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Sample records for road traffic injuries

  1. Road traffic injuries in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Romão, Francelina; Nizamo, Hanifa; Mapasse, Domingos; Rafico, Momede Mussá; José, João; Mataruca, Simão; Efron, M Lúcia; Omondi, Lucas O; Leifert, Thelma; Bicho, Joaquim M L Marungo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries affect the economy, health and quality of life of the people of Mozambique. Current road safety programmes are inadequate and inefficient given the magnitude of the problem. Data reported on road traffic crashes in the period 1990 to 2000 from the National Institute for Road Safety, the traffic police and the Central Hospital of Maputo were reviewed. The burden of road traffic injuries in Mozambique is rising, with at least three people killed daily. The age group most affected is 25-38 (39.35%), followed by 16-24 (20.79%). The main causes of crashes include reckless driving, drunken driving, roads with potholes, inadequate signs, lack of protection for pedestrians, and inadequate traffic law enforcement. However, the data are not adequate to reveal the true magnitude of the problem. Data collected by different sources are incomplete and not coordinated with other sources and databases. In urban areas, however, better response to crashes, treatment of the injured, reporting and data collection is attributable to a greater concentration of police and medical facilities. Road traffic safety programmes in Mozambique are inadequate and inefficient, starting with the data collection system. Improvement of injury surveillance systems is needed to help make road traffic safety a national development agenda priority and for developing and implementing road safety policies. For road safety programmes to be effective, government must facilitate stakeholders' involvement, and the clear definition of government activities, civil society activities and public-private partnerships need to be established. PMID:12772487

  2. Road traffic injuries in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Deysi Yasmin; Fernández, Francisco José; Acero Velásquez, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading public health problem in Colombia. Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, especially in the main urban centers of Bogotá, Medellin and Cali. Data analyzed in this report include official statistics from the National Police and the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences for 1996-2000, and results of a study conducted at the National University of Colombia in 2000. Methods from the Highway Capacity Manual were used for determining physical and technical variables, and a Geographical Information System tool was used for the location and spatial analysis of the road traffic crashes. Pedestrians accounted for close to 32% of injuries and 40% of the deaths from road traffic crashes. The problem of road traffic crashes existed predominately in urban areas. In the main urban centers, pedestrians constituted nearly 68% of road traffic crash victims. The high level of risky road use behaviors demonstrated by pedestrians and drivers, and inadequate infrastructure for safe mobility of pedestrians in some sections of the road network were the main contributing factors. Major improvements were achieved in Bogotá following enhancements to the municipal transport system and other policies introduced since 1995. In conclusion, policies and programs for improving road safety, in particular pedestrian safety, and strengthening urban planning are top priority. PMID:12772483

  3. Work-related road traffic injury: a multilevel systems protocol

    PubMed Central

    Newnam, Sharon; Sheppard, Dianne M; Griffin, Mark A; McClure, Roderick J; Heller, Gillian; Sim, Malcolm R; Stevenson, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Background Although road traffic injury is reported as the leading cause of work-related death in Australia, it is not clear, due to limitations in previous methods used, just how large a burden it is. Many organisations are unaware of the extent of work-related road traffic injury and, importantly, what can be done to reduce the burden. The proposed research will (i) estimate the prevalence of work-related road traffic injury and (ii) identify the organisational determinants associated with work-related road traffic injury. Methods and design The current study is designed to enumerate the problem and identify the individual driver-level, the supervisor-level and organisational-level factors associated with work-related road traffic injury. The multilevel systems protocol will involve a series of cross-sectional surveys administered to drivers of fleet vehicles (n=1200), supervisors of the drivers (n=1200) and senior managers (n=300) within the same organisation. Discussion The novel use of the multilevel systems protocol is critical to be able to accurately assess the specific determinants of driving safety within each context of an organisation. Results The results are expected to highlight that reducing injury in the workplace requires more than just individual compliance with safety procedures. It will also establish, for the first time, an occupational translation taskforce to ensure that the research findings are adopted into work-place practice and thereby directly contribute to reductions in work-related road traffic injury. PMID:24478230

  4. Factors associated with road traffic injuries in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Boniface, Respicious; Museru, Lawrence; Kiloloma, Othman; Munthali, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Injuries represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and road traffic crashes accounts for a significant proportion of these injuries. Tanzania is among the countries with high rates of road traffic crashes. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern, associated factors and management of road traffic injury patients in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study of patients involved in motor traffic crashes and attended in six public hospitals of Tanzania mainland between April 2014 and September 2014. Results A total of 4675 road traffic injury patients were seen in studied hospitals, 76.6% were males. Majority (70.2%) were between 18 - 45 years age group. Motorcycles were the leading cause of road traffic crashes (53.4%), and drivers (38.3%) accounted for majority of victims. Fractures accounted for 34.1%, and injuries were severe in 2.2% as determined by the Kampala trauma score II (KTS II). Majorities 57.4% were admitted and 2.2% died at the casualty. Factors associated with mortality were; using police vehicles to hospital (P = 0.000), receiving medical attention within 2 to 10 hours after injury (P = 0.000), 18 - 45 years age group (P = 0.019), not using helmet (P = 0.007), severe injuries (P = 0.000) and sustaining multiple injury (P = 0.000). Conclusion Road traffic Injuries in Tanzania are an important public health problem, predominantly in adult males, mostly due to motorcycle crashes. It is therefore important to reinforce preventive measures and pre-hospital emergency service is urgently needed. PMID:27217872

  5. Spatial patterns monitoring of road traffic injuries in Karachi metropolis.

    PubMed

    Lateef, Muhammad U

    2011-06-01

    This article aims to assess the pattern of road traffic injuries (RTIs) and fatalities in Karachi metropolis. Assessing the pattern of RTIs in Karachi at this juncture is important for many reasons. The rapid motorisation in the recent years due to the availability of credit has significantly increased the traffic volume of the city. Since then, the roads of Karachi have continuously developed at a rapid pace. This development has come with a high human loss, because the construction of multilevel flyovers, signal-free corridors and the resulting high-speed traffic ultimately increase the severity of injuries. The reasons for this high proportion are inadequate infrastructure, poor enforcement of safety regulations, high crash severity index and greater population of vulnerable road user groups (riders and pedestrians). This research is the first of its kind in the country to have a geocoded database of fatalities and injuries in a geographical information system for the entire city of Karachi. In fact, road crashes are both predictable and preventable. Developing countries should learn from the experience of highly motorised nations to avoid the high burden of RTIs by adopting road safety and prevention measures. PMID:20589551

  6. Road traffic injuries: hidden epidemic in less developed countries.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Alyson; Ehiri, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in less developed countries. Globally in 2002, 1.2 million deaths resulted from RTIs, and about 10 times that were injured. RTIs are often preventable, and the technology and knowledge to achieve success in this area exist. In spite of this, it is projected that given the current trend and without adequate intervention, RTIs will rank third of all major causes of morbidity and mortality globally by 2020. Although > 85% of the global deaths and injuries from road traffic crashes occur in less developed countries, traffic safety attracts little public health attention in these nations, due in part to a plethora of other equally important problems, including infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the public health and economic impact of traffic-related injuries and disabilities can be incalculable in these countries, owing to their poorly developed trauma care systems and nonexistent social welfare infrastructures to accommodate the needs of the injured and the disabled. In this paper, we highlight the problem posed to public health in less developed countries by RTIs and examine contributing factors. To engender debate and action to address the problem, we reviewed interventions that have proven effective in industrialized nations and discussed potential barriers to their replication in less developed countries. PMID:16532982

  7. Reporting on road traffic injury: content analysis of injuries and prevention opportunities in Ghanaian newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Yankson, Isaac Kofi; Browne, Edmund N L; Tagbor, H; Donkor, Peter; Quansah, Robert; Asare, George Ernest; Mock, Charles N; Ebel, Beth E

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyse traffic injury reporting in Ghanaian newspapers and identify opportunities for improving road safety, the content of 240 articles on road traffic injury was reviewed from 2005 to 2006 editions of two state-owned and two privately owned newspapers. The articles comprised reports on vehicle crashes (37%), commentaries (33%), informational pieces (12%), reports on pedestrian injury (10%), and editorials (8%). There was little coverage of pedestrian injuries, which account for half of the traffic fatalities in Ghana, but only 22% of newspaper reports. Only two articles reported on seatbelt use. Reporting patterns were similar between public and private papers, but private papers more commonly recommended government action (50%) than did public papers (32%, p=0.006). It is concluded that Ghanaian papers provide detailed coverage of traffic injury. Areas for improvement include pedestrian injury and attention to preventable risk factors such as road risk factors, seatbelt use, speed control, and alcohol use. PMID:20570987

  8. Alcohol and Hospitalized Road Traffic Injuries in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Lydia R.; Ruiz, Roberto Andres Llanes

    2014-01-01

    Each year, there are approximately 1.24 million deaths due to road traffic injuries, the majority of which occur in low- and middle-income countries. Since 2008, 35 countries have passed legislation to implement road safety strategies. However, many countries have yet to pass comprehensive legislation while others lack adequate enforcement of current policies. The annual global mortality rate due to road trauma remains unacceptably high and reflects the need for governments to prioritize the passage and implementation of road safety legislation. Alcohol is a leading risk factor for road trauma globally and the leading cause of death and disability in the Western Pacific region. Despite the overwhelming evidence that strict enforcement of drunk-driving policies can lead to a drastic reduction in alcohol-related road incidents, many countries in the Western Pacific lack sufficient data that could facilitate the design of appropriate drunk-driving interventions. This paper provides an analysis of the current status of policies and attitudes related to alcohol and road injuries throughout the Western Pacific region, with a specific focus on the Philippines. Following the passage of drunk-driving legislation in 2013, a medical records review of alcohol-related road trauma patients in Manila Doctors Hospital was conducted. The findings of this pilot project further highlight the pervasive problem of missing or unreliable data regarding alcohol’s role in road trauma. Assessing the burden of drunk driving is an important step in designing effective interventions and systematically changing attitudes about driving under the influence. PMID:25191146

  9. Human resources for the control of road traffic injury.

    PubMed

    Mock, Charles; Kobusingye, Olive; Anh, Le Vu; Afukaar, Francis; Arreola-Risa, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    The definition of the ideal numbers and distribution of human resources required for control of road traffic injury (RTI) is not as advanced as for other health problems. We can nonetheless identify functions that need to be addressed across the spectrum of injury control: surveillance; road safety (including infrastructure, vehicle design, and behaviour); and trauma care. Many low-cost strategies to improve these functions in low- or middle-income countries can be identified. For all these strategies, there is need for adequate institutional capacity, including funding, legal authority, and human resources. Several categories of human resources need to be developed: epidemiologists who can handle injury data, design surveillance systems, and undertake research; engineers and planners versed in safety aspects of road design, traffic flow, urban planning, and vehicle design; police and lawyers who understand the health impact of traffic law; clinicians who can develop cost-effective improvements in the entire system of trauma treatment; media experts to undertake effective behaviour change and social marketing; and economists to assist with cost-effectiveness evaluations. RTI control can be strengthened by enhancing such training in these disciplines, as well as encouraging retention of those who have the needed skills. Mechanisms to enhance collaboration between these different fields need to be promoted. Finally, the burden of RTI is borne disproportionately by the poor; in addition to technical issues, more profound equity issues must be addressed. This mandates that people from all professional backgrounds who work for RTI control should develop skills in advocacy and politics. PMID:15868021

  10. Human resources for the control of road traffic injury.

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Charles; Kobusingye, Olive; Anh, Le Vu; Afukaar, Francis; Arreola-Risa, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The definition of the ideal numbers and distribution of human resources required for control of road traffic injury (RTI) is not as advanced as for other health problems. We can nonetheless identify functions that need to be addressed across the spectrum of injury control: surveillance; road safety (including infrastructure, vehicle design, and behaviour); and trauma care. Many low-cost strategies to improve these functions in low- or middle-income countries can be identified. For all these strategies, there is need for adequate institutional capacity, including funding, legal authority, and human resources. Several categories of human resources need to be developed: epidemiologists who can handle injury data, design surveillance systems, and undertake research; engineers and planners versed in safety aspects of road design, traffic flow, urban planning, and vehicle design; police and lawyers who understand the health impact of traffic law; clinicians who can develop cost-effective improvements in the entire system of trauma treatment; media experts to undertake effective behaviour change and social marketing; and economists to assist with cost-effectiveness evaluations. RTI control can be strengthened by enhancing such training in these disciplines, as well as encouraging retention of those who have the needed skills. Mechanisms to enhance collaboration between these different fields need to be promoted. Finally, the burden of RTI is borne disproportionately by the poor; in addition to technical issues, more profound equity issues must be addressed. This mandates that people from all professional backgrounds who work for RTI control should develop skills in advocacy and politics. PMID:15868021

  11. Does Temperature Modify the Effects of Rain and Snow Precipitation on Road Traffic Injuries?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Kyung; Lee, Hye-Ah; Hwang, Seung-sik; Kim, Ho; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few data on the interaction between temperature and snow and rain precipitation, although they could interact in their effects on road traffic injuries. Methods The integrated database of the Korea Road Traffic Authority was used to calculate the daily frequency of road traffic injuries in Seoul. Weather data included rain and snow precipitation, temperature, pressure, and fog from May 2007 to December 2011. Precipitation of rain and snow were divided into nine and six temperature range categories, respectively. The interactive effects of temperature and rain and snow precipitation on road traffic injuries were analyzed using a generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution. Results The risk of road traffic injuries during snow increased when the temperature was below freezing. Road traffic injuries increased by 6.6% when it was snowing and above 0°C, whereas they increased by 15% when it was snowing and at or below 0°C. In terms of heavy rain precipitation, moderate temperatures were related to an increased prevalence of injuries. When the temperature was 0–20°C, we found a 12% increase in road traffic injuries, whereas it increased by 8.5% and 6.8% when it was <0°C and >20°C, respectively. The interactive effect was consistent across the traffic accident subtypes. Conclusions The effect of adverse weather conditions on road traffic injuries differed depending on the temperature. More road traffic injuries were related to rain precipitation when the temperature was moderate and to snow when it was below freezing. PMID:26073021

  12. Kinetic energy management in road traffic injury prevention: a call for action

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Bigdeli, Maryam; Saadat, Soheil; Mohammadi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: By virtue of their variability, mass and speed have important roles in transferring energies during a crash incidence (kinetic energy). The sum of kinetic energy is important in determining an injury severity and that is equal to one half of the vehicle mass multiplied by the square of the vehicle speed. To meet the Vision Zero policy (a traffic safety policy) prevention activities should be focused on vehicle speed management. Understanding the role of kinetic energy will help to develop measures to reduce the generation, distribution, and effects of this energy during a road traffic crash. Road traffic injury preventive activities necessitate Kinetic energy management to improve road user safety. PMID:24284810

  13. Gender differences in road traffic injury rate using time travelled as a measure of exposure.

    PubMed

    Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Pérez, Katherine; Olabarria, Marta; Novoa, Ana M

    2014-04-01

    There is no consensus on whether the risk of road traffic injury is higher among men or among women. Comparison between studies is difficult mainly due to the different exposure measures used to estimate the risk. The measures of exposure to the risk of road traffic injury should be people's mobility measures, but frequently authors use other measures such population or vehicles mobility. We compare road traffic injury risk in men and women, by age, mode of transport and severity, using the time people spend travelling as the exposure measure, in Catalonia for the period 2004-2008. This is a cross-sectional study including all residents aged over 3 years. The road traffic injury rate was calculated using the number of people injured, from the Register of Accidents and Victims of the National Traffic Authority as numerator, and the person-hours travelled, from the 2006 Daily Mobility Survey carried out by the Catalan regional government, as denominator. Sex and age specific rates by mode of transport and severity were calculated, and Poisson regression models were fitted. Among child pedestrians and young drivers, males present higher risk of slight and severe injury, and in the oldest groups women present higher risk. The death rate is always higher in men. There exists interaction between sex and age in road traffic injury risk. Therefore, injury risk is higher among men in some age groups, and among women in other groups, but these age groups vary depending on mode of transport and severity. PMID:24384384

  14. Road traffic crashes, injury and fatality trends in Sri Lanka: 1938–2013

    PubMed Central

    Dharmaratne, Samath D; Jayatilleke, Achini C

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyse trends in road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities over 75 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Data on road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities between 1938 and 2013 were obtained from the Police Statistics Unit. Rates per 100 000 population were calculated and trends were analysed using joinpoint regression analysis. Findings Road traffic crashes and injuries rose substantially between 1938 and 2013: annual crashes increased from 61.2 to 183.6 per 100 000 people; injuries, from 35.1 to 98.6 per 100 000; and fatalities, from 3.0 to 10.8 per 100 000 people per year. Joinpoint analysis showed large fluctuations in crashes and injuries over time but the fatalities rose almost continuously. These fluctuations paralleled the country’s political and economic development. In some years, better traffic law enforcement and improved public transportation may have been associated with reduced crashes and injuries, whereas rapid growth in vehicle numbers, especially two- and three-wheeled vehicles, may have contributed to increased crashes and injuries. In addition, insurance policies that did not require a police report to claim may have led to underreporting of crashes and allowed drivers to avoid prosecution. Conclusion Fluctuations over time in road traffic crashes and injuries in Sri Lanka are associated with changes in political, economic and traffic policy. There is potential for reducing road traffic crashes and injuries through better traffic law enforcement, restrictions on the importation of two- and three-wheeled vehicles and policies to improve road safety and prevent underreporting of crashes. PMID:26478628

  15. The Impact of the Thai Motorcycle Transition on Road Traffic Injury: Thai Cohort Study Results

    PubMed Central

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand. Design Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study. Setting Thailand. Participants The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys. Primary and secondary outcome measures Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months’ recall. Results In 2009, 5608(10%) participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%). Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury. Conclusions Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted. PMID:25826214

  16. Road traffic injuries to children during the school commute in Hyderabad, India: cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Tetali, Shailaja; Murthy, G V S; Roberts, I

    2016-01-01

    Background India is motorising rapidly. With increasing motorisation, road traffic injuries are predicted to increase. A third of a billion children travel to school every day in India, but little is known about children's safety during the school commute. We investigated road traffic injury to children during school journeys. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Hyderabad using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling design. We used school travel questionnaires to record any road injury in the past 12 months that resulted in at least 1 day of school missed or required treatment by a doctor or nurse. We estimated the prevalence of road injury by usual mode of travel and distance to school. Results The total sample was 5842 children, of whom 5789 (99.1%) children answered the question on road injury. The overall prevalence of self-reported road injury in the last 12 months during school journeys was 17% (95% CI 12.9% to 21.7%). A higher proportion of boys (25%) reported a road injury than girls (11%). There was a strong association between road injury, travel mode and distance to school. Children who cycled to school were more likely to be injured compared with children who walked (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0). Travel by school bus was safer than walking (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.9). Conclusions A sixth of the children reported a road traffic injury in the past 12 months during school journeys in Hyderabad. Injury prevention interventions should focus on making walking and cycling safer for children. PMID:26701985

  17. Traffic injury mortality trends in children and adolescents in Lithuania among road users.

    PubMed

    Strukcinskiene, Birute; Uğur-Baysal, Serpil; Raistenskis, Juozas

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes traffic mortality trends among road users from 1998 to 2012 in children and adolescents aged 0-19 years in Lithuania. National mortality data of pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, and car occupants were used to compare trend lines. The study revealed that 56% of the deceased in road traffic crashes were car occupants, while 24% were pedestrians. The incidence of death from traffic injury was 2.5 times higher in boys than girls. Traffic injury mortality and pedestrian mortality rates declined significantly in the total group. There was also a significant decline in mortality among cyclists for the total group and female subgroup. Trends in mortality rates among motorcyclists and car occupants showed no significant changes. A long-term decline is more likely to be affected by efforts in the promotion of sustainable and permanent road safety. The reduced risk exposure may also have been influenced by the economic recession. PMID:25341601

  18. Economic burden of road traffic injuries: a micro-costing approach.

    PubMed

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Piyauthakit, Piyanuch; Chaikledkaew, Usa

    2008-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the economic burden incurred from road traffic injuries in Thailand. It was designed as a prevalence-based cost-of-illness analysis from a societal perspective, employing a micro-costing bottom-up approach. It covered direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost or productivity loss. Productivity loss covers the costs of work absence or death due to road traffic injuries suffered by persons of working age. We collected data on road traffic injuries and resource utilization which occurred in the fiscal year 2004. A simple random sampling was used to select 200 patients for analysis. The average cost of road traffic injuries per patient was USD 2,596 at 2004 prices. This can be divided into direct cost (USD 102, or 4%) and indirect cost (USD 2,494, or 96%). From these results, we can see that the indirect cost far outweighed the direct cost. To base decisions regarding road safety campaigns on savings of direct costs, particularly direct medical costs, is inadequate. Therefore, data on the complete cost of illness should be taken into account in the planning and creation of a road safety policy. PMID:19062706

  19. Road traffic injuries in Thailand: trends, selected underlying determinants and status of intervention.

    PubMed

    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Kanchanasut, Somchai

    2003-01-01

    Injuries and deaths from traffic crashes have become a major public health and socio-economic problem in Thailand. Injuries, fatalities and economic losses due to traffic crashes have increased with the rising level of motorization. This study analyzes hospital-based data compiled by the Ministry of Public Health, data compiled by the National Police Office and data compiled by the traffic engineering division of the Department of Highways, Ministry of Transport and Communications. Analysis reveals that 70% of the people injured or killed in traffic crashes are aged 10-39. Men are at four to five times higher risk of death and injury due to traffic crashes than women. The number and rate of traffic injury in Thailand swung from a record low during the economic recovery in the 1980's to record a high during the bubble economy, then declined with the economic crisis in 1997. The economic costs were estimated at U.S.$1.6 billion in 1995. An urban-rural difference in traffic injuries has been recorded with a higher rural case-fatality rate. A number of known behavioral risk factors have been identified, i.e., drunk driving, speeding, substance abuse and failure to use helmets and seat belts. However, determinants of behavior need further investigation. Hazardous road locations have also been mapped. Trends of traffic injuries seem to follow trends of economic growth. Without effective policy and implementation programs to control the determinants, it is expected that traffic injuries will increase as the country recovers from economic crisis. A major pitfall to many current government programs is that they incorporate no systematic evaluation. The fragmented structure of road safety authorities further complicates collaboration and coordination. A broad coalition of stakeholders is needed to catalyze policy action. PMID:12772492

  20. The burden of road traffic crashes, injuries and deaths in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jacqueline Y; Akanbi, Moses A; Azuh, Dominic; Samuel, Victoria; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Ayo, Charles K

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the burden of road traffic injuries and deaths for all road users and among different road user groups in Africa. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar, websites of African road safety agencies and organizations for registry- and population-based studies and reports on road traffic injury and death estimates in Africa, published between 1980 and 2015. Available data for all road users and by road user group were extracted and analysed. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis and estimated pooled rates of road traffic injuries and deaths. Findings We identified 39 studies from 15 African countries. The estimated pooled rate for road traffic injury was 65.2 per 100 000 population (95% confidence interval, CI: 60.8–69.5) and the death rate was 16.6 per 100 000 population (95% CI: 15.2–18.0). Road traffic injury rates increased from 40.7 per 100 000 population in the 1990s to 92.9 per 100 000 population between 2010 and 2015, while death rates decreased from 19.9 per 100 000 population in the 1990s to 9.3 per 100 000 population between 2010 and 2015. The highest road traffic death rate was among motorized four-wheeler occupants at 5.9 per 100 000 population (95% CI: 4.4–7.4), closely followed by pedestrians at 3.4 per 100 000 population (95% CI: 2.5–4.2). Conclusion The burden of road traffic injury and death is high in Africa. Since registry-based reports underestimate the burden, a systematic collation of road traffic injury and death data is needed to determine the true burden. PMID:27429490

  1. Analysis of factors associated with traffic injury severity on rural roads in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Shariat-Mohaymany, Afshin; Ranjbari, Andishe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Iran is a country with one of the highest rates of traffic crash fatality and injury, and seventy percent of these fatalities happen on rural roads. The objective of this study is to identify the significant factors influencing injury severity among drivers involved in crashes on two kinds of major rural roads in Iran: two-lane, two-way roads and freeways. Methods: According to the dataset, 213569 drivers were involved in rural road crashes in Iran, over the 3 years from 2006 to 2008. The Classification And Regression Tree method (CART) was applied for 13 independent variables, and one target variable of injury severity with 3 classes of no-injury, injury and fatality. Some of the independent variables were cause of crash, collision type, weather conditions, road surface conditions, driver's age and gender and seat belt usage. The CART model was trained by 70% of these data, and tested with the rest. Results: It was indicated that seat belt use is the most important safety factor for two-lane, two-way rural roads, but on freeways, the importance of this variable is less. Cause of crash, also turned out to be the next most important variable. The results showed that for two-lane, two-way rural roads, "improper overtaking" and "speeding", and for rural freeways, "inattention to traffic ahead", "vehicle defect", and "movement of pedestrians, livestock and unauthorized vehicles on freeways" are the most serious causes of increasing injury severity. Conclusions: The analysis results revealed seat belt use, cause of crash and collision type as the most important variables influencing the injury severity of traffic crashes. To deal with these problems, intensifying police enforcement by means of mobile patrol vehicles, constructing overtaking lanes where necessary, and prohibiting the crossing of pedestrians and livestock and the driving of unauthorized vehicles on freeways are necessary. Moreover, creating a rumble strip on the two edges of roads

  2. Road Traffic and Other Unintentional Injuries Among Travelers to Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Barclay T; Yankson, Isaac Kofi; Afukaar, Francis; Medina, Martha C Hijar; Cuong, Pham Viet; Mock, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Injuries result in nearly 6 million deaths and incur 52 million disability-adjusted life-years annually, making up 15% of the global disease burden. More than 90% of this burden occurs in low- and middle-income countries. Given this burden, it is not unexpected that injuries are the leading cause of death among travelers to low- and middle-income countries, namely, from road traffic crashes and drowning. Therefore, pretravel advice regarding foreseeable dangers and how to avoid them may significantly mitigate injury risk, such as wearing seatbelts, helmets, and personal flotation devices when appropriate; responsibly consuming alcohol; and closely supervising children. PMID:26900117

  3. Estimating Cost of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran Using Willingness to Pay (WTP) Method

    PubMed Central

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Le, Henry; Baghfalaki, Taban

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to use the willingness to pay (WTP) method to calculate the cost of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of 846 randomly selected road users. WTP data was collected for four scenarios for vehicle occupants, pedestrians, vehicle drivers, and motorcyclists. Final analysis was carried out using Weibull and maximum likelihood method. Mean WTP was 2,612,050 Iranian rials (IRR). Statistical value of life was estimated according to 20,408 fatalities 402,314,106,073,648 IRR (US$13,410,470,202 based on purchasing power parity at (February 27th, 2014). Injury cost was US$25,637,870,872 (based on 318,802 injured people in 2013, multiple daily traffic volume of 311, and multiple daily payment of 31,030 IRR for 250 working days). The total estimated cost of injury and death cases was 39,048,341,074$. Gross national income of Iran was, US$604,300,000,000 in 2013 and the costs of traffic injuries constituted 6·46% of gross national income. WTP was significantly associated with age, gender, monthly income, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, trip mileage, drivers and occupants from road users. The costs of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013 accounted for 6.64% of gross national income, much higher than the global average. Policymaking and resource allocation to reduce traffic-related death and injury rates have the potential to deliver a huge economic benefit. PMID:25438150

  4. Estimating cost of road traffic injuries in Iran using willingness to pay (WTP) method.

    PubMed

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Le, Henry; Baghfalaki, Taban

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to use the willingness to pay (WTP) method to calculate the cost of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of 846 randomly selected road users. WTP data was collected for four scenarios for vehicle occupants, pedestrians, vehicle drivers, and motorcyclists. Final analysis was carried out using Weibull and maximum likelihood method. Mean WTP was 2,612,050 Iranian rials (IRR). Statistical value of life was estimated according to 20,408 fatalities 402,314,106,073,648 IRR (US$13,410,470,202 based on purchasing power parity at (February 27th, 2014). Injury cost was US$25,637,870,872 (based on 318,802 injured people in 2013, multiple daily traffic volume of 311, and multiple daily payment of 31,030 IRR for 250 working days). The total estimated cost of injury and death cases was 39,048,341,074$. Gross national income of Iran was, US$604,300,000,000 in 2013 and the costs of traffic injuries constituted 6·46% of gross national income. WTP was significantly associated with age, gender, monthly income, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, trip mileage, drivers and occupants from road users. The costs of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013 accounted for 6.64% of gross national income, much higher than the global average. Policymaking and resource allocation to reduce traffic-related death and injury rates have the potential to deliver a huge economic benefit. PMID:25438150

  5. [Economic cost of permanent disability caused by road traffic injuries in Mexico in 2012].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vallejo, Patricia G; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Heredia-Pi, Ileana

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the economic costs of permanent disability caused by road traffic injuries in Mexico during 2012. From the health system's perspective, a bottom-up approach was used to calculate direct medical costs (hospitalization, outpatient care, rehabilitation, and prostheses). From society's perspective, using a human capital approach, indirect costs were associated with loss of productivity for the victims and their caregivers. Permanent disability due to road traffic injuries takes a high toll on the health system and Mexican society. From the health system perspective, the cost was US$269,529,480.72, or US$1,496.33 per victim. The estimated average cost to society was US$3,445.45 during the first year. The total average cost per victim was US$4,941.77, resulting in a total economic cost of US$1,119,761,632.53 during 2012. The study's findings highlight the need to design and implement more rigorous and efficient public policies to control and prevent road traffic injuries in Mexico. PMID:25945985

  6. Pattern and distribution of pedestrian injuries in fatal road traffic accidental cases in Dharan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Birendra Kumar; Yadav, Biswa Nath

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Road traffic injuries are one of the leading causes of death in the world. The present study aims at evaluation of pattern and distribution of injuries among pedestrians thereby planning successful measures to minimize fatalities. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. This study included 50 cases of pedestrian victims of fatal road traffic accident, brought for medico-legal postmortem examination. Results: Highest number (17 or 21.3%) of fatalities occurred in the 41-50 years age group followed by the age group 31-40 years (15 or 18.7%). Male victims outnumbered female resulting in male to female ratio of 1.8:1. Most of the pedestrians were illiterate (26 or 32.5%) followed by those who were educated up to primary school (14 or 17.5%). Nearly half of the cases (38 or 47.5%), four or more wheelers – heavy vehicles – were involved. Fracture was the most common type of injuries (55 or 28.9%) followed by laceration (50 or 26.3%). In 44 (55%) cases, primary impact injuries were noted, secondary impact injuries in 55 (68.7%) cases, and secondary injuries in 62 (77.5%) cases. More than one-fourth (22 or 27.5%) of the deaths were due to pelvic and extremities injuries. Conclusion: Pedestrians, people who travel by foot, wheelchair, stroller, or similar means, are most vulnerable users of the road. Before head out on foot for a stroll, power walk, or errand, there are important safety tips to remember. A greater awareness about traffic rules will go a long way in curbing the incidence of fatal pedestrian accidents. PMID:25097407

  7. Declining trends in injuries and ambulance calls for road traffic crashes in Bahrain post new traffic laws of 2015.

    PubMed

    Awadhalla, Muyssar Sabri; Asokan, Govindaraj Vaithinathan; Matooq, Amina; Kirubakaran, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTC) are of serious global health concern. To identify whether the number of ambulance calls, injuries, and deaths has declined after the implementation of the new traffic law (NTL) 2015 in Bahrain, de-identified administrative RTC data obtained from the tertiary care center, and the General Directorate of Traffic (GDT) of Bahrain were used. A quasi-experimental design was employed to trend the impact of the NTL on RTC and associated healthcare events. Bahrainis and non-Bahrainis who met with RTC, either in a vehicle or as a pedestrian, between February 8 and May 8 in 2013, 2014 (pre NTL), and 2015 (post NTL) were included in the study. Our results show a reduction in the number of ambulance calls from vehicular and pedestrian RTC victims. The ambulance calls from pedestrian RTC victims were <10% compared to the number of ambulance calls from vehicular RTC victims. There was a significant reduction in minor injuries post 2015, whereas no obvious difference was seen for serious injuries and deaths. A longer follow-up study to confirm the sustained decline in RTC, enforcing a zero tolerance policy toward traffic transgressions, and raising public awareness on the "critical four minutes" and "golden hour" is recommended. PMID:26994440

  8. Characteristics of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Accidents According to the New Injury Severity Score

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Soo; Kim, Yeo Hyung; Yun, Jae Sung; Jung, Sang Eun; Chae, Choong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients involved in road traffic accidents according to the New Injury Severity Score (NISS). Methods In this study, medical records of 1,048 patients admitted at three hospitals located in different regions between January and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Only patients who received inpatient treatments covered by automobile insurance during the period were included. Accidents were classified as pedestrian, driver, passenger, motorcycle, or bicycle; and the severity of injury was assessed by the NISS. Results The proportion of pedestrian traffic accident (TA) was the highest, followed by driver, passenger, motorcycle and bicycle TA. The mean NISS was significantly higher in pedestrian and motorcycle TAs and lower in passenger TA. Analysis of differences in mean hospital length of stay (HLS) according to NISS injury severity revealed 4.97±4.86 days in the minor injury group, 8.91±5.93 days in the moderate injury group, 15.46±11.16 days in the serious injury group, 24.73±17.03 days in the severe injury group, and 30.86±34.03 days in the critical injury group (p<0.05). Conclusion The study results indicated that higher NISS correlated to longer HLS, fewer home discharges, and increasing mortality. Specialized hospitals for TA patient rehabilitation are necessary to reduce disabilities in TA patients. PMID:27152279

  9. [Monetary value of the human costs of road traffic injuries in Spain].

    PubMed

    Martínez Pérez, Jorge Eduardo; Sánchez Martínez, Fernando Ignacio; Abellán Perpiñán, José María; Pinto Prades, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    Cost-benefit analyses in the field of road safety compute human costs as a key component of total costs. The present article presents two studies promoted by the Directorate-General for Traffic aimed at obtaining official values for the costs associated with fatal and non-fatal traffic injuries in Spain. We combined the contingent valuation approach and the (modified) standard gamble technique in two surveys administered to large representative samples (n1=2,020, n2=2,000) of the Spanish population. The monetary value of preventing a fatality was estimated to be 1.4 million euros. Values of 219,000 and 6,100 euros were obtained for minor and severe non-fatal injuries, respectively. These figures are comparable to those observed in neighboring countries. PMID:26342412

  10. Geospatial and clinical analyses on pediatric related road traffic injury in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin; Rainis, Ruslan; Noor, Syed Hatim; Syed Mohamad, Sharifah Mastura

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main aim of this study is to utilize the geographical information system (GIS) software and perform the spatial analysis in relation to clinical data for road traffic injury (RTI) pediatric cases attending the emergency department. METHODS: The study sample included pediatric patients (age less than 18 years) with road-related injuries within a district in Malaysia who attended emergency departments of two tertiary hospitals within the district. In addition to injury, pre-hospital care and outcome data, the coordinate of the locations were obtained by the ambulance paramedics by using portable handheld GPS unit brand Garmin® model GPS 72 H. The data was transferred into the excel format which in turn underwent GIS analysis by using ARCGIS® (by ESRI) software version 10.1 licensed to the study institution. RESULTS: A total of 102 (24.8%) of all motor vehicle crash (MVC) victims involved the pediatric age group (age 18 years and below). The mean (SD) age of the pediatric victims was 14.30 years (SD 3.830). Male comprised of 68 (66.7%) of the cases. Motorcyclists [88 (88.0%)] were the most common type of victims involved. Interestingly, the majority of the severely injured victims [75 (73%)] sustained the RTI on roads with maximum speed limit of 60 km/hour. The mean (SD) length of hospital stay was 7.83 days (5.59). CONCLUSION: The pediatric related road traffic injury in Malaysia causes significant health and social burden in the country. This study showed both important clinical and geographical factors that need to be taken into consideration for future preventive action. PMID:27547282

  11. Road traffic injuries in Kenya: a survey of commercial motorcycle drivers

    PubMed Central

    Matheka, Duncan Mwangangi; Omar, Faraj Alkizim; Kipsaina, Chebiwot; Witte, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Motorcycle injuries contribute a substantial number of deaths and hospital admissions in Kenya. There is paucity of data to inform prevention strategies to address the issue. Therefore, the current study sought to explore the characteristics of 2 and 3-wheeler related road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Kenya. Methods A cross-sectional survey of motorcycle drivers involved in a RTI in the preceding 3 months was conducted in 11 urban and rural sites in Kenya's Thika town through face- to -face structured interviews. Drivers’ demographic information, comprehensive crash characteristics and socioeconomic impact of injury data were collected. Results Of 200 drivers injured, 98% were male, with average age of 28.4 years (SD±6.6). Of these drivers, 33% were not wearing any protective equipment. Negligence was the most reported cause of crash (33%), followed by slippery roads (21.0%) and speeding (17.5%). The risk of sustaining a bodily injury was 1.3 times higher in drivers who had not received prevention education compared to those who had received such education. People injured at night were 5 times more likely to sustain a bodily injury compared to those injured during the day. Only 8.5% of the drivers reported the injury incident to the police. Conclusion Majority of motorcycle related injuries in Thika town occur among young, productive, working-age male drivers. A high proportion of injuries are due to negligence on riding while not wearing any protective equipment compounded by lack of injury prevention education. Initiatives to foster helmet wearing, provision of high-quality affordable helmets, responsible driving and advocacy for stronger legislation, are recommended. PMID:26401211

  12. Epidemiology of road traffic injuries in Nepal, 2001–2013: systematic review and secondary data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiology of road traffic injury (RTI) in Nepal for the period 2001–2013. Methods 2 approaches, secondary data analysis and systematic literature review, were adopted. RTI data were retrieved from traffic police records and analysed for the incidence of RTI. Electronic databases were searched for published articles that described the epidemiology of RTI in Nepal. Results A total of 95 902 crashes, 100 499 injuries and 14 512 deaths were recorded by the traffic police over the 12-year period, 2001–2013. The mortality rate increased from 4/100 000 population in 2001–2002 to 7/100 000 population in 2011–2012. There were relatively more reported crashes yet fewer deaths in Kathmandu valley than the rest of the country. Of the 20 articles related to RTI, only 11 articles met the eligibility criteria, but these were mainly descriptive case series or cross-sectional hospital-based studies. The majority of RTI were reported to occur among motorcyclists and pedestrians, in males, and in the age group 20–40 years. The common sites of injury were lower and upper extremities. Only 3 articles mentioned possible causes of accidents that include pedestrian road behaviour, alcohol consumption and improper bus driving. Conclusions Nepal suffers a heavy burden of RTI, with higher fatalities on highways out of Kathmandu valley caused by bus crashes in hilly districts. The majority of published studies on RTI are descriptive and hospital based, indicating the need for more thorough investigation of causes of RTI and systematic recording of crashes for the development of effective interventions. PMID:27084283

  13. Epidemiologic characteristics of drivers, vehicles, pedestrians and road environments involved in road traffic injuries in rural Thailand.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, W; Nguntra, P; Mahasakpan, P; Koonchote, S; Tantriratna, G

    1994-03-01

    This report presents descriptive epidemiology of vehicle-related crashes that caused severe injuries in a defined geographical area in northern Thailand, conducted to determine the nature of injuries and factors that contributed to the crashes. In each incident, the driver and other victims were identified and interviewed by a trained public health worker using a standard investigation form. During 1991, 286 single-vehicle crashes (66.4%), 117 crashes with other vehicles (27.1%), and 28 crashes involving pedestrians (6.5%) occurred in the area. These crashes injured 581 persons (551 vehicle occupants and 30 pedestrians), of whom 36 (6.2%) died. The vehicles involved in the crashes included 11 bicycles (2.3%), 371 motorcycles (78.6%), and 90 other motor vehicles (ie, pick-up trucks, lorries, and cars) (19.1%). Motorcycle-related crashes accounted for the majority of injuries and deaths. Driver risk factors for traffic injuries, such as alcohol consumption, lack of a valid driving licence, limited driving experience, and being a teenage driver, occurred more commonly among drivers of motorcycles than of other motor vehicles. Poor vehicle conditions and road environments reported in some incidents may have posed additional risks. Pedestrian factors, including young and old age, and alcohol use, may also have contributed to the occurrence of pedestrian injuries. Our system of data collection using an investigation form can provide relevant information, leading to the development of appropriate accident prevention programs for the community. PMID:7825023

  14. The burden of road traffic injuries in an emergency department in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ali, E.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Hedt-Gauthier, B.; Silkondez, W.; Abebe, D.; Deressa, W.; Enquessilase, F.; Edwards, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: The emergency department (ED) of Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Objective: To document the proportion, trend, characteristics and outcomes of road traffic injury (RTI) related ED admissions (⩾15 years) between 2014 and 2015. Design: A retrospective, cross-sectional study using routinely collected ED data. Results: Of 10 007 ED admissions, 779 (8%) were RTI cases; this proportion peaked in the month of January (11%). Medical records were available for 522 (67%) of these RTI cases. The median age was 28 years and 69% were males. The majority were pedestrians (69%) injured by an automobile (78%). On triage, 32% were classified as needing urgent/immediate intervention. Head injuries (20%) were the second most common injury after lower limb injuries (36%). ED outcomes were as follows: discharged (68%), hospitalised (17%), referred (17%) and died (1%). Among the 78 hospitalised cases, respectively 62% and 16% were admitted to the surgical and orthopaedic departments. Of 146 RTI cases with head injuries, 25% were hospitalised, of whom 82% were admitted to the surgical department. Conclusion: Our findings can guide policy makers in referral hospitals in improving the planning of hospital resources and the prioritisation of public health needs linked to further urban development. A comprehensive plan to prevent RTIs, particularly among pedestrians in Addis Ababa, is urgently needed. PMID:27358798

  15. The requirements and challenges in preventing of road traffic injury in Iran. A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health problem, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Among middle-income countries, Iran has one of the highest mortality rates from RTIs. Action is critical to combat this major public health problem. Stakeholders involved in RTI control are of key importance and their perceptions of barriers and facilitators are a vital source of knowledge. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to the prevention of RTIs and provide appropriate suggestions for prevention, based on the perceptions of stakeholders, victims and road-users as regards RTIs. Methods Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in the field of RTI prevention including: police officers; public health professionals; experts from the road administrators; representatives from the General Governor, the car industry, firefighters; experts from Emergency Medical Service and the Red Crescent; and some motorcyclists and car drivers as well as victims of RTIs. A qualitative approach using grounded theory method was employed to analyze the material gathered. Results The core variable was identified as "The lack of a system approach to road-user safety". The following barriers in relation to RTI prevention were identified as: human factors; transportation system; and organizational coordination. Suggestions for improvement included education (for the general public and targeted group training), more effective legislation, more rigorous law enforcement, improved engineering in road infrastructure, and an integrated organization to supervise and coordinate preventive activities. Conclusion The major barriers identified in this study were human factors and efforts to change human behaviour were suggested by means of public education campaigns and stricter law enforcement. However, the lack of a system approach to RTI prevention was also an important concern. There is an urgent need for both an integrated system to

  16. Eliciting road traffic injuries cost among Iranian drivers’ public vehicles using willingness to pay method

    PubMed Central

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Baghfalaki, Taban

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: To allocate resources at the national level and ensure the safety level of roads with the aim of economic efficiency, cost calculation can help determine the size of the problem and demonstrate the economic benefits resulting from preventing such injuries. This study was carried out to elicit the cost of traffic injuries among Iranian drivers of public vehicles. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 410 drivers of public vehicles were randomly selected from all the drivers in city of Tehran, Iran. The research questionnaire was prepared based on the standard for willingness to pay (WTP) method (stated preference (SP), contingent value (CV), and revealed preference (RP) model). Data were collected along with a scenario for vehicle drivers. Inclusion criteria were having at least high school education and being in the age range of 18 to 65 years old. Final analysis of willingness to pay was carried out using Weibull model. Results: Mean WTP was 3,337,130 IRR among drivers of public vehicles. Statistical value of life was estimated 118,222,552,601,648 IRR, for according to 4,694 dead drivers, which was equivalent to 3,940,751,753 $ based on the dollar free market rate of 30,000 IRR (purchase power parity). Injury cost was 108,376,366,437,500 IRR, equivalent to 3,612,545,548 $. In sum, injury and death cases came to 226,606,472,346,449 IRR, equivalent to 7,553,549,078 $. Moreover in 2013, cost of traffic injuries among the drivers of public vehicles constituted 1.25% of gross national income, which was 604,300,000,000$. WTP had a significant relationship with gender, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, more pay to less traffic, and minibus drivers. Conclusion: Cost of traffic injuries among drivers of public vehicles included 1.25% of gross national income, which was noticeable; minibus drivers had less perception of risk reduction than others. PMID:26157655

  17. Economics of Global Burden of Road Traffic Injuries and Their Relationship with Health System Variables

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Koustuv; Lin, Zhiquin; Gifford, Mervyn; Svanström, Leif

    2013-01-01

    Background: To estimate the economic loss due to road traffic injuries (RTIs) of the World Health Organization (WHO) member countries and to explore the relationship between the economic loss and relevant health system factors. Methods: Data from the World Bank and the WHO were applied to set up the databases. Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) and gross domestic product per capita were used to estimate the economic loss relating to RTIs. Regression analysis was used. Data were analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics, Versions 20.0. Results: In 2005, the total economic loss of RTIs was estimated to be 167,752.4 million United States Dollars. High income countries (HIC) showed the greatest economic losses. The majority (96%) of the top 25 countries with the greatest DALY losses are low and middle income countries while 48% of the top 25 countries with the highest economic losses are HIC. The linear regression model indicates an inverse relationship between nurse density in the health system and economic loss due to RTI. Conclusions: RTIs cause enormous death and DALYs loss in low-middle income countries and enormous economic loss in HIC. More road traffic prevention programs should be promoted in these areas to reduce both incidence and economic burden of RTIs. PMID:24498501

  18. Health care costs and functional outcomes of road traffic injuries in the Lazio region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Chini, Francesco; Farchi, Sara; Camilloni, Laura; Giarrizzo, Maria Letizia; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    The economic consequences of road traffic injuries (RTIs) are very important in terms of health care costs. The aim of this study is to provide estimates of health care costs of non-fatal RTIs and to estimate functional outcomes using in-hospital rehabilitation data. We identified all emergency department (ED) visits related to RTI during 2008 and then linked them with hospital discharges and rehabilitation admissions, health care costs following RTI were estimated from the integrated database. We performed an epidemiological evaluation of RTI with a comprehensive description of functional outcomes at 6 months. Health care costs have been estimated at about €80 million with a per person cost of €522. About 18% of the total cost was due to rehabilitation treatments. In multivariate analysis the variables that correlated better with higher total health care costs were: older age, injury severity, presence of spinal lesion. Patients requiring rehabilitation were: the elderly, patients suffering from a spinal cord injury and leg injuries. This study provides consistent health care cost estimates of RTI using administrative databases and it shows a picture of functional outcomes after RTI. Further research is needed for the estimation of other components of the total cost of RTI. PMID:25262669

  19. Injury control strategies: extending the quality and quantity of data relating to road traffic accidents in children.

    PubMed Central

    Henson, R; Hadfield, J M; Cooper, S

    1999-01-01

    This review describes how an extended database of information can provide the opportunity to go beyond the traditionally distinct health, engineering, and education initiatives in order to identify the effectiveness of more overarching policies for injury control. Such information can be used to raise awareness and to encourage community participation in designing a road traffic accident prevention strategy. PMID:10191437

  20. Host, vehicular and environmental factors responsible for road traffic crashes in a nigerian city: identifiable issues for road traffic injury control

    PubMed Central

    Adeoye, Peter Oladapo; Kadri, Dotun Musiliu; Bello, Jibril Oyekunle; Ofoegbu, Chima Kingsley Pascal; Abdur-Rahman, Lukman Olajide; Adekanye, Adedeji Olugbenga; Solagberu, Babatunde Akeeb

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Road traffic injury (RTI) has assumed major public health importance world-wide and the burden is heavier on the health-care infrastructure of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigeria, RTI is the leading cause of trauma related morbidity and mortality. While there are some published epidemiological reports on RTI in the region, studies on the mechanism of causation of road traffic crashes (RTC) are not available. Methods Over a 9-month period, we prospectively captured the 571 victims of RTC presenting to a single tertiary health care center in Nigeria. Data collected include demographic data, Mechanism of causation of RTC, Injuries sustained and outcomes. Results Over three-quarters of the victims are young people and half were either traders (27.5%) or students (20%). Pedestrians, motorcycle riders and open truck occupants (people sitting at the rear loading compartment of trucks) often had fatal injuries. Analysis of collision patterns showed that lone crashes were the most frequent though car-to-motorcycle crashes caused a quarter of the deaths. Host factors (over-speeding driver, driver misjudgment, sleeping driver etc.) were responsible for four-fifths of the crashes while vehicular and environmental factors accounted for the remaining. On binary regression analysis, head injured victims had higher odds of dying than the non-head injured (Odds ratio = 6.5). Conclusion This paper elucidates the mechanisms of causation of and types of injuries sustained following RTC in Nigeria and thus provide opportunities for prevention and control of this unacceptable situation. PMID:25780490

  1. Preventive Effects of Seat Belt on Clinical Outcomes for Road Traffic Injuries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proper seat belt use saves lives; however, the use rate decreased in Korea. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of seat belt on case-fatality across drivers and passengers. We used the Emergency Department based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) database from 17 EDs between 2011 and 2012. All of adult injured patients from road traffic injuries (RTI) in-vehicle of less than 10-seat van were eligible, excluding cases with unknown seat belt use and outcomes. Primary and secondary endpoints were in-hospital mortality and intracranial injury. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of seat belt use and driving status for study outcomes adjusting for potential confounders. Among 23,698 eligible patients, 15,304 (64.6%) wore seat belts. Driver, middle aged (30-44 yr), male, daytime injured patients were more likely to use seat belts (all P < 0.001). In terms of clinical outcome, no seat belt group had higher proportions of case-fatality and intracranial injury compared to seat belt group (both P < 0.001). Compared to seat belt group, AORs (95% CIs) of no seat belt group were 10.43 (7.75-14.04) for case-fatality and 2.68 (2.25-3.19) for intracranial injury respectively. In the interaction model, AORs (95% CIs) of no seat belt use for case-fatality were 11.71 (8.45-16.22) in drivers and 5.52 (2.83-14.76) in non-driving passengers, respectively. Wearing seat belt has significantly preventive effects on case-fatality and intracranial injury. Public health efforts to increase seat belt use are needed to reduce health burden from RTIs. PMID:26713066

  2. Assessment of the responsibility between a road traffic accident and medical defects after the traffic accident injury of knee joint.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiemin; Xia, Wentao

    2012-04-01

    A 48-year-old Chinese woman was hit by a car in a road traffic accident. Local county hospital considered that her right knee was injured, but didn't find any sign of fracture from X-ray imaging. Then the hospital gave diagnosis of soft tissue contusion and the patient started to exercise with burden 21 days after her right lower limb was fixed by plaster slab. Four months later, she had to go back to the county hospital for recheck due to persistent pain on her right knee. Then, the right tibia outer plateau fracture was found. The patient rejected the advice of open reduction and internal fixation of right tibia plateau fracture. Instead, she accepted the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in a hospital affiliated to a medical college. The patient felt the knee pain alleviated after surgery However, the joint dysfunction was aggravated even more. The patient used the legal procedure for personal compensation. Both driver and the insurance company disputed that the final consequence of the injured knee was due to not only the traffic accident, but also poor medical practice involved. Therefore the court consigned us to make judicial judgment of expertise. After investigation, we found the earliest X-ray graph after the accident had shown the fracture of right tibia outer plateau and right knee valgum, with articular surface involvement, and the traffic accident was considered as the primary cause of sequelae. At the same time, the county hospital missed the diagnosis of fracture, and led to insufficient fixation of right lower limb, which was not good for rehabilitation from fracture and joint injury. This was the secondary cause of sequelae. Additionally, instead of the standard therapy, the affiliated hospital of medical college made the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty four months later, which also had a little defect. It was the minor reason for the result. PMID:22391004

  3. Incidence of Road Traffic Injury and Associated Factors among Patients Visiting the Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tiruneh, Bewket Tadesse; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Bifftu, Berhanu Boru

    2014-01-01

    Background. Road traffic injuries are a major public health issue. The problem is increasing in Africa. Objective. To assess the incidence of road traffic injury and associated factors among patients visiting the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted. A total of 356 systematically selected study subjects were included in the study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify associated factors with road traffic injury. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the level of significance. Results. The incidence of road traffic injury in the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital was 36.8%. Being a farmer (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.06–10.13), conflict with family members (AOR = 7.7; 95% CI = 3.49–8.84), financial problem (AOR = 9.91; 95% CI = 4.79–6.48), psychological problem (AOR = 17.58; 95% CI = 7.70–12.14), and alcohol use (AOR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.61–5.27) were independently associated with road traffic injury. Conclusion and Recommendation. In this study the incidence of road traffic injury was high. Alcohol is one of the most significant factors associated with Road Traffic Injury. Thus urgent education on the effect of alcohol is recommended. PMID:25165583

  4. The Road Traffic Injuries Research Network: a decade of research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Adnan A; Norton, Robyn; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Mojarro-Iñiguez, Francisco R; Peden, Margie; Kobusingye, Olive

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic crashes have been an increasing threat to the wellbeing of road users worldwide; an unacceptably high number of people die or become disabled from them. While high-income countries have successfully implemented effective interventions to help reduce the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in their countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not yet achieved similar results. Both scientific research and capacity development have proven to be useful for preventing RTIs in high-income countries. In 1999, a group of leading researchers from different countries decided to join efforts to help promote research on RTIs and develop the capacity of professionals from LMICs. This translated into the creation of the Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) - a partnership of over 1,100 road safety professionals from 114 countries collaborating to facilitate reductions in the burden of RTIs in LMICs by identifying and promoting effective, evidenced-based interventions and supporting research capacity building in road safety research in LMICs. This article presents the work that RTIRN has done over more than a decade, including production of a dozen scientific papers, support of nearly 100 researchers, training of nearly 1,000 people and 35 scholarships granted to researchers from LMICs to attend world conferences, as well as lessons learnt and future challenges to maximize its work. PMID:26919842

  5. How can Saudi Arabia use the Decade of Action for Road Safety to catalyse road traffic injury prevention policy and interventions?

    PubMed

    Al Turki, Yousef Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death in adolescents and young adults worldwide. Nearly three-quarters of road deaths occur in developing countries and men comprise a mean 80% of casualties. The rate of road traffic accidents caused by four-wheeled vehicles is the highest globally reported road traffic accidents statistic. In Saudi Arabia, the motor vehicle is the main means of transportation with one person killed and four injured every hour. Over 65% of accidents occur because of vehicles travelling at excess speed and/or drivers disobeying traffic signals. Road traffic injuries cause considerable economic losses to victims, their families, and to nations as a whole. Strategic prevention plans should be implemented soon by various sectors (health, police, transport, and education) to decrease the mortality and morbidity among adolescent and young age group. Strong and effective coordination between ministry of health and other ministries together with World Health Organization and other related organisations will be an important step towards implementing the international Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-2020). The aim of this review article is to highlight some aspects of the health impacts of road traffic accidents. PMID:24047249

  6. The Importance of Poisoning vs. Road Traffic Injuries as a Cause of Death in Rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Udayakumara, Nilantha; Adhikari, Sriyantha; de Silva, Dhamika; Sheriff, M. H. Rezvi; Waidyaratne, Dhananjaya L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Road traffic crashes are considered by the WHO to be the most important global cause of death from injury. However, this may not be true for large areas of rural Asia where road vehicles are uncommon. The issue is important, since emphasising the importance of road traffic crashes risks switching resources to urban areas, away from already underfunded rural regions. In this study, we compared the importance of road traffic crashes with other forms of injury in a poor rural region of South Asia. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected data on all deaths from injury in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka (NCP; population 1,105,198 at 2001 census) over 18 months using coronial, hospital, and police data. We calculated the incidence of death from all forms of intentional and unintentional injury in the province. The annual incidence of death from injury in the province was high: 84.2 per 100,000 population. Half of the deaths were from self-harm (41.3/100,000). Poisoning (35.7/100,000)—in particular, pesticide self-poisoning (23.7/100,000)—was the most common cause of death, being 3.9-fold more common than road traffic crashes (9.1/100,000). Conclusions/Significance In poor rural regions of South Asia, fatal self-harm and pesticide self-poisoning in particular are significantly more important than road traffic injuries as a cause of death. It is possible that the data used by the WHO to calculate global injury estimates are biased towards urban areas with better data collection but little pesticide poisoning. More studies are required to inform a debate about the importance of different forms of injury and how avoidable deaths from any cause can be prevented. In the meantime, marked improvements in the effectiveness of therapy for pesticide poisoning, safer storage, reduced pesticide use, or reductions in pesticide toxicity are required urgently to reduce the number of deaths from self-poisoning in rural Asia. PMID:17622344

  7. Road Traffic Injury Prevention Initiatives: A Systematic Review and Metasummary of Effectiveness in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Staton, Catherine; Vissoci, Joao; Gong, Enying; Toomey, Nicole; Wafula, Rebeccah; Abdelgadir, Jihad; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Chen; Pei, Fengdi; Zick, Brittany; Ratliff, Camille D.; Rotich, Claire; Jadue, Nicole; de Andrade, Luciano; von Isenburg, Megan; Hocker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a growing but neglected global health crisis, requiring effective prevention to promote sustainable safety. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) share a disproportionately high burden with 90% of the world’s road traffic deaths, and where RTIs are escalating due to rapid urbanization and motorization. Although several studies have assessed the effectiveness of a specific intervention, no systematic reviews have been conducted summarizing the effectiveness of RTI prevention initiatives specifically performed in LMIC settings; this study will help fill this gap. Methods In accordance with PRISMA guidelines we searched the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, TRID, Lilacs, Scielo and Global Health. Articles were eligible if they considered RTI prevention in LMICs by evaluating a prevention-related intervention with outcome measures of crash, RTI, or death. In addition, a reference and citation analysis was conducted as well as a data quality assessment. A qualitative metasummary approach was used for data analysis and effect sizes were calculated to quantify the magnitude of emerging themes. Results Of the 8560 articles from the literature search, 18 articles from 11 LMICs fit the eligibility and inclusion criteria. Of these studies, four were from Sub-Saharan Africa, ten from Latin America and the Caribbean, one from the Middle East, and three from Asia. Half of the studies focused specifically on legislation, while the others focused on speed control measures, educational interventions, enforcement, road improvement, community programs, or a multifaceted intervention. Conclusion Legislation was the most common intervention evaluated with the best outcomes when combined with strong enforcement initiatives or as part of a multifaceted approach. Because speed control is crucial to crash and injury prevention, road improvement interventions in LMIC settings should carefully consider how the

  8. Impact of the Penalty Points System on Road Traffic Injuries in Spain: A Time–Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Novoa, Ana M.; Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Ferrando, Josep; Peiró, Rosana; Tobías, Aurelio; Zori, Pilar; Borrell, Carme

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of the penalty points system (PPS) introduced in Spain in July 2006 in reducing traffic injuries. Methods. We performed an evaluation study with an interrupted time–series design. We stratified dependent variables—numbers of drivers involved in injury collisions and people injured in traffic collisions in Spain from 2000 to 2007 (police data)—by age, injury severity, type of road user, road type, and time of collision, and analyzed variables separately by gender. The explanatory variable (the PPS) compared the postintervention period (July 2006 to December 2007) with the preintervention period (January 2000 to June 2006). We used quasi-Poisson regression, controlling for time trend and seasonality. Results. Among men, we observed a significant risk reduction in the postintervention period for seriously injured drivers (relative risk [RR] = 0.89) and seriously injured people (RR = 0.89). The RRs among women were 0.91 (P = .095) and 0.88 (P < .05), respectively. Risk reduction was greater among male drivers, moped riders, and on urban roads. Conclusions. The PPS was associated with reduced numbers of drivers involved in injury collisions and people injured by traffic collisions in Spain. PMID:20864703

  9. Barriers of Pre-Hospital Services in Road Traffic Injuries in Tehran: The Viewpoint of Service Providers

    PubMed Central

    Alinia, Shahrokh; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Maddah, Sadat Seyed Bagher; Negarandeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iran is one of the countries with considerable road traffic injuries. Pre-hospital interventions have an important role in preventing mortalities and disabilities caused by traffic accidents. The present study aimed to explore the barriers of pre-hospital care in traffic injuries in Tehran, Iran. Methods: A qualitative content analysis approach was conducted based on 21 semi-structured interviews with 18 participants. A purposeful sampling method was applied until reaching data saturation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and then data condensing, labeling, coding and defining categories were performed by qualitative content analysis. Results: Four main barriers including 4 main categories and 13 subcategories emerged; they included Barriers related to people, Barriers related to metropolitan infrastructure, Barriers related to the profession and Barriers related to managerial issues. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, pre-hospital service barriers in traffic accidents have many dimensions including cultural, structural and managerial domains. Policy makers in health system can use these findings to promote the quality of pre-hospital services, especially in the field of traffic injuries. PMID:26448954

  10. Clinical Presentation and Time-Based Mortality in Patients With Chest Injuries Associated With Road Traffic Accidents

    PubMed Central

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Husham; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Ellabib, Mohammad; Asim, Mohammad; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blunt chest trauma (BCT) poses significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Objectives: We investigated the clinical presentation and outcome of BCT related to road traffic accidents (RTA). Patients and Methods: A retrospective observational analysis for patients who sustained BCT secondary to RTA in terms of motor vehicle crash (MVC) and pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents (PMVA) who were admitted to the trauma center at Hamad general hospital, Doha, Qatar, between 2008 and 2011. Results: Of 5118 traumatic injury cases, 1004 (20%) were found to have BCT secondary to RTA (77% MVC and 23% PMVA). The majority were males (92%), and expatriates (72%). Among MVCs, 84% reported they did not use protective devices. There was a correlation between chest abbreviated injury score (AIS) and injury severity scoring (ISS) (r = 0.35, r2 = 0.12, P < 0.001). Regardless of mechanism of injury (MOI), multivariate analysis showed that the head injury associated with chest AIS and ISS was a predictor of mortality in BCT. Overall mortality was 15%, and the highest rate was observed within the first 24 hours post-trauma. Conclusions: Blunt chest trauma from RTA represents one-fifth of the total trauma admissions in Qatar, with a high overall mortality. Pedestrians are likely to have more severe injuries and higher fatality rates than MVC victims. Specific injury prevention programs focusing on road safety should be implemented to minimize the incidence of such preventable injuries. PMID:27148499

  11. Evaluation of interventions on road traffic injuries in Peru: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of interventions on road traffic injuries (RTI) going beyond the assessment of impact to include factors underlying success or failure is an important complement to standard impact evaluations. We report here how we used a qualitative approach to assess current interventions implemented to reduce RTIs in Peru. Methods We performed in-depth interviews with policymakers and technical officers involved in the implementation of RTI interventions to get their insight on design, implementation and evaluation aspects. We then conducted a workshop with key stakeholders to analyze the results of in-depth interviews, and to further discuss and identify key programmatic considerations when designing and implementing RTI interventions. We finally performed brainstorming sessions to assess potential system-wide effects of a selected intervention (Zero Tolerance), and to identify adaptation and redesign needs for this intervention. Results Key programmatic components were consistently identified that should be considered when designing and implementing RTI interventions. They include effective and sustained political commitment and planning; sufficient and sustained budget allocation; training, supervision, monitoring and evaluation of implemented policies; multisectoral participation; and strong governance and accountability. Brainstorming sessions revealed major negative effects of the selected intervention on various system building blocks. Conclusions Our approach revealed substantial caveats in current RTI interventions in Peru, and fundamental negative effects on several components of the sectors and systems involved. It also highlighted programmatic issues that should be applied to guarantee an effective implementation and evaluation of these policies. The findings from this study were discussed with key stakeholders for consideration in further designing and planning RTI control interventions in Peru. PMID:22269578

  12. Estimation of non-fatal road traffic injuries in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam using capture-recapture method.

    PubMed

    Van, Hung Trinh; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Khai, Lap Hoang

    2006-03-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are increasing in developing countries where accurate routine data are usually not available. Although a capture-recapture technique has increasingly been employed in studies of human populations to provide reliable estimates of the magnitude of problems, it has rarely been used in road traffic injury research. We applied two sample capture-recapture methods using hospital and traffic police records to estimate non-fatal road traffic injuries in Thai Nguyen City during the years 2000-2004. We generated a conservative adjusted estimate of non-fatal RTIs using data from the two sources matched by name, surname, sex of victims and at least one of the other matching variables, of age, address of victim and date of injuries. We then compared the estimated rates with those reported based on police and hospital data. The results show that during years 2000-2004, the police reported 1,373 non-fatal RTIs, while hospital records revealed 6,069 non-fatal RTIs. Most reported victims on both hospital and police reports were males (67.3 % and 74.4%, respectively). More than half the victims on both hospital and police reports were drivers (77.5% and 66.1%, respectively) or pedestrians (10.6% and 7.1%, respectively). Youth and young adults (ages 15-34) constituted the majority of the victims on the hospital and police reports (52.8% and 63.7%, respectively). The capture-recapture analysis estimated that 11,140 (95% CI: 10,626-11,654) subjects were involved in RTIs during the study period. In comparison to the estimated figure, official sources accounted for only 21.9 to 60.1% of total non-fatal RTIs. Estimated rates of non-fatal RTIs were 105.5 injuries/10,000 population per year and 393 injuries/10,000 vehicles. Given the fact that under reporting of RTIs has been a major limitation of routine official data sets in developing countries, we suggested the capture-recapture method be used as a tool to provide affordable and reliable estimates of RTIs in

  13. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  14. Impact of the 2011 Libyan conflict on road traffic injuries in Benghazi, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Bodalal, Zuhir; Bendardaf, Riyad; Ambarek, Mohammed; Nagelkerke, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health concern in Libya. In the light of the armed conflict in Libya that broke out on February 2011 and the subsequent instability, the rate and pattern of RTIs was studied. Methods RTI patient data were gathered from Al-Jalaa hospital, the main trauma center in Benghazi, from 2010 to 2011. Various parameters [i.e. age, gender, nationality, method of entry, receiving department, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, duration of stay, method of discharge, and fatalities] were compared with data from the previous year (2010), and statistical analyses were performed (t-test, chi-square, and Poisson regression). Results During the conflict period, 15.8% (n=2,221) of hospital admissions were RTIs, that is, a rate of 6.08 RTI cases per day, levels not seen for 5 years (t=−5.719, p<0.001). The presence of armed conflict was found to have caused a significant 28% decrease in the trend of RTIs over the previous 10 years (B=−0.327, CI=−0.38–−0.28, p<0.001). February and March, the peak period of active combat in Benghazi, witnessed the lowest number of RTIs during the conflict period. The average age of an RTI decreased to 28.35±16.3 years (t=−7.257, p<0.001) with significantly more males (84.1%, n=1,755) being affected (χ2=4.595, p=0.032, df=1). There was an increase in the proportion of younger aged patients (from 0 to 29 years) (χ2=29.874, p<0.001, df=8). More patients required admission to the ICU (χ2=36.808, p<0.001, df=8), and the mortality of an RTI increased to 5.2% (n=116) (χ2=48.882, p<0.001, df=6). Conclusion There were fewer RTIs during the conflict period; however, those that occurred had higher morbidity and mortality. The profile of an RTI victims also changed to an increased prominence of young males and motorcyclists. Further research is required to propose and analyze possible interventions. PMID:25673038

  15. Comparison of Road Traffic Injury Characteristics between Local versus Floating Migrant Patients in a Tertiary Hospital between 2007 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chungui; Wang, Yanhua; Han, Na; Kou, Yuhui; Yin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Zhang, Dianying; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to give a description of the road traffic injuries (RTIs) characteristics of floating migrant population by comparing with those of local residents in a harbor city of China. Methods A population-based descriptive study was carried out between 2007 and 2010 with RTI patient records from the Fifth Center Hospital of Tianjin. Inpatient diagnoses of RTI patients were defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes. We analyzed the demographics and general characteristics of RTI patients that were in the hospital during the four years. In order to compare the group differences between local resident patients and floating migrant patients, the distribution of their ages, diagnoses, severity of injuries, duration of inpatient stays, hospitalization cost were analyzed. Results People between the ages of 16 and 55 were the most likely to suffer RTIs. The floating migrant patients between the ages of 16 and 45 had a higher incidence of accidents, while local resident patients between 46 and 55 had a higher incidence of accidents. Compared to local resident patients, floating migrant patients were more vulnerable to open injuries and severe traffic injuries. With the severity of injuries ranked from mild to severe, floating migrant patients had lower duration of inpatient stay, but higher hospitalization costs compared to local resident patients. Conclusions Floating migrant patients had a different age distribution, severity of injuries, diseases, inpatient duration and hospitalization cost compared with local resident patients. Compared to local resident patients, floating migrants had a higher risk to RTIs and were more vulnerable to severer traffic accidents at lower ages. PMID:24475023

  16. Road traffic crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Nilssen, Odd; Lund, Johan; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Ytterstad, Børge

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated trends in traffic crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2005-2010. Data were obtained from the road police. Negative binomial regression with time regressor was used to investigate trends in monthly incidence rates (IRs) of crashes, fatalities, and non-fatal injuries. During the six-year period, the police registered 4955 crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries, which resulted in 217 fatalities and 5964 non-fatal injury cases. The IR of crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries per total population showed no evident change, while the IR per increasing total number of motor vehicles decreased on average by 0.6% per month. Pedestrian crashes constituted 51.8% of studied crashes, and pedestrians constituted 54.6% of fatalities and 44.5% of non-fatal injuries. The IRs of pedestrian crashes and non-fatal pedestrian injuries per total population decreased on average by 0.3% per month, and these were the major trends in the data. PMID:23216194

  17. Evaluating the Impact of Criminalizing Drunk Driving on Road-Traffic Injuries in Guangzhou, China: A Time-Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ang; Chen, Renjie; Qi, Yongqing; Chen, Ailan; Chen, Xinyu; Liang, Zijing; Ye, Jianjun; Liang, Qing; Guo, Duanqiang; Li, Wanglin; Li, Shuangming; Kan, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Background Road-traffic injury (RTI) is a major public-health concern worldwide. However, the effectiveness of laws criminalizing drunk driving on the improvement of road safety in China is not known. Methods We collected daily aggregate data on RTIs from the Guangzhou First-Aid Service Command Center from 2009 to 2012. We performed an interrupted time-series analysis to evaluate the change in daily RTIs before (January 1, 2009, to April 30, 2011) and after (May 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012) the criminalization of drunk driving. We evaluated the impact of the intervention on RTIs using the overdispersed generalized additive model after adjusting for temporal trends, seasonality, day of the week, and holidays. Daytime/Nighttime RTIs, alcoholism, and non-traffic injuries were analyzed as comparison groups using the same model. Results From January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2012, we identified a total of 54 887 RTIs. The standardized daily number of RTIs was almost stable in the pre-intervention period but decreased gradually in the post-intervention period. After the intervention, the standardized daily RTIs decreased 9.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.5%–12.8%). There were similar decreases for the daily daytime and nighttime RTIs. In contrast, the standardized daily cases of alcoholism increased 38.8% (95% CI, 35.1%–42.4%), and daily non-traffic injuries increased 3.6% (95% CI, 1.4%–5.8%). Conclusions This time-series study provides scientific evidence suggesting that the criminalization of drunk driving from May 1, 2011, may have led to moderate reductions in RTIs in Guangzhou, China. PMID:26947952

  18. Geographic variability of fatal road traffic injuries in Spain during the period 2002–2004: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Jimenez-Puente, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to describe the inter-province variability of Road Traffic Injury (RTI) mortality on Spanish roads, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, and to assess the possible role played by the following explicative variables: sociodemographic, structural, climatic and risk conducts. Methods An ecological study design was employed. The mean annual rate of RTI deaths was calculated for the period 2002–2004, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, in the 50 provinces of Spain. The RTI death rate was related with the independent variables described above, using simple and multiple linear regression analysis with backward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as p < 0.05. Results In the period 2002–2004 there were 12,756 RTI deaths in Spain (an average of 4,242 per year, SD = 356.6). The mean number of deaths due to RTI per 100 million vehicle-kilometres (mvk) travelled was 1.76 (SD = 0.51), with a minimum value of 0.66 (in Santa Cruz de Tenerife) and a maximum of 3.31 (in the province of Lugo). All other variables being equal, a higher proportion of kilometres available on high capacity roads, and a higher cultural and education level were associated with lower death rates due to RTI, while the opposite was true for the rate of alcohol consumers and the road traffic volume of heavy vehicles. The variables included in the model accounted for 55.4% of the variability in RTI mortality. Conclusion Adjusting RTI mortality rates for the number of vehicle-kilometres travelled enables us to identify the high variability of this cause of death, and its relation with risk factors other than those inherent to human behaviour, such as the type of roads and the type of vehicles using them. PMID:17897449

  19. Road Traffic Injury Trends in the City of Valledupar, Colombia. A Time Series Study from 2008 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Jorge Martín; Peñaloza, Rolando Enrique; Moreno Montoya, José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the behavior temporal of road-traffic injuries (RTI) in Valledupar, Colombia from January 2008 to December 2012. Methodology An observational study was conducted based on records from the Colombian National Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences Institute regional office in Valledupar. Different variables were analyzed, such as the injured person’s sex, age, education level, and type of road user; the timeframe, place and circumstances of crashes and the vehicles associated with the occurrence. Furthermore, a time series analysis was conducted using an auto-regressive integrated moving average. Results There were 105 events per month on an average, 64.9% of RTI involved men; 82.3% of the persons injured were from 18 to 59 years of age; the average age was 35.4 years of age; the road users most involved in RTI were motorcyclists (69%), followed by pedestrians (12%). 70% had up to upper-secondary education. Sunday was the day with the most RTI occurrences; 93% of the RTI occurred in the urban area. The time series showed a seasonal pattern and a significant trend effect. The modeling process verified the existence of both memory and extrinsic variables related. Conclusions An RTI occurrence pattern was identified, which showed an upward trend during the period analyzed. Motorcyclists were the main road users involved in RTI, which suggests the need to design and implement specific measures for that type of road user, from regulations for graduated licensing for young drivers to monitoring road user behavior for the promotion of road safety. PMID:26657887

  20. Analysis of Road Traffic Crashes-Related Maxillofacial Injuries Severity and Concomitant Injuries in 201 Patients Seen at the UCH, Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Aladelusi, Timothy; Akinmoladun, Victor; Olusanya, Adeola; Akadiri, Oladimeji; Fasola, Abiodun

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of road traffic crashes (RTC)-related maxillofacial injuries, the concomitant injuries occurring with them, and to assess the relationship between the severity of maxillofacial and concomitant injuries. This was a prospective study involving 201 victims of RTC seen at the Accident and Emergency Department of the University College Hospital, Ibadan with maxillofacial injuries during the study period. Demographic data of the patients, the types of maxillofacial injuries, and concomitant injuries sustained were recorded. Severity of maxillofacial injury was determined using the maxillofacial injury severity scale (MFISS), while the severity of concomitant injuries was based on the ISS. Correlations between types and severity of maxillofacial injury and types and severity of concomitant injury were conducted to determine the predictability of concomitant injuries based on maxillofacial injury severity. Data were processed using SPSS Statistical software (SPSS, version 20.0 for windows, IBM SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Maxillofacial injuries constituted 25.4% of RTC-related admission by the Accident and Emergency Department. A total of 151 (75.1%) patients who presented with concomitant injuries participated in the study. Eighty-one (53.6%) sustained injuries to more than one body region. Head injury was the commonest (99, 65.6%) concomitant injury, followed by orthopedic injury (69, 45.7%). Increasing severity of maxillofacial injury showed a positive correlation with increasing ISS. Also, positive correlation was noted with increasing severity of maxillofacial injury and presence of polytrauma (p = 0.01), traumatic brain injury (p = 0.034), and eye injuries (p = 0.034). There was a high prevalence of maxillofacial injuries in victims of RTC. There was a high incidence of concomitant injuries noted with these maxillofacial injuries. Significantly, this study showed a direct relationship between the

  1. An epidemiological study on pattern of thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents of Bangalore: Autopsy-based study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, N. Bayapa; Hanumantha; Madithati, Pallavi; Reddy, N. Nagarjuna; Reddy, C. Sainarasimha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The statistical profile reflects a global estimate of 5.1 million deaths in 2000, which was due to injuries that accounted for 10% of deaths due to all causes. Out of this, a quarter of injury-related deaths occurred in the South-East Asian region. Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is one among the top 5 causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. Most common cause of blunt abdominal trauma in India is road traffic accident followed by pedestrian accidents, abdominal blows, and fall from heights. Aims: To analyze the epidemiology and pattern of fatal thoraco-abdominal injuries in road traffic accidents. Materials and Methods: An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 100 post-mortems of road traffic accident between November 2008 and May 2010 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, KIMS Hospital Bangalore. Results: The majority of the victims were aged 21 to 40 years, 50 (50.0%), most of the victims were male 92 (92.0%); and male/female ratio was 11.5:1. Commonest offending agents in heavy motor vehicles were 54 (54.0%). Bony cage sustained injuries were observed in 71; out of this, fractures of ribs were observed in 45 (63.3%) victims, clavicle in 14 (19.7%), sternum was 6 (8.4%), and vertebrae 6 (8.4%) of fatal road traffic accidents. Internal thoracic injuries were observed in 26 cases. Among internal thoracic injuries, lungs were the most commonly involved organ 24 (92.3%) followed by the heart 2 (7.6%). Lung sustained more lacerations 19 (79.1%) than contusions 5 (20.8%). Internal abdominal injuries were observed in 49 cases. In road traffic accidents, the most commonly injured abdominal organs were solid organs such as liver 16 (32.6%) followed by spleen 9 (18.3%). Conclusions: Majority of the times in road traffic accidents, young and productive males were injured or lost their life. This study may help the planners to

  2. Alcohol, illicit and non-illicit psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury in Thailand: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Woratanarat, Patarawan; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Chatchaipun, Porntip; Wattayakorn, Kanokporn; Anukarahanonta, Tongtavuch

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between alcohol use, psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury (RTI). A case-control study was conducted among drivers in Bangkok, Thailand. Two hundred cases and 849 controls were enrolled between February and November 2006. Cases who sustained a RTI were matched with four controls recruited from petrol stations within a 1-km radius of the reported crash site of the case. A positive alcohol breath test (> or =50mg/dl), and positive tests for the presence of illicit (amphetamine, cocaine, marijuana) and non-illicit psychoactive drugs (antihistamine, benzodiazepine, antidepressants), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were documented as primary measures. There were significantly higher odds of an alcohol breath test > or =50mg/dl (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 63.6 (95% CI: 25.5-158.9)), illicit psychoactive drugs (adjusted OR 3.4 (95% CI: 1.7-6.6)) and non-illicit psychoactive drug (adjusted OR 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5-6.3)) among cases than controls. Even though driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs has been significantly linked to RTI, its contribution to road safety is much lower than driving under the influence of alcohol. With limited resources, the priority for RTI prevention should be given to control of driving under the influence of alcohol. PMID:19393818

  3. Social Justice Approach to Road Safety in Kenya: Addressing the Uneven Distribution of Road Traffic Injuries and Deaths across Population Groups

    PubMed Central

    Azetsop, Jacquineau

    2010-01-01

    Road traffic injury and deaths (RTID) are an important public health problem in Kenya, primarily affecting uneducated and disenfranchised people from lower socioeconomic groups. Studies conducted by Kenyan experts from police reports and surveys have shown that pedestrian and driver behaviors are the most important proximal causes of crashes, signifying that the occurrence of crashes results directly from human action. However, behaviors and risk factors do not fully explain the magnitude of RTID neither does it account for socioeconomic gradient in RTID. Instead, a social justice approach to RTID highlights the need for emphasizing distal causal factors. They allow us to understand how social inequities determine risk for RTID. Hence, designing policies that focus on behaviors will simply mask the underlying systemic causes of this growing phenomenon. To eradicate the RTID and address the gradient, a broader policy framework that includes the social dimension of injury, a strong political will to address the underlying causes of RTID and an effective partnership with stakeholders needs to be developed. PMID:20664752

  4. Examining Road Traffic Mortality Status in China: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Li, Li; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Background Data from the Chinese police service suggest substantial reductions in road traffic injuries since 2002, but critics have questioned the accuracy of those data, especially considering conflicting data reported by the health department. Methods To address the gap between police and health department data and to determine which may be more accurate, we conducted a simulation study based on the modified Smeed equation, which delineates a non-linear relation between road traffic mortality and the level of motorization in a country or region. Our goal was to simulate trends in road traffic mortality in China and compare performances in road traffic safety management between China and 13 other countries. Results Chinese police data indicate a peak in road traffic mortalities in 2002 and a significant and a gradual decrease in population-based road traffic mortality since 2002. Health department data show the road traffic mortality peaked in 2012. In addition, police data suggest China’s road traffic mortality peaked at a much lower motorization level (0.061 motor vehicles per person) in 2002, followed by a reduction in mortality to a level comparable to that of developed countries. Simulation results based on health department data suggest high road traffic mortality, with a mortality peak in 2012 at a moderate motorization level (0.174 motor vehicles per person). Comparisons to the other 13 countries suggest the health data from China may be more valid than the police data. Conclusion Our simulation data indicate China is still at a stage of high road traffic mortality, as suggested by health data, rather than a stage of low road traffic mortality, as suggested by police data. More efforts are needed to integrate safety into road design, improve road traffic management, improve data quality, and alter unsafe behaviors of pedestrians, drivers and passengers in China. PMID:27071008

  5. On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

  6. Isolated blunt lingual artery injury secondary to a road traffic accident: diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Mawaddah, Azman; Goh, Bee See; Kew, Thean Yean; Rozman, Zakaria

    2012-04-01

    Neurologic and airway compromise as a result of traumatic vascular injuries to the neck region often lead to more severe complications and thus require special consideration. Furthermore, these cases pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to healthcare providers. Here, we report a case of a 28-year-old motorcyclist presenting with progressively enlarged Zone 2 neck swelling on the left side following a high impact collision. There were no symptoms or signs suggesting neurologic or laryngeal injury. Computed tomography angiogram of the neck revealed signs of an active arterial bleed. The apparent vascular injury was managed by close observation for signs of airway compromise, urgent angiogram, and selective catheter embolisation of the left lingual artery. The patient subsequently recovered without further operative exploration of the neck. At 6 months post-trauma, the neck swelling fully subsided with no complications from angioembolisation. This case illustrates the individualised treatment and multidisciplinary approach in managing such cases. We review our rationale for this diagnostic and therapeutic approach. PMID:22973141

  7. Quality of life lost due to non-fatal road traffic injuries.

    PubMed

    Cubí-Mollá, Patricia; Herrero, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of a non-fatal road crash on the health-related quality of life of injured people. A new approach based on the cardinalization of categorical Self-Assessed Health valuations is suggested. Health losses have been estimated by using different Time Trade-off and Visual Analogue Scale tariffs, in order to assess the robustness of the results. The methodology is based on the existing literature about treatment effects. Our main contribution focuses on evaluating the loss of health up to 1 year after the non-fatal accident, for those who are non-institutionalized, which aids the appropriate estimation of the aggregated health losses in quality-of-life terms. PMID:21462280

  8. Amphetamine-type stimulant use and the risk of injury or death as a result of a road-traffic accident: A systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Amie C; Downey, Luke A; Shiferaw, Brook; Stough, Con

    2016-06-01

    Amphetamine-type substances are frequently detected among drivers injured or killed due to road-trauma. However, the role of this substance in crash causation remains equivocal. We performed a systematic review to evaluate existing evidence regarding the association between amphetamine use and the risk of injury or death due to road traffic accidents. A bibliographical search of PubMed, SafetyLit, Scopus, and Science Direct literature databases from 01 January 1980 until May 2015 was performed. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottowa Scale (NOS) (cut-off of ≥7 indicated high quality). Inter-rater reliability between three independent reviewers for the NOS was calculated using Cohens kappa (κ) statistic, and best-evidence synthesis was performed. A total of 182 articles were found. Nine studies met eligibility criteria for inclusion for review, and seven studies were included for best-evidence synthesis. Best-evidence synthesis demonstrated a conflicting level of evidence for associations between the use of-amphetamine-type substances and the risk of sustaining an injury, and a moderate level of evidence between amphetamine use and the risk of death due to road trauma. This is the first review to synthesise evidence regarding the association between amphetamine-type substance use and the risk of injury or death due to a road traffic accident. More conclusive evidence of death due to road trauma among amphetamine users may reflect significant and global deficits in functioning associated with effective vehicular control under the influence of this substance. Additional high quality, sufficiently powered studies are required to elucidate the magnitude of these associations. PMID:27006144

  9. Contextual deprivation, daily travel and road traffic injuries among the young in the Rhône Département (France).

    PubMed

    Licaj, Idlir; Haddak, Mouloud; Pochet, Pascal; Chiron, Mireille

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of the socioeconomic level of the municipality of residence on personal injury road traffic accident risk among young persons of 10-24 years of age in the Rhône Département. This effect was assessed by comparing incidences of injuries (n=2792 casualties) on the basis of three denominators: the resident population of young people, the number of users of each mode and the distances covered by each mode. The results are presented for each type of road users (pedestrians, car passengers, car drivers, motorised two-wheeler riders, cyclists, public transport users). Young persons from deprived municipalities use motorised-two wheelers, bicycles and the car (as passengers and drivers) less frequently, they walk more and take public transports more often than those from other municipalities. When considering injury risk, motorised two wheeler injuries among adolescent males, for example, are significantly less frequent in deprived municipalities. But the motorised two-wheeler riders as well as car passengers from deprived municipalities are characterized by an excess injury risk, whether the selected denominator is the number of users or the kilometres travelled by this mode. For the first time in France, this study has enabled a comparison of the effects of a contextual socioeconomic indicator (the type of municipality of residence, deprived, or not) on daily travel practices and injury incidences among the population, among the users of each mode and per km of travel. PMID:21658487

  10. Driving following Kava Use and Road Traffic Injuries: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Fiji (TRIP 14)

    PubMed Central

    Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Kool, Bridget; Robinson, Elizabeth; Herman, Josephine; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between kava use and the risk of four-wheeled motor vehicle crashes in Fiji. Kava is a traditional beverage commonly consumed in many Pacific Island Countries. Herbal anxiolytics containing smaller doses of kava are more widely available. Methods Data for this population-based case-control study were collected from drivers of ‘case’ vehicles involved in serious injury-involved crashes (where at least one road user was killed or admitted to hospital for 12 hours or more) and ‘control’ vehicles representative of ‘driving time’ in the study base. Structured interviewer administered questionnaires collected self-reported participant data on demographic characteristics and a range of risk factors including kava use and potential confounders. Unconditional logistic regression models estimated odds ratios relating to the association between kava use and injury-involved crash risk. Findings Overall, 23% and 4% of drivers of case and control vehicles, respectively, reported consuming kava in the 12 hours prior to the crash or road survey. After controlling for assessed confounders, driving following kava use was associated with a four-fold increase in the odds of crash involvement (Odds ratio: 4.70; 95% CI: 1.90–11.63). The related population attributable risk was 18.37% (95% CI: 13.77–22.72). Acknowledging limited statistical power, we did not find a significant interaction in this association with concurrent alcohol use. Conclusion In this study conducted in a setting where recreational kava consumption is common, driving following the use of kava was associated with a significant excess of serious-injury involved road crashes. The precautionary principle would suggest road safety strategies should explicitly recommend avoiding driving following kava use, particularly in communities where recreational use is common. PMID:26930404

  11. Barriers and facilitators to provide effective pre-hospital trauma care for road traffic injury victims in Iran: a grounded theory approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries are a major global public health problem. Improvements in pre-hospital trauma care can help minimize mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries (RTIs) worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with a high rate of RTIs such as Iran. The current study aimed to explore pre-hospital trauma care process for RTI victims in Iran and to identify potential areas for improvements based on the experience and perception of pre-hospital trauma care professionals. Methods A qualitative study design using a grounded theory approach was selected. The data, collected via in-depth interviews with 15 pre-hospital trauma care professionals, were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results Seven categories emerged to describe the factors that hinder or facilitate an effective pre-hospital trauma care process: (1) administration and organization, (2) staff qualifications and competences, (3) availability and distribution of resources, (4) communication and transportation, (5) involved organizations, (6) laypeople and (7) infrastructure. The core category that emerged from the other categories was defined as "interaction and common understanding". Moreover, a conceptual model was developed based on the categories. Conclusions Improving the interaction within the current pre-hospital trauma care system and building a common understanding of the role of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) emerged as key issues in the development of an effective pre-hospital trauma care process. PMID:21059243

  12. An integrated surveillance system of road traffic injuries in the Lazio region of Italy: results of a 5-year study (2001-2005).

    PubMed

    Chini, Francesco; Farchi, Sara; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Camilloni, Laura; Borgia, Piero

    2010-09-01

    Road traffic injuries represent a relevant public-health problem. In the Lazio region of Italy, a surveillance system was activated. The aim of this work is to describe the surveillance system and report the health information in terms of temporal trends for the 5-year period 2001-2005. We identified all emergency department (ED) visits in the emergency database and then linked them with hospital discharges and mortality registry. From the integrated database, we calculated the rates of emergency room visits, of hospital admissions, and of mortality, reporting the temporal trends. Between 2001 and 2005 the rate of ED visits was 3151 per 100,000 inhabitants. Hospitalisation rates showed a significant decreasing trend. The surveillance identified 22% more deaths in the study period than reported by the official statistics. The surveillance revealed a decreasing trend for hospital admissions and a decline in deaths in 2003 concurrent to the introduction of the driver's licence point system. PMID:20352552

  13. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country. PMID:24479025

  14. A public health perspective of road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, S

    2012-07-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country. PMID:24479025

  15. Encapsulating urban traffic rhythms into road networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  16. [Definition of hospital discharge, serious injury and death from traffic injuries].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Katherine; Seguí-Gómez, María; Arrufat, Vita; Barberia, Eneko; Cabeza, Elena; Cirera, Eva; Gil, Mercedes; Martín, Carlos; Novoa, Ana M; Olabarría, Marta; Lardelli, Pablo; Suelves, Josep Maria; Santamariña-Rubio, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic injury surveillance involves methodological difficulties due, among other reasons, to the lack of consensus criteria for case definition. Police records have usually been the main source of information for monitoring traffic injuries, while health system data has hardly been used. Police records usually include comprehensive information on the characteristics of the crash, but often underreport injury cases and do not collect reliable information on the severity of injuries. However, statistics on severe traffic injuries have been based almost exclusively on police data. The aim of this paper is to propose criteria based on medical records to define: a) "Hospital discharge for traffic injuries", b) "Person with severe traffic injury", and c) "Death from traffic injuries" in order to homogenize the use of these sources. PMID:24365522

  17. The Role of Marital Status in the Association between Benzodiazepines, Psychotropics and Injurious Road Traffic Crashes: A Register-Based Nationwide Study of Senior Drivers in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Johnell, Kristina; Laflamme, Lucie; Möller, Jette; Monárrez-Espino, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Background Among senior drivers, benzodiazepines (BZDs) have a documented effect on the risk of road traffic crashes (RTCs). It remains unclear however if BZDs play the same role when considering marital status. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of marital status in the association between BZD use and injurious RTCs among senior drivers. Methods Matched case-control study based on five national Swedish registers (n = 154 225). Cases comprised the first non-alcohol-related injurious RTC sustained by drivers aged 50–80 years from July 2005 to December 2009 and controls included registered residents with a valid license who did not crash during that period. Four controls were matched to each case by sex, age and place of residence. Conditional logistic regression analysis for injurious RTC was performed with adjustment for occupation and number of medications. The main exposure was dispensation of BZDs, alone or in combination with other psychotropic medications, 1–30 days prior to the crash date stratified by marital status. Results BZD use, alone or in combination with other psychotropic medications, increased the risk of being involved in an RTC (BZD only: adjusted OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.17–1.36; BZDs and other psychotropics: adjusted OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.12–1.41). Compared to married drivers, those divorced (1.48, 1.43–1.53) and widowed (1.54; 1.45–1.63) had higher adjusted ORs. Marital status modified the association between BZDs and RTCs, particularly among younger male drivers. Conclusions Both BZDs and marital status independently affect the risk for senior drivers to be involved in an RTC. However, marital status plays a role in the association between BZD use and RTCs and this may have implications for targeting risk populations for RTCs among senior drivers. PMID:24489781

  18. Comparison of health outcomes between hospitalised and non-hospitalised persons with minor injuries sustained in a road traffic crash in Australia: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Bamini; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Harris, Ian A; Nicholas, Michael; Maher, Christopher G; Casey, Petrina; Blyth, Fiona; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Cameron, Ian D

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate whether there are differences in health outcomes among persons with mild or moderate injuries who were hospitalised compared with those not hospitalised following a road traffic crash. Setting Sydney Metropolitan, New South Wales, Australia. Participants Persons aged ≥18 years involved in a motor vehicle crash were surveyed at baseline (n=364), and at 12 (n=284) and 24 months (n=252). A telephone-administered questionnaire obtained information on a range of socioeconomic, and preinjury and postinjury psychological and heath characteristics of all participants. Primary outcome measure Participants who reported admission to hospital for 24 h or more (but less than 7 days) after the crash were classified as being hospitalised; those admitted for less than 24 h were classified as non-hospitalised. Results Around 1 in 5 participants (19.0%) were hospitalised for ≥24 h after the crash. After adjusting for age and sex, hospitalised participants compared with those not hospitalised had approximately 2.6 units (p=0.01) lower Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS) scores (poorer physical well-being) and approximately 4.9 units lower European Quality of Life visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) scores (p=0.05), 12 months later. After further adjusting for education level, whiplash, fracture and injury severity score, participants who were hospitalised had approximately 3.3 units lower SF-12 PCS (p=0.04), 12 months later. The association with EQ-VAS did not persist after multivariable adjustment. No significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in health outcomes at 24-month follow-up. Conclusions These findings indicate that long-term health status is unlikely to be influenced by hospitalisation status after sustaining a mild/moderate injury in a vehicle-related crash. PMID:26408286

  19. A Delayed and Rather Unusual Presentation of a Bladder Injury after Pelvic Trauma: 5 Years after a Road Traffic Accident

    PubMed Central

    McElwain, JP; Moore, David

    2014-01-01

    Associated injuries frequently occur in patients who sustain fractures of the pelvis. Specifically, high-energy trauma resulting in pelvic fractures places the bladder and urethra at risk for injury, often resulting in significant complications. Timely identification and management of genitourinary injuries minimize associated morbidity. Prompt injury identification depends upon a systematic evaluation with careful consideration of the mechanism of injury. Physical examination is pertinent as well as analysis of the urine and appropriate diagnostic imaging. Despite such increased vigilance genitourinary injuries get missed and delayed presentations in the order of a few weeks have been well documented. To our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind in the literature showing such a particularly delayed (5 years) and rather unusual presentation of a bladder injury after pelvic trauma. PMID:24716066

  20. A queuing model for road traffic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrouahane, N.; Aissani, D.; Bouallouche-Medjkoune, L.; Farhi, N.

    2015-03-10

    We present in this article a stochastic queuing model for the raod traffic. The model is based on the M/G/c/c state dependent queuing model, and is inspired from the deterministic Godunov scheme for the road traffic simulation. We first propose a variant of M/G/c/c state dependent model that works with density-flow fundamental diagrams rather than density-speed relationships. We then extend this model in order to consider upstream traffic demand as well as downstream traffic supply. Finally, we show how to model a whole raod by concatenating raod sections as in the deterministic Godunov scheme.

  1. Road traffic casualties: understanding the night-time death toll.

    PubMed

    Plainis, S; Murray, I J; Pallikaris, I G

    2006-04-01

    A disproportionate number of fatal injuries occur after dark. The paper presents some statistics of road traffic injuries in a novel way which suggests that low luminance plays a major role in this effect. A sound physiological explanation for this is advanced based on the poor temporal characteristics of rod photoreceptors. It is argued that processing information based on low luminance, low contrast targets is much slower than that for high contrast bright targets. To test the idea, simple visual reaction times were measured under typical low visibility conditions encountered on non-lit roads and were found to be substantially longer than under optimal conditions. It is shown that longer reaction times translate into significantly increased stopping distances. This important point has received insufficient attention in the road safety literature, by the Highways Agency, the police, injury prevention officials, and the UK Highway Code. PMID:16595429

  2. Traffic flow on realistic road networks with adaptive traffic lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gier, Jan; Garoni, Timothy M.; Rojas, Omar

    2011-04-01

    We present a model of traffic flow on generic urban road networks based on cellular automata. We apply this model to an existing road network in the Australian city of Melbourne, using empirical data as input. For comparison, we also apply this model to a square-grid network using hypothetical input data. On both networks we compare the effects of non-adaptive versus adaptive traffic lights, in which instantaneous traffic state information feeds back into the traffic signal schedule. We observe that not only do adaptive traffic lights result in better averages of network observables, they also lead to significantly smaller fluctuations in these observables. We furthermore compare two different systems of adaptive traffic signals, one which is informed by the traffic state on both upstream and downstream links and one which is informed by upstream links only. We find that, in general, both the mean and the fluctuation of the travel time are smallest when using the joint upstream-downstream control strategy.

  3. Subjective Response to Road Traffic Noise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, I. D.; Langdon, F. J.

    A study consisting of acoustic measurements at fourteen sites in the London area and 1200 interviews dealing with the effects of the noise conditions prevailing at each of these sites has been carried out with the object of developing acceptability criteria for traffic noise from roads in residential areas. Dissatisfaction with the noise…

  4. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  5. Brazilian Road Traffic Fatalities: A Spatial and Environmental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Luciano; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Finato, Karen; Carvalho, Elias; Pietrobon, Ricardo; de Souza, Eniuce Menezes; Nihei, Oscar Kenji; Lynch, Catherine; de Barros Carvalho, Maria Dalva

    2014-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTI) are a major public health epidemic killing thousands of people daily. Low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil, have the highest annual rates of road traffic fatalities. In order to improve road safety, this study mapped road traffic fatalities on a Brazilian highway to determine the main environmental factors affecting road traffic fatalities. Methods and Findings Four techniques were utilized to identify and analyze RTI hotspots. We used spatial analysis by points by applying kernel density estimator, and wavelet analysis to identify the main hot regions. Additionally, built environment analysis, and principal component analysis were conducted to verify patterns contributing to crash occurrence in the hotspots. Between 2007 and 2009, 379 crashes were notified, with 466 fatalities on BR277. Higher incidence of crashes occurred on sections of highway with double lanes (ratio 2∶1). The hotspot analysis demonstrated that both the eastern and western regions had higher incidences of crashes when compared to the central region. Through the built environment analysis, we have identified five different patterns, demonstrating that specific environmental characteristics are associated with different types of fatal crashes. Patterns 2 and 4 are constituted mainly by predominantly urban characteristics and have frequent fatal pedestrian crashes. Patterns 1, 3 and 5 display mainly rural characteristics and have higher prevalence of vehicular collisions. In the built environment analysis, the variables length of road in urban area, limited lighting, double lanes roadways, and less auxiliary lanes were associated with a higher incidence of fatal crashes. Conclusions By combining different techniques of analyses, we have identified numerous hotspots and environmental characteristics, which governmental or regulatory agencies could make use to plan strategies to reduce RTI and support life-saving policies. PMID:24498051

  6. Road Traffic Related Injury Research and Informatics. New Opportunities for Biomedical and Health Informatics as a Contribution to the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals?

    PubMed

    Al-Shorbaji, N; Haux, R; Krishnamurthy, R; Marschollek, M; Mattfeld, D C; Bartolomeos, K; Reynolds, T A

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations has recently adopted 17 sustainable development goals for 2030, including ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages, and making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Road injuries remain among the ten leading causes of death in the world, and are projected to increase with rapidly increasing motorisation globally. Lack of comprehensive data on road injuries has been identified as one of the barriers for effective implementation of proven road safety interventions. Building, linking and analysing electronic patient records in conjunction with establishing injury event and care registries can substantially contribute to healthy lives and safe transportation. Appropriate use of new technological approaches and health informatics best practices could provide significant added value to WHO's global road safety work and assist Member States in identifying prevention targets, monitoring progress and improving quality of care to reduce injury-related deaths. This paper encourages the initiation of new multidisciplinary research at a global level. PMID:26395205

  7. Metropolitan Road Traffic Simulation on FPGAs.

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp J. L.; Mortveit, H. S.; Hansson, A. A.; Gokhale, M.

    2005-01-01

    This work demonstrates that road traffic simulation of entire metropolitan areas is possible with reconfigurable supercomputing that combines 64-bit microprocessors and FPGAs in a high bandwidth, low latency interconnect. Previously, traffic simulation on FPGAs was limited to very short road segments or required a very large number of FPGAs. Our data streaming approach overcomes scaling issues associated with direct implementations and still allows for high-level parallelism by dividing the data sets between hardware and software across the reconfigurable supercomputer. Using one FPGA on the Cray XD1 supercomputer, we are able to achieve a 34.4 x speed up over the AMD microprocessor. System integration issues must be optimized to exploit this speedup in the overall simulation.

  8. Epidemiology of Karachi road traffic crash mortality in 2013.

    PubMed

    Jooma, Rashid; Shaikh, Masood Ali

    2015-05-01

    Road Traffic Crash (RTC) is the eighth leading cause of death globally. In a recent World Health Organization report, there were 5,192 RTC deaths reported from Pakistan in 2010. The Road Traffic Injury Research and Prevention Center (RTIRPC) is a unique public-private public health enterprise in Karachi, and collects data from five major public and private hospitals' emergency departments in the city. Cumulatively, 1130 deaths were recorded in the year 2013. Males accounted for 981 (86.8%) deaths. The most vulnerable decades of life were twenties and thirties; accounting for 307 (27.2%) of all deaths. In terms of involvement of vehicle type in fatalities; over half 577 (51.1%) of all fatalities involved motorbikes, while the second most common type of vehicle involved were buses/coasters which accounted for 108 (9.6%) fatalities. In the burgeoning cities of developing countries, road injury and fatality surveillance can fulfill a vital role in highlighting the human cost of rapid motorization. PMID:26028391

  9. The Global Burden of Road Injury: Its Relevance to the Emergency Physician

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Vanessa P.; Walker, David M.; Tomassoni, Anthony J.; Cone, David C.; Vaca, Federico E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Road traffic crash fatalities in the United States are at the lowest level since 1950. The reduction in crash injury burden is attributed to several factors: public education and prevention programs, traffic safety policies and enforcement, improvements in vehicle design, and prehospital services coupled with emergency and acute trauma care. Globally, the disease burden of road traffic injuries is rising. In 1990, road traffic injuries ranked ninth in the ten leading causes of the global burden of disease. By 2030, estimates show that road traffic injuries will be the fifth leading causes of death in the world. Historically, emergency medicine has played a pivotal role in contributing to the success of the local, regional, and national traffic safety activities focused on crash and injury prevention. Objective. We report on the projected trend of the global burden of road traffic injuries and fatalities and describe ongoing global initiatives to reduce road traffic morbidity and mortality. Discussion. We present key domains where emergency medicine can contribute through international collaboration to address global road traffic-related morbidity and mortality. Conclusion. International collaborative programs and research offer important opportunities for emergency medicine physicians to make a meaningful impact on the global burden of disease. PMID:24719768

  10. [Epidemiological features and determinants of road injury in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Wang, S F; Chi, G B

    1997-06-01

    Information on road injury with analyses on the epidemiological features and determinants of fatality rate with prevention and control of road injury was presented in this paper. From 1951 to 1994, road injury and motor vehicle deaths had a continuous increase by 43 and 78 times respectively. Since 1987 about 250,000 cases, 5000 deaths and 15,000 trauma cases caused by road crashes year after year. The fatality rate increased by an average of 12.9% increase per year from 1984 to 1994 (from 2.43 to 5.56 per 100,000 pop). Zhejiang, Guangdong, Liaoning, Sichuan and Jiangsu occupied the first five places in 30 provinces, accounted for over 45% of total road injuries and one thirds of road fatalities. Both incidence and death rate were lowest in Beijing City and highest in Zhejiang Province. Three-quarters of the fatality on road injury were occurred on smooth and straight pavement in sunny days. Over 60% of the motor vehicle deaths were young males (age 20-50 yrs). Classified by occupation, majority of the victims were peasants (55%) and workers (19%). Two thirds of the road fatalities were pedestrians, bicycle riders and passengers. Human factors including driver's irresponsibility, non-licensing, bicycle rider and pedestrian carelessness, etc. were notified that accounted for over 90% of the causes for road injury. Primary causes from the drivers were rules and regulations violation, absent-mindedness, driving after drinking alcohol. The risk factors of road injuries were the increase of motor vehicles and traffic congestion. It is also necessary to improve the traffic safety knowledge among residents. PMID:9812458

  11. Association between perception of fault for the crash and function, return to work and health status 1 year after road traffic injury: a registry-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gabbe, Belinda J; Simpson, Pamela M; Cameron, Peter A; Ekegren, Christina L; Edwards, Elton R; Page, Richard; Liew, Susan; Bucknill, Andrew; de Steiger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To establish the association between the patient's perception of fault for the crash and 12-month outcomes after non-fatal road traffic injury. Setting Two adult major trauma centres, one regional trauma centre and one metropolitan trauma centre in Victoria, Australia. Participants 2605 adult, orthopaedic trauma patients covered by the state's no-fault third party insurer for road traffic injury, injured between September 2010 and February 2014. Outcome measures EQ-5D-3L, return to work and functional recovery (Glasgow Outcome Scale—Extended score of upper good recovery) at 12 months postinjury. Results After adjusting for key confounders, the adjusted relative risk (ARR) of a functional recovery (0.57, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.69) and return to work (0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99) were lower for the not at fault compared to the at fault group. The ARR of reporting problems on EQ-5D items was 1.20–1.35 times higher in the not at fault group. Conclusions Patients who were not at fault, or denied being at fault despite a police report of fault, experienced poorer outcomes than the at fault group. Attributing fault to others was associated with poorer outcomes. Interventions to improve coping, or to resolve negative feelings from the crash, could facilitate better outcomes in the future. PMID:26610765

  12. Road traffic accidents in Greece: recent trends (1981-1991).

    PubMed

    Kardara, M; Kondakis, X

    1997-10-01

    This study describes trends of road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Greece over the past 11-year period. All casualties that occurred in Greece during the period 1981-1991 are analyzed. Trends in severity (as judged by the proportion of fatal or serious casualties) are studied. The rate 'casualty per registered vehicle' is also used and is mainly based on the number of road users killed or seriously injured. The total number of deaths presents a considerable increase by about 32%, but an important reduction of serious injuries was observed during the same period. The number of fatal injuries increased significantly only in drivers whereas no such increase is observed in passengers and pedestrians. In all three categories of road users, serious injuries decreased significantly with a similar linear regression slope. RTAs in Greece are also becoming less severe in all categories of road users. Accidents per registered vehicle decrease significantly in all road user groups and age groups. The slope of this decrease is rather exponential, suggestion that any further increase of the number of registered vehicles will be followed by a similar increase of the number of casualties so that the rate will tend to remain stable. This represents a very challenging situation of how to keep the number of casualties as low - or, at least, as stable - as possible despite high vehicle densities. There is uncertainty about the factors that led to the observed decreases, as it was difficult to single out effects of specific measures, because of data limitations. An improved data collection system is necessary in order to enable a more thorough analysis of casualty trends not fully addressed in this study. PMID:9384265

  13. Urban snow indicates pollution originating from road traffic.

    PubMed

    Kuoppamäki, Kirsi; Setälä, Heikki; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Kotze, D Johan

    2014-12-01

    Traffic is a major source of pollutants in cities. In this well-replicated study we analysed a broad array of contaminants in snowpacks along roads of different traffic intensities. The majority of pollutants showed a similar pattern with respect to traffic intensity: pH and conductivity as well as concentrations of PAHs, total suspended solids, phosphorus and most heavy metals were higher next to high intensity roads compared to low intensity roads. These pollutant levels also decreased considerably up to 5 m distance from the roads. Furthermore, apart from nitrogen, these variables increased in concentration from control sites in urban forest patches to road bank sites next to roads of low, intermediate and high traffic intensities. The deposition pattern of various traffic-derived pollutants--whether gaseous or particle-bound--was the same. Such information can be useful for the purposes of managing pollutants in urban areas. PMID:25194272

  14. Road traffic crashes managed by Rescue 1122 in Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Navid; Naseer, Rizwan; Khan, Samina Mohsin; Macassa, Gloria; Hashmi, Waseem; Durrani, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to describe demographic characteristics, injury patterns and causes of road traffic crashes (RTCs) managed by Rescue 1122 in Lahore, Pakistan during the period 2005-2010. In total 123,268 RTCs were reported and responded by Rescue 1122 ambulance service during the study period. Of the 132,504 victims of RTCs, there were 67% male and 33% female subjects, and the maximum share (65%) was reported among people aged 16-35 years. Motorcyclists were involved in 45% of crashes, with over-speeding (40%) found to be the major reason of these collisions. Similarly, minor injuries (65%) and fractures (25%) were the most reported outcome of these crashes. It is concluded that data from ambulance services, if appropriately collected, can provide valuable epidemiological information to monitor RTCs in developing countries. However, in Pakistan, the collection of data as well as the registration process needs further improvement. PMID:22047006

  15. The University of Queensland study of physical and psychological outcomes for claimants with minor and moderate injuries following a road traffic crash (UQ SuPPORT): design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Kenardy, Justin; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Bellamy, Nicholas; Sterling, Michele; Connelly, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Background To date research investigating how mental health impacts physical recovery following a road traffic crash (RTC) has focused on cohorts with severe injuries. The UQ SuPPORT study aims to study the physical and psychological outcomes of claimants with minor injuries following an RTC under the Queensland common law compulsory insurance scheme. Objectives This paper outlines the protocols of this study as a platform for future publications. Methods The 2-year longitudinal cohort study collected interview and survey data from claimants at 6, 12, and 24 months post-RTC. Measures used in the telephone interview included the DSM-IV Composite International Diagnostic Interview for posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, panic attacks, agoraphobia; and self-reported disability (WHO-DAS-II). Quality of life (SF-36v2), alcohol use (AUDIT), social support (MSPSS), quality-adjusted life years (EQ-5D), and return to work outcomes were assessed via postal questionnaires. Results A total of 382 claimants consented to participate at the beginning of the study, and these participants were approached at each wave. Retention was high (65%). The average age of participants at Wave 1 was 48.6 years, with 65% of the sample sustaining minor injuries (Injury Severity Score=1–3). Conclusions This study has collected a unique sample of data to investigate recovery patterns of claimants with minor injuries. Future publications will more fully assess the effects of the collected measures on recovery rates 2 years post-RTC. PMID:24799996

  16. Determinants of road traffic crash fatalities across Indian States.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Michael; Treibich, Carole

    2013-08-01

    This article explores the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in India. In addition to income, the analysis considers the sociodemographic population structure, motorization levels, road and health infrastructure and road rule enforcement as potential factors. An original panel data set covering 25 Indian states is analyzed using multivariate regression analysis. Time and state fixed-effects account for unobserved heterogeneity across states and time. The rising motorization, urbanization and accompanying increase in the share of vulnerable road users, that is, pedestrians and two-wheelers, are the major drivers of road traffic crash fatalities in India. Among vulnerable road users, women form a particularly high-risk group. Higher expenditure per police officer is associated with a lower fatality rate. The results suggest that India should focus, in particular, on road infrastructure investments that allow the separation of vulnerable from other road users on improved road rule enforcement and should pay special attention to vulnerable female road users. PMID:22936645

  17. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  18. The Journey from Traffic Offender to Severe Road Trauma Victim: Destiny or Preventive Opportunity?

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Kwok M.; Rao, Sudhakar; Burrell, Maxine; Weeramanthri, Tarun S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Road trauma is a leading cause of death and injury in young people. Traffic offences are common, but their importance as a risk indicator for subsequent road trauma is unknown. This cohort study assessed whether severe road trauma could be predicted by a history of prior traffic offences. Methodology and Principal Findings Clinical data of all adult road trauma patients admitted to the Western Australia (WA) State Trauma Centre between 1998 and 2013 were linked to traffic offences records at the WA Department of Transport. The primary outcomes were alcohol exposure prior to road trauma, severe trauma (defined by Injury Severity Score >15), and intensive care admission (ICU) or death, analyzed by logistic regression. Traffic offences directly leading to the road trauma admissions were excluded. Of the 10,330 patients included (median age 34 years-old, 78% male), 1955 (18.9%) had alcohol-exposure before road trauma, 2415 (23.4%) had severe trauma, 1360 (13.2%) required ICU admission, and 267 (2.6%) died. Prior traffic offences were recorded in 6269 (60.7%) patients. The number of prior traffic offences was significantly associated with alcohol-related road trauma (odds ratio [OR] per offence 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.05), severe trauma (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.14–1.15), and ICU admission or death (OR 1.10, 95%CI 1.08–1.11). Drink-drinking, seat-belt, and use of handheld electronic device offences were specific offences strongly associated with road trauma leading to ICU admission or death—all in a ‘dose-related’ fashion. For those who recovered from road trauma after an ICU admission, there was a significant reduction in subsequent traffic offences (mean difference 1.8, 95%CI 1.5 to 2.0) and demerit points (mean difference 7.0, 95%CI 6.5 to 7.6) compared to before the trauma event. Significance Previous traffic offences were a significant risk factor for alcohol-related road trauma and severe road trauma leading to ICU admission or

  19. Predictability of road traffic and congestion in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  20. Predictability of Road Traffic and Congestion in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  1. Traffic accidents, facial injuries, and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Berger, J C

    1975-01-01

    The extent to which emotional factors play a direct or indirect role in the causation of traffic accidents has been presented along with the early and late emotional response of individuals to facial injuries as a result of traffic accidents. Illustrated case histories are presented. PMID:1116323

  2. A macro traffic flow model accounting for road capacity and reliability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, T. Q.; Shi, W. F.; Yang, X. B.; Wang, Y. P.; Lu, G. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Based on existing traffic flow models, in this paper we develop a macro traffic flow model taking into consideration road capacity to study the impact of the road capacity on traffic flow. The numerical results show that the road capacity destroys the stability of uniform flow and produces stop-and-go traffic under a moderate density and that the road capacity enhances the traffic risk coefficient and reduces the traffic system’s reliability. In addition, the numerical results show that properly improving the road condition can enhance the road capacity, reduce the traffic risk coefficient and enhance the traffic system’s reliability.

  3. The influences of drivers/riders in road traffic crashes in Ghana between 2001 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Amo, Thompson

    2014-07-01

    The road traffic accident (RTA) is a global misfortune and the leading cause of death among young drivers. In safeguarding and developing innovative safety strategies to curtail the situation, the factors causing this menace needs proper attention and investigation. The objective of this study is to identify the potential factors responsible for causing a traffic accident in Ghana. In studying these factors extensively, a descriptive study with quantitative technique was employed. Analyses used data between 2001 and 2011 obtained from the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) with specific focus on the age, drinking, vehicle defect, driver/rider error, injury, road surface type and weather. A total of 200,528 cases of drivers/riders were analysed and discovered that, people with younger age (21-40) contribute 62.97% of total crashes. Crashes reduce steadily as drivers/riders age increases. Also, the vehicle defect analysis shows that 87.46% of accidents cannot be linked to the fault of the vehicle before incidence, while the majority (75.38%) of drivers/riders had no injury during a traffic accident. Higher number of fatalities are recorded on tar good roads (81.57%) and clear weather (91.75%). The fight against this canker by the authorities must consider periodic refresher courses for younger drivers/riders on traffic law to bring to bear the adherence of good driving/riding principles and attitudes to ensure that safety is guaranteed for all road users in the country. PMID:24999145

  4. The Influences of Drivers/Riders in Road Traffic Crashes in Ghana between 2001 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Thompson

    2014-01-01

    The road traffic accident (RTA) is a global misfortune and the leading cause of death among young drivers. In safeguarding and developing innovative safety strategies to curtail the situation, the factors causing this menace needs proper attention and investigation. The objective of this study is to identify the potential factors responsible for causing a traffic accident in Ghana. In studying these factors extensively, a descriptive study with quantitative technique was employed. Analyses used data between 2001 and 2011 obtained from the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) with specific focus on the age, drinking, vehicle defect, driver/rider error, injury, road surface type and weather. A total of 200,528 cases of drivers/riders were analysed and discovered that, people with younger age (21-40) contribute 62.97% of total crashes. Crashes reduce steadily as drivers/riders age increases. Also, the vehicle defect analysis shows that 87.46% of accidents cannot be linked to the fault of the vehicle before incidence, while the majority (75.38%) of drivers/riders had no injury during a traffic accident. Higher number of fatalities are recorded on tar good roads (81.57%) and clear weather (91.75%). The fight against this canker by the authorities must consider periodic refresher courses for younger drivers/riders on traffic law to bring to bear the adherence of good driving/riding principles and attitudes to ensure that safety is guaranteed for all road users in the country. PMID:24999145

  5. Road risk-perception and pedestrian injuries among students at Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Jehan M.; Day, Hannah; Hirshon, Jon Mark; El-Setouhy, Maged

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) constitute 45% of injury mortality in Egypt; 75% of these injuries are pedestrians related. Traditionally, research on road traffic safety has focused on the traffic environment and the vehicles. However, little attention has been given to road risky behaviors and perceptions of road safety by pedestrians as risk factors associated with high pedestrian injury rates. This study aimed to examine the relationship between road risk- perception, specific road behaviors, and self-reported pedestrian injuries among university students in Cairo, Egypt. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among university students aged 18 to 24 years old at Ain Shams University in Cairo. Questions covered socio-demographic variables, injury episodes, road behaviors, road risk-perceptions, attitudes towards injury prevention, and road safety education. Results: The survey was completed by 1,324 students. Two hundred ninety (21.9%) of the participants suffered from pedestrian injury during the past 6 months; of these, 28.9% were admitted to hospital or clinic as a result of the injury, 39.3% were unable to go to university or leave home because of the injury for a period ranging from one day up to one week. Participants were more likely to suffer from pedestrian injury when they did not always "look both ways to cross the road", whereas always "waiting for a green light" was protective. Students who "perceived it safe to cross the road from any point" or "did not perceive it to be safer to cross at a zebra crossing" were less likely to "look both ways" before crossing the road. Similarly, there was a positive association between road safety education and participants’ road crossing behaviors. Conclusion: Inappropriate youths' road behaviors were significantly associated with pedestrian injury. There was also a positive association between road risk perception and road behaviors. This suggests that a behavioral approach together

  6. Traffic jam induced by a crosscut road in a traffic-flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Seno, Tadachika

    1994-06-01

    A deterministic cellular automaton model is presented to simulate the traffic jam induced by a crosscut road in a two-dimensional traffic flow. The effect of a crosscut road on the traffic flow is investigated by the use of a computer simulation. The traffic jam appears when a shock (discontinuous interface of different car densities) is formed. The condition for shock formation is derived for car densities p y and p x of the crosscut road and its crossing streets. The phase diagram and the dependence of the traffic flow on the car densities are shown. Also, we study the shock structure and the scaling of its width. The width Δ w of the shock scales with the system size L as Δ w ≈ L{1}/{2}. We present a self-consistent mean-field theory for the traffic flow.

  7. Road Traffic and Childhood Leukemia: The ESCALE Study (SFCE)

    PubMed Central

    Amigou, Alicia; Sermage-Faure, Claire; Orsi, Laurent; Leverger, Guy; Baruchel, André; Bertrand, Yves; Nelken, Brigitte; Robert, Alain; Michel, Gérard; Margueritte, Geneviève; Perel, Yves; Mechinaud, Françoise; Bordigoni, Pierre; Hémon, Denis; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Background Traffic is a source of environmental exposures, including benzene, which may be related to childhood leukemia. Objectives A national registry–based case–control study [ESCALE (Etude Sur les Cancers et les Leucémies de l’Enfant, Study on Environmental and Genetic Risk Factors of Childhood Cancers and Leukemia)] carried out in France was used to assess the effect of exposure to road traffic exhaust fumes on the risk of childhood leukemia. Methods Over the study period, 2003–2004, 763 cases and 1,681 controls < 15 years old were included, and the controls were frequency matched with the cases on age and sex. The ESCALE data were collected by a standardized telephone interview of the mothers. Various indicators of exposure to traffic and pollution were determined using the geocoded addresses at the time of diagnosis for the cases and of interview for the controls. Indicators of the distance from, and density of, main roads and traffic nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations derived from traffic emission data were used. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using unconditional regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Results Acute leukemia (AL) was significantly associated with estimates of traffic NO2 concentration at the place of residence > 27.7 μg/m3 compared with NO2 concentration < 21.9 μg/m3 [OR = 1.2; confidence interval (CI), 1.0–1.5] and with the presence of a heavy-traffic road within 500 m compared with the absence of a heavy-traffic road in the same area (OR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0–3.6). There was a significant association between AL and a high density of heavy-traffic roads within 500 m compared with the reference category with no heavy-traffic road within 500 m (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1–4.2), with a significant positive linear trend of the association of AL with the total length of heavy-traffic road within 500m. Conclusion This study supports the hypothesis that living close to heavy-traffic roads may increase the risk of

  8. Mapping noise pollution from road traffic for regional environmental planning

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, D.J.; France, J.

    1982-03-01

    Attempts were made to assess and map noise pollution from traffic for 1 km grid squares throughout South Yorkshire. The method adopted involved estimating traffic noise at source for all major road sections and modeling the attenuation of noise with distance by use of a variety of relationships developed by road traffic engineers. Results of the analysis were plotted by computer. This paper outlines the methods used in the analysis, presents the data and discusses the results. It is concluded that the method provides a realistic picture of noise pollution in South Yorkshire, and might be used more widely as an instrument of regional survey.

  9. Are traffic injuries disproportionally more common among tourists in Greece? Struggling with incomplete data.

    PubMed

    Petridou, E; Dessypris, N; Skalkidou, A; Trichopoulos, D

    1999-11-01

    Data concerning injury hazards among tourists are difficult to obtain because estimates of person-time denominators are rarely available. Existing sources are limited to enumeration of injured or killed persons by nationality and type of injury and the analysis can only rely on proportional indicators. Since 1995, the Regional Hospital in the tourist island of Kerkyra (Corfu) has been covering all types of accidents including road traffic injuries, in the context of the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System (EDISS). The catchment area of this hospital practically coincides with the island population. About 15% of all accidents are traffic-related among either permanent residents or Greek tourists, but they represent 40% among tourists of foreign nationalities. This is suggestive, but far from conclusive evidence, that traffic injuries may be more common among foreign tourists. There are indications that accidents among foreign tourists overall are slightly more serious. Among Greek tourists, the ratio between peak and non-peak period is similar for non-traffic injuries (7.4) and traffic injuries (6.8), whereas among foreign tourists the corresponding ratio is 9.2 for non traffic injuries and 15.0 for traffic injuries. This pattern is difficult to explain in terms other than an excess risk of traffic injuries among foreign tourists. PMID:10487335

  10. The Research of Road Traffic Based on Floating Car Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junyou; Jian, Meng; Tang, Rui

    Based on the analysis of floating car traffic information acquisition and processing system structure and construction frame, combining the Zibo floating car features and road conditions, using historical data provided by Zibo city bus companies, adopting the ArcGIS Engine of ESRI company as a map components, putting forward the nearest point estimate map matching algorithms, combining data fusion technology based on Kalman filter and road running speed calibration algorithm, predicting road traffic running status in certain period and express it in the GIS map, this paper completed the design, the practice has proved the suggested method is feasible.

  11. Underreporting of traffic injuries involving children in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, S; Wakai, S

    2001-01-01

    Background—Significant underreporting of road traffic injuries by the police has been documented, even in developed countries. The objective of this study was to clarify the magnitude of underreporting of police data in Japan. Methods—Police reports were compared with those of the fire department and the Marine and Fire Insurance Association of Japan. Results—The results reveal significant underreporting by police of child vehicle occupant injuries. The true incidence of these injuries in preschoolers was twice as high as that provided by official police reports. Conclusion—Police reports would underestimate the magnitude of vehicle occupant injuries in children and distort any evaluations of preventive initiatives. Improving the police report system, and establishing a more comprehensive trauma registry, that would include data from hospitals and insurance companies should be implemented. PMID:11565993

  12. Nonintrusive system for road traffic detection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugarte, M. F.; Briz, S.; Durán, L.

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the number, type, and velocity of the vehicles that drive along a road is extremely important to manage efficiently the traffic flow and also to estimate the environmental impact that the road may have in the surroundings. In this work the development and preliminary tests for a nonintrusive instrument and method for traffic characterization have been carried out. The system is part of a methodology to estimate the contaminants emitted to air due to urban and suburban road traffic. Based on a set of ultrasonic sensors, the system has shown reliability and accuracy in the determination of the number, type, and velocity of vehicles in a suburban road with several lanes and two ways. The success of this system lies on the method and data processing which overcomes the intrinsic noise problems of ultrasonic sensors. The developed system is easy to install and does not interfere with the road traffic. It is also of low cost, has no moving parts, and requires small power supply. The proposed system is an ideal tool to perform traffic studies where portability and low costs are required, for example, in environmental impact assessments studies.

  13. Nonintrusive system for road traffic detection and characterization.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, M F; Briz, S; Durán, L

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the number, type, and velocity of the vehicles that drive along a road is extremely important to manage efficiently the traffic flow and also to estimate the environmental impact that the road may have in the surroundings. In this work the development and preliminary tests for a nonintrusive instrument and method for traffic characterization have been carried out. The system is part of a methodology to estimate the contaminants emitted to air due to urban and suburban road traffic. Based on a set of ultrasonic sensors, the system has shown reliability and accuracy in the determination of the number, type, and velocity of vehicles in a suburban road with several lanes and two ways. The success of this system lies on the method and data processing which overcomes the intrinsic noise problems of ultrasonic sensors. The developed system is easy to install and does not interfere with the road traffic. It is also of low cost, has no moving parts, and requires small power supply. The proposed system is an ideal tool to perform traffic studies where portability and low costs are required, for example, in environmental impact assessments studies. PMID:21361639

  14. Road rage and road traffic accidents among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2012-04-01

    Road rage and road traffic accidents increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in a population. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 901) to record their behaviours/experiences regarding road rage and road traffic accidents. Respondents were asked about incidents of shouting/cursing/rude gestures or threats to physically hurt the person/vehicle, by others or themselves, in the previous 24 hours or 3 months, and their involvement in road traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. Auto-rickshaw drivers were significantly more likely to report various road rage experiences/behaviours and involvement in accidents compared with bus and wagon drivers. A total of 112 respondents (12.4%) reported being involved in a road traffic accident in the previous 12 months but traffic police did not record the accident in 52.7% of cases. The results of this study underline the need to improve road safety in Pakistan. PMID:22768706

  15. A dynamic traffic simulator for roads affected by natural hasards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voumard, J.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Derron, M.-H.

    2012-04-01

    This work focuses on the issue of natural hazards threatening roads. Nowadays, risk estimations of rock falls or landslides affecting whole sections of road are generally quite accurate and under relatively good control. Mitigation measures provide intervention means to reduce the hazards along roads. However, as classical models of risk calculation on communication routes do not take into account the dynamic traffic parameters, little is known on the way of reducing the risk at road level. It is not known precisely what really happens on the road when an event occurs and how vehicles interact. A dynamic traffic simulator in development provides information on factors having an impact on the risk level related to the road. Variables such as visibility, curvature radius of turns or vehicle type were included in the model. Varying these variables within dynamic traffic simulations can suggest solutions to minimize the risks for road users. These simulations can provide answers to various questions, such as: does speed have a significant impact on the risk incurred by drivers? Is it possible to significantly reduce the risk with appropriate speeds? The simulation is performed with the MATLAB © software. The model is yet to be calibrated and validated through in situ tests.

  16. Alcohol-related road traffic accidents before and after the passing of the Road Traffic Safety Act in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Missoni, Eduard; Bozić, Boris; Missoni, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    were caused by drivers with more than 0.5 per thousand and up to 1.5 per thousand in 2005 (in 2006 - 2,582), along with 53 fatalities (1 fewer than in 2006). Drivers with more than 1.5 per thousand participated in 2,809 accidents (2006 - 2,844), with the number of killed drivers amounting to 57, three fewer than in 2006. In light of these facts, alcohol use still remains a significant factor in road traffic accidents and is an important area for injury prevention efforts. PMID:23390856

  17. Comparison of road traffic emission models in Madrid (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borge, Rafael; de Miguel, Isabel; de la Paz, David; Lumbreras, Julio; Pérez, Javier; Rodríguez, Encarnación

    2012-12-01

    Many cities in Europe have difficulties to meet the air quality standards set by the European legislation, most particularly the annual mean Limit Value for NO2. Road transport is often the main source of air pollution in urban areas and therefore, there is an increasing need to estimate current and future traffic emissions as accurately as possible. As a consequence, a number of specific emission models and emission factors databases have been developed recently. They present important methodological differences and may result in largely diverging emission figures and thus may lead to alternative policy recommendations. This study compares two approaches to estimate road traffic emissions in Madrid (Spain): the COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT4 v.8.1) and the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA v.3.1), representative of the 'average-speed' and 'traffic situation' model types respectively. The input information (e.g. fleet composition, vehicle kilometres travelled, traffic intensity, road type, etc.) was provided by the traffic model developed by the Madrid City Council along with observations from field campaigns. Hourly emissions were computed for nearly 15 000 road segments distributed in 9 management areas covering the Madrid city and surroundings. Total annual NOX emissions predicted by HBEFA were a 21% higher than those of COPERT. The discrepancies for NO2 were lower (13%) since resulting average NO2/NOX ratios are lower for HBEFA. The larger differences are related to diesel vehicle emissions under "stop & go" traffic conditions, very common in distributor/secondary roads of the Madrid metropolitan area.In order to understand the representativeness of these results, the resulting emissions were integrated in an urban scale inventory used to drive mesoscale air quality simulations with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modelling system (1 km2 resolution). Modelled NO2 concentrations were compared

  18. Monitoring and assessing global impacts of roads and off-road vehicle traffic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid increases in the number of vehicles, urban sprawl, exurban development and infrastructure development for energy and water have led to dramatic increases in both the size and extent of the global road network. Anecdotal evidence suggests that off-road vehicle traffic has also increased in many...

  19. The influence of road traffic noise on sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhardt, J. L.

    1988-12-01

    The influence of road traffic noise on the sleep of adults and 6-11 year old children was studied by using electrophysiological methods. Young adults, unaccustomed to traffic noise, were disturbed by continuous and intermittent traffic noise at 45 dB(A). No sleep disturbances were found for continuous traffic noise at 36 dB(A). Car passages with a peak noise level of 55 dB(A) caused awakenings. The equivalent sound pressure level ( Leq) did not correlate with sleep disturbance effects. A better noise dose description was found in the number of vehicles per night that made most noise. Children wer about 10 dB(A) less sensitive than adults to awakening reactions, and even less sensitive with respect to disturbances of REM sleep and deep sleep. Total habituation to road traffic noise did not occur, even after at least one year of exposure. Sound reduction in the bedroom induced increased amounts of deep sleep for adults and reduced falling-asleep time for children. Road traffic noise during the first hours of a night's sleep tended to disturb sleep more than when it ocurred later in the night, the main effects being a reduction of the total amount of REM sleep during the night and an increased duration of intermittent wakefulness during the hours of exposure.

  20. The amount of consolation compensation in road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Jou, Rong-Chang

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the amount of consolation compensation that road accident perpetrators were willing to pay victims. It used 2010 statistics for general road accidents from Taiwan's National Police Agency (NPA) for further sampling and to mail questionnaires. In investigating consolation compensation, the framework of the contingent valuation method was used, and the data were collected through the design of different scenarios. In this study, five injury levels were designed to further analyse the consolation compensation price the perpetrators were willing to pay: minor injury, moderate injury, serious injury, disability, and death. The results revealed the price that many perpetrators were willing to pay was zero; however, we overcame this issue by using the Spike model. The estimated results showed that road accident perpetrators were willing to pay more consolation compensation with increased injury severity. PMID:24598034

  1. Epidemiologic Pattern of Fatal Traffic Injuries among Iranian Drivers; 2004–2010

    PubMed Central

    BAKHTIYARI, Mahmood; MEHMANDAR, Mohammad Reza; RIAHI, Seyed Mohammad; MANSOURNIA, Mohammad Ali; SARTIPI, Majid; BAHADORIMONFARED, Ayad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to their specific nature, such as high incidence, high intensity and direct involvement of all members of society, traffic injuries are of particular importance. Through a mega data, this study investigated the epidemiological aspects and depict current situation of road traffic injuries in Iran. Methods: Using legal medicine and traffic police data, deaths from road traffic injuries in men were predicted through determining the most appropriate model for death using time series statistical models; and then most important human factors associated with it in a period of 6 yr in Iran was analyzed using multi-nominal regression model. Results: The frequency of deaths from traffic injuries in the last seven years was 172,834 cases and the number of deaths at the accident scene was 42798 cases, of which 24.24% (41,971 cases) were recorded by the Traffic Police experts. Death rate from traffic injuries has been declined from 38 cases per 100,000 people in 2004 to 31 cases per 100,000 people between 2009 and 2010. Fatigue and sleepiness (AOR=10.36, 95% CI: 8.41–13.3) was the most significant human risk factors for death outcome in the urban and suburban traffic injuries. According to the predictions, the death rate is about 16488 (CI 95%, 8531–24364) for the year 2012. Conclusion: Despite all measures to prevent such injuries, even fatal injuries have still a high incidence. Intervention in the human risk factors field would be more effective due to their important roles in traffic injuries in Iran. PMID:27252920

  2. Epidemiology of road traffic accidents during pleasure travelling: the evidence from the Island of Crete.

    PubMed

    Petridou, E; Askitopoulou, H; Vourvahakis, D; Skalkidis, Y; Trichopoulos, D

    1997-09-01

    During the six-month period April to September 1995, all 730 road traffic injury victims who contacted any of the three hospitals of the Heraklion District in the island of Crete, directly or through the Medical Emergency Transportation Network, were recorded. A special form was completed containing information about selected characteristics of the victims, nature of the injuries and conditions of the accident. All 39 fatalities owing to road traffic accidents were also registered. In the absence of data concerning the person-time at risk only proportional analyses could be performed. On the basis of Greek hospital discharge statistics in Heraklion District during 1992, one foreigner visitor was discharged owing to injuries of any type for every 18 Greeks. The corresponding ratio for road traffic accidents is close to 1:3, underlying the importance of road traffic accidents as the major health hazard during pleasure travelling. Left-side driving country nationals were at an increased risk for traffic accident when they drove a rented rather than an owned vehicle (p = 0.02), possibly on account of maladaptation during the adjustment period in the country of visit. Moreover, road traffic victims from left-side driving countries compared with foreigners from right-side driving countries were involved 2.5 times more frequently in accidents in which overpassing or other driving maneuvers require reflexes conditioned on reverse directionality (p = 0.02). Alcohol abuse was reported as a primary cause of accident in a significantly higher proportion of foreign nationals (p < 10(-6)) reflecting the fact that the latter group was on vacation. Alcohol intoxication was more common among Eastern European victims than among victims from European Union countries (p < 10(-5)). The likelihood of death following hospitalization ranged from 0% among those with a Glascow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or higher, to 90% among those with GCS less than 8. After adjustment for exact GCS

  3. Prediction of road traffic death rate using neural networks optimised by genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Seyed Ali; Jahandideh, Sepideh; Jahandideh, Mina; Asadabadi, Ebrahim Barzegari

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are realised as a main cause of public health problems at global, regional and national levels. Therefore, prediction of road traffic death rate will be helpful in its management. Based on this fact, we used an artificial neural network model optimised through Genetic algorithm to predict mortality. In this study, a five-fold cross-validation procedure on a data set containing total of 178 countries was used to verify the performance of models. The best-fit model was selected according to the root mean square errors (RMSE). Genetic algorithm, as a powerful model which has not been introduced in prediction of mortality to this extent in previous studies, showed high performance. The lowest RMSE obtained was 0.0808. Such satisfactory results could be attributed to the use of Genetic algorithm as a powerful optimiser which selects the best input feature set to be fed into the neural networks. Seven factors have been known as the most effective factors on the road traffic mortality rate by high accuracy. The gained results displayed that our model is very promising and may play a useful role in developing a better method for assessing the influence of road traffic mortality risk factors. PMID:24304230

  4. Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data.

    PubMed

    Imawan, Ardi; Indikawati, Fitri Indra; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS) centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information) system-a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index) that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset. PMID:27563900

  5. [The forensic-medical characteristic of the injuries inflicted to a pedestrian in a road traffic accident by the vehicle in the side and front impact position].

    PubMed

    Leonov, S V; Pinchuk, P V

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to distinguish between the separate phases of the car-to-pedestrian collision with the vehicle being in the side and front impact position. The secondary objective was to determine characteristics of injuries specific for the collisions of this type. The methods employed in the study included the analysis of archival materials and video sequence images. We propose to consider a special type of injury resulting from the car-to-pedestrian collision with the vehicle being in the side and front impact position and to distinguish its two varieties. One of them is caused by the vehicle hitting the pedestrian front laterally, the other arises from the oblique-transverse collision. Each type of collision produces injuries with highly specific characteristics. PMID:27500477

  6. Road traffic accidents in hilly regions of northern India: What has to be done?

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Anil Kumar; Joshi, Chitra; Singh, Mridu; Singh, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Road traffic accidents (RTA) are responsible for 1.2 million deaths worldwide each year. RTA will become the 3rd largest contributor to the global burden of diseases after ischemic heart diseases (IHD) and depression. We conducted a retrospective study on RTA in a tertiary center in the hilly district of Uttarakhand in India. METHODS: The number of RTA, pattern of RTA, the number of patients killed and injured, the pattern of injury causing death and disability, the severity of accidents, and the type of disability were noted from December 2009 to November 2011. The accident severity was calculated as the number of patients killed per 100 accidents. The methods for reducing the incidence of RTA were observed, and the role of policy makers was studied. RESULTS: The majority of deaths and disabilities in Uttarakhand were due to road traffic accidents in the hilly districts of the states. The most common cause of RTA was driving fault followed by defective roads. CONCLUSION: Proper designing of roads and minimizing the fault of drivers are essential to prevent road traffic accidents in hilly regions. PMID:25215159

  7. Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children after Road Traffic Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolt, Markus A.; Vollrath, Margarete; Timm, Karin; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Sennhauser, Felix H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively assess the prevalence, course, and predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) in children after road traffic accidents (RTAs). Method: Sixty-eight children (6.5-14.5 years old) were interviewed 4-6 weeks and 12 months after an RTA with the Child PTSD Reaction Index (response rate 58.6%). Their mothers (n = 60)…

  8. The Effect of Road Traffic Noise on Reaction Time

    PubMed Central

    Alimohammadi, Iraj; Zokaei, Mojtaba; Sandrock, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traffic noise is one of the main important sources in urban noise pollution, which causes various physiological and psychological effects that can cause disturbs in performance, sleep disturbances, hearing loss and impact on job performance. This study was conducted to verify the impact of road traffic noise on reaction time in terms of extraversion and sex. Methods: Traffic noise was measured and recorded in 10 arterial streets in Tehran, and then the recorded noise was emitted towards participants in an acoustic room. The participants were 80 (40 cases and 40 controls) students. Personality type was determined by Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) questioner. Reaction time before and after exposure to traffic noise was measured. Results: Reaction time before exposure to traffic noise did not differ (P=0.437) significantly between introverts and extraverts. However, it was increased significantly in both groups after exposure to traffic noise (P<0.01). Introvert’s reaction time was more increased than that of extraverts. Conclusion: Traffic noise augmented reaction time of both males and females. This study also revealed that exposure to traffic noise leads to increase in reaction time. PMID:26634199

  9. [Severity of injury of alcohol intoxicated pedestrians in street traffic].

    PubMed

    Mittmeyer, H J

    1991-01-01

    The evaluation of 251 autopsy cases of pedestrians who suffered fatal accidents in road traffic documents that the influence of alcohol entails an additional risk of injury for pedestrians in motor car accidents. In particular, severe trauma to the head, thorax and abdomen occur, whilst injuries to the pelvis and limbs are generally not more serious than in sober pedestrians. In the classical collision constellation of the pedestrian at the front end of cars, the upper part of the body is evidently especially endangered in the further movement phase. This phenomenon might be connected above all with the impairment of the voluntary reaction capacity due to alcohol during the sequence of evidents in the accident. PMID:1811504

  10. Phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.

    2009-11-01

    Based on empirical and numerical analyses of vehicular traffic, the physics of spatiotemporal phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads is revealed. The complex dynamics of moving jams observed in single vehicle data measured by video cameras on American highways is explained by the nucleation-interruption effect in synchronized flow, i.e., the spontaneous nucleation of a narrow moving jam with the subsequent jam dissolution. We find that (i) lane changing, vehicle merging from on-ramps, and vehicle leaving to off-ramps result in different traffic phases—free flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving jams—occurring and coexisting in different road lanes as well as in diverse phase transitions between the traffic phases; (ii) in synchronized flow, the phase transitions are responsible for a non-regular moving jam dynamics that explains measured single vehicle data: moving jams emerge and dissolve randomly at various road locations in different lanes; (iii) the phase transitions result also in diverse expanded general congested patterns occurring at closely located bottlenecks.

  11. Traffic disruption and recovery in road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lele; de Gier, Jan; Garoni, Timothy M.

    2014-05-01

    We study the impact of disruptions on road networks, and the recovery process after the disruption is removed from the system. Such disruptions could be caused by vehicle breakdown or illegal parking. We analyze the transient behavior using domain wall theory, and compare these predictions with simulations of a stochastic cellular automaton model. We find that the domain wall model can reproduce the time evolution of flow and density during the disruption and the recovery processes, for both one-dimensional systems and two-dimensional networks.

  12. Modeling and formal analysis of urban road traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avram, Camelia; Machado, José; Aştilean, Adina

    2013-10-01

    Modern life in cities leads to complex urban traffic road and, sometimes, to go from one point to another, in a city, is a hard and very complex task. The use of assisted systems for helping drivers on their task of reaching the desired destination is being common, mainly systems like GPS location systems or other similar systems. The main gap of those systems is that they are not able to assist drivers when some unexpected changes occur, like accidents, or another unexpected situations. In this context, it would be desirable to have a dynamic system to inform the drivers, about everything that is happening "online". This work is inserted in this context and the work presented here is one part of a bigger project that has, as main goal, to be a dynamic system for assisting drivers under hard conditions of urban road traffic. In this paper is modeled, and formally analyzed, the intersection of four street segments, in order to take some considerations about this subject. This paper presents the model of the considered system, using timed automata formalism. The validation and verification of the road traffic model it is realized using UPPAAL model-checker.

  13. Effects of Road Traffic Noise on Inhabitants of Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Osada, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Hoshiyama, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    1997-08-01

    A questionnaire-based study was performed in an area of about 16 ha near a main road in Tokyo to elucidate any relations between road traffic noise and the effects of this noise among women living on both sides of the road. Questions concerned annoyance, sleep disturbance, interference with daily activities, health-related symptoms and disease histories. 366 inhabitants were analyzed. Dose-response relationships were found in high reported responses to noisiness, annoyance, dissatisfaction with the nearby environment and interference with listening to TV, conversation and reading. It was also found that the number of high responses to questions increases clearly at noise levels above 70 dB(A),Leq(24h), with regard to interference with thinking and sleep disturbance (waking during the night), fatigue, headache, gastroenteric disorders, loss of appetite, depression and irritation. Furthermore, there was an increase in reports of disease histories with noise above 70 dB(A) for climacteric disturbances, and at noise above 65 dB(A) for deafness, heart disease and hypercholestrolemia. These all suggest that noise may be related to the health status of inhabitants living in areas with heavy road traffic. A noise level of 65 dB(A) or 70 dB(A) inLeq(24h)was the critical point above which respondents indicated increased effects on health and reports of disease increased.

  14. Risk factors for severe injury in cyclists involved in traffic crashes in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; de Rome, Liz; Senserrick, Teresa; Ivers, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the impact of cyclist, road and crash characteristics on the injury severity of cyclists involved in traffic crashes reported to the police in Victoria, Australia between 2004 and 2008. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify predictors of severe injury (serious injury and fatality) in cyclist crashes reported to the police. There were 6432 cyclist crashes reported to the police in Victoria between 2004 and 2008 with 2181 (33.9%) resulting in severe injury of the cyclist involved. The multivariate analysis found that factors that increase the risk of severe injury in cyclists involved in traffic crashes were age (50 years and older), not wearing a helmet, riding in the dark on unlit roads, riding on roads zoned 70 km/h or above, on curved sections of the road, in rural locations and being involved in head-on collisions as well as off path crashes, which include losing control of vehicle, and on path crashes which include striking the door of a parked vehicle. While this study did not test effectiveness of preventative measures, policy makers should consider implementation of programs that address these risk factors including helmet programs and environmental modifications such as speed reduction on roads that are frequented by cyclists. PMID:23036419

  15. Do unpaved, low-traffic roads affect bird communities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammides, Christos; Kounnamas, Constantinos; Goodale, Eben; Kadis, Costas

    2016-02-01

    Unpaved, low traffic roads are often assumed to have minimal effects on biodiversity. To explore this assertion, we sampled the bird communities in fifteen randomly selected sites in Pafos Forest, Cyprus and used multiple regression to quantify the effects of such roads on the total species richness. Moreover, we classified birds according to their migratory status and their global population trends, and tested each category separately. Besides the total length of unpaved roads, we also tested: a. the site's habitat diversity, b. the coefficient of variation in habitat (patch) size, c. the distance to the nearest agricultural field, and d. the human population size of the nearest village. We measured our variables at six different distances from the bird point-count locations. We found a strong negative relationship between the total bird richness and the total length of unpaved roads. The human population size of the nearest village also had a negative effect. Habitat diversity was positively related to species richness. When the categories were tested, we found that the passage migrants were influenced more by the road network while resident breeders were influenced by habitat diversity. Species with increasing and stable populations were only marginally affected by the variables tested, but the effect of road networks on species with decreasing populations was large. We conclude that unpaved and sporadically used roads can have detrimental effects on the bird communities, especially on vulnerable species. We propose that actions are taken to limit the extent of road networks within protected areas, especially in sites designated for their rich avifauna, such as Pafos Forest, where several of the affected species are species of European and global importance.

  16. Speed, road injury, and public health.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elihu D; Berman, Tamar; Friedman, Lee; Ben-David, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    We review milestones in the history of increases in speed limits and travel speeds ("speed creep") and risks for road deaths and injury. Reduced speed limits, speed-camera networks, and speed calming substantially reduce these tolls in absolute numbers-a trend that is apparent in the United Kingdom, Australia, France, and other countries, but not in the United States, which has raised speed limits and does not have speed-camera networks. Newtonian relationships between the fourth power of small increases or reductions in speed and large increases or reductions in deaths state the case for speed control. Speed adaptation and the interaction between speed and other determinants of injury risks, including congestion and countermeasures, enter into these relationships. Speed-camera networks and speed calming lead to large, sustainable, and highly cost-effective drops in road deaths and injuries and should target entire populations, not merely high-risk subgroups or situations. Yet, there are major barriers to preventive strategies based on the discovery that speed kills. Modal shifts from speed on roads to speed on rail, lower maximum vehicle speeds, and speed-camera networks are required for progress toward Vision Zero-the goal of no road deaths-through Killing Speed. The human cost of the delay in killing speed in the United States may be as high as 20,000 lives lost per year. PMID:16533112

  17. Road traffic and adverse effects on respiratory health in children.

    PubMed Central

    Wjst, M; Reitmeir, P; Dold, S; Wulff, A; Nicolai, T; von Loeffelholz-Colberg, E F; von Mutius, E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine whether road traffic in a big city has a direct effect on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in children. DESIGN--Cross sectional study. SETTING--Of all 7445 fourth grade children (aged 9-11 years) in Munich, 6537 were examined. Of the children with German nationality and the same residence during the past five years and known exposure data, 4678 questionnaires and 4320 pulmonary function tests could be analysed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Variables of pulmonary function by forced expiration and respiratory symptoms reported in a questionnaire; census data on car traffic collected in the school district. RESULTS--Density of car traffic ranged from 7000 to 125,000 cars per 24 hours. Multiple regression analysis of peak expiratory flow showed a significant decrease of 0.71% (95% confidence interval 1.08% to 0.33%) per increase of 25,000 cars daily passing through the school district on the main road. Maximum expiratory flow when 25% vital capacity had been expired was decreased by 0.68% (1.11% to 0.25%). In contrast, response to cold air challenge was not increased. The adjusted odds ratio for the cumulative prevalence of recurrent wheezing with the same exposure was 1.08 (1.01 to 1.16). Cumulative prevalence of recurrent dyspnoea was increased, with an odds ratio of 1.10 (1.00 to 1.20). Lifetime prevalence of asthma (odds ratio 1.04; 0.89 to 1.21) and recurrent bronchitis (1.05; 0.98 to 1.12) were not significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS--High rates of road traffic diminish forced expiratory flow and increase respiratory symptoms in children. Images FIG 1 PMID:7691304

  18. Road traffic impact on urban water quality: a step towards integrated traffic, air and stormwater modelling.

    PubMed

    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Bonhomme, Céline; Petrucci, Guido; André, Michel; Seigneur, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Methods for simulating air pollution due to road traffic and the associated effects on stormwater runoff quality in an urban environment are examined with particular emphasis on the integration of the various simulation models into a consistent modelling chain. To that end, the models for traffic, pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and deposition, and stormwater contamination are reviewed. The present study focuses on the implementation of a modelling chain for an actual urban case study, which is the contamination of water runoff by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the Grigny urban catchment near Paris, France. First, traffic emissions are calculated with traffic inputs using the COPERT4 methodology. Next, the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants is simulated with the Polyphemus line source model and pollutant deposition fluxes in different subcatchment areas are calculated. Finally, the SWMM water quantity and quality model is used to estimate the concentrations of pollutants in stormwater runoff. The simulation results are compared to mass flow rates and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn measured at the catchment outlet. The contribution of local traffic to stormwater contamination is estimated to be significant for Pb and, to a lesser extent, for Zn and Cd; however, Pb is most likely overestimated due to outdated emissions factors. The results demonstrate the importance of treating distributed traffic emissions from major roadways explicitly since the impact of these sources on concentrations in the catchment outlet is underestimated when those traffic emissions are spatially averaged over the catchment area. PMID:24288064

  19. An overview of research advances in road traffic trauma in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengguo; Jiang, Jianxin

    2003-03-01

    With rapid development of social economies, road traffic accidents (RTAs) have continued to increase, and have become the "primary public hazard" to humans. Road traffic trauma (RTT) is a major cause of death in young people of all motorized countries. This article reviews the current advances in RTT research, in order to find some approaches to improving traffic administration and reducing RTAs and RTT. All available data were collected from government, literature, our own research, and conference proceedings. Statistical analysis from every country showed that human factors were still the main cause of RTAs, accounting for more than 90%. Vehicle and road factors caused 3-5% and less than 2% of the total RTAs, respectively. Approximately 85% of RTAs were caused by 21 to 45-year-olds. About 50% of deaths due to RTAs in the United States were related to drinking. In China, RTAs due to driver drinking accounted for 0.29-1.48%. About 6-8% of drivers were prone to RTA, causing 30-40% of RTAs. Seat belts are an effective way to prevent casualties, reducing mortality and morbidity by 13-50%. In China, about 70% of RTAs were related to bicycles. Prehospital emergency treatment is very important. About 35% of deaths may be avoided if the injured receive early and effective treatment. From 1983 to 1992 the mortality of RTT increased by 13% in 18 developing countries, while it decreased by 18% in 13 developed countries, indicating the importance of comprehensive treatment of traffic administration. In addition many advances have been made in basic scientific research of RTT, such as development of serial bioimpact machines and investigation of biomechanical and biochemical mechanisms of impact injuries. In this century, RTAs and RTT are predicted to continue to increase in many countries, especially in developing ones. Full cooperation and comprehensive treatment should be performed in order to improve traffic safety. PMID:14522656

  20. Mortality after road traffic crashes in a system with limited trauma data capability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Africa has 4% of the global vehicles but accounts for about one tenth of global vehicular deaths. Major trauma in Kenya is associated with excess mortality in comparison with series from trauma centers. The determinants of this mortality have not been completely explored. Objectives To determine the factors affecting mortality among road users in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Cross-sectional study of prospectively collected data of trauma admissions at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a calendar year (2009–2010). Information collected included age, gender, road user type, principal anatomical region of injury, admission status, admission blood pressure and GCS, disposition destination, Injury Severity Score (ISS), injuries sustained, treatment and mortality at two weeks. Major or severe injury was defined as injuries of ISS > 15. Groups based on in-hospital survival were compared using determinants of mortality using X2 or students t-test as appropriate. Logistic regression was used to assess the independence of predictive variables. Results One thousand six hundred forty seven (1647) patients were admitted for trauma during the study period. Traffic admissions were 1013 (61.7%) and males predominated (79.8%). The average age of patients admitted was 31.7 years. Pedestrians, vehicle occupants and motorcyclists represented 43.3%, 27.2% and 15.2% of the road users injured. The proportion of patients with ISS > 15 was 10.9%. The overall mortality was 7.7%. Mortality for ISS > 15 was 27.6%. The following factors significantly predicted mortality on univariate analysis: head injury, abdominal injury, transfer in status, blood transfusion, ICU admission, age > 60 years, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and injury severity. GCS (p = 0.001) and ISS > 15 (p < 0.05) remained significant predictors on regression analysis. Conclusion Trauma mortality rates in this study exceed those from mature trauma systems. Head injury and injury severity

  1. A basic neural traffic noise prediction model for Tehran's roads.

    PubMed

    Givargis, Sh; Karimi, H

    2010-12-01

    We present an artificial neural network model to predict hourly A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (L(Aeq,1h)) for roads in Tehran at distances less than 4 m from the nearside carriageway edge. Our model uses the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CORTN) approach. Data were obtained from 50 sampling locations near five roads in Tehran at nearside carriageway edge distances of less than 4 m. The data were randomly assigned to training, testing, and holdout subsets. Model training was carried out using the training and testing subsets and comprised 60% and 20% of the data, respectively. Model validation was performed using the remaining 20% of data as a holdout subset. We examine the overall model efficiency using non-parametric tests, such as the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test for the training step and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for two independent samples for the validation step. Our results indicate that a neural network approach can be applied for traffic noise prediction in Tehran in a statistically sound manner. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test detects no significant difference between the absolute testing set errors of the developed neural network and a calibrated version of the CORTN model. PMID:20678858

  2. The effects of road traffic noise on mental performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Noise is one of the more widespread pollutions of road transportation system, which can cause deterioration in performance. This experimental study was designed to assess the effect of road traffic noise on performance with regard to extra/introversion and sex of participants. The personality trait of extra/introversion has been remarked as relevant factor to mental performance. Results Thirty six (26 males and 10 females) medical sciences students of Tehran University participated in the study. The students were placed in an unechoing room and performed the Cognitrone test from Vienna Test System in quiet condition and under road traffic noise (71 dBA). The results of this study pointed out that noise increased the percentage of sum of correct answers but had no effect on the speed of performance. Furthermore this study showed that performance was enhanced in extroverts (P=0.001) but no significant difference was found in introverts (P ≤0.05). Conclusions The regression analysis revealed that extra/introversion was more important than sex to predict the performance parameters. PMID:23394722

  3. A Study on Urban Road Traffic Safety Based on Matter Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhou, Zhuping; Sun, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure. PMID:25587267

  4. A study on urban road traffic safety based on matter element analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhou, Zhuping; Sun, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure. PMID:25587267

  5. The rising burden of serious thoracic trauma sustained by motorcyclists in road traffic crashes.

    PubMed

    Bambach, M R; Mitchell, R J

    2014-01-01

    In many countries increased on-road motorcycling participation has contributed to increased motorcyclist morbidity and mortality over recent decades. Improved helmet technologies and increased helmet wearing rates have contributed to reductions in serious head injuries, to the point where in many regions thoracic injury is now the most frequently occurring serious injury. However, few advances have been made in reducing the severity of motorcyclist thoracic injury. The aim of the present study is to provide needed information regarding serious motorcyclist thoracic trauma, to assist motorcycling groups, road safety advocates and road authorities develop and prioritise counter-measures and ultimately reduce the rising trauma burden. For this purpose, a data collection of linked police-reported and hospital data was established, and considerable attention was given to establishing a weighting procedure to estimate hospital cases not reported to police and fatal cases not admitted to hospital. The resulting data collection of an estimated 19,979 hospitalised motorcyclists is used to provide detailed information on the nature, incidence and risk factors for thoracic trauma. Over the last decade the incidence of motorcyclist serious thoracic injury has more than doubled in the population considered, and by 2011 while motorcycles comprised 3.2% of the registered vehicle fleet, one quarter of road traffic-related serious thoracic trauma cases treated in hospitals were motorcyclists. Motor-vehicle collisions, fixed object collisions and non-collision crashes were fairly evenly represented amongst these cases, while older motorcyclists were over-represented. Several prevention strategies are identified and discussed. PMID:24200907

  6. Genotoxicity Biomarkers Associated with Exposure to Traffic And Near-Road Atmospheres: A Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotoxicity Biomarkers Associated with Exposure to Traffic And Near-Road Atmospheres: A Review Diesel and gasoline emissions, which are the primary components of traffic exhaust, are known or possible human carcinogens, re...

  7. Road Traffic Noise Exposure in Gothenburg 1975–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ögren, Mikael; Barregard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Traffic noise exposure within a city varies over time and space. In this study, we developed a modified noise calculation method and used this method together with population and traffic data to estimate the time trend of noise exposure for the population in Gothenburg, Sweden, from 1975 to 2010. The noise calculation method was based on the standard Nordic method for road traffic noise with modifications using area-level statistics for population and building structures instead of precise geocoding of each inhabitant. Noise emission per vehicle was assumed to be constant over the period. The results show an increase in noise exposure over time. The number of inhabitants exposed at an equivalent level above 55 dB increased from 93000 to 146000 inhabitants between 1975 and 2010, and the percentage of the population exposed at this level increased from 22% to 29% over the same period. Traffic increase (1.4% per year) and population increase/concentration (0.50% per year) were approximately equally important factors behind this increase in exposure. PMID:27171440

  8. Road Traffic Noise Exposure in Gothenburg 1975-2010.

    PubMed

    Ögren, Mikael; Barregard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Traffic noise exposure within a city varies over time and space. In this study, we developed a modified noise calculation method and used this method together with population and traffic data to estimate the time trend of noise exposure for the population in Gothenburg, Sweden, from 1975 to 2010. The noise calculation method was based on the standard Nordic method for road traffic noise with modifications using area-level statistics for population and building structures instead of precise geocoding of each inhabitant. Noise emission per vehicle was assumed to be constant over the period. The results show an increase in noise exposure over time. The number of inhabitants exposed at an equivalent level above 55 dB increased from 93000 to 146000 inhabitants between 1975 and 2010, and the percentage of the population exposed at this level increased from 22% to 29% over the same period. Traffic increase (1.4% per year) and population increase/concentration (0.50% per year) were approximately equally important factors behind this increase in exposure. PMID:27171440

  9. Noise sensitivity and road traffic annoyance in a population sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Y.; Rylander, R.

    1991-12-01

    Noise sensitivity was studied in a random sample of the population of Gothenburg, Sweden. The selected population of 805 persons received a mailed questionnaire comprising questions on self-reported noise sensitivity, attitudes to noise, annoyance due to environmental noises and the effect of noise on daily activities. The response rate was 56%. Noise sensitivity was most common in older age groups. Noise-sensitive individuals were more annoyed by road traffic noise, and also reported interference with daily activities to a higher extent than non-sensitive persons. Listening to music while working or reading was also less common in the noise-sensitive group.

  10. The Characteristics of Road Traffic Fatalities in Kazakhstan’s Semey Region, 2006-2010: A Descriptive Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    MYSSAYEV, Ayan; MEIRMANOV, Serik; RAKHYPBEKOV, Tolebay; BULEGENOV, Tolkyn; SEMENOVA, Yuliya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Kazakhstan, a developing middle-income country, has the highest road traffic collision (RTC) mortality in the European Region. The aims of this study were to determine main characteristics of road traffic fatalities in Semey region, Kazakhstan and to compare findings with National data and middle-income European countries. Methods This descriptive surveillance study assesses RTC mortality rates and epidemiology in the Semey Region of East Kazakhstan Oblast. Data of all 318 road traffic fatalities form the Semey Regional Center for Forensic Medicine were analyzed for the 5-year period of January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2010. Results Over the study period, the average road traffic mortality in the Semey Region was 12.1 per 100,000 population with downward trend by 35.1% (p=0.002). The victims mean age was 37.1 (SD=17) years. Males predominated at 74.5%. Vehicle fatality was the most common mode of fatality at 61.3%. The majority of collisions, 53.1%, occurred on highways. Most victims, 67.3%, have died at the scene of collision; in 67.3% of fatalities, autopsies identified multiple injuries as cause of death. The high number of fatal collisions took place in “no snow” season (P<0.001), with an overall 5-years downward dynamic. Conclusion High proportion of males, pedestrians and car occupants among road traffic fatalities; high proportion of death on scene in case of highway collisions are specifics for Semey region, Kazakhstan. These findings can be used to formulate preventive strategies to reduce fatalities and to improve the medical care system for road traffic fatalities. PMID:26110146

  11. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Crashes and Transported by Emergency Medical Services.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Ying; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chuang, Jung-Fang; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the injury characteristics and mortality of patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) and hospitalized for trauma following a road traffic crash, data obtained from the Trauma Registry System were retrospectively reviewed for trauma admissions between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 in a Level I trauma center. Of 16,548 registered patients, 3978 and 1440 patients injured in road traffic crashes were transported to the emergency department by EMS and non-EMS, respectively. Patients transported by EMS had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores and worse hemodynamic measures. Compared to patients transported by non-EMS, more patients transported by EMS required procedures (intubation, chest tube insertion, and blood transfusion) at the emergency department. They also sustained a higher injury severity, as measured by the injury severity score (ISS) and the new injury severity score (NISS). Lastly, in-hospital mortality was higher among the EMS than the non-EMS group (1.8% vs. 0.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). However, we found no statistically significant difference in the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for mortality among patients transported by EMS after adjustment for ISS (AOR 4.9, 95% CI 0.33-2.26), indicating that the higher incidence of mortality was likely attributed to the patients' higher injury severity. In addition, after propensity score matching, logistic regression of 58 well-matched pairs did not show a significant influence of transportation by EMS on mortality (OR: 0.578, 95% CI: 0.132-2.541 p = 0.468). PMID:26907318

  12. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Crashes and Transported by Emergency Medical Services

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Ying; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chuang, Jung-Fang; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the injury characteristics and mortality of patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) and hospitalized for trauma following a road traffic crash, data obtained from the Trauma Registry System were retrospectively reviewed for trauma admissions between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 in a Level I trauma center. Of 16,548 registered patients, 3978 and 1440 patients injured in road traffic crashes were transported to the emergency department by EMS and non-EMS, respectively. Patients transported by EMS had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores and worse hemodynamic measures. Compared to patients transported by non-EMS, more patients transported by EMS required procedures (intubation, chest tube insertion, and blood transfusion) at the emergency department. They also sustained a higher injury severity, as measured by the injury severity score (ISS) and the new injury severity score (NISS). Lastly, in-hospital mortality was higher among the EMS than the non-EMS group (1.8% vs. 0.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). However, we found no statistically significant difference in the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for mortality among patients transported by EMS after adjustment for ISS (AOR 4.9, 95% CI 0.33–2.26), indicating that the higher incidence of mortality was likely attributed to the patients’ higher injury severity. In addition, after propensity score matching, logistic regression of 58 well-matched pairs did not show a significant influence of transportation by EMS on mortality (OR: 0.578, 95% CI: 0.132–2.541 p = 0.468). PMID:26907318

  13. Informing road traffic intervention choices in South Africa: the role of economic evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Wesson, Hadley K.H.; Boikhutso, Nkuli; Hyder, Adnan A.; Bertram, Melanie; Hofman, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Given the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in South Africa, economic evaluations of prevention interventions are necessary for informing and prioritising public health planning and policy with regard to road safety. Methods In view of the dearth of RTI cost analysis, and in order to understand the extent to which RTI-related costs in South Africa compare with those in other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), we reviewed published economic evaluations of RTI-related prevention in LMICs. Results Thirteen articles were identified, including cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness studies. Although RTI-related risk factors in South Africa are well described, costing studies are limited. There is minimal information, most of which is not recent, with nothing at all on societal costs. Cost-effective interventions for RTIs in LMICs include bicycle and motorcycle helmet enforcement, traffic enforcement, and the construction of speed bumps. Discussion Policy recommendations from studies conducted in LMICs suggest a number of cost-effective interventions for consideration in South Africa. They include speed bumps for pedestrian safety, strategically positioned speed cameras, traffic enforcement such as the monitoring of seatbelt use, and breathalyzer interventions. However, interventions introduced in South Africa will need to be based either on South African cost-effectiveness data or on findings adapted from similar middle-income country settings. PMID:27396485

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among bus drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Bus provides a main mode of public transport in Vietnam, but the risk of road traffic crash for bus drivers is unknown. This retrospective study estimated the crash prevalence among bus drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam, and identified driver characteristics affecting their crashes. Information on bus crashes for the period 2006-2009 was collected by interviewing drivers from five bus companies in Hanoi using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine pertinent risk factors affecting the crash prevalence for bus drivers. Of the total 365 participants recruited, 73 drivers reported 76 crashes, giving an overall crash prevalence of 20%. Among the crashed group, three drivers (4%) were involved in two crashes during the past 3 years. Crashes mainly occurred on streets or local roads (81%). Migrant worker (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.20-8.25) and insufficient income perceived (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.37-4.93) were identified to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are needed to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of bus drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent traffic injury of these drivers. PMID:23190322

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Injury due to road traffic crash is a major cause of ill health and premature deaths in developing countries. Taxis provide a main mode of public transport in Vietnam but there has been little research on the risk of crash for taxi drivers. This retrospective study collected information on taxi crashes for the period 2006-2009 by interviewing drivers from five taxi companies in Hanoi, Vietnam, using a structured questionnaire. Of the total 1214 participants recruited, 276 drivers reported at least one crash, giving an overall crash prevalence of 22.7%. Among the crashed group, 50 drivers (18.1%) were involved in two to four crashes. Logistic regression analysis further identified age of driver, type of driving licence, employment status, perceived sufficiency of income, seat-belt usage, and traffic infringement history to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are recommended to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of taxi drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent injury of these commercial drivers. PMID:22683278

  16. Predictors of children's sleep onset and maintenance problems after road traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Wittmann, Lutz; Zehnder, Daniel; Jenni, Oskar G.; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep onset and maintenance problems are a frequent complaint after traumatic events in children. However, the association of traumatic experiences and disturbed sleep remains to be explained. Objective To examine the incidence of sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after road traffic accidents and identify potential predictors of sleep onset and maintenance problems, including putative psychopathological mechanisms as well as stressors affecting the family system. Method In 33 children treated for injuries after road traffic accidents, sleep and measures of psychopathology were assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after hospital admission. The predictive value of four clusters of predictor variables for children's sleep onset and maintenance problems was prospectively tested by multiple regression analyses. These clusters included socio-demographic, injury- and accident-related, and psychopathological variable clusters as well as factors reflecting stressors concerning mothers and family. Results Children suffering from posttraumatic stress reported a prolonged subjective sleep latency. The severity of sleep onset and maintenance problems was predicted by female sex and the child's as well as mothers’ posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity. Conclusions Sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after trauma appear to result from a complex interaction of multiple factors. Our findings support the transactional model of sleep-wake regulation that bears implications for the development of adequate intervention strategies. PMID:22893829

  17. Community response to road traffic noise in Kumamoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T.; Yamashita, T.; Izumi, K.

    1991-12-01

    The present study used the same questionnaire and noise measurement method as was employed in the Muroran-Gothenburg Joint Study. The object was to investigate the difference in community response owing to different environmental and/or social factors, such as climate, house structure, nationality and characteristics of the cities, by directly comparing data from Kumamoto (or Kyushu), Muroran (or Hokkaido) and, in the near future, Gothenburg. For the survey, an area along a main road in Kumamoto was selected, which had a traffic volume greater than 60 000 vehicles/day in 1989. The interview method was used in the survey. Day-long measurements were conducted at the reference point in the area and 10-minute simultaneous measurements were also conducted at the road shoulder and in front of the houses. The following main conclusions can be presented. (1) noise exposure in front of the wall facing the road may be greater than that in front of the wall of the living room. (2) Leq contributes most to TV/radio disturbance in Kumamoto, but contributes least in Muroran; this difference appears to be dependent upon the difference in noise exposure and window type: 96 dB(A) maximum noise level and single pane in Kumamoto vs. 86 dB(A) and double pane in Muroran.

  18. Road Traffic Accident Victims’ Experiences of Return to Normal Life: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Pashaei Sabet, Fatemeh; Norouzi Tabrizi, Kian; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Saadat, Soheil; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Bastami, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Road traffic accident (RTA) victims also suffer from different types of injuries and disabilities, which can affect their quality of life. They usually face with various physical, mental, and social problems. Most traffic accident victims had difficulty to return to normal life. Objectives This study aimed to understand the experiences of return to normal life in RTA victims. Patients and Methods This qualitative study with content analysis approach was conducted on 18 Iranian patients with disability in the upper or lower limbs caused by traffic accidents, who had passed a time between 3 months till 2 years. A purposeful sampling method was applied until reaching data saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Afterwards, the gathered data were analyzed through conventional content analysis. Results By analyzing 498 primary codes, four main categories, including supportive needs, adaptation to the new situation, seeking information, and transition from functional limitation, were extracted from traffic accident victims’ experiences of reintegration to normal life. Conclusions The results of this study may help policy-makers to take steps toward health promotion and recovery of RTA victims. Considering the results of this study, it is a need for further research to investigate RTAs victims’ needs for reintegration to home and community. Access to training and supportive facilities like strong therapeutic, nursing and social support, and the possibility to participate in self-care activities is essential for reintegration to community in RTA victims. PMID:27275399

  19. Road traffic related mortality in Vietnam: Evidence for policy from a national sample mortality surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are among the leading causes of mortality in Vietnam. However, mortality data collection systems in Vietnam in general and for RTIs in particular, remain inconsistent and incomplete. Underlying distributions of external causes and body injuries are not available from routine data collection systems or from studies till date. This paper presents characteristics, user type pattern, seasonal distribution, and causes of 1,061 deaths attributable to road crashes ascertained from a national sample mortality surveillance system in Vietnam over a two-year period (2008 and 2009). Methods A sample mortality surveillance system was designed for Vietnam, comprising 192 communes in 16 provinces, accounting for approximately 3% of the Vietnamese population. Deaths were identified from commune level data sources, and followed up by verbal autopsy (VA) based ascertainment of cause of death. Age-standardised mortality rates from RTIs were computed. VA questionnaires were analysed in depth to derive descriptive characteristics of RTI deaths in the sample. Results The age-standardized mortality rates from RTIs were 33.5 and 8.5 per 100,000 for males and females respectively. Majority of deaths were males (79%). Seventy three percent of all deaths were aged from 15 to 49 years and 58% were motorcycle users. As high as 80% of deaths occurred on the day of injury, 42% occurred prior to arrival at hospital, and a further 29% occurred on-site. Direct causes of death were identified for 446 deaths (42%) with head injuries being the most common cause attributable to road traffic injuries overall (79%) and to motorcycle crashes in particular (78%). Conclusion The VA method can provide a useful data source to analyse RTI mortality. The observed considerable mortality from head injuries among motorcycle users highlights the need to evaluate current practice and effectiveness of motorcycle helmet use in Vietnam. The high number of deaths occurring on

  20. Automatic 3D high-fidelity traffic interchange modeling using 2D road GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-03-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations. However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially for those existing in the real world. Real road network contains various elements such as road segments, road intersections and traffic interchanges. Among them, traffic interchanges present the most challenges to model due to their complexity and the lack of height information (vertical position) of traffic interchanges in existing road GIS data. This paper proposes a novel approach that can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models, including traffic interchange models, from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road centerline information. The proposed method consists of several steps. The raw road GIS data are first preprocessed to extract road network topology, merge redundant links, and classify road types. Then overlapped points in the interchanges are detected and their elevations are determined based on a set of level estimation rules. Parametric representations of the road centerlines are then generated through link segmentation and fitting, and they have the advantages of arbitrary levels of detail with reduced memory usage. Finally a set of civil engineering rules for road design (e.g., cross slope, superelevation) are selected and used to generate realistic road surfaces. In addition to traffic interchange modeling, the proposed method also applies to other more general road elements. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is highly effective and useful in many applications.

  1. The effect of road traffic noise on house prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. M.; Breston, B. E.; Hall, F. L.

    1982-02-01

    Existing U.K. legislation compensates home owners for house price depreciation due to increases in environmental noise caused by public works. Several previous studies have been attempted to show the effects of noise on house prices but have been inconclusive because of a failure to meet basic requirements for a rigorous analysis. In this paper these requirements are discussed and a study designed to fulfil them based on the southern Ontario housing market is described. Data on 2277 individual housing transactions at 51 sites close to major roadways were analyzed to determine the effects of road traffic noise on house prices. Results show that noise has a significant and consistent effect equal to approximately 254 per decibel depreciation at the arterial sites examined and 312 per decibel depreciation at the expressway sites.

  2. Path Analysis of the Community Response to Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshida, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Hoshiyama, Y.; Yamamoto, K.

    1997-08-01

    Path analysis was applied to data collected in a social survey on the community response to traffic noise along a trunk road in Tokyo. The data were collected from more than 390 female residents by means of a questionnaire. A path model was developed for the causal relation of the noise annoyance, dissatisfaction with living environment, and the wish of the respondents to move to the antecedent variables, including noise levels, personal factors, and noise effects. The strongest effect on annoyance was for the noise level, followed by interferences with daily activities. The model explains 43% of the variation in annoyance. The dissatisfaction with the living environment and wish of respondents to move depended strongly on noise annoyance, but other factors should also be considered, as only 33% and 19% of their variation, respectively, could be explained by the model.

  3. Comparison of modeled traffic exposure zones using on-road air pollution measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeled traffic data were used to develop traffic exposure zones (TEZs) such as traffic delay, high volume, and transit routes in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina (USA). On-road air pollution measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxid...

  4. Human factors in the causation of road traffic crashes.

    PubMed

    Petridou, E; Moustaki, M

    2000-01-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are responsible for a substantial fraction of morbidity and mortality and are responsible for more years of life lost than most of human diseases. In this review, we have tried to delineate behavioral factors that collectively represent the principal cause of three out of five RTCs and contribute to the causation of most of the remaining. Although sharp distinctions are not always possible, a classification of behavioral factors is both necessary and feasible. Thus, behavioral factors can be distinguished as (i) those that reduce capability on a long-term basis (inexperience, aging, disease and disability, alcoholism, drug abuse), (ii) those that reduce capability on a short-term basis (drowsiness, fatigue, acute alcohol intoxication, short term drug effects, binge eating, acute psychological stress, temporary distraction), (iii) those that promote risk taking behavior with long-term impact (overestimation of capabilities, macho attitude, habitual speeding, habitual disregard of traffic regulations, indecent driving behavior, non-use of seat belt or helmet, inappropriate sitting while driving, accident proneness) and (iv) those that promote risk taking behavior with short-term impact (moderate ethanol intake, psychotropic drugs, motor vehicle crime, suicidal behavior, compulsive acts). The classification aims to assist in the conceptualization of the problem that may also contribute to behavior modification-based efforts. PMID:11297224

  5. Road Traffic Accident: An Emerging Public Health Problem in Assam

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Ahmed, Faruquddin

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the northern states, there is hardly any scientific study except road traffic accidents (RTAs) statistics obtained by the Ministry of Home whereas the main way of transportation is by road. There is the increasing load of motor vehicles on the already dilapidated roadways which has resulted in the increasing trend of RTAs in Assam. Objectives: To find out the prevalence, probable epidemiological factors and morbidity and mortality pattern due to RTAs in Dibrugarh district. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study was carried out in Dibrugarh district from September 1998 to August 1999 under the department of Community Medicine. The information was collected from Assam Medical College and Hospital and cross checked with the police report. A medical investigation including interview, clinical and radiological investigation was carried out; in case of fatality, post-mortem examination was examined in details. An on the spot investigation was carried out in accessible RTAs to collect the probable epidemiological factors. Results: RTAs affected mainly the people of productive age group which were predominantly male. Majority of the RTAs were single vehicle accidents and half of the victims were passengers. Accident rate was maximum in twilight and winter season demanding high morbidity and mortality. Head and neck, U.limb and L.limb were commonly involved. Conclusion: RTAs is a major public health problem in Assam which needs more scientific study. PMID:23878423

  6. Greasy roads: the impact of bad financial news on road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Vandoros, Sotiris; Kavetsos, Georgios; Dolan, Paul

    2014-03-01

    We use evidence from a natural experiment in Greece to study the effect of the announcement of austerity measures on road traffic accidents (RTAs). We use daily RTA data from 2010 and 2011, during which a number of austerity measures were announced, including salary and pension cuts and an increase in direct and indirect taxes. We find that controlling for other factors potentially influencing RTAs, the number of RTAs increased significantly on the first two days following the announcements of austerity measures. We put forward some tentative suggestions for why this happens. PMID:24117892

  7. Extent, consequences and economic burden of road traffic crashes in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Satar; Arab, Mohammad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) as a result of road traffic crashes (RTCs) rank as the leading cause of death, disability and property loss worldwide, especially in low and middle-income countries. This study aims to analyze the costs of RTCs in Iran. Methods: A standard human capital approach was used to estimate the costs. Costs included medical, administrative and funeral costs, property damage, production lost and intangible costs. Data about the number of deaths and injuries resulting from RTIs between 20 March 2009 and 20 March 2010 was obtained from two national databases designed at the Center for Disaster Management and Medical Emergencies (CDMME) and the Legal Medicine Organization (LMO), respectively. The severity and medical costs of injuries were identified by reviewing 400 medical records that were selected randomly from patients who were admitted to two large trauma centers in Shariati and Sina hospitals in Tehran province. Moreover, information about production lost, property damage, rehabilitation cost, intangible costs and administration costs were collected by review of current evidence and consulting with expert opinion. Results: In total 806,922 RTIs and 22,974 deaths resulted from the RTCs in the study period. The total cost of RTCs was about 72,465 billion Rials (7.2 billion US Dollars), which amounts to 2.19% of Iran’s Gross Domestic Production (GDP). Direct costs were 3,516 billion Rials (around 48.6 % of the total costs), following by 24,785 billion Rials (around 34.2 % of the total costs) for production lost and 12,513 billion Rials (around 17.2 % of the total costs) for intangible costs. Conclusions: This study indicated that the burden of both RTCs and RTIs in Iran is substantial. Moreover, RTCs have significant economic consequences and are a large drain on healthcare resources. PMID:24045158

  8. Road traffic noise shielding by vegetation belts of limited depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Renterghem, T.; Botteldooren, D.; Verheyen, K.

    2012-05-01

    Road traffic noise propagation through a vegetation belt of limited depth (15 m) containing periodically arranged trees along a road is numerically assessed by means of 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations. The computational cost is reduced by only modeling a representative strip of the planting scheme and assuming periodic extension by applying mirror planes. With increasing tree stem diameter and decreasing spacing, traffic noise insertion loss is predicted to be more pronounced for each planting scheme considered (simple cubic, rectangular, triangular and face-centered cubic). For rectangular schemes, the spacing parallel to the road axis is predicted to be the determining parameter for the acoustic performance. Significant noise reduction is predicted to occur for a tree spacing of less than 3 m and a tree stem diameter of more than 0.11 m. This positive effect comes on top of the increase in ground effect (near 3 dBA for a light vehicle at 70 km/h) when compared to sound propagation over grassland. The noise reducing effect of the forest floor and the optimized tree belt arrangement are found to be of similar importance in the calculations performed. The effect of shrubs with typical above-ground biomass is estimated to be at maximum 2 dBA in the uniform scattering approach applied for a light vehicle at 70 km/h. Downward scattering from tree crowns is predicted to be smaller than 1 dBA for a light vehicle at 70 km/h, for various distributions of scattering elements representing the tree crown. The effect of the presence of tree stems, shrubs and tree crowns is predicted to be approximately additive. Inducing some (pseudo)randomness in stem center location, tree diameter, and omitting a limited number of rows with trees seem to hardly affect the insertion loss. These predictions suggest that practically achievable vegetation belts can compete to the noise reducing performance of a classical thin noise barrier (on grassland) with a height of 1

  9. Economic Burden of Road Traffic Accidents; Report from a Single Center from South Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sargazi, Aliyeh; Sargazi, Atefeh; Nadakkavukaran Jim, Prigil Kumar; Danesh, HoseinAli; Aval, ForoughSargolzaee; Kiani, Zohre; Lashkarinia, AmirHosein; Sepehri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the economic burden of road traffic accidents (RTAs) in patients admitted to a single center in south eastern Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Amir-Al-Momenin hospital of Zabol affiliated with Zabol University of Medical Sciences during a 12-month period from April 2012 to April 2013. All the RTAs patients who were admitted to our emergency department were included. The direct expenses of hospital care were recorded according to their medical charts and the accountant registration information. Data are presented according to different RTAs characteristics. Results: Overall 1155 patients were included in the current study with mean age of 36.7 ± 5.14 years among whom there were 673(58.3%) men and 482 (41.7%) women. The annual incidence of RTAs were calculated to be 288 per 100,000 population. The RTAs economic burden in our center was 589,448.49 USD which accounted for 10.4% of total hospital expenses during the study period. The money spend on RTAs in our center was 130 times more than gross national income per capita. Cost of each patient in road traffic was 15 times more than cost of an average patient of the hospital in other sections. Conclusion: With considerable high ratio of accidents in Zabol, proper intervention is needed for controlling and preventing RTAs in order to decrease its injuries, impact and the associated economic burden. PMID:27162926

  10. Road-traffic pollution and asthma – using modelled exposure assessment for routine public health surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Elspeth C; Maheswaran, Ravi; Daly, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease and appears to be increasing in prevalence. There is evidence linking air pollution, including that from road-traffic, with asthma. Road traffic is also on the increase. Routine surveillance of the impact of road-traffic pollution on asthma, and other diseases, would be useful in informing local and national government policy in terms of managing the environmental health risk. Several methods for exposure assessment have been used in studies examining the association between asthma and road traffic pollution. These include comparing asthma prevalence in areas designated as high and low pollution areas, using distance from main roads as a proxy for exposure to road traffic pollution, using traffic counts to estimate exposure, using vehicular miles travelled and using modelling techniques. Although there are limitations to all these methods, the modelling approach has the advantage of incorporating several variables and may be used for prospective health impact assessment. The modelling approach is already in routine use in the United Kingdom in support of the government's strategy for air quality management. Combining information from such models with routinely collected health data would form the basis of a routine public health surveillance system. Such a system would facilitate prospective health impact assessment, enabling policy decisions concerned with road-traffic to be made with knowledge of the potential implications. It would also allow systematic monitoring of the health impacts when the policy decisions and plans have been implemented. PMID:15485575

  11. Methods to improve traffic flow and noise exposure estimation on minor roads.

    PubMed

    Morley, David W; Gulliver, John

    2016-09-01

    Address-level estimates of exposure to road traffic noise for epidemiological studies are dependent on obtaining data on annual average daily traffic (AADT) flows that is both accurate and with good geographical coverage. National agencies often have reliable traffic count data for major roads, but for residential areas served by minor roads, especially at national scale, such information is often not available or incomplete. Here we present a method to predict AADT at the national scale for minor roads, using a routing algorithm within a geographical information system (GIS) to rank roads by importance based on simulated journeys through the road network. From a training set of known minor road AADT, routing importance is used to predict AADT on all UK minor roads in a regression model along with the road class, urban or rural location and AADT on the nearest major road. Validation with both independent traffic counts and noise measurements show that this method gives a considerable improvement in noise prediction capability when compared to models that do not give adequate consideration to minor road variability (Spearman's rho. increases from 0.46 to 0.72). This has significance for epidemiological cohort studies attempting to link noise exposure to adverse health outcomes. PMID:27350039

  12. The influence of traffic signal solutions on self-reported road-crossing behavior.

    PubMed

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; Megías, Alberto; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Catena, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Injury to pedestrians is a major safety hazard in many countries. Since the beginning of the last century, modern cities have been designed around the use of motor vehicles despite the unfavourable interactions between the vehicles and pedestrians. This push towards urbanization resulted in a substantial number of crashes and fatalities involving pedestrians every day, all over the world. Thus, improving the design of urban cities and townships is a pressing issue for modern society. The study presented here provides a characterization of pedestrian safety problems, with the emphasis on signalized crosswalks (i.e. traffic signal) design solutions. We tested the impact of seven different traffic light configurations (steady [green, yellow, and red], flashing [green, yellow, and red], and light off) on pedestrian self-reported road-crossing behavior, using a 11-point scale -ranging from 0 ("I never cross in this situation") to 10 ("I always cross in this situation"). Results showed that mandatory solutions (steady green vs. steady red) are the best solutions to avoid unsafe pedestrian behaviors while crossing controlled intersections (frequency of crossing: Mgreen = 9.4 ± 1 vs. Mred = 2.6 ± 2). These findings offer important guidelines for the design of future traffic signals for encouraging a pedestrian/transit-friendly environment. PMID:26055356

  13. Roads and traffic: Effects on ecology and wildlife habitat use; applications for cooperative adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    The land of the United States in dissected by more than 4 million miles of roads that fragment wildlife habitat on both public and private lands. Traffic on these roads causes additional effects. On secondary roads, which provide access to the most natural habitat, the levels, timing, and types of traffic are seldom known. In order to understand the effects of traffic on wildlife, USGS is conducting research cooperatively with the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, and the Colorado Division of Wildlife.

  14. Effects of natural sounds on the perception of road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Coensel, Bert De; Vanwetswinkel, Sofie; Botteldooren, Dick

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies show that introducing sound from water features in urban open spaces may reduce the loudness of road traffic noise, but it is not clear in which situations this measure also improves overall soundscape quality. This work describes a listening experiment on loudness, pleasantness, and eventfulness of stimuli that combine road traffic noise with fountain or bird sound at different sound levels. Adding fountain sound reduced the loudness of road traffic noise only if the latter had low temporal variability. Conversely, adding bird sound significantly enhanced soundscape pleasantness and eventfulness, more than what was achieved by adding fountain sound. PMID:21476622

  15. A multiclass vehicular dynamic traffic flow model for main roads and dedicated lanes/roads of multimodal transport network

    SciTech Connect

    Sossoe, K.S.; Lebacque, J-P.

    2015-03-10

    We present in this paper a model of vehicular traffic flow for a multimodal transportation road network. We introduce the notion of class of vehicles to refer to vehicles of different transport modes. Our model describes the traffic on highways (which may contain several lanes) and network transit for pubic transportation. The model is drafted with Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates and uses a Logit model to describe the traffic assignment of our multiclass vehicular flow description on shared roads. The paper also discusses traffic streams on dedicated lanes for specific class of vehicles with event-based traffic laws. An Euler-Lagrangian-remap scheme is introduced to numerically approximate the model’s flow equations.

  16. [BTX monitoring nearby main road traffic in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Ye, Cong-Lei; Xie, Pin-Hua; Qin, Min; Ling, Liu-Yi; Zheng, Ni-Na; Liu, Wen-Bin; Huang, Zu-Zhao

    2012-11-01

    In order to study the levels of BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene, etc) nearby the main roads of Guangzhou from November 2010 to December 2010 during the Asian Games, BTX and conventional pollutants such as NO2, O3 in the air were monitored by the DOAS system nearby Huangsha Road, which is in the Liwan District of Guangzhou City. The results showed that, during the entire period, BTX showed a high concentration in the evening and the average concentrations of benzene, toluene, p-xylene, m-xylene and phenol were 15.9 microg x m(-3), 61.3 microg x m(-3), 6.5 microg x m(-3), 16.9 microg x m(-3), 0.88 microg x m(-3), respectively. The average concentrations of benzene and toluene were close to those in other cities, and the ratio of toluene to benzene was in range of 1.2-6.16. Throughout the monitoring period, the correlation coefficient of benzene and toluene was 0.86 and it rose to 0.985 during the high concentration period, indicating that they had the same source in this region. The correlation coefficient between toluene and CO was 0.78, indicating that traffic emissions was the major source of benzene and toluene. Based on the combination of wind speed, wind direction and other meteorological data, it was found that the weather condition was an important factor which affected the BTX concentration, and some possible point sources were suggested nearby the site. PMID:23323398

  17. High crash areas resulting in injuries and deaths in Tehran traffic areas from november 2011 through february 2012: a geographic information system analysis

    PubMed Central

    Salamati, Payman; Moradi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Amiri, Mousa; Soltani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evaluation of intra-city roads in terms of environmental factors of motor vehicle injuries can help us to better identify these factors and the share of each of the factors in injuries. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the high injury areas and the risk factors of motor vehicle crashes resulting in injury and death in Tehran, the capital city of Iran, from November 2011 through February 2012. Methods: In this cross sectional study, the locations of the motor vehicle injuries resulting in injuries and deaths were obtained from police stations in Tehran. The coordinates of the injuries locations were extracted and entered into the Arc-GIS software to overlay the different layers of geographical data and extract the risk map. Results: A total of 4257 motor vehicle injuries were evaluated in this study. Forty-two injuries (1%) resulted in death and 4215 injuries (99%) resulted in injury. The traffic districts 5 and 21 had the highest frequency of injuries resulting in death. The type of the motor vehicle resulting in injury or death was motorcycle in 2330 injuries (54.73%). Conclusion: The frequency of traffic injuries is more in the west and northwest areas of Tehran, and it is caused more by motorcycles in terms of traffic and motor injuries resulting in injury and death. It is useful to conduct more studies to better identify these factors considering their importance in traffic injuries. PMID:26478872

  18. Sleep disturbances from road traffic noise: A comparison between laboratory and field settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skånberg, A.; Öhrström, E.

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were any differences in the effects of noise on sleep between studies performed in the laboratory and in field settings with equal road traffic noise exposure. Fourteen subjects, living along a street with a relatively high load of road traffic and with bedroom windows facing the street, slept four nights at home and four nights in a sleep laboratory, where they were exposed to played back "home road traffic noise". Effects on sleep were evaluated by questionnaires and wrist-actigraphy. No significant differences in sleep quality were found between home and laboratory conditions on variables assessed either by questionnaires or wrist-actigraphy. It was concluded that laboratory experiments do not exaggerate the effects of road traffic noise on sleep, provided that sleep is studied with the same methods and that a homelike environment is created in the laboratory.

  19. Road-Traffic Noise: Annoyance, Risk Perception, and Noise Sensitivity in the Finnish Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W.; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09–3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00–1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p < 0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p < 000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  20. Road-traffic noise: annoyance, risk perception, and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09-3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00-1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p<0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p<000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  1. Guilt is associated with acute stress symptoms in children after road traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Ann-Christin; Zehnder, Daniel; Landolt, Markus A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although previous research has consistently found considerable rates of acute stress disorder (ASD) in children with accidental injuries, knowledge about determinants of ASD remains incomplete. Guilt is a common reaction among children after a traumatic event and has been shown to contribute to posttraumatic stress disorder. However, its relationship to ASD has never been examined. Objective This study assessed the prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents following road traffic accidents (RTAs). Moreover, the association between peritraumatic guilt and ASD was investigated relying on current cognitive theories of posttraumatic stress and controlling for female sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), injury severity, inpatient treatment, pretrauma psychopathology, and maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Methods One hundred and one children and adolescents (aged 7–16 years) were assessed by means of a clinical interview approximately 10 days after an RTA. Mothers were assessed by questionnaires. Results Three participants (3.0%) met diagnostic criteria for full ASD according to DSM-IV, and 17 (16.8%) for subsyndromal ASD. In a multivariate regression model, guilt was found to be a significant predictor of ASD severity. Female sex, outpatient treatment, and maternal PTSS also predicted ASD severity. Child age, SES, injury severity, and pretraumatic child psychopathology were not related to ASD severity. Conclusions Future research should examine the association between peritraumatic guilt and acute stress symptoms in more detail. Moreover, guilt appraisals in the acute phase after an accident might be a relevant target for clinical attention. PMID:26514158

  2. Traffic-related injury prevention interventions for low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Forjuoh, Samuel N

    2003-01-01

    Traffic-related injuries have become a major public health concern worldwide. However, unlike developed or high-income countries (HICs), many developing or low-income countries (LICs) have made very little progress towards addressing this problem. Lack of the progress in LICs is attributable, in part, to their economic situation in terms of their governments' lack of resources to invest in traffic safety, cultural beliefs regarding the fatalism of injuries, competing health problems particularly with the emergence of HIV/AIDS, distinctive traffic mixes comprising a substantial number of vulnerable road users for whom less research has been done, low literacy rates precluding motorists to read and understand road signs, and peculiar political situations occasionally predominated by dictatorship and non-democratic governments. How then can LICs tackle the challenge of traffic safety from the experiences of HICs without reinventing the wheel? This paper reviews selected interventions and strategies that have been developed to counter traffic-related injuries in HICs in terms of their effectiveness and their applicability to LICs. Proven and promising interventions or strategies such as seat belt and helmet use, legislation and enforcement of seat belt use, sidewalks, roadway barriers, selected traffic-calming designs (e.g., speed ramps/bumps), pedestrian crossing signs combined with clearly marked crosswalks, and public education and behavior modification targeted at motorists are all feasible and useable in LICs as evidenced by data from many LICs. While numerous traffic-related injury policy interventions and strategies developed largely in HICs are potentially transferable to LICs, it is important to consider country-specific factors such as costs, feasibility, sustainability, and barriers, all of which must be factored into the assessment of effectiveness in specific LIC settings. Almost all interventions and strategies that have been proven effective in HICs will

  3. Moose, caribou, and grizzly bear distribution in relation to road traffic in Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yost, A.C.; Wright, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    Park managers are concerned that moose (Alces alces), caribou (Rangifer tarandus), and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) may be avoiding areas along the 130 km road through Denali National Park as a result of high traffic volume, thus decreasing opportunities for visitors to view wildlife. A wildlife monitoring system was developed in 1996 that used 19 landscape level viewsheds, stratified into four sections based on decreasing traffic along the road corridor. Data were collected from 22 samplings of all viewsheds during May-August in 1996 and 1997. In 1997, nine backcountry viewsheds were established in three different areas to determine whether density estimates for each species in the backcountry were higher than those for the same animals in similar road-corridor areas. Densities higher than those in the road corridor were found in one backcountry area for moose and in two backcountry areas for grizzly bears. None of the backcountry areas showed a higher density of caribou. We tested hypotheses that moose, caribou, and grizzly bear distributions were unrelated to the road and traffic. Moose sightings were lower than expected within 300 m of the road. More caribou and grizzly bears than expected occurred between 601 and 900 m from the road, while more moose and fewer caribou than expected occurred between 900 and 1200 m from the road. Bull moose in stratum 1 were distributed farther from the road than bulls and cows in stratum 4; cows in stratum 1 and bulls in stratum 2 were distributed farther from the road than cows in stratum 4. Grizzly bears in stratum 2 were distributed farther from the road than bears in stratum 3. The distribution of moose sightings suggests traffic avoidance, but the spatial pattern of preferred forage may have had more of an influence. Caribou and grizzly bear distributions indicated no pattern of traffic avoidance.

  4. Risk assessment on an Argentinean road with a dynamic traffic simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Baumann, Valérie; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Penna, Ivanna

    2014-05-01

    The National Route 7 in Argentina is one of the most important corridors crossing the Andean Cordillera. It concentrates most of the traffic related to the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), it also connects Mendoza city (the fourth most populated in Argentina) with Santiago de Chile (the Chile capital city), and is used by tourists to access to the Aconcagua National park, Puente del Inca natural monument, skiing resorts, and to local displacements for the villages along the Mendoza valley. The road crosses the Andes through the Mendoza river valley at an elevation between 2'000 and 3'000 m. The traffic (2500 vehicles/day) is composed of motorcycles, cars and pickup trucks, trucks without trailer, buses, and semi-trailer trucks. Debris flows developed along tributaries of the Mendoza River, and due to remobilization of talus materials, impact frequently the road, causing traffic disruptions, bridges damages, etc. Rock falls detached from highly fractured outcrops also impact frequently the road, causing sometimes casualties. The aim of this study is to evaluate risk along sections of the National Road 7 develop along the Mendoza river, using a dynamic traffic simulator based on MATLAB© routine. The dynamic traffic simulator developed for natural hazards events on roads consider different scenarios based on traffic speeds, vehicle types, interactions types, road properties and natural processes. Here we show that vehicle types and traffic variations may influence the risk estimation. The analyzed risk on several critical sections of the National Route 7 demonstrates that risk may significantly increase: 1) on sinuous sections, steep sections and because of road conditions changes (exit of tunnel, bridges, road width, etc.) because of decreasing vehicle speed, particularly with semi-trailer trucks; 2) when an event, such a debris flow, occurs and generates a vehicle tailback increasing their duration presence in the risk area.

  5. Mortality and Morbidity of Urban Road Traffic Crashes in Africa: Capture-Recapture Estimates in Bamako, Mali, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Meda, Nicolas; Traoré, Mamadou S.; Staccini, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries are currently facing the massive public health challenge of road traffic injuries. The lack of effective surveillance systems hinders proper assessment of epidemiologic status and intervention priorities. The objective of our study was to estimate the mortality and morbidity attributable to road crashes in Bamako, Mali using the capture-recapture method. Methods During the 1 January, 2012–31 April, 2012 period, we collected data on road traffic crashes from the road accident registers of the police forces of Bamako, Mali on the one hand, and from a register kept by health facilities in the same area. An automatic, then manual matching procedure was performed to find pairs of records related to the same crash victims. The number of victims and the number of fatalities were estimated by the capture-recapture method using the Chapman estimator. Results The health facility and the police registries included 3587 and 1432 records, respectively. The matching procedure identified 603 common records, 31 of which were fatalities. The annual incidence estimate for road victims was 1038 in 100 000 and the annual incidence estimate for road fatalities was 12 in 100 000. Victims from both sources were more likely to be male, in the 15–34 age group, and almost half of all injured road users and two in three fatalities were using motorized two-wheelers. One victim out of five was a pedestrian. Conclusion Our estimates are in line with available literature data from low-income countries. While more cases were reported by health facilities than by police forces, we believe that an effective surveillance system should not be based solely on medical reports as much would be missing as regards the crash circumstances and characteristics. PMID:26871569

  6. Patterns of injuries and motor-vehicle traffic accidents in Athens.

    PubMed

    Pikoulis, E; Filias, V; Pikoulis, N; Daskalakis, P; Avgerinos, E D; Tavernarakis, G; Belechri, M; Pappa, P; Theos, C; Geranios, A; Gougoudi, E; Leppaniemi, A; Tsatsoulis, P

    2006-09-01

    The extremely high cost of motor-vehicle accidents in public health leads to the necessity of a better injury data collection in the Accident and Emergency Hospital Departments. The 'Asclepeion' of Voula Hospital covers the southeastern suburban areas of the greater Athens area (1,000,000 population). The aim of this study is to present information on the pattern of injuries in Athens, in order to understand the magnitude of the problem and develop rational prevention programmes. Specially trained health visitors of the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System (EDISS) interviewed in person every injured victim who was brought into the Emergency Service of the 'Asclepeion' of Voula Hospital. The study was performed during a 3-year period, from 1996 to 1998; 4564 persons were interviewed. Traffic accidents were more frequent on weekdays with a seasonal peak in July and among young Greeks (aged 25 - 34 years). The usual type of injuries seen in vehicle-accident victims were cerebral contusion and concussion, while in motorcycle-accident victims, head contusion and fractures. The most common reasons for the accident were excessive speed, poor condition of road, inattention, abstraction or drowsiness and drug effects. A total of 29.8% of motorcycle drivers and 5.7% of motorcycle passengers wore a helmet and 26.3% of car drivers and 14.1% of car passengers were using seatbelts. The identification of road traffic injury patterns can contribute to the development of injury prevention measures and guide rational preventive interventions that can reduce the incidence of these injuries. The EDISS system established at 'Asclepeion' of Voula Emergency Service can provide useful and accurate information about this serious and multidimensional problem of Greek Public Health. PMID:16943163

  7. Injury Severity of Motorcycle Riders Involved in Traffic Crashes in Hunan, China: A Mixed Ordered Logit Approach.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fangrong; Li, Maosheng; Xu, Pengpeng; Zhou, Hanchu; Haque, Md Mazharul; Huang, Helai

    2016-01-01

    Issues related to motorcycle safety in China have not received enough research attention. As such, the causal relationship between injury outcomes of motorcycle crashes and potential risk factors remains unknown. This study intended to investigate the injury risk of motorcyclists involved in road traffic crashes in China. To account for the ordinal nature of response outcomes and unobserved heterogeneity, a mixed ordered logit model was employed. Given that the crash occurrence process is different between intersections and non-intersections, separate models were developed for these locations to independently estimate the impacts of various contributing factors on motorcycle riders' injury severity. The analysis was based on the police-reported crash dataset obtained from the Traffic Administration Bureau of Hunan Provincial Public Security Ministry. Factors associated with a substantially higher probability of fatalities and severe injuries included motorcycle riders older than 60 years, the absence of helmets, motorcycle riders identified to be equal duty, and when a motorcycle collided with a heavy vehicle during the night time without lighting. Crashes occurred along county roads with curve and slope alignment or at regions with higher GDP were associated with an elevated risk of fatality of motorcycle riders, while unsignalized intersections were related to less severe injuries. Findings of this study are beneficial in forming several targeted countermeasures for motorcycle safety in China, including designing roads with appropriate road delineation and street lighting, strict enforcement for speeding and red light violations, promoting helmet usage, and improving the conspicuity of motorcyclists. PMID:27428987

  8. Injury Severity of Motorcycle Riders Involved in Traffic Crashes in Hunan, China: A Mixed Ordered Logit Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Fangrong; Li, Maosheng; Xu, Pengpeng; Zhou, Hanchu; Haque, Md. Mazharul; Huang, Helai

    2016-01-01

    Issues related to motorcycle safety in China have not received enough research attention. As such, the causal relationship between injury outcomes of motorcycle crashes and potential risk factors remains unknown. This study intended to investigate the injury risk of motorcyclists involved in road traffic crashes in China. To account for the ordinal nature of response outcomes and unobserved heterogeneity, a mixed ordered logit model was employed. Given that the crash occurrence process is different between intersections and non-intersections, separate models were developed for these locations to independently estimate the impacts of various contributing factors on motorcycle riders’ injury severity. The analysis was based on the police-reported crash dataset obtained from the Traffic Administration Bureau of Hunan Provincial Public Security Ministry. Factors associated with a substantially higher probability of fatalities and severe injuries included motorcycle riders older than 60 years, the absence of helmets, motorcycle riders identified to be equal duty, and when a motorcycle collided with a heavy vehicle during the night time without lighting. Crashes occurred along county roads with curve and slope alignment or at regions with higher GDP were associated with an elevated risk of fatality of motorcycle riders, while unsignalized intersections were related to less severe injuries. Findings of this study are beneficial in forming several targeted countermeasures for motorcycle safety in China, including designing roads with appropriate road delineation and street lighting, strict enforcement for speeding and red light violations, promoting helmet usage, and improving the conspicuity of motorcyclists. PMID:27428987

  9. Driving behaviours, traffic risk and road safety: comparative study between Malaysia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saif ur Rehman; Khalifah, Zainab Binti; Munir, Yasin; Islam, Talat; Nazir, Tahira; Khan, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate differences in road safety attitude, driver behaviour and traffic risk perception between Malaysia and Singapore. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a sample of Singaporean (n = 187) and Malaysian (n = 313) road users. The data was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling applied to measure comparative fit indices of Malaysian and Singaporean respondents. The results show that the perceived traffic risk of Malaysian respondents is higher than Singaporean counterparts. Moreover, the structural equation modelling has confirmed perceived traffic risk performing the role of full mediation between perceived driving skills and perceived road safety for both the countries, while perceived traffic skills was found to perform the role of partial mediation between aggression and anxiety, on one hand, and road safety, on the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, in both countries, a weak correlation between perceived driving skills, aggression and anxiety with perceived road safety was found, while a strong correlation exists with traffic risk perception. The findings of this study have been discussed in terms of theoretical, practical and conceptual implications for both scholars and policy-makers to better understand the young drivers' attitude and behaviour relationship towards road safety measures with a view to future research. PMID:24974915

  10. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  11. A phantom road experiment reveals traffic noise is an invisible source of habitat degradation.

    PubMed

    Ware, Heidi E; McClure, Christopher J W; Carlisle, Jay D; Barber, Jesse R

    2015-09-29

    Decades of research demonstrate that roads impact wildlife and suggest traffic noise as a primary cause of population declines near roads. We created a "phantom road" using an array of speakers to apply traffic noise to a roadless landscape, directly testing the effect of noise alone on an entire songbird community during autumn migration. Thirty-one percent of the bird community avoided the phantom road. For individuals that stayed despite the noise, overall body condition decreased by a full SD and some species showed a change in ability to gain body condition when exposed to traffic noise during migratory stopover. We conducted complementary laboratory experiments that implicate foraging-vigilance behavior as one mechanism driving this pattern. Our results suggest that noise degrades habitat that is otherwise suitable, and that the presence of a species does not indicate the absence of an impact. PMID:26324924

  12. Estimation of annual average daily traffic for off-system roads in Florida. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, L.D.; Zhao, F.; Ospina, D.I.

    1999-07-28

    Estimation of Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) is extremely important in traffic planning and operations for the state departments of transportation (DOTs), because AADT provides information for the planning of new road construction, determination of roadway geometry, congestion management, pavement design, safety considerations, etc. AADT is also used to estimate state wide vehicle miles traveled on all the roads and is used by local governments and the environmental protection agencies to determine compliance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment. Additionally, AADT is reported annually by the Florida Department of transportation (FDOT) to the Federal Highway Administration. In the past, considerable efforts have been made in obtaining traffic counts to estimate AADT on state roads. However, traffic counts are often not available on off-system roads, and less attention has been paid to the estimation of AADT in the absence of counts. Current estimates rely on comparisons with roads that are subjectively considered to be similar. Such comparisons are inherently subject to large errors, and also may not be repeated often enough to remain current. Therefore, a better method is needed for estimating AADT for off-system roads in Florida. This study investigates the possibility of establishing one or more models for estimating AADT for off-system roads in Florida.

  13. Determining contamination level of heavy metals in road dust from busy traffic areas with different characteristics.

    PubMed

    Duong, Trang T T; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2011-03-01

    This study identified the levels and sources of heavy metal contamination in road dust from busy traffic areas in a typical industrial city in Korea. This study compared the total concentrations, as determined by aqua regia digestions and atomic absorption spectroscopy, of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) in the road dust from areas with different characteristics such as traffic rotaries, downtown areas, circulation roads, and asphalt and concrete highways. The contamination levels of the heavy metals in the road dust were evaluated using the contamination factor and the degree of contamination. The contamination levels of the heavy metals in the road dust were highly dependent on traffic volume and atmospheric dispersion from traffic rotaries. Industrial emissions and the frequency of brake use and vehicles coming to a complete stop were additional factors that affected the contamination levels in downtown areas. The concrete highway had higher contamination levels of the heavy metals than the asphalt highway. Vehicle speed was also a strong contributing factor to the degree of contamination of heavy metals in the road dust from the circulation roads and highways. PMID:20937547

  14. Effects of road traffic background noise on judgments of individual airplane noises. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Two laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of road-traffic background noise on judgments of individual airplane flyover noises. In the first experiment, 27 subjects judged a set of 16 airplane flyover noises in the presence of traffic-noise sessions of 30-min duration consisting of the combinations of 3 traffic-noise types and 3 noise levels. In the second experiment, 24 subjects judged the same airplane flyover noises in the presence of traffic-noise sessions of 10-min duration consisting of the combinations of 2 traffic-noise types and 4 noise levels. In both experiments the airplane noises were judged less annoying in the presence of high traffic-noise levels than in the presence of low traffic-noise levels.

  15. Young, male, road traffic victims: a systematic review of the published trauma registry literature from low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Boughton, Oliver; Jones, Gareth G.; Lavy, Christopher B.D.; Grimes, Caris E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trauma contributes significantly to the global burden of disease. We analysed published trauma registries to assess the demographics of those most affected in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: We performed a systematic review of published trauma registry studies according to PRISMA guidelines. We included published full-text articles from trauma registries in low and middle-income countries describing the demographics of trauma registry patients. Articles from military trauma registries, articles using data not principally derived from trauma registry data, articles describing patients of only one demographic (e.g. only paediatric patients), or only one mechanism of injury, trauma registry implementation papers without demographic data, review papers and conference proceedings were excluded. Results: The initial search retrieved 1868 abstracts of which 1324 remained after duplicate removal. After screening the abstracts, 78 full-text articles were scrutinised for their suitability for inclusion. Twenty three papers from 14 countries, including 103,327 patients, were deemed eligible and included for analysis. The median age of trauma victims in these articles was 27 years (IQR 25–29). The median percentage of trauma victims who were male was 75 (IQR 66–84). The median percentage of road traffic injuries (RTIs) as a percentage of total injuries caused by trauma was 46 (IQR 21–71). Conclusions: Young, male, road traffic victims represent a large proportion of the LMIC trauma burden. This information can inform and be used by local and national governments to implement road safety measures and other strategies aimed at reducing the injury rate in young males. PMID:27163066

  16. [Prevention of road accidents involving non-motorized traffic participants (pedestrians and cyclists) in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Ernstberger, A; Groschupf, V; Günther, K P; Haase, M; Haasper, C; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Juhra, C; Leser, H; Lob, G; Maier, R; Seeck, A; Winkler, R; Otte, D

    2012-06-01

    During a 1-day workshop organized by the German Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (DGOU) 15 German accident researchers used different approaches to improve the effectiveness of accident prevention for pedestrians and bicyclists on German roads. The main results of this analysis show: Fatal injuries of pedestrians have been significantly reduced by 82% between 1970 (n=6.056) and 2007 (n=695). Similarly, fatalities of bicyclists have been reduced during the same time period from 1,835 to 425 which amount to almost 80%. However, the total number of injured cyclists increased almost twice, i.e. from 40,531 (in 1979) to 78,579 (in 2007) a fact that needs to be analyzed in more detail. Although scientifically proven to provide protection against severe head injuries, helmets are worn less frequently by adolescents and women as compared to younger children and men. Fatalities of bicyclists might be reduced by using Dobli mirrors which allow the truck driver to see the bicyclist when turning right. Recently developed sensors are able to detect pedestrians walking closely (<2.5 m) and warn the truck driver acoustically. Bicycle lanes should be planned for one direction only, separated from the pedestrian way and large enough (2.0 m are safer than 1.6 m). Traffic education for school beginners and younger children should be repeated to be effective. Training for elderly bicyclists in cities with heavy traffic would also be reasonable. Active security systems in cars like ESP (electronic stability program), BAS (brake assist system), special light systems for curves, and night vision utilities are most effective to prevent collision with pedestrians and bicyclists. TV spots for bicyclists could help to point out dangerous situations and the proven benefits of wearing a helmet in the same way as previous campaigns, e.g."The 7th Sense" for car drivers. PMID:22159502

  17. Acoustical and perceptual assessment of water sounds and their use over road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Galbrun, Laurent; Ali, Tahrir T

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines physical and perceptual properties of water sounds generated by small to medium sized water features that have applications for road traffic noise masking. A large variety of water sounds were produced in the laboratory by varying design parameters. Analysis showed that estimations can be made on how these parameters affect sound pressure levels, frequency content, and psychoacoustic properties. Comparisons with road traffic noise showed that there is a mismatch between the frequency responses of traffic noise and water sounds, with the exception of waterfalls with high flow rates, which can generate large low frequency levels comparable to traffic noise. Perceptual assessments were carried out in the context of peacefulness and relaxation, where both water sounds and noise from dense road traffic were audible. Results showed that water sounds should be similar or not less than 3 dB below the road traffic noise level (confirming previous research), and that stream sounds tend to be preferred to fountain sounds, which are in turn preferred to waterfall sounds. Analysis made on groups of sounds also indicated that low sharpness and large temporal variations were preferred on average, although no acoustical or psychoacoustical parameter correlated well with the individual sound preferences. PMID:23297897

  18. Exploiting automatically generated databases of traffic signs and road markings for contextual co-occurrence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelhoff, Lykele; Creusen, Ivo M.; Woudsma, Thomas; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-11-01

    Combined databases of road markings and traffic signs provide a complete and full description of the present traffic legislation and instructions. Such databases contribute to efficient signage maintenance, improve navigation, and benefit autonomous driving vehicles. A system is presented for the automated creation of such combined databases, which additionally investigates the benefit of this combination for automated contextual placement analysis. This analysis involves verification of the co-occurrence of traffic signs and road markings to retrieve a list of potentially incorrectly signaled (and thus potentially unsafe) road situations. This co-occurrence verification is specifically explored for both pedestrian crossings and yield situations. Evaluations on 420 km of road have shown that individual detection of traffic signs and road markings denoting these road situations can be performed with accuracies of 98% and 85%, respectively. Combining both approaches shows that over 95% of the pedestrian crossings and give-way situations can be identified. An exploration toward additional co-occurrence analysis of signs and markings shows that inconsistently signaled situations can successfully be extracted, such that specific safety actions can be directed toward cases lacking signs or markings, while most consistently signaled situations can be omitted from this analysis.

  19. A Case-Crossover Study of Sleep and Work Hours and the Risk of Road Traffic Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Valent, Francesca; Di Bartolomeo, Stefano; Marchetti, Riccardo; Sbrojavacca, Rodolfo; Barbone, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleepiness, prolonged wakefulness, and extended work hours have been associated with increased risk of injuries and road accidents. The authors' objective was to study the relation between those factors and road accidents using a case-crossover design, effective in estimating the risk of acute events associated with transient, short effect exposures. Design: Five hundred seventy-four injured drivers presenting for care after road accidents to the Emergency Room of Udine, Italy, were enrolled in the study from March 2007 to March 2008. Sleep, work, and driving patterns in the 48 h before the accident were assessed through an interview. Measurements and Results: The relative risk (RR) of accident associated with each exposure was estimated using the case-crossover matched pair interval approach. Sleeping ≥ 11 h daily was associated with a decrease of the RR, as was sleeping less than usual. Being awake ≥ 16 h and, possibly, working > 12 h daily were associated with increases in the RR. Conclusions: Extended work hours and prolonged wakefulness increase the risk of road accidents and suggest that awareness should be raised among drivers. The findings regarding acute sleep amount are less clear, possibly due to an effect of chronic sleep loss. Citation: Valent F; Di Bartolomeo S; Marchetti R; Sbrojavacca R; Barbone F. A case-crossover study of sleep and work hours and the risk of road traffic accidents. SLEEP 2010;33(3):349-354. PMID:20337193

  20. A phantom road experiment reveals traffic noise is an invisible source of habitat degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Heidi E.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Carlisle, Jay D.; Barber, Jesse R.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research demonstrate that roads impact wildlife and suggest traffic noise as a primary cause of population declines near roads. We created a “phantom road” using an array of speakers to apply traffic noise to a roadless landscape, directly testing the effect of noise alone on an entire songbird community during autumn migration. Thirty-one percent of the bird community avoided the phantom road. For individuals that stayed despite the noise, overall body condition decreased by a full SD and some species showed a change in ability to gain body condition when exposed to traffic noise during migratory stopover. We conducted complementary laboratory experiments that implicate foraging-vigilance behavior as one mechanism driving this pattern. Our results suggest that noise degrades habitat that is otherwise suitable, and that the presence of a species does not indicate the absence of an impact. PMID:26324924

  1. The Association between Regional Environmental Factors and Road Trauma Rates: A Geospatial Analysis of 10 Years of Road Traffic Crashes in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brubacher, Jeffrey R.; Chan, Herbert; Erdelyi, Shannon; Schuurman, Nadine; Amram, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Background British Columbia, Canada is a geographically large jurisdiction with varied environmental and socio-cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study examined variation in motor vehicle crash rates across 100 police patrols to investigate the association of crashes with key explanatory factors. Methods Eleven crash outcomes (total crashes, injury crashes, fatal crashes, speed related fatal crashes, total fatalities, single-vehicle night-time crashes, rear-end collisions, and collisions involving heavy vehicles, pedestrians, cyclists, or motorcyclists) were identified from police collision reports and insurance claims and mapped to police patrols. Six potential explanatory factors (intensity of traffic law enforcement, speed limits, climate, remoteness, socio-economic factors, and alcohol consumption) were also mapped to police patrols. We then studied the association between crashes and explanatory factors using negative binomial models with crash count per patrol as the response variable and explanatory factors as covariates. Results Between 2003 and 2012 there were 1,434,239 insurance claim collisions, 386,326 police reported crashes, and 3,404 fatal crashes. Across police patrols, there was marked variation in per capita crash rate and in potential explanatory factors. Several factors were associated with crash rates. Percent roads with speed limits ≤ 60 km/hr was positively associated with total crashes, injury crashes, rear end collisions, and collisions involving pedestrians, cyclists, and heavy vehicles; and negatively associated with single vehicle night-time crashes, fatal crashes, fatal speeding crashes, and total fatalities. Higher winter temperature was associated with lower rates of overall collisions, single vehicle night-time collisions, collisions involving heavy vehicles, and total fatalities. Lower socio-economic status was associated with higher rates of injury collisions, pedestrian collisions, fatal speeding collisions, and fatal

  2. Road Traffic Noise and Annoyance: A Quantification of the Effect of Quiet Side Exposure at Dwellings

    PubMed Central

    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Janssen, Sabine A.; Vos, Henk; Salomons, Erik M.; Zhou, Han; van den Berg, Frits

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that residents may benefit from a “quiet side” to their dwellings. The influence of the level of road traffic noise exposure at the least exposed side on road traffic noise annoyance was studied in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Road traffic noise exposure was assessed at the most and least exposed façade (Lden,most and Lden,least respectively) of dwellings for subjects in a population based survey (N = 1,967). It was investigated if and to what extent relative quietness at the least exposed façade affected the level of road traffic noise annoyance by comparing two groups: (1) The subgroup with a relatively quiet façade; (2) the subgroup without a relatively quiet façade (large versus small difference in exposure between most and least exposed façade; DIF ≥ 10 dB and DIF < 10 dB respectively). In addition, it was investigated if and to what extent Lden,least affected the level of road traffic noise annoyance. Results indicate a significantly lower road traffic noise annoyance score at a given Lden,most, in the subgroup with DIF ≥ 10 dB versus DIF < 10 dB. Furthermore, results suggest an effect of Lden,least independent of Lden,most. The estimated size of the effect expressed in an equivalent change in Lden,most approximated 5 dB for both the difference between the two subgroups (DIF ≥ 10 dB and DIF < 10 dB), and for a 10 dB change in Lden,least. PMID:23736655

  3. Road Traffic Noise in Nigeria: Measurements, Analysis and Evaluation of Nuisance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ONUU, M. U.

    2000-06-01

    The investigation comprised field measurements of road traffic noise at over 60 sites in 8 cities in South-Eastern Nigeria and psychological survey, by questionnaires, of respondents living and working close to the sites. Instantaneous and 24 h noise measurements were made at the noisiest points, near the facades, of the houses of more than 150 respondents in the neighbourhood of each site. Several noise descriptors were either measured or calculated. Measured values ofLmax were as high as 105 dB (A) while residents were exposed to instantaneous levels of road traffic noise as high as 110 dB (A). Values of Leqand Ldnwere 84·6 and 68·0 dB (A), respectively, and sometimes higher in some of the sites. The calculated L10correlated positively with field data with a correlation coefficient of 0·8551. It was found that the measuredL10 was always higher than the calculated L10by about 4·5-8·8 dB (A) probably because of the reckless use of horn by motorists and reflection from the hills and trees. The type of house lived in, the disturbance of various activities by road traffic noise and neighbourhood noises which were most annoying to residents, were found to strongly affect the percentage of responses obtained with respective correlation coefficients of 0·9925, 0·9714 and 0·7237. The usual poor correlation, ranging from 0·3 to 0·4, between dissatisfaction response and noise exposure were obtained in this investigation. There appeared to be an income bias with respect to community response to road traffic noise, with low-income neighbourhoods reporting less annoyance and disruption of various activities by road traffic noise, and some evidence of adaptation to road traffic noise by residents of busy cities in South-Eastern Nigeria.

  4. Optimal proportion of studded tyres in traffic flow to prevent polishing of an icy road.

    PubMed

    Tuononen, Ari J; Sainio, Panu

    2014-04-01

    Studded tyres can significantly wear the road surface and increase particle emissions from the road surface, which has a negative impact on air quality in urban areas. However, road wear might have a positive aspect by roughening the road surface and thus preventing polishing. As a consequence, other vehicles than the ones using studded tyres might also benefit from the usage of studded tyres. The impact of the proportion of studded tyres in the traffic flow on the tyre-ice friction coefficient was studied with a fleet of real cars in a closed environment under strict procedural control. The results show that a proportion of 25-50% studded tyres in the traffic flow is enough to prevent ice from developing in a manner that is critically slippery for non-studded winter tyres. It was also observed that the visual appearance of the ice surface does not indicate if the ice has become more slippery or not. PMID:24445137

  5. Sleep disturbances from road traffic and ventilation noise—laboratory and field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.; Skånberg, A.

    2004-03-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effects on sleep of different types of noise exposures (road traffic, ventilation and combination of noise from road traffic and ventilation) and compare effects on sleep both in laboratory and in field settings. Eighteen subjects slept 1 week in the laboratory and 1 week in their home and their sleep was evaluated with wrist actigraphs and questionnaires on sleep and mood. In the laboratory, judged sleep quality was decreased by 22% during nights with exposure to road traffic noise in the laboratory compared to the quiet reference night. The combined noise from ventilation and road traffic caused more awakenings; worse sleep quality (-25%) and more movements reported by questionnaire. None of these significant results were detected by actigraphy. Noise from ventilation caused a decrease in judged sleep quality by 12%, while sleep assessed by actigraph indicated better sleep as compared with the quiet reference night. When comparing sleep with traffic noise exposure in the laboratory and in the home the results show no differences on sleep effects.

  6. Estimating Urban Traffic Patterns through Probabilistic Interconnectivity of Road Network Junctions.

    PubMed

    Manley, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of large, fine-grained mobility datasets offers significant opportunities for the development and application of new methodologies for transportation analysis. In this paper, the link between routing behaviour and traffic patterns in urban areas is examined, introducing a method to derive estimates of traffic patterns from a large collection of fine-grained routing data. Using this dataset, the interconnectivity between road network junctions is extracted in the form of a Markov chain. This representation encodes the probability of the successive usage of adjacent road junctions, encoding routes as flows between decision points rather than flows along road segments. This network of functional interactions is then integrated within a modified Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) framework, adapted for the estimation of urban traffic patterns. As part of this approach, the data-derived links between major junctions influence the movement of directed random walks executed across the network to model origin-destination journeys. The simulation process yields estimates of traffic distribution across the road network. The paper presents an implementation of the modified MCMC approach for London, United Kingdom, building an MCMC model based on a dataset of nearly 700000 minicab routes. Validation of the approach clarifies how each element of the MCMC framework contributes to junction prediction performance, and finds promising results in relation to the estimation of junction choice and minicab traffic distribution. The paper concludes by summarising the potential for the development and extension of this approach to the wider urban modelling domain. PMID:26009884

  7. Estimating Urban Traffic Patterns through Probabilistic Interconnectivity of Road Network Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of large, fine-grained mobility datasets offers significant opportunities for the development and application of new methodologies for transportation analysis. In this paper, the link between routing behaviour and traffic patterns in urban areas is examined, introducing a method to derive estimates of traffic patterns from a large collection of fine-grained routing data. Using this dataset, the interconnectivity between road network junctions is extracted in the form of a Markov chain. This representation encodes the probability of the successive usage of adjacent road junctions, encoding routes as flows between decision points rather than flows along road segments. This network of functional interactions is then integrated within a modified Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) framework, adapted for the estimation of urban traffic patterns. As part of this approach, the data-derived links between major junctions influence the movement of directed random walks executed across the network to model origin-destination journeys. The simulation process yields estimates of traffic distribution across the road network. The paper presents an implementation of the modified MCMC approach for London, United Kingdom, building an MCMC model based on a dataset of nearly 700000 minicab routes. Validation of the approach clarifies how each element of the MCMC framework contributes to junction prediction performance, and finds promising results in relation to the estimation of junction choice and minicab traffic distribution. The paper concludes by summarising the potential for the development and extension of this approach to the wider urban modelling domain. PMID:26009884

  8. Road traffic noise impact assessment in a breeding colony of cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Merchán, Carlos; Diaz-Balteiro, Luis; de la Puente, Javier

    2016-03-01

    There is a global and growing concern with regard to anthropogenic noise impact on wildlife and natural habitats, but it is difficult to find consensus regarding scoping and assessment tools. This study adapts noise mapping procedures, common to most European countries, to a low traffic road (below 1000 vehicles per day) noise impact assessment in a breeding colony of the largest bird of prey in Europe. Results show that nest sites are located avoiding road traffic Leq levels higher than 40 dB. This means a road-effect zone of up to 500 m width from road margins, which previous scientific literature only refers in cases of traffic volumes higher than 10,000 vehicles per day. This finding is a noticeable impact by road traffic noise that reduces the breeding potential habitat more than 11% within the study area. This work shows the feasibility of expanding common methods and mapping tools for assessing and managing environmental noise in protected areas, which has worthwhile implications for both acoustics and conservation. PMID:27036249

  9. A generalised model for traffic induced road dust emissions. Model description and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Janne; Denby, Bruce

    2011-07-01

    This paper concerns the development and evaluation of a new and generalised road dust emission model. Most of today's road dust emission models are based on local measurements and/or contain empirical emission factors that are specific for a given road environment. In this study, a more generalised road dust emission model is presented and evaluated. We have based the emissions on road, tyre and brake wear rates and used the mass balance concept to describe the build-up of road dust on the road surface and road shoulder. The model separates the emissions into a direct part and a resuspension part, and treats the road surface and road shoulder as two different sources. We tested the model under idealized conditions as well as on two datasets in and just outside of Oslo in Norway during the studded tyre season. We found that the model reproduced the observed increase in road dust emissions directly after drying of the road surface. The time scale for the build-up of road dust on the road surface is less than an hour for medium to heavy traffic density. The model performs well for temperatures above 0 °C and less well during colder periods. Since the model does not yet include salting as an additional mass source, underestimations are evident under dry periods with temperatures around 0 °C, under which salting occurs. The model overestimates the measured PM 10 (particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter) concentrations under heavy precipitation events since the model does not take the amount of precipitation into account. There is a strong sensitivity of the modelled emissions to the road surface conditions and the current parameterisations of the effect of precipitation, runoff and evaporation seem inadequate.

  10. Traffic Signal Synchronization in the Saturated High-Density Grid Road Network

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaojian; Lu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Zhirui, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Most existing traffic signal synchronization strategies do not perform well in the saturated high-density grid road network (HGRN). Traffic congestion often occurs in the saturated HGRN, and the mobility of the network is difficult to restore. In order to alleviate traffic congestion and to improve traffic efficiency in the network, the study proposes a regional traffic signal synchronization strategy, named the long green and long red (LGLR) traffic signal synchronization strategy. The essence of the strategy is to control the formation and dissipation of queues and to maximize the efficiency of traffic flows at signalized intersections in the saturated HGRN. With this strategy, the same signal control timing plan is used at all signalized intersections in the HGRN, and the straight phase of the control timing plan has a long green time and a long red time. Therefore, continuous traffic flows can be maintained when vehicles travel, and traffic congestion can be alleviated when vehicles stop. Using the strategy, the LGLR traffic signal synchronization model is developed, with the objective of minimizing the number of stops. Finally, the simulation is executed to analyze the performance of the model by comparing it to other models, and the superiority of the LGLR model is evident in terms of delay, number of stops, queue length, and overall performance in the saturated HGRN. PMID:25663835

  11. Road traffic sign detection and classification from mobile LiDAR point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Shengxia; Li, Jonathan; Chen, Yiping; Wang, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Traffic signs are important roadway assets that provide valuable information of the road for drivers to make safer and easier driving behaviors. Due to the development of mobile mapping systems that can efficiently acquire dense point clouds along the road, automated detection and recognition of road assets has been an important research issue. This paper deals with the detection and classification of traffic signs in outdoor environments using mobile light detection and ranging (Li- DAR) and inertial navigation technologies. The proposed method contains two main steps. It starts with an initial detection of traffic signs based on the intensity attributes of point clouds, as the traffic signs are always painted with highly reflective materials. Then, the classification of traffic signs is achieved based on the geometric shape and the pairwise 3D shape context. Some results and performance analyses are provided to show the effectiveness and limits of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in detecting and classifying traffic signs from mobile LiDAR point clouds.

  12. Automatic parsing of lane and road boundaries in challenging traffic scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helala, Mohamed A.; Qureshi, Faisal Z.; Pu, Ken Q.

    2015-09-01

    Automatic detection of road boundaries in traffic surveillance imagery can greatly aid subsequent traffic analysis tasks, such as vehicle flow, erratic driving, and stranded vehicles. This paper develops an online technique for identifying the dominant road boundary in video sequences captured by traffic cameras under challenging environmental and lighting conditions, e.g., unlit highways captured at night. The proposed method works in real time of up to 20 frames/s and generates a ranked list of road regions that identify road and lane boundaries. Our method begins by segmenting each frame into a set of superpixels. An adaptive sampling step approximates superpixel contours to a collection of edge segments. Next, we show how online hierarchical clustering can be efficiently used to organize edges into clusters of colinearly similar sets. Promising clusters are paired with each other to form cluster pairs. Then we present and prove a statistical ranking measure that is used along with road-activity and perspective cues to find the dominant road boundaries. We evaluate the proposed approach on two real-world datasets to test our method under camera viewpoint changes and extreme environmental and lighting conditions. Results show that our method outperforms two state-of-the-art techniques in precision, recall, and runtime.

  13. Can road traffic law enforcement permanently reduce the number of accidents?

    PubMed

    Bjørnskau, T; Elvik, R

    1992-10-01

    In this paper it is argued that conventional analyses of road user adaptation to traffic law enforcement, based on parametric rational-choice theory, are flawed. Such analyses only consider road-user actions as a response to enforcement level and penalty size and do not simultaneously consider enforcement as a response to road-user behaviour. If each party is considered a rational agent who adapts to the other's behaviour, the proper way to analyze the outcomes is by the way of game theory. A game-theoretic model is presented and the main implications are: (i) most attempts at enforcing road traffic legislation will not have any lasting effects, either on road-user behaviour or on accidents; (ii) imposing stricter penalties (in the form of higher fines or longer prison sentences) will not affect road-user behaviour; (iii) imposing stricter penalties will reduce the level of enforcement; (iv) implementing automatic traffic surveillance techniques and/or allocating enforcement resources according to a chance mechanism, and not according to police estimates of violation probability, can make enforcement effects last, but both alternatives are difficult to implement. Relevant empirical studies are reviewed, and they seem to support the conclusions arrived at by the game-theoretic model. PMID:1520433

  14. Appraisals and Cognitive Coping Styles Associated with Chronic Post-Traumatic Symptoms in Child Road Traffic Accident Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallard, Paul; Smith, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comparatively little is known about the cognitive appraisals and coping styles of child road traffic accident (RTA) survivors that are associated with chronic post-traumatic reactions. Methods: Seventy-five children and young people aged 7-18 who were involved in a road traffic accident and attended an accident and emergency department…

  15. Single and Combined Effects of Air, Road, and Rail Traffic Noise on Sleep and Recuperation

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Müller, Uwe; Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective: Traffic noise disturbs sleep and may impair recuperation. There is limited information on single and combined effects of air, road, and rail traffic noise on sleep and recuperation. Design: Repeated measures. Setting: Polysomnographic laboratory study. Participants: 72 healthy subjects, mean ± standard deviation 40 ± 13 years, range 18-71 years, 32 male. Interventions: Exposure to 40, 80, or 120 rail, road, and/or air traffic noise events. Measurement and Results: Subjects were investigated for 11 consecutive nights, which included 8 noise exposure nights and one noise-free control night. Noise effects on sleep structure and continuity were subtle, even in nights with combined exposure, most likely because of habituation and an increase in arousal thresholds both within and across nights. However, cardiac arousals did not habituate across nights. Noise exposure significantly affected subjective assessments of sleep quality and recuperation, whereas objective performance was unaffected, except for a small increase in mean PVT reaction time (+4 ms, adjusted P < 0.05). Road traffic noise led to the strongest changes in sleep structure and continuity, whereas subjective assessments of sleep were worse after nights with air and rail traffic noise exposure. In contrast to daytime annoyance, cortical arousal probabilities and cardiac responses were significantly lower for air than for road and rail traffic noise (all P < 0.0001). These differences were explained by sound pressure level rise time and high frequency (> 3 kHz) noise event components. Conclusions: Road, rail, and air traffic noise differentially affect objective and subjective assessments of sleep. Differences in the degree of noise-induced sleep fragmentation between traffic modes were explained by the specific spectral and temporal composition of noise events, indicating potential targets for active and passive noise control. Field studies are needed to validate our findings in a setting

  16. Determinants of road traffic safety: New evidence from Australia using state-space analysis.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Son; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Connelly, Luke B

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in Queensland for the period 1958-2007 using a state-space time-series model. In particular, we investigate the effects of policies that aimed to reduce drink-driving on traffic fatalities, as well as indicators of the economic environment that may affect exposure to traffic, and hence affect the number of accidents and fatalities. The results show that the introduction of a random breath testing program in 1988 was associated with a 11.3% reduction in traffic fatalities; its expansion in 1998 was associated with a 26.2% reduction in traffic fatalities; and the effect of the "Safe4life" program, which was introduced in 2004, was a 14.3% reduction in traffic fatalities. Reductions in economic activity are also associated with reductions in road fatalities: we estimate that a one percent increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a 0.2% reduction in traffic fatalities. PMID:27261554

  17. No evidence of a threshold in traffic volume affecting road-kill mortality at a large spatio-temporal scale

    SciTech Connect

    Grilo, Clara; Ferreira, Flavio Zanchetta; Revilla, Eloy

    2015-11-15

    Previous studies have found that the relationship between wildlife road mortality and traffic volume follows a threshold effect on low traffic volume roads. We aimed at evaluating the response of several species to increasing traffic intensity on highways over a large geographic area and temporal period. We used data of four terrestrial vertebrate species with different biological and ecological features known by their high road-kill rates: the barn owl (Tyto alba), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Additionally, we checked whether road-kill likelihood varies when traffic patterns depart from the average. We used annual average daily traffic (AADT) and road-kill records observed along 1000 km of highways in Portugal over seven consecutive years (2003–2009). We fitted candidate models using Generalized Linear Models with a binomial distribution through a sample unit of 1 km segments to describe the effect of traffic on the probability of finding at least one victim in each segment during the study. We also assigned for each road-kill record the traffic of that day and the AADT on that year to test for differences using Paired Student's t-test. Mortality risk declined significantly with traffic volume but varied among species: the probability of finding road-killed red foxes and rabbits occurs up to moderate traffic volumes (< 20,000 AADT) whereas barn owls and hedgehogs occurred up to higher traffic volumes (40,000 AADT). Perception of risk may explain differences in responses towards high traffic highway segments. Road-kill rates did not vary significantly when traffic intensity departed from the average. In summary, we did not find evidence of traffic thresholds for the analysed species and traffic intensities. We suggest mitigation measures to reduce mortality be applied in particular on low traffic roads (< 5000 AADT) while additional measures to reduce barrier effects should take into account

  18. Roads at risk - traffic detours from debris flows in southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, N. K.; Schwanghart, W.; Korup, O.; Nadim, F.

    2014-10-01

    Globalization and interregional exchange of people, goods, and services has boosted the importance of and reliance on all kinds of transport networks. The linear structure of road networks is especially sensitive to natural hazards. In southern Norway, steep topography and extreme weather events promote frequent traffic disruption caused by debris flows. Topographic susceptibility and trigger frequency maps serve as input into a hazard appraisal at the scale of first-order catchments to quantify the impact of debris flows on the road network in terms of a failure likelihood of each link connecting two network vertices, e.g., road junctions. We compute total additional traffic loads as a function of traffic volume and excess distance, i.e. the extra length of an alternative path connecting two previously disrupted network vertices using a shortest-path algorithm. Our risk metric of link failure is the total additional annual traffic load expressed as vehicle kilometers because of debris-flow related road closures. We present two scenarios demonstrating the impact of debris flows on the road network, and quantify the associated path failure likelihood between major cities in southern Norway. The scenarios indicate that major routes crossing the central and northwestern part of the study area are associated with high link failure risk. Yet options for detours on major routes are manifold, and incur only little additional costs provided that drivers are sufficiently well informed about road closures. Our risk estimates may be of importance to road network managers and transport companies relying of speedy delivery of services and goods.

  19. Roads at risk: traffic detours from debris flows in southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, N. K.; Schwanghart, W.; Korup, O.; Nadim, F.

    2015-05-01

    Globalisation and interregional exchange of people, goods, and services has boosted the importance of and reliance on all kinds of transport networks. The linear structure of road networks is especially sensitive to natural hazards. In southern Norway, steep topography and extreme weather events promote frequent traffic disruption caused by debris flows. Topographic susceptibility and trigger frequency maps serve as input into a hazard appraisal at the scale of first-order catchments to quantify the impact of debris flows on the road network in terms of a failure likelihood of each link connecting two network vertices, e.g. road junctions. We compute total additional traffic loads as a function of traffic volume and excess distance, i.e. the extra length of an alternative path connecting two previously disrupted network vertices using a shortest-path algorithm. Our risk metric of link failure is the total additional annual traffic load, expressed as vehicle kilometres, because of debris-flow-related road closures. We present two scenarios demonstrating the impact of debris flows on the road network and quantify the associated path-failure likelihood between major cities in southern Norway. The scenarios indicate that major routes crossing the central and north-western part of the study area are associated with high link-failure risk. Yet options for detours on major routes are manifold and incur only little additional costs provided that drivers are sufficiently well informed about road closures. Our risk estimates may be of importance to road network managers and transport companies relying on speedy delivery of services and goods.

  20. Self-control of traffic lights and vehicle flows in urban road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lämmer, Stefan; Helbing, Dirk

    2008-04-01

    Based on fluid-dynamic and many-particle (car-following) simulations of traffic flows in (urban) networks, we study the problem of coordinating incompatible traffic flows at intersections. Inspired by the observation of self-organized oscillations of pedestrian flows at bottlenecks, we propose a self-organization approach to traffic light control. The problem can be treated as a multi-agent problem with interactions between vehicles and traffic lights. Specifically, our approach assumes a priority-based control of traffic lights by the vehicle flows themselves, taking into account short-sighted anticipation of vehicle flows and platoons. The considered local interactions lead to emergent coordination patterns such as 'green waves' and achieve an efficient, decentralized traffic light control. While the proposed self-control adapts flexibly to local flow conditions and often leads to non-cyclical switching patterns with changing service sequences of different traffic flows, an almost periodic service may evolve under certain conditions and suggests the existence of a spontaneous synchronization of traffic lights despite the varying delays due to variable vehicle queues and travel times. The self-organized traffic light control is based on an optimization and a stabilization rule, each of which performs poorly at high utilizations of the road network, while their proper combination reaches a superior performance. The result is a considerable reduction not only in the average travel times, but also of their variation. Similar control approaches could be applied to the coordination of logistic and production processes.

  1. Traffic Analysis and Road Accidents: A Case Study of Hyderabad using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagyaiah, M.; Shrinagesh, B.

    2014-06-01

    Globalization has impacted many developing countries across the world. India is one such country, which benefited the most. Increased, economic activity raised the consumption levels of the people across the country. This created scope for increase in travel and transportation. The increase in the vehicles since last 10 years has put lot of pressure on the existing roads and ultimately resulting in road accidents. It is estimated that since 2001 there is an increase of 202 percent of two wheeler and 286 percent of four wheeler vehicles with no road expansion. Motor vehicle crashes are a common cause of death, disability and demand for emergency medical care. Globally, more than 1 million people die each year from traffic crashes and about 20-50 million are injured or permanently disabled. There has been increasing trend in road accidents in Hyderabad over a few years. GIS helps in locating the accident hotspots and also in analyzing the trend of road accidents in Hyderabad.

  2. Near-road measurements for nitrogen dioxide and its association with traffic exposure zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-road measurements for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using passive air samplers were collected weekly in traffic exposure zones (TEZs) in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina (USA) during Fall 2014. Land use regression (LUR) analysis and pairwise comparisons of T...

  3. Different Effects of Road Traffic Noise and Frogs' Croaking on Night Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SASAZAWA, Y.; XIN, P.; SUZUKI, S.; KAWADA, T.; KUROIWA, M.; TAMURA, Y.

    2002-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of road traffic noise and frogs' croaking on the objective and subjective quality of sleep in a laboratory. The subjects were seven male students aged 19-21 years. They were exposed to recorded road traffic noise and frogs' croaking, with 49·6 and 49·5 dB(A)LAeq , and 71·2 and 56·1 dB(A) LAmax, respectively. The background noise in the experimental room was 31·0 dB(A) LAeq. The sleep EEG was recorded according to standard methods. The sleep polygraphic parameters examined were the percentage of sleep stage relative to the total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), total sleep time, sleep onset latency, and awakening during sleep in minutes and sleep efficiency. A structured sleep rating questionnaire (OSA), was administered to the subjects after they awakened. The %S2 increased and the %SREM decreased during exposure to road traffic noise. However, no significant effect of exposure to frogs' croaking was observed on any of the polygraphic sleep parameters. The subjective quality of sleep was degraded more by exposure to road traffic noise than that to frogs' croaking.

  4. Pediatric and Youth Traffic-Collision Injuries in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Grivna, Michal; Eid, Hani O.; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To study the mechanism of road traffic collisions (RTC), use of safety devices, and outcome of hospitalized pediatric and youth RTC injured patients so as to give recommendations regarding prevention of pediatric RTC injuries. Methods All RTC injured children and youth (0–19-year-olds) who were admitted to Al Ain City’s two major trauma centers or who died after arrival to these centers were prospectively studied from April 2006 to October 2007. Demography of patients, road-user and vehicle types, crash mechanism, usage of safety devices, injured body regions, injury severity, Revised Trauma Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, intensive care unit admissions, hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. Results 245 patients were studied, 69% were vehicle occupants, 15% pedestrians, 9% motorcyclists and 5% bicyclists. 79% were males and 67% UAE citizens. The most common mechanism of RTC was rollover of vehicle (37%) followed by front impact collision (32%). 32 (13%) of vehicle occupants were ejected from car. 63% of ejected occupants and 70% of motorcyclists sustained head injuries. Only 2% (3/170) vehicle passengers used seatbelts and 13% (3/23) motorcyclists a helmet. Conclusions Male drivers and UAE nationals were at high risk of RTC as drivers and as motorcyclists. Ejection rate was high because safety restraint use was extremely low in our community. More education and law enforcement focusing especially on car/booster seat use is needed. PMID:23861931

  5. Nocturnal air, road, and rail traffic noise and daytime cognitive performance and annoyance.

    PubMed

    Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Quehl, Julia; Müller, Uwe; Basner, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Various studies indicate that at the same noise level and during the daytime, annoyance increases in the order of rail, road, and aircraft noise. The present study investigates if the same ranking can be found for annoyance to nocturnal exposure and next day cognitive performance. Annoyance ratings and performance change during combined noise exposure were also tested. In the laboratory 72 participants were exposed to air, road, or rail traffic noise and all combinations. The number of noise events and LAS,eq were kept constant. Each morning noise annoyance questionnaires and performance tasks were administered. Aircraft noise annoyance ranked first followed by railway and road noise. A possible explanation is the longer duration of aircraft noise events used in this study compared to road and railway noise events. In contrast to road and rail traffic, aircraft noise annoyance was higher after nights with combined exposure. Pooled noise exposure data showed small but significant impairments in reaction times (6 ms) compared to nights without noise. The noise sources did not have a differential impact on performance. Combined exposure to multiple traffic noise sources did not induce stronger impairments than a single noise source. This was reflected also in low workload ratings. PMID:24437761

  6. Redistribution of traffic related air pollution associated with a new road tunnel.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Christine T; Rose, Nectarios; Gillett, Robert; Walter, Scott; Marks, Guy B

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a new road tunnel on the concentration and distribution of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), specifically nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter (PM), and to determine its relationship to change in traffic flow. We used continuously recorded data from four monitoring stations at nonroadside locations within the study area and three regional monitors outside the area. The four monitors in the study area were in background locations where smaller pollutant changes were expected compared with changes near the bypassed main road. We also deployed passive samplers to assess finer spatial variability in NO(2) including application of a land use regression model (LUR). The study was conducted from 2006 to 2008. Analysis of the continuously recorded data showed that the tunnel intervention did not lead to consistent reductions in NO(2) or PM over the wider study area. However, there were significant decreases in NO(2), NO(x), and PM(10) in the eastern section of the study area. Analysis of passive sampler data indicated that the greatest reductions in NO(2) concentrations occurred within 100 m of the bypassed main road. The LUR model also demonstrated that changes in NO(2) were most marked adjacent to the bypassed main road. These findings support the use of methods that highlight fine spatial variability in TRAP and demonstrate the utility of traffic interventions in reducing air pollution exposures for populations living close to main roads. PMID:22289123

  7. Laboratory study of annoyance to combined airplane and road-traffic noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    The annoyance of noise, which consisted of both separate and combined airplane and road-traffic noises, was studied. The subjects judged each session as to how annoyed they were in the simulated living room laboratory environment and as to how annoyed they were if they heard the noise in their home during day, evening, and night periods. The airplane noises, for equal session levels were judged significantly more annoying than the road traffic noises for the separate sessions. For the combined sessions, an interaction was found between the airplane noise and traffic noise levels, which was not adequately assessed by the total energy concept. Significant differences were found between the projected home responses for the day, evening, and night periods.

  8. Quantification of Road Network Vulnerability and Traffic Impacts to Regional Landslide Hazards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dixon, Neil; Dijkstra, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Slope instability represents a prevalent hazard to transport networks. In the UK regional road networks are frequently disrupted by multiple slope failures triggered during intense precipitation events; primarily due to a degree of regional homogeneity of slope materials, geomorphology and weather conditions. It is of interest to examine how different locations and combinations of slope failure impact road networks, particularly in the context of projected climate change and a 40% increase in UK road demand by 2040. In this study an extensive number (>50 000) of multiple failure event scenarios are simulated within a dynamic micro simulation to assess traffic impacts during peak flow (7 - 10 AM). Possible failure locations are selected within the county of Gloucestershire (3150 km2) using historic failure sites and British Geological Survey GeoSure data. Initial investigations employ a multiple linear regression analyses to consider the severity of traffic impacts, as measured by time, in respect of spatial and topographical network characteristics including connectivity, density and capacity in proximity to failure sites; the network distance between disruptions in multiple failure scenarios is used to consider the effects of spatial clustering. The UK Department of Transport road travel demand and UKCP09 weather projection data to 2080 provide a suitable basis for traffic simulations and probabilistic slope stability assessments. Future work will thus focus on the development of a catastrophe risk model to simulate traffic impacts under various narratives of future travel demand and slope instability under climatic change. The results of this investigation shall contribute to the understanding of road network vulnerabilities and traffic impacts from climate driven slope hazards.

  9. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels.

    PubMed

    Ragettli, Martina S; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels-LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels-Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression-LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07-1.13) and 1.04 (1.02-1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic. PMID:26729143

  10. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ragettli, Martina S.; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels—LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels—Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression—LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.13) and 1.04 (1.02–1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic. PMID:26729143

  11. Analysis of road traffic obstructions caused by the central European flood in June 2013 in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessel, Tina

    2014-05-01

    The flood in June 2013 caused in Germany severe damage to infrastructure and has had a great impact on transportation. Traffic was disrupted in the interregional transportation network including federal highways and long distance railways. Researchers from the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) aim to develop rapid assessment tools which allow a science based estimation of disaster impacts. This is part of a larger project called Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA). During the flood event, the CEDIM FDA group on transportation disruptions monitored and recorded traffic reports in Germany to obtain accurate information on road traffic obstructions due to the flood. A rapid initial evaluation of the data was carried out for federal and interstate highways on a district level for the period of May 31 till June 4 2013. In this evaluation, the causes and types of traffic obstruction, as well as the number and duration of flood-caused disruptions are considered. In the evaluated time period of five days, an amount of more than 4,800 hours of flood-related traffic obstructions could be observed in a total of 89 districts. Major traffic disruptions were located in the districts along the Mulde and in the foothills of the Alps. This first initial evaluation will be followed by a detailed statistical analysis including all data collected during the flood event. To assess the impacts of the flood on traffic, a simple traffic simulation considering the disruptions will be carried out using a gravity model.

  12. Comparisons of Traffic Collisions between Expressways and Rural Roads in Truck Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangbok; Jeong, Byung Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background Truck driving is known as one of the occupations with the highest accident rate. This study investigates the characteristics of traffic collisions according to road types (expressway and rural road). Methods Classifying 267 accidents into expressway and rural road, we analyzed them based on driver characteristics (age, working experience, size of employment), time characteristics (day of accident, time, weather), and accident characteristics (accident causes, accident locations, accident types, driving conditions). Results When we compared the accidents by road conditions, no differences were found between the driver characteristics. However, from the accident characteristics, the injured person distributions were different by the road conditions. In particular, driving while drowsy is shown to be highly related with the accident characteristics. Conclusion This study can be used as a guideline and a base line to develop a plan of action to prevent traffic accidents. It can also help to prepare formal regulations about a truck driver's vehicle maintenance and driving attitude for a precaution on road accidents. PMID:27014489

  13. Where did that car come from?: Crossing the road when the traffic comes from an unfamiliar direction.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lucy; Peace, Victoria

    2007-09-01

    Using a virtual road crossing environment, the reported research investigated the road crossing behavior of 12 male pedestrians in familiar and unfamiliar environments. Environment familiarity was manipulated using traffic direction. Seven of the participants were from a country where traffic flows from right to left and five were from countries were traffic flows from left to right. Each participant was asked to cross the road when traffic was coming from both the familiar and the unfamiliar direction for them. Results showed that pedestrians had lower safety ration, or a lower margin of error, in crossing the road when traffic was flowing in an unfamiliar direction, suggesting that pedestrians might be at greater risk of accident in such environments. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:17270134

  14. Patterns of behaviour in dwellings exposed to road traffic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, J.; Simonnet, F.; Vallet, M.

    1984-01-01

    An inquiry involving a total of 1500 subjects residing in 15 different sites in the conurbations of Lyon and Marseilles was carried out in 1979 with a view to determining the behaviour and attitudes of people with regard to traffic noise. The main purpose of the inquiry was to identify the objective reactions to the traffic noise and to determine how such reactions varied with the noise level, with account taken of the socio-economic characteristics of the subjects (age, income, owner occupier or tenant, etc.). The 08.00-20.00 hour Leq noise level was measured or calculated for each of the dwellings included in the inquiry. The 00.00-05.00 and 20.00-24.00 hour Leq values were also derived for each case and a total of nearly 20 000 different noise levels were involved in the analysis of the data for this inquiry. On considering the completed questionaires it was found that the annoyance experienced during the day was more closely correlated with the noise level ( r = 0·64) than had been the case with the results of previous studies. In addition to showing how traffic noise can interfere with activities and lead, for example, to the closing of windows to shut out the noise, the inquiry yielded information on the way in which activities affected by noise are transferred to quieter rooms, on the extent to which individual dwellings are sound proofed, on the extent to which occupants are likely to move to another dwelling in order to escape from the noise and finally on some aspects of the effects of noise on health and sleep. Thus it appears that a daytime Leq value of more than 65 dB(A) gives rise to what can be regarded as forced behavioural responses to the extent that there are significant changes in the normal way of life of the people concerned and such responses give an indication of the magnitude of the social costs that can be attributed to the undesirable effects of traffic noise.

  15. How Travel Demand Affects Detection of Non-Recurrent Traffic Congestion on Urban Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbaroglu, B.; Heydecker, B.; Cheng, T.

    2016-06-01

    Occurrence of non-recurrent traffic congestion hinders the economic activity of a city, as travellers could miss appointments or be late for work or important meetings. Similarly, for shippers, unexpected delays may disrupt just-in-time delivery and manufacturing processes, which could lose them payment. Consequently, research on non-recurrent congestion detection on urban road networks has recently gained attention. By analysing large amounts of traffic data collected on a daily basis, traffic operation centres can improve their methods to detect non-recurrent congestion rapidly and then revise their existing plans to mitigate its effects. Space-time clusters of high link journey time estimates correspond to non-recurrent congestion events. Existing research, however, has not considered the effect of travel demand on the effectiveness of non-recurrent congestion detection methods. Therefore, this paper investigates how travel demand affects detection of non-recurrent traffic congestion detection on urban road networks. Travel demand has been classified into three categories as low, normal and high. The experiments are carried out on London's urban road network, and the results demonstrate the necessity to adjust the relative importance of the component evaluation criteria depending on the travel demand level.

  16. Determination of path coefficients and its application in road traffic noise annoyance - a theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Maity, S; Gorai, A K; Pal, A K

    2006-06-01

    This paper elucidates the basic approach of determining the path coefficients and its significance in the road traffic noise annoyance. Path model not only outline the direct effect of the traffic noise on the nearby residents but also indicate the indirect effect via other variables. In this study seven variables were considered for determining road traffic noise annoyance. However the same would be equally applicable for other situations like aircraft noise, rail noise, and industry noise with the different variables. At the outset a priori path model was designed and then on the basis of the partial regression coefficient values for the different paths, the revised path model was developed. The standardized partial regression coefficients known as path coefficients, determine the strength of the linkage among variables. Some of the paths in the model were not statistically significant. Revised path models were developed by deleting the insignificant paths whose values were found above 5% level. In the revised path model, thus the direct and indirect effect due to a particular variable causing the road traffic noise annoyance could be observed. PMID:16917695

  17. Transforming GIS data into functional road models for large-scale traffic simulation.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, David; Sewall, Jason; Lin, Ming C

    2012-06-01

    There exists a vast amount of geographic information system (GIS) data that model road networks around the world as polylines with attributes. In this form, the data are insufficient for applications such as simulation and 3D visualization-tools which will grow in power and demand as sensor data become more pervasive and as governments try to optimize their existing physical infrastructure. In this paper, we propose an efficient method for enhancing a road map from a GIS database to create a geometrically and topologically consistent 3D model to be used in real-time traffic simulation, interactive visualization of virtual worlds, and autonomous vehicle navigation. The resulting representation provides important road features for traffic simulations, including ramps, highways, overpasses, legal merge zones, and intersections with arbitrary states, and it is independent of the simulation methodologies. We test the 3D models of road networks generated by our algorithm on real-time traffic simulation using both macroscopic and microscopic techniques. PMID:21690653

  18. Investigation of the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures on road safety in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Yannis, George; Kondyli, Alexandra; Georgopoulou, Xenia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures (LCTEMs) on the improvement of road safety in urban areas. A number of such measures were considered, such as speed humps, woonerfs, raised intersections and other traffic calming measures, which have been implemented on one-way, one-lane roads in the Municipality of Neo Psychiko in the Greater Athens Area. Data were analysed using the before-and-after safety analysis methodology with large control group. The selected control group comprised of two Municipalities in the Athens Greater Area, which present similar road network and land use characteristics with the area considered. The application of the methodology showed that the total number of crashes presented a statistically significant reduction, which can be possibly attributed to the introduction of LCTEMs. This reduction concerns passenger cars and single-vehicle crashes and is possibly due to the behavioural improvement of drivers of 25 years old or more. The results of this research are very useful for the identification of the appropriate low cost traffic engineering countermeasures for road safety problems in urban areas. PMID:23651448

  19. The impact of young drivers' lifestyle on their road traffic accident risk in greater Athens area.

    PubMed

    Chliaoutakis, J E; Darviri, C; Demakakos, P T

    1999-11-01

    Young drivers (18-24) both in Greece and elsewhere appear to have high rates of road traffic accidents. Many factors contribute to the creation of these high road traffic accidents rates. It has been suggested that lifestyle is an important one. The main objective of this study is to find out and clarify the (potential) relationship between young drivers' lifestyle and the road traffic accident risk they face. Moreover, to examine if all the youngsters have the same elevated risk on the road or not. The sample consisted of 241 young Greek drivers of both sexes. The statistical analysis included factor analysis and logistic regression analysis. Through the principal component analysis a ten factor scale was created which included the basic lifestyle traits of young Greek drivers. The logistic regression analysis showed that the young drivers whose dominant lifestyle trait is alcohol consumption or drive without destination have high accident risk, while these whose dominant lifestyle trait is culture, face low accident risk. Furthermore, young drivers who are religious in one way or another seem to have low accident risk. Finally, some preliminary observations on how health promotion should be put into practice are discussed. PMID:10487352

  20. Integration and road tests of a self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system for traffic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Baoguo; Zhang, Kun; Burnham, Tom; Kwon, Eil; Yu, Xun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a self-sensing carbon nanotube (CNT) concrete pavement system for traffic detection is proposed and tested in a roadway. Pre-cast and cast-in-place self-sensing CNT concrete sensors were simultaneously integrated into a controlled pavement test section at the Minnesota Road Research Facility (MnROAD), USA. Road tests of the system were conducted by using an MnROAD five-axle semi-trailer tractor truck and a van, respectively, both in the winter and summer. Test results show that the proposed self-sensing pavement system can accurately detect the passing of different vehicles under different vehicular speeds and test environments. These findings indicate that the developed self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system can achieve real-time vehicle flow detection with a high detection rate and a low false-alarm rate.

  1. Socioeconomic inequality and road traffic accidents in Thailand: comparing cases treated in government hospitals inside and outside of Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Yongchaitrakul, Teerachai; Juntakarn, Chantip; Prasartritha, Thavat

    2012-05-01

    The study aims to report annual demographic characteristics and to compare the differences of socioeconomic inequality, type of motor vehicles, and seating relating to major bone injuries among hospitals in and outside Bangkok. Six public hospitals in Bangkok and six regional hospitals in the provinces were studied over a one year period (2008-2009). There were 3,650 cases: 3,596 injured patients and 54 deaths. Patients with a lower education level accounted for the largest number of cases, both in the provinces (46.3%) and Bangkok (17.1%). Their incomes were less than THB 10,000/yearly. Total number of motorcycle cases (3,360) was higher (11.6:1) than 290 cases of motor vehicles. Pickup cars were used more commonly. Riding a motorcycle was likely to be fatal. The front seat was the most common involvement. Passengers occupying the middle and rear seat of the motorcycle were involved in 16.0% and 1.0% cases, respectively. Long bone and joints were the most common injuries. The results strongly confirmed the striking contribution of motorcycles and pickups to road traffic accidents. People with a low educational level, in conjunction with low income, and in areas outside of Bangkok were more at risk. Specific education on road safety should be delivered, preferably in primary schools. PMID:23077859

  2. Assessment of the masking effects of birdsong on the road traffic noise environment.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yiying; Kang, Jian; Wörtche, Heinrich

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to explore how the soundscape quality of traffic noise environments can be improved by the masking effects of birdsong in terms of four soundscape characteristics, i.e., perceived loudness, naturalness, annoyance and pleasantness. Four factors that may influence the masking effects of birdsong (i.e., distance of the receiver from a sound source, loudness of masker, occurrence frequencies of masker, and visibility of sound sources) were examined by listening tests. The results show that the masking effects are more significant in the road traffic noise environments with lower sound levels (e.g., <52.5 dBA), or of distance from traffic (e.g., >19 m). Adding birdsong can indeed increase the naturalness and pleasantness of the traffic noise environment at different distances of the receiver from a road. Naturalness, annoyance, and pleasantness, but not perceived loudness, can be altered by increasing the birdsong loudness (i.e., from 37.5 to 52.5 dBA in this study). The pleasantness of traffic noise environments increases significantly from 2.7 to 6.7, when the occurrence of birdsong over a period of 30 s is increased from 2 to 6 times. The visibility of the sound source also influences the masking effects, but its effect is not as significant as the effects of the three other factors. PMID:27586730

  3. Respiratory Health before and after the Opening of a Road Traffic Tunnel: A Planned Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, Christine T.; Rose, Nectarios; Ezz, Wafaa; Xuan, Wei; Cortes-Waterman, Adriana; Belousova, Elena; Toelle, Brett G.; Sheppeard, Vicky; Marks, Guy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The construction of a new road tunnel in Sydney, Australia, and concomitant reduction in traffic on a major road presented the opportunity to study the effects of this traffic intervention on respiratory health. Methods We made measurements in a cohort of residents in the year before the tunnel opened (2006) and in each of two years afterwards (2007–2008). Cohort members resided in one of four exposure zones, including a control zone. Each year, a respiratory questionnaire was administered (n = 2,978) and a panel sub-cohort (n = 380) performed spirometry once and recorded peak expiratory flow and symptoms twice daily for nine weeks. Results There was no consistent evidence of improvement in respiratory health in residents living along the bypassed main road, despite a reduction in traffic from 90,000 to 45,000 vpd. Residents living near tunnel feeder roads reported more upper respiratory symptoms in the survey but not in the panel sub-cohort. Residents living around the tunnel ventilation stack reported more upper and lower respiratory symptoms and had lower spirometric volumes after the tunnel opened. Air pollutant levels measured near the stack did not increase over the study period. Conclusion The finding of adverse health effects among residents living around the stack is unexpected and difficult to explain, but might be due to unmeasured pollutants or risk factors or an unrecognized pollutant source nearby. The lack of improvement in respiratory health among people living along the bypassed main road probably reflects a minimal change in exposure due to distance of residence from the road. PMID:23209560

  4. Road Traffic Accident Patterns: A Conceptual Grouping Approach to Evaluate Crash Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowska, Marzena

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the work is to highlight road traffic accident patterns in the context of interrelations between road characteristics and a traffic safety threat. The actual data concerning multi-vehicle accidents without pedestrians on non-urban roads in a chosen region of Poland was the subject of the research. The roadway and roadside data at the accident site have been combined with the crash data that define the roadway hazard, i.e. driver's behaviour, type and accident severity. The data were subject to multivariate segmentation by means of such conceptual grouping techniques as the K-means clustering algorithm and competitive artificial neural networks. The Ward's method was used as a supporting tool in establishing the final number of accident profiles. Six distinct accident patterns have been recognised, quantified and labelled, where the first, second and third one are typical of rural areas, the fourth and fifth - of built-up areas, and the last one - of intersections. The analysis indicates that apart from threat factors, the following road related features play an important role in road accident profiling tasks: area type and area development level, roadway surface condition, intersection indicator, shoulder type, and also to some extent: lighting conditions, shoulders' width, and horizontal curve radius.

  5. Online Optimal Control of Connected Vehicles for Efficient Traffic Flow at Merging Roads

    SciTech Connect

    Rios-Torres, Jackeline; Malikopoulos, Andreas; Pisu, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of coordinating online connected vehicles at merging roads to achieve a smooth traffic flow without stop-and-go driving. We present a framework and a closed-form solution that optimize the acceleration profile of each vehicle in terms of fuel economy while avoiding collision with other vehicles at the merging zone. The proposed solution is validated through simulation and it is shown that coordination of connected vehicles can reduce significantly fuel consumption and travel time at merging roads.

  6. Alcohol intoxication in road traffic accidents leads to higher impact speed difference, higher ISS and MAIS, and higher preclinical mortality.

    PubMed

    Stübig, Timo; Petri, Maximilian; Zeckey, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Müller, Christian; Otte, Dietmar; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol is one of the most important personal risk factors for serious and fatal injuries, contributing to approximately one third of all deaths from accidents. It is also described that alcohol intoxication leads to a higher mortality in the clinical course. In this study, we hypothesized that alcohol intoxication leads to different accident kinematics, a higher ISS (Injury Severity Score), and higher preclinical mortality compared to sober patients. A technical and medical investigation of alcohol intoxicated road users was performed on the scene of the crash and at the primary admitting hospital. Alcohol testing was performed with either breath alcohol tests or measurement of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in a standard laboratory test. Between 1999 and 2010, 37,635 road traffic accidents were evaluated by the Accident Research Unit. Overall 20,741 patients were injured, 2.3% of the patients were killed. Among the injured patients, 2.2% with negative BAC were killed, compared to 4.6% fatal injuries in patients with a positive BAC (p < 0.0001). Of the patients with a positive BAC, 8.0% were severely injured, compared to 3.6% in the BAC negative group (p < 0.0001). Regarding the relative speed at impact (Δv for motorized drivers, vehicle collision speed for pedestrians and bikers), there was a significant higher difference for BAC positive patients (30 ± 20) compared to the BAC negative patients (25 ± 19, p < 0.0001). Alcohol intoxication in trauma patients leads to higher preclinical mortality, higher impact speed difference, and higher injury severity. The subgroup analysis for different alcohol concentrations shows no difference in ISS, MAIS, and relative speed, but a correlation of increasing age of patients with higher alcohol concentrations. PMID:22819121

  7. Contribution of alcohol to deaths in road traffic accidents in Tayside 1982-6

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Graham R; Dunbar, James A; Whittet, David; Fernando, Gyan C A

    1988-01-01

    In Britain the precise number and relative proportions of deaths among drivers, passengers, and pedestrians in road traffic accidents related to alcohol are not known. These data were obtained in Tayside by cross matching police accident records with blood alcohol concentrations at necropsy. Of 71 alcohol-related deaths 30 were the drivers (or motorcyclists) themselves, nine were their passengers, 23 were pedestrians with raised blood alcohol concentrations, and nine were innocent victims. The high blood alcohol concentrations of the intoxicated drivers, passengers, and pedestrians, which may point to alcoholism, suggest that publicity campaigns will be of little value in reducing the number of deaths in road traffic accidents related to alcohol. The time at which these accidents occurred was related to licensing hours, and this should be taken into account when considering changes in licensing laws. PMID:3132276

  8. Fast and optimized methodology to generate road traffic emission inventories and their uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blond, N.; Ho, B. Q.; Clappier, A.

    2012-04-01

    Road traffic emissions are one of the main sources of air pollution in the cities. They are also the main sources of uncertainties in the air quality numerical models used to forecast and define abatement strategies. Until now, the available models for generating road traffic emission always required a big effort, money and time. This inhibits decisions to preserve air quality, especially in developing countries where road traffic emissions are changing very fast. In this research, we developed a new model designed to fast produce road traffic emission inventories. This model, called EMISENS, combines the well-known top-down and bottom-up approaches to force them to be coherent. A Monte Carlo methodology is included for computing emission uncertainties and the uncertainty rate due to each input parameters. This paper presents the EMISENS model and a demonstration of its capabilities through an application over Strasbourg region (Alsace), France. Same input data as collected for Circul'air model (using bottom-up approach) which has been applied for many years to forecast and study air pollution by the Alsatian air quality agency, ASPA, are used to evaluate the impact of several simplifications that a user could operate . These experiments give the possibility to review older methodologies and evaluate EMISENS results when few input data are available to produce emission inventories, as in developing countries and assumptions need to be done. We show that same average fraction of mileage driven with a cold engine can be used for all the cells of the study domain and one emission factor could replace both cold and hot emission factors.

  9. [Dynamic road vehicle emission inventory simulation study based on real time traffic information].

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Liu, Juan; Chen, Chang-Hong; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Deng-Guo; Zhu, Jing-Yu; Huang, Wei-Ming; Chao, Yuan

    2012-11-01

    The vehicle activity survey, including traffic flow distribution, driving condition, and vehicle technologies, were conducted in Shanghai. The databases of vehicle flow, VSP distribution and vehicle categories were established according to the surveyed data. Based on this, a dynamic vehicle emission inventory simulation method was designed by using the real time traffic information data, such as traffic flow and average speed. Some roads in Shanghai city were selected to conduct the hourly vehicle emission simulation as a case study. The survey results show that light duty passenger car and taxi are major vehicles on the roads of Shanghai city, accounting for 48% - 72% and 15% - 43% of the total flow in each hour, respectively. VSP distribution has a good relationship with the average speed. The peak of VSP distribution tends to move to high load section and become lower with the increase of average speed. Vehicles achieved Euro 2 and Euro 3 standards are majorities of current vehicle population in Shanghai. Based on the calibration of vehicle travel mileage data, the proportions of Euro 2 and Euro 3 standard vehicles take up 11% - 70% and 17% - 51% in the real-world situation, respectively. The emission simulation results indicate that the ratios of emission peak and valley for the pollutants of CO, VOC, NO(x) and PM are 3.7, 4.6, 9.6 and 19.8, respectively. CO and VOC emissions mainly come from light-duty passenger car and taxi, which has a good relationship with the traffic flow. NO(x) and PM emissions are mainly from heavy-duty bus and public buses and mainly concentrate in the morning and evening peak hours. The established dynamic vehicle emission simulation method can reflect the change of actual road emission and output high emission road sectors and hours in real time. The method can provide an important technical means and decision-making basis for transportation environment management. PMID:23323399

  10. Hazards to children in traffic. A paediatrician looks at road accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, R H

    1978-01-01

    An overall view is presented of the hazards to children in traffic. The importance of the developmental aspects of childhood accidents is stressed, and a plea is made for doctors working with children to recognise the part they could play in reducing the number of road accidents to children by their understanding of child development and behaviour. It is an aspect of preventive paediatrics that is largely neglected at present. PMID:727795