate that Hfq uses its proximal surface (also called the L4 face) to bind tRNAs, the same surface that interacts with ncRNAs but a site distinct from where poly(A) oligonucleotides bind. hfq knockout strains are known to have broad pleiotropic phenotypes, but none of them are easily explained by or imply a role for tRNA binding. We show that hfq deletion strains have a previously unrecognized phenotype associated with mistranslation and significantly reduced translational fidelity. We infer that tRNA binding and reduced fidelity are linked by a role for Hfq in tRNA modification. PMID:18230766

  3. [Conjoint pathological cascades mediated by RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43, FUS and ataxin-2].

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    Recently, critical RNA-binding proteins that are directly associated with the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) have also been identified, including TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma (FUS) protein and ataxin-2. TDP-43 and FUS are normally localized in the nucleus, in sites affected by ALS and FTLD-U, but both are mislocalized to the cytoplasm and form cytoplasmic inclusions. They are transported to the nucleus via nuclear import receptors, but also contribute to the formation of stress granules (SGs), which are intracytoplasmic structures incorporating RNA. C-terminal truncations of TDP-43 eliminate the nuclear transport signal and cause mislocalization of the protein to the cytoplasm, where it accumulates and forms SGs. ALS-associated FUS mutations impair nuclear transport and cause mislocalization of FUS to the cytoplasm, where it also contributes to assembly of SGs. Furthermore, the ALS susceptibility factor ataxin-2 is recently identified as a potent modifier of TDP-43 toxicity and growing evidence indicates that intermediate-length polyglutamine expansions in ataxin-2 are a genetic risk factor for ALS. Interestingly, ataxin-2 is also a cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein and a constituent protein of SGs, suggesting that it is a part of the common pathological cascade formed by TDP-43, FUS and ataxin-2. Thus, we propose that aberrant distribution of the RNA-binding proteins TDP-43, FUS, and ataxin-2 into the cytoplasm leads to impairment of the RNA quality control system, forming the core of the ALS/FTLD-U degenerative cascade. PMID:23196570

  4. Identification of RNA Binding Proteins Associated with Dengue Virus RNA in Infected Cells Reveals Temporally Distinct Host Factor Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Viktorovskaya, Olga V.; Greco, Todd M.; Cristea, Ileana M.; Thompson, Sunnie R.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are currently no vaccines or antivirals available for dengue virus infection, which can cause dengue hemorrhagic fever and death. A better understanding of the host pathogen interaction is required to develop effective therapies to treat DENV. In particular, very little is known about how cellular RNA binding proteins interact with viral RNAs. RNAs within cells are not naked; rather they are coated with proteins that affect localization, stability, translation and (for viruses) replication. Methodology/Principal Findings Seventy-nine novel RNA binding proteins for dengue virus (DENV) were identified by cross-linking proteins to dengue viral RNA during a live infection in human cells. These cellular proteins were specific and distinct from those previously identified for poliovirus, suggesting a specialized role for these factors in DENV amplification. Knockdown of these proteins demonstrated their function as viral host factors, with evidence for some factors acting early, while others late in infection. Their requirement by DENV for efficient amplification is likely specific, since protein knockdown did not impair the cell fitness for viral amplification of an unrelated virus. The protein abundances of these host factors were not significantly altered during DENV infection, suggesting their interaction with DENV RNA was due to specific recruitment mechanisms. However, at the global proteome level, DENV altered the abundances of proteins in particular classes, including transporter proteins, which were down regulated, and proteins in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, which were up regulated. Conclusions/Significance The method for identification of host factors described here is robust and broadly applicable to all RNA viruses, providing an avenue to determine the conserved or distinct mechanisms through which diverse viruses manage the viral RNA within cells. This study significantly increases the number of cellular factors known to interact with

  5. The expanding universe of ribonucleoproteins: of novel RNA-binding proteins and unconventional interactions.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Benedikt M; Castello, Alfredo; Medenbach, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression plays a critical role in almost all cellular processes. Regulation occurs mostly by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that recognise RNA elements and form ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to control RNA metabolism from synthesis to decay. Recently, the repertoire of RBPs was significantly expanded owing to methodological advances such as RNA interactome capture. The newly identified RNA binders are involved in diverse biological processes and belong to a broad spectrum of protein families, many of them exhibiting enzymatic activities. This suggests the existence of an extensive crosstalk between RNA biology and other, in principle unrelated, cell functions such as intermediary metabolism. Unexpectedly, hundreds of new RBPs do not contain identifiable RNA-binding domains (RBDs), raising the question of how they interact with RNA. Despite the many functions that have been attributed to RNA, our understanding of RNPs is still mostly governed by a rather protein-centric view, leading to the idea that proteins have evolved to bind to and regulate RNA and not vice versa. However, RNPs formed by an RNA-driven interaction mechanism (RNA-determined RNPs) are abundant and offer an alternative explanation for the surprising lack of classical RBDs in many RNA-interacting proteins. Moreover, RNAs can act as scaffolds to orchestrate and organise protein networks and directly control their activity, suggesting that nucleic acids might play an important regulatory role in many cellular processes, including metabolism. PMID:27165283

  6. In Vitro Genetic Analysis of the RNA Binding Site of Vigilin, a Multi-KH-Domain Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, Hiroshi; Dodson, Robin E.; Shapiro, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The function(s) and RNA binding properties of vigilin, a ubiquitous protein with 14 KH domains, remain largely obscure. We recently showed that vigilin is the estrogen-inducible protein in polysome extracts which binds specifically to a segment of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of estrogen-stabilized vitellogenin mRNA. In order to identify consensus mRNA sequences and structures important in binding of vigilin to RNA, before vigilin was purified, we developed a modified in vitro genetic selection protocol. We subsequently validated our selection procedure, which employed crude polysome extracts, by testing natural and in vitro-selected RNAs with purified recombinant vigilin. Most of the selected up-binding mutants exhibited hypermutation of G residues leading to a largely unstructured, single-stranded region containing multiple conserved (A)nCU and UC(A)n motifs. All eight of the selected down-binding mutants contained a mutation in the sequence (A)nCU. Deletion analysis indicated that approximately 75 nucleotides are required for maximal binding. Using this information, we predicted and subsequently identified a strong vigilin binding site near the 3′ end of human dystrophin mRNA. RNA sequences from the 3′ UTRs of transferrin receptor and estrogen receptor, which lack strong homology to the selected sequences, did not bind vigilin. These studies describe an aproach to identifying long RNA binding sites and describe sequence and structural requirements for interaction of vigilin with RNAs. PMID:9632784

  7. Classification and purification of proteins of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles by RNA-binding specificities

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, M.S.; Dreyfuss, G.

    1988-05-01

    Several proteins of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) particles display very high binding affinities for different ribonucleotide homopolymers. The specificity of some of these proteins at high salt concentrations and in the presence of heparin allows for their rapid one-step purification from HeLa nucleoplasm. The authors show that the hnRNP proteins are poly(U)-binding proteins and compare their specificity to that of the previously described cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein. These findings provide a useful tool for the classification and purification of hnRNP proteins from various tissues and organisms and indicate that different hnRNP proteins have different RNA-binding specificities.

  8. A testis cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein that has the properties of a translational repressor.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K; Fajardo, M A; Braun, R E

    1996-01-01

    Translation of the mouse protamine 1 (Prm-1) mRNA is repressed for several days during male germ cell differentiation. With the hope of cloning genes that regulate the translational repression of Prm-1, we screened male germ cell cDNA expression libraries with the 3' untranslated region of the Prm-1 RNA. From this screen we obtained two independent clones that encode Prbp, a Prm-1 RNA-binding protein. Prbp contains two copies of a double-stranded-RNA-binding domain. In vitro, the protein binds to a portion of the Prm-1 3' untranslated region previously shown to be sufficient for translational repression in transgenic mice, as well as to poly(I). poly(C). Prbp protein is present in multiple forms in cytoplasmic extracts prepared from wild-type mouse testes and is absent from testes of germ cell-deficient mouse mutants, suggesting that Prbp is restricted to the germ cells of the testis. Immunocytochemical localization confirmed that Prbp is present in the cytoplasmic compartment of late-stage meiotic cells and haploid round spermatids. Recombinant Prbp protein inhibits the translation of multiple mRNAs in a wheat germ lysate, suggesting that Prbp acts to repress translation in round spermatids. While this protein lacks complete specificity for Prm-1-containing RNAs in vitro, the properties of Prbp are consistent with it acting as a general repressor of translation. PMID:8649414

  9. A tale of two paralogs: human Transformer2 proteins with differential RNA-binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pritha; Grellscheid, Sushma Nagaraja; Sowdhamini, R

    2016-09-01

    The Transformer2 (Tra2) proteins in humans are homologues of the Drosophila Tra2 protein. One of the two RNA-binding paralogs, Tra2β, has been very well-studied over the past decade, but not much is known about Tra2α. It was very recently shown that the two proteins demonstrate the phenomenon of paralog compensation. Here, we provide a structural basis for this genetic backup circuit, using molecular modelling and dynamics studies. We show that the two proteins display similar binding specificities, but differential affinities to a short GAA-rich RNA stretch. Starting from the 6-nucleotide RNA in the solution structure, close to 4000 virtual mutations were modelled on RNA and the domain-RNA interactions were studied after energy minimisation to convergence. Separately, another known 13-nucleotide stretch was docked and the domain-RNA interactions were observed through a 100-ns dynamics trajectory. We have also demonstrated the 'compensatory' mechanism at the level of domains in one of the domain repeat-containing RNA-binding proteins. PMID:26414300

  10. Programmable RNA-binding protein composed of repeats of a single modular unit.

    PubMed

    Adamala, Katarzyna P; Martin-Alarcon, Daniel A; Boyden, Edward S

    2016-05-10

    The ability to monitor and perturb RNAs in living cells would benefit greatly from a modular protein architecture that targets unmodified RNA sequences in a programmable way. We report that the RNA-binding protein PumHD (Pumilio homology domain), which has been widely used in native and modified form for targeting RNA, can be engineered to yield a set of four canonical protein modules, each of which targets one RNA base. These modules (which we call Pumby, for Pumilio-based assembly) can be concatenated in chains of varying composition and length, to bind desired target RNAs. The specificity of such Pumby-RNA interactions was high, with undetectable binding of a Pumby chain to RNA sequences that bear three or more mismatches from the target sequence. We validate that the Pumby architecture can perform RNA-directed protein assembly and enhancement of translation of RNAs. We further demonstrate a new use of such RNA-binding proteins, measurement of RNA translation in living cells. Pumby may prove useful for many applications in the measurement, manipulation, and biotechnological utilization of unmodified RNAs in intact cells and systems. PMID:27118836

  11. Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters RNA binding proteins and impairs RNA granules formation

    SciTech Connect

    Takanashi, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters ALS-associated RNA-binding proteins (FUS wt, hnRNP A1, and hnRNP A2). • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters SMN1 in the detergent-insoluble fraction. • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant reduced the number of speckles in the nucleus. • Overproduced ALS-linked FUS mutant reduced the number of processing-bodies (PBs). - Abstract: Protein aggregate/inclusion is one of hallmarks for neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). FUS/TLS, one of causative genes for familial ALS, encodes a multifunctional DNA/RNA binding protein predominantly localized in the nucleus. C-terminal mutations in FUS/TLS cause the retention and the inclusion of FUS/TLS mutants in the cytoplasm. In the present study, we examined the effects of ALS-linked FUS mutants on ALS-associated RNA binding proteins and RNA granules. FUS C-terminal mutants were diffusely mislocalized in the cytoplasm as small granules in transiently transfected SH-SY5Y cells, whereas large aggregates were spontaneously formed in ∼10% of those cells. hnRNP A1, hnRNP A2, and SMN1 as well as FUS wild type were assembled into stress granules under stress conditions, and these were also recruited to FUS mutant-derived spontaneous aggregates in the cytoplasm. These aggregates stalled poly(A) mRNAs and sequestered SMN1 in the detergent insoluble fraction, which also reduced the number of nuclear oligo(dT)-positive foci (speckles) in FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) assay. In addition, the number of P-bodies was decreased in cells harboring cytoplasmic granules of FUS P525L. These findings raise the possibility that ALS-linked C-terminal FUS mutants could sequester a variety of RNA binding proteins and mRNAs in the cytoplasmic aggregates, which could disrupt various aspects of RNA equilibrium and biogenesis.

  12. Posttranscriptional Regulation of p53 and Its Targets by RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Chen, Xinbin

    2009-01-01

    p53 tumor suppressor plays a pivotal role in maintaining genomic integrity and preventing cancer development. The importance of p53 in tumor suppression is illustrated by the observation that about 50% human tumor cells have a dysfunctional p53 pathway. Although it has been well accepted that the activity of p53 is mainly controlled through post-translational modifications, recent studies have revealed that posttranscriptional regulations of p53 by various RNA-binding proteins also play a crucial role in modulating p53 activity and its downstream targets. PMID:19075680

  13. The RNA-binding protein Arrest (Bruno) regulates alternative splicing to enable myofibril maturation in Drosophila flight muscle.

    PubMed

    Spletter, Maria L; Barz, Christiane; Yeroslaviz, Assa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Ferreira, Irene R S; Sarov, Mihail; Gerlach, Daniel; Stark, Alexander; Habermann, Bianca H; Schnorrer, Frank

    2015-02-01

    In Drosophila, fibrillar flight muscles (IFMs) enable flight, while tubular muscles mediate other body movements. Here, we use RNA-sequencing and isoform-specific reporters to show that spalt major (salm) determines fibrillar muscle physiology by regulating transcription and alternative splicing of a large set of sarcomeric proteins. We identify the RNA-binding protein Arrest (Aret, Bruno) as downstream of salm. Aret shuttles between the cytoplasm and nuclei and is essential for myofibril maturation and sarcomere growth of IFMs. Molecularly, Aret regulates IFM-specific splicing of various salm-dependent sarcomeric targets, including Stretchin and wupA (TnI), and thus maintains muscle fiber integrity. As Aret and its sarcomeric targets are evolutionarily conserved, similar principles may regulate mammalian muscle morphogenesis. PMID:25532219

  14. The RNA-binding protein Arrest (Bruno) regulates alternative splicing to enable myofibril maturation in Drosophila flight muscle

    PubMed Central

    Spletter, Maria L; Barz, Christiane; Yeroslaviz, Assa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Ferreira, Irene R S; Sarov, Mihail; Gerlach, Daniel; Stark, Alexander; Habermann, Bianca H; Schnorrer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila, fibrillar flight muscles (IFMs) enable flight, while tubular muscles mediate other body movements. Here, we use RNA-sequencing and isoform-specific reporters to show that spalt major (salm) determines fibrillar muscle physiology by regulating transcription and alternative splicing of a large set of sarcomeric proteins. We identify the RNA-binding protein Arrest (Aret, Bruno) as downstream of salm. Aret shuttles between the cytoplasm and nuclei and is essential for myofibril maturation and sarcomere growth of IFMs. Molecularly, Aret regulates IFM-specific splicing of various salm-dependent sarcomeric targets, including Stretchin and wupA (TnI), and thus maintains muscle fiber integrity. As Aret and its sarcomeric targets are evolutionarily conserved, similar principles may regulate mammalian muscle morphogenesis. PMID:25532219

  15. A pair of RNA binding proteins controls networks of splicing events contributing to specialization of neural cell types

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Adam D.; Gao, Shangbang; Norris, Megan L.; Ray, Debashish; Ramani, Arun K.; Fraser, Andrew G.; Morris, Quaid; Hughes, Timothy R.; Zhen, Mei; Calarco, John A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Alternative splicing is important for the development and function of the nervous system, but little is known about the differences in alternative splicing between distinct types of neurons. Furthermore, the factors that control cell-type-specific splicing and the physiological roles of these alternative isoforms are unclear. By monitoring alternative splicing at single cell resolution in Caenorhabditis elegans, we demonstrate that splicing patterns in different neurons are often distinct and highly regulated. We identify two conserved RNA binding proteins, UNC-75/CELF and EXC-7/Hu/ELAV, which regulate overlapping networks of splicing events in GABAergic and cholinergic neurons. We use the UNC-75 exon network to discover regulators of synaptic transmission and to identify unique roles for isoforms of UNC-64/Syntaxin, a protein required for synaptic vesicle fusion. Our results indicate that combinatorial regulation of alternative splicing in distinct neurons provides a mechanism to specialize metazoan nervous systems. PMID:24910101

  16. CLIPZ: a database and analysis environment for experimentally determined binding sites of RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Khorshid, Mohsen; Rodak, Christoph; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The stability, localization and translation rate of mRNAs are regulated by a multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that find their targets directly or with the help of guide RNAs. Among the experimental methods for mapping RBP binding sites, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) coupled with deep sequencing provides transcriptome-wide coverage as well as high resolution. However, partly due to their vast volume, the data that were so far generated in CLIP experiments have not been put in a form that enables fast and interactive exploration of binding sites. To address this need, we have developed the CLIPZ database and analysis environment. Binding site data for RBPs such as Argonaute 1-4, Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-3, TNRC6 proteins A-C, Pumilio 2, Quaking and Polypyrimidine tract binding protein can be visualized at the level of the genome and of individual transcripts. Individual users can upload their own sequence data sets while being able to limit the access to these data to specific users, and analyses of the public and private data sets can be performed interactively. CLIPZ, available at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch, aims to provide an open access repository of information for post-transcriptional regulatory elements. PMID:21087992

  17. The RNA-binding protein gene, hermes, is expressed at high levels in the developing heart.

    PubMed

    Gerber, W V; Yatskievych, T A; Antin, P B; Correia, K M; Conlon, R A; Krieg, P A

    1999-01-01

    In a screen for novel sequences expressed during embryonic heart development we have isolated a gene which encodes a putative RNA-binding protein. This protein is a member of one of the largest families of RNA-binding proteins, the RRM (RNA Recognition Motif) family. The gene has been named hermes (for HEart, RRM Expressed Sequence). The hermes protein is 197-amino acids long and contains a single RRM domain. In situ hybridization analysis indicates that hermes is expressed at highest levels in the myocardium of the heart and to a lesser extent in the ganglion layer of the retina, the pronephros and epiphysis. Expression of hermes in each of these tissues begins at approximately the time of differentiation and is maintained throughout development. Analysis of the RNA expression of the hermes orthologues from chicken and mouse reveals that, like Xenopus, the most prominent tissue of expression is the developing heart. The sequence and expression pattern of hermes suggests a role in post-transcriptional regulation of heart development. PMID:10096065

  18. Thermodynamics of tryptophan-mediated activation of the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Craig A; Manfredo, Amanda; Gollnick, Paul; Foster, Mark P

    2006-06-27

    The trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) functions in many bacilli to control the expression of the tryptophan biosynthesis genes. Transcription of the trp operon is controlled by TRAP through an attenuation mechanism, in which competition between two alternative secondary-structural elements in the 5' leader sequence of the nascent mRNA is influenced by tryptophan-dependent binding of TRAP to the RNA. Previously, NMR studies of the undecamer (11-mer) suggested that tryptophan-dependent control of RNA binding by TRAP is accomplished through ligand-induced changes in protein dynamics. We now present further insights into this ligand-coupled event from hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Scanning calorimetry showed tryptophan dissociation to be independent of global protein unfolding, while analysis of the temperature dependence of the binding enthalpy by ITC revealed a negative heat capacity change larger than expected from surface burial, a hallmark of binding-coupled processes. Analysis of this excess heat capacity change using parameters derived from protein folding studies corresponds to the ordering of 17-24 residues per monomer of TRAP upon tryptophan binding. This result is in agreement with qualitative analysis of residue-specific broadening observed in TROSY NMR spectra of the 91 kDa oligomer. Implications for the mechanism of ligand-mediated TRAP activation through a shift in a preexisting conformational equilibrium and an induced-fit conformational change are discussed. PMID:16784236

  19. BindUP: a web server for non-homology-based prediction of DNA and RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Paz, Inbal; Kligun, Efrat; Bengad, Barak; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2016-07-01

    Gene expression is a multi-step process involving many layers of regulation. The main regulators of the pathway are DNA and RNA binding proteins. While over the years, a large number of DNA and RNA binding proteins have been identified and extensively studied, it is still expected that many other proteins, some with yet another known function, are awaiting to be discovered. Here we present a new web server, BindUP, freely accessible through the website http://bindup.technion.ac.il/, for predicting DNA and RNA binding proteins using a non-homology-based approach. Our method is based on the electrostatic features of the protein surface and other general properties of the protein. BindUP predicts nucleic acid binding function given the proteins three-dimensional structure or a structural model. Additionally, BindUP provides information on the largest electrostatic surface patches, visualized on the server. The server was tested on several datasets of DNA and RNA binding proteins, including proteins which do not possess DNA or RNA binding domains and have no similarity to known nucleic acid binding proteins, achieving very high accuracy. BindUP is applicable in either single or batch modes and can be applied for testing hundreds of proteins simultaneously in a highly efficient manner. PMID:27198220

  20. RNA and protein complexes of trp RNA-binding attenuation protein characterized by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Satoko; Watanabe, Masahiro; Heddle, Jonathan G; Unzai, Satoru; Park, Sam-Yong; Tame, Jeremy R H

    2009-03-15

    We have characterized both wild-type and mutant TRAP (trp RNA-binding attenuation protein) from Bacillus stearothermophilus , and their complexes with RNA or its regulator anti-TRAP protein (AT), by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Wild-type TRAP mainly forms homo-11mer rings. The mutant used carries three copies of the TRAP monomer on a single polypeptide chain so that it associates to form a 12mer ring with four polypeptide molecules. Mass spectra showed that both the wild-type TRAP 11mer and the mutant TRAP 12mer can bind a cognate single-stranded RNA molecule with a molar ratio of 1:1. The crystal structure of wild-type TRAP complexed with AT shows a TRAP 12mer ring surrounded by six AT trimers. However, nanoESI-MS of wild-type TRAP mixed with AT shows four species with different binding stoichiometries, and the complex observed by crystallography represents only a minor species in solution; most of the TRAP remains in an 11mer ring form. Mass spectra of mutant TRAP showed only a single species, TRAP 12mer + six copies of AT trimer, which is observed by crystallography. These results suggest that crystallization selects only the most symmetrical TRAP-AT complex from the solution, whereas ESI-MS can take a "snapshot" of all the species in solution. PMID:19219981

  1. Orthogonal matrix factorization enables integrative analysis of multiple RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Stražar, Martin; Žitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž; Ule, Jernej; Curk, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in post-transcriptional control of gene expression, including splicing, transport, polyadenylation and RNA stability. To model protein–RNA interactions by considering all available sources of information, it is necessary to integrate the rapidly growing RBP experimental data with the latest genome annotation, gene function, RNA sequence and structure. Such integration is possible by matrix factorization, where current approaches have an undesired tendency to identify only a small number of the strongest patterns with overlapping features. Because protein–RNA interactions are orchestrated by multiple factors, methods that identify discriminative patterns of varying strengths are needed. Results: We have developed an integrative orthogonality-regularized nonnegative matrix factorization (iONMF) to integrate multiple data sources and discover non-overlapping, class-specific RNA binding patterns of varying strengths. The orthogonality constraint halves the effective size of the factor model and outperforms other NMF models in predicting RBP interaction sites on RNA. We have integrated the largest data compendium to date, which includes 31 CLIP experiments on 19 RBPs involved in splicing (such as hnRNPs, U2AF2, ELAVL1, TDP-43 and FUS) and processing of 3’UTR (Ago, IGF2BP). We show that the integration of multiple data sources improves the predictive accuracy of retrieval of RNA binding sites. In our study the key predictive factors of protein–RNA interactions were the position of RNA structure and sequence motifs, RBP co-binding and gene region type. We report on a number of protein-specific patterns, many of which are consistent with experimentally determined properties of RBPs. Availability and implementation: The iONMF implementation and example datasets are available at https://github.com/mstrazar/ionmf. Contact: tomaz.curk@fri.uni-lj.si Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available

  2. Arabidopsis thaliana tandem zinc finger 1 (AtTZF1) protein in RNA binding and decay

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Jie; Kang, Shin Gene; Wang, Wei; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Jang, Jyan-Chyun

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Arabidopsis thaliana Tandem Zinc Finger 1 (AtTZF1) protein is characterized by two tandem-arrayed CCCH type zinc fingers. We have previously found that AtTZF1 affects hormone-mediated growth, stress and gene expression responses. While much has been learned at the genetic and physiological level, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of AtTZF1 on gene expression remain obscure. A human TZF protein, hTTP, is known to bind and trigger the degradation of mRNAs containing AU-rich elements (AREs) at the 3′ untranslated regions. However, while the TZF motif of hTTP is characterized by CX8CX5CX3H-X18-CX8CX5CX3H, AtTZF1 contains an atypical motif of CX7CX5CX3H-X16-CX5CX4CX3H. Moreover, the TZF motif of AtTZF1 is preceded by a plant-unique arginine-rich (RR) region. Using fluorescence anisotropy and electrophoretic mobility shift binding assays, we have demonstrated that AtTZF1 binds to RNA molecules with specificity and the interaction is dependent on the presence of zinc. Compared to hTTP in which TZF is solely responsible for RNA binding, both TZF and arginine-rich (RR) regions of AtTZF1 are required to achieve high affinity RNA binding. Moreover, zinc finger integrity is vital for RNA binding. Using a plant protoplast transient expression analysis, we have further revealed that AtTZF1 can trigger the decay of ARE-containing mRNAs in vivo. Taken together, our results support the notion that AtTZF1 is involved in RNA turnover. PMID:24635033

  3. RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 targeting of oncogenic transcripts promotes hematopoietic progenitor proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Palanichamy, Jayanth Kumar; Tran, Tiffany M.; Howard, Jonathan M.; Contreras, Jorge R.; Fernando, Thilini R.; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Katzman, Sol; Toloue, Masoud; Yan, Weihong; Sanford, Jeremy R.; Rao, Dinesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranscriptional control of gene expression is important for defining both normal and pathological cellular phenotypes. In vitro, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have recently been shown to play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation; however, the contribution of RBPs to cell specification is not well understood. Here, we determined that the RBP insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) is specifically overexpressed in mixed lineage leukemia–rearranged (MLL-rearranged) B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), which constitutes a subtype of this malignancy associated with poor prognosis and high risk of relapse. IGF2BP3 was required for the survival of B-ALL cell lines, as knockdown led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Enforced expression of IGF2BP3 provided murine BM cells with a strong survival advantage, led to proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and skewed hematopoietic development to the B cell/myeloid lineage. Cross-link immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing uncovered the IGF2BP3-regulated transcriptome, which includes oncogenes MYC and CDK6 as direct targets. IGF2BP3 regulated transcripts via targeting elements within 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTR), and enforced IGF2BP3 expression in mice resulted in enhanced expression of Myc and Cdk6 in BM. Together, our data suggest that IGF2BP3-mediated targeting of oncogenic transcripts may represent a critical pathogenetic mechanism in MLL-rearranged B-ALL and support IGF2BP3 and its cognate RNA-binding partners as potential therapeutic targets in this disease. PMID:26974154

  4. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; Yang, Li; Bolisetty, Mohan; Landolin, Jane; Wan, Ken; Sandler, Jeremy; Booth, Benjamin W.; Celniker, Susan E.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected the splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. This large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs. PMID:26294686

  5. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; Yang, Li; Bolisetty, Mohan; Landolin, Jane; Wan, Ken; Sandler, Jeremy; Booth, Benjamin W.; Celniker, Susan E.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-08-20

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected the splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. In conclusion, this large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs.

  6. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; Yang, Li; Bolisetty, Mohan; Landolin, Jane; Wan, Ken; Sandler, Jeremy; Booth, Benjamin W.; Celniker, Susan E.; et al

    2015-08-20

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected themore » splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. In conclusion, this large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs.« less

  7. The RNA binding protein Larp1 regulates cell division, apoptosis and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Carla; Abd Latip, Normala; Lam, Sarah-Jane; Carpenter, Lee; Sawicka, Kirsty; Tzolovsky, George; Gabra, Hani; Bushell, Martin; Glover, David M; Willis, Anne E; Blagden, Sarah P

    2010-09-01

    The RNA binding protein Larp1 was originally shown to be involved in spermatogenesis, embryogenesis and cell-cycle progression in Drosophila. Our data show that mammalian Larp1 is found in a complex with poly A binding protein and eukaryote initiation factor 4E and is associated with 60S and 80S ribosomal subunits. A reduction in Larp1 expression by siRNA inhibits global protein synthesis rates and results in mitotic arrest and delayed cell migration. Consistent with these data we show that Larp1 protein is present at the leading edge of migrating cells and interacts directly with cytoskeletal components. Taken together, these data suggest a role for Larp1 in facilitating the synthesis of proteins required for cellular remodelling and migration. PMID:20430826

  8. Novel RNA chaperone domain of RNA-binding protein La is regulated by AKT phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kuehnert, Julia; Sommer, Gunhild; Zierk, Avery W.; Fedarovich, Alena; Brock, Alexander; Fedarovich, Dzmitry; Heise, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    The cellular function of the cancer-associated RNA-binding protein La has been linked to translation of viral and cellular mRNAs. Recently, we have shown that the human La protein stimulates IRES-mediated translation of the cooperative oncogene CCND1 in cervical cancer cells. However, there is little known about the underlying molecular mechanism by which La stimulates CCND1 IRES-mediated translation, and we propose that its RNA chaperone activity is required. Herein, we show that La binds close to the CCND1 start codon and demonstrate that La's RNA chaperone activity can change the folding of its binding site. We map the RNA chaperone domain (RCD) within the C-terminal region of La in close proximity to a novel AKT phosphorylation site (T389). Phosphorylation at T389 by AKT-1 strongly impairs its RNA chaperone activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the RCD as well as T389 is required to stimulate CCND1 IRES-mediated translation in cells. In summary, we provide a model whereby a novel interplay between RNA-binding, RNA chaperoning and AKT phosphorylation of La protein regulates CCND1 IRES-mediated translation. PMID:25520193

  9. Severe muscle wasting and denervation in mice lacking the RNA-binding protein ZFP106.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Douglas M; Cannavino, Jessica; Li, Hui; Anderson, Kelly M; Nelson, Benjamin R; McAnally, John; Bezprozvannaya, Svetlana; Liu, Yun; Lin, Weichun; Liu, Ning; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2016-08-01

    Innervation of skeletal muscle by motor neurons occurs through the neuromuscular junction, a cholinergic synapse essential for normal muscle growth and function. Defects in nerve-muscle signaling cause a variety of neuromuscular disorders with features of ataxia, paralysis, skeletal muscle wasting, and degeneration. Here we show that the nuclear zinc finger protein ZFP106 is highly enriched in skeletal muscle and is required for postnatal maintenance of myofiber innervation by motor neurons. Genetic disruption of Zfp106 in mice results in progressive ataxia and hindlimb paralysis associated with motor neuron degeneration, severe muscle wasting, and premature death by 6 mo of age. We show that ZFP106 is an RNA-binding protein that associates with the core splicing factor RNA binding motif protein 39 (RBM39) and localizes to nuclear speckles adjacent to spliceosomes. Upon inhibition of pre-mRNA synthesis, ZFP106 translocates with other splicing factors to the nucleolus. Muscle and spinal cord of Zfp106 knockout mice displayed a gene expression signature of neuromuscular degeneration. Strikingly, altered splicing of the Nogo (Rtn4) gene locus in skeletal muscle of Zfp106 knockout mice resulted in ectopic expression of NOGO-A, the neurite outgrowth factor that inhibits nerve regeneration and destabilizes neuromuscular junctions. These findings reveal a central role for Zfp106 in the maintenance of nerve-muscle signaling, and highlight the involvement of aberrant RNA processing in neuromuscular disease pathogenesis. PMID:27418600

  10. The function of the RNA-binding protein TEL1 in moss reveals ancient regulatory mechanisms of shoot development.

    PubMed

    Vivancos, Julien; Spinner, Lara; Mazubert, Christelle; Charlot, Florence; Paquet, Nicolas; Thareau, Vincent; Dron, Michel; Nogué, Fabien; Charon, Céline

    2012-03-01

    The shoot represents the basic body plan in land plants. It consists of a repeated structure composed of stems and leaves. Whereas vascular plants generate a shoot in their diploid phase, non-vascular plants such as mosses form a shoot (called the gametophore) in their haploid generation. The evolution of regulatory mechanisms or genetic networks used in the development of these two kinds of shoots is unclear. TERMINAL EAR1-like genes have been involved in diploid shoot development in vascular plants. Here, we show that disruption of PpTEL1 from the moss Physcomitrella patens, causes reduced protonema growth and gametophore initiation, as well as defects in gametophore development. Leafy shoots formed on ΔTEL1 mutants exhibit shorter stems with more leaves per shoot, suggesting an accelerated leaf initiation (shortened plastochron), a phenotype shared with the Poaceae vascular plants TE1 and PLA2/LHD2 mutants. Moreover, the positive correlation between plastochron length and leaf size observed in ΔTEL1 mutants suggests a conserved compensatory mechanism correlating leaf growth and leaf initiation rate that would minimize overall changes in plant biomass. The RNA-binding protein encoded by PpTEL1 contains two N-terminus RNA-recognition motifs, and a third C-terminus non-canonical RRM, specific to TEL proteins. Removal of the PpTEL1 C-terminus (including this third RRM) or only 16-18 amino acids within it seriously impairs PpTEL1 function, suggesting a critical role for this third RRM. These results show a conserved function of the RNA-binding PpTEL1 protein in the regulation of shoot development, from early ancestors to vascular plants, that depends on the third TEL-specific RRM. PMID:22170036

  11. RNA binding by Hfq and ring-forming (L)Sm proteins

    PubMed Central

    Weichenrieder, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic Sm and the Sm-like (LSm) proteins form a large family that includes LSm proteins in archaea and the Hfq proteins in bacteria. Commonly referred to as the (L)Sm protein family, the various members play important roles in RNA processing, decay, and riboregulation. Particularly interesting from a structural point of view is their ability to assemble into doughnut-shaped rings, which allows them to bind preferentially the uridine-rich 3′-end of RNA oligonucleotides. With an emphasis on Hfq, this review compares the RNA-binding properties of the various (L)Sm rings that were recently co-crystallized with RNA substrates, and it discusses how these properties relate to physiological function. PMID:24828406

  12. Formation and Maturation of Phase-Separated Liquid Droplets by RNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan; Protter, David S W; Rosen, Michael K; Parker, Roy

    2015-10-15

    Eukaryotic cells possess numerous dynamic membrane-less organelles, RNP granules, enriched in RNA and RNA-binding proteins containing disordered regions. We demonstrate that the disordered regions of key RNP granule components and the full-length granule protein hnRNPA1 can phase separate in vitro, producing dynamic liquid droplets. Phase separation is promoted by low salt concentrations or RNA. Over time, the droplets mature to more stable states, as assessed by slowed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and resistance to salt. Maturation often coincides with formation of fibrous structures. Different disordered domains can co-assemble into phase-separated droplets. These biophysical properties demonstrate a plausible mechanism by which interactions between disordered regions, coupled with RNA binding, could contribute to RNP granule assembly in vivo through promoting phase separation. Progression from dynamic liquids to stable fibers may be regulated to produce cellular structures with diverse physiochemical properties and functions. Misregulation could contribute to diseases involving aberrant RNA granules. PMID:26412307

  13. Neuroprotection requires the functions of the RNA-binding protein HuR

    PubMed Central

    Skliris, A; Papadaki, O; Kafasla, P; Karakasiliotis, I; Hazapis, O; Reczko, M; Grammenoudi, S; Bauer, J; Kontoyiannis, D L

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the functions of neuronal RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) can contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. However, neurons also express a set of widely distributed RBPs that may have developed specialized functions. Here, we show that the ubiquitous member of the otherwise neuronal Elavl/Hu family of RNA-binding proteins, Elavl1/HuR, has a neuroprotective role. Mice engineered to lack exclusively HuR in the hippocampal neurons of the central nervous system (CNS), maintain physiologic levels of neuronal Elavls and develop a partially diminished seizure response following strong glutamatergic excitation; however, they display an exacerbated neurodegenerative response subsequent to the initial excitotoxic event. This response was phenocopied in hippocampal cells devoid of ionotropic glutamate receptors in which the loss of HuR results in enhanced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage and programmed necrosis solely after glutamate challenge. The molecular dissection of HuR and nElavl mRNA targets revealed the existence of a HuR-restricted posttranscriptional regulon that failed in HuR-deficient neurons and is involved in cellular energetics and oxidation defense. Thus, HuR acts as a specialized controller of oxidative metabolism in neurons to confer protection from neurodegeneration. PMID:25301069

  14. Developmentally Regulated RNA-binding Protein 1 (Drb1)/RNA-binding Motif Protein 45 (RBM45), a Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Trafficking Protein, Forms TAR DNA-binding Protein 43 (TDP-43)-mediated Cytoplasmic Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Mashiko, Takafumi; Sakashita, Eiji; Kasashima, Katsumi; Tominaga, Kaoru; Kuroiwa, Kenji; Nozaki, Yasuyuki; Matsuura, Tohru; Hamamoto, Toshiro; Endo, Hitoshi

    2016-07-15

    Cytoplasmic protein aggregates are one of the pathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Several RNA-binding proteins have been identified as components of inclusion bodies. Developmentally regulated RNA-binding protein 1 (Drb1)/RNA-binding motif protein 45 is an RNA-binding protein that was recently described as a component in ALS- and FTLD-related inclusion bodies. However, the molecular mechanism underlying cytoplasmic Drb1 aggregation remains unclear. Here, using an in vitro cellular model, we demonstrated that Drb1 co-localizes with cytoplasmic aggregates mediated by TAR DNA-binding protein 43, a major component of ALS and FTLD-related inclusion bodies. We also defined the domains involved in the subcellular localization of Drb1 to clarify the role of Drb1 in the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates in ALS and FTLD. Drb1 predominantly localized in the nucleus via a classical nuclear localization signal in its carboxyl terminus and is a shuttling protein between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Furthermore, we identify a double leucine motif serving as a nuclear export signal. The Drb1 mutant, presenting mutations in both nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signal, is prone to aggregate in the cytoplasm. The mutant Drb1-induced cytoplasmic aggregates not only recruit TAR DNA-binding protein 43 but also decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, these results indicate that perturbation of Drb1 nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking induces toxic cytoplasmic aggregates, suggesting that mislocalization of Drb1 is involved in the cause of cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. PMID:27226551

  15. Characterization of RNA binding and chaperoning activities of HIV-1 Vif protein

    PubMed Central

    Sleiman, Dona; Bernacchi, Serena; Xavier Guerrero, Santiago; Brachet, Franck; Larue, Valéry; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Tisné, Carine

    2014-01-01

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for the productive infection and dissemination of HIV-1 in non-permissive cells, containing the cellular anti-HIV defense cytosine deaminases APOBEC3 (A3G and A3F). Vif neutralizes the antiviral activities of the APOBEC3G/F by diverse mechanisms including their degradation through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and their translational inhibition. In addition, Vif appears to be an active partner of the late steps of viral replication by interacting with Pr55Gag, reverse transcriptase and genomic RNA. Here, we expressed and purified full-length and truncated Vif proteins, and analyzed their RNA binding and chaperone properties. First, we showed by CD and NMR spectroscopies that the N-terminal domain of Vif is highly structured in solution, whereas the C-terminal domain remains mainly unfolded. Both domains exhibited substantial RNA binding capacities with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range, whereas the basic unfolded C-terminal domain of Vif was responsible in part for its RNA chaperone activity. Second, we showed by NMR chemical shift mapping that Vif and NCp7 share the same binding sites on tRNALys3, the primer of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Finally, our results indicate that Vif has potent RNA chaperone activity and provide direct evidence for an important role of the unstructured C-terminal domain of Vif in this capacity. PMID:25144404

  16. The roles of plant dsRNA-binding proteins in RNAi-like pathways.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Shaun J; Watson, John M; Smith, Neil A; Eamens, Andrew L; Blanchard, Chris L; Waterhouse, Peter M

    2008-08-01

    Dicers are associated with double-stranded RNA-binding proteins (dsRBPs) in animals. In the plant, Arabidopsis, there are four dicer-like (DCL) proteins and five potential dsRBPs. These DCLs act redundantly and hierarchically. However, we show there is little or no redundancy or hierarchy amongst the DRBs in their DCL interactions. DCL1 operates exclusively with DRB1 to produce micro (mi)RNAs, DCL4 operates exclusively with DRB4 to produce trans-acting (ta) siRNAs and 21nt siRNAs from viral RNA. DCL2 and DCL3 produce viral siRNAs without requiring assistance from any dsRBP. DRB2, DRB3 and DRB5 appear unnecessary for mi-, tasi-, viral si-, or heterochromatinising siRNA production but act redundantly in a developmental pathway. PMID:18625233

  17. RNA-binding proteins and translational regulation in axons and growth cones

    PubMed Central

    Hörnberg, Hanna; Holt, Christine

    2013-01-01

    RNA localization and regulation play an important role in the developing and adult nervous system. In navigating axons, extrinsic cues can elicit rapid local protein synthesis that mediates directional or morphological responses. The mRNA repertoire in axons is large and dynamically changing, yet studies suggest that only a subset of these mRNAs are translated after cue stimulation, suggesting the need for a high level of translational regulation. Here, we review the role of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) as local regulators of translation in developing axons. We focus on their role in growth, guidance, and synapse formation, and discuss the mechanisms by which they regulate translation in axons. PMID:23734093

  18. The Arabidopsis RNA-binding protein AtRGGA regulates tolerance to salt and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Ambrosone, Alfredo; Batelli, Giorgia; Nurcato, Roberta; Aurilia, Vincenzo; Punzo, Paola; Bangarusamy, Dhinoth Kumar; Ruberti, Ida; Sassi, Massimiliano; Leone, Antonietta; Costa, Antonello; Grillo, Stefania

    2015-05-01

    Salt and drought stress severely reduce plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. The identification of genes underlying stress response and tolerance is the subject of intense research in plant biology. Through microarray analyses, we previously identified in potato (Solanum tuberosum) StRGGA, coding for an Arginine Glycine Glycine (RGG) box-containing RNA-binding protein, whose expression was specifically induced in potato cell cultures gradually exposed to osmotic stress. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ortholog, AtRGGA, is a functional RNA-binding protein required for a proper response to osmotic stress. AtRGGA gene expression was up-regulated in seedlings after long-term exposure to abscisic acid (ABA) and polyethylene glycol, while treatments with NaCl resulted in AtRGGA down-regulation. AtRGGA promoter analysis showed activity in several tissues, including stomata, the organs controlling transpiration. Fusion of AtRGGA with yellow fluorescent protein indicated that AtRGGA is localized in the cytoplasm and the cytoplasmic perinuclear region. In addition, the rgga knockout mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in root growth and survival tests and to salt stress during germination and at the vegetative stage. AtRGGA-overexpressing plants showed higher tolerance to ABA and salt stress on plates and in soil, accumulating lower levels of proline when exposed to drought stress. Finally, a global analysis of gene expression revealed extensive alterations in the transcriptome under salt stress, including several genes such as ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2, GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE TAU9, and several SMALL AUXIN UPREGULATED RNA-like genes showing opposite expression behavior in transgenic and knockout plants. Taken together, our results reveal an important role of AtRGGA in the mechanisms of plant response and adaptation to stress. PMID:25783413

  19. The zinc fingers of the SR-like protein ZRANB2 are single-stranded RNA-binding domains that recognize 5′ splice site-like sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Loughlin, Fionna E.; Mansfield, Robyn E.; Vaz, Paula M.; McGrath, Aaron P.; Setiyaputra, Surya; Gamsjaeger, Roland; Chen, Eva S.; Morris, Brian J.; Guss, J. Mitchell; Mackay, Joel P.

    2009-09-02

    The alternative splicing of mRNA is a critical process in higher eukaryotes that generates substantial proteomic diversity. Many of the proteins that are essential to this process contain arginine/serine-rich (RS) domains. ZRANB2 is a widely-expressed and highly-conserved RS-domain protein that can regulate alternative splicing but lacks canonical RNA-binding domains. Instead, it contains 2 RanBP2-type zinc finger (ZnF) domains. We demonstrate that these ZnFs recognize ssRNA with high affinity and specificity. Each ZnF binds to a single AGGUAA motif and the 2 domains combine to recognize AGGUAA(N{sub x})AGGUAA double sites, suggesting that ZRANB2 regulates alternative splicing via a direct interaction with pre-mRNA at sites that resemble the consensus 5{prime} splice site. We show using X-ray crystallography that recognition of an AGGUAA motif by a single ZnF is dominated by side-chain hydrogen bonds to the bases and formation of a guanine-tryptophan-guanine 'ladder.' A number of other human proteins that function in RNA processing also contain RanBP2 ZnFs in which the RNA-binding residues of ZRANB2 are conserved. The ZnFs of ZRANB2 therefore define another class of RNA-binding domain, advancing our understanding of RNA recognition and emphasizing the versatility of ZnF domains in molecular recognition.

  20. Context-dependent control of alternative splicing by RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiang-Dong; Ares, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) bind to pre-mRNA to control alternative splicing, but it is not yet possible to read the ‘splicing code’ that dictates splicing regulation on the basis of genome sequence. Each alternative splicing event is controlled by multiple RBPs, the combined action of which creates a distribution of alternatively spliced products in a given cell type. As each cell type expresses a distinct array of RBPs, the interpretation of regulatory information on a given RNA target is exceedingly dependent on the cell type. RBPs also control each other’s functions at many levels, including by mutual modulation of their binding activities on specific regulatory RNA elements. In this Review, we describe some of the emerging rules that govern the highly context-dependent and combinatorial nature of alternative splicing regulation. PMID:25112293

  1. Functional requirements of AID's higher order structures and their interaction with RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Samiran; Begum, Nasim A; Hu, Wenjun; Honjo, Tasuku

    2016-03-15

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for the somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of Ig genes. Although both the N and C termini of AID have unique functions in DNA cleavage and recombination, respectively, during SHM and CSR, their molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay combined with glycerol gradient fractionation, we revealed that the AID C terminus is required for a stable dimer formation. Furthermore, AID monomers and dimers form complexes with distinct heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). AID monomers associate with DNA cleavage cofactor hnRNP K whereas AID dimers associate with recombination cofactors hnRNP L, hnRNP U, and Serpine mRNA-binding protein 1. All of these AID/ribonucleoprotein associations are RNA-dependent. We propose that AID's structure-specific cofactor complex formations differentially contribute to its DNA-cleavage and recombination functions. PMID:26929374

  2. Expression profile of the RNA-binding protein gene hermes during chicken embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Wilmore, Helen P; McClive, Peter J; Smith, Craig A; Sinclair, Andrew H

    2005-07-01

    The hermes gene encodes an RNA-binding protein containing an RNA-recognition motif. Its expression has been described previously in Xenopus and in the developing heart of very young chicken embryos. We have analyzed the expression of cHermes in later heart development, where expression is maintained in the myocardium, and also in previously undescribed sites. cHermes expression first appears in the somites in the first terminally differentiated myocytes of both the epaxial and the hypaxial myotome. Expression is also seen in the primordium of the allantois and continues in the developing allantoic sac. cHermes expression in the pronephric and mesonephric kidneys coincides temporally and spatially with the appearance of the vascular components of the glomeruli. In addition, cHermes expression was seen in the mesoderm of the gut and in the notochord. PMID:15895363

  3. RNA-binding proteins involved in post-transcriptional regulation in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Van Assche, Elke; Van Puyvelde, Sandra; Vanderleyden, Jos; Steenackers, Hans P.

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation is a very important mechanism to control gene expression in changing environments. In the past decade, a lot of interest has been directed toward the role of small RNAs (sRNAs) in bacterial post-transcriptional regulation. However, sRNAs are not the only molecules controlling gene expression at this level, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play an important role as well. CsrA and Hfq are the two best studied bacterial proteins of this type, but recently, additional proteins involved in post-transcriptional control have been identified. This review focuses on the general working mechanisms of post-transcriptionally active RBPs, which include (i) adaptation of the susceptibility of mRNAs and sRNAs to RNases, (ii) modulating the accessibility of the ribosome binding site of mRNAs, (iii) recruiting and assisting in the interaction of mRNAs with other molecules and (iv) regulating transcription terminator/antiterminator formation, and gives an overview of both the well-studied and the newly identified proteins that are involved in post-transcriptional regulatory processes. Additionally, the post-transcriptional mechanisms by which the expression or the activity of these proteins is regulated, are described. For many of the newly identified proteins, however, mechanistic questions remain. Most likely, more post-transcriptionally active proteins will be identified in the future. PMID:25784899

  4. An RNA chaperone activity of non-specific RNA binding proteins in hammerhead ribozyme catalysis.

    PubMed Central

    Herschlag, D; Khosla, M; Tsuchihashi, Z; Karpel, R L

    1994-01-01

    We have previously shown that a protein derived from the p7 nucleocapsid (NC) protein of HIV type-1 increases kcat/Km and kcat for cleavage of a cognate substrate by a hammerhead ribozyme. Here we show directly that the increase in kcat/Km arises from catalysis of the annealing of the RNA substrate to the ribozyme and the increase in kcat arises from catalysis of dissociation of the RNA products from the ribozyme. A peptide polymer derived from the consensus sequence of the C-terminal domain of the hnRNP A1 protein (A1 CTD) provides similar enhancements. Although these effects apparently arise from non-specific interactions, not all non-specific binding interactions led to these enhancements. NC and A1 CTD exert their effects by accelerating attainment of the thermodynamically most stable species throughout the ribozyme catalytic cycle. In addition, NC protein is shown to resolve a misfolded ribozyme-RNA complex that is otherwise long lived. These in vitro results suggest that non-specific RNA binding proteins such as NC and hnRNP proteins may have a biological role as RNA chaperones that prevent misfolding of RNAs and resolve RNAs that have misfolded, thereby ensuring that RNA is accessible for its biological functions. Images PMID:8026476

  5. Comprehensive comparative analysis and identification of RNA-binding protein domains: multi-class classification and feature selection

    PubMed Central

    Jahandideh, Samad; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Zhi, Degui

    2012-01-01

    RNA-protein interaction plays an important role in various cellular processes, such as protein synthesis, gene regulation, post-transcriptional gene regulation, alternative splicing, and infections by RNA viruses. In this study, using Gene Ontology Annotated (GOA) and Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) databases an automatic procedure was designed to capture structurally solved RNA-binding protein domains in different subclasses. Subsequently, we applied tuned multi-class SVM (TMCSVM), Random Forest (RF), and multi-class ℓ1/ℓq-regularized logistic regression (MCRLR) for analysis and classifying RNA-binding protein domains based on a comprehensive set of sequence and structural features. In this study, we compared prediction accuracy of three different state-of-the-art predictor methods. From our results, TMCSVM outperforms the other methods and suggests the potential of TMCSVM as a useful tool for facilitating the multi-class prediction of RNA-binding protein domains. On the other hand, MCRLR by elucidating importance of features for their contribution in predictive accuracy of RNA-binding protein domains subclasses, helps us to provide some biological insights into the roles of sequences and structures in protein–RNA interactions. PMID:22884576

  6. RNA-binding protein Musashi2 induced by RANKL is critical for osteoclast survival.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, T; Zhou, J; Ye, S; Zhao, H

    2016-01-01

    The Musashi family of RNA-binding proteins, Musashi1 and Musashi2, regulate self-renewal and differentiation of neuronal and hematopoietic stem cells by modulating protein translation. It has been recently reported that Musashi2, not Musashi1, regulates hematopoietic stem cells. Although osteoclasts are derived from hematopoietic cells, the expression and functions of Musashi proteins in osteoclast lineage cells remain unknown. In this study, we have uncovered that Musashi2 is the predominant isoform of Musashi proteins in osteoclast precursors and its expression is upregulated by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) during osteoclast differentiation. Knocking down the expression of Musashi2 in osteoclast lineage cells by shRNAs attenuates nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) expression and osteoclast formation in vitro. Mechanistically, loss of Musashi2 inhibits Notch signaling during osteoclast differentiation and induces apoptosis in pre-osteoclasts. In contrast, depletion of Musashi2 has no effects on cell cycle progression and p21(WAF-1) protein expression in macrophages. Furthermore, depletion of Notch2 and its downstream target Hes1 in osteoclast precursors by shRNAs abrogates osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting NFATc1. Finally, absence of Musashi2 in osteoclast precursors promotes apoptosis and inhibits RANKL-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, which is essential for osteoclast survival, Thus, Musashi2 is required for cell survival and optimal osteoclastogenesis by affecting Notch signaling and NF-κB activation. PMID:27441652

  7. Prion-like domains in RNA binding proteins are essential for building subnuclear paraspeckles

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Sven; Kong, Geraldine; Mannen, Taro; Sadowska, Agata; Kobelke, Simon; Blythe, Amanda; Knott, Gavin J.; Iyer, K. Swaminathan; Ho, Diwei; Newcombe, Estella A.; Hosoki, Kana; Goshima, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Tetsuya; Hatters, Danny; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Hirose, Tetsuro; Bond, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Prion-like domains (PLDs) are low complexity sequences found in RNA binding proteins associated with the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Recently, PLDs have been implicated in mediating gene regulation via liquid-phase transitions that drive ribonucleoprotein granule assembly. In this paper, we report many PLDs in proteins associated with paraspeckles, subnuclear bodies that form around long noncoding RNA. We mapped the interactome network of paraspeckle proteins, finding enrichment of PLDs. We show that one protein, RBM14, connects key paraspeckle subcomplexes via interactions mediated by its PLD. We further show that the RBM14 PLD, as well as the PLD of another essential paraspeckle protein, FUS, is required to rescue paraspeckle formation in cells in which their endogenous counterpart has been knocked down. Similar to FUS, the RBM14 PLD also forms hydrogels with amyloid-like properties. These results suggest a role for PLD-mediated liquid-phase transitions in paraspeckle formation, highlighting this nuclear body as an excellent model system for understanding the perturbation of such processes in neurodegeneration. PMID:26283796

  8. Visualizing repetitive diffusion activity of double-strand RNA binding proteins by single molecule fluorescence assays.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hye Ran; Wang, Xinlei; Myong, Sua

    2016-08-01

    TRBP, one of double strand RNA binding proteins (dsRBPs), is an essential cofactor of Dicer in the RNA interference pathway. Previously we reported that TRBP exhibits repetitive diffusion activity on double strand (ds)RNA in an ATP independent manner. In the TRBP-Dicer complex, the diffusion mobility of TRBP facilitates Dicer-mediated RNA cleavage. Such repetitive diffusion of dsRBPs on a nucleic acid at the nanometer scale can be appropriately captured by several single molecule detection techniques. Here, we provide a step-by-step guide to four different single molecule fluorescence assays by which the diffusion activity of dsRBPs on dsRNA can be detected. One color assay, termed protein induced fluorescence enhancement enables detection of unlabeled protein binding and diffusion on a singly labeled RNA. Two-color Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) in which labeled dsRBPs is applied to labeled RNA, allows for probing the motion of protein along the RNA axis. Three color FRET reports on the diffusion movement of dsRBPs from one to the other end of RNA. The single molecule pull down assay provides an opportunity to collect dsRBPs from mammalian cells and examine the protein-RNA interaction at single molecule platform. PMID:27012177

  9. RNA-binding protein Musashi2 induced by RANKL is critical for osteoclast survival

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, T; Zhou, J; Ye, S; Zhao, H

    2016-01-01

    The Musashi family of RNA-binding proteins, Musashi1 and Musashi2, regulate self-renewal and differentiation of neuronal and hematopoietic stem cells by modulating protein translation. It has been recently reported that Musashi2, not Musashi1, regulates hematopoietic stem cells. Although osteoclasts are derived from hematopoietic cells, the expression and functions of Musashi proteins in osteoclast lineage cells remain unknown. In this study, we have uncovered that Musashi2 is the predominant isoform of Musashi proteins in osteoclast precursors and its expression is upregulated by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) during osteoclast differentiation. Knocking down the expression of Musashi2 in osteoclast lineage cells by shRNAs attenuates nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) expression and osteoclast formation in vitro. Mechanistically, loss of Musashi2 inhibits Notch signaling during osteoclast differentiation and induces apoptosis in pre-osteoclasts. In contrast, depletion of Musashi2 has no effects on cell cycle progression and p21WAF-1 protein expression in macrophages. Furthermore, depletion of Notch2 and its downstream target Hes1 in osteoclast precursors by shRNAs abrogates osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting NFATc1. Finally, absence of Musashi2 in osteoclast precursors promotes apoptosis and inhibits RANKL-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, which is essential for osteoclast survival, Thus, Musashi2 is required for cell survival and optimal osteoclastogenesis by affecting Notch signaling and NF-κB activation. PMID:27441652

  10. Proteostasis and RNA Binding Proteins in Synaptic Plasticity and in the Pathogenesis of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Matthew E.; Monday, Hannah; Jordan, Bryen A.

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated that rapid alterations in protein abundance are required for synaptic plasticity, a cellular correlate for learning and memory. Control of protein abundance, known as proteostasis, is achieved across a complex neuronal morphology that includes a tortuous axon as well as an extensive dendritic arbor supporting thousands of individual synaptic compartments. To regulate the spatiotemporal synthesis of proteins, neurons must efficiently coordinate the transport and metabolism of mRNAs. Among multiple levels of regulation, transacting RNA binding proteins (RBPs) control proteostasis by binding to mRNAs and mediating their transport and translation in response to synaptic activity. In addition to synthesis, protein degradation must be carefully balanced for optimal proteostasis, as deviations resulting in excess or insufficient abundance of key synaptic factors produce pathologies. As such, mutations in components of the proteasomal or translational machinery, including RBPs, have been linked to the pathogenesis of neurological disorders such as Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), Fragile X Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS), and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). In this review, we summarize recent scientific findings, highlight ongoing questions, and link basic molecular mechanisms to the pathogenesis of common neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26904297

  11. Hermes RNA-binding protein targets RNAs-encoding proteins involved in meiotic maturation, early cleavage, and germline development.

    PubMed

    Song, Hye-Won; Cauffman, Karen; Chan, Agnes P; Zhou, Yi; King, Mary Lou; Etkin, Laurence D; Kloc, Malgorzata

    2007-07-01

    The early development of metazoans is mainly regulated by differential translation and localization of maternal mRNAs in the embryo. In general, these processes are orchestrated by RNA-binding proteins interacting with specific sequence motifs in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of their target RNAs. Hermes is an RNA-binding protein, which contains a single RNA recognition motif (RRM) and is found in various vertebrate species from fish to human. In Xenopus laevis, Hermes mRNA and protein are localized in the vegetal region of oocytes. A subpopulation of Hermes protein is concentrated in a specific structure in the vegetal cortex, called the germ plasm (believed to contain determinants of the germ cell fate) where Hermes protein co-localizes with Xcat2 and RINGO/Spy mRNAs. The level of total Hermes protein decreases during maturation. The precocious depletion of Hermes protein by injection of Hermes antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (HE-MO) accelerates the process of maturation and results in cleavage defects in vegetal blastomeres of the embryo. It is known that several maternal mRNAs including RINGO/Spy and Mos are regulated at the translational level during meiotic maturation and early cleavage in Xenopus. The ectopic expression of RINGO/Spy or Mos causes resumption of meiotic maturation and cleavage arrests, which resemble the loss of Hermes phenotypes. We found that the injection of HE-MO enhances the acceleration of maturation caused by the injection of RINGO/Spy mRNA, and that Hermes protein is present as mRNP complex containing RINGO/Spy, Mos, and Xcat2 mRNAs in vivo. We propose that as an RNA-binding protein, Hermes may be involved in maturation, cleavage events at the vegetal pole and germ cell development by negatively regulating the expression of RINGO/Spy, Mos, and Xcat2 mRNAs. PMID:17309605

  12. The structure of the C-terminal domain of the largest editosome interaction protein and its role in promoting RNA binding by RNA-editing ligase L2

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Jun; Budiarto, Tanya; Wu, Meiting; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosomatids, such as the sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei, contain a ∼20S RNA-editing complex, also called the editosome, which is required for U-insertion/deletion editing of mitochondrial mRNAs. The editosome contains a core of 12 proteins including the large interaction protein A1, the small interaction protein A6, and the editing RNA ligase L2. Using biochemical and structural data, we identified distinct domains of T. brucei A1 which specifically recognize A6 and L2. We provide evidence that an N-terminal domain of A1 interacts with the C-terminal domain of L2. The C-terminal domain of A1 appears to be required for the interaction with A6 and also plays a key role in RNA binding by the RNA-editing ligase L2 in trans. Three crystal structures of the C-terminal domain of A1 have been elucidated, each in complex with a nanobody as a crystallization chaperone. These structures permitted the identification of putative dsRNA recognition sites. Mutational analysis of conserved residues of the C-terminal domain identified Arg703, Arg731 and Arg734 as key requirements for RNA binding. The data show that the editing RNA ligase activity is modulated by a novel mechanism, i.e. by the trans-acting RNA binding C-terminal domain of A1. PMID:22561373

  13. RNA binding proteins in spermatogenesis: an in depth focus on the Musashi family

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jessie M; Siddall, Nicole A; Hime, Gary R; McLaughlin, Eileen A

    2015-01-01

    Controlled gene regulation during gamete development is vital for maintaining reproductive potential. During the complex process of mammalian spermatogenesis, male germ cells experience extended periods of the inactive transcription despite heavy translational requirements for continued growth and differentiation. Hence, spermatogenesis is highly reliant on mechanisms of posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, facilitated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs), which remain abundantly expressed throughout this process. One such group of proteins is the Musashi family, previously identified as critical regulators of testis germ cell development and meiosis in Drosophila, and also shown to be vital to sperm development and reproductive potential in the mouse. This review describes the role and function of RBPs within the scope of male germ cell development, focusing on our recent knowledge of the Musashi proteins in spermatogenesis. The functional mechanisms utilized by RBPs within the cell are outlined in depth, and the significance of sub-cellular localization and stage-specific expression in relation to the mode and impact of posttranscriptional regulation is also highlighted. We emphasize the historical role of the Musashi family of RBPs in stem cell function and cell fate determination, as originally characterized in Drosophila and Xenopus, and conclude with our current understanding of the differential roles and functions of the mammalian Musashi proteins, Musashi-1 and Musashi-2, with a primary focus on our findings in spermatogenesis. This review highlights both the essential contribution of RBPs to posttranscriptional regulation and the importance of the Musashi family as master regulators of male gamete development. PMID:25851660

  14. RNA binding proteins in spermatogenesis: an in depth focus on the Musashi family.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Jessie M; Siddall, Nicole A; Hime, Gary R; McLaughlin, Eileen A

    2015-01-01

    Controlled gene regulation during gamete development is vital for maintaining reproductive potential. During the complex process of mammalian spermatogenesis, male germ cells experience extended periods of the inactive transcription despite heavy translational requirements for continued growth and differentiation. Hence, spermatogenesis is highly reliant on mechanisms of posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, facilitated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs), which remain abundantly expressed throughout this process. One such group of proteins is the Musashi family, previously identified as critical regulators of testis germ cell development and meiosis in Drosophila, and also shown to be vital to sperm development and reproductive potential in the mouse. This review describes the role and function of RBPs within the scope of male germ cell development, focusing on our recent knowledge of the Musashi proteins in spermatogenesis. The functional mechanisms utilized by RBPs within the cell are outlined in depth, and the significance of sub-cellular localization and stage-specific expression in relation to the mode and impact of posttranscriptional regulation is also highlighted. We emphasize the historical role of the Musashi family of RBPs in stem cell function and cell fate determination, as originally characterized in Drosophila and Xenopus, and conclude with our current understanding of the differential roles and functions of the mammalian Musashi proteins, Musashi-1 and Musashi-2, with a primary focus on our findings in spermatogenesis. This review highlights both the essential contribution of RBPs to posttranscriptional regulation and the importance of the Musashi family as master regulators of male gamete development. PMID:25851660

  15. Role of the RNA-binding protein IMP-2 in muscle cell motility.

    PubMed

    Boudoukha, Selim; Cuvellier, Sylvain; Polesskaya, Anna

    2010-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) mRNA-binding proteins (IMPs) are a family of posttranscriptional regulatory factors with well-understood roles in embryonic development and cancer but with poorly characterized functions in normal adult cells and tissues. We now show that IMP-2, the most ubiquitously expressed member of the family, is abundant in human and mouse adult skeletal myoblasts, where it is indispensable for cell motility and for stabilization of microtubules. To explore the functions of IMP-2, we analyzed the transcripts that were differentially regulated in IMP-2-depleted myoblasts and bound to IMP-2 in normal myoblasts. Among them were the mRNAs of PINCH-2, an important mediator of cell adhesion and motility, and MURF-3, a microtubule-stabilizing protein. By gain- and loss-of-function assays and gel shift experiments, we show that IMP-2 regulates the expression of PINCH-2 and MURF-3 proteins via direct binding to their mRNAs. Upregulation of PINCH-2 in IMP-2-depleted myoblasts is the key event responsible for their decreased motility. Our data reveal how the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by IMP-2 contributes to the control of adhesion structures and stable microtubules and demonstrate an important function for IMP-2 in cellular motility. PMID:20956565

  16. Stem Cell Ribonomics: RNA-Binding Proteins and Gene Networks in Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Shigunov, Patrícia; Dallagiovanna, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the ability to self-renew and the potential to differentiate into all body cell types. Stem cells follow a developmental genetic program and are able to respond to alterations in the environment through various signaling pathways. The mechanisms that control these processes involve the activation of transcription followed by a series of post-transcriptional events. These post-transcriptional steps are mediated by the interaction of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with defined subpopulations of RNAs creating a regulatory gene network. Characterizing these RNA-protein networks is essential to understanding the regulatory mechanisms underlying the control of stem cell fate. Ribonomics is the combination of classical biochemical purification protocols with the high-throughput identification of transcripts applied to the functional characterization of RNA-protein complexes. Here, we describe the different approaches that can be used in a ribonomic approach and how they have contributed to understanding the function of several RBPs with central roles in stem cell biology. PMID:26734617

  17. ATtRACT—a database of RNA-binding proteins and associated motifs

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Girolamo; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Torroja, Carlos; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a crucial role in key cellular processes, including RNA transport, splicing, polyadenylation and stability. Understanding the interaction between RBPs and RNA is key to improve our knowledge of RNA processing, localization and regulation in a global manner. Despite advances in recent years, a unified non-redundant resource that includes information on experimentally validated motifs, RBPs and integrated tools to exploit this information is lacking. Here, we developed a database named ATtRACT (available at http://attract.cnic.es) that compiles information on 370 RBPs and 1583 RBP consensus binding motifs, 192 of which are not present in any other database. To populate ATtRACT we (i) extracted and hand-curated experimentally validated data from CISBP-RNA, SpliceAid–F, RBPDB databases, (ii) integrated and updated the unavailable ASD database and (iii) extracted information from Protein-RNA complexes present in Protein Data Bank database through computational analyses. ATtRACT provides also efficient algorithms to search a specific motif and scan one or more RNA sequences at a time. It also allows discovering de novo motifs enriched in a set of related sequences and compare them with the motifs included in the database. Database URL: http:// attract. cnic. es PMID:27055826

  18. ATtRACT-a database of RNA-binding proteins and associated motifs.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Girolamo; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Torroja, Carlos; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a crucial role in key cellular processes, including RNA transport, splicing, polyadenylation and stability. Understanding the interaction between RBPs and RNA is key to improve our knowledge of RNA processing, localization and regulation in a global manner. Despite advances in recent years, a unified non-redundant resource that includes information on experimentally validated motifs, RBPs and integrated tools to exploit this information is lacking. Here, we developed a database named ATtRACT (available athttp://attract.cnic.es) that compiles information on 370 RBPs and 1583 RBP consensus binding motifs, 192 of which are not present in any other database. To populate ATtRACT we (i) extracted and hand-curated experimentally validated data from CISBP-RNA, SpliceAid-F, RBPDB databases, (ii) integrated and updated the unavailable ASD database and (iii) extracted information from Protein-RNA complexes present in Protein Data Bank database through computational analyses. ATtRACT provides also efficient algorithms to search a specific motif and scan one or more RNA sequences at a time. It also allows discoveringde novomotifs enriched in a set of related sequences and compare them with the motifs included in the database.Database URL:http:// attract. cnic. es. PMID:27055826

  19. A Compendium of Caenorhabditis elegans RNA Binding Proteins Predicts Extensive Regulation at Multiple Levels

    PubMed Central

    Tamburino, Alex M.; Ryder, Sean P.; Walhout, Albertha J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is regulated at multiple levels, including transcription and translation, as well as mRNA and protein stability. Although systems-level functions of transcription factors and microRNAs are rapidly being characterized, few studies have focused on the posttranscriptional gene regulation by RNA binding proteins (RBPs). RBPs are important to many aspects of gene regulation. Thus, it is essential to know which genes encode RBPs, which RBPs regulate which gene(s), and how RBP genes are themselves regulated. Here we provide a comprehensive compendium of RBPs from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (wRBP1.0). We predict that as many as 887 (4.4%) of C. elegans genes may encode RBPs ~250 of which likely function in a gene-specific manner. In addition, we find that RBPs, and most notably gene-specific RBPs, are themselves enriched for binding and modification by regulatory proteins, indicating the potential for extensive regulation of RBPs at many different levels. wRBP1.0 will provide a significant contribution toward the comprehensive delineation of posttranscriptional regulatory networks and will provide a resource for further studies regulation by RBPs. PMID:23390605

  20. RNA-binding protein mis-regulation in microsatellite expansion disorders

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Marianne; Swanson, Maurice S.

    2015-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play pivotal roles in multiple cellular pathways from transcription to RNA turnover by interacting with RNA sequence and/or structural elements to form distinct RNA-protein complexes. Since these complexes are required for the normal regulation of gene expression, mutations that alter RBP functions may result in a cascade of deleterious events that lead to severe disease. Here, we focus on a group of hereditary disorders, the microsatellite expansion diseases, which alter RBP activities and result in abnormal neurological and neuromuscular phenotypes. While many of these diseases are classified as adult-onset disorders, mounting evidence indicates that disruption of normal RNA-protein interaction networks during embryogenesis modifies developmental pathways which ultimately leads to disease manifestations later in life. Efforts to understand the molecular basis of these disorders has already uncovered novel pathogenic mechanisms, including RNA toxicity and repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation, and current studies suggest that additional surprising insights into cellular regulatory pathways will emerge in the future. PMID:25201111

  1. A rapid method for assessing the RNA-binding potential of a protein

    PubMed Central

    Bendak, K.; Loughlin, F.E.; Cheung, V.; O’Connell, M.R.; Crossley, M.; Mackay, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, evidence has emerged for the existence of many diverse types of RNA, which play roles in a wide range of biological processes in all kingdoms of life. These molecules generally do not, however, act in isolation, and identifying which proteins partner with RNA is a major challenge. Many methods, in vivo and in vitro, have been used to address this question, including combinatorial or high-throughput approaches, such as systematic evolution of ligands, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation and RNA immunoprecipitation combined with deep sequencing. However, most of these methods are not trivial to pursue and often require substantial optimization before results can be achieved. Here, we demonstrate a simple technique that allows one to screen proteins for RNA-binding properties in a gel-shift experiment and can be easily implemented in any laboratory. This assay should be a useful first-pass tool for assessing whether a protein has RNA- or DNA-binding properties, prior to committing resources to more complex procedures. PMID:22492509

  2. Live Cell Genomics: RNA Exon-Specific RNA-Binding Protein Isolation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Thomas J; Eberwine, James

    2015-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are essential regulatory proteins that control all modes of RNA processing and regulation. New experimental approaches to isolate these indispensable proteins under in vivo conditions are needed to advance the field of RBP biology. Historically, in vitro biochemical approaches to isolate RBP complexes have been useful and productive, but biological relevance of the identified RBP complexes can be imprecise or erroneous. Here we review an inventive experimental to isolate RBPs under the in vivo conditions. The method is called peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-assisted identification of RBP (PAIR) technology and it uses cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) to deliver photo-activatible RBP-capture molecule to the cytoplasm of the live cells. The PAIR methodology provides two significant advantages over the most commonly used approaches: (1) it overcomes the in vitro limitation of standard biochemical approaches and (2) the PAIR RBP-capture molecule is highly selective and adaptable which allows investigators to isolate exon-specific RBP complexes. Most importantly, the in vivo capture conditions and selectivity of the RBP-capture molecule yield biologically accurate and relevant RBP data. PMID:26202289

  3. MTHFSD and DDX58 are novel RNA-binding proteins abnormally regulated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    MacNair, Laura; Xiao, Shangxi; Miletic, Denise; Ghani, Mahdi; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Keith, Julia; Zinman, Lorne; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Robertson, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Tar DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is an RNA-binding protein normally localized to the nucleus of cells, where it elicits functions related to RNA metabolism such as transcriptional regulation and alternative splicing. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, TDP-43 is mislocalized from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of diseased motor neurons, forming ubiquitinated inclusions. Although mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43, TARDBP, are found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, these are rare. However, TDP-43 pathology is common to over 95% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases, suggesting that abnormalities of TDP-43 play an active role in disease pathogenesis. It is our hypothesis that a loss of TDP-43 from the nucleus of affected motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis will lead to changes in RNA processing and expression. Identifying these changes could uncover molecular pathways that underpin motor neuron degeneration. Here we have used translating ribosome affinity purification coupled with microarray analysis to identify the mRNAs being actively translated in motor neurons of mutant TDP-43(A315T) mice compared to age-matched non-transgenic littermates. No significant changes were found at 5 months (presymptomatic) of age, but at 10 months (symptomatic) the translational profile revealed significant changes in genes involved in RNA metabolic process, immune response and cell cycle regulation. Of 28 differentially expressed genes, seven had a ≥ 2-fold change; four were validated by immunofluorescence labelling of motor neurons in TDP-43(A315T) mice, and two of these were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases. Both of these identified genes, DDX58 and MTHFSD, are RNA-binding proteins, and we show that TDP-43 binds to their respective mRNAs and we identify MTHFSD as a novel component of stress granules. This discovery-based approach has for the first time revealed translational changes in motor neurons of a TDP-43 mouse model

  4. The Puf family of RNA-binding proteins in plants: phylogeny, structural modeling, activity and subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Puf proteins have important roles in controlling gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by promoting RNA decay and repressing translation. The Pumilio homology domain (PUM-HD) is a conserved region within Puf proteins that binds to RNA with sequence specificity. Although Puf proteins have been well characterized in animal and fungal systems, little is known about the structural and functional characteristics of Puf-like proteins in plants. Results The Arabidopsis and rice genomes code for 26 and 19 Puf-like proteins, respectively, each possessing eight or fewer Puf repeats in their PUM-HD. Key amino acids in the PUM-HD of several of these proteins are conserved with those of animal and fungal homologs, whereas other plant Puf proteins demonstrate extensive variability in these amino acids. Three-dimensional modeling revealed that the predicted structure of this domain in plant Puf proteins provides a suitable surface for binding RNA. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift experiments showed that the Arabidopsis AtPum2 PUM-HD binds with high affinity to BoxB of the Drosophila Nanos Response Element I (NRE1) RNA, whereas a point mutation in the core of the NRE1 resulted in a significant reduction in binding affinity. Transient expression of several of the Arabidopsis Puf proteins as fluorescent protein fusions revealed a dynamic, punctate cytoplasmic pattern of localization for most of these proteins. The presence of predicted nuclear export signals and accumulation of AtPuf proteins in the nucleus after treatment of cells with leptomycin B demonstrated that shuttling of these proteins between the cytosol and nucleus is common among these proteins. In addition to the cytoplasmically enriched AtPum proteins, two AtPum proteins showed nuclear targeting with enrichment in the nucleolus. Conclusions The Puf family of RNA-binding proteins in plants consists of a greater number of members than any other model species studied to date. This, along with the

  5. Expression of Quaking RNA-Binding Protein in the Adult and Developing Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Aono, Kentaro; Kawashima, Togo; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Ku, Li; Feng, Yue; Koike, Chieko

    2016-01-01

    Quaking (QKI), which belongs to the STAR family of KH domain-containing RNA-binding proteins, functions in pre-mRNA splicing, microRNA regulation, and formation of circular RNA. QKI plays critical roles in myelinogenesis in the central and peripheral nervous systems and has been implicated neuron-glia fate decision in the brain; however, neither the expression nor function of QKI in the neural retina is known. Here we report the expression of QKI RNA-binding protein in the developing and mature mouse retina. QKI was strongly expressed by Müller glial cells in both the developing and adult retina. Intriguingly, during development, QKI was expressed in early differentiating neurons, such as the horizontal and amacrine cells, and subsequently in later differentiating bipolar cells, but not in photoreceptors. Neuronal expression was uniformly weak in the adult. Among QKI isoforms (5, 6, and 7), QKI-5 was the predominantly expressed isoform in the adult retina. To study the function of QKI in the mouse retina, we examined quakingviable(qkv) mice, which have a dysmyelination phenotype that results from deficiency of QKI expression and reduced numbers of mature oligodendrocytes. In homozygous qkv mutant mice (qkv/qkv), the optic nerve expression levels of QKI-6 and 7, but not QKI-5 were reduced. In the retina of the mutant homozygote, QKI-5 levels were unchanged, and QKI-6 and 7 levels, already low, were also unaffected. We conclude that QKI is expressed in developing and adult Müller glia. QKI is additionally expressed in progenitors and in differentiating neurons during retinal development, but expression weakened or diminished during maturation. Among QKI isoforms, we found that QKI-5 predominated in the adult mouse retina. Since Müller glial cells are thought to share properties with retinal progenitor cells, our data suggest that QKI may contribute to maintaining retinal progenitors prior to differentiation into neurons. On the other hand, the expression of QKI in

  6. Nanog RNA-binding proteins YBX1 and ILF3 affect pluripotency of embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chuanliang; Xue, Yan; Yang, Guanheng; Yin, Shang; Shi, Wansheng; Cheng, Yan; Yan, Xiaoshuang; Fan, Shuyue; Zhang, Huijun; Zeng, Fanyi

    2016-08-01

    Nanog is a well-known transcription factor that plays a fundamental role in stem cell self-renewal and the maintenance of their pluripotent cell identity. There remains a large data gap with respect to the spectrum of the key pluripotency transcription factors' interaction partners. Limited information is available concerning Nanog-associated RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), and the intrinsic protein-RNA interactions characteristic of the regulatory activities of Nanog. Herein, we used an improved affinity protocol to purify Nanog-interacting RBPs from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and 49 RBPs of Nanog were identified. Among them, the interaction of YBX1 and ILF3 with Nanog mRNA was further confirmed by in vitro assays, such as Western blot, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), and ex vivo methods, such as immunofluorescence staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), MS2 in vivo biotin-tagged RNA affinity purification (MS2-BioTRAP). Interestingly, RNAi studies revealed that YBX1 and ILF3 positively affected the expression of Nanog and other pluripotency-related genes. Particularly, downregulation of YBX1 or ILF3 resulted in high expression of mesoderm markers. Thus, a reduction in the expression of YBX1 and ILF3 controls the expression of pluripotency-related genes in ESCs, suggesting their roles in further regulation of the pluripotent state of ESCs. PMID:26289635

  7. Allosteric inhibition of a stem cell RNA-binding protein by an intermediary metabolite

    PubMed Central

    Clingman, Carina C; Deveau, Laura M; Hay, Samantha A; Genga, Ryan M; Shandilya, Shivender MD; Massi, Francesca; Ryder, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression and metabolism are coupled at numerous levels. Cells must sense and respond to nutrients in their environment, and specialized cells must synthesize metabolic products required for their function. Pluripotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of specialized cells. How metabolic state contributes to stem cell differentiation is not understood. In this study, we show that RNA-binding by the stem cell translation regulator Musashi-1 (MSI1) is allosterically inhibited by 18–22 carbon ω-9 monounsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid binds to the N-terminal RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) and induces a conformational change that prevents RNA association. Musashi proteins are critical for development of the brain, blood, and epithelium. We identify stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 as a MSI1 target, revealing a feedback loop between ω-9 fatty acid biosynthesis and MSI1 activity. We propose that other RRM proteins could act as metabolite sensors to couple gene expression changes to physiological state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02848.001 PMID:24935936

  8. Cell cycle-dependent regulation of the RNA-binding protein Staufen1

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Karine; Ghram, Mehdi; Viranaicken, Wildriss; Trépanier, Véronique; Mollet, Stéphanie; Fréchina, Céline; DesGroseillers, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Staufen1 (Stau1) is a ribonucleic acid (RNA)-binding protein involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Recent studies indicate that Stau1-bound messenger RNAs (mRNAs) mainly code for proteins involved in transcription and cell cycle control. Consistently, we report here that Stau1 abundance fluctuates through the cell cycle in HCT116 and U2OS cells: it is high from the S phase to the onset of mitosis and rapidly decreases as cells transit through mitosis. Stau1 down-regulation is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Stau1 interacts with the APC/C co-activators Cdh1 and Cdc20 via its first 88 N-terminal amino acids. The importance of controlling Stau155 levels is underscored by the observation that its overexpression affects mitosis entry and impairs proliferation of transformed cells. Microarray analyses identified 275 Stau155-bound mRNAs in prometaphase cells, an early mitotic step that just precedes Stau1 degradation. Interestingly, several of these mRNAs are more abundant in Stau155-containing complexes in cells arrested in prometaphase than in asynchronous cells. Our results point out for the first time to the possibility that Stau1 participates in a mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression that is linked to cell cycle progression in cancer cells. PMID:24906885

  9. RNA-binding proteins related to stress response and differentiation in protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Lysangela Ronalte; Goldenberg, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are key regulators of gene expression. There are several distinct families of RBPs and they are involved in the cellular response to environmental changes, cell differentiation and cell death. The RBPs can differentially combine with RNA molecules and form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, defining the function and fate of RNA molecules in the cell. RBPs display diverse domains that allow them to be categorized into distinct families. They play important roles in the cellular response to physiological stress, in cell differentiation, and, it is believed, in the cellular localization of certain mRNAs. In several protozoa, a physiological stress (nutritional, temperature or pH) triggers differentiation to a distinct developmental stage. Most of the RBPs characterized in protozoa arise from trypanosomatids. In these protozoa gene expression regulation is mostly post-transcriptional, which suggests that some RBPs might display regulatory functions distinct from those described for other eukaryotes. mRNA stability can be altered as a response to stress. Transcripts are sequestered to RNA granules that ultimately modulate their availability to the translation machinery, storage or degradation, depending on the associated proteins. These aggregates of mRNPs containing mRNAs that are not being translated colocalize in cytoplasmic foci, and their numbers and size vary according to cell conditions such as oxidative stress, nutritional status and treatment with drugs that inhibit translation. PMID:26981197

  10. LncRNA OIP5-AS1/cyrano sponges RNA-binding protein HuR

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Yang, Xiaoling; De, Supriyo; Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Noh, Ji Heon; Gorospe, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The function of the vast majority of mammalian long noncoding (lnc) RNAs remains unknown. Here, analysis of a highly abundant mammalian lncRNA, OIP5-AS1, known as cyrano in zebrafish, revealed that OIP5-AS1 reduces cell proliferation. In human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, the RNA-binding protein HuR, which enhances cell proliferation, associated with OIP5-AS1 and stabilized it. Tagging OIP5-AS1 with MS2 hairpins to identify associated microRNAs revealed that miR-424 interacted with OIP5-AS1 and competed with HuR for binding to OIP5-AS1. We further identified a ‘sponge’ function for OIP5-AS1, as high levels of OIP5-AS1 increased HuR-OIP5-AS1 complexes and prevented HuR interaction with target mRNAs, including those that encoded proliferative proteins, while conversely, lowering OIP5-AS1 increased the abundance of HuR complexes with target mRNAs. We propose that OIP5-AS1 serves as a sponge or a competing endogenous (ce)RNA for HuR, restricting its availability to HuR target mRNAs and thereby repressing HuR-elicited proliferative phenotypes. PMID:26819413

  11. The Musashi family of RNA binding proteins: master regulators of multiple stem cell populations.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Jessie M; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Hime, Gary R; Siddall, Nicole A

    2013-01-01

    In order to maintain their unlimited capacity to divide, stem cells require controlled temporal and spatial protein expression. The Musashi family of RNA-binding proteins have been shown to exhibit this necessary translational control through both repression and activation in order to regulate multiple stem cell populations. This chapter looks in depth at the initial discovery and characterisation of Musashi in the model organism Drosophila, and its subsequent emergence as a master regulator in a number of stem cell populations. Furthermore the unique roles for mammalian Musashi-1 and Musashi-2 in different stem cell types are correlated with the perceived diagnostic power of Musashi expression in specific stem cell derived oncologies. In particular the potential role for Musashi in the identification and treatment of human cancer is considered, with a focus on the role of Musashi-2 in leukaemia. Finally, the manipulation of Musashi expression is proposed as a potential avenue towards the targeted treatment of specific aggressive stem cell cancers. PMID:23696360

  12. Exploring the RNA World in Hematopoietic Cells Through the Lens of RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Joan; Muljo, Stefan A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The discovery of microRNAs has renewed interest in post-transcriptional modes of regulation, fueling an emerging view of a rich RNA world within our cells that deserves further exploration. Much work has gone into elucidating genetic regulatory networks that orchestrate gene expression programs and direct cell fate decisions in the hematopoietic system. However, the focus has been to elucidate signaling pathways and transcriptional programs. To bring us one step closer to reverse engineering the molecular logic of cellular differentiation, it will be necessary to map post-transcriptional circuits as well and integrate them in the context of existing network models. In this regard, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) may rival transcription factors as important regulators of cell fates and represent a tractable opportunity to connect the RNA world to the proteome. ChIP-seq has greatly facilitated genome-wide localization of DNA-binding proteins, helping us to understand genomic regulation at a systems level. Similarly, technological advances such as CLIP-seq allow transcriptome-wide mapping of RBP binding sites, aiding us to unravel post-transcriptional networks. Here, we review RBP-mediated post-transcriptional regulation, paying special attention to findings relevant to the immune system. As a prime example, we highlight the RBP Lin28B, which acts as a heterochronic switch between fetal and adult lymphopoiesis. PMID:23550653

  13. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein causes endothelial dysfunction via activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weng-Lang; Sharma, Archna; Wang, Zhimin; Li, Zhigang; Fan, Jie; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule which stimulates proinflammatory cytokine release in hemorrhage and sepsis. Under these medical conditions, disruption of endothelial homeostasis and barrier integrity, typically induced by proinflammatory cytokines, is an important factor contributing to morbidity and mortality. However, the role of CIRP in causing endothelial dysfunction has not been investigated. In this study, we show that intravenous injection of recombinant murine CIRP (rmCIRP) in C57BL/6 mice causes lung injury, evidenced by vascular leakage, edema, increased leukocyte infiltration and cytokine production in the lung tissue. The CIRP-induced lung damage is accompanied with endothelial cell (EC) activation marked by upregulation of cell-surface adhesion molecules E-selectin and ICAM-1. Using in vitro primary mouse lung vascular ECs (MLVECs), we demonstrate that rmCIRP treatment directly increases the ICAM-1 protein expression and activates NAD(P)H oxidase in MLVECs. Importantly, CIRP stimulates the assembly and activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome in MLVECs accompanied with caspase-1 activation, IL-1β release and induction of proinflammatory cell death pyroptosis. Finally, our study demonstrates CIRP-induced EC pyroptosis in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice for the first time. Taken together, the released CIRP in shock can directly activate ECs and induce EC pyroptosis to cause lung injury. PMID:27217302

  14. Npl3, a new link between RNA-binding proteins and the maintenance of genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Pereira, José M; Herrero, Ana B; Moreno, Sergio; Aguilera, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The mRNA is co-transcriptionally bound by a number of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that contribute to its processing and formation of an export-competent messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP). In the last few years, increasing evidence suggests that RBPs play a key role in preventing transcription-associated genome instability. Part of this instability is mediated by the accumulation of co-transcriptional R loops, which may impair replication fork (RF) progression due to collisions between transcription and replication machineries. In addition, some RBPs have been implicated in DNA repair and/or the DNA damage response (DDR). Recently, the Npl3 protein, one of the most abundant heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) in yeast, has been shown to prevent transcription-associated genome instability and accumulation of RF obstacles, partially associated with R-loop formation. Interestingly, Npl3 seems to have additional functions in DNA repair, and npl3∆ mutants are highly sensitive to genotoxic agents, such as the antitumor drug trabectedin. Here we discuss the role of Npl3 in particular, and RBPs in general, in the connection of transcription with replication and genome instability, and its effect on the DDR. PMID:24694687

  15. Negative regulation of RNA-binding protein HuR by tumor-suppressor ECRG2.

    PubMed

    Lucchesi, C; Sheikh, M S; Huang, Y

    2016-05-19

    Esophageal cancer-related gene 2 (ECRG2) is a newer tumor suppressor whose function in the regulation of cell growth and apoptosis remains to be elucidated. Here we show that ECRG2 expression was upregulated in response to DNA damage, and increased ECRG2 expression induced growth suppression in cancer cells but not in non-cancerous epithelial cells. ECRG2-mediated growth suppression was associated with activation of caspases and marked reduction in the levels of apoptosis inhibitor, X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). ECRG2, via RNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR), regulated XIAP mRNA stability and expression. Furthermore, ECRG2 increased HuR ubiquitination and degradation but was unable to modulate the non-ubiquitinable mutant form of HuR. We also identified missense and frame-shift ECRG2 mutations in various human malignancies and noted that, unlike wild-type ECRG2, one cancer-derived ECRG2 mutant harboring glutamic acid instead of valine at position 30 (V30E) failed to induce cell death and activation of caspases. This naturally occurring V30E mutant also did not suppress XIAP and HuR. Importantly, the V30E mutant overexpressing cancer cells acquired resistance against multiple anticancer drugs, thus suggesting that ECRG2 mutations appear to have an important role in the acquisition of anticancer drug resistance in a subset of human malignancies. PMID:26434587

  16. Hexokinase 2 controls cellular stress response through localization of an RNA-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Courteau, L; Crasto, J; Hassanzadeh, G; Baird, S D; Hodgins, J; Liwak-Muir, U; Fung, G; Luo, H; Stojdl, D F; Screaton, R A; Holcik, M

    2015-01-01

    Subcellular localization of RNA-binding proteins is a key determinant of their ability to control RNA metabolism and cellular stress response. Using an RNAi-based kinome-wide screen, we identified hexokinase 2 (HK2) as a regulator of the cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1 in response to hypertonic stress and human rhinovirus infection (HRV). We show that inhibition of HK2 expression or pharmacological inhibition of HK2 activity blocks the cytoplasmic accumulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1), restores expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), and protects cells against hypertonic stress-induced apoptosis. Reduction of HK2 protein levels by knockdown results in decreased HRV replication, a delay in HRV-induced cell death, and a reduced number of infected cells, all of which can be rescued by forced expression of a cytoplasm-restricted hnRNP A1. Our data elucidate a novel role for HK2 in cellular stress response and viral infection that could be exploited for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26247723

  17. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein causes endothelial dysfunction via activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weng-Lang; Sharma, Archna; Wang, Zhimin; Li, Zhigang; Fan, Jie; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule which stimulates proinflammatory cytokine release in hemorrhage and sepsis. Under these medical conditions, disruption of endothelial homeostasis and barrier integrity, typically induced by proinflammatory cytokines, is an important factor contributing to morbidity and mortality. However, the role of CIRP in causing endothelial dysfunction has not been investigated. In this study, we show that intravenous injection of recombinant murine CIRP (rmCIRP) in C57BL/6 mice causes lung injury, evidenced by vascular leakage, edema, increased leukocyte infiltration and cytokine production in the lung tissue. The CIRP-induced lung damage is accompanied with endothelial cell (EC) activation marked by upregulation of cell-surface adhesion molecules E-selectin and ICAM-1. Using in vitro primary mouse lung vascular ECs (MLVECs), we demonstrate that rmCIRP treatment directly increases the ICAM-1 protein expression and activates NAD(P)H oxidase in MLVECs. Importantly, CIRP stimulates the assembly and activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome in MLVECs accompanied with caspase-1 activation, IL-1β release and induction of proinflammatory cell death pyroptosis. Finally, our study demonstrates CIRP-induced EC pyroptosis in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice for the first time. Taken together, the released CIRP in shock can directly activate ECs and induce EC pyroptosis to cause lung injury. PMID:27217302

  18. Isolation of an mRNA binding protein homologue that is expressed in nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Eilers, Helge; Trilk, Sharon L; Lee, Sook Young; Xue, Qing; Jong, Beverly E; Moff, Irene; Levine, Jon D; Schumacher, Mark A

    2004-11-01

    The peripheral detection of painful stimuli requires the activation of small-diameter primary afferent neurons known as nociceptors. We have exploited two features of nociceptor biology, expression of the high affinity receptor for nerve growth factor (TrkA) and sensitivity to capsaicin, to isolate novel proteins using a differential display cloning scheme. A resulting approximately 4.3-kb cDNA was isolated and sequence analysis inferred a approximately 157-kDa protein containing a signal/mitochondrial targeting peptide sequence. Due to its molecular weight and significant amino acid identity with 'human leucine-rich protein 130'[leucine-rich pentatricopeptide motif containing (LRPPRC)], we termed the cDNA candidate leucine-rich protein 157 (rLRP157). Western blot analysis of HEK293 cells over-expressing the candidate cDNA showed a single protein product of similar size to that found in rat dorsal root ganglion as well as in other neuronal tissues and cell lines. Although expressed in a wide variety of tissues, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in dorsal root ganglion revealed that rLRP157 expression was restricted to the small-diameter neurons. Sequence identity with previously characterized mRNA binding proteins and its subcellular localization in sensory neurons suggest that rLRP157 is associated with mitochondrial function. Moreover, the genetic basis of French-Canadian Leigh syndrome, which confers a loss of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and is characterized by neurodegeneration, was recently mapped to a mutation in the LRPPRC gene. Taken together with its expression in small-diameter sensory neurons, we hypothesize that rLRP157, the rat orthologue of the human LRPPRC, may play a role in the modulation of peripheral pain transduction and serve as a novel marker for nociceptor subtypes. PMID:15525270

  19. Identification of RNA-binding Proteins in Macrophages by Interactome Capture.

    PubMed

    Liepelt, Anke; Naarmann-de Vries, Isabel S; Simons, Nadine; Eichelbaum, Katrin; Föhr, Sophia; Archer, Stuart K; Castello, Alfredo; Usadel, Björn; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Preiss, Thomas; Marx, Gernot; Hentze, Matthias W; Ostareck, Dirk H; Ostareck-Lederer, Antje

    2016-08-01

    Pathogen components, such as lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria that activate Toll-like receptor 4, induce mitogen activated protein kinases and NFκB through different downstream pathways to stimulate pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. Importantly, post-transcriptional control of the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 downstream signaling molecules contributes to the tight regulation of inflammatory cytokine synthesis in macrophages. Emerging evidence highlights the role of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in the post-transcriptional control of the innate immune response. To systematically identify macrophage RBPs and their response to LPS stimulation, we employed RNA interactome capture in LPS-induced and untreated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. This combines RBP-crosslinking to RNA, cell lysis, oligo(dT) capture of polyadenylated RNAs and mass spectrometry analysis of associated proteins. Our data revealed 402 proteins of the macrophage RNA interactome including 91 previously not annotated as RBPs. A comparison with published RNA interactomes classified 32 RBPs uniquely identified in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Of these, 19 proteins are linked to biochemical activities not directly related to RNA. From this group, we validated the HSP90 cochaperone P23 that was demonstrated to exhibit cytosolic prostaglandin E2 synthase 3 (PTGES3) activity, and the hematopoietic cell-specific LYN substrate 1 (HCLS1 or HS1), a hematopoietic cell-specific adapter molecule, as novel macrophage RBPs. Our study expands the mammalian RBP repertoire, and identifies macrophage RBPs that respond to LPS. These RBPs are prime candidates for the post-transcriptional regulation and execution of LPS-induced signaling pathways and the innate immune response. Macrophage RBP data have been deposited to ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002890. PMID:27281784

  20. Natural product (–)-gossypol inhibits colon cancer cell growth by targeting RNA-binding protein Musashi-1

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Lan; Appelman, Carl; Smith, Amber R.; Yu, Jia; Larsen, Sarah; Marquez, Rebecca T.; Liu, Hao; Wu, Xiaoqing; Gao, Philip; Roy, Anuradha; Anbanandam, Asokan; Gowthaman, Ragul; Karanicolas, John; De Guzman, Roberto N.; Rogers, Steven; Aubé, Jeffrey; Ji, Min; Cohen, Robert S.; Neufeld, Kristi L.; Xu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Musashi-1 (MSI1) is an RNA-binding protein that acts as a translation activator or repressor of target mRNAs. The best-characterized MSI1 target is Numb mRNA, whose encoded protein negatively regulates Notch signaling. Additional MSI1 targets include the mRNAs for the tumor suppressor protein APC that regulates Wnt signaling and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P21WAF-1. We hypothesized that increased expression of NUMB, P21 and APC, through inhibition of MSI1 RNA-binding activity might be an effective way to simultaneously downregulate Wnt and Notch signaling, thus blocking the growth of a broad range of cancer cells. We used a fluorescence polarization assay to screen for small molecules that disrupt the binding of MSI1 to its consensus RNA binding site. One of the top hits was (–)-gossypol (Ki = 476 ± 273 nM), a natural product from cottonseed, known to have potent anti-tumor activity and which has recently completed Phase IIb clinical trials for prostate cancer. Surface plasmon resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance studies demonstrate a direct interaction of (–)-gossypol with the RNA binding pocket of MSI1. We further showed that (–)-gossypol reduces Notch/Wnt signaling in several colon cancer cell lines having high levels of MSI1, with reduced SURVIVIN expression and increased apoptosis/autophagy. Finally, we showed that orally administered (–)-gossypol inhibits colon cancer growth in a mouse xenograft model. Our study identifies (–)-gossypol as a potential small molecule inhibitor of MSI1-RNA interaction, and suggests that inhibition of MSI1's RNA binding activity may be an effective anti-cancer strategy. PMID:25933687

  1. Cold-induced RNA-binding proteins regulate circadian gene expression by controlling alternative polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuting; Hu, Wenchao; Murakawa, Yasuhiro; Yin, Jingwen; Wang, Gang; Landthaler, Markus; Yan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The body temperature is considered a universal cue by which the master clock synchronizes the peripheral clocks in mammals, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Here we identified two cold-induced RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), Cirbp and Rbm3, as important regulators for the temperature entrained circadian gene expression. The depletion of Cirbp or Rbm3 significantly reduced the amplitudes of core circadian genes. PAR-CLIP analyses showed that the 3′UTR binding sites of Cirbp and Rbm3 were significantly enriched near the polyadenylation sites (PASs). Furthermore, the depletion of Cirbp or Rbm3 shortened 3′UTR, whereas low temperature (upregulating Cirbp and Rbm3) lengthened 3′UTR. Remarkably, we found that they repressed the usage of proximal PASs by binding to the common 3′UTR, and many cases of proximal/distal PAS selection regulated by them showed strong circadian oscillations. Our results suggested that Cirbp and Rbm3 regulated the circadian gene expression by controlling alternative polyadenylation (APA). PMID:23792593

  2. The RNA-Binding Protein QKI Suppresses Cancer-Associated Aberrant Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Feng-Yang; Fu, Xing; Wei, Wen-Juan; Luo, Ya-Ge; Heiner, Monika; Cao, Li-Juan; Fang, Zhaoyuan; Fang, Rong; Lu, Daru; Ji, Hongbin; Hui, Jingyi

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Aberrant splicing has been implicated in lung tumorigenesis. However, the functional links between splicing regulation and lung cancer are not well understood. Here we identify the RNA-binding protein QKI as a key regulator of alternative splicing in lung cancer. We show that QKI is frequently down-regulated in lung cancer, and its down-regulation is significantly associated with a poorer prognosis. QKI-5 inhibits the proliferation and transformation of lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that QKI-5 regulates the alternative splicing of NUMB via binding to two RNA elements in its pre-mRNA, which in turn suppresses cell proliferation and prevents the activation of the Notch signaling pathway. We further show that QKI-5 inhibits splicing by selectively competing with a core splicing factor SF1 for binding to the branchpoint sequence. Taken together, our data reveal QKI as a critical regulator of splicing in lung cancer and suggest a novel tumor suppression mechanism involving QKI-mediated regulation of the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:24722255

  3. Emerging Roles of RNA-Binding Proteins in Plant Growth, Development, and Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwanuk; Kang, Hunseung

    2016-03-01

    Posttranscriptional regulation of RNA metabolism, including RNA processing, intron splicing, editing, RNA export, and decay, is increasingly regarded as an essential step for fine-tuning the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are central regulatory factors controlling posttranscriptional RNA metabolism during plant growth, development, and stress responses. Although functional roles of diverse RBPs in living organisms have been determined during the last decades, our understanding of the functional roles of RBPs in plants is lagging far behind our understanding of those in other organisms, including animals, bacteria, and viruses. However, recent functional analysis of multiple RBP family members involved in plant RNA metabolism and elucidation of the mechanistic roles of RBPs shed light on the cellular roles of diverse RBPs in growth, development, and stress responses of plants. In this review, we will discuss recent studies demonstrating the emerging roles of multiple RBP family members that play essential roles in RNA metabolism during plant growth, development, and stress responses. PMID:26831454

  4. RNA binding protein Caprin-2 is a pivotal regulator of the central osmotic defense response

    PubMed Central

    Konopacka, Agnieszka; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Loh, Su-Yi; Paton, Julian; Murphy, David

    2015-01-01

    In response to an osmotic challenge, the synthesis of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) increases in the hypothalamus, and this is accompanied by extension of the 3′ poly(A) tail of the AVP mRNA, and the up-regulation of the expression of RNA binding protein Caprin-2. Here we show that Caprin-2 binds to AVP mRNAs, and that lentiviral mediated shRNA knockdown of Caprin-2 in the osmotically stimulated hypothalamus shortens the AVP mRNA poly(A) tail at the same time as reducing transcript abundance. In a recapitulated in vitro system, we confirm that Caprin-2 over-expression enhances AVP mRNA abundance and poly(A) tail length. Importantly, we show that Caprin-2 knockdown in the hypothalamus decreases urine output and fluid intake, and increases urine osmolality, urine sodium concentration, and plasma AVP levels. Thus Caprin-2 controls physiological mechanisms that are essential for the body's response to osmotic stress. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09656.001 PMID:26559902

  5. Post-transcriptional regulation in corticogenesis: how RNA-binding proteins help build the brain

    PubMed Central

    Pilaz, Louis-Jan; Silver, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebral cortex, the brain structure responsible for our higher cognitive functions, is built during embryonic development in a process called corticogenesis. During corticogenesis, neural stem cells generate distinct populations of progenitors and excitatory neurons. These new neurons migrate radially in the cortex, eventually forming neuronal layers and establishing synaptic connections with other neurons both within and outside the cortex. Perturbations to corticogenesis can result in severe neurodevelopmental disorders, thus emphasizing the need to better understand molecular regulation of brain development. Recent studies in both model organisms and humans have collectively highlighted roles for post-transcriptional regulation in virtually all steps of corticogenesis. Genomic approaches have revealed global RNA changes associated with spatial and temporal regulation of cortical development. Additionally, genetic studies have uncovered RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) critical for cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration within the developing neocortex. Many of these same RBPs play causal roles in neurodevelopmental pathologies. In the developing neocortex, RBPs influence diverse steps of mRNA metabolism, including splicing, stability, translation, and localization. With the advent of new technologies, researchers have begun to uncover key transcripts regulated by these RBPs. Given the complexity of the developing mammalian cortex, a major challenge for the future will be to understand how dynamic RNA regulation occurs within heterogeneous cell populations, across space and time. In sum, post-transcriptional regulation has emerged as a critical mechanism for driving corticogenesis and exciting direction of future research. PMID:26088328

  6. The RNA-binding protein SFPQ orchestrates an RNA regulon to promote axon viability.

    PubMed

    Cosker, Katharina E; Fenstermacher, Sara J; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Elliott, Hunter L; Segal, Rosalind A

    2016-05-01

    To achieve accurate spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) guide nuclear processing, intracellular trafficking and local translation of target mRNAs. In neurons, RBPs direct transport of target mRNAs to sites of translation in remote axons and dendrites. However, it is not known whether an individual RBP coordinately regulates multiple mRNAs within these morphologically complex cells. Here we identify SFPQ (splicing factor, poly-glutamine rich) as an RBP that binds and regulates multiple mRNAs in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons and thereby promotes neurotrophin-dependent axonal viability. SFPQ acts in nuclei, cytoplasm and axons to regulate functionally related mRNAs essential for axon survival. Notably, SFPQ is required for coassembly of LaminB2 (Lmnb2) and Bclw (Bcl2l2) mRNAs in RNA granules and for axonal trafficking of these mRNAs. Together these data demonstrate that SFPQ orchestrates spatial gene expression of a newly identified RNA regulon essential for axonal viability. PMID:27019013

  7. Comparative sequence analysis of double stranded RNA binding protein encoding gene of parapoxviruses from Indian camels.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, G; Swami, Shelesh Kumar; Dahiya, Shyam Singh; Sivakumar, G; Tuteja, F C; Narnaware, S D; Mehta, S C; Singh, Raghvendar; Patil, N V

    2014-03-01

    The dsRNA binding protein (RBP) encoding gene of parapoxviruses (PPVs) from the Dromedary camels, inhabitating different geographical region of Rajasthan, India were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using the primers of pseudocowpoxvirus (PCPV) from Finnish reindeer and cloned into pGEM-T for sequence analysis. Analysis of RBP encoding gene revealed that PPV DNA from Bikaner shared 98.3% and 76.6% sequence identity at the amino acid level, with Pali and Udaipur PPV DNA, respectively. Reference strains of Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and PCPV (reindeer PCPV and human PCPV) shared 52.8% and 86.9% amino acid identity with RBP gene of camel PPVs from Bikaner, respectively. But different strains of orf virus (ORFV) from different geographical areas of the world shared 69.5-71.7% amino acid identity with RBP gene of camel PPVs from Bikaner. These findings indicate that the camel PPVs described are closely related to bovine PPV (PCPV) in comparison to caprine and ovine PPV (ORFV). PMID:25685494

  8. RNA-binding protein RBM20 represses splicing to orchestrate cardiac pre-mRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Maatz, Henrike; Jens, Marvin; Liss, Martin; Schafer, Sebastian; Heinig, Matthias; Kirchner, Marieluise; Adami, Eleonora; Rintisch, Carola; Dauksaite, Vita; Radke, Michael H.; Selbach, Matthias; Barton, Paul J.R.; Cook, Stuart A.; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Gotthardt, Michael; Landthaler, Markus; Hubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein RBM20 have been implicated in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a major cause of chronic heart failure, presumably through altering cardiac RNA splicing. Here, we combined transcriptome-wide crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP-seq), RNA-seq, and quantitative proteomics in cell culture and rat and human hearts to examine how RBM20 regulates alternative splicing in the heart. Our analyses revealed the presence of a distinct RBM20 RNA-recognition element that is predominantly found within intronic binding sites and linked to repression of exon splicing with RBM20 binding near 3′ and 5′ splice sites. Proteomic analysis determined that RBM20 interacts with both U1 and U2 small nuclear ribonucleic particles (snRNPs) and suggested that RBM20-dependent splicing repression occurs through spliceosome stalling at complex A. Direct RBM20 targets included several genes previously shown to be involved in DCM as well as genes not typically associated with this disease. In failing human hearts, reduced expression of RBM20 affected alternative splicing of several direct targets, indicating that differences in RBM20 expression may affect cardiac function. Together, these findings identify RBM20-regulated targets and provide insight into the pathogenesis of human heart failure. PMID:24960161

  9. RNA-binding protein RBM20 represses splicing to orchestrate cardiac pre-mRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Maatz, Henrike; Jens, Marvin; Liss, Martin; Schafer, Sebastian; Heinig, Matthias; Kirchner, Marieluise; Adami, Eleonora; Rintisch, Carola; Dauksaite, Vita; Radke, Michael H; Selbach, Matthias; Barton, Paul J R; Cook, Stuart A; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Gotthardt, Michael; Landthaler, Markus; Hubner, Norbert

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein RBM20 have been implicated in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a major cause of chronic heart failure, presumably through altering cardiac RNA splicing. Here, we combined transcriptome-wide crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP-seq), RNA-seq, and quantitative proteomics in cell culture and rat and human hearts to examine how RBM20 regulates alternative splicing in the heart. Our analyses revealed the presence of a distinct RBM20 RNA-recognition element that is predominantly found within intronic binding sites and linked to repression of exon splicing with RBM20 binding near 3' and 5' splice sites. Proteomic analysis determined that RBM20 interacts with both U1 and U2 small nuclear ribonucleic particles (snRNPs) and suggested that RBM20-dependent splicing repression occurs through spliceosome stalling at complex A. Direct RBM20 targets included several genes previously shown to be involved in DCM as well as genes not typically associated with this disease. In failing human hearts, reduced expression of RBM20 affected alternative splicing of several direct targets, indicating that differences in RBM20 expression may affect cardiac function. Together, these findings identify RBM20-regulated targets and provide insight into the pathogenesis of human heart failure. PMID:24960161

  10. Profiling the Binding Sites of RNA-Binding Proteins with Nucleotide Resolution Using iCLIP.

    PubMed

    Sutandy, F X Reymond; Hildebrandt, Andrea; König, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The importance of posttranscriptional regulation in cellular metabolism has recently gone beyond what was previously appreciated. The regulatory mechanisms are controlled by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), which form complexes with RNA and regulate RNA processing, stability, and localization, among others. Consistently, mutations in RBPs result in defects in developmental processes, diseases, and cancer. Gaining deeper insights into the biology of RNA-RBP interactions will lead to a better understanding of regulatory processes and disease development. Several techniques have been developed to capture the properties of RNA-RBP interactions. Furthermore, the development of high-throughput sequencing has broadened the capability of these methods. Here, we summarize individual-nucleotide resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP), a powerful technique that provides genome-wide information on RNA-RBP interactions at nucleotide resolution. In this chapter, we outline the iCLIP protocol and list possible controls that allow a targeted and cost-minimizing optimization of the protocol for an RBP-of-interest. Moreover, we provide notes on experimental design and a troubleshooting guideline for common problems that can occur during iCLIP library preparation. PMID:26463384

  11. The tip of the iceberg: RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    King, Oliver D; Gitler, Aaron D; Shorter, James

    2012-06-26

    Prions are self-templating protein conformers that are naturally transmitted between individuals and promote phenotypic change. In yeast, prion-encoded phenotypes can be beneficial, neutral or deleterious depending upon genetic background and environmental conditions. A distinctive and portable 'prion domain' enriched in asparagine, glutamine, tyrosine and glycine residues unifies the majority of yeast prion proteins. Deletion of this domain precludes prionogenesis and appending this domain to reporter proteins can confer prionogenicity. An algorithm designed to detect prion domains has successfully identified 19 domains that can confer prion behavior. Scouring the human genome with this algorithm enriches a select group of RNA-binding proteins harboring a canonical RNA recognition motif (RRM) and a putative prion domain. Indeed, of 210 human RRM-bearing proteins, 29 have a putative prion domain, and 12 of these are in the top 60 prion candidates in the entire genome. Startlingly, these RNA-binding prion candidates are inexorably emerging, one by one, in the pathology and genetics of devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U), Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. For example, FUS and TDP-43, which rank 1st and 10th among RRM-bearing prion candidates, form cytoplasmic inclusions in the degenerating motor neurons of ALS patients and mutations in TDP-43 and FUS cause familial ALS. Recently, perturbed RNA-binding proteostasis of TAF15, which is the 2nd ranked RRM-bearing prion candidate, has been connected with ALS and FTLD-U. We strongly suspect that we have now merely reached the tip of the iceberg. We predict that additional RNA-binding prion candidates identified by our algorithm will soon surface as genetic modifiers or causes of diverse neurodegenerative conditions. Indeed, simple prion-like transfer mechanisms involving the prion

  12. Comprehensive Identification of RNA-Binding Domains in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Castello, Alfredo; Fischer, Bernd; Frese, Christian K; Horos, Rastislav; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Foehr, Sophia; Curk, Tomaz; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Hentze, Matthias W

    2016-08-18

    Mammalian cells harbor more than a thousand RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), with half of these employing unknown modes of RNA binding. We developed RBDmap to determine the RNA-binding sites of native RBPs on a proteome-wide scale. We identified 1,174 binding sites within 529 HeLa cell RBPs, discovering numerous RNA-binding domains (RBDs). Catalytic centers or protein-protein interaction domains are in close relationship with RNA-binding sites, invoking possible effector roles of RNA in the control of protein function. Nearly half of the RNA-binding sites map to intrinsically disordered regions, uncovering unstructured domains as prevalent partners in protein-RNA interactions. RNA-binding sites represent hot spots for defined posttranslational modifications such as lysine acetylation and tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting metabolic and signal-dependent regulation of RBP function. RBDs display a high degree of evolutionary conservation and incidence of Mendelian mutations, suggestive of important functional roles. RBDmap thus yields profound insights into native protein-RNA interactions in living cells. PMID:27453046

  13. Conjoint pathologic cascades mediated by ALS/FTLD-U linked RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS.

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2011-10-25

    The RNA-binding proteins TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) and fused in sarcoma (FUS) play central roles in neurodegeneration associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U). Normally localized in the nucleus, in sites affected by ALS and FTLD-U they are mislocalized to the cytoplasm and form cytoplasmic inclusions. TDP-43 and FUS are transported to the nucleus in a Ran-GTPase-dependent manner via nuclear import receptors, but they also contribute to the formation of stress granules (SGs), which are intracytoplasmic structures incorporating RNA. C-terminal truncations of TDP-43 eliminate the nuclear transport signal and cause mislocalization of the protein to the cytoplasm, where it accumulates and forms SGs. ALS-associated FUS mutations impair nuclear transport and cause mislocalization of FUS to the cytoplasm, where it also contributes to assembly of SGs. Furthermore, the ALS susceptibility factor ataxin-2, recently identified as a potent modifier of TDP-43 toxicity, is also a predicted cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein and a constituent protein of SGs, suggesting that it is a part of the common pathologic cascade formed by TDP-43 and FUS. Thus, we propose that excessive mislocalization of the RNA-binding proteins TDP-43, FUS, and ataxin-2 into the cytoplasm leads to impairment of the RNA quality control system, forming the core of the ALS/FTLD-U degenerative cascade. In this review, we discuss the molecular basis of the novel disease spectrum of ALS/FTLD-U, including the neurodegenerative mechanism of the cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS and the possibility of a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:21956718

  14. CELF RNA binding proteins promote axon regeneration in C. elegans and mammals through alternative splicing of Syntaxins

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lizhen; Liu, Zhijie; Zhou, Bing; Wei, Chaoliang; Zhou, Yu; Rosenfeld, Michael G; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Chisholm, Andrew D; Jin, Yishi

    2016-01-01

    Axon injury triggers dramatic changes in gene expression. While transcriptional regulation of injury-induced gene expression is widely studied, less is known about the roles of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) in post-transcriptional regulation during axon regeneration. In C. elegans the CELF (CUGBP and Etr-3 Like Factor) family RBP UNC-75 is required for axon regeneration. Using crosslinking immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (CLIP-seq) we identify a set of genes involved in synaptic transmission as mRNA targets of UNC-75. In particular, we show that UNC-75 regulates alternative splicing of two mRNA isoforms of the SNARE Syntaxin/unc-64. In C. elegans mutants lacking unc-75 or its targets, regenerating axons form growth cones, yet are deficient in extension. Extending these findings to mammalian axon regeneration, we show that mouse Celf2 expression is upregulated after peripheral nerve injury and that Celf2 mutant mice are defective in axon regeneration. Further, mRNAs for several Syntaxins show CELF2 dependent regulation. Our data delineate a post-transcriptional regulatory pathway with a conserved role in regenerative axon extension. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16072.001 PMID:27253061

  15. The Stress Granule RNA-Binding Protein TIAR-1 Protects Female Germ Cells from Heat Shock in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Huelgas-Morales, Gabriela; Silva-García, Carlos Giovanni; Salinas, Laura S.; Greenstein, David; Navarro, Rosa E.

    2016-01-01

    In response to stressful conditions, eukaryotic cells launch an arsenal of regulatory programs to protect the proteome. One major protective response involves the arrest of protein translation and the formation of stress granules, cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes containing the conserved RNA-binding proteins TIA-1 and TIAR. The stress granule response is thought to preserve mRNA for translation when conditions improve. For cells of the germline—the immortal cell lineage required for sexual reproduction—protection from stress is critically important for perpetuation of the species, yet how stress granule regulatory mechanisms are deployed in animal reproduction is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the stress granule protein TIAR-1 protects the Caenorhabditis elegans germline from the adverse effects of heat shock. Animals containing strong loss-of-function mutations in tiar-1 exhibit significantly reduced fertility compared to the wild type following heat shock. Analysis of a heat-shock protein promoter indicates that tiar-1 mutants display an impaired heat-shock response. We observed that TIAR-1 was associated with granules in the gonad core and oocytes during several stressful conditions. Both gonad core and oocyte granules are dynamic structures that depend on translation; protein synthesis inhibitors altered their formation. Nonetheless, tiar-1 was required for the formation of gonad core granules only. Interestingly, the gonad core granules did not seem to be needed for the germ cells to develop viable embryos after heat shock. This suggests that TIAR-1 is able to protect the germline from heat stress independently of these structures. PMID:26865701

  16. The Stress Granule RNA-Binding Protein TIAR-1 Protects Female Germ Cells from Heat Shock in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Huelgas-Morales, Gabriela; Silva-García, Carlos Giovanni; Salinas, Laura S; Greenstein, David; Navarro, Rosa E

    2016-01-01

    In response to stressful conditions, eukaryotic cells launch an arsenal of regulatory programs to protect the proteome. One major protective response involves the arrest of protein translation and the formation of stress granules, cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes containing the conserved RNA-binding proteins TIA-1 and TIAR. The stress granule response is thought to preserve mRNA for translation when conditions improve. For cells of the germline-the immortal cell lineage required for sexual reproduction-protection from stress is critically important for perpetuation of the species, yet how stress granule regulatory mechanisms are deployed in animal reproduction is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the stress granule protein TIAR-1 protects the Caenorhabditis elegans germline from the adverse effects of heat shock. Animals containing strong loss-of-function mutations in tiar-1 exhibit significantly reduced fertility compared to the wild type following heat shock. Analysis of a heat-shock protein promoter indicates that tiar-1 mutants display an impaired heat-shock response. We observed that TIAR-1 was associated with granules in the gonad core and oocytes during several stressful conditions. Both gonad core and oocyte granules are dynamic structures that depend on translation; protein synthesis inhibitors altered their formation. Nonetheless, tiar-1 was required for the formation of gonad core granules only. Interestingly, the gonad core granules did not seem to be needed for the germ cells to develop viable embryos after heat shock. This suggests that TIAR-1 is able to protect the germline from heat stress independently of these structures. PMID:26865701

  17. A deep learning framework for modeling structural features of RNA-binding protein targets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sai; Zhou, Jingtian; Hu, Hailin; Gong, Haipeng; Chen, Ligong; Cheng, Chao; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in the post-transcriptional control of RNAs. Identifying RBP binding sites and characterizing RBP binding preferences are key steps toward understanding the basic mechanisms of the post-transcriptional gene regulation. Though numerous computational methods have been developed for modeling RBP binding preferences, discovering a complete structural representation of the RBP targets by integrating their available structural features in all three dimensions is still a challenging task. In this paper, we develop a general and flexible deep learning framework for modeling structural binding preferences and predicting binding sites of RBPs, which takes (predicted) RNA tertiary structural information into account for the first time. Our framework constructs a unified representation that characterizes the structural specificities of RBP targets in all three dimensions, which can be further used to predict novel candidate binding sites and discover potential binding motifs. Through testing on the real CLIP-seq datasets, we have demonstrated that our deep learning framework can automatically extract effective hidden structural features from the encoded raw sequence and structural profiles, and predict accurate RBP binding sites. In addition, we have conducted the first study to show that integrating the additional RNA tertiary structural features can improve the model performance in predicting RBP binding sites, especially for the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), which also provides a new evidence to support the view that RBPs may own specific tertiary structural binding preferences. In particular, the tests on the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) segments yield satisfiable results with experimental support from the literature and further demonstrate the necessity of incorporating RNA tertiary structural information into the prediction model. The source code of our approach can be found in https

  18. Identification of RNA-Binding Protein LARP4B as a Tumor Suppressor in Glioma.

    PubMed

    Koso, Hideto; Yi, Hungtsung; Sheridan, Paul; Miyano, Satoru; Ino, Yasushi; Todo, Tomoki; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2016-04-15

    Transposon-based insertional mutagenesis is a valuable method for conducting unbiased forward genetic screens to identify cancer genes in mice. We used this system to elucidate factors involved in the malignant transformation of neural stem cells into glioma-initiating cells. We identified an RNA-binding protein, La-related protein 4b (LARP4B), as a candidate tumor-suppressor gene in glioma. LARP4B expression was consistently decreased in human glioma stem cells and cell lines compared with normal neural stem cells. Moreover, heterozygous deletion of LARP4B was detected in nearly 80% of glioblastomas in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. LARP4B loss was also associated with low expression and poor patient survival. Overexpression of LARP4B in glioma cell lines strongly inhibited proliferation by inducing mitotic arrest and apoptosis in four of six lines as well as in two patient-derived glioma stem cell populations. The expression levels of CDKN1A and BAX were also upregulated upon LARP4B overexpression, and the growth-inhibitory effects were partially dependent on p53 (TP53) activity in cells expressing wild-type, but not mutant, p53. We further found that the La module, which is responsible for the RNA chaperone activity of LARP4B, was important for the growth-suppressive effect and was associated with BAX mRNA. Finally, LARP4B depletion in p53 and Nf1-deficient mouse primary astrocytes promoted cell proliferation and led to increased tumor size and invasiveness in xenograft and orthotopic models. These data provide strong evidence that LARP4B serves as a tumor-suppressor gene in glioma, encouraging further exploration of the RNA targets potentially involved in LARP4B-mediatd growth inhibition. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2254-64. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26933087

  19. Identification and characterization of the RNA-binding protein Rbfox3 in zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Won, Minho; Lee, Siyeo; Choi, Sunkyung; Ro, Hyunju; Kim, Ki-Jung; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Kim, Kee K

    2016-04-01

    Rbfox3, an RNA-binding fox protein, binds to the antibody to pan-neuronal marker, neuronal nuclei (NeuN). Rbfox3 is expressed in neural tissues across a wide range of species including mammals, birds, and amphibians. However, the molecular identity of Rbfox3 in the zebrafish is largely unknown. In this study, we cloned two zebrafish Rbfox3 genes, Rbfox3a and Rbfox3b. We also cloned the Rbfox3-d31 isoform, which excludes a 93-nucleotide alternative exon within the RNA-recognition motif in both, Rbfox3a and Rbfox3b. Multiple protein sequence alignment revealed that the amino acid sequence for residues 1-20 of the zebrafish Rbfox3, which is the epitope region of NeuN antibody, was different from that of other species. Therefore, NeuN antibody lost its function as a neuronal marker antibody in zebrafish. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that both Rbfox3-d31 transcripts were abundant in the early blastula stage, after which they dramatically reduced, suggesting that these isoforms exist mainly as maternal transcripts. In contrast, full-length Rbfox3 transcripts were detected from the 24 h post-fertilization embryo, expression was also maintained at a constant level. Furthermore, full-length Rbfox3-expressing cells were located within the central nervous system during later stages of the zebrafish embryo. Our study provides insight into the molecular structure of zebrafish Rbfox3 as a step towards genetic association studies investigating the developmental role of Rbfox3. PMID:26952657

  20. A deep learning framework for modeling structural features of RNA-binding protein targets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai; Zhou, Jingtian; Hu, Hailin; Gong, Haipeng; Chen, Ligong; Cheng, Chao; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-02-29

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in the post-transcriptional control of RNAs. Identifying RBP binding sites and characterizing RBP binding preferences are key steps toward understanding the basic mechanisms of the post-transcriptional gene regulation. Though numerous computational methods have been developed for modeling RBP binding preferences, discovering a complete structural representation of the RBP targets by integrating their available structural features in all three dimensions is still a challenging task. In this paper, we develop a general and flexible deep learning framework for modeling structural binding preferences and predicting binding sites of RBPs, which takes (predicted) RNA tertiary structural information into account for the first time. Our framework constructs a unified representation that characterizes the structural specificities of RBP targets in all three dimensions, which can be further used to predict novel candidate binding sites and discover potential binding motifs. Through testing on the real CLIP-seq datasets, we have demonstrated that our deep learning framework can automatically extract effective hidden structural features from the encoded raw sequence and structural profiles, and predict accurate RBP binding sites. In addition, we have conducted the first study to show that integrating the additional RNA tertiary structural features can improve the model performance in predicting RBP binding sites, especially for the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), which also provides a new evidence to support the view that RBPs may own specific tertiary structural binding preferences. In particular, the tests on the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) segments yield satisfiable results with experimental support from the literature and further demonstrate the necessity of incorporating RNA tertiary structural information into the prediction model. The source code of our approach can be found in https

  1. An RNA binding protein promotes axonal integrity in peripheral neurons by destabilizing REST.

    PubMed

    Cargnin, Francesca; Nechiporuk, Tamilla; Müllendorff, Karin; Stumpo, Deborah J; Blackshear, Perry J; Ballas, Nurit; Mandel, Gail

    2014-12-10

    The RE1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST) acts as a governor of the mature neuronal phenotype by repressing a large consortium of neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells. In the developing nervous system, REST is present in progenitors and downregulated at terminal differentiation to promote acquisition of mature neuronal phenotypes. Paradoxically, REST is still detected in some regions of the adult nervous system, but how REST levels are regulated, and whether REST can still repress neuronal genes, is not known. Here, we report that homeostatic levels of REST are maintained in mature peripheral neurons by a constitutive post-transcriptional mechanism. Specifically, using a three-hybrid genetic screen, we identify the RNA binding protein, ZFP36L2, associated previously only with female fertility and hematopoiesis, and show that it regulates REST mRNA stability. Dorsal root ganglia in Zfp36l2 knock-out mice, or wild-type ganglia expressing ZFP36L2 shRNA, show higher steady-state levels of Rest mRNA and protein, and extend thin and disintegrating axons. This phenotype is due, at least in part, to abnormally elevated REST levels in the ganglia because the axonal phenotype is attenuated by acute knockdown of REST in Zfp36l2 KO DRG explants. The higher REST levels result in lower levels of target genes, indicating that REST can still fine-tune gene expression through repression. Thus, REST levels are titrated in mature peripheral neurons, in part through a ZFP36L2-mediated post-transcriptional mechanism, with consequences for axonal integrity. PMID:25505318

  2. THE RNA-BINDING PROTEIN HUR PROMOTES GLIOMA GROWTH AND TREATMENT RESISTANCE

    PubMed Central

    Filippova, Natalia; Yang, Xiuhua; Wang, Yimin; Gillespie, G Yancey; Langford, Cathy; King, Peter H.; Wheeler, Crystal; Nabors, L. Burt

    2011-01-01

    Posttranscriptional regulation is a critical control point for the expression of genes that promote or retard tumor growth. We previously found that the mRNA binding protein, ELAV 1 (HuR), is upregulated in primary brain tumors and stabilizes growth factor mRNAs such as VEGF and IL-8. To better understand the role of HuR in brain tumor growth, we altered levels of HuR in glioma cells by shRNA or ectopic expression and measured tumor cell phenotype using in vitro and in vivo models. In HuR-silenced cells, we found a significant decrease in anchorage-independent growth and cell proliferation with a concomitant induction of apoptosis. Using an intracranial tumor model with primary glioblastoma cells, HuR silencing produced a significant decrease in tumor volume. In contrast, overexpression of HuR produced in vitro chemoresistance to standard glioma therapies. Since bcl-2 is abundantly expressed in glioma and associated with tumor growth and survival, we determined the impact of HuR on its regulation as a molecular validation to the cellular and animal studies. Using UV crosslinking and RNA immunoprecipitation, we show that HuR bound to the 3' untranslated region of all bcl-2 family members. Silencing of HuR led to transcript destabilization and reduced protein expression. Polysome profiling indicated loss of HuR from the translational apparatus. In summary, these findings reveal a HuR-dependent mechanism for cancer cell survival and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs suggesting that HuR should be considered as a new therapeutic target. PMID:21498545

  3. Functional interplay between RNA-binding protein HuR and microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Srikantan, Subramanya; Tominaga, Kumiko; Gorospe, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian RNA-binding protein (RBP) HuR associates with numerous mRNAs encoding proteins with roles in cell division, cell survival, immune response, and differentiation. HuR was known to stabilize many of these mRNAs and/or modulated their translation, but the molecular processes by which HuR affected the fate of target mRNAs was largely unknown. Evidence accumulated over the past five years has revealed that the influence of HuR on many bound transcripts depends on HuR's interplay with microRNAs which associate with the same mRNAs. Here, we review the interactions of HuR and microRNAs – both competitive and cooperative – that govern expression of shared target mRNAs. Competition between HuR and microRNAs typically results in enhanced gene expression if the HuR-mRNA interaction prevails, and in repression if the microRNA remains associated. Cooperation between HuR and microRNAs leads to lower expression of the shared mRNA. We also describe the regulation of HuR levels by microRNAs as well as the regulation of microRNA levels by HuR. Finally, we discuss transcriptome-wide analyses of HuR-bound mRNAs with neighboring microRNA sites, and review the emerging mechanisms whereby microRNAs confer versatility and strength to the post-transcriptional outcomes of HuR targets. PMID:22708488

  4. RNA-binding proteins to assess gene expression states of co-cultivated cells in response to tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Penalva, Luiz OF; Burdick, Michael D; Lin, Simon M; Sutterluety, Hedwig; Keene, Jack D

    2004-01-01

    Background Tumors and complex tissues consist of mixtures of communicating cells that differ significantly in their gene expression status. In order to understand how different cell types influence one another's gene expression, it will be necessary to monitor the mRNA profiles of each cell type independently and to dissect the mechanisms that regulate their gene expression outcomes. Results In order to approach these questions, we have used RNA-binding proteins such as ELAV/Hu, poly (A) binding protein (PABP) and cap-binding protein (eIF-4E) as reporters of gene expression. Here we demonstrate that the epitope-tagged RNA binding protein, PABP, expressed separately in tumor cells and endothelial cells can be used to discriminate their respective mRNA targets from mixtures of these cells without significant mRNA reassortment or exchange. Moreover, using this approach we identify a set of endothelial genes that respond to the presence of co-cultured breast tumor cells. Conclusion RNA-binding proteins can be used as reporters to elucidate components of operational mRNA networks and operons involved in regulating cell-type specific gene expression in tissues and tumors. PMID:15353001

  5. Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural Protein 5A: Biochemical Characterization of a Novel Structural Class of RNA-Binding Proteins▿

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jungwook; Huang, Luyun; Cordek, Daniel G.; Vaughan, Robert; Reynolds, Shelley L.; Kihara, George; Raney, Kevin D.; Kao, C. Cheng; Cameron, Craig E.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) exhibits a preference for G/U-rich RNA in vitro. Biological analysis of the NS5A RNA-binding activity and its target sites in the genome will be facilitated by a description of the NS5A-RNA complex. We demonstrate that the C-4 carbonyl of the uracil base and, by inference, the C-6 carbonyl of the guanine base interact with NS5A. U-rich RNA of 5 to 6 nucleotides (nt) is sufficient for high-affinity binding to NS5A. The minimal RNA-binding domain of NS5A consists of residues 2005 to 2221 (referred to as domain I-plus). This region of the protein includes the amino-terminal domain I as well as the subsequent linker that separates domains I and II. This linker region is the site of adaptive mutations. U-rich RNA-binding activity is not observed for an NS5A derivative containing only residues 2194 to 2419 (domains II and III). Mass spectrometric analysis of an NS5A-poly(rU) complex identified domains I and II as sites for interaction with RNA. Dimerization of NS5A was demonstrated by glutaraldehyde cross-linking. This dimerization is likely mediated by domain I-plus, as dimers of this protein are trapped by cross-linking. Dimers of the domain II-III protein are not observed. The monomer-dimer equilibrium of NS5A shifts in favor of dimer when U-rich RNA is present but not when A-rich RNA is present, consistent with an NS5A dimer being the RNA-binding-competent form of the protein. These data provide a molecular perspective of the NS5A-RNA complex and suggest possible mechanisms for regulation of HCV and cellular gene expression. PMID:20926572

  6. Competition and collaboration between RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Ho, J J David; Marsden, Philip A

    2014-01-01

    Posttranscriptional regulation of mRNA species represents a major regulatory checkpoint in the control of gene expression. Historically, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been regarded as the primary regulators of mRNA stability and translation. More recently, however, microRNAs have emerged as a class of potent and pervasive posttranscriptional rheostats that similarly affect mRNA stability and translation. The observation that both microRNAs and RBPs regulate mRNA stability and translation has initiated a newer area of research that involves the examination of dynamic interactions between these two important classes of posttranscriptional regulators, the myriad of factors that influence these biological interactions, and ultimately, their effects on target mRNAs. Specifically, microRNAs and RBPs can act synergistically to effect mRNA destabilization and translational inhibition. They can also engage in competition with each other and exert opposing effects on target mRNAs. To date, several key studies have provided critical details regarding the mechanisms and principles of interaction between these molecules. Additionally, these findings raise important questions regarding the regulation of these interactions, including the roles of posttranslational modification, subcellular localization, target inhibition versus activation, and changes in expression levels of these regulatory factors, especially under stimulus- and cell-specific conditions. Indeed, further experimentation is warranted to address these key issues that pertain to the collaboration and competition between microRNAs and RBPs. Significantly, the elucidation of these important details bears critical implications for disease management, especially for those diseases in which these cellular factors are dysregulated. PMID:24124109

  7. The RNA binding protein RBPMS is a selective marker of ganglion cells in the mammalian retina

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Allen R.; de Sevilla Müller, Luis Pérez; Brecha, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    There are few neurochemical markers that reliably identify retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which are a heterogeneous population of cells that integrate and transmit the visual signal from the retina to the central visual nuclei. We have developed and characterized a new set of affinity purified guinea pig and rabbit antibodies against RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS). On Western blots these antibodies recognize a single band at ~24 kDa, corresponding to RBPMS, and they strongly label RGC and displaced RGC (dRGC) somata in mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit and monkey retina. RBPMS immunoreactive cells and RGCs identified by other techniques have a similar range of somal diameters and areas. The density of RBPMS cells in mouse and rat retina is comparable to earlier semi-quantitative estimates of RGCs. RBPMS is mainly expressed in medium and large DAPI-, DRAQ5-, NeuroTrace- and NeuN-stained cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL), and RBPMS is not expressed in syntaxin (HPC-1) immunoreactive cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and GCL, consistent with their identity as RGCs, and not displaced amacrine cells. In mouse and rat retina, most RBPMS cells are lost following optic nerve crush or transection at three weeks, and all Brn3a, SMI-32 and melanopsin immunoreactive RGCs also express RBPMS immunoreactivity. RBPMS immunoreactivity is localized to CFP-fluorescent RGCs in the B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-CFP)23Jrs/J mouse line. These findings show that antibodies against RBPMS are robust reagents that exclusively identify RGCs and dRGCs in multiple mammalian species, and they will be especially useful for quantification of RGCs. PMID:24318667

  8. The RNA-binding protein LIN28B regulates developmental timing in the mammalian cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Erin J.; Benito-Gonzalez, Ana; Doetzlhofer, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Proper tissue development requires strict coordination of proliferation, growth, and differentiation. Strict coordination is particularly important for the auditory sensory epithelium, where deviations from the normal spatial and temporal pattern of auditory progenitor cell (prosensory cell) proliferation and differentiation result in abnormal cellular organization and, thus, auditory dysfunction. The molecular mechanisms involved in the timing and coordination of auditory prosensory proliferation and differentiation are poorly understood. Here we identify the RNA-binding protein LIN28B as a critical regulator of developmental timing in the murine cochlea. We show that Lin28b and its opposing let-7 miRNAs are differentially expressed in the auditory sensory lineage, with Lin28b being highly expressed in undifferentiated prosensory cells and let-7 miRNAs being highly expressed in their progeny—hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs). Using recently developed transgenic mouse models for LIN28B and let-7g, we demonstrate that prolonged LIN28B expression delays prosensory cell cycle withdrawal and differentiation, resulting in HC and SC patterning and maturation defects. Surprisingly, let-7g overexpression, although capable of inducing premature prosensory cell cycle exit, failed to induce premature HC differentiation, suggesting that LIN28B’s functional role in the timing of differentiation uses let-7 independent mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrate that overexpression of LIN28B or let-7g can significantly alter the postnatal production of HCs in response to Notch inhibition; LIN28B has a positive effect on HC production, whereas let-7 antagonizes this process. Together, these results implicate a key role for the LIN28B/let-7 axis in regulating postnatal SC plasticity. PMID:26139524

  9. The RNA-binding protein LIN28B regulates developmental timing in the mammalian cochlea.

    PubMed

    Golden, Erin J; Benito-Gonzalez, Ana; Doetzlhofer, Angelika

    2015-07-21

    Proper tissue development requires strict coordination of proliferation, growth, and differentiation. Strict coordination is particularly important for the auditory sensory epithelium, where deviations from the normal spatial and temporal pattern of auditory progenitor cell (prosensory cell) proliferation and differentiation result in abnormal cellular organization and, thus, auditory dysfunction. The molecular mechanisms involved in the timing and coordination of auditory prosensory proliferation and differentiation are poorly understood. Here we identify the RNA-binding protein LIN28B as a critical regulator of developmental timing in the murine cochlea. We show that Lin28b and its opposing let-7 miRNAs are differentially expressed in the auditory sensory lineage, with Lin28b being highly expressed in undifferentiated prosensory cells and let-7 miRNAs being highly expressed in their progeny-hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs). Using recently developed transgenic mouse models for LIN28B and let-7g, we demonstrate that prolonged LIN28B expression delays prosensory cell cycle withdrawal and differentiation, resulting in HC and SC patterning and maturation defects. Surprisingly, let-7g overexpression, although capable of inducing premature prosensory cell cycle exit, failed to induce premature HC differentiation, suggesting that LIN28B's functional role in the timing of differentiation uses let-7 independent mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrate that overexpression of LIN28B or let-7g can significantly alter the postnatal production of HCs in response to Notch inhibition; LIN28B has a positive effect on HC production, whereas let-7 antagonizes this process. Together, these results implicate a key role for the LIN28B/let-7 axis in regulating postnatal SC plasticity. PMID:26139524

  10. Expression Profile of Six RNA-Binding Proteins in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Novosadova, Eva; Hagemann-Jensen, Michael; Kullberg, Susanna; Kolek, Vitezslav; Grunewald, Johan; Petrek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcoidosis is characterised by up-regulation of cytokines and chemokine ligands/receptors and proteolytic enzymes. This pro-inflammatory profile is regulated post-transcriptionally by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). We investigated in vivo expression of six RBPs (AUF1, HuR, NCL, TIA, TIAR, PCBP2) and two inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes (RECK, PTEN) in pulmonary sarcoidosis and compared it to the expression in four control groups of healthy individuals and patients with other respiratory diseases: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). Methods RT-PCR was used to quantify the mRNAs in bronchoalveolar (BA) cells obtained from 50 sarcoidosis patients, 23 healthy controls, 30 COPD, 19 asthmatic and 19 IIPs patients. Flow cytometry was used to assess intracellular protein expression of AUF1 and HuR in peripheral blood T lymphocytes (PBTLs) obtained from 9 sarcoidosis patients and 6 healthy controls. Results Taking the stringent conditions for multiple comparisons into consideration, we consistently observed in the primary analysis including all patients regardless of smoking status as well as in the subsequent sub-analysis limited for never smokers that the BA mRNA expression of AUF1 (p<0.001), TIA (p<0.001), NCL (p<0.01) and RECK (p<0.05) was decreased in sarcoidosis compared to healthy controls. TIA mRNA was also decreased in sarcoidosis compared to both obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD and asthma; p<0.001) but not compared to IIPs. There were several positive correlations between RECK mRNA and RBP mRNAs in BA cells. Also sarcoidosis CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ PBTLs displayed lower mean fluorescence intensity of AUF1 (p≤0.02) and HuR (p≤0.03) proteins than control healthy PBTLs. Conclusion mRNA expressions of three RBPs (AUF1, TIA and NCL) and their potential target mRNA encoding RECK in BA cells and additionally protein expression of AUF1 and HuR in PBTLs were down-regulated in our sarcoidosis

  11. Structure of the second RRM domain of Nrd1, a fission yeast MAPK target RNA binding protein, and implication for its RNA recognition and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Ayaho; Kanaba, Teppei; Satoh, Ryosuke; Fujiwara, Toshinobu; Ito, Yutaka; Sugiura, Reiko; Mishima, Masaki

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •Solution structure of the second RRM of Nrd1 was determined. •RNA binding site of the second RRM was estimated. •Regulatory mechanism of RNA binding by phosphorylation is discussed. -- Abstract: Negative regulator of differentiation 1 (Nrd1) is known as a negative regulator of sexual differentiation in fission yeast. Recently, it has been revealed that Nrd1 also regulates cytokinesis, in which physical separation of the cell is achieved by a contractile ring comprising many proteins including actin and myosin. Cdc4, a myosin II light chain, is known to be required for cytokinesis. Nrd1 binds and stabilizes Cdc4 mRNA, and thereby suppressing the cytokinesis defects of the cdc4 mutants. Interestingly, Pmk1 MAPK phosphorylates Nrd1, resulting in markedly reduced RNA binding activity. Furthermore, Nrd1 localizes to stress granules in response to various stresses, and Pmk1 phosphorylation enhances the localization. Nrd1 consists of four RRM domains, although the mechanism by which Pmk1 regulates the RNA binding activity of Nrd1 is unknown. In an effort to delineate the relationship between Nrd1 structure and function, we prepared each RNA binding domain of Nrd1 and examined RNA binding to chemically synthesized oligo RNA using NMR. The structure of the second RRM domain of Nrd1 was determined and the RNA binding site on the second RRM domain was mapped by NMR. A plausible mechanism pertaining to the regulation of RNA binding activity by phosphorylation is also discussed.

  12. NAB1 Is an RNA Binding Protein Involved in the Light-Regulated Differential Expression of the Light-Harvesting Antenna of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Mussgnug, Jan H.; Wobbe, Lutz; Elles, Ingolf; Claus, Christina; Hamilton, Mary; Fink, Andreas; Kahmann, Uwe; Kapazoglou, Aliki; Mullineaux, Conrad W.; Hippler, Michael; Nickelsen, Jörg; Nixon, Peter J.; Kruse, Olaf

    2005-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms respond to changes in ambient light by modulating the size and composition of their light-harvesting complexes, which in the case of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii consists of >15 members of a large extended family of chlorophyll binding subunits. How their expression is coordinated is unclear. Here, we describe the analysis of an insertion mutant, state transitions mutant3 (stm3), which we show has increased levels of LHCBM subunits associated with the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II. The mutated nuclear gene in stm3 encodes the RNA binding protein NAB1 (for putative nucleic acid binding protein). In vitro and in vivo RNA binding and protein expression studies have confirmed that NAB1 differentially binds to LHCBM mRNA in a subpolysomal high molecular weight RNA–protein complex. Binding of NAB1 stabilizes LHCBM mRNA at the preinitiation level via sequestration and thereby represses translation. The specificity and affinity of binding are determined by an RNA sequence motif similar to that used by the Xenopus laevis translation repressor FRGY2, which is conserved to varying degrees in the LHCBM gene family. We conclude from our results that NAB1 plays an important role in controlling the expression of the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II at the posttranscriptional level. The similarity of NAB1 and FRGY2 of Xenopus implies the existence of similar RNA-masking systems in animals and plants. PMID:16284312

  13. Luteinizing Hormone Receptor mRNA Down-Regulation Is Mediated through ERK-Dependent Induction of RNA Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Bindu; Franzo-Romain, Megan; Damanpour, Shadi

    2011-01-01

    The ligand-induced down-regulation of LH receptor (LHR) expression in the ovaries, at least in part, is regulated by a posttranscriptional process mediated by a specific LH receptor mRNA binding protein (LRBP). The LH-mediated signaling pathways involved in this process were examined in primary cultures of human granulosa cells. Treatment with 10 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for 12 h resulted in the down-regulation of LHR mRNA expression while producing an increase in LHR mRNA binding to LRBP as well as a 2-fold increase in LRBP levels. The activation of ERK½ pathway in LH-mediated LHR mRNA down-regulation was also established by demonstrating the translocation of ERK½ from the cytosol to the nucleus using confocal microcopy. Inhibition of protein kinase A using H-89 or ERK½ by U0126 abolished the LH-induced LHR mRNA down-regulation. These treatments also abrogated both the increases in LRBP levels as well as the LHR mRNA binding activity. The abolishment of the hCG-induced increase in LRBP levels and LHR mRNA binding activity was further confirmed by transfecting granulosa cells with ERK½ specific small interfering RNA. This treatment also reversed the hCG-induced down-regulation of LHR mRNA. These data show that LH-regulated ERK½ signaling is required for the LRBP-mediated down-regulation of LHR mRNA. PMID:21147848

  14. A conserved and essential basic region mediates tRNA binding to the Elp1 subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Elongator complex

    PubMed Central

    Di Santo, Rachael; Bandau, Susanne; Stark, Michael J R

    2014-01-01

    Elongator is a conserved, multi-protein complex discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, loss of which confers a range of pleiotropic phenotypes. Elongator in higher eukaryotes is required for normal growth and development and a mutation in the largest subunit of human Elongator (Elp1) causes familial dysautonomia, a severe recessive neuropathy. Elongator promotes addition of mcm5 and ncm5 modifications to uridine in the tRNA anticodon ‘wobble’ position in both yeast and higher eukaryotes. Since these modifications are required for the tRNAs to function efficiently, a translation defect caused by hypomodified tRNAs may therefore underlie the variety of phenotypes associated with Elongator dysfunction. The Elp1 carboxy-terminal domain contains a highly conserved arginine/lysine-rich region that resembles a nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Using alanine substitution mutagenesis, we show that this region is essential for Elongator's function in tRNA wobble uridine modification. However, rather than acting to determine the nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution of Elongator, we find that the basic region plays a critical role in a novel interaction between tRNA and the Elp1 carboxy-terminal domain. Thus the conserved basic region in Elp1 may be essential for tRNA wobble uridine modification by acting as tRNA binding motif. PMID:24750273

  15. A novel RNA-binding protein from Triturus carnifex identified by RNA-ligand screening with the newt hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Denti, M A; Martínez de Alba, A E; Sägesser, R; Tsagris, M; Tabler, M

    2000-03-01

    The newt hammerhead ribozyme is transcribed from Satellite 2 DNA, which consists of tandemly repeated units of 330 bp. However, different transcripts are synthesized in different tissues. In all somatic tissues and in testes, dimeric and multimeric RNA transcripts are generated which, to some extent, self-cleave into monomers at the hammerhead domain. In ovaries, primarily a distinct monomeric unit is formed by transcription, which retains an intact hammerhead self-cleavage site. The ovarian monomeric RNA associates to form a 12S complex with proteins that are poorly characterised so far. In this work we identified NORA, a protein that binds the ovarian form of the newt ribozyme. We show that the newt ribozyme binds to the Escherichia coli -expressed protein, as well as to a protein of identical size that is found exclusively in newt ovaries. Also NORA mRNA was detectable only in ovary, but in neither somatic tissues nor testes. The tissue-specific expression of NORA is analogous to the ovary-specific transcription of the newt ribozyme. Although NORA was identified by its ability to bind to the newt ribozyme in the presence of a vast excess of carrier RNA, it was able to interact with certain other RNA probes. This novel RNA-binding protein does not contain any motif characteristic for RNA-binding proteins or any other known protein domain, but it shares a striking similarity with a rat resiniferatoxin-binding protein. PMID:10666442

  16. A novel RNA-binding protein from Triturus carnifex identified by RNA-ligand screening with the newt hammerhead ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Denti, Michela A.; Alba, A. Emilio Martínez de; Sägesser, Rudolf; Tsagris, Mina; Tabler, Martin

    2000-01-01

    The newt hammerhead ribozyme is transcribed from Satellite 2 DNA, which consists of tandemly repeated units of 330 bp. However, different transcripts are synthesized in different tissues. In all somatic tissues and in testes, dimeric and multimeric RNA transcripts are generated which, to some extent, self-cleave into monomers at the hammerhead domain. In ovaries, primarily a distinct monomeric unit is formed by transcription, which retains an intact hammerhead self-cleavage site. The ovarian monomeric RNA associates to form a 12S complex with proteins that are poorly characterised so far. In this work we identified NORA, a protein that binds the ovarian form of the newt ribozyme. We show that the newt ribozyme binds to the Escherichia coli-expressed protein, as well as to a protein of identical size that is found exclusively in newt ovaries. Also NORA mRNA was detectable only in ovary, but in neither somatic tissues nor testes. The tissue-specific expression of NORA is analogous to the ovary-specific transcription of the newt ribozyme. Although NORA was identified by its ability to bind to the newt ribozyme in the presence of a vast excess of carrier RNA, it was able to interact with certain other RNA probes. This novel RNA-binding protein does not contain any motif characteristic for RNA-binding proteins or any other known protein domain, but it shares a striking similarity with a rat resiniferatoxin-binding protein. PMID:10666442

  17. Erythromycin and 5S rRNA binding properties of the spinach chloroplast ribosomal protein CL22.

    PubMed Central

    Carol, P; Rozier, C; Lazaro, E; Ballesta, J P; Mache, R

    1993-01-01

    The spinach chloroplast ribosomal protein (r-protein) CL22 contains a central region homologous to the Escherichia coli r-protein L22 plus long N- and C-terminal extensions. We show in this study that the CL22 combines two properties which in E. coli ribosome are split between two separate proteins. The CL22 which binds to the 5S rRNA can also be linked to an erythromycin derivative added to the 50S ribosomal subunit. This latter property is similar to that of the E. coli L22 and suggests a similar localization in the 50S subunit. We have overproduced the r-protein CL22 and deleted forms of this protein in E. coli. We show that the overproduced CL22 binds to the chloroplast 5S rRNA and that the deleted protein containing the N- and C-terminal extensions only has lost the 5S rRNA binding property. We suggest that the central homologous regions of the CL22 contains the RNA binding domain. Images PMID:8441674

  18. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins Involved in a Posttranscriptional Iron Regulatory Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E.; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S.; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis. PMID:26703754

  19. Post-Transcriptional Control of the Hypoxic Response by RNA-Binding Proteins and MicroRNAs.

    PubMed

    Gorospe, Myriam; Tominaga, Kumiko; Wu, Xue; Fähling, Michael; Ivan, Mircea

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian gene expression patterns change profoundly in response to low oxygen levels. These changes in gene expression programs are strongly influenced by post-transcriptional mechanisms mediated by mRNA-binding factors: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we review the RBPs and miRNAs that modulate mRNA turnover and translation in response to hypoxic challenge. RBPs such as HuR (human antigen R), PTB (polypyrimidine tract-binding protein), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), tristetraprolin, nucleolin, iron-response element-binding proteins (IRPs), and cytoplasmic polyadenylation-element-binding proteins (CPEBs), selectively bind to numerous hypoxia-regulated transcripts and play a major role in establishing hypoxic gene expression patterns. MiRNAs including miR-210, miR-373, and miR-21 associate with hypoxia-regulated transcripts and further modulate the levels of the encoded proteins to implement the hypoxic gene expression profile. We discuss the potent regulation of hypoxic gene expression by RBPs and miRNAs and their integrated actions in the cellular hypoxic response. PMID:21747757

  20. Pre-mRNA Splicing in Plants: In Vivo Functions of RNA-Binding Proteins Implicated in the Splicing Process

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Katja; Koester, Tino; Staiger, Dorothee

    2015-01-01

    Alternative pre-messenger RNA splicing in higher plants emerges as an important layer of regulation upon exposure to exogenous and endogenous cues. Accordingly, mutants defective in RNA-binding proteins predicted to function in the splicing process show severe phenotypic alterations. Among those are developmental defects, impaired responses to pathogen threat or abiotic stress factors, and misregulation of the circadian timing system. A suite of splicing factors has been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we summarize recent insights on how defects in these splicing factors impair plant performance. PMID:26213982

  1. RNA-Binding Proteins in the Regulation of miRNA Activity: A Focus on Neuronal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Loffreda, Alessia; Rigamonti, Aurora; Barabino, Silvia M. L.; Lenzken, Silvia C.

    2015-01-01

    Posttranscriptional modifications of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are key processes in the fine-tuning of cellular homeostasis. Two major actors in this scenario are RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) that together play important roles in the biogenesis, turnover, translation and localization of mRNAs. This review will highlight recent advances in the understanding of the role of RBPs in the regulation of the maturation and the function of miRNAs. The interplay between miRNAs and RBPs is discussed specifically in the context of neuronal development and function. PMID:26437437

  2. Cooperative Role of the RNA-Binding Proteins Hzf and HuR in p53 Activation ▿

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Hideaki; Kawagishi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Maruyama, Mitsuo; Sugimoto, Masataka

    2011-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein Hzf (hematopoietic zinc finger) plays important roles in mRNA translation in cerebellar Purkinje cells and adipocytes. We along with others have reported that the expression of the Hzf gene is transcriptionally regulated by the p53 tumor suppressor protein. We show here that Hzf regulates p53 expression in cooperation with HuR. Hzf and HuR independently interact with the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of p53 mRNA, which facilitates the cytoplasmic localization of p53 mRNA in the presence of the ARF tumor suppressor protein. In the absence of Hzf and HuR, p53 induction by p19ARF is significantly attenuated, and the cells consequently acquire resistance to p19ARF. Thus, these findings demonstrate that in addition to Mdm2 inhibition, p19ARF increases the concentration of p53 through posttranscriptional control of p53 mRNA and suggest critical roles for the RNA-binding proteins Hzf and HuR in p53 induction. PMID:21402775

  3. The Drosophila ortholog of the Zc3h14 RNA binding protein acts within neurons to pattern axon projection in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Seth M; Bienkowski, Rick; Banerjee, Ayan; Melicharek, David J; Brewer, Zachariah A; Marenda, Daniel R; Corbett, Anita H; Moberg, Kenneth H

    2016-01-01

    The dNab2 polyadenosine RNA binding protein is the D. melanogaster ortholog of the vertebrate ZC3H14 protein, which is lost in a form of inherited intellectual disability (ID). Human ZC3H14 can rescue D. melanogaster dNab2 mutant phenotypes when expressed in all neurons of the developing nervous system, suggesting that dNab2/ZC3H14 performs well-conserved roles in neurons. However, the cellular and molecular requirements for dNab2/ZC3H14 in the developing nervous system have not been defined in any organism. Here we show that dNab2 is autonomously required within neurons to pattern axon projection from Kenyon neurons into the mushroom bodies, which are required for associative olfactory learning and memory in insects. Mushroom body axons lacking dNab2 project aberrantly across the brain midline and also show evidence of defective branching. Coupled with the prior finding that ZC3H14 is highly expressed in rodent hippocampal neurons, this requirement for dNab2 in mushroom body neurons suggests that dNab2/ZC3H14 has a conserved role in supporting axon projection and branching. Consistent with this idea, loss of dNab2 impairs short-term memory in a courtship conditioning assay. Taken together these results reveal a cell-autonomous requirement for the dNab2 RNA binding protein in mushroom body development and provide a window into potential neurodevelopmental functions of the human ZC3H14 protein. PMID:25980665

  4. A Glycine-rich RNA-binding Protein Mediating Cold-inducible Suppression of Mammalian Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Kaneko, Yoshiyuki; Kishishita, Masamichi; Yoshida, Osamu; Fujita, Jun

    1997-01-01

    In response to low ambient temperature, mammalian cells as well as microorganisms change various physiological functions, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptations are just beginning to be understood. We report here the isolation of a mouse cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (cirp) cDNA and investigation of its role in cold-stress response of mammalian cells. The cirp cDNA encoded an 18-kD protein consisting of an amino-terminal RNAbinding domain and a carboxyl-terminal glycine-rich domain and exhibited structural similarity to a class of stress-induced RNA-binding proteins found in plants. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that CIRP was localized in the nucleoplasm of BALB/3T3 mouse fibroblasts. When the culture temperature was lowered from 37 to 32°C, expression of CIRP was induced and growth of BALB/3T3 cells was impaired as compared with that at 37°C. By suppressing the induction of CIRP with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, this impairment was alleviated, while overexpression of CIRP resulted in impaired growth at 37°C with prolongation of G1 phase of the cell cycle. These results indicate that CIRP plays an essential role in cold-induced growth suppression of mouse fibroblasts. Identification of CIRP may provide a clue to the regulatory mechanisms of cold responses in mammalian cells. PMID:9151692

  5. Crystal Structure and RNA Binding of the Tex Protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson,S.; Close, D.; Robinson, H.; Vallet-Gely, I.; Dove, S.; Hill, C.

    2008-01-01

    Tex is a highly conserved bacterial protein that likely functions in a variety of transcriptional processes. Here, we describe two crystal structures of the 86-kDa Tex protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2.3 and 2.5 Angstroms resolution, respectively. These structures reveal a relatively flat and elongated protein, with several potential nucleic acid binding motifs clustered at one end, including an S1 domain near the C-terminus that displays considerable structural flexibility. Tex binds nucleic acids, with a preference for single-stranded RNA, and the Tex S1 domain is required for this binding activity. Point mutants further demonstrate that the primary nucleic acid binding site corresponds to a surface of the S1 domain. Sequence alignment and modeling indicate that the eukaryotic Spt6 transcription factor adopts a similar core structure. Structural analysis further suggests that the RNA polymerase and nucleosome interacting regions of Spt6 flank opposite sides of the Tex-like scaffold. Therefore, the Tex structure may represent a conserved scaffold that binds single-stranded RNA to regulate transcription in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms.

  6. Integrative genomic analyses of the RNA-binding protein, RNPC1, and its potential role in cancer prediction.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhiming; Yang, Hai-Wei; Xia, Tian-Song; Wang, Bo; Ding, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    The RNA binding motif protein 38 (RBM38, also known as RNPC1) plays a pivotal role in regulating a wide range of biological processes, from cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest to cell myogenic differentiation. It was originally recognized as an oncogene, and was frequently found to be amplified in prostate, ovarian and colorectal cancer, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, colon carcinoma, esophageal cancer, dog lymphomas and breast cancer. In the present study, the complete RNPC1 gene was identified in a number of vertebrate genomes, suggesting that RNPC1 exists in all types of vertebrates, including fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. In the different genomes, the gene had a similar 4 exon/3 intron organization, and all the genetic loci were syntenically conserved. The phylogenetic tree demonstrated that the RNPC1 gene from the mammalian, bird, reptile and teleost lineage formed a species-specific cluster. A total of 34 functionally relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including 14 SNPs causing missense mutations, 8 exonic splicing enhancer SNPs and 12 SNPs causing nonsense mutations, were identified in the human RNPC1 gene. RNPC1 was found to be expressed in bladder, blood, brain, breast, colorectal, eye, head and neck, lung, ovarian, skin and soft tissue cancer. In 14 of the 94 tests, an association between RNPC1 gene expression and cancer prognosis was observed. We found that the association between the expression of RNPC1 and prognosis varied in different types of cancer, and even in the same type of cancer from the different databases used. This suggests that the function of RNPC1 in these tumors may be multidimensional. The sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 5 (Sox5), runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), CCAAT displacement protein 1 (CUTL1), v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (Rel)A, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ isoform 2 (PPARγ2) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) regulatory

  7. Identification of target messenger RNA substrates for the murine deleted in azoospermia-like RNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xinfu; Trifillis, Panayiota; Kiledjian, Megerditch

    2002-02-01

    The murine autosomal deleted in azoospermia-like protein (mDAZL) is a germ cell-restricted RNA-binding protein essential for sperm production. Homozygous disruption of the mDAZL gene results in the absence of germ cells beyond the spermatogonial stage. Progress into the function of DAZL in spermatogenesis has been hampered without identification of the cognate mRNA substrates that it binds to and regulates. Using the isolation of specific nucleic acids associated with proteins (SNAAP) technique recently developed in our lab, we identified mRNAs from testis that were specifically bound by mDAZL. One mRNA encoded the Tpx-1 protein, a testicular cell adhesion protein essential for the progression of spermatogenesis. A 26-nucleotide region necessary and sufficient to bind mDAZL was found within additional mRNAs isolated by the screen. These included mRNA encoding Pam, a protein associated with myc; GRSF1, an mRNA-binding protein involved in translation activation, and TRF2, a TATA box-binding protein-like protein involved in transcriptional regulation. Each mRNA containing the mDAZL binding site was specifically bound by mDAZL. A similar sequence is also present in the Cdc25A mRNA, a threonine/tyrosine phosphatase involved in cell cycle progression. The mDAZL and Cdc25A homologues are functionally linked in Drosophila and are necessary for spermatogenesis. Our demonstration that Tpx-1 and Cdc25A mRNAs are bound by mDAZL suggests that mDAZL regulates a subset of mRNAs necessary for germ cell development and cell cycle progression. Understanding how mDAZL regulates the target mRNAs will provide new insights into spermatogenesis, strategies for therapeutic intervention in azoospermic patients, and novel approaches for male contraception. PMID:11804965

  8. 2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase: a novel RNA-binding protein that inhibits protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Michel; Robert, Francis; Kottis, Vicky; Gallouzi, Imed-Eddine; Pelletier, Jerry; Braun, Peter E

    2009-04-01

    2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) is one of the earliest myelin-related proteins to be specifically expressed in differentiating oligodendrocytes (ODCs) in the central nervous system (CNS) and is implicated in myelin biogenesis. CNP possesses an in vitro enzymatic activity, whose in vivo relevance remains to be defined, because substrates with 2',3,-cyclic termini have not yet been identified. To characterize CNP function better, we previously determined the structure of the CNP catalytic domain by NMR. Interestingly, the structure is remarkably similar to the plant cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (CPDase) from A. thaliana and the bacterial 2'-5' RNA ligase from T. thermophilus, which are known to play roles in RNA metabolism. Here we show that CNP is an RNA-binding protein. Furthermore, by using precipitation analyses, we demonstrate that CNP associates with poly(A)(+) mRNAs in vivo and suppresses translation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. With SELEX, we isolated RNA aptamers that can suppress the inhibitory effect of CNP on translation. We also demonstrate that CNP1 can bridge an association between tubulin and RNA. These results suggest that CNP1 may regulate expression of mRNAs in ODCs of the CNS. PMID:19021295

  9. Preparation of oligoribonucleotides containing 4-thiouridine using Fpmp chemistry. Photo-crosslinking to RNA binding proteins using 350 nm irradiation.

    PubMed

    McGregor, A; Rao, M V; Duckworth, G; Stockley, P G; Connolly, B A

    1996-08-15

    The preparation of a 4-thiouridine phosphoramidite suitable for RNA synthesis and its subsequent incorporation into oligoribonucleotides is described. The thiol group is protected with a 2-cyanoethyl group and the 2'-OH with a 1-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-methoxypiperidin-4-yl function. Thiouridine-containing oligoribonucleotides were used as 350 nm UV crosslinking probes for the photoaffinity labelling of RNA binding proteins. Specific crosslinking was demonstrated between the Rev protein of HIV-1 (as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein) and its RNA target, the Rev-responsive element. It was not possible to generate crosslinks between the RNA bacteriophage MS2 coat protein and the initiator stem-loop of the replicase gene, to which it binds. These results are consistent with the structural data available on both systems. PMID:8774897

  10. [Use of three-hybrid system to detect RNA-binding activity of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, V G; Smirnova, S A; Mel'nichuk, M D

    2003-01-01

    We used yeast three-hybrid system, for studying interaction of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein AMVCP (AMVCP) with RNA4, which codes this protein. We have shown that AMVCP with high affinity is bound to plus-chain of RNA4 in vivo. The mutational analysis has shown, that the N-terminal part of AMVCP (aa 1 to 85) contains RNA-binding domain. C-terminal part of this protein (aa 86 to 221) does not participate in direct interaction with RNA4. However activity of the reporter-gene LacZ, which codes beta-galactosidase, in case of interaction only N-terminal part of AMVCP is five times lower, in comparison with full-length hybrid protein, that confirms that the tertiary structure of full-length AMVCP is more favourable for interaction with RNA4. PMID:14681978