Science.gov

Sample records for road transportation sector

  1. [EU policy orientations on road accidents prevention and workplace health promotion in the transport sector].

    PubMed

    Isolani, L

    2012-01-01

    In the European Union (EU) transport industry directly employs more than 10 million people, accounting for 4.5% of total employment. Road traffic accidents and road safety are a major public health issue. The Commission of the EU has published policy orientations on road safety to provide a general framework, under which concrete action can be taken at European, national, regional and local levels. Some strategic objectives were identified in order to 1) improve education and training of road users and the quality of the licensing and training system of drivers; 2) make both road infrastructure and vehicles safer. These orientations will translate for the workers of the transport sector in an important initial and periodic training with the aim to improve their health and well-being and to reduce road risk and road accidents, representing a very good example of health promotion. PMID:23405665

  2. Continuous Vocational Training in the Road Freight and Passenger Transport Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    Continuous vocational training (CVT) in the road freight and passenger transport sectors in the member states of the European Community (EC) was examined to identify exemplary and significant practices across the EC and determine the extent of the transferability of the identified exemplary training between and among the member states. In all,…

  3. Estimating emissions from the Indian transport sector with on-road fleet composition and traffic volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization and rising household incomes in India have led to growing transport demand, particularly during 1990-2010. Emissions from transportation have been implicated in air quality and climate effects. In this work, emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5 or mass concentration of particles smaller than 2.5 um diameter), black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), were estimated from the transport sector in India, using detailed technology divisions and regionally measured emission factors. Modes of transport addressed in this work include road transport, railways, shipping and aviation, but exclude off-road equipment like diesel machinery and tractors. For road transport, a vehicle fleet model was used, with parameters derived from vehicle sales, registration data, and surveyed age-profile. The fraction of extremely high emitting vehicles, or superemitters, which is highly uncertain, was assumed as 20%. Annual vehicle utilization estimates were based on regional surveys and user population. For railways, shipping and aviation, a top-down approach was applied, using nationally reported fuel consumption. Fuel use and emissions from on-road vehicles were disaggregated at the state level, with separate estimates for 30 cities in India. The on-road fleet was dominated by two-wheelers, followed by four-and three-wheelers, with new vehicles comprising the majority of the fleet for each vehicle type. A total of 276 (-156, 270) Gg/y PM2.5, 144 (-99, 207) Gg/y BC, and 95 (-64, 130) Gg/y OC emissions were estimated, with over 97% contribution from on-road transport. Largest emitters were identified as heavy duty diesel vehicles for PM2.5 and BC, but two-stroke vehicles and superemitters for OC. Old vehicles (pre-2005) contributed significantly more (∼70%) emissions, while their share in the vehicle fleet was smaller (∼45%). Emission estimates were sensitive to assumed superemitter fraction. Improvement of emission estimates requires on-road emission factor measurements

  4. High resolution inventory of GHG emissions of the road transport sector in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puliafito, Salvador Enrique; Allende, David; Pinto, Sebastián; Castesana, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Air quality models require the use of extensive background information, such as land use and topography maps, meteorological data and emission inventories of pollutant sources. This challenge increases when considering the vehicular sources. The available international databases have uneven resolution for all countries including some areas with low spatial resolution associated with large districts (several hundred km). A simple procedure is proposed in order to develop an inventory of emissions with high resolution (9 km) for the transport sector based on a geographic information system using readily available information applied to Argentina. The basic variable used is the vehicle activity (vehicle - km transported) estimated from fuel consumption and fuel efficiency. This information is distributed to a spatial grid according to a road hierarchy and segment length assigned to each street within the cell. Information on fuel is obtained from district consumption, but weighted using the DMSP-OLS satellite "Earth at night" image. The uncertainty of vehicle estimation and emission calculations was tested using sensitivity Montecarlo analysis. The resulting inventory is calibrated using annual average daily traffic counts in around 850 measuring points all over the country leading to an uncertainty of 20%. Uncertainties in the emissions calculation at pixel level can be estimated to be less than 12%. Comparison with international databases showed a better spatial distribution of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the transport sector, but similar total national values.

  5. Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

    2010-10-01

    Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

  6. Assessment of the Electrification of the Road Transport Sector on Net System Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James

    As worldwide environmental consciousness grows, electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming more common and despite the incredible potential for emissions reduction, the net emissions of the power system supply side plus the transportation system are dependent on the generation matrix. Current EV charging patterns tend to correspond directly with the peak consumption hours and have the potential to increase demand sharply allowing for only a small penetration of Electric Vehicles. Using the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) data a model is created for vehicle travel patterns using trip chaining. Charging schemes are modeled to include uncontrolled residential, uncontrolled residential/industrial charging, optimized charging and optimized charging with vehicle to grid discharging. A charging profile is then determined based upon the assumption that electric vehicles would directly replace a percentage of standard petroleum-fueled vehicles in a known system. Using the generation profile for the specified region, a unit commitment model is created to establish not only the generation dispatch, but also the net CO2 profile for variable EV penetrations and charging profiles. This model is then used to assess the impact of the electrification of the road transport sector on the system net emissions.

  7. Training Guide: Road Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan Page, Ltd., London (England).

    The third in a series of guides to British industrial training, this publication begins with a survey of training issues and tasks confronting the Road Transport Industry Training Board (RTITB). This is followed by information on RTITB policies and provisions; RTITB members, officers, and committees; apprenticeships and other training schemes;…

  8. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    The prospective future adoption of molecular hydrogen (H2) to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question of whether the adoption would have adverse effects on the stratospheric ozone. The possibility of undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on the stratospheric ozone, with the MOZART (Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers) model. Since future growth is highly uncertain, we evaluate the impact of two world evolution scenarios, one based on an IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) high-emitting scenario (A1FI) and the other on an IPCC low-emitting scenario (B1), as well as two technological options: H2 fuel cells and H2 internal combustion engines. We assume a H2 leakage rate of 2.5% and a complete market penetration of H2 vehicles in 2050. The model simulations show that a H2-based road transportation sector would reduce stratospheric ozone concentrations as a result of perturbed catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The magnitude of the impact depends on which growth scenario evolves and which H2 technology option is applied. For the evolution growth scenario, stratospheric ozone decreases more in the H2 fuel cell scenarios than in the H2 internal combustion engine scenarios because of the NOx emissions in the latter case. If the same technological option is applied, the impact is larger in the A1FI emission scenario. The largest impact, a 0.54% decrease in annual average global mean stratospheric column ozone, is found with a H2 fuel cell type road transportation sector in the A1FI scenario; whereas the smallest impact, a 0.04% increase in stratospheric ozone, is found with applications of H2 internal combustion engine vehicles in the B1 scenario. The impacts of the other two scenarios fall

  9. The impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 1: Tropospheric composition and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    Vehicles burning fossil fuel emit a number of substances that change the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere, and contribute to global air and water pollution and climate change. For example, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted as byproducts of fossil fuel combustion are key precursors to ground-level ozone and aerosol formation. In addition, on-road vehicles are major CO2 emitters. In order to tackle these problems, molecular hydrogen (H2) has been proposed as an energy carrier to substitute for fossil fuel in the future. However, before implementing any such strategy it is crucial to evaluate its potential impacts on air quality and climate. Here we evaluate the impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on tropospheric chemistry and air quality for several possible growth and technology adoption scenarios. The growth scenarios are based on the high and low emissions Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, A1FI and B1, respectively. The technological adoption scenarios include H2 fuel cell and H2 internal combustion engine options. The impacts are evaluated with the Community Atmospheric Model Chemistry global chemistry transport model (CAM-Chem). Higher resolution simulations focusing on the contiguous United States are also carried out with the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) regional chemistry transport model. For all scenarios future air quality improves with the adoption of a H2-based road transportation sector, however, the magnitude and type of improvement depend on the scenario. Model results show that with the adoption of H2 fuel cells decreases tropospheric burdens of ozone (7%), CO (14%), NOx (16%), soot (17%), sulfate aerosol (4%), and ammonium nitrate aerosol (12%) in the A1FI scenario, and decreases those of ozone (5%), CO (4%), NOx (11%), soot (7%), sulfate aerosol (4%), and ammonium nitrate aerosol (9 %) in the B1 scenario. The

  10. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 1: Tropospheric composition and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    Vehicles burning fossil fuel emit a number of substances that change the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere, and contribute to global air and water pollution and climate change. For example, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted as byproducts of fossil fuel combustion are key precursors to ground-level ozone and aerosol formation. In addition, on-road vehicles are major CO2 emitters. In order to tackle these problems, molecular hydrogen (H2) has been proposed as an energy carrier to substitute for fossil fuels in the future. However, before implementing any such strategy it is crucial to evaluate its potential impacts on air quality and climate. Here, we evaluate the impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on tropospheric chemistry and air quality for several possible growth and technology adoption scenarios. The growth scenarios are based on the high and low emissions Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, A1FI and B1, respectively. The technological adoption scenarios include H2 fuel cell and H2 internal combustion engine options. The impacts are evaluated with the Community Atmospheric Model Chemistry global chemistry transport model (CAM-Chem). Higher resolution simulations focusing on the contiguous United States are also carried out with the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) regional chemistry transport model. For all scenarios future air quality improves with the adoption of a H2-based road transportation sector; however, the magnitude and type of improvement depend on the scenario. Model results show that the adoption of H2 fuel cells would decrease tropospheric burdens of ozone (7%), CO (14%), NOx (16%), soot (17%), sulfate aerosol (4%), and ammonium nitrate aerosol (12%) in the A1FI scenario, and would decrease those of ozone (5%), CO (4%), NOx (11%), soot (7%), sulfate aerosol (4%), and ammonium nitrate aerosol (9%) in the B1 scenario

  11. Drivers' and conductors' views on the causes and ways of preventing workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace violence (WPV) is an occupational health hazard in both low and high income countries. To design WPV prevention programs, prior knowledge and understanding of conditions in the targeted population are essential. This study explores and describes the views of drivers and conductors on the causes of WPV and ways of preventing it in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique. Methods The design was qualitative. Participants were purposefully selected from among transport workers identified as victims of WPV in an earlier quantitative study, and with six or more years of experience in the transport sector. Data were collected in semi-structured interviews. Seven open questions covered individual views on causes of WPV and its prevention, based on the interviewees' experiences of violence while on duty. Thirty-two transport professionals were interviewed. The data were analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. Results The triggers and causes of violence included fare evasion, disputes over revenue owing to owners, alcohol abuse, overcrowded vehicles, and unfair competition for passengers. Failures to meet passenger expectations, e.g. by-passing parts of a bus route or missing stops, were also important. There was disrespect on the part of transport workers, e.g. being rude to passengers and jumping of queues at taxi ranks, and there were also robberies. Proposals for prevention included: training for workers on conflict resolution, and for employers on passenger-transport administration; and, promoting learning among passengers and workers on how to behave when traveling collectively. Regarding control and supervision, there were expressed needs for the recording of mileage, and for the sanctioning of workers who transgress queuing rules at taxi ranks. The police or supervisors should prevent drunken passengers from getting into vehicles, and drivers should refuse to go to dangerous, secluded neighborhoods. Finally

  12. Emissions from India's transport sector: Statewise synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Shwetmala

    A decentralized emission inventories are prepared for road transport sector of India in order to design and implement suitable technologies and policies for appropriate mitigation measures. Globalization and liberalization policies of the government in 90's have increased the number of road vehicles nearly 92.6% from 1980-1981 to 2003-2004. These vehicles mainly consume non-renewable fossil fuels, and are a major contributor of green house gases, particularly CO 2 emission. This paper focuses on the statewise road transport emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2, PM and HC), using region specific mass emission factors for each type of vehicles. The country level emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2 and NMVOC) are calculated for railways, shipping and airway, based on fuel types. In India, transport sector emits an estimated 258.10 Tg of CO 2, of which 94.5% was contributed by road transport (2003-2004). Among all the states and Union Territories, Maharashtra's contribution is the largest, 28.85 Tg (11.8%) of CO 2, followed by Tamil Nadu 26.41 Tg (10.8%), Gujarat 23.31 Tg (9.6%), Uttar Pradesh 17.42 Tg (7.1%), Rajasthan 15.17 Tg (6.22%) and, Karnataka 15.09 Tg (6.19%). These six states account for 51.8% of the CO 2 emissions from road transport.

  13. Climate forcing from the transport sectors

    PubMed Central

    Fuglestvedt, Jan; Berntsen, Terje; Myhre, Gunnar; Rypdal, Kristin; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt

    2008-01-01

    Although the transport sector is responsible for a large and growing share of global emissions affecting climate, its overall contribution has not been quantified. We provide a comprehensive analysis of radiative forcing from the road transport, shipping, aviation, and rail subsectors, using both past- and forward-looking perspectives. We find that, since preindustrial times, transport has contributed ≈15% and 31% of the total man-made CO2 and O3 forcing, respectively. A forward-looking perspective shows that the current emissions from transport are responsible for ≈16% of the integrated net forcing over 100 years from all current man-made emissions. The dominating contributor to positive forcing (warming) is CO2, followed by tropospheric O3. By subsector, road transport is the largest contributor to warming. The transport sector also exerts cooling through reduced methane lifetime and atmospheric aerosol effects. Shipping causes net cooling, except on future time scales of several centuries. Much of the forcing from transport comes from emissions not covered by the Kyoto Protocol. PMID:18180450

  14. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2010-05-01

    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  15. Vapor absorption refrigeration in road transport vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Horuz, I.

    1999-08-01

    This study includes an experimental investigation into the use of vapor absorption refrigeration (VAR) systems in road transport vehicles using the waste heat in the exhaust gases of the main propulsion unit as the energy source. This would provide an alternative to the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system and its associated internal combustion engine. The performance of a VAR system fired by natural gas is compared with that of the same system driven by engine exhaust gases. This showed that the exhaust-gas-driven system produced the same performance characteristics as the gas-fired system. It also suggested that, with careful design, inserting the VAR system generator into the main engine exhaust system need not impair the performance of the vehicle propulsion unit. A comparison of the capital and running costs of the conventional and proposed alternative system is made. Suggestions are also made regarding operation of the VAR system during off-road/slow running conditions.

  16. On the Road to Transportation Efficiency (Video)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    Reducing emissions and oil consumption are crucial worldwide goals. Reducing transportation emissions, in particular, is key to reducing overall emissions. Electric vehicles driving on electrified roadways could be a significant part of the solution. E-roadways offer a variety of benefits: reduce petroleum consumption (electricity is used instead of gasoline), decrease vehicular operating costs (from about 12 cents per mile to 4 cents per mile), and extend the operational range of electric vehicles. Plus, e-roadway power can come from renewable sources. This animation was sponsored by the Clean Transportation Sector Initiative, and interagency effort between the U.S. Department of Transportation and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. 78 FR 73438 - Reorganization of Sector Baltimore and Hampton Roads; Conforming Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... Hampton Roads; Conforming Amendments AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... of Sector Baltimore's and Sector Hampton Roads' Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port...

  18. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  19. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site the full range of analyses required. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soils, ground water and surface waters. This document describes the requirements for such a laboratory.

  20. 33 CFR 3.25-10 - Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sector Hampton Roads Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-10 Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Hampton Roads' office is located in Portsmouth, VA....

  1. 33 CFR 3.25-10 - Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sector Hampton Roads Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-10 Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Hampton Roads' office is located in Portsmouth, VA....

  2. 33 CFR 3.25-10 - Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sector Hampton Roads Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-10 Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Hampton Roads' office is located in Portsmouth, VA....

  3. 33 CFR 3.25-10 - Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sector Hampton Roads Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-10 Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Hampton Roads' office is located in Portsmouth, VA....

  4. 33 CFR 3.25-10 - Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sector Hampton Roads Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-10 Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Hampton Roads' office is located in Portsmouth, VA....

  5. Transportation Sector Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model.

  6. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  7. Uncertainties of modelling emissions from road transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühlwein, J.; Friedrich, R.

    To determine emission data from road transport, complex methods and models are applied. Emission data are characterized by a huge variety of source types as well as a high resolution of the spatial allocation and temporal variation. So far, the uncertainties of such calculated emission data have been largely unknown. As emission data is used to aid policy decisions, the accuracy of the data should be known. So, in the following, the determination of uncertainties of emission data is described. Using the IER emission model for generating regional or national emission data, the uncertainties of model input data and the total errors on different aggregation levels are exemplarily investigated for the pollutants NO x and NMHC in 1994 for the area of West Germany. The results of statistical error analysis carried out for annual emissions on road sections show variation coefficients (68.3% confidence interval) of 15-25%. In addition, systematic errors of common input data sets have been identified especially affecting emissions on motorway sections. The statistical errors of urban emissions with warm engine on town level amount to 35%. Therefore they are considerably higher than the errors outside towns. Error ranges of additional cold start emissions determined so far have been found in the same order. Additional uncertainties of temporally highly resolved (hourly) emission data depend strongly on the daytime, the weekday and the road category. Variation coefficients have been determined in the range between 10 and 70% for light-duty vehicles and between 15 and 100% for heavy-duty vehicles. All total errors determined here have to be regarded as lower limits of the real total errors.

  8. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. Remediation of these sites requires extensive sampling to determine the extent of the contamination, to monitor clean-up and remediation progress, and for post-closure monitoring of facilities. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site the full range of analyses required. Such systems would accelerate and thereby reduce the cost of clean-up and remediation efforts by (1) providing critical analytical data more rapidly, and (2) eliminating the handling, shipping and manpower associated with sample shipments. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  9. Global temperature responses to current emissions from the transport sectors

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Terje; Fuglestvedt, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Transport affects climate directly and indirectly through mechanisms that cause both warming and cooling of climate, and the effects operate on very different timescales. We calculate climate responses in terms of global mean temperature and find large differences between the transport sectors with respect to the size and mix of short- and long-lived effects, and even the sign of the temperature response. For year 2000 emissions, road transport has the largest effect on global mean temperature. After 20 and 100 years the response in net temperature is 7 and 6 times higher, respectively, than for aviation. Aviation and shipping have strong but quite uncertain short-lived warming and cooling effects, respectively, that dominate during the first decades after the emissions. For shipping the net cooling during the first 4 decades is due to emissions of SO2 and NOx. On a longer timescale, the current emissions from shipping cause net warming due to the persistence of the CO2 perturbation. If emissions stay constant at 2000 levels, the warming effect from road transport will continue to increase and will be almost 4 times larger than that of aviation by the end of the century. PMID:19047640

  10. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O`Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE`s internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex.

  11. Road transportable analytical laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    Remediation of DOE contaminated areas requires extensive sampling and analysis. Reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site a full range of analyses meeting high levels of quality assurance and control, would accelerate and thereby reduce the cost of cleanup and remediation efforts by (1) providing critical analytical data more rapidly, and (2) eliminating the handling, shipping, and manpower associated with sample shipments. Goals of RTAL are to meet the needs of DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. The system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or together, to meet specific site needs: radioanalytical lab, organic chemical analysis lab, inorganic chemical analysis lab, aquatic biomonitoring lab, field analytical lab, robotics base station, decontamination/sample screening module, and operations control center. Goal of this integrated system is a sample throughput of 20 samples/day, providing a full range of accurate analyses on each sample within 16 h (after sample preparation), compared with the 45- day turnaround time in commercial laboratories. A prototype RTAL consisting of 5 modules was built and demonstrated at Fernald(FEMP)`s OU-1 Waste Pits, during the 1st-3rd quarters of FY96 (including the `96 Blizzard). All performance and operational goals were met or exceeded: as many as 50 sample analyses/day were achieved, depending on the procedure, sample turnaround times were 50-67% less than FEMP`s best times, and RTAL costs were projected to be 30% less than FEMP costs for large volume analyses in fixed laboratories.

  12. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  13. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  14. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Singh, N.R.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Delgass, W.N.

    2007-03-20

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H{sub 2}CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} recycled from the H{sub 2}-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H{sub 2}CAR process. The land area needed to grow the biomass is <40% of that needed by other routes that solely use biomass to support the entire transportation sector. Whereras the literature estimates known processes to be able to produce {approx}30% of the United States transportation fuel from the annual biomass of 1.366 billion tons, the H{sub 2}CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. The synthesized liquid provides H{sub 2} storage in an open loop system. Reduction to practice of the H{sub 2}CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H{sub 2} in the H{sub 2}CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H{sub 2}CAR is that there is no additional CO{sub 2} release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO{sub 2}.

  15. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R.; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Delgass, W. Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H2CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H2 and CO2 recycled from the H2-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H2CAR process. (i) The land area needed to grow the biomass is <40% of that needed by other routes that solely use biomass to support the entire transportation sector. (ii) Whereas the literature estimates known processes to be able to produce ≈30% of the United States transportation fuel from the annual biomass of 1.366 billion tons, the H2CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. (iii) The synthesized liquid provides H2 storage in an open loop system. (iv) Reduction to practice of the H2CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H2 in the H2CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H2CAR is that there is no additional CO2 release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO2. PMID:17360377

  16. GHG emissions inventory for on-road transportation in the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) accounts an increase of the total annual anthropogenic GHG emissions between 2000 and 2010 that directly came from the transport sector. In 2010, 14% of GHG emissions were released by transport and fossil-fuel-related CO2 emissions reached about 32 GtCO2 per year. The report also considers adaptation and mitigation as complementary strategies for reducing the risks of climate change for sustainable development of urban areas. This paper describes the on-road traffic emission estimated in the framework of a Sardinian regional project [1] for the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy), one of the Sardinian areas where the fuel consumption for on-road transportation purposes is higher [2]. The GHG emissions have been accounted (a) by a calculation-based methodology founded on a linear relationship between source activity and emission, and (b) by the COPERT IV methodology through the EMITRA (EMIssions from road TRAnsport) software tool [3]. Inventory data for annual fossil fuel consumption associated with on-road transportation (diesel, gasoline, gas) have been collected through the Dogane service, the ATP and ARST public transport services and vehicle fleet data are available from the Public Vehicle Database (PRA), using 2010 as baseline year. During this period, the estimated CO2 emissions accounts for more than 180,000 tCO2. The calculation of emissions due to on-road transport quantitatively estimates CO2 and other GHG emissions and represents a useful baseline to identify possible adaptation and mitigation strategies to face the climate change risks at municipal level. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the Sardinian Regional Project "Development, functional checking and setup of an integrated system for the quantification of CO2 net exchange and for the evaluation of mitigation strategies at urban and territorial scale", (Legge Regionale 7 agosto 2007, No. 7). References [1] Sanna L., Ferrara R., Zara P. & Duce P. (2014

  17. Evolution of NOx emissions in Europe with focus on road transport control measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestreng, V.; Ntziachristos, L.; Semb, A.; Reis, S.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Tarrasón, L.

    2009-02-01

    European emission trends of nitrogen oxides since 1880 and up to present are presented here and are linked to the evolution of road transport emissions. Road transport has been the dominating source of NOx emissions since 1970, and contributes with 40% to the total emissions in 2005. Five trend regimes have been identified between 1880 and 2005. The first regime (1880-1950) is determined by a slow increase in fuel consumption all over Europe. The second regime (1950-1980) is characterized by a continued steep upward trend in liquid fuel use and by the introduction of the first regulations on road traffic emissions. Reduction in fuel consumption determines the emission trends in the third regime (1980-1990) that is also characterized by important differences between Eastern and Western Europe. Emissions from road traffic continue to grow in Western Europe in this period, and it is argued here that the reason for this continued NOx emission increase is related to early inefficient regulations for NOx in the transport sector. The fourth regime (1990-2000) involves a turning point for road traffic emissions, with a general decrease of emissions in Europe during that decade. It is in this period that we can identify the first emission reductions due to technological abatement in Western Europe. In the fifth regime (2000-2005), the economic recovery in Eastern Europe imposes increased emission from road traffic in this area. Western European emissions are on the other hand decoupled from the fuel consumption, and continue to decrease. The implementation of strict measures to control NOx emissions is demonstrated here to be a main reason for the continued Western European emission reductions. The results indicate that even though the effectiveness of European standards is hampered by a slow vehicle turnover, loopholes in the type-approval testing, and an increase in diesel consumption, the effect of such technical abatement measures is traceable in the evolution of

  18. Evolution of NOx emissions in Europe with focus on road transport control measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestreng, V.; Ntziachristos, L.; Semb, A.; Reis, S.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Tarrasón, L.

    2008-06-01

    European emission trends of nitrogen oxides since 1880 and up to present are presented here and are linked to the evolution of road transport emissions. Road transport has been the dominating source of NOx emissions since 1970, and contributes with 40% to the total emissions in 2005. Five trend regimes have been identified between 1880 and 2005. The first regime (1880-1950) is determined by a slow increase in fuel consumption all over Europe. The second regime (1950-1980) is characterized by a continued steep upward trend in liquid fuel use and by the introduction of the first regulations on road traffic emissions. Reduction in fuel consumption determines the emission trends in the third regime (1980-1990) that is also characterized by important differences between Eastern and Western Europe. Emissions from road traffic continue to grow in Western Europe in this period, and it is argued here that the reason for this continued NOx emission increase is related to early inefficient regulations for NOx in the transport sector. The fourth regime (1990-2000) involves a turning point for road traffic emissions, with a general decrease of emissions in Europe during that decade. It is in this period that we can identify the first emission reductions due to technological abatement in Western Europe. In the fifth regime (2000-2005), the economic recovery in Eastern Europe imposes increased emission from road traffic in this area. Western European emissions are on the other hand decoupled from the fuel consumption, and continue to decrease. The implementation of strict measures to control NOx emissions is demonstrated here to be a main reason for the continued Western European emission reductions. The results indicate that even though the effectiveness of European standards is hampered by a slow vehicle turnover, loopholes in the type-approval testing, and an increase in diesel consumption, the effect of such technical abatement measures is traceable in the evolution of

  19. Advertising wearout in the Transport Accident Commission road safety campaigns.

    PubMed

    Fry, T R

    1996-01-01

    This paper uses a varying coefficient regression model to investigate whether there is any significant advertising wearout in the Transport Accident Commission (TAC) road safety campaigns on Victorian television. The results suggest that there is some evidence that the effectiveness of the campaigns may be declining with increased exposure. PMID:8924179

  20. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system: Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; De Avila, J.C.; Keith, V.F.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes a portable laboratory system for the analysis of soils, ground water, and surface waters for the detection and quantification of hazardous materials, organics, and radioactive contaminants. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) is a sample throughput of 20 samples per day, providing a full range of analysis on each sample within 16 hours of preparation with high accuracy.

  1. Radiative forcing due to changes in ozone and methane caused by the transport sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, G.; Shine, K. P.; Rädel, G.; Gauss, M.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Tang, Q.; Prather, M. J.; Williams, J. E.; van Velthoven, P.; Dessens, O.; Koffi, B.; Szopa, S.; Hoor, P.; Grewe, V.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Berntsen, T. K.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    The year 2000 radiative forcing (RF) due to changes in O 3 and CH 4 (and the CH 4-induced stratospheric water vapour) as a result of emissions of short-lived gases (oxides of nitrogen (NO x), carbon monoxide and non-methane hydrocarbons) from three transport sectors (ROAD, maritime SHIPping and AIRcraft) are calculated using results from five global atmospheric chemistry models. Using results from these models plus other published data, we quantify the uncertainties. The RF due to short-term O 3 changes (i.e. as an immediate response to the emissions without allowing for the long-term CH 4 changes) is positive and highest for ROAD transport (31 mW m -2) compared to SHIP (24 mW m -2) and AIR (17 mW m -2) sectors in four of the models. All five models calculate negative RF from the CH 4 perturbations, with a larger impact from the SHIP sector than for ROAD and AIR. The net RF of O 3 and CH 4 combined (i.e. including the impact of CH 4 on ozone and stratospheric water vapour) is positive for ROAD (+16(±13) (one standard deviation) mW m -2) and AIR (+6(±5) mW m -2) traffic sectors and is negative for SHIP (-18(±10) mW m -2) sector in all five models. Global Warming Potentials (GWP) and Global Temperature change Potentials (GTP) are presented for AIR NO x emissions; there is a wide spread in the results from the 5 chemistry models, and it is shown that differences in the methane response relative to the O 3 response drive much of the spread.

  2. Global Scenarios of Air Pollutant Emissions from Road Transport through to 2050

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents global scenarios of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from road transport through to 2050, taking into account the potential impacts of: (1) the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries; (2) global CO2 mitigation policy implementation; and (3) vehicle cost assumptions, on study results. This is done by using a global energy system model treating the transport sector in detail. The major conclusions are the following. First, as long as non-developed countries adopt the same vehicle emission standards as in developed countries within a 30-year lag, global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles decrease substantially over time. Second, light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty trucks make a large and increasing contribution to future global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles. Third, the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries has a large impact on future global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles, whereas there is a possibility that global CO2 mitigation policy implementation has a comparatively small impact on them. PMID:21845172

  3. On the Road to Transportation Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-21

    Reducing emissions and oil consumption are crucial worldwide goals. Reducing transportation emissions, in particular, is key to reducing overall emissions. Electric vehicles driving on electrified roadways could be a significant part of the solution. E-roadways offer a variety of benefits: reduce petroleum consumption (electricity is used instead of gasoline), decrease vehicular operating costs (from about 12 cents per mile to 4 cents per mile), and extend the operational range of electric vehicles. Plus, e-roadway power can come from renewable sources.

  4. Energy consumption in road transport: data-collection requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Millar, M.; Bernard, M.J.

    1983-06-03

    Despite recent softening in world oil prices, oil imports continue to represent a serious drain on the foreign-exchange reserves of many countries. As a result, governments throughout the world are pursuing a variety of policies - from increased exploitation of indigenous resources to conservation and other improvements in energy-conversion efficiency - in an effort to reduce their reliance on imported oil. Road transport, representing upwards of 30% of petroleum-product consumption in many countries, represents a logical target for such efforts. However, beyond the gross statistics available from oil company records on fuel sales, oftimes little is known about precisely how this sizeable quantity of fuel is consumed. Without more specific data on the modal composition of road-transport demand, the energy-conversion characteristics of the vehicles serving that demand, the operational features of those vehicles, etc., governments cannot hope to develop the conservation programs so urgently needed. Data on road freight are particularly sparse and, given the developing supply/demand imbalance for middle-distillate fuels, current data gaps may well develop into future supply shortages or cross-subsidization issues. Since the mid-1970s, most of the nations of North and South America have mounted programs to collect data on the energy-consumption characteristics of road transport. This paper reports on one such effort now underway in Jamaica. While certain of the transportation and data-collection issues which influenced methodology selection may be unique to that country, others are common to many countries at similar levels of urbanization, motorization, and income. With appropriate modification to account for distinctive local conditions, the Jamaican data-collection procedure has broad applicability, in whole or in part, to a variety of national and regional contexts.

  5. Global and regional climate impacts of black carbon and co-emitted species from the on-road diesel sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Marianne T.; Berntsen, Terje K.; Heyes, Chris; Klimont, Zbigniew; Samset, Bjørn H.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel vehicles are a significant source of black carbon (BC) and ozone precursors, which are important contributors to climate warming, degrade air quality and harm human health. Reducing diesel emissions could mitigate near-term climate change with significant co-benefits. This study quantifies the global and regional climate impacts of BC and co-emitted short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) from present-day on-road diesel vehicles, as well as future impacts following a current legislation emission scenario. Atmospheric concentrations are calculated by the chemical transport model OsloCTM2. The following radiative forcing (RF) and equilibrium surface temperature responses are estimated. For year 2010 on-road diesel emissions we estimate a global-mean direct RF from BC of 44 m W/m2 and an equilibrium surface temperature response of 59 mK, including the impact of BC deposition on snow. Accounting for cooling and warming impacts of co-emitted SLCFs results in a net global-mean RF and warming of 28 mW/m2 and 48 mK, respectively. Using the concept of Regional Temperature change Potential (RTP), we find significant geographical differences in the responses to regional emissions. Accounting for the vertical sensitivities of the forcing/response relation amplifies these differences. In terms of individual source regions, emissions in Europe give the largest regional contribution to equilibrium warming caused by year 2010 on-road diesel BC, while Russia is most important for Arctic warming per unit emission. The largest contribution to warming caused by the year 2050 on-road diesel sector is from emissions in South Asia, followed by East Asia and the Middle East. Hence, in regions where current legislation is not sufficient to outweigh the expected growth in activity, accelerated policy implementation is important for further future mitigation.

  6. 76 FR 35273 - CSX Transportation, Inc.; Trackage Rights Exemption; The Indiana Rail Road Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.; Trackage Rights Exemption; The Indiana Rail Road... Indiana Rail Road Company (INRD) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to CSX Transportation,...

  7. Impacts of black carbon and co-pollutant emissions from transportation sector in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Miguel; Almanza, Victor; Garcia, Agustin; Jazcilevich, Aron; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon is one of the most important short-lived climate-forcing agents, which is harmful to human health and also contributes significantly to climate change. Transportation is one of the largest sources of black carbon emissions in many megacities and urban complexes, with diesel vehicles leading the way. Both on-road and off-road vehicles can emit substantial amounts of harmful BC-containing particulate matter (PM) and are also responsible for large emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and many other co-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Regionally, black carbon emissions contributions from mobile sources may vary widely depending on the technical characteristics of the vehicle fleet, the quality and chemical properties of the fuels consumed, and the degree of local development and economic activities that foster wider and more frequent or intensive use of vehicles. This presentation will review and assess the emissions of black carbon from the on-road and off-road transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Viable mitigation strategies, including innovative technological alternatives to reduce black carbon and co-pollutants in diesel vehicles and their impacts on climate, human health and ecosystems will be described.

  8. Optimum design of detector structure for road transport inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Jun, In Sub; Kwak, Sung-Woo; Yoo, Ho-Sik

    2008-06-01

    A Nuclear Material Detection System (hereafter "NMDS") is needed to search and detect neutron and/or gamma-ray emitting nuclides such as a dirty bomb during their road transport. However, since it is expected that this material is shielded with high-density material, high detection ability of the detection system is required. In this paper, in order to enhance detection ability of the detection system, we have employed a 3He detector, a NaI detector, and four GM tubes with four different energy cut-off filters. Using Monte Carlo simulation, optimal arrangement of detectors has been determined.

  9. Innovative technology summary report: Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) has been used in support of US Department of Energy (DOE) site and waste characterization and remediation planning at Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) and is being considered for implementation at other DOE sites, including the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The RTAL laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific analysis needs. The prototype RTAL, deployed at FEMP Operable Unit 1 Waste Pits, has been designed to be synergistic with existing analytical laboratory capabilities, thereby reducing the occurrence of unplanned rush samples that are disruptive to efficient laboratory operations.

  10. The transport sector as a source of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvile, R. N.; Hutchinson, E. J.; Mindell, J. S.; Warren, R. F.

    Transport first became a significant source of air pollution after the problems of sooty smog from coal combustion had largely been solved in western European and North American cities. Since then, emissions from road, air, rail and water transport have been partly responsible for acid deposition, stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change. Most recently, road traffic exhaust emissions have been the cause of much concern about the effects of urban air quality on human health and tropospheric ozone production. This article considers the variety of transport impacts on the atmospheric environment by reviewing three examples: urban road traffic and human health, aircraft emissions and global atmospheric change, and the contribution of sulphur emissions from ships to acid deposition. Each example has associated with it a different level of uncertainty, such that a variety of policy responses to the problems are appropriate, from adaptation through precautionary emissions abatement to cost-benefit analysis and optimised abatement. There is some evidence that the current concern for road transport contribution to urban air pollution is justified, but aircraft emissions should also give cause for concern given that air traffic is projected to continue to increase. Emissions from road traffic are being reduced substantially by the introduction of technology especially three-way catalysts and also, most recently, by local traffic reduction measures especially in western European cities. In developing countries and Eastern Europe, however, there remains the possibility of great increase in car ownership and use, and it remains to be seen whether these countries will adopt measures now to prevent transport-related air pollution problems becoming severe later in the 21st Century.

  11. Modeling the climate impact of road transport, maritime shipping and aviation over the period 1860-2100 with an AOGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivié, D. J. L.; Cariolle, D.; Teyssèdre, H.; Salas, D.; Voldoire, A.; Clark, H.; Saint-Martin, D.; Michou, M.; Karcher, F.; Balkanski, Y.; Gauss, M.; Dessens, O.; Koffi, B.; Sausen, R.

    2012-02-01

    For the period 1860-2100 (SRES scenario A1B for 2000-2100), the impact of road transport, maritime shipping and aviation on climate is studied using an Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM). In addition to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from these transport sectors, most of their non-CO2 emissions are also taken into account, i.e. the forcing from ozone, methane, black carbon, organic carbon, sulfate, CFC-12 and HFC-134a from air conditioning systems in cars, and contrails. For the year 2000, the CO2 emissions from all sectors together induce a global annual-mean surface air temperature increase of around 0.1 K. In 2100, the CO2 emissions from road transport induce a global mean warming of 0.3 K, while shipping and aviation each contribute 0.1 K. For road transport, the non-CO2 impact is largest between 2000 and 2050 (of the order of 0.1 K) becoming smaller at the end of the 21st century. The non-CO2 impact from shipping is negative, reaching -0.1 K between 2050 and 2100, while for aviation it is positive and its estimate varies between 0 and 0.15 K in 2100. The largest changes in sea-level from thermal expansion in 2000 are 1.6 mm for the CO2 emissions from road transport, and around -3 mm from the non-CO2 effects of shipping. In 2100, sea-level rises by 18 mm due to the CO2 emissions from road transport and by 4.6 mm due to shipping or aviation CO2 emissions. Non-CO2 changes are of the order of 1 mm for road transport, -6.6 mm for shipping, and the estimate for aviation varies between -1.2 and 4.3 mm. When focusing on the geographical distribution, the non-CO2 impact from road transport and shipping on the surface air temperature is only slightly stronger in northern than in southern mid-latitudes, while the impact from aviation can be a factor of 5 stronger in the northern than in the southern hemisphere. Further it is observed that most of the impacts are more pronounced at high latitudes, and that the non-CO2 emissions from aviation strongly

  12. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable details on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). We project that global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector will be in the range of 3.0-4.0 Gt across the four scenarios in the year 2030. Corresponding global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM). At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two largest contributors to

  13. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable details on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). We project that global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector will be in the range of 3.0-4.0 Gt across the four scenarios in the year 2030. Corresponding global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM). At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two largest contributors to

  14. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable detail on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). With global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector in the range of 128-171 EJ across the four scenarios, global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of non-methane total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM) in the year 2030. At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two

  15. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  16. Road and Roadside Feature Extraction Using Imagery and LIDAR Data for Transportation Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ural, S.; Shan, J.; Romero, M. A.; Tarko, A.

    2015-03-01

    Transportation agencies require up-to-date, reliable, and feasibly acquired information on road geometry and features within proximity to the roads as input for evaluating and prioritizing new or improvement road projects. The information needed for a robust evaluation of road projects includes road centerline, width, and extent together with the average grade, cross-sections, and obstructions near the travelled way. Remote sensing is equipped with a large collection of data and well-established tools for acquiring the information and extracting aforementioned various road features at various levels and scopes. Even with many remote sensing data and methods available for road extraction, transportation operation requires more than the centerlines. Acquiring information that is spatially coherent at the operational level for the entire road system is challenging and needs multiple data sources to be integrated. In the presented study, we established a framework that used data from multiple sources, including one-foot resolution color infrared orthophotos, airborne LiDAR point clouds, and existing spatially non-accurate ancillary road networks. We were able to extract 90.25% of a total of 23.6 miles of road networks together with estimated road width, average grade along the road, and cross sections at specified intervals. Also, we have extracted buildings and vegetation within a predetermined proximity to the extracted road extent. 90.6% of 107 existing buildings were correctly identified with 31% false detection rate.

  17. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2015-02-01

    Diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the transportation sector. However, there are more obstacles to existing estimations of diesel-truck emissions compared with those of cars. The obstacles include both inappropriate methodology and missing basic data in China. According to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance intercity or interprovincial transportation. Thus, the method used by most existing inventories, based on local registration number, is inappropriate. A road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research instead of registration-population-based approach. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected in China. The estimated NOx and PM2.5 emissions from diesel freight trucks in China were 5.0 (4.8-7.2) million tonnes and 0.20 (0.17-0.22) million tonnes, respectively, in 2011. The province-based emission inventory is also established using the REIB approach. It was found that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. The largest differences among the emission factors (in g km-1) on different roads exceed 70 and 50% for NOx and PM2.5, respectively. A region with more intercity freeways or national roads tends to have more NOx emissions, while urban streets play a more important role in primary PM2.5 emissions from freight trucks. Compared with the inventory of the Ministry of Environment Protection, which allocates emissions according to local truck registration number and neglects interregional long-distance transport trips, the differences for NOx and PM2.5 are +28 and -57%, respectively. The REIB approach matches better with traffic statistical data on a provincial level. Furthermore, the different driving conditions on the

  18. Energy conservation and the transportation sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The present status of the energy implications of the transportation systems in the United States was illustrated, with primary emphasis on the technologies and methods for achieving a substantial reduction in the associated energy price (approximately 25% of the nation's energy is consumed directly in the operation of these systems). These technologies may be classified as follows: (1) improvement of system efficiency (system operations or technological), (2) substitution for scarce energy resources (electrification, alternate fuels, use of man power, recycling), (3) curtailment of end use (managed population growth rate, education of citizenry, alternatives to personal transportation, improved urban planning, reduced travel incentives). Examples and illustrations were given. Thirty-four actions were chosen on the basis of a preliminary filtering process with the objective of: (1) demonstrating a methodological approach to arrive at logical and consistent conservation action packages, (2) recommending a viable and supportable specific set of actions.

  19. Critical design factors for sector transport maintenance in DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utoh, Hiroyasu; Someya, Youji; Tobita, Kenji; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Hoshino, Kazuo; Nakamura, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    This paper mainly focuses on a sector transport maintenance scheme from the aspects of high plant availability. In this study, three different maintenance schemes are considered based on (1) the number of maintenance ports and (2) the insertion direction. The design study clarifies critical design factors and key engineering issues on the maintenance scheme: (1) how to support an enormous overturning force of the toroidal field coils in the large open port for sector transport and (2) define the transferring mechanism of sectors in the vacuum vessel. On reviewing these assessment factors, the sector transport using a limited number of horizontal maintenance ports is found to be a more realistic maintenance scheme. In addition, evaluating maintenance scenarios under high decay heat is proposed for the first time. The key design factors are the cool-down time in the reactor and the cooling method in the maintenance scheme to keep components under operational temperature. Based on one-dimensional heat conduction analysis, after one month cool-down time, each sector of SlimCS could be transported to the hot cell facility by gas cooling.

  20. The unavoidable challenge: US transportation sector's addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-26

    Driven by two powerful forces, the quest for energy security and the need for cleaner air, the U.S. Department of Energy, various state and local agencies, and business and industry are seeking ways to significantly reduce the dependence on oil as a transportation fuel. This issue of ED features the latest research findings on methanol, compressed natural gas, and electricity, focusing on a just-completed DOE study and report. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of September 7, 1990; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, September 1990 edition. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Impacts of Increased Diesel Penetration in the Transportation Sector, The

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Requested by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Analyzes the impacts on petroleum prices, demand, and refinery operations of a projected increase in demand for diesel fuel stemming from greater penetration of diesel-fueled engines in the light-duty vehicle fleet of the U.S. transportation sector.

  2. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  3. 25 CFR 170.405 - Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Transportation Planning § 170.405 Can tribal transportation...

  4. Climate impacts of short-lived climate forcers versus CO2 from biodiesel: a case of the EU on-road sector.

    PubMed

    Lund, Marianne T; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S

    2014-12-16

    Biofuels are proposed to play an important role in several mitigation strategies to meet future CO2 emission targets for the transport sector but remain controversial due to significant uncertainties in net impacts on environment, society, and climate. A switch to biofuels can also affect short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which provide significant contributions to the net climate impact of transportation. We quantify the radiative forcing (RF) and global-mean temperature response over time to EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs and the impact of 20% (B20) and 100% (B100) replacement of fossil diesel by biodiesel. SLCFs are compared to impacts of on-road CO2 using different approaches from existing literature to account for biodiesel CO2. Given the best estimates for changes in emissions when replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel, the net positive RF from EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs of 3.4 mW/m(2) is reduced by 15% and 80% in B20 and B100, respectively. Over time the warming of SLCFs is likely small compared to biodiesel CO2 impacts. However, SLCFs may be relatively more important for the total warming than in the fossil fuel case if biodiesel from feedstock with very short rotation periods and low land-use-change impacts replaces a high fraction of fossil diesel. PMID:25405926

  5. Emerging Climate-data Needs in the Air Transport Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the nature of climate information needed within the air-transport sector. Air transport is not a single economic sector with uniform needs for climate data: airport, airline, and air-navigation services are the principal sub-sectors, each with their own particular climate-related decision contexts. For example, airports function as fixed infrastructure that is primarily affected by probabilities of extreme events that could hamper runway/taxiway operations, interfere with worker availability, or impede travel to and from the airport by passengers. Airlines, in contrast, are more concerned with changes in atmospheric conditions (upper-air turbulence, convective weather events, etc.) that might require consideration in long-term decisions related to flight-planning processes and aircraft equipage. Air-navigation service providers have needs that are primarily concerned with assurance of safe spatial separation of aircraft via sensor data and communications links. In addition to present-day commercial air transport, we discuss what climate data may be needed for new types of air transport that may emerge in the next couple of decades. These include, for example, small aircraft provided on-demand to non-pilot travelers, high-altitude supersonic business and commercial jets, and very large numbers of un-manned aircraft. Finally, we give examples relating to key technical challenges in providing decision-relevant climate data to the air-transport sector. These include: (1) identifying what types of climate data are most relevant the different decisions facing the several segments of this industry; (2) determining decision-appropriate time horizons for forecasts of this data; and (3) coupling the uncertainties inherent in these forecasts to the decision process.

  6. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve... THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.808 Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA...

  7. A multiclass vehicular dynamic traffic flow model for main roads and dedicated lanes/roads of multimodal transport network

    SciTech Connect

    Sossoe, K.S.; Lebacque, J-P.

    2015-03-10

    We present in this paper a model of vehicular traffic flow for a multimodal transportation road network. We introduce the notion of class of vehicles to refer to vehicles of different transport modes. Our model describes the traffic on highways (which may contain several lanes) and network transit for pubic transportation. The model is drafted with Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates and uses a Logit model to describe the traffic assignment of our multiclass vehicular flow description on shared roads. The paper also discusses traffic streams on dedicated lanes for specific class of vehicles with event-based traffic laws. An Euler-Lagrangian-remap scheme is introduced to numerically approximate the model’s flow equations.

  8. Emissions of air pollutants from road transport in Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waked, Antoine; Afif, Charbel

    2012-12-01

    Road transport is a major contributor to pollutant emissions in the Middle East region (MEA). Emissions originating from this sector have a significant impact on the atmosphere, health and the climate change. Identification and quantification of these emissions in this region is of great importance in order to develop emissions reductions strategies. For this purpose and because a detailed emission inventory for road transport is nonexistent for Lebanon (a small developing country in the MEA region) and for its capital city Beirut, a spatially-resolved and temporally-allocated emission inventory for road transport was developed for Lebanon and for the city of Beirut using a bottom-up approach where possible. In order to compare emissions between developed and non-developed cities on the Mediterranean basin, road transport emissions originating in normal (February-June and September-November) and touristic periods (July-August and December-January) were compared between Beirut, Barcelona and Athens, respectively. The comparison obtained between Beirut, Barcelona and Athens showed that emissions per capita for CO and SO2 are highest in Beirut while emissions of particulate matter were highest in Barcelona. The different patterns between these cities showed that emissions increases in winter in Beirut and Barcelona (11 and 9% respectively) and decreases in the city of Athens by 9%. In summer, an increase of 15% in traffic intensities is observed in Athens while in Beirut and Barcelona, traffic intensities decrease by 10 and 40% respectively. At a national level, emissions were calculated for 14 countries in the MEA in order to inter compare them with those of Lebanon. The results show that in the MEA, the highest contributors to total carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions (78 and 79% respectively), are countries having a population that exceeds 20 million inhabitants such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt. For Lebanon, emissions per

  9. 19 CFR 18.4a - Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport... General Provisions § 18.4a Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal... design type approval by a competent authority, and (iii) if the container or road vehicle hauling...

  10. Ice Roads in the Northwest Territories: The Intersection of Climate, Economics, and Transportation Policy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, H.; Sturm, M.; Goldstein, M.; Douglas, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Ice roads would seem to be an obvious, and potentially sensitive, point of interaction between climate and human activity. An interdisciplinary study of ice roads in the vicinity of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, suggests that the real story is more complex. The feasibility of ice roads clearly has basic climatic requirements: there has to be enough cold weather to form enough ice to support vehicles. Beyond that basic requirement, though, lie a host of technical innovations in the construction and management of ice roads, extending the “natural” life of ice roads and providing more reliable and consistent transportation than climate alone would allow. In addition, the use of ice roads involves on economic need (for example, in re-supplying diamond mines), public policy (for example, providing access to remote communities), and funding (roads may cost thousands of dollars per kilometer, each year). In this paper, we explore the various factors that affect ice road viability, identifying key variables for monitoring and modeling to provide researchers and ice road managers with information to help determine optimal courses of action in a variable and changing climate.

  11. A Fuzzy Modeling Approach to Road Transport with Application to a Case of Spent Nuclear Fuel Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Marseguerra, Marzio; Zio, Enrico; Bianchi, Mauro

    2004-06-15

    In this paper, we propose a general fuzzy inference approach to building a model of hazardous road transport that relates given traffic, weather, and vehicle-speed conditions to the accident rate. The development of the model is discussed in detail, and its validation is provided with reference to literature data regarding the transport of spent nuclear fuel to its final confinement repository.

  12. Assessment of heavy metal releases from the use phase of road transport in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummer, Ulrike; Pacyna, Jozef; Pacyna, Elisabeth; Friedrich, Rainer

    An emission inventory was compiled for heavy metal air emissions from road transport in Europe (EU-40). For the database, country-specific data was taken such as the diesel and gasoline fuel consumption per country, the content of Pb in gasoline and diesel fuel and the share of different vehicle types. For tyre and brake wear emissions, average wear rates and heavy metal contents of different materials were used to develop emission factors for tyre and brake wear. It covers exhaust emissions (Pb from gasoline and diesel) as well as non-exhaust emissions (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb from the wear of brake linings and vehicle tyres). The base year is 2000, and two scenarios were developed for 2010, a business as usual (BAU) scenario and a maximum feasible technical reduction (MFTR) scenario. Both result in a remarkable decrease in Pb exhaust emissions and a rising share of non-exhaust emissions. To assess the results, the inventory is (a) compared to an inventory compiled with a top-down approach that covers the same area and years but only emissions from combustion processes and (b) added to an inventory covering all sectors for heavy metal air emissions.

  13. Satellite Remote Sensing and Transportation Lifelines: Safety and Risk Analysis Along Rural Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, R.

    the application of satellite Earth Observation (EO) methods to the analysis of transportation networks. Other geospatial technologies, including geographic information systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), sharply enhance the utility of EO data in identifying potential road hazards and providing an objective basis for allocating resources to reduce their risks. In combination, these powerful information technologies provide substantial public benefits and increased business opportunities to remote sensing value-added firms. departments in rural jurisdictions improve the trafficability of the roads under their management during severe weather. We are developing and testing these methods in the U.S. Southwest, where thousands of kilometers of unimproved and graded dirt roads cross Native American reservations. This generally arid region is nevertheless subject to periodic summer rainstorms and winter snow and ice, creating hazardous conditions for the region's transportation lifelines. Arizona and Southeast Utah, as well as digital terrain models from the U.S. Geological Survey. We have analyzed several risk factors, such as slope, road curvature, and intersections, by means of multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) on both unimproved and improved roads. In partnership with the Hopi Indian Nation in Arizona, we have acquired and analyzed GPS road centerline data and accident data that validate our methodology. hazards along paved and unpaved roads of the American Southwest. They are also transferable to the international settings, particularly in similarly arid climates.

  14. Effects of road type during transport on lamb welfare and meat quality in dry hot climates.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Monge, Paula; Villarroel, Morris; Olleta, Jose Luis; García-Belenguer, Sylvia; María, Gustavo A

    2011-06-01

    This study determined whether transporting lambs on paved (PR) or unpaved roads (UR) for 3 h had an effect on plasma stress indicators (cortisol, lactate, glucose, creatine kinase [CK], red blood cells, white blood cells, hematocrit, and neutrophil/lymphocyte [N/L] ratio) and instrumental meat quality (pH24, bruising score, water holding capacity [WHC], color, and texture). A total of 48 Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were used that were approximately 100 days old (12.5 kg ± 1.64, carcass weight). The results suggest that transport on unpaved roads had a significant influence on physiological and hematological stress parameters. Road type had a significant effect on all variables, except for white and red blood cells, and hematocrit levels. The UR lambs had significantly higher (at least p ≤ 0.01) cortisol, lactate, glucose, and CK levels and a higher N/L ratio than PR lambs. Meat from UR lambs had some dark-cutting characteristics, with a darker color, higher ultimate pH, and higher tenderness values than PR. In conclusion, lambs transported on unpaved roads had a more intense stress response and poorer meat quality than lambs transported on paved roads. An effort to improve the logistics associated with route planning is necessary to prevent welfare problems during transport to slaughter. PMID:21240654

  15. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  16. Effect of road transportation on the serum biochemical parameters of cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    OCHI, Takehiro; YAMADA, Azusa; NAGANUMA, Yuki; NISHINA, Noriko; KOYAMA, Hironari

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of long-distance (approximately 600 km) road transportation on the blood biochemistry of laboratory animals, we investigated the changes in serum biochemical parameters in healthy cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs transported by truck from Osaka to Tsukuba, Japan. The concentrations of serum cortisol, total bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase in monkeys increased during transportation. Serum cortisol and total bilirubin levels in dogs also increased during transportation, but serum triglyceride decreased. Serum parameter values in truck-transported monkeys and dogs returned to baseline levels within two weeks following arrival. Taken together, these results suggest that a two-week acclimation period is the minimum duration required for adaptation following road transportation. PMID:26833142

  17. Development of a road transport emission inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area: effects of important parameters.

    PubMed

    Fameli, K M; Assimakopoulos, V D

    2015-02-01

    Traffic is considered one of the major polluting sectors and as a consequence a significant cause for the measured exceedances of ambient air quality limit values mainly in urban areas. The Greater Athens Area (located in Attica), the most populated area in Greece, faces severe air pollution problems due to the combination of high road traffic emissions, complex topography and local meteorological conditions. Even though several efforts were made to construct traffic emission inventories for Greece and Attica, still there is not a spatially and temporally resolved one, based on data from relevant authorities and organisations. The present work aims to estimate road emissions in Greece and Attica based on the top down approach. The programme COPERT 4 was used to calculate the annual total emissions from the road transport sector for the period 2006-2010 and an emission inventory for Greece and Attica was developed with high spatial (6 × 6 km(2) for Greece and 2 × 2 km(2) for Attica) and temporal (1-hour) resolutions. The results revealed that about 40% of national CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC values and 30% of NOx and particles are emitted in Attica. The fuel consumption and the subsequent reduction of annual mileage driven in combination with the import of new engine anti-pollution technologies affected CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC emissions. The major part of CO (56.53%) and CO₂ (66.15%) emissions was due to passenger cars (2010), while heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) were connected with NOx, PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ emissions with 51.27%, 43.97% and 38.13% respectively (2010). The fleet composition, the penetration of diesel fuelled cars, the increase of urban average speed and the fleet renewal are among the most effective parameters towards the emission reduction strategies. PMID:25461080

  18. Transport Mode Selection for Toxic Gases: Rail or Road?

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Morteza; Verma, Manish; Verter, Vedat

    2014-01-01

    A significant majority of hazardous materials (hazmat) shipments are moved via the highway and railroad networks, wherein the latter mode is generally preferred for long distances. Although the characteristics of highway transportation make trucks the most dominant surface transportation mode, should it be preferred for hazmat whose accidental release can cause catastrophic consequences? We answer this question by first developing a novel and comprehensive assessment methodology-which incorporates the sequence of events leading to hazmat release from the derailed railcars and the resulting consequence-to measure rail transport risk, and second making use of the proposed assessment methodology to analyze hazmat transport risk resulting from meeting the demand for chlorine and ammonia in six distinct corridors in North America. We demonstrate that rail transport will reduce risk, irrespective of the risk measure and the transport corridor, and that every attempt must be made to use railroads to transport these shipments. PMID:23682996

  19. Towards greener environment: Energy efficient pathways for the transportation sector in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indati, M. S.; Ghate, A. T.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Transportation sector is the second most energy consuming sector after industrial sector, accounting for 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. The transportation sector is one of the most energy intensive sectors in the country and relies primarily on petroleum products, which in total account for nearly 98% of the total consumption in the sector. Since it is heavily reliant on petroleum based fuels, the sector contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the greenhouse gas emission is paramount as Malaysia at Conference of the Parties (COP15) pledged to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 from 2005 level subject to availability of technology and finance. Transport sector will be among the first sectors that need to be addressed to achieve this goal, as two-thirds of the emissions come from fuel combustion in transport sector. This paper will analyse the factors influencing the transport sector's growth and energy consumption trends and discuss the key issues and challenges for greener environment and sustainable transportation in Malaysia. The paper will also discuss the policy and strategic options aimed towards energy efficient pathways in Malaysia.

  20. The Road Less Traveled: Sustainable Transportation for Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toor, Will

    2003-01-01

    Provides a survey of innovative approaches to campus transportation in the United States. Explains that the high costs of parking expansion have propelled many institutions toward a transportation demand management strategy, using parking pricing, transit passes for students and employees, and investment in bicycle infrastructure to shift many…

  1. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system: Volume III, Appendices C through J. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; De Avila, J.C.; Keith, V.F.

    1996-08-01

    The Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) provides a portabler laboratory for the analysis of soils, ground water, and surface water. This report presents data from a soils sample TCLP VOA and SVOA report, aqueous sample RCRA metals report, soils sample total and isotopic uranium report, SVOA sample analytical performance report, and and RCRA metal sample analytical performance report.

  2. The Indonesian's Road Transportations as the Contexts to Support Primary School Students Learning Number Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kairuddin; Darmawijoyo

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the Indonesian's road transportation contexts, namely, angkot, that used in learning and teaching of addition and subtraction in first grade and second grade MIN-2 Palembang. PMRI approach that adopt from RME [Realistic Mathematics Education] was used in this design research. From teaching experiment was founded that the…

  3. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  4. [Ongoing problems of road signs in transportation control].

    PubMed

    Kokavec, M; Dobrotka, G

    1994-02-01

    The diagnosis and evaluation of causes of traffic accidents frequently calls for effective mutual collaboration of forensic medical officers and transport psychologists. Both scientific disciplines participate in prevention of traffic injuries as regards theoretical arguments and practical provisions. The Bratislava Institute of Forensic Medicine, based on many years of professional and practical experience, participates in the elaboration of principles of risk-free transport of urban and non-urban traffic as well as in preventive provisions and suggestions for conditions of traffic the field. Due to social and economic changes they will be faced in future with more complicated traffic problems/safety of pedestrians--children, old people. In transport man adapts, due to biological laws, with greater difficulties to technical signs of controlled traffic which assumes rapid, immediate and inevitable reactions. Transport safety cannot be resolved unless within prevention a radical solution will be found for the risk of alcoholism, toxicomania, ever increasing speed of vehicles and greater traffic density. PMID:8184339

  5. Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    Around the world, network utilities (i.e., electricity, natural gas, railway, telecommunications, and water supply industries) are undergoing major structural transformation. A new wave of market liberalization, together with rapid technological changes, has challenged the previously dominant monopoly organization of these industries. A global trend toward deregulation and restructuring is evident in countries at different levels of social and economic development. The challenges of transition from a monopolistic to an open market competitive structure are numerous. Understanding these problems and finding solutions are essential to successful restructuring. In developing countries and economies in transition (i.e., the Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), government-owned utilities are often considered to be highly inefficient. The dominant power sector restructuring strategies seek to promote economic efficiency through a gradual introduction of competition into the power sector. Five components of power sector reform are commonly proposed by the World Bank and others for these countries: commercialization, privatization, establishment of an independent regulatory agency, unbundling and gradual introduction of competition in generation and retail markets. The Republic of Georgia, like many economies in transition (e.g., Hungary, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan) has followed this reform model. However, outcomes of the reform have not been as promised. The acute economic problems facing Georgia after it regained independence have compounded problems in the power sector. A review of Georgia's utility reforms reveals that the country has undertaken electricity industry restructuring without giving substantial consideration to the problems that these reforms might have created within the industry or society. The main task of this dissertation is to find the restructuring model, which can best serve economic, social and environmental goals under circumstances similar

  6. Using Massive Vehicle Positioning Data to Improve Control and Planning of Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    Padrón, Gabino; García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, A.; Alayón, Francisco; Pérez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a system for the automatic recording of positioning data for public transport vehicles used on roads. With the data provided by this system, transportation-regulatory authorities can control, verify and improve the routes that vehicles use, while also providing new data to improve the representation of the transportation network and providing new services in the context of intelligent metropolitan areas. The system is executed autonomously in the vehicles, by recording their massive positioning data and transferring them to remote data banks for subsequent processing. To illustrate the utility of the system, we present a case of application that consists of identifying the points at which vehicles stop systematically, which may be points of scheduled stops or points at which traffic signals or road topology force the vehicle to stop. This identification is performed using pattern recognition techniques. The system has been applied under real operating conditions, providing the results discussed in the present study. PMID:24763212

  7. The Road to Redemption: Ten Policy Recommendations for Ohio's Charter School Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Juliet; Robson, Kelly; Smarick, Andy

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, the Buckeye State embraced a new approach to public-education delivery, launching a pilot program of community (charter) schools. Since then, the state's community schools sector has grown tremendously. During the 2013-14 school year, 390 schools served approximately 124,000 students--seven percent of students statewide. Despite its…

  8. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Papadimitriou, Giannis; Ligterink, Norbert; Hausberger, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro 5 and Euro 6 ones. Mean NOx emission factor levels used in the most popular EU vehicle emission models (COPERT, HBEFA and VERSIT+) are compared with latest emission information collected in the laboratory over real-world driving cycles and on the road using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). The comparison shows that Euro 5 passenger car (PC) emission factors well reflect on road levels and that recently revealed emissions control failures do not call for any significant corrections. However Euro 5 light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and Euro 6 PCs in the 2014-2016 period exhibit on road emission levels twice as high as used in current models. Moreover, measured levels vary a lot for Euro 6 vehicles. Scenarios for future evolution of Euro 6 emission factors, reflecting different degree of effectiveness of emissions control regulations, show that total NOx emissions from diesel Euro 6 PC and LCV may correspond from 49% up to 83% of total road transport emissions in 2050. Unless upcoming and long term regulations make sure that light duty diesel NOx emissions are effectively addressed, this will have significant implications in meeting future air quality and national emissions ceilings targets.

  9. Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit; Andress, David A; Nguyen, Tien

    2011-01-01

    Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

  10. A survey on hazardous materials accidents during road transport in China from 2000 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Li, Fengying; Zhou, Jingbo; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun

    2010-12-15

    A study of 322 accidents that occurred during the road transport of hazardous materials (hazmat) in China from 2000 to 2008 was carried out. The results showed an increase in the frequency of accidents from 2000 to 2007 and a decline in 2008. More than 63% of the accidents occurred in the eastern coastal areas, 25.5% in the central inland areas, and only 10.9% in the western remote areas. The most frequent types of accident were releases (84.5%), followed by gas clouds (13.0%), fires (10.2%), no substance released due to timely measures (9.9%), and explosions (5.9%). The spatial distribution, the causes and consequences of the accidents related to the population (e.g., number of people killed, injured, evacuated, or poisoned), and environment elements were analyzed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the need to improve certain safety measures in the road transport of hazmat in China. PMID:20863620

  11. A survey of accidents occurring during the transport of hazardous substances by road and rail.

    PubMed

    Oggero, A; Darbra, R M; Muñoz, M; Planas, E; Casal, J

    2006-05-20

    A study of 1932 accidents that occurred during the transport of hazardous substances by road and rail from the beginning of the 20th century to July 2004 was carried out. The results obtained show an increase in the frequency of accidents over time. More than half of the accidents happened on roads (63%). The most frequent accidents were releases (78%), followed by fires (28%), explosions (14%) and gas clouds (6%). The various causes of the accidents, the type of substance involved and the consequences for the population (number of people killed, injured or evacuated) were also analysed. Among the diverse measures taken to improve this situation, the training of professional people involved in transportation seems to be of major importance. PMID:16298045

  12. A STUDY OF PERSPECTIVE OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION RELIABILITY ON THE NETWORK LEVEL AND ITS EVALUATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Sho-Ichiro

    In this paper, road transportation reliability on th e network level is considered . First, previous studies of connectivity reliability and vuln erability are reviewed. Next, stocha stic network equilibrium models, whose flows and travel times are stochastic, and simu lation techniques are classified, and their future works are pointed out. Th en, transportation policies and network design problems which increase or optimize the reliability are re viewed. Finally, a method of unified travel time and connectivity reliability assessment is proposed based on the review of this paper.

  13. Air pollution co-benefits of low carbon policies in road transport: a sub-national assessment for India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Shivika; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-08-01

    This letter assesses low carbon scenarios for India at the subnational level in the passenger road transport sector. We estimate the future passenger mobility demand and assess the impact of carbon mitigation policies using the Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment/Enduse models. This letter focuses on the transitions of energy and emissions of passenger transport in India in alternate scenarios i.e. the business-as-usual scenario and a low carbon scenario that aligns to the 2 °C temperature stabilization target agreed under the global climate change negotiations. The modelling results show that passenger mobility demand will rise in all sub-national regions of India in the coming few decades. However, the volume and modal structure will vary across regions. Modelling assessment results show that aligning global low carbon policies with local policies has potential to deliver significant air quality co-benefits. This analysis provides insights into the comparative dynamics of environmental policymaking at sub-national levels.

  14. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains input data and parameters used in the model of the transportation sector of the National Energy Modeling System. The list of Transportation Sector Model variables includes parameters for the following: Light duty vehicle modules (fuel economy, regional sales, alternative fuel vehicles); Light duty vehicle stock modules; Light duty vehicle fleet module; Air travel module (demand model and fleet efficiency model); Freight transport module; Miscellaneous energy demand module; and Transportation emissions module. Also included in these appendices are: Light duty vehicle market classes; Maximum light duty vehicle market penetration parameters; Aircraft fleet efficiency model adjustment factors; and List of expected aircraft technology improvements.

  15. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study).

    PubMed

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP. PMID:26356373

  16. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study)

    PubMed Central

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP. PMID:26356373

  17. Is the wash-off process of road-deposited sediment source limited or transport limited?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongtao; Chen, Xuefei; Hao, Shaonan; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Jiang; Zou, Changliang; Xie, Wenxia

    2016-09-01

    An in-depth understanding of the road-deposited sediments (RDS) wash-off process is essential to estimation of urban surface runoff pollution load and to designing methods to minimize the adverse impacts on the receiving waters. There are two debatable RDS wash-off views: source limited and transport limited. The RDS build-up and wash-off process was characterized to explore what determines the wash-off process to be source limited or transport limited based on twelve RDS sampling activities on an urban road in Beijing. The results showed that two natural rain events (2.0mm and 23.2mm) reduced the total RDS mass by 30%-40%, and that finer particles (<105μm) contributed 60%-80% of the wash-off load. Both single- and multi-rain events caused the RDS particle grain size to become coarser, while dry days made the RDS particle grain size finer. These findings indicated that the bulk RDS particles wash-off tends to be transport limited, but that finer particles tend to be source limited. To further explore and confirm the results of the field experiment, a total of 40 simulated rain events were designed to observe the RDS wash-off with different particle size fractions. The finer particles have a higher wash-off percentage (Fw) than the coarser particles, and the Fw values provide a good view to characterize the wash-off process. The key conclusions drawn from the combined field and simulated experiments data are: (i) Finer and coarser particle wash-off processes tend to be source limited and transport limited, respectively. (ii) The source and transport limited processes occur during the initial period (the first flush) and later periods, respectively. (iii) The smaller and larger rain events tend to be transport limited and source limited, respectively. Overall, the wash-off process is generally a combination of source and transport limited processes. PMID:27135567

  18. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Crashes and Transported by Emergency Medical Services

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Ying; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chuang, Jung-Fang; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the injury characteristics and mortality of patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) and hospitalized for trauma following a road traffic crash, data obtained from the Trauma Registry System were retrospectively reviewed for trauma admissions between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 in a Level I trauma center. Of 16,548 registered patients, 3978 and 1440 patients injured in road traffic crashes were transported to the emergency department by EMS and non-EMS, respectively. Patients transported by EMS had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores and worse hemodynamic measures. Compared to patients transported by non-EMS, more patients transported by EMS required procedures (intubation, chest tube insertion, and blood transfusion) at the emergency department. They also sustained a higher injury severity, as measured by the injury severity score (ISS) and the new injury severity score (NISS). Lastly, in-hospital mortality was higher among the EMS than the non-EMS group (1.8% vs. 0.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). However, we found no statistically significant difference in the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for mortality among patients transported by EMS after adjustment for ISS (AOR 4.9, 95% CI 0.33–2.26), indicating that the higher incidence of mortality was likely attributed to the patients’ higher injury severity. In addition, after propensity score matching, logistic regression of 58 well-matched pairs did not show a significant influence of transportation by EMS on mortality (OR: 0.578, 95% CI: 0.132–2.541 p = 0.468). PMID:26907318

  19. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Crashes and Transported by Emergency Medical Services.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Ying; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chuang, Jung-Fang; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the injury characteristics and mortality of patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) and hospitalized for trauma following a road traffic crash, data obtained from the Trauma Registry System were retrospectively reviewed for trauma admissions between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 in a Level I trauma center. Of 16,548 registered patients, 3978 and 1440 patients injured in road traffic crashes were transported to the emergency department by EMS and non-EMS, respectively. Patients transported by EMS had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores and worse hemodynamic measures. Compared to patients transported by non-EMS, more patients transported by EMS required procedures (intubation, chest tube insertion, and blood transfusion) at the emergency department. They also sustained a higher injury severity, as measured by the injury severity score (ISS) and the new injury severity score (NISS). Lastly, in-hospital mortality was higher among the EMS than the non-EMS group (1.8% vs. 0.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). However, we found no statistically significant difference in the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for mortality among patients transported by EMS after adjustment for ISS (AOR 4.9, 95% CI 0.33-2.26), indicating that the higher incidence of mortality was likely attributed to the patients' higher injury severity. In addition, after propensity score matching, logistic regression of 58 well-matched pairs did not show a significant influence of transportation by EMS on mortality (OR: 0.578, 95% CI: 0.132-2.541 p = 0.468). PMID:26907318

  20. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2014-06-01

    Mobile source emission inventories serve as critical input for atmospheric chemical transport models, which are used to simulate air quality and understand the role of mobile source emissions. The significance of mobile sources is even more important in China because the country has the largest vehicle population in the world, and that population continues to grow rapidly. Estimating emissions from diesel trucks is a critical work in mobile source emission inventories due to the importance and difficulties associated with estimating emissions from diesel trucks. Although diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), there are still more obstacles on the existing estimation of diesel truck emissions compared with that of cars; long-range freight transportation activities are complicated, and much of the basic data remain unclear. Most of existing inventories were based on local registration number. However, according to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance inter-city or inter province transportation. Instead of the local registration number based approach, a road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected. Both the questionnaire answers and GPS monitoring results indicated that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. We present estimated emissions of NOx and primary PM2.5 from diesel freight trucks for China in 2011. Using the REIB approach, the activity level and distribution data are obtained from the questionnaire answers. Emission factors are calculated with the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model that interpolated local on-board measurement results in China according to the GPS

  1. Indirect economic impact of landslide hazards by disruption to national road transportation networks; Scotland, United Kingdom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dijkstra, Tom; Dixon, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The failure of engineered or natural slopes which support or are adjacent to transportation systems often inflicts costly direct physical damage and indirect system disruption. The consequences and severity of indirect impacts vary according to which links, nodes or network facilities are physically disrupted. Moreover, it is often the case that multiple slope failure disruptions are triggered simultaneously following prolonged or intense precipitation events due to a degree of local homogeneity of slope characteristics and materials. This study investigates the application of national commuter statistics and network agent simulation to evaluate indirect impacts of landslide events disrupting the Scottish trunk road transportation network (UK). Previous studies often employ shortest pathway analysis whereas agent simulation has received relatively little attention. British Geological Survey GeoSure landslide susceptibility data is used to select 35 susceptible trunk road segments by means of neighbouring total area at risk. For each of the candidate 35 segments the network and zonal variation in travel time is calculated for a single day of disruption, economic impact is approximated using established governmental and industry transport planning and appraisal values. The results highlight that a number of trunk road segments incur indirect economic losses in the order of tens of thousands of pounds for each day of closure. Calculated losses at the A83 Rest and Be Thankful are 50% greater than previous estimates at £75 thousand per day of closure. Also highlighted are events in which economic impact is relatively minor, yet concentrating on particular communities that can become substantially isolated as a consequence of a single event. The findings of this study are of interest and support wider investigations exploring cost considerations for decision makers and mitigation strategies, in addition to identifying network topological and demand indicators conducive

  2. The Physics of Traffic Congestion and Road Pricing in Transportation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, David

    2010-03-01

    This presentation develops congestion theory and congestion pricing theory from its micro- foundations, the interaction of two or more vehicles. Using game theory, with a two- player game it is shown that the emergence of congestion depends on the players' relative valuations of early arrival, late arrival, and journey delay. Congestion pricing can be used as a cooperation mechanism to minimize total costs (if returned to the players). The analysis is then extended to the case of the three- player game, which illustrates congestion as a negative externality imposed on players who do not themselves contribute to it. A multi-agent model of travelers competing to utilize a roadway in time and space is presented. To realize the spillover effect among travelers, N-player games are constructed in which the strategy set includes N+1 strategies. We solve the N-player game (for N = 7) and find Nash equilibria if they exist. This model is compared to the bottleneck model. The results of numerical simulation show that the two models yield identical results in terms of lowest total costs and marginal costs when a social optimum exists. Moving from temporal dynamics to spatial complexity, using consistent agent- based techniques, we model the decision-making processes of users and infrastructure owner/operators to explore the welfare consequence of price competition, capacity choice, and product differentiation on congested transportation networks. Component models include: (1) An agent-based travel demand model wherein each traveler has learning capabilities and unique characteristics (e.g. value of time); (2) Econometric facility provision cost models; and (3) Representations of road authorities making pricing and capacity decisions. Different from small-network equilibrium models in prior literature, this agent- based model is applicable to pricing and investment analyses on large complex networks. The subsequent economic analysis focuses on the source, evolution

  3. Global Climate Change and the Unique Challenges Posed by the Transportation Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, J.J.; Geffen, C.A.; Edmonds, J.A.

    2002-08-26

    Addressing the challenges posed by global climate change will eventually require the active participation of all industrial sectors and consumers on the planet. To date, however, most efforts to address climate change have focused on only a few sectors of the economy (e.g., refineries and fossil-fired electric power plants) and a handful of large industrialized nations. While useful as a starting point, these efforts must be expanded to include other sectors of the economy and other nations. The transportation sector presents some unique challenges, with its nearly exclusive dependence on petroleum based products as a fuel source coupled with internal combustion engines as the prime mover. Reducing carbon emissions from transportation systems is unlikely to be solely accomplished by traditional climate mitigation policies that place a price on carbon. Our research shows that price signals alone are unlikely to fundamentally alter the demand for energy services or to transform the way energy services are provided in the transportation sector. We believe that a technological revolution will be necessary to accomplish the significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector.

  4. Global Climate Change and the Transportation Sector: An Update on Issues and Mitigation Options

    SciTech Connect

    Geffen, CA; Dooley, JJ; Kim, SH

    2003-08-24

    It is clear from numerous energy/economic modeling exercises that addressing the challenges posed by global climate change will eventually require the active participation of all industrial sectors and all consumers on the planet. Yet, these and similar modeling exercises indicate that large stationary CO2 point sources (e.g., refineries and fossil-fired electric power plants) are often the first targets considered for serious CO2 emissions mitigation. Without participation of all sectors of the global economy, however, the challenges of climate change mitigation will not be met. Because of its operating characteristics, price structure, dependence on virtually one energy source (oil), enormous installed infrastructure, and limited technology alternatives, at least in the near-term, the transportation sector will likely represent a particularly difficult challenge for CO2 emissions mitigation. Our research shows that climate change induced price signals (i.e., putting a price on carbon that is emitted to the atmosphere) are in the near term insufficient to drive fundamental shifts in demand for energy services or to transform the way these services are provided in the transportation sector. We believe that a technological revolution will be necessary to accomplish the significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. This paper presents an update of ongoing research into a variety of technological options that exist for decarbonizing the transportation sector and the various tradeoffs among them.

  5. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: I. Industry and transport sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadavarte, Pankaj; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Emissions estimation, for research and regulatory applications including reporting to international conventions, needs treatment of detailed technology divisions and high-emitting technologies. Here we estimate Indian emissions, for 1996-2015, of aerosol constituents (PM2.5, BC and OC) and precursor gas SO2, ozone precursors (CO, NOx, NMVOC and CH4) and greenhouse gases (CO2 and N2O), using a common fuel consumption database and consistent assumptions. Six source categories and 45 technologies/activities in the industry and transport sectors were used for estimating emissions for 2010. Mean emission factors, developed at the source-category level, were used with corresponding fuel consumption data, available for 1996-2011, projected to 2015. New activities were included to account for fugitive emissions of NMVOC from chemical and petrochemical industries. Dynamic emission factors, reflecting changes in technology-mix and emission regulations, were developed for thermal power plants and on-road transport vehicles. Modeled emission factors were used for gaseous pollutants for on-road vehicles. Emissions of 2.4 (0.6-7.5) Tg y-1 PM2.5, 0.23 (0.1-0.7) Tg y-1 BC, 0.15 (0.04-0.5) Tg y-1 OC, 7.3 (6-10) Tg y-1 SO2, 19 (7.5-33) Tg y-1 CO, 1.5 (0.1-9) Tg y-1 CH4, 4.3 (2-9) Tg y-1 NMVOC, 5.6 (1.7-15.9) Tg y-1 NOx, 1750 (1397-2231) Tg y-1 CO2 and 0.13 (0.05-0.3) Tg y-1 N2O were estimated for 2015. Significant emissions of aerosols and their precursors were from coal use in thermal power and industry (PM2.5 and SO2), and on-road diesel vehicles (BC), especially superemitters. Emissions of ozone precursors were largely from thermal power plants (NOx), on-road gasoline vehicles (CO and NMVOC) and fugitive emissions from mining (CH4). Highly uncertain default emission factors were the principal contributors to uncertainties in emission estimates, indicating the need for region specific measurements.

  6. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  7. Conservation and alternative fuels in the transportation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    A set of transportation energy conservation policy initiatives is described. From an energy efficiency viewpoint the efforts to improve the efficiency of automobiles, airplanes and trucks is effective. Shifting passengers from automobiles and airplanes to buses and trains, and shifting freight from aircraft and trucks to trains (and where practical, marine or pipeline modes) provides the largest energy savings.

  8. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Landucci, Gabriele; Molag, Menso; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2009-08-15

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements model. The results of mathematical simulations of real scale fire engulfment scenarios that may follow accidents involving LPG tankers proved the effectiveness of the thermal protections in preventing the "fired" BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion) scenario. The presence of a thermal coating greatly increases the "time to failure", providing a time lapse that in the European experience may be considered sufficient to allow the start of effective mitigation actions by fire brigades. The results obtained were used to calculate the expected reduction of individual and societal risk due to LPG transportation in real case scenarios. The analysis confirmed that the introduction of passive fire protections turns out in a significant reduction of risk, up to an order of magnitude in the case of individual risk and of about 50% if the expectation value is considered. Thus, the adoption of passive fire protections, not compulsory in European regulations, may be an effective technical measure for risk reduction, and may contribute to achieve the control of "major accidents hazards" cited by the European legislation. PMID:19188020

  9. Hydrogeologic Processes Impacting Storage, Fate, and Transport of Chloride from Road Salt in Urban Riparian Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Sarah H; Lautz, Laura K; Stella, John C

    2016-05-17

    Detrimental effects of road salt runoff on urban streams are compounded by its facilitated routing via storm drains, ditches, and flood channels. Elevated in-stream salinity may also result from seasonal storage and discharge of chloride in groundwater, and previous work has hypothesized that groundwater discharge to streams may have the effect of diluting stream chloride concentrations in winter and enriching them in summer. However, the hydrogeological processes controlling these patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. Our research focuses on an urban stream and floodplain system in Syracuse, NY, to understand how groundwater and surface water exchange impacts chloride storage, fate, and transport. We created a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model of the floodplain, calibrated to the distributions of floodplain hydraulic heads and groundwater fluxes to the stream throughout the reach. We used a sensitivity analysis to calibrate and evaluate the influence of model parameters, and compared model outputs to field observations. The main source mechanism of chloride to the floodplain aquifer was high-concentration, overbank flood events in winter that directly recharged groundwater. The modeled residence time and storage capacity of the aquifer indicate that restoration projects designed to promote floodplain reconnection and the frequency of overbank flooding in winter have the potential to temporarily store chloride in groundwater, buffer surface water concentrations, and reduce stream concentrations following periods of road salting. PMID:27077530

  10. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, David; Mason, Kylie; Borman, Barry

    2015-01-01

    An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (in)activity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality): 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt) accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt) are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development. PMID:26703699

  11. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David; Mason, Kylie; Borman, Barry

    2016-01-01

    An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (in)activity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality): 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt) accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt) are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development. PMID:26703699

  12. High Penetration of Renewable Energy in the Transportation Sector: Scenarios, Barriers, and Enablers; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Brown, A.; Heath, G.; Mai, T.; Ruth, M.; Melaina, M.; Simpkins, T.; Steward, D.; Warner, E.; Bertram, K.; Plotkin, S.; Patel, D.; Stephens, T.; Vyas, A.

    2012-06-01

    Transportation accounts for 71% of U.S. petroleum use and 33% of its greenhouse gases emissions. Pathways toward reduced greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum dependence in the transportation sector have been analyzed in considerable detail, but with some limitations. To add to this knowledge, the U.S. Department of Energy has launched a study focused on underexplored greenhouse-gas-abatement and oil-savings opportunities related to transportation. This Transportation Energy Futures study analyzes specific issues and associated key questions to strengthen the existing knowledge base and help cultivate partnerships among federal agencies, state and local governments, and industry.

  13. Over-the-road shock and vibration testing of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-05-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert heat generated by radioactive decay into electricity through the use of thermocouples. The RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance, which make them particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). To meet these regulations, a RTG Transportation System (RTGTS) that fully complies with 10 CFR 71 has been developed, which protects RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock, vibration, and heat). To ensure the protection of RTGs from shock and vibration loadings during transport, extensive over-the-road testing was conducted on the RTG`S to obtain real-time recordings of accelerations of the air-ride suspension system trailer floor, packaging, and support structure. This paper provides an overview of the RTG`S, a discussion of the shock and vibration testing, and a comparison of the test results to the specified shock response spectra and power spectral density acceleration criteria.

  14. Plasma total antioxidant status in horses after 8-hours of road transportation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-hour road transport on plasma total antioxidant status (PTAS) and general clinical appearance in horses. Findings The study was conducted on a group of 60 horses of different breeds aged from 4 to 10 years. Venous blood was collected and a clinical examination was performed immediately before loading horses onto trailers for an 8 hour transport (I), immediately after unloading them from the trailer (II), and after a subsequent 24 hour stall rest (III). The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was used to determine PTAS. The transportation significantly increased respiratory and heart rates. The average PTAS increased during the three subsequent samplings: I: 170 ± 77 (μmol/l) II: 204 ± 70 (μmol/l) III: 221 ± 74 (μmol/l). Conclusion Long-distance transport increased the PTAS horses, as well as respiratory and heart rates. PMID:23945316

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of passive fire protections in road LPG transportation.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2012-02-01

    The cost-benefit evaluation of passive fire protection adoption in the road transport of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was investigated. In a previous study, mathematical simulations of real scale fire scenarios proved the effectiveness of passive fire protections in preventing the "fired" boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), thus providing a significant risk reduction. In the present study the economical aspects of the adoption of fire protections are analyzed and an approach to cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is proposed. The CBA model is based on the comparison of the risk reduction due to fire protections (expressed in monetary terms by the value of a statistical life) and the cost of the application of fire protections to a fleet of tankers. Different types of fire protections were considered, as well as the possibility to apply protections to the entire fleet or only to a part of it. The application of the proposed model to a real-life case study is presented and discussed. Results demonstrate that the adoption of passive fire protections on road tankers, though not compulsory in Europe, can be economically feasible, thus representing a concrete measure to achieve control of the "major hazard accidents" cited by the European legislation. PMID:21762459

  16. Transport of hydraulic fracturing waste from Pennsylvania wells: A county-level analysis of road use and associated road repair costs.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Lauren A; Maloney, Kelly O

    2016-10-01

    Pennsylvania's rapid unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development-from a single well in 2004 to more than 6700 wells in 2013-has dramatically increased UOG waste transport by heavy trucks. This study quantified the amount of UOG waste and the distance it traveled between wells and disposal facilities on each type of road in each county between July 2010 and December 2013. In addition, the study estimated the associated financial costs to each county's road infrastructure over that period. We found that UOG wells produced a median wastewater volume of 1294 m(3) and a median of 89,267 kg of solid waste. The median number of waste-transport truck trips per well was 122. UOG wells existed in 38 Pennsylvania counties, but we estimated trucks transporting well waste traveled through 132 counties, including counties in West Virginia, Ohio, and New York. Median travel distance varied by disposal type, from 106 km to centralized treatment facilities up to 237 km to injection wells. Local roads experienced the greatest amount of truck traffic and associated costs ($1.1-6.5 M) and interstates, the least ($0.3-1.6 M). Counties with oil and gas development experienced the most truck traffic and incurred the highest associated roadway costs. However, many counties outside the active development area also incurred roadway repair costs, highlighting the extension of UOG development's spatial footprint beyond the active development area. An online data visualization tool is available here: www.nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/transportation-of-hydraulic-fracturing-waste. PMID:27393942

  17. Economic and Social Aspects of Applying Biodiesel Fuel in Road Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukljaš Skočibušić, Mihaela; Jolić, Natalija; Bukljaš, Zdravko

    The world trend in automotive industry represents the improvement of the existing vehicle power plants and their further development as well as the use of various alternative fuels. Such tendencies should not be considered only from an entirely technical aspect, but also from the economic, social and strategic aspects of the modern society. In this sense it is necessary to give priority to biodiesel fuel. The production of biodiesel fuel has to be developed in compliance with the increasingly severe exhaust emission standards in designing and realization of road transport means. From the economic aspect at macro-economic level, the development of biodiesel will reflect on the condition of industrial production, employment, additional inflow of financial means into agriculture and the economic development of rural areas, as well as the foreign currency reserves of a country along with the reduction in the dependence of macroeconomic parameters on the external factors.

  18. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol: simulations for year 2000 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Hendricks, J.; Sausen, R.

    2013-05-01

    We use the EMAC-MADE global aerosol model to quantify the impact of transport emissions (land transport, shipping and aviation) on global aerosol. We consider a present-day (2000) scenario and the CMIP5 emission dataset developed in support of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. The model takes also into account particle number emissions, which are derived from mass emissions under different assumptions on the size distribution of particles emitted by the three transport sectors. Additional sensitivity experiments are performed to quantify the effects of the uncertainties behind such assumptions. The model simulations show that the impact of the transport sectors closely matches the emission patterns. Land transport is the most important source of black carbon pollution in USA, Europe and Arabian Peninsula. Shipping strongly contributes to aerosol sulfate concentrations along the most-traveled routes of the northern Atlantic and northern Pacific oceans, with a significant impact along the coastlines. The effect of aviation is mostly confined to the upper-troposphere (7-12 km), in the northern mid-latitudes, although significant effects are also simulated at the ground, due to the emissions from landing and take-off cycles. The transport-induced perturbations to particle number concentrations are very sensitive to the assumptions on the size distribution of emitted particles, with the largest uncertainties obtained for the land transport sector. The simulated climate impacts, due to aerosol direct and indirect effects, are strongest for the shipping sector, as a consequence of the large impact of sulfate aerosol on low marine clouds and their optical properties.

  19. 19 CFR 18.4a - Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under customs seal; requirements. 18.4a Section 18.4a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... General Provisions § 18.4a Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal... under Customs seal (see § 18.4) if (i) durably marked with the name and address of the...

  20. 19 CFR 18.4a - Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under customs seal; requirements. 18.4a Section 18.4a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... General Provisions § 18.4a Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal... under Customs seal (see § 18.4) if (i) durably marked with the name and address of the...

  1. 19 CFR 18.4a - Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under customs seal; requirements. 18.4a Section 18.4a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... General Provisions § 18.4a Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal... under Customs seal (see § 18.4) if (i) durably marked with the name and address of the...

  2. 19 CFR 18.4a - Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under customs seal; requirements. 18.4a Section 18.4a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... General Provisions § 18.4a Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal... under Customs seal (see § 18.4) if (i) durably marked with the name and address of the...

  3. Transport Sector Marginal Abatement Cost Curves in Computable General Equilibrium Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippichai, Atit; Fukuda, Atsushi; Morisugi, Hisayoshi

    In the last decade, computable general equilibrium (CGE) models have emerged a standard tool for climate policy evaluation due to their abilities to prospectively elucidate the character and magnitude of the economic impacts of energy and environmental policies. Furthermore, marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves which represent GHG emissions reduction potentials and costs can be derived from these top-down economic models. However, most studies have never address MAC curves for a specific sector that have a large coverage of countries which are needed for allocation of optimal emission reductions. This paper aims to explicitly describe the meaning and character of MAC curves for transport sector in a CGE context through using the AIM/CGE Model developed by Toshihiko Masui. It found that the MAC curves derived in this study are the inverse of the general equilibrium reduction function for CO2 emissions. Moreover, the transport sector MAC curves for six regions including USA, EU-15, Japan, China, India, and Brazil, derived from this study are compared to the reduction potentials under 100 USD/tCO2 in 2020 from a bottom-up study. The results showed that the ranking of the regional reduction potentials in transport sector from this study are almost same with the bottom-up study except the ranks of the EU-15 and China. In addition, the range of the reduction potentials from this study is wider and only the USA has higher potentials than those derived from the bottom-up study.

  4. Challenges for Reducing Emissions of Black Carbon from the Transport Sector in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M. A.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    The transport sector is a large contributor of harmful gaseous and particulate emissions in many urban areas. Black carbon is a component of short-lived particulate matter emitted predominantly by freight, public transport, and heavy- duty trucks. Controlling the emissions of black carbon from the transport sector is important for mitigating its impacts on climate, ecosystems, and human health. However, reducing the emissions of black carbon from mobile sources may be a challenging task in many developing urban areas due to economic, social, and technical constrains. Several emissions control technologies offer a proven approach for reducing emissions of black carbon from diesel-powered mobile sources, but the accurate quantification of associated emissions benefits in developing urban areas is not well documented. We describe recent advances for the estimation of black carbon emissions from the transport sector in real world driving conditions and present examples of the potential benefits of implementing various emission control technologies in Mexico. The results can help in the identification of key factors that hinder the implementation of control emissions for reducing emissions of black carbon elsewhere.

  5. Environmental-impacts of Urban Road Transportation in South-western States of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuntogun, B. A.; Koku, C. A.

    A study of the impacts of urban road transportation on the environmental resources, air and the health of residents of some heavily trafficked locations-eight in Lagos metropolis, four in Ibadan and four in Ado-Ekiti were carried out. Also, two locations in Lagos, one in Ibadan and one in Ado-Ekiti were used as control. Air quality indicators namely carbon-monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total suspended particulates were estimated using automatic air monitors. The noise levels at the locations were also determined with a noise metre. The highest levels at the locations were also determined with a noise metre. The highest levels obtained for the air pollution indicators in Lagos were CO- 232 ppm at Idumota; SO2- 2.9 ppm at Idumota; NO2- 1.5 ppm at Iyana-Ipaja bus stop; total suspended particulates- 852 cpm at Oshodi bus stop. At Ibadan, the CO and SO2 levels at 271 and 1.4 ppm were, respectively highest at Mokola round about while NO2 at 1.0 ppm was highest at Bere round about. In Ado-Ekiti, the highest levels obtained were CO- 317 ppm at Oke Isha, NO2- 0.6 ppm at Ijigbo junction and SO2- 0.8 ppm at Old garage junction. The recorded noise levels were 112.8 dB at Oshodi bus stop in Lagos, 120 dB at Iwo road in Ibadan and 115 dB at Old Garage junction, Ado-Ekiti. The Federal Ministry of Environment National Standards for these air pollutant indicators are CO, 10-20 ppm; SO2, 0.01-0.1 ppm; NO2, 0.04-0.6 ppm and total suspended particulates, 250 mg dm-3. The noise level is restricted to 90 db. The blood samples of people at these high trafficked locations such as the commercial drivers, conductors, street traders and road traffic wardens were also analysed for Lead content with a resultant high Pb concentration. Responses to interviews indicate that these people suffer from air pollution related diseases such as headaches, loss of vision, anaemia, forgetfulness and fatigue than those from the control locations.

  6. On-road PM2.5 pollution exposure in multiple transport microenvironments in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Rahul; Gani, Shahzad; Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Wilson, Daniel; Tiwari, Geetam

    2015-12-01

    PM2.5 pollution in Delhi averaged 150 μg/m3 from 2012 through 2014, which is 15 times higher than the World Health Organization's annual-average guideline. For this setting, we present on-road exposure of PM2.5 concentrations for 11 transport microenvironments along a fixed 8.3-km arterial route, during morning rush hour. The data collection was carried out using a portable TSI DustTrak DRX 8433 aerosol monitor, between January and May (2014). The monthly-average measured ambient concentrations varied from 130 μg/m3 to 250 μg/m3. The on-road PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the ambient measurements by an average of 40% for walking, 10% for cycle, 30% for motorised two wheeler (2W), 30% for open-windowed (OW) car, 30% for auto rickshaw, 20% for air-conditioned as well as for OW bus, 20% for bus stop, and 30% for underground metro station. On the other hand, concentrations were lower by 50% inside air-conditioned (AC) car and 20% inside the metro rail carriage. We find that the percent exceedance for open modes (cycle, auto rickshaw, 2W, OW car, and OW bus) reduces non-linearly with increasing ambient concentration. The reduction is steeper at concentrations lower than 150 μg/m3 than at higher concentrations. After accounting for air inhalation rate and speed of travel, PM2.5 mass uptake per kilometer during cycling is 9 times of AC car, the mode with the lowest exposure. At current level of concentrations, an hour of cycling in Delhi during morning rush-hour period results in PM2.5 dose which is 40% higher than an entire-day dose in cities like Tokyo, London, and New York, where ambient concentrations range from 10 to 20 μg/m3.

  7. On-road PM2.5 pollution exposure in multiple transport microenvironments in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Rahul; Gani, Shahzad; Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Wilson, Daniel; Tiwari, Geetam

    2015-12-01

    PM2.5 pollution in Delhi averaged 150 μg/m3 from 2012 through 2014, which is 15 times higher than the World Health Organization's annual-average guideline. For this setting, we present on-road exposure of PM2.5 concentrations for 11 transport microenvironments along a fixed 8.3-km arterial route, during morning rush hour. The data collection was carried out using a portable TSI DustTrak DRX 8433 aerosol monitor, between January and May (2014). The monthly-average measured ambient concentrations varied from 130 μg/m3 to 250 μg/m3. The on-road PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the ambient measurements by an average of 40% for walking, 10% for cycle, 30% for motorised two wheeler (2W), 30% for open-windowed (OW) car, 30% for auto rickshaw, 20% for air-conditioned as well as for OW bus, 20% for bus stop, and 30% for underground metro station. On the other hand, concentrations were lower by 50% inside air-conditioned (AC) car and 20% inside the metro rail carriage. We find that the percent exceedance for open modes (cycle, auto rickshaw, 2W, OW car, and OW bus) reduces non-linearly with increasing ambient concentration. The reduction is steeper at concentrations lower than 150 μg/m3 than at higher concentrations. After accounting for air inhalation rate and speed of travel, PM2.5 mass uptake per kilometer during cycling is 9 times of AC car, the mode with the lowest exposure. At current level of concentrations, an hour of cycling in Delhi during morning rush-hour period results in PM2.5 dose which is 40% higher than an entire-day dose in cities like Tokyo, London, and New York, where ambient concentrations range from 10 to 20 μg/m3.

  8. Global model simulations of the impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, Mattia; Hendricks, Johannes; Sausen, Robert

    2013-04-01

    The transport sector, including land transport, shipping and aviation, is one of the major sources of tropospheric aerosol. Land transport, in particular, is a relevant source of pollution in highly populated areas (e.g. megacities), with significant impacts on climate and health. Transport emissions are expected to grow in the near future, especially in the developing countries. In this work we use the EMAC-MADE global aerosol model to quantify the impact of transport emissions on global aerosol, for both present-day (2000) and future (2030) scenarios. Number emissions are also included in the model and derived from mass emissions under different assumptions on the size distribution of particles emitted by the three transport modes. Additional sensitivity experiments are performed to quantify the effects of the uncertainties behind such assumptions. The model simulations reveal that land transport is the most important source of black carbon pollution in the densely populated regions of Eastern U.S. and Europe. High particle concentrations are simulated for Southeast Asian areas, although pollution in this region is mostly due to non-transport sources. Shipping strongly contributes to aerosol sulphate concentrations along the most-traveled routes of the Northern Atlantic and Northern Pacific oceans, with significant impact along the coastlines and nearby major harbors and with large effects on cloud properties. The impacts on particle number concentrations are very sensitive to the assumptions on size distribution of emitted particles, with the largest uncertainties simulated for the land transport sector. The model results further reveal significant climate impacts of transport-induced particles.

  9. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  10. Direct Radiative Effects of Particulate Aerosols Emitted by the Space Transport Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.; Zittel, P.; Toohey, D. W.; Mills, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Rockets are the sole source of human produced nonvolatile particulate directly injected into the atmosphere above 20 km altitude. The main components of rocket particulate are submicron black carbon soot (BC) from hydrocarbon (HC) fueled engines and Al2O3 (alumina) from solid rocket motors. Since the emission index and atmospheric lifetime of BC emitted by rockets are each several orders of magnitude greater than those of aircraft, the direct shortwave (SW) radiative forcing (RF) of rocket BC could be comparable to aircraft, even though the amount of HC fuel burned in the stratosphere by rockets is small compared to aircraft. The net RF of alumina particulate, on the other hand, is more uncertain. Alumina possesses large SW scattering and large longwave (LW) absorption so that the net RF for alumina is a strong function of particle size. For submicron alumina particles that constitute the steady state stratospheric population from solid rockets, the SW scattering and LW absorption efficiencies are comparable and the net RF depends on the assumed properties of the steady state population. We present calculations of the SW and LW optical properties of BC and alumina emitted by rocket engines and estimates of the global direct RF under various assumptions of engine type combinations and growth in the space transport sector. We compare these results to the RF associated with other transport sectors and the direct RF from the CO2 emissions from the space transport sector.

  11. Health co-benefits of climate change mitigation policies in the transport sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Caroline; Hales, Simon; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Edwards, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Theory, common sense and modelling studies suggest that some interventions to mitigate carbon emissions in the transport sector can also have substantial short-term benefits for population health. Policies that encourage active modes of transportation such as cycling may, for example, increase population physical activity and decrease air pollution, thus reducing the burden of conditions such as some cancers, diabetes, heart disease and dementia. In this Perspective we systematically review the evidence from 'real life' transport policies and their impacts on health and CO2 emissions. We identified a few studies that mostly involved personalized travel planning and showed modest increases in active transport such as walking, and reductions in vehicle use and CO2 emissions. Given the poor quality of the studies identified, urgent action is needed to provide more robust evidence for policies.

  12. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  13. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  14. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol: simulations for year 2000 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Hendricks, J.; Sausen, R.

    2013-10-01

    We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) global model with the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications) to quantify the impact of transport emissions (land transport, shipping and aviation) on the global aerosol. We consider a present-day (2000) scenario according to the CMIP5 (Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) emission data set developed in support of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Fifth Assessment Report. The model takes into account particle mass and number emissions: The latter are derived from mass emissions under different assumptions on the size distribution of particles emitted by the three transport sectors. Additional sensitivity experiments are performed to quantify the effects of the uncertainties behind such assumptions. The model simulations show that the impact of the transport sectors closely matches the emission patterns. Land transport is the most important source of black carbon (BC) pollution in the USA, Europe and the Arabian Peninsula, contributing up to 60-70% of the total surface-level BC concentration in these regions. Shipping contributes about 40-60% of the total aerosol sulfate surface-level concentration along the most-traveled routes of the northern Atlantic and northern Pacific oceans, with a significant impact (~ 10-20%) along the coastlines. Aviation mostly affects aerosol number, contributing about 30-40% of the particle number concentration in the northern midlatitudes' upper troposphere (7-12 km), although significant effects are also simulated at the ground, due to the emissions from landing and take-off cycles. The transport-induced perturbations to the particle number concentrations are very sensitive to the assumptions on the size distribution of emitted particles, with the largest uncertainties (about one order of magnitude) obtained for the land transport sector. The simulated climate impacts, due to aerosol direct and

  15. Characterization of chloride transport in the unsaturated zone near salted road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lax, Samanta; Peterson, Eric W.

    2009-09-01

    The application of road salts as deicing agents contributes to the anthropogenic loading of chloride (Cl-) on the environment. Using a 2D solute model, the potential of the unsaturated zone to serve as a reservoir and the mechanisms controlling the movement of Cl- were examined. Physical properties and initial pore-water Cl- concentrations were derived from an array of soil borings. Initial pore-water concentrations show the presence of a Cl- “slug” approximately 0.75 m below the surface. Simulations show that within the unsaturated zone, Cl- transport is predominantly vertical, driven by molecular diffusion. After a 1-year simulation, a Cl- slug similar to the background observation was noted. While Cl- is retained in the unsaturated zone, a net loss of Cl- from the unsaturated zone was simulated for the first 10 years. In year 11, an equilibrium between the Cl- input and output is achieved. The presence of Cl- in the unsaturated zone becomes a long-term source of chloride to the groundwater, which eventually discharges into the surface water. Historically, surface water chemistry data support the continual discharge of chloride to the surface water in the area, further supporting the hypothesis that the unsaturated zone serves as a Cl- reservoir.

  16. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system. Quarterly report, November 1995--January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganics. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs. After evaluating the needs of the DOE field activities and investigating alternative system designs, the modules included in the RTAL are: radioanalytical laboratory; organic chemical analysis laboratory; inorganic chemical analysis laboratory; aquatic biomonitoring laboratory; field analytical laboratory; robotics base station; decontamination/sample screening module; operations control center; and protected living quarters. The goal of the integrated laboratory system is a sample throughput of 20 samples per day, providing a full range of analyses on each sample within 16 hours (after sample preparation) with high accuracy and high quality assurance. The RTAL will provide the DOE with very significant savings in terms of both cost and time. This will accelerate and improve the efficiency of clean-up and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex. At the same time, the system will provide full protection for operating personnel and sensitive analytical equipment against the environmental extremes and hazards encountered at DOE sites.

  17. Emission of CO2 by the transport sector and the impact on the atmospheric concentration in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. D. F.; Kitazato, C.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Nogueira, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles, being 85% light-duty vehicles (LDV), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDV)s, and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 3% use diesel (diesel + 5% bio-diesel). The owners of the flex-fuel vehicles decide to use ethanol or gasohol depending on the market price of the fuel. Many environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions by the LDV and HDV traffic; the contribution from the industrial sector has been decreasing as the industries have moved away from MASP, due to the high taxes applied to the productive sector. Due to the large contribution of the transport sector to CO2, its contribution is important in a regional scale. The total emission is estimated in 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles). Measurements of CO2 performed with a Picarro monitor based on WS-CRDS (wavelength-scanned cavity ringdown spectroscopy) for the years 2012-2013 were performed. The sampling site was on the University of Sao Paulo campus (22o34´S, 46o44´W), situated in the west area of the city, surrounded by important traffic roads. The average data showed two peaks, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, both associated with the traffic. Correlation analysis was performed between the concentrations and the number of vehicles, as a proxy for the temporal variation of the CO2 emission. The highest concentration was 430 ppm at 8:00am, associated to the morning peak hour of vehicles and the stable condition of the atmosphere. The average concentration was 406 ±12 ppm, considering all measured data. According to official inventories from the Environmental Agency (CETESB), the emission of CO2 has increased 39% from 1990 to 2008, associated

  18. Regional intensive care transports: a prospective analysis of distance, time and cost for road, helicopter and fixed-wing ambulances

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are three different types of ambulance systems, all of which can manage the same secondary intensive care patient transport mission: road ambulance, rotor-wing ambulance, and fixed-wing ambulance. We hypothesized that costs for specific transport distances would differ between systems. We aimed to analyze distances and observed times for ambulance intensive care secondary transport missions together with system costs to assess this. Methods We prospectively collected data for consecutive urgent intensive care transports into the regional tertiary care hospital in the northern region of Sweden. Distances and transport times were gathered, and a cost model was generated based on these together with fixed and operating costs from the three different ambulance systems. Distance-cost and time–cost estimations were then generated for each transport system. Results Road ambulance cost relatively less for shorter distances (within 250 kilometers/155 miles) but were relatively time ineffective. The rotor-wing systems were most expensive regardless of distance; but were most time-effective up to 400–500 km (248–310 miles). Fixed-wing systems were more cost-effective for longer distance (300 km/186 miles), and time effective for transports over 500 km (310 miles). Conclusions In summary, based on an economic model developed from observed regional ICU patient transports, and cost estimations, different ambulance system cost-distances could be compared. Distance-cost and time results show that helicopters can be effective up to moderate ICU transport distances (400–500), though are expensive to operate. For longer ICU patient transports, fixed-wing transport systems are both cost and time effective compared to helicopter-based systems. PMID:24902480

  19. Reduction in tribological energy losses in the transportation and electric utilities sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkus, O.; Wilcock, D.F.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    This report is part of a study of ways and means of advancing the national energy conservation effort, particularly with regard to oil, via progress in the technology of tribology. The report is confined to two economic sectors: transportation, where the scope embraces primarily the highway fleets, and electric utilities. Together these two sectors account for half of the US energy consumption. Goal of the study is to ascertain the energy sinks attributable to tribological components and processes and to recommend long-range research and development (R and D) programs aimed at reducing these losses. In addition to the obvious tribological machine components such as bearings, piston rings, transmissions and so on, the study also extends to processes which are linked to tribology indirectly such as wear of machine parts, coatings of blades, high temperature materials leading to higher cycle efficiencies, attenuation of vibration, and other cycle improvements.

  20. Tweets on the Road

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J.

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation between the number of tweets on the road and the Average Annual Daily Traffic on highways in France and in the UK. Transport modality can be studied with these data as well, for which we discover very heterogeneous usage patterns across the continent. PMID:25141161

  1. Tweets on the road.

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation between the number of tweets on the road and the Average Annual Daily Traffic on highways in France and in the UK. Transport modality can be studied with these data as well, for which we discover very heterogeneous usage patterns across the continent. PMID:25141161

  2. Air Quality Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies in the Power Generation and Transportation Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Kinnon, Michael

    Future efforts to mitigate the harmful impacts of climate change will include transitions to alternative technologies and fuels targeting reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Currently, economic sectors of greatest concern include transportation and power generation, which combined contribute over half of total U.S. GHG emissions. In addition to GHGs, displacement of conventional energy strategies will impact the emissions of various pollutant species with human health and environmental risks due to common generation processes and sources. In order to fully investigate the air quality (AQ) impacts of deploying various GHG mitigation technologies and fuels in coming decades, spatially and temporally resolved pollutant emissions fields are developed and utilized as input for simulations of atmospheric chemistry and transport via an advanced AQ model. Three areas of the U.S. are chosen for regional analyses in the year 2055. In order to characterize the evolution of regional energy sector emission drivers from current levels, a Base Case is developed that is representative of progression in the absence of aggressive GHG mitigation efforts. To facilitate comparison, alternative scenarios are developed to explore the effects of shifts in technologies, fuels, or behavior with the potential to mitigate GHG emissions. Scenarios are represented by generated spatially and temporally resolved emission fields and evaluated for impacts on primary and secondary air pollutant concentrations. Significant variation in energy profiles, demands, and constraints (e.g., regulatory statutes) between study domains yields significant differences in regional impacts. The magnitude of AQ improvements depends on baseline emission levels and spatial and temporal emission patterns. In addition, the current focus on reducing emissions from the targeted sectors increases the importance of emissions from other areas and sectors.

  3. Advanced bulk processing of lightweight materials for utilization in the transportation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Justin L.

    The overall objective of this research is to develop the microstructure of metallic lightweight materials via multiple advanced processing techniques with potentials for industrial utilization on a large scale to meet the demands of the aerospace and automotive sectors. This work focused on (i) refining the grain structure to increase the strength, (ii) controlling the texture to increase formability and (iii) directly reducing processing/production cost of lightweight material components. Advanced processing is conducted on a bulk scale by several severe plastic deformation techniques including: accumulative roll bonding, isolated shear rolling and friction stir processing to achieve the multiple targets of this research. Development and validation of the processing techniques is achieved through wide-ranging experiments along with detailed mechanical and microstructural examination of the processed material. On a broad level, this research will make advancements in processing of bulk lightweight materials facilitating industrial-scale implementation. Where accumulative roll bonding and isolated shear rolling, currently feasible on an industrial scale, processes bulk sheet materials capable of replacing more expensive grades of alloys and enabling low-temperature and high-strain-rate formability. Furthermore, friction stir processing to manufacture lightweight tubes, made from magnesium alloys, has the potential to increase the utilization of these materials in the automotive and aerospace sectors for high strength - high formability applications. With the increased utilization of these advanced processing techniques will significantly reduce the cost associated with lightweight materials for many applications in the transportation sectors.

  4. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    In 1988 the Department of Energy (DOE) undertook a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States. During the next two decades, alternative fuels such as alcohol (methanol or ethanol), compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity could become practical alternatives to oil-based fuels in the US transportation sector. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability. To keep interested parties informed about the progress of the DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment, the Department periodically publishes reports dealing with particular aspects of this complex study. This report provides an analysis of the expected costs to produce methanol from biomass feedstock.

  5. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. The NEMS Transportation Model comprises a series of semi-independent models which address different aspects of the transportation sector. The primary purpose of this model is to provide mid-term forecasts of transportation energy demand by fuel type including, but not limited to, motor gasoline, distillate, jet fuel, and alternative fuels (such as CNG) not commonly associated with transportation. The current NEMS forecast horizon extends to the year 2010 and uses 1990 as the base year. Forecasts are generated through the separate consideration of energy consumption within the various modes of transport, including: private and fleet light-duty vehicles; aircraft; marine, rail, and truck freight; and various modes with minor overall impacts, such as mass transit and recreational boating. This approach is useful in assessing the impacts of policy initiatives, legislative mandates which affect individual modes of travel, and technological developments. The model also provides forecasts of selected intermediate values which are generated in order to determine energy consumption. These elements include estimates of passenger travel demand by automobile, air, or mass transit; estimates of the efficiency with which that demand is met; projections of vehicle stocks and the penetration of new technologies; and estimates of the demand for freight transport which are linked to forecasts of industrial output. Following the estimation of energy demand, TRAN produces forecasts of vehicular emissions of the following pollutants by source: oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, total carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds.

  6. Corn Ethanol: The Surprisingly Effective Route for Natural Gas Consumption in the Transportation Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P.; Curran, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Proven reserves and production of natural gas (NG) in the United States have increased dramatically in the last decade, due largely to the commercialization of hydraulic fracturing. This has led to a plentiful supply of NG, resulting in a significantly lower cost on a gallon of gasoline-equivalent (GGE) basis. Additionally, NG is a domestic, non-petroleum source of energy that is less carbon-intensive than coal or petroleum products, and thus can lead to lower greenhouse gas emissions. Because of these factors, there is a desire to increase the use of NG in the transportation sector in the United States (U.S.). However, using NG directly in the transportation sector requires that several non-trivial challenges be overcome. One of these issues is the fueling infrastructure. There are currently only 1,375 NG fueling stations in the U.S. compared to 152,995 fueling stations for gasoline in 2014. Additionally, there are very few light-duty vehicles that can consume this fuel directly as dedicated or bi-fuel options. For example, in model year 2013Honda was the only OEM to offer a dedicated CNG sedan while a number of others offered CNG options as a preparation package for LD trucks and vans. In total, there were a total of 11 vehicle models in 2013 that could be purchased that could use natural gas directly. There are additional potential issues associated with NG vehicles as well. Compared to commercial refueling stations, the at-home refueling time for NG vehicles is substantial – a result of the small compressors used for home refilling. Additionally, the methane emissions from both refueling (leakage) and from tailpipe emissions (slip) from these vehicles can add to their GHG footprint, and while these emissions are not currently regulated it could be a barrier in the future, especially in scenarios with broad scale adoption of CNG vehicles. However, NG consumption already plays a large role in other sectors of the economy, including some that are important to

  7. A statistical model for road surface friction forecasting applying optical road weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.

    2009-09-01

    surface, the amount of water was the best predictor for friction. The models were tested with an independent sample from winter 2008/09. Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has been running an operational road weather prediction model for about ten years. The model predicts e.g. the road surface temperature and the layers of snow, ice and water on the road. With the addition of the statistical friction model, road surface friction will be a new forecast parameter. There are, however, some challenges to be solved before operational applicability. A major issue is how to take road maintenance activities, and especially the salting, into account. This study is carried out within the EU/FP7 Project ROADIDEA, where the major frame of reference is to develop new and innovative products for traffic and transport sectors.

  8. Assessment of Historic Trend in Mobility and Energy Use in India Transportation Sector Using Bottom-up Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.

    2009-05-01

    Transportation mobility in India has increased significantly in the past decades. From 1970 to 2000, motorized mobility (passenger-km) has risen by 888%, compared with an 88% population growth (Singh,2006). This contributed to many energy and environmental issues, and an energy strategy incorporates efficiency improvement and other measures needs to be designed. Unfortunately, existing energy data do not provide information on driving forces behind energy use and sometime show large inconsistencies. Many previous studies address only a single transportation mode such as passenger road travel; did not include comprehensive data collection or analysis has yet been done, or lack detail on energy demand by each mode and fuel mix. The current study will fill a considerable gap in current efforts, develop a data base on all transport modes including passenger air and water, and freight in order to facilitate the development of energy scenarios and assess significance of technology potential in a global climate change model. An extensive literature review and data collection has been done to establish the database with breakdown of mobility, intensity, distance, and fuel mix of all transportation modes. Energy consumption was estimated and compared with aggregated transport consumption reported in IEA India transportation energy data. Different scenarios were estimated based on different assumptions on freight road mobility. Based on the bottom-up analysis, we estimated that the energy consumption from 1990 to 2000 increased at an annual growth rate of 7% for the mid-range road freight growth case and 12% for the high road freight growth case corresponding to the scenarios in mobility, while the IEA data only shows a 1.7% growth rate in those years.

  9. Stress associated with road transportation in desert sheep and goats, and the effect of pretreatment with xylazine or sodium betaine.

    PubMed

    Ali, B H; Al-Qarawi, A A; Mousa, H M

    2006-06-01

    The present work investigates some clinical, endocrinological, biochemical and haematological variables in desert sheep and goats stressed in the course of individual road transportation, and the influence thereon of pretreatment with an established anti-stressor drug, xylazine HCl, and a test compound, sodium betaine (trimethylglycine). Road transportation for 2h resulted in variable and statistically insignificant increases in heart, pulse and respiratory rates in both control and experimental animals. Transportation stress significantly increased the concentrations of plasma cortisol, and glucose, and decreased that of magnesium. The endogenous thiocyanate concentration was unaffected. The stress also insignificantly decreased the haematocrit (PCV), and the number of lymphocytes, and increased the concentration of haemoglobin. Pretreatment of sheep and goats with xylazine at a single dose of 0.01 mg/kg by the intravenous route significantly ameliorated the effects induced by the stressful stimulus. The effects of pretreatment of the two species with sodium betaine (10 mg/kg) produced variable and insignificant effects. PMID:16181650

  10. Urban development and road safety.

    PubMed

    Henning-Hager, U

    1986-04-01

    There is still not sufficient in-depth knowledge available concerning the type and extent of the interdependencies between the large number of factors that influence, on the one hand, urban and transport planning, and on the other hand, road safety. If such in-depth knowledge did, in fact, exist this information would make it possible to recommend courses of action to urban planning authorities. The present study aims to remove this data deficit so that planning authorities may be able to assess not only the effects expected from individual measures but also to evaluate, with respect to the level of road safety, an entire planning area. The empirical study is based on 21 typical residential areas for which a total of 56 characteristics (variables) relating to the following sectors have been identified as descriptors of the accident situation: transport; local development structure; infrastructure facilities other than those intended for transport; and population structure. The statistical analysis was undertaken in two steps: correlation analysis of all variables; identification of the determinants of significance for road safety; and establishment of a non-linear regression model based on seven variables to express the relationship between transport provisions and traffic volumes as well as the quality of supply and demand in quantitative terms. By means of the regression model the accident load can, in principle, be assessed for any given residential area. The correlation analysis showed that there are still further influential factors which are of importance for road safety. Attempts were therefore made to identify the variables displaying a significant relationship to the model variables and which could thus, owing to their effects on the latter and the resulting linkage with road safety, be considered as "background variables." Whereas the majority of the model variables are to be ascribed to the transport sector, the so-called "background variables" mainly

  11. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 - Part 2: Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Hendricks, J.; Sausen, R.

    2015-12-01

    We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications) to simulate the impact of aviation emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare our findings with the results of a previous study with the same model configuration focusing on year 2000 emissions. We also characterize the aviation results in the context of the other transport sectors presented in a companion paper. In spite of a relevant increase in aviation traffic volume and resulting emissions of aerosol (black carbon) and aerosol precursor species (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), the aviation effect on particle mass concentration in 2030 remains quite negligible (on the order of a few ng m-3), about one order of magnitude less than the increase in concentration due to other emission sources. Due to the relatively small size of the aviation-induced aerosol, however, the increase in particle number concentration is significant in all scenarios (about 1000 cm-3), mostly affecting the northern mid-latitudes at typical flight altitudes (7-12 km). This largely contributes to the overall change in particle number concentration between 2000 and 2030, which results also in significant climate effects due to aerosol-cloud interactions. Aviation is the only transport sector for which a larger impact on the Earth's radiation budget is simulated in the future: The aviation-induced RF in 2030 is more than doubled with respect to the year 2000 value of -15 mW m-2, with a maximum value of -63 mW m-2 simulated for RCP2.6.

  12. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 - Part 2: Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, Mattia; Hendricks, Johannes; Sausen, Robert

    2016-04-01

    We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications) to simulate the impact of aviation emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare our findings with the results of a previous study with the same model configuration focusing on year 2000 emissions. We also characterize the aviation results in the context of the other transport sectors presented in a companion paper. In spite of a relevant increase in aviation traffic volume and resulting emissions of aerosol (black carbon) and aerosol precursor species (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), the aviation effect on particle mass concentration in 2030 remains quite negligible (on the order of a few ng m-3), about 1 order of magnitude less than the increase in concentration due to other emission sources. Due to the relatively small size of the aviation-induced aerosol, however, the increase in particle number concentration is significant in all scenarios (about 1000 cm-3), mostly affecting the northern mid-latitudes at typical flight altitudes (7-12 km). This largely contributes to the overall change in particle number concentration between 2000 and 2030, which also results in significant climate effects due to aerosol-cloud interactions. Aviation is the only transport sector for which a larger impact on the Earth's radiation budget is simulated in the future: the aviation-induced radiative forcing in 2030 is more than doubled with respect to the year 2000 value of -15 mW m-2 in all scenarios, with a maximum value of -63 mW m-2 simulated for RCP2.6.

  13. A revised estimate of copper emissions from road transport in UNECE-Europe and its impact on predicted copper concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Hulskotte, J. H. J.; Visschedijk, A. J. H.; Schaap, M.

    Comparisons of measured and model-predicted atmospheric copper concentrations show a severe underestimation of the observed concentrations by the models. This underestimation may be (partly) due to underestimated emissions of copper to air. Since the phase out of asbestos brake lining material, the composition of brake lining material has changed and may contain up to ˜15% copper. This makes brake wear from vehicles potentially an important source of atmospheric (particulate) copper concentrations. In this paper, we reassess the copper emissions due to exhaust emissions and brake wear from road transport. Overall, our reassessments result in an estimate of total copper emission to air in UNECE-Europe of 4.0-5.5 ktonnes yr -1, which is substantially higher than the previous estimate of 2.8 ktonnes yr -1. Copper concentrations over Europe are calculated with the LOTOS-EUROS model using the revised emission data as model input. The results show that the revised emission estimates are a major step towards gap closure of predicted versus observed copper concentrations in ambient air. Brake wear emissions may be responsible for 50-75% of the total copper emissions to air for most of Western Europe. The hypothesis that road transport is an important source of copper emissions is tested and confirmed by (1) reviewing available literature data of chemically speciated PM data from road tunnel studies and (2) the gradient observed in copper concentrations from ambient PM monitoring going from rural sites to street stations. The literature review and observational data suggest that the majority of the emitted PM10 brake wear particles is in the PM2.5-10 size range. The results of this study indicate that modification of brake lining composition is an important mitigation option to reduce copper exposure of the population in Western Europe.

  14. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  15. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.

  16. Ozone attributed to Madrid and Barcelona on-road transport emissions: Characterization of plume dynamics over the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Víctor; Pay, María T; Baldasano, José M

    2016-02-01

    Despite the ~30% emission decrease of the main tropospheric ozone (O3) precursors in Spain in the 2001-2012 period, the O3 concentration in summer still exceeds the target value for the protection of the human health of the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC). On-road transport is the main anthropogenic contributor to O3 precursor's emissions in Madrid and Barcelona metropolitan areas (65%/59% of NOx, 40%/33% of NMVOC, and 67%/85% of CO emissions) but this contribution to O3 formation is not well understood. The present work aims at increasing the understanding on the role of on-road transport emissions from main Spanish urban areas in O3 dynamics over Spain under typical circulation types. For that purpose, the Integrated Source Apportionment Method is used within the CALIOPE modelling system (WRF/CMAQ/HERMES/BSC-DREAM8b). The results indicate that the daily maximum O3 concentration attributed to the on-road transport emissions from Madrid (O3T-MAD) and Barcelona metropolitan areas (O3T-BCN) contribute up to 24% and 8% to total O3 concentration, respectively, within an area of influence of 200 km. The contribution of O3T-MAD and O3T-BCN is particularly significant (up to 80-100 μg m(-3) in an hour) to the O3 concentration peak during the central hours of the day in the high O3 concentration season (April-September). The maximum O3T-MAD concentration is calculated within the metropolitan area of Madrid but the plume, channelled by the Tajo and the Henares valleys, affects large areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The O3T-BCN plume is more driven by sea-land and mountain-valley breezes than by the synoptic advection and its maximum concentration is usually registered over the Mediterranean Sea. The O3 concentration transported long-range to the Iberian Peninsula is significant in the area of influence of Madrid and Barcelona, being maxima under cold (70-96%) and minima in warm circulation types (35-70%). PMID:26615485

  17. A vibroacoustic diagnostic system as an element improving road transport safety.

    PubMed

    Komorska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical defects of a vehicle driving system can be dangerous on the road. Diagnostic systems, which monitor operations of electric and electronic elements and devices of vehicles, are continuously developed and improved, while defects of mechanical systems are still not managed properly. This article proposes supplementing existing on-board diagnostics with a system of diagnosing selected defects to minimize their impact. It presents a method of diagnosing mechanical defects of the engine, gearbox and other elements of the driving system on the basis of a model of the vibration signal obtained adaptively. This method is suitable for engine valves, engine head gasket, main gearbox, joints, etc. PMID:24034880

  18. A probabilistic approach to emissions from transportation sector in the coming decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Bond, T. C.; Streets, D. G.

    2010-12-01

    Future emission estimates are necessary for understanding climate change, designing national and international strategies for air quality control and evaluating mitigation policies. Emission inventories are uncertain and future projections even more so. Most current emission projection models are deterministic; in other words, there is only single answer for each scenario. As a result, uncertainties have not been included in the estimation of climate forcing or other environmental effects, but it is important to quantify the uncertainty inherent in emission projections. We explore uncertainties of emission projections from transportation sector in the coming decades by sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulations. These projections are based on a technology driven model: the Speciated Pollutants Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend, which responds to socioeconomic conditions in different economic and mitigation scenarios. The model contains detail about technology stock, including consumption growth rates, retirement rates, timing of emission standards, deterioration rates and transition rates from normal vehicles to vehicles with extremely high emission factors (termed “superemitters”). However, understanding of these parameters, as well as relationships with socioeconomic conditions, is uncertain. We project emissions from transportation sectors under four different IPCC scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). Due to the later implementation of advanced emission standards, Africa has the highest annual growth rate (1.2-3.1%) from 2010 to 2050. Superemitters begin producing more than 50% of global emissions around year 2020. We estimate uncertainties from the relationships between technological change and socioeconomic conditions and examine their impact on future emissions. Sensitivities to parameters governing retirement rates are highest, causing changes in global emissions from-26% to +55% on average from 2010 to 2050. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to examine

  19. Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them. PMID:24722740

  20. Electrification of the transportation sector offers limited country-wide greenhouse gas reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2014-03-01

    Compared with conventional propulsion, plugin and hybrid vehicles may offer reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, regional air/noise pollution, petroleum dependence, and ownership cost. Comparing only plugins and hybrids amongst themselves, and focusing on GHG, relative merits of different options have been shown to be more nuanced, depending on grid-carbon-intensity, range and thus battery manufacturing and weight, and trip patterns. We present a life-cycle framework to compare GHG emissions for three drivetrains (plugin-electricity-only, gasoline-only-hybrid, and plugin-hybrid) across driving ranges and grid-carbon-intensities, for passenger cars, vans, buses, or trucks (well-to-wheel plus storage manufacturing). Parameter and model uncertainties are quantified via sensitivity analyses. We find that owing to the interplay of range, GHG/km, and portions of country-wide kms accessible to electrification, GHG reductions achievable from plugins (whether electricity-only or hybrids) are limited even when assuming low-carbon future grids. Furthermore, for policy makers considering GHG from electricity and transportation sectors combined, plugin technology may in fact increase GHG compared to gasoline-only-hybrids, regardless of grid-carbon-intensity.

  1. Electrification of the transportation sector: Is there a need for restructuring the automotive parts suppliers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaslan, A. Ebru

    The future of the transportation sector has significant implications for the mitigation of climate change through reduced GHG emissions as well as achieving energy efficiency and energy independence. Battery-powered, plug-in, and hybrid electric vehicles are widely seen as the greatest source of a solution. This thesis analyzes the historical development and growth of the automotive industry as well as the restructuring toward the next generation technologies in comparison with the U.S. and China to shed light on the question of how a developing country can structure its strategies to be able to upgrade and be competitive over time. Conventional business models can become obsolete. Companies will find it difficult to maintain their market position unless they gain new perspectives on the outlook of the industry as a whole, and take into account the successful business models of tomorrow. The potential for further growth of the Turkish automotive supplier base particularly in the next generation of automotive technologies is therefore highly dependent on policies and strategies at the national level as much as its dependence on the global strategies of the automotive industry's major players. In this sense, the key questions that motivate this study are whether there are foreseeable technological changes and product-segmentation strategies that could significantly enhance the competitiveness of local Turkish suppliers of automotive components. The thesis builds on the theory of innovative enterprise and evolutionary agglomeration to examine the competitive potential of the Konya Auto Part Suppliers' Cluster in Turkey.

  2. Implementing evidence-based policy in a network setting: road safety policy in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bax, Charlotte; de Jong, Martin; Koppenjan, Joop

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, in order to improve road safety in The Netherlands, the Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV) developed an evidence-based "Sustainable Safety" concept. Based on this concept, Dutch road safety policy, was seen as successful and as a best practice in Europe. In The Netherlands, the policy context has now changed from a sectoral policy setting towards a fragmented network in which safety is a facet of other transport-related policies. In this contribution, it is argued that the implementation strategy underlying Sustainable Safety should be aligned with the changed context. In order to explore the adjustments needed, two perspectives of policy implementation are discussed: (1) national evidence-based policies with sectoral implementation; and (2) decentralized negotiation on transport policy in which road safety is but one aspect. We argue that the latter approach matches the characteristics of the newly evolved policy context best, and conclude with recommendations for reformulating the implementation strategy. PMID:20925155

  3. Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotullio, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

  4. Rules of the Road for Transporting Children--Guidelines for Developing a Motor Vehicle Safety Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Bruce; Gearhart, Kentin

    1999-01-01

    Discusses safety issues for child care centers that provide transportation for children. Notes the importance of vehicle usage and control, driver qualifications, vehicle maintenance, child securement, accident procedures, and driver education and training. (JPB)

  5. Assessing the unintended health impacts of road transport policies and interventions: translating research evidence for use in policy and practice

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Hilary; Jepson, Ruth; Hurley, Fintan; Douglas, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Background Transport and its links to health and health inequalities suggest that it is important to assess both the direct and unintended indirect health and related impacts of transport initiatives and policies. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a framework to assess the possible health impacts of interventions such as transport. Policymakers and practitioners need access to well conducted research syntheses if research evidence is to be used to inform these assessments. The predictive validity of HIA depends heavily on the use and careful interpretation of supporting empirical evidence. Reviewing and digesting the vast volume and diversity of evidence in a field such as transport is likely to be beyond the scope of most HIAs. Collaborations between HIA practitioners and specialist reviewers to develop syntheses of best available evidence applied specifically to HIA could promote the use of evidence in practice. Methods Best available research evidence was synthesised using the principles of systematic review. The synthesis was developed to reflect the needs of HIA practitioners and policymakers. Results Aside from injury reduction measures, there is very little empirical data on the impact of road transport interventions. The possibility of impacts on a diverse range of outcomes and differential impacts across groups, make it difficult to assess overall benefit and harm. In addition, multiple mediating factors in the pathways between transport and hypothesised health impacts further complicate prospective assessment of impacts. Informed by the synthesis, a framework of questions was developed to help HIA practitioners identify the key questions which need to be considered in transport HIA. Conclusion Principles of systematic review are valuable in producing syntheses of best available evidence for use in HIA practice. Assessment of the health impacts of transport interventions is characterised by much uncertainty, competing values, and differential or

  6. Ancient road transport devices: Developments from the Bronze Age to the Roman Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Cesare; Chondros, Thomas G.; Milidonis, Kypros F.; Savino, Sergio; Russo, Flavio

    2016-03-01

    The development of transportation systems has significantly enhanced the welfare and modernization of society. Wooden vehicles pulled by animals have been used for land transportation since the early Bronze Age. Whole-body gharries with rigid wheels pulled by oxen appeared in Crete by 2000 BC or earlier. Horses originating from the East were depicted in early Cretan seal-rings of the same period. The two-wheeled horsedrawn chariot was one of the most important inventions in history. This vehicle provided humanity its first concept of personal transport and was the key technology of war for 2000 years. Chariots of Mycenaean and Archaic Greece with light and flexible four-spoked wheels acting as spring suspensions were depicted in vase paintings. The development of this vehicle incorporated the seeds of a primitive design activity and was important for engineering. The Trojan horse since 1194 BC and the helepolis since 700 BC were the first known machines on a wheeled base transported by horses or self-powered. Ancient engineers invented bearings lubricated with fat, and Romans introduced the ancestors of ball bearings for their wagons and carts. The historic evolution of wheeled transportation systems, along with early traction, suspension, and braking systems, is presented in this paper. Analytical and numerical methods are incorporated to analyze the most conceivable loading situations of typically reconstructed wheeled transportation systems in ancient times. Traction requirements both for horse-driven machines and the power for internal motors are also analyzed. This study can serve as a basis for further development of detailed reconstruction of transportation systems in antiquity.

  7. Fate and Transport of Road Salt During Snowmelt Through a Calcareous Fen: Kampoosa Bog, Stockbridge, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, A. L.; Guswa, A. J.; Pufall, A.

    2007-12-01

    Kampoosa Bog is the largest and most ecologically diverse calcareous lake-basin fen in Massachusetts. Situated within a 4.7 km2 drainage basin, the open fen (approx. 20 acres) consists of a floating mat of sedges (incl. Carex aquatilis and Cladium mariscoides) that overlie peat and lake clay deposits. Mineral weathering of marble bedrock within the drainage basin supplies highly alkaline ground and surface waters to the fen basin. The natural chemistry has been greatly altered by road salt runoff from the Massaschusetts Turnpike, and in question is whether disturbance from the Turnpike and a gas pipline has facilitated aggressive growth by the invasive species Phragmites australis. Considered to be one of the most significant rare species habitats in the state, Massachusetts has designated Kampoosa Bog an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, and a committee representing several local, regional, and state agencies, organizations, and citizens manages the wetland. The purpose of this study is to characterize the hydrologic and chemical response of the wetland during snowmelt events to understand the fate and movement of road salt (NaCl). Concentrations of Na and Cl in the fen groundwater are greatest close to the Turnpike. Concentrations decrease with distance downstream but are still greatly elevated relative to sites upstream of the Turnpike. During snowmelt events, the fen's outlet shows a sharp rise in Na and Cl concentrations at the onset of melting that is soon diluted by the added meltwater. The Na and Cl flux, however, is greatest at peak discharge, suggesting that high-flow events are significant periods of export of dissolved salts from the fen. Pure dissolution of rock salt produces an equal molar ratio between Na and Cl, and sodium and chloride imbalances in stream and ground waters suggest that ~20% of the Na is stored on cation exchange sites within the peat. The largest imbalances between Na and Cl occur deeper within the peat, where the peat is

  8. Long-term transportation, by road and air, of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and atlantic bonito (Sarda sarda).

    PubMed

    Correia, João P S; Graça, José T C; Hirofumi, Morikawa; Kube, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    During the second semester of 2009, three trips were made from Olhão (Southern Portugal) to Stralsund (Northern Germany) carrying 2.122 animals, which included multiple teleosts, elasmobranchs and invertebrates. This group included scombrids, such as 1.869 Scomber japonicus and 9 Sarda sarda, which are notoriously difficult to transport. However, multiple adaptations to transport regimes adopted regularly have allowed the authors to successfully move these animals by road and air over a total of up to 25 hr. Such adaptations included maintaining oxygen saturation rates at approximately 200%, and also the constant addition of AmQuel(®) , sodium bicarbonate, and sodium carbonate. Different formulations were used during the three trips, with the best results corresponding to 20/30/30 ppm of the three aforementioned chemicals, respectively. The authors suggest, however, that a modified formula of 20/40/40 ppm will allow for an even more stable pH on future trips. PMID:20853412

  9. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 2: Part 4, Transportation sector; Part 5, Forestry sector; Part 6, Agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This volume, the second of two such volumes, contains sector-specific guidance in support of the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. This voluntary reporting program was authorized by Congress in Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The General Guidelines, bound separately from this volume, provide the overall rationale for the program, discuss in general how to analyze emissions and emission reduction/carbon sequestration projects, and address programmatic issues such as minimum reporting requirements, time parameters, international projects, confidentiality, and certification. Together, the General Guidelines and the guidance in these supporting documents will provide concepts and approaches needed to prepare the reporting forms. This second volume of sector-specific guidance covers the transportation sector, the forestry sector, and the agricultural sector.

  10. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  11. Spatial Modeling of Vesicle Transport and the Cytoskeleton: The Challenge of Hitting the Right Road

    PubMed Central

    Klann, Michael; Koeppl, Heinz; Reuss, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The membrane trafficking machinery provides a transport and sorting system for many cellular proteins. We propose a mechanistic agent-based computer simulation to integrate and test the hypothesis of vesicle transport embedded into a detailed model cell. The method tracks both the number and location of the vesicles. Thus both the stochastic properties due to the low numbers and the spatial aspects are preserved. The underlying molecular interactions that control the vesicle actions are included in a multi-scale manner based on the model of Heinrich and Rapoport (2005). By adding motor proteins we can improve the recycling process of SNAREs and model cell polarization. Our model also predicts that coat molecules should have a high turnover at the compartment membranes, while the turnover of motor proteins has to be slow. The modular structure of the underlying model keeps it tractable despite the overall complexity of the vesicle system. We apply our model to receptor-mediated endocytosis and show how a polarized cytoskeleton structure leads to polarized distributions in the plasma membrane both of SNAREs and the Ste2p receptor in yeast. In addition, we can couple signal transduction and membrane trafficking steps in one simulation, which enables analyzing the effect of receptor-mediated endocytosis on signaling. PMID:22253752

  12. Mental health emergency transport: the pot-holed road to care.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Joanne F; Ireland, Matt; Stasa, Helen

    2014-04-01

    Police have, historically, been the first point of contact for people experiencing a mental health crisis in the Australian community. Changes in the NSW Mental Health Act 2007 extended the powers and responsibilities for involuntary transport to paramedics and accredited mental health practitioners. The Mental Health Act also allows for police assistance to other agencies during transport of people living with mental illness if there are serious safety concerns. Involuntary intervention for people living with mental illness is based on risk-of-serious-harm criteria under the Mental Health Act, implying serious deterioration before the Act may be invoked. At the point of risk of serious harm, police involvement may be more frequently required according to the acuity of the situation. If the legal basis of non-consensual treatment under the Mental Health Act was lack of capacity, it would provide a more comprehensive legal and ethical basis for early intervention. Police contact is intensified in rural and remote regions, particularly after hours, where crisis assessments and intervention by health services are further stretched. Further reducing police involvement using strategies that increase access to consensual pathways of care for people living with mental illness, particularly for people in regional and remote areas, is desirable but not likely in the foreseeable future. PMID:24702097

  13. Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

    2010-03-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy

  14. ROAD CLASS 3 TRANSPORTATION DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STUDY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a geographic information system (GIS) coverage of the lower level divided roads and streets (Class 3 Roads) for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Project region. The coverage was produced using U...

  15. ROAD CLASS 4 TRANSPORTATION DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STUDY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a geographic information system (GIS) coverage of the lower level roads and streets (Class 4 Roads) for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Project region. The coverage was produced using US Geolog...

  16. Choosing appropriate space allowances for slaughter pigs transported by road: a review.

    PubMed

    Warriss, P D

    1998-04-25

    In the United Kingdom pigs can spend up to 11 hours in transit to slaughter but on average travel for two to three hours. In the past, international journeys have lasted up to 40 hours and have been over 900 miles long. There is evidence that pigs, like calves and sheep, but unlike adult cattle, prefer to lie down if provided with suitable conditions, particularly bedding, on the vehicle. They will, however, sometimes stand during short journeys, possibly when excessive vibration or uncomfortable flooring, particularly a lack of sufficient bedding, cause discomfort. Current UK legislation and EU Directive 95/29/EC specify that, in general, pigs must have sufficient space to lie down during transit. Measurements of the space needed for sternal recumbency, and direct observations of pigs at different stocking densities, suggest that the minimum space required is equivalent to about 250 kg/m2 for normal slaughter pigs of 90 to 100 kg liveweight. This figure may not be appropriate for very small or very large pigs. In the UK at present, more than half of all slaughter pigs are transported at densities greater than that prescribed (235 kg/m2) in the EU Directive. At stocking densities above about 250 kg/m2 there may not be enough room available for all the pigs to lie down, leading to continual disturbance of recumbent animals by those seeking a place to rest. A stocking density of 322 kg/m2 leads to clear evidence of physical stress. During long journeys (> or = 25 hours) meat quality is reduced by high stocking densities, implying muscle glycogen depletion and possibly fatigue. Higher stocking densities are also associated with higher mortality. There is evidence of wide variations in air temperature inside transporters, particularly for international journeys. Although there are small variations within vehicles, the temperature of the air inside is closely related to the outside temperature. It has been recommended that the temperature within the vehicle should not

  17. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  18. A Modular Localization System as a Positioning Service for Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    Brida, Peter; Machaj, Juraj; Benikovsky, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    In recent times smart devices have attracted a large number of users. Since many of these devices allow position estimation using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals, a large number of location-based applications and services have emerged, especially in transport systems. However GNSS signals are affected by the environment and are not always present, especially in dense urban environment or indoors. In this work firstly a Modular Localization Algorithm is proposed to allow seamless switching between different positioning modules. This helps us develop a positioning system that is able to provide position estimates in both indoor and outdoor environments without any user interaction. Since the proposed system can run as a service on any smart device, it could allow users to navigate not only in outdoor environments, but also indoors, e.g., underground garages, tunnels etc. Secondly we present the proposal of a 2-phase map reduction algorithm which allows one to significantly reduce the complexity of position estimation processes in case that positioning is performed using a fingerprinting framework. The proposed 2-phase map reduction algorithm can also improve the accuracy of the position estimates by filtering out reference points that are far from the mobile device. Both algorithms were implemented into a positioning system and tested in real world conditions in both indoor and outdoor environments. PMID:25353979

  19. A modular localization system as a positioning service for road transport.

    PubMed

    Brida, Peter; Machaj, Juraj; Benikovsky, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    In recent times smart devices have attracted a large number of users. Since many of these devices allow position estimation using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals, a large number of location-based applications and services have emerged, especially in transport systems. However GNSS signals are affected by the environment and are not always present, especially in dense urban environment or indoors. In this work firstly a Modular Localization Algorithm is proposed to allow seamless switching between different positioning modules. This helps us develop a positioning system that is able to provide position estimates in both indoor and outdoor environments without any user interaction. Since the proposed system can run as a service on any smart device, it could allow users to navigate not only in outdoor environments, but also indoors, e.g., underground garages, tunnels etc. Secondly we present the proposal of a 2-phase map reduction algorithm which allows one to significantly reduce the complexity of position estimation processes in case that positioning is performed using a fingerprinting framework. The proposed 2-phase map reduction algorithm can also improve the accuracy of the position estimates by filtering out reference points that are far from the mobile device. Both algorithms were implemented into a positioning system and tested in real world conditions in both indoor and outdoor environments. PMID:25353979

  20. Removing Traffic Emissions from CO2 Time Series Measured at a Tall Tower Using on-Road Measurements and WRF-Stilt Transport Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Rella, C.; Goeckede, M.; Hanson, C. V.; Yang, Z.; Law, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide with high precision and accuracy have become increasingly important for climate change research, in particular to inform terrestrial biosphere models. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning have long been recognized to contribute a significant portion of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Here, we present an approach to remove the traffic related carbon dioxide emissions from mole fractions measured at a tall tower by using the corresponding carbon monoxide measurements in combination with footprint analyses and transport modeling. This technique improves the suitability of the CO2 data to be used in inverse modeling approaches of atmosphere-biosphere exchange that do not account for non-biotic portions of CO2. In our study region in Oregon, road traffic emissions are the biggest source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. A three-day mobile campaign covering 1700 km of roads in northwestern Oregon was performed during summer of 2012 using a laser-based Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer. The mobile measurements incorporated different roads including main highways, urban streets, and back-roads, largely within the typical footprint of a tall CO2 observation tower in Oregon's Willamette Valley. For the first time, traffic related CO:CO2 emission ratios were measured directly at the sources during an on-road campaign under a variety of different driving conditions. An average emission ratio of 7.43 (±1.80) ppb CO per ppm CO2 was obtained for the study region and applied to separate the traffic related portion of CO2 from the mole fraction time series. The road traffic related portion of the CO2 mole fractions measured at the tower site reached maximum values from 9.8 to 12 ppm, depending on the height above the surface, during summer 2012.

  1. Meso-scale on-road vehicle emission inventory approach: a study on Dhaka City of Bangladesh supporting the 'cause-effect' analysis of the transport system.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Asif; Allan, Andrew; Zito, Rocco

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to develop an emission inventory (EI) approach and conduct an inventory for vehicular sources in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. A meso-scale modelling approach was adopted for the inventory; the factors that influence the emissions and the magnitude of emission variation were identified and reported on, which was an innovative approach to account emissions unlike the conventional inventory approaches. Two techniques for the emission inventory were applied, viz. (i) a combined top-down and bottom-up approach that considered the total vehicle population and the average diurnal on-road vehicle speed profile in the city and (ii) a bottom-up approach that accounted for road link-specific emissions of the city considering diurnal traffic volume and speed profiles of the respective roads. For the bottom-up approach, road link-specific detailed data were obtained through field survey in 2012, where mid-block traffic count of the day, vehicle speed profile, road network and congestion data were collected principally. The emission variances for the change in transport system characteristics (like change in fuel type, AC usage pattern, increased speed and reduced congestion/stopping) were predicted and analysed in this study; congestion influenced average speed of the vehicles, and fuel types in the vehicles were identified as the major stressors. The study performance was considered reasonable when comparing with the limited number of similar studies conducted earlier. Given the increasing trend of private vehicles each year coupled with increasing traffic congestion, the city is under threat of increased vehicular emissions unless a good management strategy is implemented. Although the inventory is conducted for Dhaka and the result may be important locally, the approach adopted in this research is innovative in nature to be followed for conducting research on other urban transport systems. PMID:26857254

  2. Economical Space Transportation: a Road not yet Traveled or Gleanings of a Lifelong Rocketman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truax, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-two years have past since I criticized the design of the shuttle in my article in Aeronautics and Astronautics, entitled Shuttles--What Price Elegance? At that time I predicted that the shuttle would not reduce the cost of space transportation, as its proponents almost pleadingly averred. I called it a money sponge of unparalleled capacity. I have since labeled it as the worst combination of primary features that could possibly be assembled into one vehicle. While I called the concept puerile, I lauded its makers for their execution - for their ability to make such a ludicrous concept work at all. It has been nearly sixty years since I pointed the way to low cost space transportation with my Sea Dragon concept. Simple, reusable, two stages to orbit, pressure-fed propulsion and recovery in the ocean by parachute. Since that date, billions have been spent on even more elegant approaches to reusable vehicles, and substantially nothing on the big, dumb reusable booster concept. As of now, all of the more elegant approaches have been cancelled, but the urge to elegance above common sense is still with us. I am sure that a single stage to orbit, reusable vehicle is possible, or will be within the next fifty years. I am equally sure, however, that it will not be economical. It will very probably be worse than the shuttle. We want two stages rather than one because it allows the upper stage to use very low pressures. We want parachute recovery in the ocean because it offers 70% of the Earth's surface to land in, and easy tow-back from anywhere. Perhaps it is necessary for the older generation to die out for the realities of over- sophistication to sink into the heads of our space engineers. All technologies mature, and ultimately reach a point where further sophistication is uneconomical. Launch vehicles reached this point long before they were invented. The big liquid ICBMs were useless as ballistic missiles and more sophisticated than necessary as space launch

  3. Climate Projection Data base for Roads - CliPDaR: Design a guideline for a transnational database of downscaled climate projection data for road impact models - within the Conference's of European Directors of Roads (CEDR) TRANSNATIONAL ROAD RESEARCH PROG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulla, Christoph; Namyslo, Joachim; Fuchs, Tobias; Türk, Konrad

    2013-04-01

    The European road sector is vulnerable to extreme weather phenomena, which can cause large socio-economic losses. Almost every year there occur several weather triggered events (like heavy precipitation, floods, landslides, high winds, snow and ice, heat or cold waves, etc.), that disrupt transportation, knock out power lines, cut off populated regions from the outside and so on. So, in order to avoid imbalances in the supply of vital goods to people as well as to prevent negative impacts on health and life of people travelling by car it is essential to know present and future threats to roads. Climate change might increase future threats to roads. CliPDaR focuses on parts of the European road network and contributes, based on the current body of knowledge, to the establishment of guidelines helping to decide which methods and scenarios to apply for the estimation of future climate change based challenges in the field of road maintenance. Based on regional scale climate change projections specific road-impact models are applied in order to support protection measures. In recent years, it has been recognised that it is essential to assess the uncertainty and reliability of given climate projections by using ensemble approaches and downscaling methods. A huge amount of scientific work has been done to evaluate these approaches with regard to reliability and usefulness for investigations on possible impacts of climate changes. CliPDaR is going to collect the existing approaches and methodologies in European countries, discuss their differences and - in close cooperation with the road owners - develops a common line on future applications of climate projection data to road impact models. As such, the project will focus on reviewing and assessing existing regional climate change projections regarding transnational highway transport needs. The final project report will include recommendations how the findings of CliPDaR may support the decision processes of European

  4. Global EDGAR v4.1 emissions of air pollutants: analysis of impacts of emissions abatement in industry and road transport on regional and global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Doering, U. M.; van Aardenne, J.; Monni, S.; Pagliari, V.; Peters, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The new version v4.1 of the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) compiled by JRC and PBL provides independent estimates of the global anthropogenic emissions and emission trends of precursors of tropospheric ozone (CO, NMVOC, NOx) and acidifying substances (NOx, NH3, SO2) for the period 1970-2005. All emissions are detailed at country level consistently using the same technology-based methodology, combining activity data (international statistics) from publicly available sources and to the extent possible emission factors as recommended by the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. By using high resolution global grid maps per source category of area sources and point sources, we also compiled datasets with annual emissions on a 0.1x0.1 degree grid, as input for atmospheric models. We provide full and up-to-date inventories per country, also for developing countries. Moreover, the time series back in time to 1970 provides for the trends in official national inventories a historic perspective. As part of our objective to contribute to more reliable inventories by providing a reference emissions database for emission scenarios, inventory comparisons and for atmospheric modellers, we strive to transparently document all data sources used and assumptions made where data was missing, in particular for assumptions made on the shares of technologies where relevant. Technology mixes per country or region were taken from other data sources (such as the Platts database) or estimated using other sources or countries as proxy. The evolution in the adoption of technologies world-wide over the 35 years covered by EDGAR v4.1 will be illustrated for the power industry and the road transport sectors, in particular for Europe and the US. Similarly the regional and global impacts of implemented control measures and end-of pipe abatements will be illustrated by the examples of - NOx and SO2 end-of pipe abatements being implemented since the late

  5. Guidelines for public transportation contracting with the private sector in California: Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-30

    The manual provides practical assistance to public transit agencies in California in contracting for goods and services with the private sector. It also assists private firms seeking to provide goods and services to public transit agencies. The manual provides an overview of each of the processes involved in procurement from preparation of procurement documents to contract management and evaluation. It also provides detailed, practical guidance on each of these processes.

  6. A multi-methodological approach to study the temporal and spatial distribution of air quality related to road transport emissions in Madrid, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Pedro; Miranda, Regina

    2013-04-01

    The traffic-related atmospheric emissions, composition and transport of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air toxic pollutants (ATPs), are an important environmental problem that affect climate change and air pollution in Madrid, Spain. Carbon dioxide (CO2) affects the regional weather and particularly fine particle matter (PM) translocate to the people resulting in local health problems. As the main source of emissions comes from road transport, and subsequent combustion of fossil fuels, air quality deterioration may be elevated during weekdays and peak hours. We postulate that traffic-related air quality (CO2, methane CH4, PM, volatile organic compounds VOCs, nitrogen oxides NOx and carbon monoxide CO contents) impairs epidemiology in part via effects on health and disease development, likely increasing the external costs of transport in terms of climate change and air pollution. First, the paper intends to estimate the local air quality related to the road transport emissions of weeks over a domain covering Madrid (used as a case study). The local air quality model (LAQM) is based on gridded and shaped emission fields. The European Environmental Agency (EEA) COPERT modeling system will provide GHGs and ATPs gridded and shaped emission data and mobile source parameters, available for Madrid from preliminary emission inventory records of the Municipality of Madrid and from disaggregated traffic counts of the Traffic Engineering Company and the Metropolitan Company of Metro (METRO-Madrid). The paper intends to obtain estimates of GHGs and ATPs concentrations commensurate with available ground measurements, 24-hour average values, from the Municipality of Madrid. The comparison between estimated concentrations and measurements must show small errors (e.g. fractional error, fractional bias and coefficient of determination). The paper's expected results must determine spatial and temporal patterns in Madrid. The estimates will be used to cross check the primary local

  7. The U. S. transportation sector in the year 2030: results of a two-part Delphi survey.

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.; Stephens, T.S.

    2011-10-11

    A two-part Delphi Survey was given to transportation experts attending the Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy in August, 2011. The survey asked respondents about trends in the US transportation sector in 2030. Topics included: alternative vehicles, high speed rail construction, rail freight transportation, average vehicle miles traveled, truck versus passenger car shares, vehicle fuel economy, and biofuels in different modes. The survey consisted of two rounds -- both asked the same set of seven questions. In the first round, respondents were given a short introductory paragraph about the topic and asked to use their own judgment in their responses. In the second round, the respondents were asked the same questions, but were also given results from the first round as guidance. The survey was sponsored by Argonne National Lab (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), and implemented by University of California at Davis, Institute of Transportation Studies. The survey was part of the larger Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project run by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Of the 206 invitation letters sent, 94 answered all questions in the first round (105 answered at least one question), and 23 of those answered all questions in the second round. 10 of the 23 second round responses were at a discussion section at Asilomar, while the remaining were online. Means and standard deviations of responses from Round One and Two are given in Table 1 below. One main purpose of Delphi surveys is to reduce the variance in opinions through successive rounds of questioning. As shown in Table 1, the standard deviations of 25 of the 30 individual sub-questions decreased between Round One and Round Two, but the decrease was slight in most cases.

  8. Transport and Storage. Industry Training Monograph No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's transport and storage industry is a large, diverse sector covering all forms of transport operation, including road, rail, air, and sea, and related services: stevedoring, port operations, customs agencies, and travel agencies. Employment in this industry has not grown as quickly over the last decade as employment in general. Under…

  9. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a... test and has been issued a certificate of driver's road test in accordance with this section. (b)...

  10. Physiological responses of young cross-bred calves immediately after long-haul road transportation and after one week of habituation.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Katsuji; Ishiwata, Toshie; Tanaka, Toshio; Sato, Shusuke

    2009-12-01

    We investigated 10 suckling cross-bred calves (Japanese Black (Wagyu) x Holstein) and collected data on the physiological stress responses of the young calves to long-haul road transportation. All calves were male and 21-47 days of age. The calves were obtained at a livestock market and were transported from the market to the university in a commercial livestock vehicle. The total haul distance and time were 306.9 km and 7 h, respectively. The calves were deprived of food and water during transportation. Blood samples, electrocardiograms, and rectal temperatures were collected immediately after transportation and after one week of habituation at the university. Serum pH was significantly lower (P < 0.01), while serum triiodothyronine, aspartate aminotransferase, non-esterified fatty acids (all P < 0.05), and heart rate (P < 0.01) were significantly higher immediately after transportation. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (P = 0.08) and serum alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.06) tended to be higher after transportation. These physiological responses suggest that the stress caused by long-haul transportation causes significant effects on liver function in young calves. PMID:20163662

  11. The influence of future non-mitigated road transport emissions on regional ozone exceedences at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. E.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Berntsen, T. K.; Dessens, O.; Gauss, M.; Grewe, V.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Olivié, D.; Prather, M. J.; Tang, Q.

    2014-06-01

    Road Transport emissions (RTE) are a significant anthropogenic global NOx source responsible for enhancing the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) in the lower troposphere. Here we analyse a multi-model ensemble which adopts the realistic SRES A1B emission scenario and a “policy-failure” scenario for RTE (A1B_HIGH) for the years 2000, 2025 and 2050. Analysing the regional trends in RTE NOx estimates shows by 2025 that differences of 0.2-0.3 Tg N yr-1 occur for most of the world regions between the A1B and A1B_HIGH estimates, except for Asia where there is a larger difference of ˜1.4 Tg N yr-1. For 2050 these differences fall to ˜0.1 Tg N yr-1, with shipping emissions becoming as important as RTE. Analysing the seasonality in near-surface O3 from the multi-model ensemble monthly mean values shows a large variability in the projected changes between different regions. For Western Europe and the Eastern US although the peak O3 mixing ratios decrease by ˜10% in 2050, there is an associated degradation during wintertime due to less direct titration from nitric oxide. For regions such as Eastern China, although total anthropogenic NOx emissions are reduced from 2025 to 2050, there is no real improvement in peak O3 levels. By normalizing the seasonal ensemble means of near-surface O3 (0-500 m) with the recommended European Commission (EC) exposure limit to derive an exceedence ratio (ER), we show that ER values greater than 1.0 occur across a wide area in the Northern Hemisphere for boreal summer using the year 2000 emissions. When adopting the future A1B_HIGH estimates, the Middle East exhibits the worst regional air quality, closely followed by Asia. For these regions the area of exceedence (ER > 1.0) for 2025 is ˜40% and ˜25% of the total area of each region, respectively. Comparing simulations employing the various scenarios shows that unmitigated RTE increases the area of exceedence in the Middle East by ˜6% and, for Asia, by ˜2% of the total

  12. ROAD CLASS 5 TRANSPORTATION DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STUDY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a geographic information system (GIS) coverage of the trails, footbridges, and perimeters of parking areas (Class 5 Roads) for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Project region. The coverage was p...

  13. ROAD CLASS 1 TRANSPORTATION DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STUDY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a geographic information system (GIS) coverage of the Interstate and United States Highways (Class 1 Roads) for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Project region. The coverage was produced using U...

  14. ROAD CLASS 2 TRANSPORTATION DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STUDY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a geographic information system (GIS) coverage of the state and county highways (Class 2 Roads) for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Project region. The coverage was produced using US Geological...

  15. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to provide estimates of volumes and development costs of known nonassociated gas reserves in selected, potentially important supplier nations, using a standard set of costing algorithms and conventions. Estimates of undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves and the cost of drilling development wells, production equipment, gas processing facilities, and pipeline construction are made at the individual field level. A discounted cash-flow model of production, investment, and expenses is used to estimate the present value cost of developing each field on a per-thousand-cubic-foot (Mcf) basis. These gas resource cost estimates for individual accumulations (that is, fields or groups of fields) then were aggregated into country-specific price-quantity curves. These curves represent the cost of developing and transporting natural gas to an export point suitable for tanker shipments or to a junction with a transmission line. The additional costs of LNG or methanol conversion are not included. A brief summary of the cost of conversion to methanol and transportation to the United States is contained in Appendix D: Implications of Gas Development Costs for Methanol Conversion.

  16. The coprocessing of fossil fuels and biomass for CO{sub 2} emission reduction in the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji; Borgwardt, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    Research is underway to evaluate the Hydrocarb process for conversion of carbonaceous raw material to clean carbon and methanol products. These products are valuable in the market either as fuel or as chemical commodities. As fuel, methanol and carbon can be used economically, either independently or in slurry form, in efficient heat energies (turbines and internal combustion engines) for both mobile and stationary single and combined cycle power plants. When considering CO{sub 2} emission control in the utilization of fossil fuels, the copressing of those fossil fuels with biomass (which may include, wood, municipal solid waste and sewage sludge) is a viable mitigation approach. By coprocessing both types of feedstock to produce methanol and carbon while sequestering all or part of the carbon, a significant net CO{sub 2} reduction is achieved if the methanol is substituted for petroleum fuels in the transportation sector. The Hydrocarb process has the potential, if the R&D objectives are achieved, to produce alternative transportation fuel from indigenous resources at lower cost than any other biomass conversion process. These comparisons suggest the resulting fuel can significantly displace gasoline at a competitive price while mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions and reducing ozone and other toxics in urban atmospheres.

  17. Haul road dust control

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W.R.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    A field study was conducted to measure dust from haul trucks at a limestone quarry and a coal preparation plant waste hauling operation. The study found that primarily wind, distance and road treatment conditions notably affected the dust concentrations at locations next to, 50 ft from, and 100 ft away from the unpaved haulage road. Airborne dust measured along the unpaved haul road showed that high concentrations of fugitive dust can be generated with these concentrations rapidly decreasing to nearly background levels within 100 ft of the road. Instantaneous respirable dust measurements illustrated that the trucks generate a real-time dust cloud that has a peak concentration with a time-related decay rate as the dust moves past the sampling locations. The respirable dust concentrations and peak levels were notably diminished as the dust cloud was transported, diluted, and diffused by the wind over the 100 ft distance from the road. Individual truck concentrations and peak levels measured next to the dry road surface test section were quite variable and dependent on wind conditions, particularly wind direction, with respect to reaching the sampling location. The vast majority of the fugitive airborne dust generated from unpaved and untreated haulage roads was non-respirable. 6 figs.

  18. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of TRAN for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, 57(b)(1)). Third, it permits continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  19. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The attachments contained within this appendix provide additional details about the model development and estimation process which do not easily lend themselves to incorporation in the main body of the model documentation report. The information provided in these attachments is not integral to the understanding of the model`s operation, but provides the reader with opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of some of the model`s underlying assumptions. There will be a slight degree of replication of materials found elsewhere in the documentation, made unavoidable by the dictates of internal consistency. Each attachment is associated with a specific component of the transportation model; the presentation follows the same sequence of modules employed in Volume 1. The following attachments are contained in Appendix F: Fuel Economy Model (FEM)--provides a discussion of the FEM vehicle demand and performance by size class models; Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Model--describes data input sources and extrapolation methodologies; Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) Stock Model--discusses the fuel economy gap estimation methodology; Light Duty Vehicle Fleet Model--presents the data development for business, utility, and government fleet vehicles; Light Commercial Truck Model--describes the stratification methodology and data sources employed in estimating the stock and performance of LCT`s; Air Travel Demand Model--presents the derivation of the demographic index, used to modify estimates of personal travel demand; and Airborne Emissions Model--describes the derivation of emissions factors used to associate transportation measures to levels of airborne emissions of several pollutants.

  20. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Over the past year, several modifications have been made to the NEMS Transportation Model, incorporating greater levels of detail and analysis in modules previously represented in the aggregate or under a profusion of simplifying assumptions. This document is intended to amend those sections of the Model Documentation Report (MDR) which describe these superseded modules. Significant changes have been implemented in the LDV Fuel Economy Model, the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Model, the LDV Fleet Module, and the Highway Freight Model. The relevant sections of the MDR have been extracted from the original document, amended, and are presented in the following pages. A brief summary of the modifications follows: In the Fuel Economy Model, modifications have been made which permit the user to employ more optimistic assumptions about the commercial viability and impact of selected technological improvements. This model also explicitly calculates the fuel economy of an array of alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) which are subsequently used in the estimation of vehicle sales. In the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Model, the results of the Fuel Economy Model have been incorporated, and the program flows have been modified to reflect that fact. In the Light Duty Vehicle Fleet Module, the sales of vehicles to fleets of various size are endogenously calculated in order to provide a more detailed estimate of the impacts of EPACT legislation on the sales of AFV`s to fleets. In the Highway Freight Model, the previous aggregate estimation has been replaced by a detailed Freight Truck Stock Model, where travel patterns, efficiencies, and energy intensities are estimated by industrial grouping. Several appendices are provided at the end of this document, containing data tables and supplementary descriptions of the model development process which are not integral to an understanding of the overall model structure.

  1. How can Saudi Arabia use the Decade of Action for Road Safety to catalyse road traffic injury prevention policy and interventions?

    PubMed

    Al Turki, Yousef Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death in adolescents and young adults worldwide. Nearly three-quarters of road deaths occur in developing countries and men comprise a mean 80% of casualties. The rate of road traffic accidents caused by four-wheeled vehicles is the highest globally reported road traffic accidents statistic. In Saudi Arabia, the motor vehicle is the main means of transportation with one person killed and four injured every hour. Over 65% of accidents occur because of vehicles travelling at excess speed and/or drivers disobeying traffic signals. Road traffic injuries cause considerable economic losses to victims, their families, and to nations as a whole. Strategic prevention plans should be implemented soon by various sectors (health, police, transport, and education) to decrease the mortality and morbidity among adolescent and young age group. Strong and effective coordination between ministry of health and other ministries together with World Health Organization and other related organisations will be an important step towards implementing the international Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-2020). The aim of this review article is to highlight some aspects of the health impacts of road traffic accidents. PMID:24047249

  2. A model for investigating the influence of road surface texture and tyre tread pattern on rolling resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoever, Carsten; Kropp, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    The reduction of rolling resistance is essential for a more environmentally friendly road transportation sector. Both tyre and road design can be utilised to reduce rolling resistance. In both cases a reliable simulation tool is needed which is able to quantify the influence of design parameters on the rolling resistance of a tyre rolling on a specific road surface. In this work a previously developed tyre/road interaction model is extended to account for different tread patterns and for losses due to small-scale tread deformation. Calculated contact forces and tyre vibrations for tyre/road interaction under steady-state rolling are used to predict rolling losses in the tyre. Rolling resistance is calculated for a series of different tyre/road combinations. Results are compared with rolling resistance measurements. The agreement between simulations and measurements is generally very good. It is found that both the tyre structure and small-scale tread deformations contribute to the rolling losses. The small-scale contribution depends mainly on the road roughness profile. The mean profile depth of the road surface is identified to correlate very well with the rolling resistance. Additional calculations are performed for non-traditional rubberised road surfaces, however, with mixed results. This possibly indicates the existence of additional loss mechanisms for these surfaces.

  3. The effects of different environmental conditions on thermoregulation and clinical and hematological variables in long-distance road-transported calves.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, D; Gerardi, G; Peli, A; Nanni Costa, L; Amadori, M; Segato, S

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-distance road transport (19 h, from Poland to Italy) during 2 seasons (summer vs. winter) on clinical and hematological variables in calves. The environmental temperature range that could compromise the thermoregulation system (thermal stress) of the calves was tested. For the 7 Holstein calves in each transport, the BW and rectal temperature (RT) were measured, and blood samples were collected at the farm of origin, before loading at the transit center (T2), after unloading at the farm of destination (T3), and 1, 2, 3, and 4 d after arrival. The body temperature (BT) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored from T2 to T3. The data were statistically analyzed according to a mixed model that considered the fixed effects of transport (repeated measurements), season of journey, and their interaction. Within the observed temperature-humidity index (THI) range (30 to 80), effective thermoregulation allowed the calves to maintain their BT with small physiologic changes to prevent thermal stress, particularly in the summer. With no seasonal differences, the HR was greater at loading than unloading (120 vs. 115 beats per min; P = 0.012). As for the transport effect, the BW was less (P < 0.001) after unloading, and the RT was greater (P = 0.004). This effect was more marked in summer. The hematological variables indicated a moderate effect of transport on the hydration condition, reactive and muscular systems, and metabolism, although hematocrit (P = 0.004), erythrocytes, cortisol, NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase activity (P < 0.001), and total protein (P = 0.007) were greater after unloading. This was confirmed by a moderate decrease in total leukocytes (P = 0.031) and glucose concentration (P = 0.002). The changes in the clinical variables were similar for both seasons even though in the summer, hematocrit (P < 0.001), urea (P = 0

  4. On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

  5. The effects of direct and indirect road transport consignment in combination with feed withdrawal in young dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Stevens, Bronwyn H; Conley, Melanie J; Jongman, Ellen C; Lauber, Mariko C; Hides, Susan J; Anderson, Garry A; Duganzich, David M; Mansell, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    Male dairy calves may be transported from their farm of origin at a young age. This process may involve an extended period off feed and indirect consignment through an intermediate facility, prompting potential welfare concerns. To assess the impact of transport, 59 male Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (5-9 d old) were either (1) held in situ on farm (control); (2) transported for 6 h; (3) transported for 12 h; or (4) transported for 1 h to a holding facility where they were kept for 6 h and then transported for 5 h. All treatments included a 30-h period of feed (milk) withdrawal, and calf responses were measured over time from before their last feed until the completion of the study after the transport and feed withdrawal periods. Apart from increases in serum creatine kinase in calves transported for 12 h, transported calves generally did not differ in blood concentrations of glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, total protein or in packed cell volume, compared with controls (P>0.05). Calf responses to the indirect consignment treatment did not differ from those of other transported calves. Withdrawal of feed for 30 h caused calves to lose 6% of body weight; blood glucose varied from 3.96 mmol/l immediately before daily feeding to 5.46 mmol/l at 3 h post feeding, and then declined to 3.43 mmol/l at 30 h. Calves lay down for 22-32% of the time during transport, and did not show a rebound effect in lying behaviour post arrival in comparison with controls. Best practice transport of 6-12 h duration, including indirect consignment via a holding facility, did not significantly affect calf blood biochemistry and metabolism in comparison with untransported animals. However, extending the time off feed beyond the daily feeding interval resulted in reduced blood glucose concentrations, suggesting that time off feed needs to be carefully managed in young transported dairy calves. PMID:24871459

  6. GHG Emissions and Costs of Developing Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Implications on Energy Security in the Transportation and Electricity Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 48% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This study addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from land use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270 - 530 g and 120 -190 g CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 to 85 g CO2-eq per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. Fossil fuels contributed about 93% to Malaysia's electricity generation mix and emit about 65 million tonnes (Mt) or 36% of the country's 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has set a target to install 330 MW biomass electricity by 2015, which is hoped to avoid 1.3 Mt of GHG emissions annually. The availability of seven types of biomass residues in Peninsular Malaysia is estimated based on residues-to-product ratio, recoverability and accessibility factor and other competing uses. It was found that there are approximately 12.2 Mt/yr of residues. Oil-palm residues contribute about 77% to the total availability with rice and forestry residues at 17%. Electricity from biomass can be produced via direct combustion in dedicated power plants or co-fired with coal. The co-firing of the residues at four existing coal plants in

  7. MAJOR ROADS COVERAGE AND DATASET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) system contains digital descriptions of water and transportation features - rivers, lakes, roads, railroads, etc. - as well as major power lines and pipelines. This coverage is a subset of the larger TIGER ...

  8. Sharing the responsibility for driver distraction across road transport systems: a systems approach to the management of distracted driving.

    PubMed

    Young, Kristie L; Salmon, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is acknowledged universally as a large and growing road safety problem. Compounding the problem is that distracted driving is a complex, multifaceted issue influenced by a multitude of factors, organisations and individuals. As such, management of the problem is not straightforward. Numerous countermeasures have been developed and implemented across the globe. The vast majority of these measures have derived from the traditional reductionist, driver-centric approach to distraction and have failed to fully reflect the complex mix of actors and components that give rise to drivers becoming distracted. An alternative approach that is gaining momentum in road safety is the systems approach, which considers all components of the system and their interactions as an integrated whole. In this paper, we review the current knowledge base on driver distraction and argue that the systems approach is not currently being realised in practice. Adopting a more holistic, systems approach to distracted driving will not only improve existing knowledge and interventions from the traditional approach, but will enhance our understanding and management of distraction by considering the complex relationships and interactions of the multiple actors and the myriad sources, enablers and interventions that make up the distracted driving system. It is only by recognising and understanding how all of the system components work together to enable distraction to occur, that we can start to work on solutions to help mitigate the occurrence and consequences of distracted driving. PMID:24767853

  9. Blood pressure of urban school children in relation to road-traffic noise, traffic density and presence of public transport.

    PubMed

    Paunovic, Katarina; Belojevic, Goran; Jakovljevic, Branko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between noise levels, traffic density and the presence of public transport and children's blood pressure. Another aim was to assess the applicability of public transport as a proxy indicator of noise exposure. A cross-sectional study involved 1113 children aged 7-11 years from a central municipality in Belgrade. Equivalent noise levels were measured in front of all schools and in the middle of all streets. Traffic density was defined as number of light and heavy vehicles per hour. The number of public transport vehicles was calculated from official timetables. Children's addresses were matched with noise levels and transport maps. A physician measured blood pressure with the sphygmomanometer. Children attending schools with public transport running nearby had by 1.3 mmHg higher systolic pressure than did children from schools without public transport. This relationship was independent from children's age, gender, and body mass index, family history of hypertension, some dwelling characteristics, and lifestyle habits. The association between diastolic pressure and public transport was statistically insignificant. The study indicated a possible positive association between the presence of public transport in the vicinity of schools with systolic blood pressure in 7-11 year-old schoolchildren. The presence of public transport may serve as an auxiliary indicator of noise exposure in undeveloped countries with limited capacities for noise measurement or modeling. PMID:23771424

  10. Scaled precedence activity network (SPAN) approach to design of transportation systems: A methodology developed to introduce road facilities for lean vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of transition from some existing transportation system to an alternative system without large initial investment is addressed by identifying transition pathways. A graphical technique used combines engineering benefit/cost analysis and precedence diagrams from project management. The approach defines and evaluates potential adjustments to existing system and relationships between the adjustments. Logical strategies for introduction, which combine several different technologies, are identified from the SPAN diagrams. Strategies are selected by matching the level of deployment of technologies with the market level. Design of a system of parking and road facilities for single-passenger commuter vehicles is used as a case study. Various adjustments to existing facilities are identified, classified, and evaluated using the activity network approach. The concepts range from low-cost modifications appropriate for introduction of commuter vehicles into the market, to more expensive modifications suitable for larger numbers of such vehicles.

  11. Energy efficiency of engines and appliances for transport on land, water, and in air.

    PubMed

    Furfari, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    The transport sector is fundamental for the economy but also for personal life. With a growing population and the globalization process, it is not surprising that the demand of transport is set to grow in the near future and certainly until 2050. This paper focuses on the huge potential of progress in the sector of technology for transport. As the principal sector for transport will remain on roads, the paper emphasizes the progress in the automotive sector. Since car manufacturers are investing massively into research and technology development to offer ever more efficient cars--not only energy efficient but also efficient in terms of safety and comfort--the car of tomorrow will be very different from the present one. The increasing role of electronics in cars will synergistically cooperate with that of so-called smart cities. The potential development of methane in the transport sector, mainly used for heavy transportation is discussed. PMID:26667061

  12. Encapsulating urban traffic rhythms into road networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  13. Amino Acid Transport Associated to Cluster of Differentiation 98 Heavy Chain (CD98hc) Is at the Cross-road of Oxidative Stress and Amino Acid Availability.

    PubMed

    de la Ballina, Laura R; Cano-Crespo, Sara; González-Muñoz, Elena; Bial, Susanna; Estrach, Soline; Cailleteau, Laurence; Tissot, Floriane; Daniel, Hannelore; Zorzano, Antonio; Ginsberg, Mark H; Palacín, Manuel; Féral, Chloé C

    2016-04-29

    CD98hc functions as an amino acid (AA) transporter (together with another subunit) and integrin signaling enhancer. It is overexpressed in highly proliferative cells in both physiological and pathological conditions. CD98hc deletion induces strong impairment of cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro Here, we investigate CD98hc-associated AA transport in cell survival and proliferation. By using chimeric versions of CD98hc, the two functions of the protein can be uncoupled. Although recovering the CD98hc AA transport capacity restores the in vivo and in vitro proliferation of CD98hc-null cells, reconstitution of the integrin signaling function of CD98hc is unable to restore in vitro proliferation of those cells. CD98hc-associated transporters (i.e. xCT, LAT1, and y(+)LAT2 in wild-type cells) are crucial to control reactive oxygen species and intracellular AA levels, thus sustaining cell survival and proliferation. Moreover, in CD98hc-null cells the deficiency of CD98hc/xCT cannot be compensated, leading to cell death by ferroptosis. Supplementation of culture media with β-mercaptoethanol rescues CD98hc-deficient cell survival. Under such conditions null cells show oxidative stress and intracellular AA imbalance and, consequently, limited proliferation. CD98hc-null cells also present reduced intracellular levels of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and ARO AAs, respectively) and induced expression of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Interestingly, external supply of dipeptides containing BCAAs and ARO AAs rescues cell proliferation and compensates for impaired uptake of CD98hc/LAT1 and CD98hc/y(+)LAT2. Our data establish CD98hc as a master protective gene at the cross-road of redox control and AA availability, making it a relevant therapeutic target in cancer. PMID:26945935

  14. Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    2001-08-30

    Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NO{sub x} emissions from transportation may increase.

  15. GHG Emissions and Costs of Developing Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Implications on Energy Security in the Transportation and Electricity Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 48% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This study addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from land use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270 - 530 g and 120 -190 g CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 to 85 g CO2-eq per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. Fossil fuels contributed about 93% to Malaysia's electricity generation mix and emit about 65 million tonnes (Mt) or 36% of the country's 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has set a target to install 330 MW biomass electricity by 2015, which is hoped to avoid 1.3 Mt of GHG emissions annually. The availability of seven types of biomass residues in Peninsular Malaysia is estimated based on residues-to-product ratio, recoverability and accessibility factor and other competing uses. It was found that there are approximately 12.2 Mt/yr of residues. Oil-palm residues contribute about 77% to the total availability with rice and forestry residues at 17%. Electricity from biomass can be produced via direct combustion in dedicated power plants or co-fired with coal. The co-firing of the residues at four existing coal plants in

  16. Road Salt Accumulation in Highway Snow Banks and Transport Through the Unsaturated Zone of the Oak Ridges Moraine, Southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labadia, C. F.; Buttle, J. M.

    1996-12-01

    Pathways and fate of road deicing salt (NaCl) applied during the 1994-1995 winter were studied for a 14-km section of a major highway that crosses the Oak Ridges Moraine in southern Ontario. Total salt applications over the winter ranged from 29 to 74 kg m-1 of highway, and NaCl concentrations in snow banks adjacent to the roadway reached 9400 mg l-1 during the later stages of snow cover development. This salt was released to the ground surface during snowmelt. Sodium chloride (NaCl) loadings to soil from snow cover during the final melt phase were relatively uniform along the study section (3-5 kg NaCl m-1 of highway). However, the snowpack at all transects retained <50% of applied NaCl, and this shortfall probably reflected direct runoff and infiltration of saline meltwater from the road surface into the adjacent shoulder and right-of-way. Cation exchange with Ca2+ in near-surface soils most likely resulted in preferential retention of Na+ relative to Cl-, although total storage of NaCl in upper soil horizons by winter's end was <15% of deicing salt applications. An environmental tracer (18O) was used to trace movement of saline meltwater through the unsaturated zone underlying the highway. Average meltwater particle velocities at a site underlain by loam soils were 0.02 m d-1, and ca. 280 mm of water was displaced below a depth of 1.86 m over a 78-day period in the spring and summer of 1995. Sodium ion and chloride ion concentrations in water sampled in late summer 1995 at depths >2 m exceeded 500 mg l-1 and 1000 mg l-1, respectively. Approximately 75% of the net flux of NaCl below the upper soil was retained in the 0-2.8 m depth interval at this site, and results from more permeable soils traversed by the highway indicate an even greater penetration of the annual NaCl application into the unsaturated zone along the moraine. This saline water likely recharges groundwater in this portion of the Oak Ridges Moraine.

  17. Road Rage

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators. PMID:20805914

  18. Road transportation affects blood hormone levels and lymphocyte glucocorticoid and beta-adrenergic receptor concentrations in calves.

    PubMed

    Odore, R; D'Angelo, A; Badino, P; Bellino, C; Pagliasso, S; Re, G

    2004-11-01

    The effect of transportation on blood cortisol and catecholamine levels, lymphocyte glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) concentrations was investigated in calves. Blood samples were collected from 24 six-month-old calves before departure (T(0)), on arrival (T(1)), and at 24 h (T(2)) and one week (T(3)) after arrival. Animals were loaded and transported about 950 km, from the Midy-Pyrenes region (Cahors, France) to the Piedmont region (Italy), over a total of 14 h. Serum cortisol levels and plasma catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Lymphocyte GRs and beta-ARs were measured through binding assays. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in cortisol and catecholamine concentrations was observed immediately after transport. The increase in hormone levels at time T(1) was negatively correlated with lymphocyte GR and beta-AR concentrations. At times T(2) and T(3), blood cortisol and catecholamine levels and lymphocyte GRs and beta-ARs returned to normal. The results demonstrate the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the catecholaminergic system in long-term transported calves. However, these systems returned to normal within 24 h after the end of transport. PMID:15501147

  19. Road traffic injuries in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Deysi Yasmin; Fernández, Francisco José; Acero Velásquez, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading public health problem in Colombia. Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, especially in the main urban centers of Bogotá, Medellin and Cali. Data analyzed in this report include official statistics from the National Police and the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences for 1996-2000, and results of a study conducted at the National University of Colombia in 2000. Methods from the Highway Capacity Manual were used for determining physical and technical variables, and a Geographical Information System tool was used for the location and spatial analysis of the road traffic crashes. Pedestrians accounted for close to 32% of injuries and 40% of the deaths from road traffic crashes. The problem of road traffic crashes existed predominately in urban areas. In the main urban centers, pedestrians constituted nearly 68% of road traffic crash victims. The high level of risky road use behaviors demonstrated by pedestrians and drivers, and inadequate infrastructure for safe mobility of pedestrians in some sections of the road network were the main contributing factors. Major improvements were achieved in Bogotá following enhancements to the municipal transport system and other policies introduced since 1995. In conclusion, policies and programs for improving road safety, in particular pedestrian safety, and strengthening urban planning are top priority. PMID:12772483

  20. Optimizing U.S. mitigation strategies for the light-duty transportation sector: what we learn from a bottom-up model.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sonia; Farrell, Alex; Plevin, Richard; Sanstad, Alan; Weyant, John

    2008-11-15

    Few integrated analysis models examine significant U.S. transportation greenhouse gas emission reductions within an integrated energy system. Our analysis, using a bottom-up MARKet ALocation (MARKAL) model, found that stringent system-wide CO2 reduction targets will be required to achieve significant CO2 reductions from the transportation sector. Mitigating transportation emission reductions can result in significant changes in personal vehicle technologies, increases in vehicle fuel efficiency, and decreases in overall transportation fuel use. We analyze policy-oriented mitigation strategies and suggest that mitigation policies should be informed by the transitional nature of technology adoptions and the interactions between the mitigation strategies, and the robustness of mitigation strategies to long-term reduction goals, input assumptions, and policy and social factors. More research is needed to help identify robust policies that will achieve the best outcome in the face of uncertainties. PMID:19068795

  1. New evidence of dayside plasma transportation over the polar cap to the prevailing dawn sector in the polar upper atmosphere for solar-maximum winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sheng-Gao; Zhang, Bei-Chen; Fang, Han-Xian; Kamide, Y.; Li, Chong-Yin; Liu, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Shun-Rong; Liu, Rui-Yuan; Zhang, Qing-He; Hu, Hong-Qiao

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that owing to the transport of high-density sunlit plasma from dayside to nightside primarily by convection, polar cap tongue of ionization (TOI), polar cap patches, and blobs are common features in the polar ionosphere. The steep density gradients at the edges of these structures lead to severe problems in applications involving radio waves traversing the ionosphere. To better understand the evolution of TOI/patches/blobs, it is essential to examine how the transported sunlit plasma is distributed. Through averaging the hourly total electron content in solar-maximum winter, we present complete distribution of polar ionospheric plasma and find that the dayside plasma can be transported through cusp, over polar cap, and eventually to the prevailing dawnside, showing asymmetric distribution around magnetic midnight. The negative interplanetary magnetic field By or Bz component is favored for the plasma transportation from dayside to the prevailing dawn sector. This provides direct evidence for the plasma source of the dawnside high-density plasma structure. The same corotating convection direction as convection at auroral dawnside is responsible for the prevailing dawn sector transportation. This finding is significant for forecasting TOI/patches/blobs in conducting space weather in the polar ionosphere.

  2. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a person shall not drive a commercial motor vehicle unless he/she has first successfully completed a...

  3. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a person shall not drive a commercial motor vehicle unless he/she has first successfully completed a...

  4. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a person shall not drive a commercial motor vehicle unless he/she has first successfully completed a...

  5. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a person shall not drive a commercial motor vehicle unless he/she has first successfully completed a...

  6. Distributed road assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  7. Elements in Mud and Snow in the Vicinity of the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Red Dog Mine, and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William J.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    A small number of mud, road bed soil, and snow samples were collected in 2005 and 2006 to assess metal concentrations and loadings to areas adjacent to the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) road in northwest Alaska. The DMTS road is used by large trucks to transport lead and zinc concentrates from Red Dog Mine to the shipping facility at Red Dog Port; it traverses 32 kilometers of land in Cape Krusenstern National Monument (CAKR). Mud collected in the summer of 2005 from wheel-wells of two passenger vehicles used for transport between Red Dog Mine and the port facility were enriched in cadmium, lead, and zinc by factors of about 200 to 800 as compared with mud collected from a vehicle stationed in Kotzebue, Alaska, whereas DMTS road bed soil samples were enriched by factors of 6 to 12. Thus, as of 2005, dispersal of mine ore wastes or concentrates by vehicles appeared to remain a potential source of metals along the DMTS road. Compared to snow samples obtained near a gravel road located near Kotzebue, Alaska, metal loadings estimated from individual snow samples collected in CAKR in April 2006 near three creeks, 13 to 50 meters from the road, were greater by factors of 13 to 316 for cadmium, 28 to 589 for lead, and 8 to 195 for zinc. When averaged for all three creek locations, mean loadings of cadmium, lead, and zinc calculated from snow samples collected at a nominal distance of 15 meters to the north of the road were 0.63, 34, and 89 milligrams of metal per square meter, respectively. Variability of particulate and metal loadings between individual samples and the three creek locations probably was affected by localized meteorological conditions and micro-topography on the snow drift and scour patterns, but road orientation on attainable truck speeds also might have been a factor. Results indicated that the ?port effect?, previously attributed to fugitive metal-enriched dusts stemming from concentrate transfer operations at the port facility

  8. 76 FR 29290 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Corridor, Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge... Transportation for potential transportation improvements along the Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel... Bridge Tunnel (HRBT) corridor in Virginia. The approximate limits of the study are from the...

  9. A new transport phenomenon in nanostructures: a mesoscopic analog of the Braess paradox encountered in road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pala, Marco; Sellier, Hermann; Hackens, Benoit; Martins, Frederico; Bayot, Vincent; Huant, Serge

    2012-08-01

    The Braess paradox, known for traffic and other classical networks, lies in the fact that adding a new route to a congested network in an attempt to relieve congestion can degrade counterintuitively the overall network performance. Recently, we have extended the concept of the Braess paradox to semiconductor mesoscopic networks, whose transport properties are governed by quantum physics. In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically that, alike in classical systems, congestion plays a key role in the occurrence of a Braess paradox in mesoscopic networks.

  10. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must...

  11. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must...

  12. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must...

  13. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must...

  14. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must...

  15. Risk Factors, Health Behaviors, and Injury Among Adults Employed in the Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities Super Sector

    PubMed Central

    Helmkamp, James C.; Lincoln, Jennifer E.; Sestito, John; Wood, Eric; Birdsey, Jan; Kiefer, Max

    2015-01-01

    Background The TWU super sector is engaged in the movement of passengers and cargo, warehousing of goods, and the delivery of services. The purpose of this study is to describe employee self-reported personal risk factors, health behaviors and habits, disease and chronic conditions, and employer-reported nonfatal injury experiences of workers in the TWU super sector. Methods National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 1997–2007, grouped into six morbidity and disability categories and three age groups, were reviewed. Demographic characteristics and prevalence estimates are reported for workers in the TWU super sector and the entire U.S. workforce, and compared with national adult population data from the NHIS. Bureau of Labor Statistics employer-reported TWU injury data from 2003 to 2007 was also reviewed. Results An average of 8.3 million workers were employed annually in the TWU super sector. TWU workers 65 or older reported the highest prevalence of hypertension (49%) across all industry sectors, but the 20% prevalence is notable among middle age workers (25–64). TWU workers had the highest prevalence of obesity (28%), compared to workers in all other industry sectors. Female TWU workers experienced the highest number of lost workdays (6.5) in the past year across all TWU demographic groups. Conclusions Self-reported high proportions of chronic conditions including hypertension and heart disease combined with elevated levels of being overweight and obese, and lack of physical activity—particularly among TWUs oldest workers—can meaningfully inform wellness strategies and interventions focused on this demographic group. PMID:23255331

  16. Combined effects of compact cevelopment, transportation investments, and road user pricing on vehicle miles traveled in urbanized areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Gallivan, Frank; Nelson, Arthur C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is the primary determinant of traffic congestion, vehicle crashes, greenhouse gas emissions, and other effects of transportation. Two previous studies have sought to explain VMT levels in urbanized areas. This study updates and expands on previous work with more recent data, additional metrics, and structural equation modeling (SEM) to explain VMT levels in 315 urbanized areas. According to SEM, population, income, and gasoline prices are primary exogenous drivers of VMT. Development density is a primary endogenous driver. Urbanized areas with more freeway capacity are significantly less dense and have significantly higher VMT per capita. Areas with more transit service coverage and service frequency have higher development densities and per capita transit use, which leads to lower VMT per capita. The indirect effect of transit on VMT through land use, the so-called land use multiplier, is more than three times greater than the direct effect through transit ridership.

  17. Celtic Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

  18. 3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. 1935. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Wire Mill Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  19. 1. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW OF ROUND HILL ROAD BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW OF ROUND HILL ROAD BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST, CA. 1940. CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Round Hill Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway at 3.5 mile mark, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  20. A long and winding road: Skeletonema sp transport by Northern Adriatic Dense Waters to the Southern Adriatic Pit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Bernardy Aubry, Fabrizio; Barbariol, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Andrea; Boldrin, Alfredo; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Finotto, Stefania; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The semi enclosed Adriatic Sea is a sub basin of the Mediterranean Sea located in its northeastern part; it has a shallow northern part (average depth of 40 m) and a deep Southern Adriatic Pit (SAP) that reaches 1200m. The presence of a wide continental shelf exposed to strong heat and momentum fluxes during winter months makes the Northern Adriatic a formation site of dense waters, generally referred to as Northern Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW). Once produced, it moves south as a quasi-geostrophically adjusted vein , flowing along the Italian coast and enters the SAP giving origin to descent and cascading dense shelf water bringing into the deep layers oxygen, nutrients and organic compound. In February 2012 a long and intense cold air outbreak, with strong Bora winds, interested the northern part of the Adriatic sea causing a drop in water temperature to less than 6 °C and an increase in density to values as high as 1030.2 kg/m3 (likely the maximum values since 1929). This resulted in a massive production of NAdDW. In order to study the behavior of the NAdDW vein, a rapid response 2 legs cruise (ODW2012) was organized in the southern Adriatic. During the cruise, along with physical and chemical measurements, water and phytoplankton samples were collected at different depths. Usual abundance and distribution with a general decrease in phytoplankton abundance from the surface to the bottom were found in all stations with one exception. The bottom sample of a station located roughly 40 km at 120 m depth in front of Gargano showed a significantly high dominance (40%) of the small diatom Skeletonema sp whose flowering is typical in the surface waters of the northern Adriatic in late winter. The physical parameters of the water column showed signs of the passage of the dense water vein (lower temperature and higher dissolved oxygen concentrations) hence it was hypothesized that those diatoms were actively transported by the NAdDW near-bottom stream. A further

  1. Simulation of hypothetical Asian carp egg and larvae development and transport in the Lockport, Brandon Road, Dresden Island, and Marseilles Pools of the Illinois Waterway by use of the Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Duncker, James J.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting an assessment of the vulnerability of the Chicago Area Waterway System and Des Plaines River to Asian carp (specifically, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp) and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)) spawning and recruitment. As part of this assessment, the USACE requested the help of the U.S. Geological Survey in predicting the fate and transport of Asian carp eggs hypothetically spawned at the electric dispersal barrier on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and downstream of the Brandon Road Lock and Dam on the Des Plaines River under dry weather flow and high water temperature conditions. The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model predicted that approximately 80 percent of silver carp eggs spawned near the electric dispersal barrier would hatch within the Lockport and Brandon Road pools (as close as 3.6 miles downstream of the barrier) and approximately 82 percent of the silver carp eggs spawned near the Brandon Road Dam would hatch in the Des Plaines River (as close as 1.6 miles downstream from the gates of Brandon Road Lock). Extension of the FluEgg model to include the fate and transport of larvae until gas bladder inflation—the point at which the larvae begin to leave the drift—suggests that eggs spawned at the electric dispersal barrier would reach the gas bladder inflation stage primarily within the Dresden Island Pool, and those spawned at the Brandon Road Dam would reach this stage primarily within the Marseilles and Starved Rock Pools.

  2. Design of dual-road transportable portal monitoring system for visible light and gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnowski, Thomas P.; Cunningham, Mark F.; Goddard, James S.; Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Hornback, Donald E.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Kerekes, Ryan A.; Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Bradley, E. Craig; Chesser, J.; Marchant, W.

    2010-04-01

    The use of radiation sensors as portal monitors is increasing due to heightened concerns over the smuggling of fissile material. Transportable systems that can detect significant quantities of fissile material that might be present in vehicular traffic are of particular interest, especially if they can be rapidly deployed to different locations. To serve this application, we have constructed a rapid-deployment portal monitor that uses visible-light and gamma-ray imaging to allow simultaneous monitoring of multiple lanes of traffic from the side of a roadway. The system operation uses machine vision methods on the visible-light images to detect vehicles as they enter and exit the field of view and to measure their position in each frame. The visible-light and gamma-ray cameras are synchronized which allows the gamma-ray imager to harvest gamma-ray data specific to each vehicle, integrating its radiation signature for the entire time that it is in the field of view. Thus our system creates vehicle-specific radiation signatures and avoids source confusion problems that plague non-imaging approaches to the same problem. Our current prototype instrument was designed for measurement of upto five lanes of freeway traffic with a pair of instruments, one on either side of the roadway. Stereoscopic cameras are used with a third "alignment" camera for motion compensation and are mounted on a 50' deployable mast. In this paper we discuss the design considerations for the machine-vision system, the algorithms used for vehicle detection and position estimates, and the overall architecture of the system. We also discuss system calibration for rapid deployment. We conclude with notes on preliminary performance and deployment.

  3. Design of Dual-Road Transportable Portal Monitoring System for Visible Light and Gamma-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Cunningham, Mark F; Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Hornback, Donald Eric; Fabris, Lorenzo; Kerekes, Ryan A; Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Bradley, Eric Craig; Chesser, Joel B; Marchant, William

    2010-01-01

    The use of radiation sensors as portal monitors is increasing due to heightened concerns over the smuggling of fissile material. Transportable systems that can detect significant quantities of fissile material that might be present in vehicular traffic are of particular interest, especially if they can be rapidly deployed to different locations. To serve this application, we have constructed a rapid-deployment portal monitor that uses visible-light and gamma-ray imaging to allow simultaneous monitoring of multiple lanes of traffic from the side of a roadway. The system operation uses machine vision methods on the visible-light images to detect vehicles as they enter and exit the field of view and to measure their position in each frame. The visible-light and gamma-ray cameras are synchronized which allows the gamma-ray imager to harvest gamma-ray data specific to each vehicle, integrating its radiation signature for the entire time that it is in the field of view. Thus our system creates vehicle-specific radiation signatures and avoids source confusion problems that plague non-imaging approaches to the same problem. Our current prototype instrument was designed for measurement of upto five lanes of freeway traffic with a pair of instruments, one on either side of the roadway. Stereoscopic cameras are used with a third alignment camera for motion compensation and are mounted on a 50 deployable mast. In this paper we discuss the design considerations for the machine-vision system, the algorithms used for vehicle detection and position estimates, and the overall architecture of the system. We also discuss system calibration for rapid deployment. We conclude with notes on preliminary performance and deployment.

  4. General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage Tank is at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Water Storage Plant, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  5. General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage Tank is at right, Receiver Building in center, and Communications Antennas at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  6. Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank to right, Receiver Building to left, antenna array in background - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Five Water Storage Tank, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  7. Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage Tank in center behind fence, in front of Receiver Building - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  8. General view of Sector Four Compound, looking north. Antenna Array ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Four Compound, looking north. Antenna Array is in background, behind Communications Antennas, Receiver Building, and Water Storage Tank - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Antenna Array, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  9. Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Dalziel, Stuart; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The tendency of unpaved road surfaces to develop lateral ripples (``washboard'' or ``corrugated'' road) is annoyingly familiar to drivers on dry gravel roads. Similar ripples are well known on railroad tracks and many other rolling or sliding, load bearing surfaces. Our approach combined laboratory experiments, soft-particle direct numerical simulations and simple nonlinear dynamics models. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table and the details of the suspension of the wheel. The onset of the ripple pattern exhibits a sharp threshold and was strongly subcritical with a large hysteresis as a function of the speed of the table. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples move slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by a 2D soft particle simulations. The simulations clearly indicate that neither compaction nor particle size segregation are crucial for the appearance of the ripples, and we present a simple model to describe the wavelength and amplitude of the ripples.

  10. Simulator of Road Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danišovič, Peter; Schlosser, František; Šrámek, Juraj; Rázga, Martin

    2015-05-01

    A Tunnel Traffic & Operation Simulator is a device of the Centre of Transport Research at the University of Žilina. The Simulator allows managing technological equipment of virtual two-tube highway tunnel, which is interconnected with simulation of vehicle traffic in tunnel. Changes of the traffic-operation states and other equipment are reflecting at the simulated traffic, as well as simulations of various emergency events in traffic initiate changes in tunnel detecting and measuring devices. It is thus possible to simulate emergency states, which can be affected by various faults of technology as well as by climatic conditions. The solutions can be found in irreplaceable experiences of Slovak road tunnel operators, changes of trafficoperation states, visualizations of operator technological display screens, technological devices labelling in order to increase operational safety of road tunnels.

  11. Influences of land-ocean-atmosphere dynamics and emissions sectors on atmospheric chemical transport during VOCALS REx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spak, S.; Mena, M.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2009-12-01

    Measurements and modeling from the VOCALS REx campaign have identified a range of transport regimes based on synoptic meteorology, and suggested roles for the marine boundary layer inversion, downslope katabatic winds from the Andean cordillera, and Hadley cell subsidence as primary causes for observed aerosol and trace gas concentration gradients over the Southeast Pacific. This study employs atmospheric chemical transport modeling and airmass trajectory analyses to more directly address the influence of orographic winds, boundary layer dynamics, coastal circulations, and large-scale circulation by the subtropical high on the diurnal and episodic variability of pollution transport in the region. Using hourly simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the STEM chemical transport model at 12 km x 12 km resolution, we introduce tracer emissions within and above the boundary layer at representative locations--including the western slopes of the Andes, on-shore and off-shore coastal areas, metropolitan Santiago, the Chilean altiplano, and the free troposphere over the open ocean--and follow their transport and fate throughout the REx experiment of October-November 2008. Comparison between trajectories and tracer concentrations illustrate long range airmass history and allow for an understanding of the representativeness of instantaneous trajectories on transport phenomena. We further assess the contributions of emissions from power generation, copper smelters, natural sources, and anthropogenic area sources to aerosol concentrations over the Southeast Pacific, identifying their role in each transport regime.

  12. Cross-sectional study assessing HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior in the Namibian truck transport sector: Readjusting HIV prevention programs in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Kiderlen, Til R; Conteh, Michael; Roll, Stephanie; Seeling, Stefanie; Weinmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the current status of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior (KAB) of employees in the private transport sector in Namibia and to compare companies with established HIV workplace program (WPPs) with those that have recently initiated the implementation of such programs. The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. Between January and March 2011, the survey was conducted in the Namibian truck transport sector in six companies of different sizes. The participants were selected randomly from the workforce. Data collection was based on a KAB questionnaire. The range of correct answers to the survey concerning the knowledge of HIV transmission was 67-95%. Twenty percent of the employees had never been tested for HIV. Additionally, risky sexual behaviors were quite prevalent and included having multiple concurrent partners and the use of sex for incentives. This study revealed that drivers and laborers were especially at risk for such behaviors. The employees of companies with established WPPs were tested for HIV more often than those of companies with new WPPs; however, aside from this difference, only minor differences were observed between the two groups. The findings of this study highlight the need for on-going HIV information and prevention campaigns that focus on the special needs of mobile and low-income workers. WPPs should be tailored accordingly and shift their focus to more practical approaches, such as voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), to increase their effectiveness. PMID:25805432

  13. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program...

  14. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  15. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  16. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  17. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  18. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  19. Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part II: Attribution of PM2.5 exposure to emissions species, time, location and sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedoussi, Irene C.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2014-12-01

    Combustion emissions constitute the largest source of anthropogenic emissions in the US, and lead to the degradation of air quality and human health. In Part I we computed the population fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and number of early deaths caused by emissions from six major sectors: electric power generation, industry, commercial and residential activities, road transportation, marine transportation and rail transportation. In Part II we attribute exposure and early deaths to sectors, emissions species, time of emission, and location of emission. We apply a long-term adjoint sensitivity analysis and calculate the four dimensional sensitivities (time and space) of PM2.5 exposure with respect to each emissions species. Epidemiological evidence is used to relate increased population exposure to premature mortalities. This is the first regional application of the adjoint sensitivity analysis method to characterize long-term air pollution exposure. (A global scale application has been undertaken related to intercontinental pollution.) We find that for the electric power generation sector 75% of the attributable PM2.5 exposure is due to SO2 emissions, and 80% of the annual impacts are attributed to emissions from April to September. In the road transportation sector, 29% of PM2.5 exposure is due to NOx emissions and 33% is from ammonia (NH3), which is a result of emissions after-treatment technologies. We estimate that the benefit of reducing NH3 emissions from road transportation is ∼20 times that of NOx per unit mass. 75% of the road transportation ammonia impacts occur during the months October to March. We publicly release the sensitivity matrices computed, noting their potential use as a rapid air quality policy assessment tool.

  20. A suite of tools for monitoring and assessing impacts of road networks and off-road vehicle activity on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite increasing amounts of transportation related activities on rangelands globally, few tools exist for assessing and monitoring impacts of roads, road networks and off-road vehicle traffic. This is in part due to an historical emphasis on grazing issues in rangelands and the complexity of monit...

  1. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Land transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uherek, Elmar; Halenka, Tomas; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Balkanski, Yves; Berntsen, Terje; Borrego, Carlos; Gauss, Michael; Hoor, Peter; Juda-Rezler, Katarzyna; Lelieveld, Jos; Melas, Dimitrios; Rypdal, Kristin; Schmid, Stephan

    2010-12-01

    Emissions from land transport, and from road transport in particular, have significant impacts on the atmosphere and on climate change. This assessment gives an overview of past, present and future emissions from land transport, of their impacts on the atmospheric composition and air quality, on human health and climate change and on options for mitigation. In the past vehicle exhaust emission control has successfully reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and particulate matter. This contributed to improved air quality and reduced health impacts in industrialised countries. In developing countries however, pollutant emissions have been growing strongly, adversely affecting many populations. In addition, ozone and particulate matter change the radiative balance and hence contribute to global warming on shorter time scales. Latest knowledge on the magnitude of land transport's impact on global warming is reviewed here. In the future, road transport's emissions of these pollutants are expected to stagnate and then decrease globally. This will then help to improve the air quality notably in developing countries. On the contrary, emissions of carbon dioxide and of halocarbons from mobile air conditioners have been globally increasing and are further expected to grow. Consequently, road transport's impact on climate is gaining in importance. The expected efficiency improvements of vehicles and the introduction of biofuels will not be sufficient to offset the expected strong growth in both, passenger and freight transportation. Technical measures could offer a significant reduction potential, but strong interventions would be needed as markets do not initiate the necessary changes. Further reductions would need a resolute expansion of low-carbon fuels, a tripling of vehicle fuel efficiency and a stagnation in absolute transport volumes. Land transport will remain a key sector in climate change mitigation during the next decades.

  2. Vulnerability Analysis and Evaluation of Urban Road System in Tianjin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. Q.; Wu, X.

    In recent years, with the development of economy, the road construction of our country has entered into a period of rapid growth. The road transportation network has been expanding and the risk of disasters is increasing. In this paper we study the vulnerability of urban road system in Tianjin. After analyzed many risk factors of the urban road system security, including road construction, road traffic and the natural environment, we proposed an evaluation index of vulnerability of urban road system and established the corresponding evaluation index system. Based on the results of analysis and comprehensive evaluation, appropriate improvement measures and suggestions which may reduce the vulnerability of the road system and improve the safety and reliability of the road system are proposed.

  3. Present and future impact of aircraft, road traffic and shipping emissions on global tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, B.; Szopa, S.; Cozic, A.; Hauglustaine, D.; van Velthoven, P.

    2010-06-01

    In this study, the LMDz-INCA climate-chemistry model and up-to-date global emission inventories are used to investigate the "present" (2000) and future (2050) impacts of transport emissions (road traffic, shipping and aircraft) on global tropospheric ozone. For the first time, both impacts of emissions and climate changes on transport-induced ozone are investigated. The 2000 transport emissions are shown to mainly affect ozone in the Northern Hemisphere, with a maximum increase of the tropospheric column of up to 5 DU, from the South-Eastern US to Central Europe. The impact is dominated by road traffic in the middle and upper troposphere, north of 40° S, and by shipping in the northern lower troposphere, over oceanic regions. A strong reduction of road emissions and amoderate (B1 scenario) to high (A1B scenario) increase of the ship and aircraft emissions are expected by the year 2050. As a consequence, LMDz-INCA simulations predict a drastic decrease in the impact of road emissions, whereas aviation would become the major transport perturbation on tropospheric ozone, even in the case of avery optimistic aircraft mitigation scenario. The A1B emission scenario leads to an increase of the impact of transport on zonal mean ozone concentrations in 2050 by up to +30% and +50%, in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively. Despite asimilar total amount of global NOx emissions by the various transport sectors compared to 2000, the overall impact on the tropospheric ozone column is increased everywhere in 2050, due to a sectoral shift in the emissions of the respective transport modes. On the opposite, the B1 mitigation scenario leads to asignificant reduction (by roughly 50%) of the ozone perturbation throughout the troposphere compared to 2000. Considering climate change, and according to scenario A1B, a decrease of the O3 tropospheric burden is simulated by 2050 due to climate change (-1.2%), whereas an increase of ozone of up to 2% is calculated in the upper

  4. Present and future impact of aircraft, road traffic and shipping emissions on global tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, B.; Szopa, S.; Cozic, A.; Hauglustaine, D.; van Velthoven, P.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the LMDz-INCA climate-chemistry model and up-to-date global emission inventories are used to investigate the "present" (2000) and future (2050) impacts of transport emissions (road traffic, shipping and aircraft) on global tropospheric ozone. For the first time, both impacts of emissions and climate changes on transport-induced ozone are investigated. The 2000 transport emissions are shown to mainly affect ozone in the Northern Hemisphere, with a maximum increase of the tropospheric column of up to 5 DU, from the South-eastern US to Central Europe. The impact is dominated by road traffic in the middle and upper troposphere, North of 40° S, and by shipping in the northern lower troposphere, over oceanic regions. A strong reduction of road emissions and a moderate (B1 scenario) to high (A1B scenario) increase of the ship and aircraft emissions are projected by the year 2050. As a consequence, LMDz-INCA simulations predict a drastic decrease in the impact of road emissions, whereas aviation would become the major transport perturbation on tropospheric ozone, even in the case of a very optimistic aircraft mitigation scenario. The A1B emission scenario leads to an increase of the impact of transport on zonal mean ozone concentrations in 2050 by up to +30% and +50%, in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively. Despite a similar total amount of global NOx emissions by the various transport sectors compared to 2000, the overall impact on the tropospheric ozone column is increased everywhere in 2050, due to a sectoral shift in the emissions of the respective transport modes. On the opposite, the B1 mitigation scenario leads to a significant reduction (by roughly 50%) of the ozone perturbation throughout the troposphere compared to 2000. Considering climate change, and according to scenario A1B, a decrease of the O3 tropospheric burden is simulated by 2050 due to climate change (-1.2%), whereas an increase of ozone of up to 2% is calculated in the

  5. 77 FR 21577 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Road Vehicle Certification for Transport Under Customs Seal AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... collection requirement concerning the Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. This...: Title: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. OMB Number: 1651-0124....

  6. Structural model of the transmembrane Fo rotary sector of H+-transporting ATP synthase derived by solution NMR and intersubunit cross-linking in situ.

    PubMed

    Fillingame, Robert H; Dmitriev, Oleg Y

    2002-10-11

    H(+)-transporting, F(1)F(o)-type ATP synthases utilize a transmembrane H(+) potential to drive ATP formation by a rotary catalytic mechanism. ATP is formed in alternating beta subunits of the extramembranous F(1) sector of the enzyme, synthesis being driven by rotation of the gamma subunit in the center of the F(1) molecule between the alternating catalytic sites. The H(+) electrochemical potential is thought to drive gamma subunit rotation by first coupling H(+) transport to rotation of an oligomeric rotor of c subunits within the transmembrane F(o) sector. The gamma subunit is forced to turn with the c-oligomeric rotor due to connections between subunit c and the gamma and epsilon subunits of F(1). In this essay we will review recent studies on the Escherichia coli F(o) sector. The monomeric structure of subunit c, determined by NMR, shows that subunit c folds in a helical hairpin with the proton carrying Asp(61) centered in the second transmembrane helix (TMH). A model for the structural organization of the c(10) oligomer in F(o) was deduced from extensive cross-linking studies and by molecular modeling. The model indicates that the H(+)-carrying carboxyl of subunit c is occluded between neighboring subunits of the c(10) oligomer and that two c subunits pack in a "front-to-back" manner to form the H(+) (cation) binding site. In order for protons to gain access to Asp(61) during the protonation/deprotonation cycle, we propose that the outer, Asp(61)-bearing TMH-2s of the c-ring and TMHs from subunits composing the inlet and outlet channels must turn relative to each other, and that the swiveling motion associated with Asp(61) protonation/deprotonation drives the rotation of the c-ring. The NMR structures of wild-type subunit c differs according to the protonation state of Asp(61). The idea that the conformational state of subunit c changes during the catalytic cycle is supported by the cross-linking evidence in situ, and two recent NMR structures of functional

  7. China takes to the roads.

    PubMed

    Roberts, I

    1995-05-20

    China is undergoing rapid motorisation--motor vehicle registrations are growing at a rate of 10%-20% a year. Road trauma is already a major public health problem, and road deaths, officially estimated to be around 50,000 a year, will almost certainly rise with increasing motorisation. China, with its millions of bicycles, currently has one of the most environmentally friendly transportation systems on the planet. However, as the trend towards car travel continues, the problems of congestion and environmental pollution so evident in the West will also become critical public health issues in China. PMID:7773048

  8. Assessment of Metals Exposure and Sub-Lethal Effects in Voles and Small Birds Captured Near the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Mora, Miguel A.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Voles (n=6) and small ground-nesting birds (n=12) were live-captured near the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska in 2006 to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, blood analysis, and analysis for aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about 3 times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site. Barium and zinc tissue concentrations of animals collected from different sites were not remarkably different, and aluminum concentrations were below the reporting limits in most samples. There was no clear evidence of serious sub-lethal biological effects such as lesions in internal organs or DNA damage in blood in any of the animals. Accordingly, blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road generally were less than tissue concentration thresholds associated with serious biological effects reported from other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for those animals nearest the haul road. Notably, liver lead concentrations of voles and small birds at the reference location were considerably less than those previously reported for similar animals at reference sites in other parts of the United States, Canada, and Europe. Results from this reconnaissance-level study indicate that voles and small birds inhabiting this area are not suffering serious biological effects as a result of metals exposure; however, continued monitoring of lead and other metals is

  9. Road manslaughter-or just the cost of progress?

    PubMed

    Mooren, L; Grzebieta, R

    2010-01-01

    Much to the frustration of road safety researchers, practitioners, and advocates, road deaths and injuries have not been widely accepted as a major public health threat. Currently, road trauma is one of the biggest killers and causes of serious and disabling injuries in the world. Although there has been considerable research on the causes of road injury and ways of mitigating the problem, there is still reluctance to systematically and sufficiently do what can be done to reduce this problem globally. This paper takes a historical review of the road trauma problem and responses to it. In examining developments in road transport and road injury, it is clear that the main impediment to reducing road deaths and injury has been a misguided preference of economic advancement over public health risk management. It is misguided because road trauma has impeded and does still impede the capacity of economies to develop. The challenge for societies now is to look at this false dichotomy-that of road development and motorisation versus road safety-and begin to make the right choices in favour of human society advancement through the development and management of safe road-traffic systems. A new 'Safe Systems' approach is emerging in Australia and spreading globally as a guiding principle for road safety. The evolution of this approach is traced and illustrated in this article. The need for finding ways to engender a stronger global political commitment to road safety is demonstrated. PMID:22460394

  10. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.803 What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.16 - Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48... Structures § 1242.16 Road property damaged—other (account XX-19-48). Separate common expenses in proportion... accounts: Road Property Damaged—Running (XX-17-48) Road Property Damaged—Switching (XX-18-48)...

  12. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.803 What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.16 - Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48... Structures § 1242.16 Road property damaged—other (account XX-19-48). Separate common expenses in proportion... accounts: Road Property Damaged—Running (XX-17-48) Road Property Damaged—Switching (XX-18-48)...

  14. 36 CFR 223.38 - Standards for road design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for road design and... Provisions § 223.38 Standards for road design and construction. Road construction authorized under timber... transportation, and impacts on land and resources. If the sale contract provides for road design standards...

  15. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.803 What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are...

  16. 49 CFR 1242.16 - Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48... Structures § 1242.16 Road property damaged—other (account XX-19-48). Separate common expenses in proportion... accounts: Road Property Damaged—Running (XX-17-48) Road Property Damaged—Switching (XX-18-48)...

  17. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.803 What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are...

  18. 49 CFR 1242.16 - Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48... Structures § 1242.16 Road property damaged—other (account XX-19-48). Separate common expenses in proportion... accounts: Road Property Damaged—Running (XX-17-48) Road Property Damaged—Switching (XX-18-48)...

  19. 49 CFR 1242.16 - Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48... Structures § 1242.16 Road property damaged—other (account XX-19-48). Separate common expenses in proportion... accounts: Road Property Damaged—Running (XX-17-48) Road Property Damaged—Switching (XX-18-48)...

  20. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.803 What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are...

  1. Members of the human body prone to musculoskeletal damages: a comparison between the sector of transportation and footwears production.

    PubMed

    Gomes de Lima, Jeane F; Colaço, Geraldo; da Silva, Ricardo; Masculo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This study present areas of the body more prone to develop diseases by musculoskeletal efforts, ie, RTD, in two companies of Paraiba, Brazil. To this end, was made a comparative analysis with respect to the type of work performed (standing, sitting) and the parts that suffer most discomfort after a day's work in a footwear industry and a bus transportation company. The quanti-qualitative research was conducted through semi-structured interviews with 227 employees in the period 2008 to 2009, having as methodological the tool diagram of painful areas of Corlett and Manenica. It was concluded that the areas most affected by musculoskeletal disorders are located in the neck (9,2%), backs (23,6%), shoulders (14,5%) and legs (11,3%), being usually caused by inappropriate postures, repetitive movements and work station no adequate the anthropometry of the users. Thus, we recommend the adoption of ergonomic measures that enable a healthy and safe environment for workers. PMID:22316940

  2. Risk analysis for truck transportation of high consequence cargo.

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Robert David

    2010-09-01

    The fixed facilities control everything they can to drive down risk. They control the environment, work processes, work pace and workers. The transportation sector drive the State and US highways with high kinetic energy and less-controllable risks such as: (1) other drivers (beginners, impaired, distracted, etc.); (2) other vehicles (tankers, hazmat, super-heavies); (3) road environments (bridges/tunnels/abutments/construction); and (4) degraded weather.

  3. Risky Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, David

    2008-01-01

    A business that depends on a fleet of vehicles to deliver its products or services to customers usually recognizes the risk that comes with driving from one place to another. To an organization that does not see movement as part of its main mission, however, the need to consider transportation liability may be less obvious. In today's litigious…

  4. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD

  5. The Italian energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The energy sector in Italy, as in Europe and in many other areas of the world, is undergoing rapid and profound changes. The 1986 ratification of the European Single Act was intended to create a European internal market, where circulation of people, capital, goods, and services would reach the highest possible liberalization. In 1988, in the document The Energy Internal Market, the European Union (EU) commission stressed the need for creation of an internal energy market--free of obstacles--to increase security of supply, to reduce costs, and to strengthen the competitiveness of the European economic system. In 1990, the Community Council adopted directives to implement the EU energy sector. This article describes Italy`s role as part of the EU energy sector. It covers the following topics: the Italian energy sector; electricity vs gas transportation; project finance; recent developments advance Italian power industry; specifying powerplant components -- Italian stype; buyers` guide to Italian equipment, services.

  6. Large-Scale Utilization of Biomass Energy and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the Transport and Electricity Sectors under Stringent CO2 Concentration Limit Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-08-05

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to meet atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm by the end of the century. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. A key aspect of the research presented here is that the costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are explicitly incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced globally by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the majority source, along with growing utilization of waste-to-energy. The ability to draw on a diverse set of biomass based feedstocks helps to reduce the pressure for drastic large-scale changes in land use and the attendant environmental, ecological, and economic consequences those changes would unleash. In terms of the conversion of bioenergy feedstocks into value added energy, this paper demonstrates that biomass is and will continue to be used to generate electricity as well as liquid transportation fuels. A particular focus of this paper is to show how climate policies and technology assumptions - especially the availability of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies - affect the decisions made about where the biomass is used in the energy system. The potential for net-negative electric sector emissions through the use of CCS with biomass feedstocks provides an attractive part of the solution for meeting stringent

  7. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective). PMID:18481140

  8. Optimal Policies for Aggregate Recycling from Decommissioned Forest Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective).

  9. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. How Long Do the Dead Survive on the Road? Carcass Persistence Probability and Implications for Road-Kill Monitoring Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Sara M.; Carvalho, Filipe; Mira, António

    2011-01-01

    transportation agencies with accurate numbers of road-kills, realistic mitigation measures, and detailed designs for road monitoring programs. PMID:21980437

  11. Road network safety evaluation using Bayesian hierarchical joint model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Huang, Helai

    2016-05-01

    Safety and efficiency are commonly regarded as two significant performance indicators of transportation systems. In practice, road network planning has focused on road capacity and transport efficiency whereas the safety level of a road network has received little attention in the planning stage. This study develops a Bayesian hierarchical joint model for road network safety evaluation to help planners take traffic safety into account when planning a road network. The proposed model establishes relationships between road network risk and micro-level variables related to road entities and traffic volume, as well as socioeconomic, trip generation and network density variables at macro level which are generally used for long term transportation plans. In addition, network spatial correlation between intersections and their connected road segments is also considered in the model. A road network is elaborately selected in order to compare the proposed hierarchical joint model with a previous joint model and a negative binomial model. According to the results of the model comparison, the hierarchical joint model outperforms the joint model and negative binomial model in terms of the goodness-of-fit and predictive performance, which indicates the reasonableness of considering the hierarchical data structure in crash prediction and analysis. Moreover, both random effects at the TAZ level and the spatial correlation between intersections and their adjacent segments are found to be significant, supporting the employment of the hierarchical joint model as an alternative in road-network-level safety modeling as well. PMID:26945109

  12. Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part I: Quantifying the impact of major sectors in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caiazzo, Fabio; Ashok, Akshay; Waitz, Ian A.; Yim, Steve H. L.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-11-01

    Combustion emissions adversely impact air quality and human health. A multiscale air quality model is applied to assess the health impacts of major emissions sectors in United States. Emissions are classified according to six different sources: electric power generation, industry, commercial and residential sources, road transportation, marine transportation and rail transportation. Epidemiological evidence is used to relate long-term population exposure to sector-induced changes in the concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone to incidences of premature death. Total combustion emissions in the U.S. account for about 200,000 (90% CI: 90,000-362,000) premature deaths per year in the U.S. due to changes in PM2.5 concentrations, and about 10,000 (90% CI: -1000 to 21,000) deaths due to changes in ozone concentrations. The largest contributors for both pollutant-related mortalities are road transportation, causing ∼53,000 (90% CI: 24,000-95,000) PM2.5-related deaths and ∼5000 (90% CI: -900 to 11,000) ozone-related early deaths per year, and power generation, causing ∼52,000 (90% CI: 23,000-94,000) PM2.5-related and ∼2000 (90% CI: -300 to 4000) ozone-related premature mortalities per year. Industrial emissions contribute to ∼41,000 (90% CI: 18,000-74,000) early deaths from PM2.5 and ∼2000 (90% CI: 0-4000) early deaths from ozone. The results are indicative of the extent to which policy measures could be undertaken in order to mitigate the impact of specific emissions from different sectors - in particular black carbon emissions from road transportation and sulfur dioxide emissions from power generation.

  13. Note on evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure to motivate safety competition.

    PubMed

    Han, Sangjin

    2016-01-01

    Road infrastructures are usually developed and maintained by governments or public sectors. There is no competitor in the market of their jurisdiction. This monopolic feature discourages road authorities from improving the level of safety with proactive motivation. This study suggests how to apply a principle of competition for roads, in particular by means of performance evaluation. It first discusses why road infrastructure has been slow in safety oriented development and management in respect of its business model. Then it suggests some practical ways of how to promote road safety between road authorities, particularly by evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure. These are summarized as decision of safety performance indicators, classification of spatial boundaries, data collection, evaluation, and reporting. Some consideration points are also discussed to make safety performance evaluation on road infrastructure lead to better road safety management. PMID:25374273

  14. Comparison of Two Methods for Improving the Resolution of On-Road CO2 Emissions at a Regional Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brondfield, M. N.; Hutyra, L.; Raciti, S. M.; McKain, K.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Urban areas are the dominant source of our anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nationally, transportation is estimated to account for roughly 30% of all emissions, but spatial variations in on-road sources are difficult to accurately estimate on scales finer than the state or county at best. Patterns in commuting require analyses with spatial extents well beyond the urban core and temporal resolution that accounts for diurnal traffic flows, shifting the focus to a metropolitan region. Regional carbon models rely on accurate a priori transportation emissions fields, making high resolution estimates from this sector crucial. Currently, emissions have been estimated at national and regional scales using aggregate vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and at local scales using traffic counts for individual roads. However, local observations are limited in extent and regional inventories are typically too coarse to effectively capture urban and commuter influences. In this analysis, we employ a hybrid approach, using both top-down and bottom-up methods to disaggregate a national estimate of on-road CO2 emissions for the Boston, MA metropolitan area. We contrast top-down calculations based on road density and distances from major roads with bottom-up, fine-scale estimates based on local traffic data and mode-split traffic flow models. We find that in Boston, the national inventory systematically underestimates emissions within the urban core and over estimates suburban contributions. This approach is easily reproducible and has the potential to improve modeling of on-road CO2 emissions for urban regions. Further, developing a fine-grained emissions map can assist in exposure estimates for vehicle particulates and other criteria pollutants.

  15. Bearing Capacity Assessment on low Volume Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zariņš, A.

    2015-11-01

    A large part of Latvian road network consists of low traffic volume roads and in particular of roads without hard pavement. Unbounded pavements shows serious problems in the form of rutting and other deformations, which finally lead to weak serviceability and damage of the road structure after intensive exploitation periods. Traditionally, these problems have been associated with heavy goods transport, overloaded vehicles and their impact. To find the specific damaging factors causing road pavement deformations and evaluate their prevention possibilities, and establish conditions that will allow doing it, the study was carried out. The tire pressure has been set as the main factor of load. Two different tire pressures have been used in tests and their impacts were compared. The comparison was done using deflection measurements with LWD together with dielectric constant measurements in a road structure using percometer. Measurements were taken in the upper pavement structure layers at different depths during full-scale loading and in different moisture/temperature conditions. Advisable load intensity and load factors for heavy traffic according to road conditions were set based on the study results.

  16. 33 CFR 165.501 - Chesapeake Bay entrance and Hampton Roads, VA and adjacent waters-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hampton Roads, VA and adjacent waters-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.501 Section 165.501 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.501 Chesapeake Bay entrance and Hampton Roads, VA and adjacent... Sector Hampton Roads. Designated representative of the Captain of the Port means a person, including...

  17. 33 CFR 165.501 - Chesapeake Bay entrance and Hampton Roads, VA and adjacent waters-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hampton Roads, VA and adjacent waters-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.501 Section 165.501 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.501 Chesapeake Bay entrance and Hampton Roads, VA and adjacent... Sector Hampton Roads. Designated representative of the Captain of the Port means a person, including...

  18. 33 CFR 165.501 - Chesapeake Bay entrance and Hampton Roads, VA and adjacent waters-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hampton Roads, VA and adjacent waters-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.501 Section 165.501 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.501 Chesapeake Bay entrance and Hampton Roads, VA and adjacent... Sector Hampton Roads. Designated representative of the Captain of the Port means a person, including...

  19. 33 CFR 165.501 - Chesapeake Bay entrance and Hampton Roads, VA and adjacent waters-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hampton Roads, VA and adjacent waters-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.501 Section 165.501 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.501 Chesapeake Bay entrance and Hampton Roads, VA and adjacent... Sector Hampton Roads. Designated representative of the Captain of the Port means a person, including...

  20. 33 CFR 165.501 - Chesapeake Bay entrance and Hampton Roads, VA and adjacent waters-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hampton Roads, VA and adjacent waters-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.501 Section 165.501 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.501 Chesapeake Bay entrance and Hampton Roads, VA and adjacent... Sector Hampton Roads. Designated representative of the Captain of the Port means a person, including...

  1. Network Level Carbon Dioxide Emissions From On-road Sources in the Portland OR, (USA) Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Rice, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    To mitigate climate change, governments at multiple levels are developing policies to decrease anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The City of Portland (Oregon) and Multnomah County have adopted a Climate Action Plan with a stated goal of reducing emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. The transportation sector alone accounts for about 40% of total emissions in the Portland metropolitan area. Here we show a new street-level model of on-road mobile CO2 emissions for the Portland, OR metropolitan region. The model uses hourly traffic counter recordings made by the Portland Bureau of Transportation at 9,352 sites over 21 years (1986-2006), augmented with freeway loop detector data from the Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing (PORTAL) transportation data archive. We constructed a land use regression model to fill in traffic network gaps with traffic counts as the dependent variable using GIS data such as road class (32 categories) and population density. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model was used to estimate transportation CO2 emissions. The street-level emissions can be aggregated and gridded and used as input to atmospheric transport models for comparison with atmospheric measurements. This model also provides an independent assessment of top-down inventories that determine emissions from fuel sales, while being an important component of our ongoing effort to assess the effectiveness of emission mitigation strategies at the urban scale.

  2. Transportation and energy efficiency: Promised potentials, serious roadblocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft-Oliver, T.V.

    1995-12-31

    Transportation is both a critical element of achieving national economic development goals and a major consumer of scarce and expensive energy resources. Improvements in access and mobility from reduced congestion, higher speeds, additional non motorized and pedestrian options, and better mass transit will result in reductions in energy use in most cases. Additional improvements in vehicle efficiency are possible but will not meet the needs of the region for transportation and energy efficiency improvements in the absence of these other improvements. The barriers to success in the transport sector are obvious on a superficial level. They include lack of road space, inadequate or incomplete road networks, insufficient mass transit capacity, predation of pedestrian and nonmotorized vehicle space by motor vehicles, and financing. The lack of progress in solving many of these problems over the past ten to twenty years indicates that there are underlying issues not yet addressed. Perceptions of these problems have changed since the middle 1970s and early 1980s as international lending and technical assistance began to focus on transportation. In those early years the problems were described as financial, and `meeting demand` challenges. The World Bank is now conducting a review of their Transport Sector Policy. While the review has not progressed to a final document and certainly not to articulation or transformation of Bank policy, early drafts reflect a view that past failures to improve transportation circumstances are human resource and institutional problems.

  3. TA-59 North Parking Lot and Pajarito Road Corridor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide traffic engineering services for the TA-59 North Parking Lot/Pajarito Road corridor Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The following tasks were accomplished to assess the development of the north parking lot and Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59: conducted turning-movement counts from 7 AM to 9 AM and from 4 PM to 6 PM at the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection; conducted a parking supply and demand survey for all the parking lots within TA-59 on half-hour intervals between 0600--1800 (6 AM to 6 PM); conducted mid-day directional speed study along Pajarito Road, just east or south of the TA-59/Pajarito Road intersection; conducted peak hour gap study on Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59; reviewed the TA-59 Parking Lot North of Pajarito Road, FY-94 Weapons GPP Short List Candidate {number_sign}9 report and other documents pertaining to past transportation studies; reassigned current turning-movement volumes with a 100 space parking lot being built on the north side of Pajarito Road; prepared traffic projections for the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection according to the proposed development on the north side of Pajarito Road that would employee 246 people; and assigned pedestrian crossing volumes between the northern lot/future development site and areas south of Pajarito Road.

  4. The Goddard Three Dimensional Chemistry and Transport Model-A Waystation on the Road to Predicting the Future of Stratospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne

    1999-01-01

    The Goddard 3D Chemistry and Transport Model (CTM) is an off-line model which includes a full description of stratospheric photochemistry and calculates constituent transport using winds and temperatures from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System. The model can be used to understand and quantify the photochemical and transport processes which produce observed constituent evolution and variability. Data from any platform - ground based, aircraft, balloon, satellite - can play a role. Since any measurement systems has its own set of advantages and disadvantages (e.g., good temporal sampling but poor spatial sampling; good spatial and temporal sampling but poor vertical resolution; high vertical resolution and spatial sampling but poor temporal sampling), using data from disparate sources and a CTM can provide a more complete picture of atmospheric processes.

  5. Recycled rubber roads

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

  6. Sediment Production from Forest Roads During Different Rainfall Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, M. J.; Sullivan, K.; Dhakal, A. S.

    2004-12-01

    Sediment productions from storm-proofed forest roads were investigated at four locations in the managed forested land of Northwestern California (annual rainfall @1000 mm), where rocks have been characterized as Wildcat group consisting of mudstone, siltstone, claystone, and minor conglomerate. Rocked road (storm-proofed road) constitutes a part of the effective road management practices in the study area where other management practices include disconnection of roads from watercourses, reduction in distance between culverts, frequent road maintenance, and seasonal (or during rainfall) restrictions of log traffic. Specifically, this study examines the influence of rainstorm and road characteristics on sediment production from storm-proofed road in the context of varieties of road management practices in place. Continuous ditch flow during the rainstorm events was monitored using an UNIDATA float device and data logger. An ISCO sampler collected suspended sediment at temporal resolution of 2-h during the rainstorm events, and collected sediment samples were analyzed for turbidity and suspended sediment concentration in the laboratory. Sediment samples were also collected for particle size distribution analysis. Two tipping bucket rain gages located in the vicinity of road sites collected rainfall. Using an electronic total station, road surface was surveyed in detail, and a road Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was generated. Thus produced DEM was processed to delineate the road surface area contributing to ditch flow. The analysis of collected data for rainstorm events of hydrological year 2003/2004 reveals that the suspended sediment concentration conforms closely to rainfall hyetograph and ditch flow hydrograph with rapid flushing of road sediments for about 15-h following the onset of rainstorm. In general, ditch flow and suspended sediment concentration relation illustrates that the sediment transport is evidently "supply limited". For this reason, suspended

  7. 7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) FACING EAST INTO PARK. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  8. 7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  9. Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with transportation and energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the implication of energy usage as it applies to the area of transportation. Some topics covered are efficiencies of various transportation…

  10. Investigation of road network features and safety performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuesong; Wu, Xingwei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Tremont, Paul J

    2013-07-01

    The analysis of road network designs can provide useful information to transportation planners as they seek to improve the safety of road networks. The objectives of this study were to compare and define the effective road network indices and to analyze the relationship between road network structure and traffic safety at the level of the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ). One problem in comparing different road networks is establishing criteria that can be used to scale networks in terms of their structures. Based on data from Orange and Hillsborough Counties in Florida, road network structural properties within TAZs were scaled using 3 indices: Closeness Centrality, Betweenness Centrality, and Meshedness Coefficient. The Meshedness Coefficient performed best in capturing the structural features of the road network. Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) models were developed to assess the safety of various network configurations as measured by total crashes, crashes on state roads, and crashes on local roads. The models' results showed that crash frequencies on local roads were closely related to factors within the TAZs (e.g., zonal network structure, TAZ population), while crash frequencies on state roads were closely related to the road and traffic features of state roads. For the safety effects of different networks, the Grid type was associated with the highest frequency of crashes, followed by the Mixed type, the Loops & Lollipops type, and the Sparse type. This study shows that it is possible to develop a quantitative scale for structural properties of a road network, and to use that scale to calculate the relationships between network structural properties and safety. PMID:23584537

  11. 12. VIEW FROM PARKWAY MEDIAN TO SPORT HILL ROAD BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW FROM PARKWAY MEDIAN TO SPORT HILL ROAD BRIDGE, Copy of photograph ca. 1940. Collection Connecticut Department of Transportation. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  12. 77 FR 5295 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 appropriations for the Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility Program, authorized... Accessibility Program makes funds available to private operators of over-the-road buses to help finance...

  13. The Road Less Traveled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Brent

    2007-01-01

    The federal journey into public education has followed a long and winding road. Most educators know that the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is simply the latest version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which dates all the way back to 1965. In the years since its initial passage, the ESEA road has taken a number of…

  14. Development and assessment of road weather information in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sanghoo; Lee, Jonghak; Kim, Mingyu; Choi, Youngjean

    2016-04-01

    Road-based transport is essential for populations operating in large urban environments. Driving conditions are impacted by the intensity of rainfall. However, rainfall is not directly measured on roads. In this study, we evaluated road weather prediction accuracy using representative rainfall days in Seoul, South Korea, during 2013.Data were collected by 190 weather stations, of which 33 were located within 20 meters of a road and were used as model validation sites, while the remaining 157 were used as model fitting sites. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) based on variograms were considered for interpolation. We used the bias, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and correlation coefficient (CC) as the prediction performance criteria. The prediction performance of OK was higher than that of IDW. As expected, prediction performance increased when the number of rainfall observations increased. We also simulated road conditions using the accumulated historical rainfall data. Generating road information for the entire urban road network is very expensive; therefore, 177,599 road positions were reproduced from 22,184 road link units. Finally, safe driving speeds were calculated from simulated rainfall, stopping distance, and visibility distance.We hope that the results of this study will provide a basis for the safety information given to road users.

  15. Evaluation and development of tools to quantify the impacts of roadside vegetation barriers on near-road air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory and urban planning programs require an accurate evaluation of how traffic emissions transport and disperse from roads to fully determine exposures and health risks. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; ...

  16. Effects of Road Density and Road-Salt Application Practices on Sodium and Chloride Loads to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, M. C.; Nimiroski, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Scituate Reservoir drainage basin is the drinking-water source area for two thirds of the population of Rhode Island. The effects of road density and road-salt-application practices on sodium and chloride concentrations in streams in the drainage basin were examined using concentration data collected at intervals of one to six months from January 1982 through June 2000 at 32 stream sites distributed throughout the basin. Median concentrations of sodium and chloride for individual streams during the period of data collection were related to 1995 road densities (road miles per square mile of subbasin) for roads maintained by the Rhode Island Department of Transportation (State-maintained roads) and for roads maintained by the four municipalities in the drainage basin (locally maintained roads). Nearly 60 percent of the variation in median stream sodium and chloride concentrations was accounted for by the variation in density of State-maintained roads (R2= 0.595, p < 0.0001). In contrast, no correlations could be identified between median concentrations of sodium and chloride in streams and the densities of locally maintained roads in the subbasins (R2 = 0.001, p = 0.8771). Also, there was no difference in the relations between median stream sodium concentrations and subbasin road densities for data collected before and after a 1990 State-mandated reduction in the rate of application of sodium during winter deicing of State-maintained roads. Analysis of data on sources of sodium and chloride in the Scituate Reservoir drainage basin during water year 2000 (October 1999 through September 2000) indicates that, while the lengths and densities of locally maintained roads were greater than those of State-maintained roads in most subbasins, the total amount of sodium applied during water year 2000 was nearly three times greater for State-maintained roads than for locally maintained roads. This would be expected, given that State-maintained roads carry more traffic at

  17. Corrugation of roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Both, Joseph A.; Hong, Daniel C.; Kurtze, Douglas A.

    2001-12-01

    We present a one dimensional model for the development of corrugations in roads subjected to compressive forces from a flux of cars. The cars are modeled as damped harmonic oscillators translating with constant horizontal velocity across the surface, and the road surface is subject to diffusive relaxation. We derive dimensionless coupled equations of motion for the positions of the cars and the road surface H( x, t), which contain two phenomenological variables: an effective diffusion constant Δ( H) that characterizes the relaxation of the road surface, and a function a( H) that characterizes the plasticity or erodibility of the road bed. Linear stability analysis shows that corrugations grow if the speed of the cars exceeds a critical value, which decreases if the flux of cars is increased. Modifying the model to enforce the simple fact that the normal force exerted by the road can never be negative seems to lead to restabilized, quasi-steady road shapes, in which the corrugation amplitude and phase velocity remain fixed.

  18. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

    1999-10-01

    The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation

  19. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  20. Application of GIS and modelling in health risk assessment for urban road mobility.

    PubMed

    Vu, Van-Hieu; Le, Xuan-Quynh; Pham, Ngoc-Ho; Hens, Luc

    2013-08-01

    Transport is an essential sector in modern societies. It connects economic sectors and industries. Next to its contribution to economic development and social interconnection, it also causes adverse impacts on the environment and results in health hazards. Transport is a major source of ground air pollution, especially in urban areas, and therefore contributes to the health problems, such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancer and physical injuries. This paper presents the results of a health risk assessment that quantifies the mortality and the diseases associated with particulate matter pollution resulting from urban road transport in Haiphong City, Vietnam. The focus is on the integration of modelling and geographic information system approaches in the exposure analysis to increase the accuracy of the assessment and to produce timely and consistent assessment results. The modelling was done to estimate traffic conditions and concentrations of particulate matters based on geo-referenced data. The study shows that health burdens due to particulate matter in Haiphong include 1,200 extra deaths for the situation in 2007. This figure can double by 2020 as the result of the fast economic development the city pursues. In addition, 51,000 extra hospital admissions and more than 850,000 restricted activity days are expected by 2020. PMID:23354617

  1. Fuel-mix, fuel efficiency, and transport demand affect prospects for biofuels in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bright, Ryan M; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2010-04-01

    Rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the road transport sector represents a difficult mitigation challenge due to a multitude of intricate factors, namely the dependency on liquid energy carriers and infrastructure lock-in. For this reason, low-carbon renewable energy carriers, particularly second generation biofuels, are often seen as a prominent candidate for realizing reduced emissions and lowered oil dependency over the medium- and long-term horizons. However, the overarching question is whether advanced biofuels can be an environmentally effective mitigation strategy in the face of increasing consumption and resource constraints. Here we develop both biofuel production and road transport consumption scenarios for northern Europe-a region with a vast surplus of forest bioenergy resources-to assess the potential role that forest-based biofuels may play over the medium- and long-term time horizons using an environmentally extended, multiregion input-output model. Through scenarios, we explore how evolving vehicle technologies and consumption patterns will affect the mitigation opportunities afforded by any future supply of forest biofuels. We find that in a scenario involving ambitious biofuel targets, the size of the GHG mitigation wedge attributed to the market supply of biofuels is severely reduced under business-as-usual growth in consumption in the road transport sector. Our results indicate that climate policies targeting the road transport sector which give high emphases to reducing demand (volume), accelerating the deployment of more fuel-efficient vehicles, and promoting altered consumption patterns (structure) can be significantly more effective than those with single emphasis on expanded biofuel supply. PMID:20163088

  2. Color vision for road scene interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandt, Frederic; Aubert, Didier; Festas, Laurence

    1993-12-01

    For ten years, unstructured road following has been the subject of many studies. Road following must support the automatic navigation, at reasonable speed, of mobile robots on irregular paths and roads, with heterogeneous surfaces and under variable lighting conditions. Civil and military applications of this technology include transportation, logistics, security and engineering. The definition of our lane following system requires an evaluation of the existing technologies. Although the various operational systems converge on a color perception and a region segmentation optimizing discrimination and stability respectively, the treatments and performances vary. In this paper, the robustness of four operational systems and two connected techniques are compared according to common evaluation criteria. We present the identification of typical situations that have been used to create the image data base, the experimental protocol designs to compare the performances of the techniques and the analysis of the experimental results.

  3. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  4. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  5. Polarimetric road ice detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Krista

    This thesis investigated the science behind polarimetric road ice detection systems. Laboratory Mueller matrix measurements of a simulated road under differing surface conditions were collected searching for a discriminatory polarization property. These Mueller matrices were decomposed into depolarization, diattenuation, and retardance. Individual sample surface polarization properties were then calculated from these three unique matrices and compared. Specular and off-specular reflection responses of each sample were collected. Four polarization properties stood out for having high separation between dry and iced measurements: Depolarization Index, Linear Diattenuation, Linear Polarizance, and Linear Retardance. Through our investigation polarimetric ice detection is possible. Continued research of the polarization properties of road ice can result in the development of a road ice detection system. Proposed deployment methods of such a system have been outlined following the analysis of the data collected in this experiment.

  6. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  7. Road boundary detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowers, J.; Mehrotra, R.; Sethi, I. K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for extracting road boundaries using the monochrome image of a visual road scene is presented. The statistical information regarding the intensity levels present in the image along with some geometrical constraints concerning the road are the basics of this approach. Results and advantages of this technique compared to others are discussed. The major advantages of this technique, when compared to others, are its ability to process the image in only one pass, to limit the area searched in the image using only knowledge concerning the road geometry and previous boundary information, and dynamically adjust for inconsistencies in the located boundary information, all of which helps to increase the efficacy of this technique.

  8. Handbook of road safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Grime, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes the road safety, accident investigation or vehicle and highway design. This book also discusses the nature and cause of road accidents. It discusses the following contents: Forward; Preface; The main features of the accident situation in Great Britain; The interacting roles of road environment, vehicle and road user in accidents; Roads - features which may be related to accidents; Movements of vehicles and road users before accidents; What happens to vehicles during and after accidents; Injuries to road users; The potential for savings in accidents involving injury; General remarks on accident investigation; Appendices References.

  9. Gap Filling in Road Extraction Using Radon Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkan, A. A.; Hajeb, M.; Eslami, M.; Pourali, H.; Sadeghian, S.

    2012-07-01

    Road information has a key role in many applications such as transportation, automatic navigation, traffic management, crisis management, and also to facilitate and accelerate updating databases in a GIS. Therefore in the past two decades, automatic road extraction has become an important issue in remote sensing, photogrammetry and computer vision. An essential challenge in road extraction process is filling the gaps which have appeared due to getting placed under trees, tunnels or any other reason. Connection of roads is a momentous topological property that is necessity to perform most of the spatial analyses. Hence, Gap filling is an important post-process. The main aim of this paper is to provide a method which is applicable in road extraction algorithms to automatic fill the gaps. The proposed algorithm is based on Radon transformation and has four stags. In the first stage, detected road are thinned insofar as one pixel width is achieved. Then endpoints are detected. In the second stage, regarding to some constraints those endpoints which do not belong to any gaps are identified and deleted from endpoints list. In the third stage, the real gaps are found using the road direction computed by used of Radon technique. In fourth stage, the selected endpoints are connected together using Spline interpolation. This algorithm is applied on several datasets and also on a real detected road. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has good performance on straight roads but it does not work well in intersections, due to being direction-oriented.

  10. [Dynamic road vehicle emission inventory simulation study based on real time traffic information].

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Liu, Juan; Chen, Chang-Hong; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Deng-Guo; Zhu, Jing-Yu; Huang, Wei-Ming; Chao, Yuan

    2012-11-01

    The vehicle activity survey, including traffic flow distribution, driving condition, and vehicle technologies, were conducted in Shanghai. The databases of vehicle flow, VSP distribution and vehicle categories were established according to the surveyed data. Based on this, a dynamic vehicle emission inventory simulation method was designed by using the real time traffic information data, such as traffic flow and average speed. Some roads in Shanghai city were selected to conduct the hourly vehicle emission simulation as a case study. The survey results show that light duty passenger car and taxi are major vehicles on the roads of Shanghai city, accounting for 48% - 72% and 15% - 43% of the total flow in each hour, respectively. VSP distribution has a good relationship with the average speed. The peak of VSP distribution tends to move to high load section and become lower with the increase of average speed. Vehicles achieved Euro 2 and Euro 3 standards are majorities of current vehicle population in Shanghai. Based on the calibration of vehicle travel mileage data, the proportions of Euro 2 and Euro 3 standard vehicles take up 11% - 70% and 17% - 51% in the real-world situation, respectively. The emission simulation results indicate that the ratios of emission peak and valley for the pollutants of CO, VOC, NO(x) and PM are 3.7, 4.6, 9.6 and 19.8, respectively. CO and VOC emissions mainly come from light-duty passenger car and taxi, which has a good relationship with the traffic flow. NO(x) and PM emissions are mainly from heavy-duty bus and public buses and mainly concentrate in the morning and evening peak hours. The established dynamic vehicle emission simulation method can reflect the change of actual road emission and output high emission road sectors and hours in real time. The method can provide an important technical means and decision-making basis for transportation environment management. PMID:23323399

  11. On-road diesel vehicle emission factors for nitrogen oxides and black carbon in two Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing; Westerdahl, Dane; Hu, Jingnan; Wu, Ye; Yin, Hang; Pan, Xiaochuan; Max Zhang, K.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x) and black carbon (BC) emission factors (EF) of 440 on-road diesel trucks were determined by conducting on-road chasing studies in Beijing and Chongqing, China, in the winter 2010. NO x and BC EF distributions are reported. The median NO x EFs for trucks sampled on level roads in Chongqing and Beijing are 40.0 and 47.4 g kg-fuel -1, respectively. The median BC EFs are 1.1 and 0.4 g kg-fuel -1in Chongqing and Beijing, respectively. In addition, a clear downward trend of BC EFs of on-road diesel trucks sampled in Beijing since 2008 is observed. Moreover, Beijing-registered trucks had the lowest BC EFs among the entire sample. These observations appear to reflect the effectiveness of emission standard and fuel quality standard implemented in Beijing (China IV) and nationwide (China III) in reducing BC (and likely overall particulate matter) emission. However, NO x EFs for Beijing-registered trucks did not show lower value than those from other regions. Unlike black carbon, there is no clear correlation between emission controls and NO x emissions from the sampled on-road trucks. Further analysis shows that trucks with high BC EFs do not usually have high NO x EFs, and vice versa, indicating that the current emission standards implemented in Beijing and nationwide have only limited impact on NO x emissions control. Therefore, effective multi-pollutant control strategies and in-use compliance programs are imperative to reduce the overall emissions from the transportation sector.

  12. Roadway management plan based on rockfall modelling calibration and validation. Application along the Ma-10 road in Mallorca (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Rosa Maria; Garcia, Inmaculada; Reichenbach, Paola; Herrera, Gerardo; Sarro, Roberto; Rius, Joan; Aguilo, Raul

    2016-04-01

    The Tramuntana range, in the northwestern sector of the island of Mallorca (Spain), is frequently affected by rockfalls which have caused significant damage, mainly along the road network. The Ma-10 road constitutes the main transportation corridor on the range with a heavy traffic estimated at 7,200 vehicles per day on average. With a length of 111 km and a tortuous path, the road is the connecting track for 12 municipalities and constitutes a strategic road on the island for many tourist resorts. For the period spanning from 1995 to current times, 63 rockfalls have affected the Ma-10 road with volumes ranging from 0.3m3 to 30,000 m3. Fortunately, no fatalities occurred but numerous blockages on the road took place which caused significant economic losses, valued of around 11 MEuro (Mateos el al., 2013). In this work we present the procedure we have applied to calibrate and validate rockfall modelling in the Tramuntana region, using 103 cases of the available detailed rockfall inventory (Mateos, 2006). We have exploited STONE (Guzzetti et al. 2002), a GIS based rockfall simulation software which computes 2D and 3D rockfall trajectories starting from a DTM and maps of the dynamic rolling friction coefficient and of the normal and tangential energy restitution coefficients. The appropriate identification of these parameters determines the accuracy of the simulation. To calibrate them, we have selected 40 rockfalls along the range which include a wide variety of outcropping lithologies. Coefficients values have been changed in numerous attempts in order to select those where the extent and shape of the simulation matched the field mapping. Best results were summarized with the average statistical values for each parameter and for each geotechnical unit, determining that mode values represent more precisely the data. Initially, for the validation stage, 10 well- known rockfalls exploited in the calibration phase have been selected. Confidence tests have been applied

  13. 77 FR 35993 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... affected agencies. This information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR... Road Vehicle Certification for Transport Under Customs Seal AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. This is a proposed extension of an...

  14. 75 FR 47879 - The Indiana Rail Road Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Sullivan County, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board The Indiana Rail Road Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Sullivan County, IN The Indiana Rail Road Company (INRD) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt....

  15. Efficient road geometry identification from digital vector data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrášik, Richard; Bíl, Michal

    2016-07-01

    A new method for the automatic identification of road geometry from digital vector data is presented. The method is capable of efficiently identifying circular curves with their radii and tangents (straight sections). The average error of identification ranged from 0.01 to 1.30 % for precisely drawn data and 4.81 % in the case of actual road data with noise in the location of vertices. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is faster and more precise than commonly used techniques. This approach can be used by road administrators to complete their databases with information concerning the geometry of roads. It can also be utilized by transport engineers or traffic safety analysts to investigate the possible dependence of traffic accidents on road geometries. The method presented is applicable as well to railroads and rivers or other line features.

  16. Road safety control: Application in urban environment in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charisoudis, A.; Mintsis, G.; Basbas, S.; Taxiltaris, Ch.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine what is and what is not a "road safety control" on the one hand and on the other hand to examine the procedure of the realization of this control in different countries in the level of the organization as well as in the level of the praxis through the Road Safety Manuals of each country. The countries under examination are: The United Kinghdom, Danish, U.S.A, Australia and New Zeeland. The Road Safety Manual of the International Organization World Road Association-PIARC is also mentioned. Finally examples of the application of road safety control, which were realized in the frame of the research programs of the research team of the Department of Transportation Engineering, School of Rural and Surveing, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in the town of Aridea, are given.(in Greeks)

  17. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  18. Geophysical methods for road construction and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Hedi; Karlson, Caroline; Jamali, Imran; Earon, Robert; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Infrastructure, such as road transportation, is a vital in civilized societies; which need to be constructed and maintained regularly. A large part of the project cost is attributed to subsurface conditions, where unsatisfactory conditions could increase either the geotechnical stabilization measures needed or the design cost itself. A way to collect information of the subsurface and existing installations which can lead to measures reducing the project cost and damage is to use geophysical methods during planning, construction and maintenance phases. The moisture in road layers is an important factor, which will affect the bearing capacity of the construction as well as the maintenances. Moisture in the road is a key factor for a well-functioning road. On the other hand the excessive moisture is the main reason of road failure and problems. From a hydrological point of view geophysical methods could help road planners identify the water table, geological strata, pollution arising from the road and the movement of the pollution before, during and after construction. Geophysical methods also allow road planners to collect valuable data for a large area without intrusive investigations such as with boreholes, i.e. minimizing the environmental stresses and costs. However, it is important to specify the investigation site and to choose the most appropriate geophysical method based on the site chosen and the objective of the investigation. Currently, numerous construction and rehabilitation projects are taking places around the world. Many of these projects are focused on infrastructural development, comprising both new projects and expansion of the existing infrastructural network. Geophysical methods can benefit these projects greatly during all phases. During the construction phase Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) is very useful in combination with Electrical Resistivity (ER) for detecting soil water content and base course compaction. However, ER and Electromagnetic

  19. Evaluating the impact and risk of pluvial flash flood on intra-urban road network: A case study in the city center of Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jie; Yu, Dapeng; Yin, Zhane; Liu, Min; He, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Urban pluvial flood are attracting growing public concern due to rising intense precipitation and increasing consequences. Accurate risk assessment is critical to an efficient urban pluvial flood management, particularly in transportation sector. This paper describes an integrated methodology, which initially makes use of high resolution 2D inundation modeling and flood depth-dependent measure to evaluate the potential impact and risk of pluvial flash flood on road network in the city center of Shanghai, China. Intensity-Duration-Frequency relationships of Shanghai rainstorm and Chicago Design Storm are combined to generate ensemble rainfall scenarios. A hydrodynamic model (FloodMap-HydroInundation2D) is used to simulate overland flow and flood inundation for each scenario. Furthermore, road impact and risk assessment are respectively conducted by a new proposed algorithm and proxy. Results suggest that the flood response is a function of spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and local characteristics (i.e. drainage and topography), and pluvial flash flood is found to lead to proportionate but nonlinear impact on intra-urban road inundation risk. The approach tested here would provide more detailed flood information for smart management of urban street network and may be applied to other big cities where road flood risk is evolving in the context of climate change and urbanization.

  20. View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  1. View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  2. View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  3. View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  4. View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  5. View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on west side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  6. View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence on the south side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  7. View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  8. View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  9. View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings on the north and south sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  10. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  11. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes....

  12. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes....

  13. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes....

  14. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes....

  15. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes....

  16. 49 CFR 37.169 - Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service... Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities. (a) Private entities operating over-the-road buses, in addition to compliance with other applicable provisions of this...

  17. 49 CFR 37.169 - Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service... Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 57936, September 19, 2011. (a) Private entities operating over-the-road buses,...

  18. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  19. Hitting the Road: Safe Student Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labriola, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of school administrators' taking an active role in selecting motor coach carriers for their school trips. School administrators must be able to prove due diligence in selecting safe motor carriers. If not, they risk significant liability exposure for neglecting this critical responsibility. The article…

  20. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO WINDOWS SECTION AT LEFT, BALANCED ROCK NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  1. 6. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO WINDOWS SECTION AT LEFT, BALANCED ROCK NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  2. 24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , AT SNOW FLAT. MOUNT HOFFMAN AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NW. GIS: N-37 49 34.6 / W-119 29 58.2 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  3. 25. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. Metal flume section (once located elsewhere, over another road). Note skewed section. South/southwest 260 degrees. - Broughton Flume, Hood River Junction on Columbia River at Washington/Oregon border, Hood, Skamania County, WA

  4. 19. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. Metal flume section (once located elsewhere, over another road). Note skewed section. North/northeast 80 degrees. - Broughton Flume, Hood River Junction on Columbia River at Washington/Oregon border, Hood, Skamania County, WA

  5. Transportation in African Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschul, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the structure, role, and needs of Africa's national and intracontinental transportation system. Characteristics of rail, water, road, and air transportation are examined. The conclusion is that high investment in transportation systems is essential to the development process. (Author/KC)

  6. On the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  7. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  8. Fine-Scale Road Stretch Forecasting along Main Danish Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, A.; Petersen, C.; Sattler, K.; Sass, B.

    2009-09-01

    The DMI has in collaboration with the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) for almost two decades used a Road Condition Model (RCM) system (based on a dense road observations network and the numerical weather prediction model - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model, HIRLAM) to provide operational forecasts of main road conditions at selected road stations of the Danish road network. As of Jan 2009, there are 357 road stations (equipped in total with 456 sensors), where measurements and forecasts of road surface temperature, air and dew point temperatures are conducted. Forecasts of other important meteorological parameters such as cloud cover and precipitations as well as radar and satellite images are also distributed to the users through the web-based interface vejvejr.dk and through DMI and DRD web-pages. For icing conditions, new technology has made it easy to vary the dose of spreaded salt, making it possible to use salt only on the parts of the road network where it is really needed. In our study measurements of road surface temperature from road stations and salt spreaders have additionally been used to examine both road stations and road stretches forecasts along the main roads of the Danish Road Network (accounting almost 23 thousand points located at distances of 250 m). These results showed critical importance of availability of detailed characteristics of the roads surroundings. To make local forecasts in a specific point all possible local detailed information is needed. Since high resolution models running at faster supercomputers as well as detailed physiographic datasets now are available, it is possible to improve the modelling and parameterization of significant physical processes influencing the formation of the slippery road conditions. First of all, it is based on a new dataset available from Kort og Matrikel styrelsen, the so-called Danish Height Model (Danmarks Højdemodel) which is a very detailed set of data with horizontal resolution of a few meters

  9. Lane detection using road planar information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiang; Chu, Chee-Hung H.

    2011-06-01

    Intelligent vehicles have many applications in the military, aerospace, and other industries, including land-mine detection for the military, patient transportation in hospitals, and many other domains that often require automation to reduce risks to the human operators. One of important tasks of intelligent vehicles is the navigation, whose goal is to extract and determine the appropriate path that leads to a destination based on perceived environmental information. The objective of our work is to develop a simple and effective method to detect and extract road lanes and boundaries. We propose a solution by incorporating the planar information of road surfaces. We first detect all possible edges in the captured images. The straight lanes and boundaries are extracted as straight lines, which generate a vanishing point. The straight lines are described with Hough transform. A cluster analysis in Hough space is used to detect the vanishing point on road. Further, we search lines passing through the vanishing point from 180 degrees to 270 degrees and from 0 degree to negative 90 degrees. The first two strong lines will be extracted as road boundaries.

  10. Subglacial sediment provenance and transport in West Antarctica from micropaleontologic analysis of Subglacial Lake Whillans and the upstream sectors of the Whillans and Kamb ice streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Reed; Coenen, Jason; Warny, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    The WISSARD (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling) project recovered sediment cores from Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW) in West Antarctica. We report preliminary micropaleontological analyses of SLW sediments, augmented by analysis of sediments previously recovered from beneath the upstream camps of the Whillans Ice Stream (WIS) and Kamb Ice Stream (KIS). Microfossils in these sediments (notably diatoms, sponge spicules, and organic-walled palynomorphs), include information regarding sediment transport, subglacial physical processes and ice sheet history. Absolute abundance (particles per gram dry sediment) of identifiable diatoms and diatom fragments in different size classes were calculated to compare and contrast each environment. Sponge spicules are being analyzed for taphonomic effects from subglacial transport and shearing. Palynomorphs are analyzed for abundance, diversity, and source rock ages. In SLW the upper 30 cm is softer and more water-rich than the underlying sediments. However, no statistically significant variation in microfossil and fragment abundance or taphonomy is noted in these diamictons, which is in agreement with the stratigraphic homogeneity evident from geochemical and geological analyses performed to date. SLW contains 1.52x106 to 1.13x107 diatom fragments per gram, compared with 6.43x106 to 4.63x108 at upstream WIS and 6.13 107 to 1.58x108 at KIS. Whole diatoms are orders of magnitude lower in concentration. Low abundance and poor preservation of diatoms and spicules at SLW suggests relatively long distance transport from their marine sediment source, with evidence of high shear strain, following the subglacial shearing index of Scherer et al. (2004). Upper Miocene diatoms dominate all samples analyzed, though older and younger diatoms are noted as well. The WIS samples exhibit the highest diversity of diatoms, including Paleogene freshwater diatoms. KIS sediments have the highest abundance of whole diatoms, but they

  11. Future impact of transport emissions on the global atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, B.; Szopa, S.; Cozic, A.

    2009-04-01

    Emissions of air pollutants by road, air traffic and international shipping affect air quality and climate. Besides their effect on the ozone concentration and its related radiative forcing, they also affect the OH-concentration, i.e. the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. The pollutants are emitted by the three transport sectors into highly different environments. The O3 and OH potential productions induced by each of these sectors thus differ strongly. These transport emissions are expected to show drastic quantitative and geographic changes in the next decades, because of new emission regulations, increasing mobility, as well as demographic and economic growths. In addition to changes in emissions, significant changes in climate parameters such as H2O, temperature, and dynamics are expected to occur in the future global atmosphere. They will affect the oxidation processes and thereby the changes in the atmospheric concentrations induced by transport emissions. Within the EU-project QUANTIFY (Quantifying the Climate Impact of Global and European Transport Systems) the LMDz-INCA climate-chemistry model was used to estimate the effect of transport emissions on the global atmospheric chemical composition. In a first step, up-to-date emission datasets were used for the transport and non-transport anthropogenic emissions for present (2000) and future (2050, SRES A1b and B1 scenarios) using 2003 nudged meteorology. A strong reduction of the road emissions and a moderate (B1) to high (A1b) increase of the ship and aircraft emissions are expected by the year 2050. As a consequence, the impact of road emissions on ozone is shown to decrease drastically, whereas aviation would become the major transport sources of tropospheric ozone perturbation at global scale. According to the most likely scenario (A1b), the contribution of all transport modes to the ozone column would increase everywhere, reaching up to 13% in some areas such as Asia. In a second step of the study

  12. View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel Putnam Memorial - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  13. View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian Church and the Federated Church of Christ - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  14. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer

  15. A review of models relevant to road safety.

    PubMed

    Hughes, B P; Newstead, S; Anund, A; Shu, C C; Falkmer, T

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of road traffic crashes and some 50 million are injured per annum. At present some Western countries' road safety strategies and countermeasures claim to have developed into 'Safe Systems' models to address the effects of road related crashes. Well-constructed models encourage effective strategies to improve road safety. This review aimed to identify and summarise concise descriptions, or 'models' of safety. The review covers information from a wide variety of fields and contexts including transport, occupational safety, food industry, education, construction and health. The information from 2620 candidate references were selected and summarised in 121 examples of different types of model and contents. The language of safety models and systems was found to be inconsistent. Each model provided additional information regarding style, purpose, complexity and diversity. In total, seven types of models were identified. The categorisation of models was done on a high level with a variation of details in each group and without a complete, simple and rational description. The models identified in this review are likely to be adaptable to road safety and some of them have previously been used. None of systems theory, safety management systems, the risk management approach, or safety culture was commonly or thoroughly applied to road safety. It is concluded that these approaches have the potential to reduce road trauma. PMID:24997016

  16. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  17. A method for the reduction of aerodynamic drag of road vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Taylor, Larry W.; Leary, Terrance O.

    1990-01-01

    A method is proposed for the reduction of the aerodynamic drag of bluff bodies, particularly for application to road transport vehicles. This technique consists of installation of panels on the forward surface of the vehicle facing the airstream. With the help of road tests, it was demonstrated that the attachment of proposed panels can reduce aerodynamic drag of road vehicles and result in significant fuel cost savings and conservation of energy resources.

  18. Experiments on Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Stephen; Taberlet, Nicolas; McElwaine, James; Dalziel, Stuart

    2007-03-01

    Granular surfaces to develop lateral ripples (so-called ``washboard" or ``corrugated" road) under the action of rolling wheels. Similar ripples are observed on railroad tracks and many other rolling, load bearing surfaces. Our aim was to investigate this instability of the flat road surface from the point of view of driven, dissipative granular dynamics. We report the results of both laboratory experiments and soft-particle direct numerical simulations. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table, the details of the grains and the suspension of the wheel. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples drift slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed, as well as various ripple creation and destruction events. The wavelength of the ripples can be quantized by the finite circumference of the road. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by 2D soft particle simulations in which a disk rolls over a 2D bed of polydisperse particles in a periodic box.

  19. Transport energy: determinants and policy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkerley, J.; Hoch, I.; Bouhdili, C.

    1985-09-01

    Expanding oil consumption by the transportation sector, already a major oil consumer, poses an economic threat to many developing countries. The report presents an overview of past trends in transport energy consumption and analyzes these trends systematically via regression analyses based on data from 80 developing and industrial countries (including new data on total and sectoral fuel consumption, numbers of trucks and buses, GDP, gasoline and diesel prices, and demographic and geographic features). Results of these analyses are supplemented by case studies of India and Ecuador. Results reveal high-income and low-price elasticities for fuel consumption and suggest that, despite rising fuel prices, increases in fuel consumption and vehicle ownership will outstrip increases in economic activity. This situation will require adapted fuel-price policies, which are critical in explaining fuel consumption. However, given the low price elasticities, price policies should be supplemented by improving vehicle efficiency and truck load factors, providing attractive alternative forms of public transportation, and reducing road congestion.

  20. A novel approach to produce road-level inventories of on-road greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions inventories are an important tool often built by governments tomanage and assess greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. High resolutioninventories, both in space and time, are necessary to capture localcharacteristics of on-road transportation emissions in particular. Emissionsvary widely due to the local nature of the fleet, fuel, and roads and thisheterogeneity must inform effective emissions modeling on the urban level. Inaddition, widespread availability of low-cost computing now makes highresolution climate and air quality modeling feasible, but efforts to improveinventories have not kept pace. There currently is a lack of inventories atcomparable resolutions. This motivated similar work such as the VULCAN projectwhich used county-level data to estimate on-road emissions. We are motivatedto improve upon this by using site-level traffic count data where available.Here we show a new high resolution model of CO2 emissions for the Portland,OR metropolitan region. The backbone is an archive of traffic counterrecordings taken by the Portland Bureau of Transportation intermittently at9,352 sites over 21 years and continuing today (1986-2006 data are summarizedhere) and by The Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing at 309freeway sites. We constructed a regression model to fill in traffic networkgaps using GIS data such as road class and population density. After stepwisetesting of each of eighteen road classes (from minor streets to freeway), wewere able to select ten variables that are significant (P < 0.001) predictorsof traffic; particularly freeway, unimproved road, and minor streets. Themodel was tested by holding back one-third of the data. The R2 for the linearmodel (based on road class and land use) is 0.84. The EPA MOVES model was thenused to estimate transportation CO2 emissions using local fleet, traffic, andmeteorology data.

  1. Road traffic injuries in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Romão, Francelina; Nizamo, Hanifa; Mapasse, Domingos; Rafico, Momede Mussá; José, João; Mataruca, Simão; Efron, M Lúcia; Omondi, Lucas O; Leifert, Thelma; Bicho, Joaquim M L Marungo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries affect the economy, health and quality of life of the people of Mozambique. Current road safety programmes are inadequate and inefficient given the magnitude of the problem. Data reported on road traffic crashes in the period 1990 to 2000 from the National Institute for Road Safety, the traffic police and the Central Hospital of Maputo were reviewed. The burden of road traffic injuries in Mozambique is rising, with at least three people killed daily. The age group most affected is 25-38 (39.35%), followed by 16-24 (20.79%). The main causes of crashes include reckless driving, drunken driving, roads with potholes, inadequate signs, lack of protection for pedestrians, and inadequate traffic law enforcement. However, the data are not adequate to reveal the true magnitude of the problem. Data collected by different sources are incomplete and not coordinated with other sources and databases. In urban areas, however, better response to crashes, treatment of the injured, reporting and data collection is attributable to a greater concentration of police and medical facilities. Road traffic safety programmes in Mozambique are inadequate and inefficient, starting with the data collection system. Improvement of injury surveillance systems is needed to help make road traffic safety a national development agenda priority and for developing and implementing road safety policies. For road safety programmes to be effective, government must facilitate stakeholders' involvement, and the clear definition of government activities, civil society activities and public-private partnerships need to be established. PMID:12772487

  2. 3 CFR 8377 - Proclamation 8377 of May 11, 2009. National Defense Transportation Day and National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... transportation. This legislation will fund projects to improve public transportation, repair highways and roads... Transportation Day and National Transportation Week, 2009 8377 Proclamation 8377 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8377 of May 11, 2009 Proc. 8377 National Defense Transportation Day and...

  3. Monitoring road losses for Lushan 7.0 earthquake disaster utilization multisource remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Yang, Siquan; Li, Suju; He, Haixia; Liu, Ming; Xu, Feng; Lin, Yueguan

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake is one major nature disasters in the world. At 8:02 on 20 April 2013, a catastrophic earthquake with Ms 7.0 in surface wave magnitude occurred in Sichuan province, China. The epicenter of this earthquake located in the administrative region of Lushan County and this earthquake was named the Lushan earthquake. The Lushan earthquake caused heavy casualties and property losses in Sichuan province. After the earthquake, various emergency relief supplies must be transported to the affected areas. Transportation network is the basis for emergency relief supplies transportation and allocation. Thus, the road losses of the Lushan earthquake must be monitoring. The road losses monitoring results for Lushan earthquake disaster utilization multisource remote sensing images were reported in this paper. The road losses monitoring results indicated that there were 166 meters' national roads, 3707 meters' provincial roads, 3396 meters' county roads, 7254 meters' township roads, and 3943 meters' village roads were damaged during the Lushan earthquake disaster. The damaged roads mainly located at Lushan County, Baoxing County, Tianquan County, Yucheng County, Mingshan County, and Qionglai County. The results also can be used as a decision-making information source for the disaster management government in China.

  4. 75 FR 61817 - Adrian & Blissfield Rail Road Company-Continuance in Control Exemption-Jackson & Lansing Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Adrian & Blissfield Rail Road Company--Continuance in Control Exemption--Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company Adrian & Blissfield Rail Road Company (ADBF), a Class III rail...

  5. 77 FR 25529 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... this authorization, the DOL amended its implementing regulations at 29 CFR part 215 (73 FR 47046, Aug... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants AGENCY: Federal... availability of funds in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 for the Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility (OTRB)...

  6. Hungarian intelligent road information system (IRIS) Technical Development Agency (TDA) project inception report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The report provides an overview of the Hungarian Intelligent Road Information System (IRIS), which is designed to apply the latest technologies and transportation skills to provide Hungarians and international road users with the best possible service on the Hungarian roadway system.

  7. Green Road: an ecological road construction method for the preservation of mountain environment and landscape in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudan Acharya, Madhu

    2013-04-01

    Road is the only viable means of transportation and an important infrastructure for the economic development of a mountainous country like Nepal. The construction and maintenance of hill and mountain roads in Nepal are often challenged by its topography with very steep slopes, fragile geological conditions and a strong monsoon rain for a longer duration. Under such topographic and climatic conditions, the conventional approach of road construction on hills with cut and throw method with the use of machines has caused substantial increase in post construction landslides, mass wastage of soil material, shear failures on the downhill slope due to additional surcharge from tipped soil, loss of vegetation on slopes and environmental degradation. To overcome these environmental problems, a concept called "Green Road" has emerged in hill road construction practices in Nepal. This concept was evolved from the lesson learnt in the past and decade long experiences in hill road constructions and maintenance. This is an environment-friendly and labour-based construction technique which utilizes mass balancing approach. It is a low cost solution which focuses on the use of locally available materials and techniques in a sustainable way by maintaining the existing landscapes. Appropriate soil bioengineering techniques are applied to stabilize the roadside slopes and to reduce soil erosion. This paper provides some basics of green road approach, its advantages and its contribution to preserve natural environment. This paper examines the magnitude of direct mass wasting of materials due to excess excavation and compares the loss of masses in both conventional as well as green road approach of road construction. Recommendations are also made for minimizing the mass wastage and to preserve the fragile mountain environment by using appropriate soil bioengineering methods.

  8. Effects on road safety of new urban arterial roads.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Astrid H; Elvik, Rune

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the effects on road safety of new urban arterial roads in Oslo, Norway, and a synthesis of evidence from similar studies that have evaluated the safety effects of new urban arterial roads in other cities. A before-and-after study was made of four urban arterial road projects in Oslo. The study controlled for general accident trends in Oslo and for regression-to-the-mean. A statistically non-significant reduction of 9% in the number of injury accidents was found for all four projects combined. The effects on safety of new urban arterial roads were found to vary, depending on whether a new arterial road was built, or an existing arterial road upgraded by means of lane additions and reconstruction of junctions to interchanges. New arterial roads tend to induce more traffic, which tends to offset the benefits of a lower accident rate on the new roads. The results for other cities are very consistent with those for Oslo. For a total of seven cases in which new arterial roads were built, a statistically non-significant reduction of 1% in the number of injury accidents was found. Two cases that involved lane additions and converting at-grade junctions to interchanges resulted in a mean accident reduction of 51%, which was highly significant. On the average, the nine arterial road projects from which evidence was summarised resulted in a net induced traffic of 16%, and a net reduction in accident rate (accidents per million vehicle kilometres) of 18%. These effects almost cancel each other, leading to a very small net change in the expected number of accidents. PMID:14572833

  9. The road not taken*

    PubMed Central

    Messerle, Judith

    2001-01-01

    The annual Janet Doe Lecture was established in l966 to honor Janet Doe, emerita librarian of the New York Academy of Medicine. The lecture focuses on either the history or philosophy of health sciences librarianship. This lecture addresses three fundamental values of the field, highlighting basic beliefs of the profession that are at risk: privacy, intellectual property rights, and access to quality information. It calls upon readers to make the everyday choices required to keep the value system of health sciences librarianship in place. Robert Frost's poignant poem ”The Road Not Taken” provides the metaphor for examining choices in an information economy. PMID:11209796

  10. 25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge in background. Van Nest, Bronx Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 12.75./78. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  11. Compilation and application of a primary PM 2.5 emissions inventory with high sectoral resolution in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Toshiharu; Nansai, Keisuke; Tohno, Susumu; Yamamoto, Kouhei

    To elucidate the macro-structure of the PM 2.5 emissions generated by Japan's economic activities, this paper presents an emission inventory of primary particles of PM 2.5 with high sectoral resolution based on the Japanese Input-Output Tables, comprising some 400 sectors. These primary PM 2.5 emissions were estimated by multiplying the estimated energy consumption associated with each fuel type by a PM 10 emission factor incorporating the technological level of dust collection in each sector and the mass ratio of PM 2.5 to PM 10. Non-energy emissions from agricultural open burning were also determined. Total PM 2.5 emissions in 2000 were 252 kt, 49% of which were due to mobile emission sources. Changes in total PM 2.5 emissions between 1990 and 2000 were also calculated. This showed that a substantial increase in energy sector emissions due to rising coal consumption was offset by a sharp decline in emissions from road vehicles and shipping vessels, resulting in an overall decrease in total emissions. In addition, the emissions induced by economic demand in each sector were quantified by means of input-output analysis, which revealed that demand for construction, foods and communications and services constituted the principal causes of real domestic emissions. An assessment of sectoral contributions to PM 2.5 emissions that takes into account the effects of human exposure, expressed as external costs, suggests that the contribution of transportation is greater than indicated on the grounds of direct emissions alone.

  12. The Road to Mandalay: A Journey towards Cultural Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moult, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Rudyard Kipling wrote "The Road to Mandalay" in 1892 when Burma was a British colony and Queen Victoria was the Empress of India. In the poem, Mandalay is a city some 500 miles along the Irrawaddy River from the capital, Rangoon. British troops stationed in Burma were transported on the river by paddle steamers. The picture painted of Asia is one…

  13. 14. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FOOTING PLAN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FOOTING PLAN AND LEG DETAILS. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  14. 17. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GRADE SEPARATION. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GRADE SEPARATION. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  15. 16. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, RAILING AND PYLON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, RAILING AND PYLON DETAILS. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  16. 15. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FRAME AND WING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FRAME AND WING WALL DETAILS. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  17. 13. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GENERAL PLAN. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GENERAL PLAN. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  18. Road roughness evaluation using in-pavement strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Deng, Fodan; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj

    2015-11-01

    The international roughness index (IRI) is a characterization of road roughness or ride quality that transportation agencies most often report. The prevalent method of acquiring IRI data requires instrumented vehicles and technicians with specialized training to interpret the results. The extensive labor and high cost requirements associated with the existing approaches limit data collection to at most once per year for portions of the national highway system. Agencies characterize roughness only for some secondary roads but much less frequently, such as once every five years, resulting in outdated roughness information. This research developed a real-time roughness evaluation approach that links the output of durable in-pavement strain sensors to prevailing indices that summarize road roughness. Field experiments validated the high consistency of the approach by showing that it is within 3.3% of relative IRI estimates. After their installation and calibration during road construction, the ruggedized strain sensors will report road roughness continuously. Thus, the solution will provide agencies a real-time roughness monitoring solution over the remaining service life of road assets.

  19. 25 CFR 170.809 - Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self-determination contract or self-governance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BIA or tribal transportation facility maintenance under ISDEAA and 25 CFR part 900 or 1000. The self... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.809...

  20. View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial and residential buildings on the east and west sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  1. View northeast along Wauregan Road (Route 205) showing a residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast along Wauregan Road (Route 205) showing a residence on east side of the road from just south of the intersection of Routes 205 and 169 - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  2. RTP AREA ROAD GRADE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grade data collection with GPS equipment is important because the load model component of the MEASURE model uses grade to predict the vehicle load. To date, data collection has been conducted for high priority roads and this task will include other roads not included in the firs...

  3. GNSS-based Road User Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrhovski, Drazen; Moore, Terry; Bennett, Lloyd

    2004-01-01

    The last few years have seen a rapid growth of applications based on positioning information provided by satellite positioning systems. In transport management and control, satellite positioning has proven to be the most promising means for spatial location data collection. With the GPS modernisation programme well underway, and the recent developments of the Galileo project, even more GNSS-based applications are to be expected in the future. One such GNSS-based application is the use of position and velocity information as the prime input to a road user charging (RUC) scheme. However, navigation in urban environments raises a number of problems. Most important are the difficulties related to signal obstruction by features such as tall buildings, urban canyons, bridges and trees, as well as the effects of multipath caused by signal reflections from buildings and other vehicles. Given the inevitable limitations of road trials, the use of simulation modelling to assess the present and future satellite positioning systems' performance to support urban RUC seems indispensable. The main objective of the research undertaken at the University of Nottingham Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), and the Nottingham Centre for Infrastructure (NCI), was to develop a tool to simulate GPS for Satellite Positioning-based Road User Charging (SPRUC). In this regard, an existing GPS simulator was modified to rectify one of its major weaknesses, namely the inability to address properly the change in non-static GPS measurements with respect to changes in built environment. For this purpose, state-of-the-art Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was used to complement the simulator, and consequently a seamless interface between the two software has been developed. Finally, in order to provide a prime input to the simulator, field tests have been undertaken and significant amounts of GPS data were collected. Statistics were also derived for positioning

  4. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Chinese Transportation Fuel Demand

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, China has experienced tremendous growth in its transportation sector. By the end of 2010, China's road infrastructure had emerged as the second-largest transportation system in the world after the United States. Passenger vehicle sales are dramatically increasing from a little more than half a million in 2000, to 3.7 million in 2005, to 13.8 million in 2010. This represents a twenty-fold increase from 2000 to 2010. The unprecedented motorization development in China led to a significant increase in oil demand, which requires China to import progressively more petroleum from other countries, with its share of petroleum imports exceeding 50% of total petroleum demand since 2009. In response to growing oil import dependency, the Chinese government is adopting a broad range of policies, including promotion of fuel-efficient vehicles, fuel conservation, increasing investments in oil resources around the world, and many others.

  5. Cultural Resource Investigations for a Multipurpose Haul Road on the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Cameron Brizzee; Hollie Gilbert; Clayton Marler; Julie Braun Williams

    2010-08-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a multipurpose haul road to transport materials and wastes between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and other Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site facilities. The proposed road will be closed to the public and designed for limited year-round use. Two primary options are under consideration: a new route south of the existing T-25 power line road and an upgrade to road T-24. In the Spring of 2010, archaeological field surveys and initial coordination and field reconnaissance with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes were completed to identify any resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed road construction and to develop recommendations to protect any listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The investigations showed that 24 archaeological resources and one historic marker are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation south of the T-25 powerline road and 27archaeological resources are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation along road T-24. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both road corridors. This report outlines recommendations for additional investigations and protective measures that can be implemented to minimize adverse impacts to the identified resources.

  6. Road Extraction from AVIRIS Using Spectral Mixture and Q-Tree Filter Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Margaret E.; Roberts, Dar A.; Funk, Chris; Noronha, Val

    2001-01-01

    Accurate road location and condition information are of primary importance in road infrastructure management. Additionally, spatially accurate and up-to-date road networks are essential in ambulance and rescue dispatch in emergency situations. However, accurate road infrastructure databases do not exist for vast areas, particularly in areas with rapid expansion. Currently, the US Department of Transportation (USDOT) extends great effort in field Global Positioning System (GPS) mapping and condition assessment to meet these informational needs. This methodology, though effective, is both time-consuming and costly, because every road within a DOT's jurisdiction must be field-visited to obtain accurate information. Therefore, the USDOT is interested in identifying new technologies that could help meet road infrastructure informational needs more effectively. Remote sensing provides one means by which large areas may be mapped with a high standard of accuracy and is a technology with great potential in infrastructure mapping. The goal of our research is to develop accurate road extraction techniques using high spatial resolution, fine spectral resolution imagery. Additionally, our research will explore the use of hyperspectral data in assessing road quality. Finally, this research aims to define the spatial and spectral requirements for remote sensing data to be used successfully for road feature extraction and road quality mapping. Our findings will facilitate the USDOT in assessing remote sensing as a new resource in infrastructure studies.

  7. Scale invariance in road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalapala, Vamsi; Sanwalani, Vishal; Clauset, Aaron; Moore, Cristopher

    2006-02-01

    We study the topological and geographic structure of the national road networks of the United States, England, and Denmark. By transforming these networks into their dual representation, where roads are vertices and an edge connects two vertices if the corresponding roads ever intersect, we show that they exhibit both topological and geographic scale invariance. That is, we show that for sufficiently large geographic areas, the dual degree distribution follows a power law with exponent 2.2⩽α⩽2.4 , and that journeys, regardless of their length, have a largely identical structure. To explain these properties, we introduce and analyze a simple fractal model of road placement that reproduces the observed structure, and suggests a testable connection between the scaling exponent α and the fractal dimensions governing the placement of roads and intersections.

  8. Road to reform

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.

    1997-04-01

    The power sector is actively exploring and pursuing the myriad opportunities that exist under the concessions and independent power plant laws recently enacted by the Brazilian legislature. While Brazil has not yet finalized the necessary implementing regulations, it has taken positive steps to reform its infrastructure, develop proactive fiscal policies and address the problem of inflation. The author goes on to discuss issues unique to the situation of Brazil as they relate to the ability of foreign companies to break into the business sector, in particular the power generation field. Many rules are in the process of change, but there still remains uncertainties which cloud the question as to the economic viability of investments in the power generation field.

  9. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    PubMed

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. PMID:23268762

  10. Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)

  11. Using remote sensing data to predict road fill areas and areas affected by fill erosion with planned forest road construction: a case study in Kastamonu Regional Forest Directorate (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Aricak, Burak

    2015-07-01

    Forest roads are essential for transport in managed forests, yet road construction causes environmental disturbance, both in the surface area the road covers and in erosion and downslope deposition of road fill material. The factors affecting the deposition distance of eroded road fill are the slope gradient and the density of plant cover. Thus, it is important to take these factors into consideration during road planning to minimize their disturbance. The aim of this study was to use remote sensing and field surveying to predict the locations that would be affected by downslope deposition of eroding road fill and to compile the data into a geographic information system (GIS) database. The construction of 99,500 m of forest roads is proposed for the Kastamonu Regional Forest Directorate in Turkey. Using GeoEye satellite images and a digital elevation model (DEM) for the region, the location and extent of downslope deposition of road fill were determined for the roads as planned. It was found that if the proposed roads were constructed by excavators, the fill material would cover 910,621 m(2) and the affected surface area would be 1,302,740 m(2). Application of the method used here can minimize the adverse effects of forest roads. PMID:26055656

  12. Using mobile laser scanning data for automated extraction of road markings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Haiyan; Li, Jonathan; Yu, Yongtao; Wang, Cheng; Chapman, Michael; Yang, Bisheng

    2014-01-01

    A mobile laser scanning (MLS) system allows direct collection of accurate 3D point information in unprecedented detail at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs, which serves the fast growing demands of transportation-related road surveying including road surface geometry and road environment. As one type of road feature in traffic management systems, road markings on paved roadways have important functions in providing guidance and information to drivers and pedestrians. This paper presents a stepwise procedure to recognize road markings from MLS point clouds. To improve computational efficiency, we first propose a curb-based method for road surface extraction. This method first partitions the raw MLS data into a set of profiles according to vehicle trajectory data, and then extracts small height jumps caused by curbs in the profiles via slope and elevation-difference thresholds. Next, points belonging to the extracted road surface are interpolated into a geo-referenced intensity image using an extended inverse-distance-weighted (IDW) approach. Finally, we dynamically segment the geo-referenced intensity image into road-marking candidates with multiple thresholds that correspond to different ranges determined by point-density appropriate normality. A morphological closing operation with a linear structuring element is finally used to refine the road-marking candidates by removing noise and improving completeness. This road-marking extraction algorithm is comprehensively discussed in the analysis of parameter sensitivity and overall performance. An experimental study performed on a set of road markings with ground-truth shows that the proposed algorithm provides a promising solution to the road-marking extraction from MLS data.

  13. Not planning a sustainable transport system

    SciTech Connect

    Finnveden, Göran Åkerman, Jonas

    2014-04-01

    The overall objective of the Swedish transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and business throughout the country. More specifically, the transport sector shall, among other things, contribute to the achievement of environmental quality objectives in which the development of the transport system plays an important role in the achievement of the objectives. The aim of this study is to analyse if current transport planning supports this policy. This is done by analysing two recent cases: the National Infrastructure Plan 2010–2021, and the planning of Bypass Stockholm, a major road investment. Our results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. Another interesting aspect of the planning processes is that the long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes, neither as a clear goal nor as factor that will influence future transport systems. In this way, the long-term sustainability aspects are not present in the planning. We conclude that the two cases do not contribute to a sustainable transport system. Thus, several changes must be made in the processes, including putting up clear targets for emissions. Also, the methodology for the environmental assessments needs to be further developed and discussed. - Highlights: • Two cases are studied to analyse if current planning supports a sustainable transport system. • Results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. • Long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes. • Current practices do not contribute to a sustainable planning processes. • Methodology and process for environmental assessments must be further developed and discussed.

  14. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode. PMID:25152919

  15. Fuel economy measurement road test procedure. SAE standard

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This SAE Standard incorporates driving cycles that produce fuel consumption data relating to urban, suburban, and interstate driving patterns and is intended to be used to determine the relative fuel economy among vehicles and driving patterns under warmed-up conditions on test tracks, suitable roads, or chassis dynamometers. The cycle forms the basis of a cold-start test procedure described in SAE J1256. This document provides uniform testing procedures for measuring the fuel economy of light duty vehicles (motor vehicles designed primarily for transportation of persons or property and rated at 4,500 kg (10,000 lb) or less) on suitable roads.

  16. 76 FR 9015 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    .../Treasurer/Secretary. Application Type: New OFF License. American Freight Transport, Inc. (OFF), 4805 Meyer Road, Pendleton, NY 14120. Officers: Mark E. Oehm, Vice President (Qualifying Individual), Mary...

  17. 34. At Willard, Oklahoma Road north of Willard Road, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. At Willard, Oklahoma Road north of Willard Road, at the site of the former Cook House for Willard Mill (upper mill that cut cants for Broughton Lumber Company's flume). Section of feeder after Lava Creek, looking down flume. Note extra large size of "V" in water supply vs. cant portions of flume. South/southeast 170 degrees. - Broughton Flume, Hood River Junction on Columbia River at Washington/Oregon border, Hood, Skamania County, WA

  18. Occupational health scenario of Indian informal sector

    PubMed Central

    NAG, Anjali; VYAS, Heer; NAG, Pranab

    2016-01-01

    Workers in the Indian informal sector are engaged with different occupations. These occupations involve varied work related hazards. These occupational hazards are a consequent risk to health. The study aimed to determine occupational health scenario in the Indian Informal sector. One thousand eleven hundred twenty two workers from five different occupations namely weaving (handloom and power loom), construction, transportation, tobacco processing and fish processing were assessed by interviewer administered health questionnaire. Workers suffered from musculo-skeletal complaints, respiratory health hazards, eye problems and skin related complaints. There was a high prevalence of self-reported occupational health problems in the selected sectors. The study finds that workers have occupational exposures to multiple hazards. The absence of protective guards aggrevate their health condition. The study attempts to draws an immediate attention on the existing health scenario of the Indian Informal sector. PMID:26903262

  19. Occupational health scenario of Indian informal sector.

    PubMed

    Nag, Anjali; Vyas, Heer; Nag, Pranab

    2016-08-01

    Workers in the Indian informal sector are engaged with different occupations. These occupations involve varied work related hazards. These occupational hazards are a consequent risk to health. The study aimed to determine occupational health scenario in the Indian Informal sector. One thousand eleven hundred twenty two workers from five different occupations namely weaving (handloom and power loom), construction, transportation, tobacco processing and fish processing were assessed by interviewer administered health questionnaire. Workers suffered from musculo-skeletal complaints, respiratory health hazards, eye problems and skin related complaints. There was a high prevalence of self-reported occupational health problems in the selected sectors. The study finds that workers have occupational exposures to multiple hazards. The absence of protective guards aggrevate their health condition. The study attempts to draws an immediate attention on the existing health scenario of the Indian Informal sector. PMID:26903262

  20. The impacts of road and walking trails upon adjacent vegetation: effects of road building materials on species composition in a nutrient poor environment.

    PubMed

    Müllerová, Jana; Vítková, Michaela; Vítek, Ondřej

    2011-09-01

    Roads represent an important landscape element affecting both biotic and abiotic components. Alteration of soil properties along roads (addition of nutrients) is assumed to have a great impact on vegetation structure especially in nutrient poor ecosystems. Existing studies focus mainly on road dust. In our study we assessed the overall effects of roads upon adjacent alpine tundra vegetation and soils in Krkonoše Mts, Czech Republic. Our aims were to (1) reconstruct the road-related changes using aerial data and GPS mapping to study colonization of roadside plant species; (2) assess the road effects on physical-chemical soil properties and vegetation composition along transects; and (3) propose conservation measures to stop further damage. Changes were reconstructed from historical multispectral aerial photography (1986 to 1997), measured by GPS device (1997, 2004), and accompanied by detailed soil (1998, 2000 and 2001) and vegetation (2000 and 2004) surveys along transects. Along alkaline roads, fast and profound shifts in physical-chemical soil properties (pH increased from 3.9 up to 7.6, base saturation from 9-30% up to 100%), and species composition were recorded. The roadside vegetation doubled in area during the studied decade. Stress-tolerant tundra species were replaced by meso- to nitrophilous species and species preferring man-made habitats. The intensity of changes depended significantly on the type of road material and the position relative to the road (slope position, distance from the road). Our findings support the assumption that alkaline gravel is the main cause of changes along roads in the area, and indicate the leading role of water transport in the soil and consequent vegetation alteration. To prevent the further damage we recommended replacement of alkaline gravel by granite, even though expensive and technically complicated. Based on our recommendations, the National Park authorities started to reconstruct the trails, although recovery is

  1. Cross-analysis of hazmat road accidents using multiple databases.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Martin; Leroux, Marie-Hélène; de Marcellis-Warin, Nathalie

    2009-11-01

    Road selection for hazardous materials transportation relies heavily on risk analysis. With risk being generally expressed as a product of the probability of occurrence and the expected consequence, one will understand that risk analysis is data intensive. However, various authors have noticed the lack of statistical reliability of hazmat accident databases due to the systematic underreporting of such events. Also, official accident databases alone are not always providing all the information required (economical impact, road conditions, etc.). In this paper, we attempt to integrate many data sources to analyze hazmat accidents in the province of Quebec, Canada. Databases on dangerous goods accidents, road accidents and work accidents were cross-analyzed. Results show that accidents can hardly be matched and that these databases suffer from underreporting. Police records seem to have better coverage than official records maintained by hazmat authorities. Serious accidents are missing from government's official databases (some involving deaths or major spills) even though their declaration is mandatory. PMID:19819367

  2. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  3. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Roads: general. 816.150 Section 816.150 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.150 Roads: general. (a) Road classification system. (1) Each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, shall...

  4. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primary roads. 817.151 Section 817.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of § 817.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified in...

  5. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  6. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  7. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Roads: General. 817.150 Section 817.150 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.150 Roads: General. (a) Road classification system. (1) Each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, shall...

  8. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  9. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primary roads. 816.151 Section 816.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of section 816.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be...

  10. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  11. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  12. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  13. Effectiveness of an improved road safety policy in Ethiopia: an interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in implementing road safety policy by different low income countries. However; the evidence is scarce on its success in the reduction of crashes, injuries and deaths. This study was conducted to assess whether road crashes, injuries and fatalities was reduced following the road safety regulation introduced as of September 2007 by Oromia Regional State Transport Bureau. Methods Routine road traffic accident data for the year 2002-2011were collected from sixteen traffic police offices. Data on average daily vehicle flow was obtained from the Ethiopian Road Authority. Interrupted time series design using segmented linear regression model was applied to estimate the effect of an improved road safety policy. Results A total of 4,053 crashes occurred on Addis Ababa - Adama/Hawassa main road. Of these crashes, almost half 46.4% (1,880) were property damage, 29.4% (1,193) were fatal and 24.2% (980) injury crashes, resulting 1,392 fatalities and 1,749 injuries. There were statistically significant reductions in non-injury crashes and deaths. Non-injury crash was reduced by 19% and fatality by 12.4% in the first year of implementing the revised transport safety regulation. Conclusion Although revised road safety policy helped in reducing motor vehicle crashes and associated fatalities, the overall incidence rate is still very high. Further action is required to avoid unnecessary loss of lives. PMID:24886220

  14. Method for estimating road salt contamination of Norwegian lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitterød, Nils-Otto; Wike Kronvall, Kjersti; Turtumøygaard, Stein; Haaland, Ståle

    2013-04-01

    Consumption of road salt in Norway, used to improve winter road conditions, has been tripled during the last two decades, and there is a need to quantify limits for optimal use of road salt to avoid further environmental harm. The purpose of this study was to implement methodology to estimate chloride concentration in any given water body in Norway. This goal is feasible to achieve if the complexity of solute transport in the landscape is simplified. The idea was to keep computations as simple as possible to be able to increase spatial resolution of input functions. The first simplification we made was to treat all roads exposed to regular salt application as steady state sources of sodium chloride. This is valid if new road salt is applied before previous contamination is removed through precipitation. The main reasons for this assumption are the significant retention capacity of vegetation; organic matter; and soil. The second simplification we made was that the groundwater table is close to the surface. This assumption is valid for major part of Norway, which means that topography is sufficient to delineate catchment area at any location in the landscape. Given these two assumptions, we applied spatial functions of mass load (mass NaCl pr. time unit) and conditional estimates of normal water balance (volume of water pr. time unit) to calculate steady state chloride concentration along the lake perimeter. Spatial resolution of mass load and estimated concentration along the lake perimeter was 25 m x 25 m while water balance had 1 km x 1 km resolution. The method was validated for a limited number of Norwegian lakes and estimation results have been compared to observations. Initial results indicate significant overlap between measurements and estimations, but only for lakes where the road salt is the major contribution for chloride contamination. For lakes in catchments with high subsurface transmissivity, the groundwater table is not necessarily following the

  15. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  16. PM 10 metal concentrations and source identification using positive matrix factorization and wind sectoring in a French industrial zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alleman, Laurent Y.; Lamaison, Laure; Perdrix, Esperanza; Robache, Antoine; Galloo, Jean-Claude

    2010-06-01

    The elemental composition data of ambient aerosols collected upon selected wind sectors in the highly industrialised harbour of Dunkirk (France) were interpreted using pollution roses, elemental ratios, Enrichment Factors (EF), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model. The objective was to identify the possible sources of PM10 aerosols, their respective chemical tracers and to determine their relative contribution at the sampling site. PM10 particles samples were collected from June 2003 to March 2005 in order to analyse up to 35 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Si, Sm, Sr, Th, Ti, U, V, Zn and Zr) using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (AES) and ICP-Mass Spectrometry (MS). A significant effort has been made on estimating the total uncertainty of each result by regularly analysing blanks, quality controls and SRM NIST standards. Based on this procedure, a selected set of 24 "robust" elements was compared to the 35-element matrix in order to evaluate the sturdiness of our PMF statistical treatment. Eight source factors were resolved by PCA for all the wind sectors explaining 90% of the total data variance. The PMF results confirmed that eight physically interpretable factors contributed to the ambient particulate pollution at the sampling site: crustal dust (11%), marine aerosols (12%), petrochemistry activities (9.2%), metallurgical sintering plant (8.6%), metallurgical coke plant (12.6%), ferromanganese plant (6.6%), road transport (15%) and a less clearly interpretable profile probably associated to dust resuspension (13%). These weighted contributions against wind direction frequencies demonstrate that industrial sources are the most important contributors to this site (37%) followed by the natural sources (detrital and marine sources) (23%) and the road transport (15%).

  17. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  18. 34. COULTERVILLE ROAD AT CENTER AND EL PORTAL ROAD/HIGHWAY 140 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. COULTERVILLE ROAD AT CENTER AND EL PORTAL ROAD/HIGHWAY 140 AT BOTTOM. ROCK SLIDES ARE AT THE COOKIE CLIFFS, BOTTOM RIGHT. NOTE OLD STAGE COACH ROAD JUST ABOVE THE EL PORTAL ROAD IN LOWER RIGHT TO LEFT OF ROCK SLIDE AREA. - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  19. The likelihood of achieving quantified road safety targets: a binary logistic regression model for possible factors.

    PubMed

    Sze, N N; Wong, S C; Lee, C Y

    2014-12-01

    In past several decades, many countries have set quantified road safety targets to motivate transport authorities to develop systematic road safety strategies and measures and facilitate the achievement of continuous road safety improvement. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between the setting of quantified road safety targets and road fatality reduction, in both the short and long run, by comparing road fatalities before and after the implementation of a quantified road safety target. However, not much work has been done to evaluate whether the quantified road safety targets are actually achieved. In this study, we used a binary logistic regression model to examine the factors - including vehicle ownership, fatality rate, and national income, in addition to level of ambition and duration of target - that contribute to a target's success. We analyzed 55 quantified road safety targets set by 29 countries from 1981 to 2009, and the results indicate that targets that are in progress and with lower level of ambitions had a higher likelihood of eventually being achieved. Moreover, possible interaction effects on the association between level of ambition and the likelihood of success are also revealed. PMID:25255417

  20. Observations of Novae From ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.

    2014-12-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to AAVSO Alert Notices and AAVSO Special Notices as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  1. Observations of Novae from ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to alert notices and special notices of the AAVSO as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  2. HEALTH SECTOR ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the USGCRP's First National Assessment effort, EPA's Global Change Research Program sponsored the Health Sector Assessment. The Health Sector Assessment was co-chaired by Dr. Jonathan A. Patz, Director of the Program on the Health Effects of Global Environmental Change...

  3. Automatic inspection of road surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rughooputh, Harry C. S.; Rughooputh, Soonil D. D. V.; Kinser, Jason M.

    2000-03-01

    Traditional inspections of road surfaces for the condition assessment and for locating cracks are time-consuming, expensive and can prove to be dangerous. What is ideally required would be a fully equipped automated inspecting vehicle capable of high precision location and characterization of road surface cracks over the width of the road (single pass). We propose an automatic crack monitoring system (akin to HARRIS - UK) with the video-based subsystem substituted by Global Positioning Systems for more accurate positioning. Besides, our technique avoids the storage of large volumes of scanned images of 'acceptable' road surface conditions. A pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) is used as a preprocessor for each scanned image to detect cracks while another PCNN segments this image to characterize identified defects. The latter image is then stored as binary image along with the GPS data. The type of cracks is later identified (offline) from the recorded binary images. This mode of data collection leads to a more accurate, less costly and faster automated system. Our results for road surface (concrete and bituminous) images reveal the suitability of this novel technique for a fully automated road inspection system for crack identification and characterization.

  4. Direct and indirect effects of roads and road vehicles on the plant community composition of calcareous grasslands.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mark A; Power, Sally A

    2013-05-01

    Exposure of plants to vehicle exhaust emissions and road-induced changes to soil biogeochemistry and hydrology can lead to shifts in plant composition in calcareous grasslands. Mixed effects models were used to identify relationships between plant community composition and a suite of measured and modelled environmental variables along transects away from roads at eight calcareous grasslands. Ellenberg pH, moisture and nitrogen (N) scores increased nearer roadsides, however, only Ellenberg N scores were associated with their respective measured or modelled values highlighting NO2 deposition as a likely driver of change. Forb abundance and diversity increases nearer roadsides were also associated with NO2 deposition, with increases seen in the abundance and diversity of typical edge species rather than species characteristic of calcareous grasslands. Grazing, removal of invasive species and the use of barriers to intercept transport-derived air pollution may help to reduce the detrimental effects of roads across these diverse but threatened landscapes. PMID:23416745

  5. Study on road sign recognition in LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panoiu, M.; Rat, C. L.; Panoiu, C.

    2016-02-01

    Road and traffic sign identification is a field of study that can be used to aid the development of in-car advisory systems. It uses computer vision and artificial intelligence to extract the road signs from outdoor images acquired by a camera in uncontrolled lighting conditions where they may be occluded by other objects, or may suffer from problems such as color fading, disorientation, variations in shape and size, etc. An automatic means of identifying traffic signs, in these conditions, can make a significant contribution to develop an Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) that continuously monitors the driver, the vehicle, and the road. Road and traffic signs are characterized by a number of features which make them recognizable from the environment. Road signs are located in standard positions and have standard shapes, standard colors, and known pictograms. These characteristics make them suitable for image identification. Traffic sign identification covers two problems: traffic sign detection and traffic sign recognition. Traffic sign detection is meant for the accurate localization of traffic signs in the image space, while traffic sign recognition handles the labeling of such detections into specific traffic sign types or subcategories [1].

  6. Raman spectroscopic evaluation of the dissemination of road de-icers in the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durickovic, Ivana; Marchetti, Mario; Suaire, Remi; Derombise, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy is nowadays a well established technique for the investigation of the molecular structure of a substance (solid, liquid or gas) through the study of its vibrational properties. This technique has been shown as particularly adapted for the characterization of water and aqueous solutions. The ERA 31 of the CÉTÉ de l'Est is developing methods based on that technique for domains such as water pollution detection and pollutant dissemination, mainly linked to transport infrastructures. A specific application of the Raman spectroscopy is the monitoring of the road de-icing materials' evolution after application on the road's surface. Indeed, in order to avoid traffic disruption during winter, roads and airports are the subject of a specific maintenance based on the application of de-icing materials. However, these chemicals are transported out of the roads, and end up either in the surrounding environment (splashed out by the vehicles or blown away by the wind) or in ponds used for road water runoff remediation and flow control (by flows after precipitations). The first aspect of the road de-icing surveillance is therefore their follow-up in the transport infrastructure's surrounding environment. A spectroscopic tool was hence developed for the measurement of these products on roads and in water located next to transport infrastructures, and adapted for the measurement on soils. The second aspect concerns the tracking of the de-icing material in the detention ponds. The instrumentation of a specific pond has been set in order to determine the road de-icing material's evolution and influence on the pond's environmental media (water, soil and vegetation). The goal is to evaluate in what way and how long, the road de-icer will spread in a detention pond. It will permit us to estimate the pond retention period, as well as its remediation efficiency.

  7. A Fuel-Based Assessment of On-Road and Off-Road Mobile Source Emission Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Mobile sources contribute significantly to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. These emissions lead to a variety of environmental concerns including adverse human health effects and climate change. In the electric power sector, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and NOx emissions from power plants are measured directly using continuous emission monitoring systems. In contrast for mobile sources, statistical models are used to estimate average emissions from a very large and diverse population of engines. Despite much effort aimed at improving them, mobile source emission inventories continue to have large associated uncertainties. Alternate methods are needed to help evaluate estimates of mobile source emissions and quantify and reduce the associated uncertainties. In this study, a fuel-based approach is used to estimate emissions from mobile sources, including on-road and off-road gasoline and diesel engines. In this approach, engine activity is measured by fuel consumed (in contrast EPA mobile source emission models are based on vehicle km of travel and total amount of engine work output for on-road and off-road engines, respectively). Fuel consumption is defined in this study based on highway fuel tax reports for on-road engines, and from surveys of fuel wholesalers who sell tax-exempt diesel fuel for use in various off-road sectors such as agriculture, construction, and mining. Over the decade-long time period (1996-2006) that is the focus of the present study, national sales of taxable gasoline and diesel fuel intended for on-road use increased by 15 and 43%, respectively. Diesel fuel use by off-road equipment increased by about 20% over the same time period. Growth in fuel consumption offset some of the reductions in pollutant emission factors that occurred during this period. This study relies on in-use measurements of mobile source emission factors, for example from roadside and tunnel studies, remote sensing, and

  8. The Road to Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    Explains how software transportation programs help school districts track school-bus routes, fleet status, and other information and how to move a district to such a system. Advice is provided on the criteria for selecting software vendors, matching data and information of new software with systems and procedures already in place, training users,…

  9. An index for estimating the potential metal pollution contribution to atmospheric particulate matter from road dust in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongtao; Shao, Yaping; Yin, Chengqing; Jiang, Yan; Li, Xuyong

    2016-04-15

    The resuspension of road dust from street surfaces could be a big contributor to atmospheric particulate pollution in the rapid urbanization context in the world. However, to date what its potential contribution to the spatial pattern is little known. Here we developed an innovative index model called the road dust index (RI<105μm) and it combines source and transport factors for road dust particles <105μm in diameter. It could quantify and differentiate the impact of the spatial distribution of the potential risks posed by metals associated with road dust on atmospheric suspended particles. The factors were ranked and weighted based on road dust characteristics (the amounts, grain sizes, and mobilities of the road dust, and the concentrations and toxicities of metals in the road dust). We then applied the RI<105μm in the Beijing region to assess the spatial distribution of the potential risks posed by metals associated with road dust on atmospheric suspended particles. The results demonstrated that the road dust in urban areas has higher potential risk of metal to atmospheric particles than that in rural areas. The RI<105μm method offers a new and useful tool for assessing the potential risks posed by metals associated with road dust on atmospheric suspended particles and for controlling atmospheric particulate pollution caused by road dust emissions. PMID:26815293

  10. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  11. Work-related road safety in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America: an overview of regulatory approaches and recommendations to enhance strategy and practice

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, R; Pratt, SG; Murray, W

    2015-01-01

    Work-related travel and transport by road is fundamental for industry, government and organisations. Traditionally, road safety interventions at societal level have focussed on improving road and vehicle engineering and changing road-user behaviour through transport laws and safety campaigns. Crash data indicate that significant numbers of road-user fatalities occur while driving to or for work. Therefore, workplace initiatives can improve both road and worker safety. This paper reviews regulatory approaches to work-related road safety (WRRS) in Australia, the United Kingdom and United States, identifying significant and consistent gaps in policy, management and research. In all three countries, responsibility for managing and regulating WRRS is spread across government agencies, without a single coordinating body. This paper makes the case that integrating management of WRRS into regulatory and non-regulatory occupational health and safety (OHS) initiatives would foster and support collaboration between research and practice communities, ensuring a comprehensive evidence base for future programs. PMID:26279686

  12. Energy and transport.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, James; Banister, David; Edwards, Phil; Prentice, Andrew M; Roberts, Ian

    2007-09-22

    We examine the links between fossil-fuel-based transportation, greenhouse-gas emissions, and health. Transport-related carbon emissions are rising and there is increasing consensus that the growth in motorised land vehicles and aviation is incompatible with averting serious climate change. The energy intensity of land transport correlates with its adverse health effects. Adverse health effects occur through climate change, road-traffic injuries, physical inactivity, urban air pollution, energy-related conflict, and environmental degradation. For the world's poor people, walking is the main mode of transport, but such populations often experience the most from the harms of energy-intensive transport. New energy sources and improvements in vehicle design and in information technology are necessary but not sufficient to reduce transport-related carbon emissions without accompanying behavioural change. By contrast, active transport has the potential to improve health and equity, and reduce emissions. Cities require safe and pleasant environments for active transport with destinations in easy reach and, for longer journeys, public transport that is powered by renewable energy, thus providing high levels of accessibility without car use. Much investment in major road projects does not meet the transport needs of poor people, especially women whose trips are primarily local and off road. Sustainable development is better promoted through improving walking and cycling infrastructures, increasing access to cycles, and investment in transport services for essential needs. Our model of London shows how increased active transport could help achieve substantial reductions in emissions by 2030 while improving population health. There exists the potential for a global contraction and convergence in use of fossil-fuel energy for transport to benefit health and achieve sustainability. PMID:17868817

  13. Multilevel modelling for the regional effect of enforcement on road accidents.

    PubMed

    Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Antoniou, Constantinos

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the intensification of Police enforcement on the number of road accidents at national and regional level in Greece, focusing on one of the most important road safety violations: drinking-and-driving. Multilevel negative binomial models are developed to describe the effect of the intensification of alcohol enforcement on the reduction of road accidents in different regions of Greece. Moreover, two approaches are explored as far as regional clustering is concerned: the first one concerns an ad hoc geographical clustering and the second one is based on the results of mathematical cluster analysis through demographic, transport and road safety characteristics. Results indicate that there are significant spatial dependences among road accidents and enforcement. Additionally, it is shown that these dependences are more efficiently interpreted when regions are determined on the basis of qualitative similarities than on the basis of geographical adjacency. PMID:17274938

  14. Traffic Analysis and Road Accidents: A Case Study of Hyderabad using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagyaiah, M.; Shrinagesh, B.

    2014-06-01

    Globalization has impacted many developing countries across the world. India is one such country, which benefited the most. Increased, economic activity raised the consumption levels of the people across the country. This created scope for increase in travel and transportation. The increase in the vehicles since last 10 years has put lot of pressure on the existing roads and ultimately resulting in road accidents. It is estimated that since 2001 there is an increase of 202 percent of two wheeler and 286 percent of four wheeler vehicles with no road expansion. Motor vehicle crashes are a common cause of death, disability and demand for emergency medical care. Globally, more than 1 million people die each year from traffic crashes and about 20-50 million are injured or permanently disabled. There has been increasing trend in road accidents in Hyderabad over a few years. GIS helps in locating the accident hotspots and also in analyzing the trend of road accidents in Hyderabad.

  15. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994–2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. Results: In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. Conclusions: There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality. PMID:16326764

  16. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  17. Extracting Road Vector Data from Raster Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yao-Yi; Knoblock, Craig A.

    Raster maps are an important source of road information. Because of the overlapping map features (e.g., roads and text labels) and the varying image quality, extracting road vector data from raster maps usually requires significant user input to achieve accurate results. In this paper, we present an accurate road vectorization technique that minimizes user input by combining our previous work on extracting road pixels and road-intersection templates to extract accurate road vector data from raster maps. Our approach enables GIS applications to exploit the road information in raster maps for the areas where the road vector data are otherwise not easily accessible, such as the countries of the Middle East. We show that our approach requires minimal user input and achieves an average of 93.2% completeness and 95.6% correctness in an experiment using raster maps from various sources.

  18. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2010-01-01

    In the national airspace system, sectors get overloaded due to high traffic demand and inefficient airspace designs. Overloads can be eliminated in some cases by redesigning sector boundaries. This paper extends the Voronoi-based sector design method by automatically selecting the number of sectors, allowing three-dimensional partitions, and enforcing traffic pattern conformance. The method was used to design sectors at Fort-Worth and Indianapolis centers for current traffic scenarios. Results show that new designs can eliminate overloaded sectors, although not in all cases, reduce the number of necessary sectors, and conform to major traffic patterns. Overall, the new methodology produces enhanced and efficient sector designs.

  19. Buildings Sector Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  20. School Planning Safe Transporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Bureau of Pupil Transportation.

    Prepared for boards of education and municipal planning authorities, school site selection is related to school bus safety. Consideration of direction and density of traffic flow, street crossings, curbing, drainage, road width, parking areas, number of pupils and personnel, number of buses, method of transportation, schedules and extra-curricular…

  1. Comparison of road traffic emission models in Madrid (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borge, Rafael; de Miguel, Isabel; de la Paz, David; Lumbreras, Julio; Pérez, Javier; Rodríguez, Encarnación

    2012-12-01

    Many cities in Europe have difficulties to meet the air quality standards set by the European legislation, most particularly the annual mean Limit Value for NO2. Road transport is often the main source of air pollution in urban areas and therefore, there is an increasing need to estimate current and future traffic emissions as accurately as possible. As a consequence, a number of specific emission models and emission factors databases have been developed recently. They present important methodological differences and may result in largely diverging emission figures and thus may lead to alternative policy recommendations. This study compares two approaches to estimate road traffic emissions in Madrid (Spain): the COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT4 v.8.1) and the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA v.3.1), representative of the 'average-speed' and 'traffic situation' model types respectively. The input information (e.g. fleet composition, vehicle kilometres travelled, traffic intensity, road type, etc.) was provided by the traffic model developed by the Madrid City Council along with observations from field campaigns. Hourly emissions were computed for nearly 15 000 road segments distributed in 9 management areas covering the Madrid city and surroundings. Total annual NOX emissions predicted by HBEFA were a 21% higher than those of COPERT. The discrepancies for NO2 were lower (13%) since resulting average NO2/NOX ratios are lower for HBEFA. The larger differences are related to diesel vehicle emissions under "stop & go" traffic conditions, very common in distributor/secondary roads of the Madrid metropolitan area.In order to understand the representativeness of these results, the resulting emissions were integrated in an urban scale inventory used to drive mesoscale air quality simulations with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modelling system (1 km2 resolution). Modelled NO2 concentrations were compared

  2. An on-road shock and vibration response test series utilizing worst case and statistical analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Cap, J.S.

    1997-11-01

    Defining the maximum expected shock and vibration responses for an on-road truck transportation environment is strongly dependent on the amount of response data that can be obtained. One common test scheme consists of measuring response data over a relatively short prescribed road course and then reviewing that data to obtain the maximum response levels. The more mathematically rigorous alternative is to collect an unbiased ensemble of response data during a long road trip. This paper compares data gathered both ways during a recent on-road certification test for a tractor trailer van being designed by Sandia.

  3. ROADIDEA- Roadmap for radical innovations in European transport services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarikivi, P.

    2009-09-01

    Weather plays a key role in most traffic accidents, in which over 40.000 European citizens are killed and more than 1,2 million injured every year. It is thus clear that innovations are needed to develop better road weather services to make traffic safer. As transport is responsible of 20% of green house gas emissions in Europe, such services are also needed that make traffic more efficient and reduce congestion. ROADIDEA "Roadmap for radical innovations in European transport services” is a FP7/INFSO Collaboration project that started in 2007 and continues until mid-2010, see www.roadidea.eu. The main objective is to study the potential of the European transport service sector for innovations, analysing available data sources, revealing existing problems and bottlenecks, and developing better methods and models to be utilised in service platforms. These will be capable of providing new, innovative services for various transport user groups. The fourteen partners of ROADIDEA come from Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Hungary, Croatia and Slovenia. The differences of the existing transport systems and available data sources in these countries are analysed as well as the problems caused by local climate and geography. The innovation process is key activity of the project and will be described in detail in the presentation. It has produced more than 100 ideas during two consecutive brainstorming seminars. Ideas have been analysed and the most potential ones shortlisted for further development. These include e.g. advanced friction models, road condition and fog warning systems, which receive input from hybrid (mobile and fixed combined) observing systems and automated messages from private cars. The Hamburg Port with increasing congestion needs multi-modal traffic model that takes weather into account. New semi-public high-quality ways to travel need to be innovated to reduce the use of private cars in the battle against climate change.

  4. Solar Sector Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.; Svalgaard, Leif; Hannah, Iain G.

    2014-12-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field near 1 AU has a characteristic "sector" structure that reflects its polarity relative to the solar direction. Typically we observe large-scale coherence in these directions, with two or four "away" or "towards" sectors per solar rotation, from any platform in deep space and near the ecliptic plane. In a simple picture, this morphology simply reflects the idea that the sources of the interplanetary field lie mainly in or near the Sun, and that the solar-wind flow enforces a radial component in this field. The sector boundaries are sharply defined in the interplanetary field near one AU, but have more complicated sources within the Sun itself. Recent evidence confirms that the origins of this pattern also appear statistically at the level of the photosphere, with signatures found in the highly concentrated fields of sunspots and even solar flares. This complements the associations already known between the interplanetary sectors and large-scale coronal structures (i.e., the streamers). This association with small-scale fields strengthens at the Hale sector boundary, defining the Hale boundary as the one for which the polarity switch matches that of the leading-to-following polarity alternation in the sunspots of a given hemisphere. Surface features that appear 4.5 days prior to the sector crossings observed at 1 AU correlate with this sense of polarity reversal.

  5. Roads in northern hardwood forests affect adjacent plant communities and soil chemistry in proportion to the maintained roadside area.

    PubMed

    Neher, Deborah A; Asmussen, David; Lovell, Sarah Taylor

    2013-04-01

    The spatial extent of the transported materials from three road types was studied in forest soil and vegetative communities in Vermont. Hypotheses were two-fold: 1) soil chemical concentrations above background environment would reflect traffic volume and road type (highway>2-lane paved>gravel), and 2) plant communities close to the road and near roads with greater traffic will be disturbance-tolerant and adept at colonization. Soil samples were gathered from 12 randomly identified transects for each of three road types classified as "highway," "two-lane paved," and "gravel." Using GIS mapping, transects were constructed perpendicular to the road, and samples were gathered at the shoulder, ditch, backslope, 10 m from the edge of the forest, and 50 m from road center. Sample locations were analyzed for a suite of soil elements and parameters, as well as percent area coverage by plant species. The main effects from roads depended on the construction modifications required for a roadway (i.e., vegetation clearing and topography modification). The cleared area defined the type of plant community and the distance that road pollutants travel. Secondarily, road presence affected soil chemistry. Metal concentrations (e.g., Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) correlated positively with road type. Proximity to all road types made the soils more alkaline (pH 7.7) relative to the acidic soil of the adjacent native forest (pH 5.6). Roadside microtopography had marked effects on the composition of plant communities based on the direction of water flow. Ditch areas supported wetland plant species, greater soil moisture and sulfur content, while plant communities closer to the road were characteristic of drier upland zones. The area beyond the edge of the forest did not appear to be affected chemically or physically by any of the road types, possibly due to the dense vegetation that typically develops outside of the managed right-of-way. PMID:23435063

  6. Estimation of annual average daily traffic for off-system roads in Florida. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, L.D.; Zhao, F.; Ospina, D.I.

    1999-07-28

    Estimation of Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) is extremely important in traffic planning and operations for the state departments of transportation (DOTs), because AADT provides information for the planning of new road construction, determination of roadway geometry, congestion management, pavement design, safety considerations, etc. AADT is also used to estimate state wide vehicle miles traveled on all the roads and is used by local governments and the environmental protection agencies to determine compliance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment. Additionally, AADT is reported annually by the Florida Department of transportation (FDOT) to the Federal Highway Administration. In the past, considerable efforts have been made in obtaining traffic counts to estimate AADT on state roads. However, traffic counts are often not available on off-system roads, and less attention has been paid to the estimation of AADT in the absence of counts. Current estimates rely on comparisons with roads that are subjectively considered to be similar. Such comparisons are inherently subject to large errors, and also may not be repeated often enough to remain current. Therefore, a better method is needed for estimating AADT for off-system roads in Florida. This study investigates the possibility of establishing one or more models for estimating AADT for off-system roads in Florida.

  7. 49 CFR 1.31 - Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Policy is responsible for: public policy development, coordination, and evaluation for all aspects... transportation sector operating and economic issues; evaluation of public transportation sector operating and... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy....

  8. 49 CFR 1.31 - Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Policy is responsible for: public policy development, coordination, and evaluation for all aspects... transportation sector operating and economic issues; evaluation of public transportation sector operating and... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy....

  9. A global strategy for road building.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Sloan, Sean; O'Connell, Christine S; Mueller, Nathan D; Goosem, Miriam; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, David P; Phalan, Ben; Balmford, Andrew; Van Der Ree, Rodney; Arrea, Irene Burgues

    2014-09-11

    The number and extent of roads will expand dramatically this century. Globally, at least 25 million kilometres of new roads are anticipated by 2050; a 60% increase in the total length of roads over that in 2010. Nine-tenths of all road construction is expected to occur in developing nations, including many regions that sustain exceptional biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. Roads penetrating into wilderness or frontier areas are a major proximate driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, wildfires, overhunting and other environmental degradation, often with irreversible impacts on ecosystems. Unfortunately, much road proliferation is chaotic or poorly planned, and the rate of expansion is so great that it often overwhelms the capacity of environmental planners and managers. Here we present a global scheme for prioritizing road building. This large-scale zoning plan seeks to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human development, by helping to increase agricultural production, which is an urgent priority given that global food demand could double by mid-century. Our analysis identifies areas with high environmental values where future road building should be avoided if possible, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural development with relatively modest environmental costs, and 'conflict areas' where road building could have sizeable benefits for agriculture but with serious environmental damage. Our plan provides a template for proactively zoning and prioritizing roads during the most explosive era of road expansion in human history. PMID:25162528

  10. Photogrammetric Techniques for Road Surface Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Chibunichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  11. Where the Road Ends, Yaws Begins? The Cost-effectiveness of Eradication versus More Roads

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Asiedu, Kingsley; Jannin, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A disabling and disfiguring disease that “begins where the road ends”, yaws is targeted by WHO for eradication by the year 2020. The global campaign is not yet financed. To evaluate yaws eradication within the context of the post-2015 development agenda, we perform a somewhat allegorical cost-effectiveness analysis of eradication, comparing it to a counterfactual in which we simply wait for more roads (the end of poverty). Methods We use evidence from four yaws eradication pilot sites and other mass treatment campaigns to set benchmarks for the cost of eradication in 12 known endemic countries. We construct a compartmental model of long-term health effects to 2050. Conservatively, we attribute zero cost to the counterfactual and allow for gradual exit of the susceptible (at risk) population by road (poverty reduction). We report mean, 5th and 95th centile estimates to reflect uncertainty about costs and effects. Results Our benchmark for the economic cost of yaws eradication is uncertain but not high –US$ 362 (75–1073) million in 12 countries. Eradication would cost US$ 26 (4.2–78) for each year of life lived without disability or disfigurement due to yaws, or US$ 324 (47–936) per disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Excluding drugs, existing staff and assets, the financial cost benchmark is US$ 213 (74–522) million. The real cost of waiting for more roads (poverty reduction) would be 13 (7.3–20) million years of life affected by early-stage yaws and 2.3 (1.1–4.2) million years of life affected by late-stage yaws. Discussion Endemic countries need financing to begin implementing and adapting global strategy to local conditions. Donations of drugs and diagnostics could reduce cost to the public sector and catalyze financing. Resources may be harnessed from the extractive industries. Yaws eradication should be seen as complementary to universal health coverage and shared prosperity on the post-2015 development agenda. PMID:25255131

  12. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH SWITCHING ENGINE TRANSPORTING TORPEDO LADLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH SWITCHING ENGINE TRANSPORTING TORPEDO LADLE FILLED WITH MOLTEN IRON TO THE Q-BOP FURNACES. VERTICAL CONVEYOR TRANSPORTS ALL PROCESS MATERIAL INCLUDING COKE AND PELLETS TO FURNACE. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Blast Furnace No. 8, North of Valley Road, West of Ensley-Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 2. ENVIRONMENT, FROM NORTH, SHOWING VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ENVIRONMENT, FROM NORTH, SHOWING VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE NO. 6051 CARRYING STATE ROUTE 673 (FEATHERBOTTOM ROAD) OVER CATOCTIN CREEK - Virginia Department of Transportation Bridge No. 6051, Spanning Catoctin Creek at State Route 673 (Featherbottom Road), Waterford, Loudoun County, VA

  14. 1. ENVIRONMENT, FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ENVIRONMENT, FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE NO. 6051 CARRYING STATE ROUTE 673 (FEATHERBOTTOM ROAD) ACROSS CATOCTIN CREEK - Virginia Department of Transportation Bridge No. 6051, Spanning Catoctin Creek at State Route 673 (Featherbottom Road), Waterford, Loudoun County, VA

  15. 3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE NO. 6051 CARRYING STATE ROUTE 673 (FEATHERBOTTOM ROAD) OVER CATOCTIN CREEK - Virginia Department of Transportation Bridge No. 6051, Spanning Catoctin Creek at State Route 673 (Featherbottom Road), Waterford, Loudoun County, VA

  16. 4. ENVIRONMENT, FROM EAST, SHOWING VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ENVIRONMENT, FROM EAST, SHOWING VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE NO. 6051 CARRYING STATE ROUTE 673 (FEATHERBOTTOM ROAD) OVER CATOCTIN CREEK - Virginia Department of Transportation Bridge No. 6051, Spanning Catoctin Creek at State Route 673 (Featherbottom Road), Waterford, Loudoun County, VA

  17. Do not blame the driver: a systems analysis of the causes of road freight crashes.

    PubMed

    Newnam, Sharon; Goode, Natassia

    2015-03-01

    Although many have advocated a systems approach in road transportation, this view has not meaningfully penetrated road safety research, practice or policy. In this study, a systems theory-based approach, Rasmussens's (1997) risk management framework and associated Accimap technique, is applied to the analysis of road freight transportation crashes. Twenty-seven highway crash investigation reports were downloaded from the National Transport Safety Bureau website. Thematic analysis was used to identify the complex system of contributory factors, and relationships, identified within the reports. The Accimap technique was then used to represent the linkages and dependencies within and across system levels in the road freight transportation industry and to identify common factors and interactions across multiple crashes. The results demonstrate how a systems approach can increase knowledge in this safety critical domain, while the findings can be used to guide prevention efforts and the development of system-based investigation processes for the heavy vehicle industry. A research agenda for developing an investigation technique to better support the application of the Accimap technique by practitioners in road freight transportation industry is proposed. PMID:25645163

  18. General road detection from a single image.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hui; Audibert, Jean-Yves; Ponce, Jean

    2010-08-01

    Given a single image of an arbitrary road, that may not be well-paved, or have clearly delineated edges, or some a priori known color or texture distribution, is it possible for a computer to find this road? This paper addresses this question by decomposing the road detection process into two steps: the estimation of the vanishing point associated with the main (straight) part of the road, followed by the segmentation of the corresponding road area based upon the detected vanishing point. The main technical contributions of the proposed approach are a novel adaptive soft voting scheme based upon a local voting region using high-confidence voters, whose texture orientations are computed using Gabor filters, and a new vanishing-point-constrained edge detection technique for detecting road boundaries. The proposed method has been implemented, and experiments with 1003 general road images demonstrate that it is effective at detecting road regions in challenging conditions. PMID:20371404

  19. Road surface texture and skid resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Minh-Tan; Cerezo, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between road surface texture and skid resistance. Mechanisms underlying the tire/wet road friction are first described. Definitions of road surface irregularities scales are given. The rest of the paper is then focused on the macrotexture and microtexture scales and their respective roles in what happens at the tire/road interface. Existing methods to measure and characterize the road surface texture are presented. On the one hand, problems encountered when using sensors developed for machined surfaces for the measurement of road surface profiles or cartographies are discussed. On the other hand, potential improvements when applying characterization methods developed for machined surfaces to road surfaces are highlighted. The paper presents finally modeling approaches to calculate friction forces from road surface texture. The generalized form of the models is presented from which terms related respectively to the macrotexture and the microtexture are identified. Approaches used to calculate these terms, integrating eventually other variables, are presented.

  20. The effect of road characteristics on motorcycle accident in Batu east Java Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abusini, Sobri

    2013-09-01

    Safe of transportation on road is global problem with not only transportation problem, but also social teritory problem in sosial life. WHO pay attention to safe transportation on road to decide healthy day in the world 2004 with caption: Road Safety is no Accident. WHO is clariafy that road accident level in the world have to reach 1.2 mellion victim death and over 30 mellion injuries every year. As much 85% sacrifice death are accident in develop state, where vehicle number only 32% from vehicle number in the world. That becouse as the objective is to decide influence road charakteristics geometrics for motorcycle accident in Batu East Java Indonesia. Using some statistical analysis it is found that the best-fit motorcycle accident model is: Acc = 0,009F0,703exp(-0,334SW-0,361G+0.077S) Where: Acc = number of accident, F = Flow, pcu/hr, SW = shoulder width (m), S = speed, km/hr, G = Gradient (0,1) The model shows that the affecting factors are flow, shoulder width and speed, therefore local government should improve some related factor (flow, shoulder width, Gradient and speed) that can reduce the number of motorcycle accident at crossing road in Batu.

  1. 2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  2. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  3. 35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL RAIL AND ROAD CUT IN DISTANCE. MONTEZUMA VALLEY OVERLOOK IS JUST TO RIGHT OF DISTANT ROAD CUT. - Mesa Verde National Park Main Entrance Road, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  4. 6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD AND WHITE ROCK ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  5. Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga Road. Note gate for road to Tamarack Campground - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  6. 3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN RIVER ROAD OVER CASSELMAN RIVER - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  7. Transport policy-making and planning Javanese cities

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitriou, H.

    1995-12-31

    Based on findings of field studies in five Javanese cities in Indonesia, this paper looks at a hierarchy of settlements and investigates what aspects of urban development and the transport sector most influences transport policy-making and planning in the country. The paper highlights the presence of a community hierarchy within these settlements with consonant trip-making patterns and the widespread mis-use of certain transport modes. The paper cross-relates observed transport problems and policy issues diagnosed from the five Javanese cities with an earlier prepared national agenda of urban transport policy issues and problems. This is done with a view to arriving at more sensitive policy and planning responses nationwide for cities of different kinds in Indonesia. The paper commences with an explanation of the settlement hierarchy and community structure employed by Indonesian government planners. An attempt is then made to relate this hierarchy and structure to the five cities studied. Within this context, factors affecting urban transport are discussed and tabulated against the above cities settlement hierarchy. These include aspects of: settlement size, structure and area; settlement development policy, urban for, density and topography; and travel and transport characteristics. An attempt is made to match this settlement hierarchy (and its constituent community structure) with a conceptualized hierarchy of transport modes, simultaneously investigating: the relationship between urban communities and assigned road hierarchies; community-based travel demand and trip-making characteristics; and the relationship between travel, speed and distance. From this an assessment is made of the performance and current use and mis-use of such transport modes.

  8. Road safety education for schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Thein, M M; Lee, J

    1993-01-01

    In Singapore 6% of mortality of children below the age of 15 years is due to traffic related accidents. Prevention is a function of school educational outreach, modification of driver's behavior, and distancing children from vehicles. Singapore's road safety education program for schoolchildren is described as directed to children aged 7-12 years. Education takes place in al road safety park on a permanent four acre site that models a miniature road setting. The traffic police conduct the sessions among 500 students daily. Lessons involve basic instruction in safety principles and a test of knowledge followed by a traffic game. The objective is use role plays of pedestrians, motorists and cyclists to test skills, to help children identify traffic hazards, and to teach practical safety prevention measures. Secondary school students are trained as marshalls for the road safety park. The traffic police also conduct training among senior citizens and among cyclists. The park is open to the public and private groups on Sundays. During 1981-92 over 600,000 children were trained. Other strategies that indirectly affect the safety of children include drunk driving checks, speed checks, campaigns against drunk driving, education programs for motorists, safety education for cyclists and motorcyclists, and mass media promotion of safety. Since 1991-92 school zones are marked with speed bumps and signs. Pedestrian walkways are improved, and policy are acting against drivers not yielding the right of way to pedestrians. PMID:8185797

  9. Pollution-free road lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreuder, Duco A.

    They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

  10. Road Map for a Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenlon, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The transition into kindergarten is a challenge for any student, but it can be especially difficult for students with disabilities and their families. In this article, Amanda Fenlon suggests that by planning ahead families and schools can smooth that transition and put students on the right road. She encourages families to work with their child's…

  11. Road map for utility diversification

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.D.; Ross, W.W.

    1982-12-23

    Under a growing impetus to shift their business emphasis, utility companies can find the road to diversification rife with problems and uncertainties. Studies of possible new business opportunities come relatively easy, but success in embarking upon them is anything but easy. This article provides useful insights into the process, and points out some important prerequisites for successful diversification efforts. 17 references, 2 figures.

  12. Mobile vehicle road and weather observation quality check methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, Daniel Raymond

    Today State Departments of Transportation rely more and more on road weather data to make maintenance decisions. Inaccurate data can result in wrong treatment applications or inadequate staffing levels to maintain the roadway at the desired level of service. Previous methods of road condition data reporting have been limited to static in situ sensor stations. These road weather information systems (RWIS) provide varied data about precipitation, winds, temperature, and more, but their siting does not always provide an accurate representation of weather and road conditions along the roadway. The use of mobile data collection from vehicles travelling the highway corridors may assist in the locations where RWIS sitings are sparse or non-existent. The United States Department of Transporation's "Connected Vehicle" (formally IntelliDrive) research project is designed to create a fully connected transportation system providing road and weather data collection from an extensive array of vehicles. While the implementation of Connected Vehicle is in the future, some of the theories and technologies are already in place today. Several states, as a part of the Pooled Fund Study Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS), have equipped their winter maintenance vehicles with Mobile Data Collection Automated / Vehicle Location (MDC/AVL) systems. In addition, since 1996, automobiles sold in the United States are required to be equipped with an Onboard Diagnostic Version 2 (OBDII) port that streams live data from sensors located in and around the vehicle. While these sensors were designed for vehicle diagnostics, some of the data can be used to determine weather characteristics around the vehicle. The OBDII data can be collected by a smartphone and sent to a server in real time to be processed. These mobile systems may fill the information gap along the roads that stationary environmental sensor stations are not able to collect. Particular concern and care needs to be focused on

  13. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Primary roads. 816.151 Section 816.151 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.151 Primary roads. Primary roads shall meet...

  14. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Primary roads. 817.151 Section 817.151 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.151 Primary roads. Primary roads shall...

  15. On the Road: Hitchhiking on the Highway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Abraham

    1973-01-01

    People on the road seem to arrange themselves according to three main types: students, street and road people, and runaways. From the perspective of conventional society road people are threatening, for the latter have defined dropping out in a way at least appealing to those who cannot conform to the responsibilities of adulthood. (Author)

  16. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  17. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section 1710.110... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads?...

  18. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are...

  19. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are...

  20. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral... MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.37 Road systems... plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be constructed, used,...