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Sample records for robin alexander chance

  1. Robin reliant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “Electromagnetic noise could set European robin adrift” (8 May, http://ow.ly/xFdEJ and June p4), which reported how the internal magnetic compasses of migratory birds can be disrupted by weak, man-made electromagnetic interference.

  2. Give chance a chance.

    PubMed

    Nachury, Maxence V

    2011-11-01

    How did I get to become a cell biologist? Or, more generally, why do things happen the way they do? The answer provided by the philosopher Democritus and later adopted by Jacques Monod is "everything existing in the universe is the fruit of chance and necessity." While I read Monod's book Chance and Necessity as an undergraduate student, little did I appreciate the accuracy of this citation and how much of my scientific trajectory would be guided by chance. PMID:22039061

  3. Alexander I. Ignatowski

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Igor E.; Jankovic, Gradimir M.

    2013-01-01

    In 1908, Alexander I. Ignatowski (1875–1955) published his pioneering work that first revealed a relationship between cholesterol-rich food and experimental atherosclerosis. This early experimental work paved a way to the metabolic study of the mechanism of atherosclerosis. Herein, we present a brief account of Ignatowski's work and life. PMID:23914012

  4. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  5. [Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Raita

    2014-11-01

    Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson is considered a pioneer in extrapyramidal system research largely due to his dissertation on progressive lenticular degeneration, later known as "Wilson's Disease". His concept of neurological symptomatology was based on the clinical observations of Pierre Marie, Joseph Babinski and John Hughlings Jackson, who he observed when he was young. To keep focusing on the nature of actual symptoms while performing medical examinations is the essence of neurological symptomatology, which in turn form the spirit of neurology. This paper will discuss major events in Wilson's later life that would explain how his basic idea for neurological symptomatology was eventually formed. PMID:25407062

  6. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. Piping inspection round robin

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R.

    1996-04-01

    The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths.

  8. Alexander Lowen: An Energetic Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Glenn E.; Rabinowitz, Fredric E.

    1992-01-01

    Presents interview with Alexander Lowen, prominent psychotherapist, who discusses his personal and professional development, as well as the evolution of bioenergetic analysis. Includes a list of suggested readings by Lowen. (Author/NB)

  9. Neurocognitive decline in Alexander disease.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, June; Bernardin, Linda; Hammeke, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Alexander disease is a neurological condition associated with prominent white matter deterioration. Its rarity and relatively rapid disease course have provided limited understanding into the cognitive effects of the illness. We report the serial neuropsychological findings of a 21-year-old with normal development and no medical history until age 9, when he experienced refractory sinusitis, stabbing headaches with vertigo, disorientation, and decline in academic and social settings. An MRI scan of the brain found acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, with a preponderance of white matter degeneration in the bilateral frontal lobes. Interval MRIs showed continued degeneration. Confirmation of Alexander disease was made at age 20 through genetic testing. Four evaluations completed from ages 15 to 21 showed impairment across all cognitive domains. Cognitive deficits were most prominent in new learning and recent memory, executive functions, and fine motor dexterity, and less apparent in information processing and visual scanning speed. These results present evidence for a particular cognitive pattern in individuals with juvenile-onset Alexander disease. Despite extensive white matter degeneration in the frontal lobes, certain tasks associated with frontal lobe integrity were relatively preserved. Further research into the neuropsychological presentation of the subtypes of Alexander disease can enhance diagnostic clarity and treatment planning. PMID:21902566

  10. Conjecture of Alexander and Orbach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudra, Jayanta; Doiron, Curtis

    2009-03-01

    The dynamical properties of fractal networks have received wide range of attention. Works on this area by several pioneering authors^1-2 have led to the introduction of the spectral dimension that dictates the dynamic properties on a fractal lattice. Most of the studies involving spectral dimension have been performed on a type of fractal lattice known as percolation network. Alexander and Orbach^2 conjectured that the spectral dimension might be exactly 4/3 for percolation networks with Euclidean dimension de >= 2. Recent numerical simulations, however, could not decisively prove or disprove this conjecture, although there are other indirect evidences that it is true. We apply a stochastic approach^3 to determine the spectral dimension of percolation network for de >= 2 and check the validity of the Alexander-Orbach conjecture. Our preliminary results on 2- and 3-dimensional percolation networks indeed show that Alexander-Orbach conjecture is true, resolving a long-standing debate. References: 1. P. G. deGennes, La Recherche 7 (1976) 919. 2. S. Alexander and R. Orbach, J. Phys. Lett. (Paris) 43 (1982) L625. 3. J. Rudra and J. Kozak, Phys. Lett A 151 (1990) 429.

  11. Is Robin Hood Alive in Your Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Sharon E.

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether the tales of Robin Hood should be presented as fact or fiction. Discusses the appropriateness of the tales for use in literature programs. Presents arguments for Robin Hood as fact and arguments for Robin Hood as fiction. Considers different versions of the tale. (SG)

  12. Robin Hood Comes of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhouse, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Considers how while some Robin Hood books are clearly intended for young readers, others blur the boundaries, sometimes in ways that help break down artificial boundaries dividing fiction for children from that for adults. Explores the legend's long history to help understand why the story lends itself to such a wide variety of retellings.…

  13. Life Chances Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Margaret A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a life chances exercise that helps students identify the life chances that they and society value. Explains that students learn that the attainment of important life chances is related to the family into which one is born. Discusses John Rawls' social theory. Suggests that participants may need to consider alternative systems of economic…

  14. Robins gather in a tree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In a wooded area of Kennedy Space Center, robins gather on a tree branch just beginning to show new Spring growth. A member of the thrush family, robins inhabit towns, gardens, open woodlands and agricultural lands. They range through most of North America, spending winters in large roosts mostly in the United States but also Newfoundland, southern Ontario and British Columbia. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a haven and habitat for more than 331 species of birds. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are also a habitat for 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  15. Epizootic podoknemidokoptiasis in American robins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pence, Danny B.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Brugger, Kristin E.; Fischer, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Epizootics of scaly leg disease caused by infection with the submacroscopic mite Knemidokoptes jamaicensis (Acari: Knemidokoptidae) in migratory American robins (Turdus migratorius) from a residential area of Tulsa (Oklahoma, USA) are documented during the winters (December through February) of 1993–94 and 1994–95. Estimates of 60 to >80% of the birds in several different flights arriving in the area had lesions consistent with knemidokoptic mange. Epizootic occurrence of K. jamaicensis also is confirmed incidentally in American robins from Georgia (USA) in 1995 and 1998 and in Florida (USA) in 1991. These are the first confirmed epizootics of scaly leg attributed to infections with mites specifically identified as K. jamaicensis in North America. Severity of observed lesions in American robins ranged from scaly hyperkeratosis of the feet and legs to extensive proliferative lesions with loss of digits or the entire foot in some birds. Histologically, there was severe diffuse hyperkeratosis of the epidermis which contained numerous mites and multifocal aggregates of degranulating to degenerating eosinophilic heterophils; there was mild to severe superficial dermatitis with aggregates of eosinophilic heterophils and some mononuclear cells. Based on limited data from affected captive birds in Florida, we questioned the efficacy of ivermectin as an effective acaricide for knemidokoptiasis and propose that conditions associated with captivity may exacerbate transmission of this mite among caged birds. While knemidokoptic mange apparently can result in substantial host morbidity and possibly mortality, the ultimate impact of these epizootics on American robin populations presently is unknown.

  16. The Alexander Technique: An Acting Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Sarah A.

    2002-01-01

    Notes the discrepancy between students' use of the Alexander Technique in class and on stage. Discusses three fundamental self-use objectives of the Alexander Technique: the reduction of excess physical compression and muscularity; the unification of body/voice and thought; and the expansion of the field of attention. Demonstrates how each…

  17. Dancers' Application of the Alexander Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Sylvie; Girard, Fernande

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the experience of professional contemporary dancers studying and applying the Alexander Technique to their dancing. This study was motivated by: 1. years of teaching both dance and somatics, 2. a strong desire to better understand how the Alexander Technique can be applied by dancers, and 3. a gap that the…

  18. Review Symposium on "Culture and Pedagogy: International Comparisons in Primary Education," by Robin Alexander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadfoot, Patricia; Little, Angela W.

    2003-01-01

    Two reviews of an ambitious comparative study of elementary classroom practices and realities in the United States (Michigan), England, France, Russia, and India. There is no single definition of best practice in education, for both means and ends are culturally specific. Recent English educational policy emphasizing a generic definition and…

  19. The Haunting Influence of Alexander Graham Bell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sue H.

    1971-01-01

    The article examines the significance that Alexander Graham Bell's attitude and actions had on the social and economic conditions experienced by deaf people during his lifetime and into the present. (CD)

  20. Cupola Corner 2 - Conversation With Alexander Samokutyaev

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Ron Garan speaks with fellow Expedition 28 flight engineer and Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev about using the view from the International Space Station to inspire people to make a ...

  1. A psychoanalytic study of Alexander the Great.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K R

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate how Freudian concepts such as the Oedipus complex, castration anxiety, fear of loss of love, the psychosexual stages of development, and the tripartite structure of personality can be used to understand the life and achievements of Alexander the Great. To accomplish this purpose, specific incidents, myths, and relationships in Alexander's life were analyzed from a Freudian psychoanalytic perspective. Green (1991), in his recent biography of Alexander, has questioned the merit of using Freudian concepts to understand Alexander's character. In fact, he stated specifically: If he (Alexander) had any kind of Oedipus complex it came in a poor second to the burning dynastic ambition which Olympias so sedulously fostered in him; those who insist on his psychological motivation would do better to take Adler as their mentor than Freud (p.56). Later, in the concluding section of his book, Green (1991, pp. 486-487) discounted Freudian interpretations of Alexander's distaste for sex, the rumors of his homosexual liaisons, his partiality for middle-aged or elderly ladies, and the systematic domination of his early years by Olympias as little more than the projected fears and desires of the interpreters. And again, an Adlerian power-complex paradigm was suggested as the preferable theoretical framework to use. Green's argument was based primarily on an exchange, reported originally by Plutarch, which took place between Alexander and Philip prior to Alexander's tutorship with Aristotle. Purportedly, Philip enjoined his son to study hard and pay close attention to all Aristotle said "so that you may not do a great many things of the sort that I am sorry I have done." At this point, Alexander "somewhat pertly" took Philip to task "because he was having children by other women besides his wife." Philip's reply was: "Well then, if you have many competitors for the kingdom, prove yourself honorable and good, so that you may obtain the

  2. Genetics Home Reference: isolated Pierre Robin sequence

    MedlinePlus

    ... of isolated Pierre Robin sequence: Boston Children's Hospital: Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Treatment and Care Genetic Testing ... 7 links) Centers for Disease Control: Facts About Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Children's Craniofacial Association: A Guide ...

  3. International Technical Working Group Round Robin Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dudder, Gordon B.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Herbillion, Georges M.

    2003-02-01

    The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to support illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and accepted as credible. The principal objectives of the Round Robin Tests are to prioritize forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) Round Robin, and previous Plutonium Round Robin, have made tremendous contributions to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the nine participating internal laboratories. A prioritized list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Current work is focused on the extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The HEU Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability is combined with the appropriate knowledge/database, it results in a significant capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific process or facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in the current capabilities including procedures for non-nuclear forensics and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The results of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a ''recommended protocol'' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases.

  4. The Mind-Body Connection: An Introduction to Alexander Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Cathy

    2003-01-01

    Explains that the Alexander Technique is a process that allows performers to improve physical-mental coordination while performing. Outlines the fundamentals of the Alexander Technique and how it can be applied for actors and drama teachers. Proposes that drama teachers can incorporate some of the Alexander Technique's fundamentals into their…

  5. Alexander Graham Bell: Teacher of the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Robert V.

    The lecture on Alexander Graham Bell by Dr. Robert V. Bruce, the author of a biography of Bell, focuses on Bell's association with the Clarke School for the Deaf in Massachusetts. Noted are Bell's employment by the school at 25 years of age and the preceding period during which Bell taught elocution at a boys' school in Scotland and used his…

  6. The Remarkable Journey of Lloyd Alexander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnel, Michael O.; Jacobs, James S.

    2007-01-01

    This article features Lloyd Alexander, an author who has produced some of the most elegant and powerful prose in the history of modern children's literature. Lloyd began writing seriously in high school, and though he wrote and submitted many poems and short stories, his only success was being named a finalist in the "Writer's Digest" Short Story…

  7. Logarithmic minimal models with Robin boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile; Pearce, Paul A.; Tartaglia, Elena

    2016-06-01

    We consider general logarithmic minimal models LM≤ft( p,{{p}\\prime}\\right) , with p,{{p}\\prime} coprime, on a strip of N columns with the (r, s) Robin boundary conditions introduced by Pearce, Rasmussen and Tipunin. On the lattice, these models are Yang–Baxter integrable loop models that are described algebraically by the one-boundary Temperley–Lieb algebra. The (r, s) Robin boundary conditions are a class of integrable boundary conditions satisfying the boundary Yang–Baxter equations which allow loop segments to either reflect or terminate on the boundary. The associated conformal boundary conditions are organized into infinitely extended Kac tables labelled by the Kac labels r\\in {Z} and s\\in {N} . The Robin vacuum boundary condition, labelled by ≤ft(r,s-\\frac{1}{2}\\right)=≤ft(0,\\frac{1}{2}\\right) , is given as a linear combination of Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The general (r, s) Robin boundary conditions are constructed, using fusion, by acting on the Robin vacuum boundary with an (r, s)-type seam consisting of an r-type seam of width w columns and an s-type seam of width d  =  s  ‑  1 columns. The r-type seam admits an arbitrary boundary field which we fix to the special value ξ =-\\fracλ{2} where λ =\\frac≤ft( {{p}\\prime}-p\\right)π{{{p}\\prime}} is the crossing parameter. The s-type boundary introduces d defects into the bulk. We consider the commuting double-row transfer matrices and their associated quantum Hamiltonians and calculate analytically the boundary free energies of the (r, s) Robin boundary conditions. Using finite-size corrections and sequence extrapolation out to system sizes N+w+d≤slant 26 , the conformal spectrum of boundary operators is accessible by numerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonians. Fixing the parity of N for r\

  8. Life, Death, and Second Chances

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Life, Death, and Second Chances Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table ... New Asthma Guidelines: What You Should Know / Life, Death, and Second Chances / Asthma Research: The NIH-NJRC ...

  9. Time, Chance, and Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Gerhard; Hüttemann, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    List of contributors; 1. Introduction Gerhard Ernst and Andreas Hütteman; Part I. The Arrows of Time: 2. Does a low-entropy constraint prevent us from influencing the past? Mathias Frisch; 3. The part hypothesis meets gravity Craig Callender; 4. Quantum gravity and the arrow of time Claus Kiefer; Part II. Probability and Chance: 5. The natural-range conception of probability Jacob Rosenthal; 6. Probability in Boltzmannian statistical mechanics Roman Frigg; 7. Humean mechanics versus a metaphysics of powers Michael Esfeld; Part III. Reduction: 8. The crystallisation of Clausius's phenomenological thermodynamics C. Ulises Moulines; 9. Reduction and renormalization Robert W. Batterman; 10. Irreversibility in stochastic dynamics Jos Uffink; Index.

  10. Rx for Round Robin Oral Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jerry L.

    1982-01-01

    Concludes that, as it is commonly practiced today, round robin oral reading is merely a vehicle for assessing accuracy in calling words. Argues that such a purpose can be achieved better on a one-to-one basis between teacher and student. (FL)

  11. Of Robins' Eggs, Teachers, and Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    Contrasts two fourth-grade teachers' treatment of a student's robin eggshell. One teacher continues with a conventional, text-based science lesson; the other asks what the eggshell means and helps students devise research questions to be pursued in the library and in art class. Also, seven provocative questions are posed for would-be education…

  12. Genetics, chance, and morphogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kurnit, D M; Layton, W M; Matthysse, S

    1987-01-01

    We posit that chance plays a major role in the occurrence of many common malformations that cluster in families but recur less frequently than expected for simple Mendelian traits. Once the role of random effects is accepted, the segregation of such malformations may be explained on the basis of Mendelian transmission of a single abnormal gene that predisposes to, but does not always result in, the abnormal phenotype. We apply a stochastic (probabilistic) single-gene model to the occurrence of malformations in mouse and man. The stochastic single-gene model suggests the feasibility of isolating individual genes that determine morphogenesis and sets limits on the precision with which the recurrence of malformations can be predicted. Images p[984]-a Fig. 6 PMID:3687945

  13. Destiny or Chance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart Ross

    2000-12-01

    Written by a leading planetary scientist, this engaging book tells the remarkable story of how our solar system came into existence and provides an expert tour of the Earth, its planetary neighbors and other planetary systems. In a whirlwind adventure, we explore how the formation of mighty Jupiter dominated the solar system, why Mars is so small, where comets come from, how rings form around planets, why asteroids exist and why Pluto isn't a planet at all. En route, we discover the role of chance events in shaping the course of the history of our solar system. Dramatic collisions, for example, caused the tilts and spins of the planets, the extinction of the dinosaurs and the rise of man. Finally, we look at how suitable Earth is for harboring life, what other planetary systems look like and whether we are alone in the cosmos. For all those interested in understanding our solar system and its place in the cosmos, this is a lucid and compelling read. Stuart Taylor is the recipient of numerous academic awards, including the Norman L. Bowen Award from the American Geophysical Union for his important contributions to our understanding of the origins and early history of the Earth and Moon. In 1997, Asteroid 5670 was named Rosstaylor in his honor. He is the author of Solar System Evolution (Cambridge, 1992).

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer August 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer August 1968 DOUBLE PARLORS LOOKING WEST - Grafton Tyler Double House, 1314 Thirtieth Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, (for CFA) Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, (for CFA) Photographer, 1971 DETAIL, MAIN ENTRANCE - Arthur C. Stanley House, 2370 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Robin Room and cannabis policy: dangerous comparisons.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes Robin Room's contribution to cannabis policy debates over the period 1993-2010. It focuses on a controversy that erupted over a review that Room and the author undertook for the World Health Organization in the mid-1990s on the comparative harms of cannabis, alcohol, opiates and tobacco. It also briefly describes Room's recent work on global cannabis policy and ends with a brief appreciation of the character of his scholarly contributions to this field. PMID:25395172

  17. 2. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, ALEXANDER'S MILL (WILSON'S MILL). THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, ALEXANDER'S MILL (WILSON'S MILL). THE 2-1/1-STORY MAIN BLOCK, ERECTED IN 1855, HAS OVERTONES OF THE GREEK REVIVAL STYLE. Photographer: louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. Life, Death, and Second Chances

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Life, Death, and Second Chances Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... that she was beginning to fear for her life. Was there any hope at all? Dr. Richard ...

  19. Pierre robin sequence and the pediatric dentist

    PubMed Central

    Rangeeth, B. N.; Moses, Joyson; Reddy, N. Venugopal

    2011-01-01

    This article on the dental management of a neonate with Pierre Robin sequence describes the clinical and laboratory procedures for construction of a feeding plate due to the presence of a cleft palate. Emphasis has also been laid on a few literatures to describe medical complications associated with this condition. A 56-day-old neonate had been referred to the outpatient department with the complaint of difficulty in feeding, description, and management of which has been described in the case report. PMID:22090768

  20. Robin conditions on the Euclidean ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowker, J. S.

    1996-04-01

    Techniques are presented for calculating directly the scalar functional determinant on the Euclidean d-ball. General formulae are given for Dirichlet and Robin boundary conditions when d is even and the field is massless. The method involves a large mass asymptotic limit which is carried out in detail for d = 2 as an exercise, incidentally producing some specific summations and identities. Extensive use is made of the Watson - Kober summation formula. The calculation of the finite-mass determinant is also briefly considered.

  1. [Pierre Robin syndrome treated by physiotherapy electromyography assisted].

    PubMed

    Bilello, Giuseppa; Provenzano, Franco; Lo Cascio, Alessandro; Caradonna, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    Pierre Robin syndrome is characterized by the triad: micrognathia, cleft palate and glossoptosis. This syndrome, which often undermines several organs and systems, is treated with a multidisciplinary approach that involves several specialists. The AA. present a case of Pierre Robin syndrome in neuromuscular rehabilitation by physiotherapy EMG-assisted. PMID:19445280

  2. Chance and Careers: Normative versus Contextual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabral, Albert C.; Salomone, Paul R.

    1990-01-01

    Stresses need for model of career decision making that recognizes both normative and chance influences. Discusses role of chance on adult development, ways in which people attempt to understand impact of chance events, and influence of personal characteristics on coping with chance. Summarizes meaning of chance, effects on client decision making,…

  3. The EWGRD Round Robin Measurement Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, D. A.; Wagemans, J.; Fernandes, A. C.; Girard, J. M.; Kis, D. P.; Klupák, V.; Mutnuru, R.; Philibert, H.; Rousseau, G.; Santos, J. P.; Serén, T.; Zsolnay, E. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a round robin exercise carried out to compare specific activity measurements performed by eight European organisations on a set of ten neutron activation detectors containing the radio-nuclides 110mAg, 60Co, 54Mn, 46Sc and 94Nb. The purpose of the exercise was to demonstrate the level of consistency between the participating organisations in blind tests of measurements relevant to reactor metrology. The samples used were selected from a stock of pre-existing irradiated material held at SCK•CEN. Taking turns over a period of approximately 9 months, the participating organisations received the samples, measured them and provided their results to an independent referee who collated and compared the data. The inter-comparison has demonstrated good agreement between the participants with standard deviations for each dosimeter varying between 1.6% and 3.1%. The paper provides results of the EWGRD Round Robin in an anonymised form together with discussion and conclusions which may be drawn from the exercise.

  4. 75 FR 12229 - Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application March 5, 2010. Take notice that on March 3, 2010, Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC (Sea Robin), PO Box 4967, Houston, Texas... Gas Act (NGA) requesting authorization to abandon by removal Sea Robin's East Cameron Block 265...

  5. First Chance Outreach. Del Rio First Chance Early Childhood Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Cornelia B.; Levermann, D.

    In order to help handicapped children function in regular school programs by the time they enter first grade, the First Chance Early Childhood Program provides precise intervention into the development of children aged 3 to 5 with clearly identified handicapping conditions. Using English and/or Spanish, program staff test and measure the referred…

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST - Jean Baptiste Valle House, 99 South Main Street (Northwest corner of Main & Market Streets), Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Jean Baptiste Valle House, 99 South Main Street (Northwest corner of Main & Market Streets), Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 VIEW FROM NORTH - Jean Baptiste Valle House, 99 South Main Street (Northwest corner of Main & Market Streets), Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer April 1969 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer April 1969 3034 P STREET (right) AND ADJOINING ROWHOUSES, LOOKING EAST - Smith-Morton Row House, 3034 P Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, 1934 DETAIL OF ROTUNDA - LOOKING NORTH - Old St. Louis Courthouse, Fourth to Broadway, Market to Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, 1934 GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Old St. Louis Courthouse, Fourth to Broadway, Market to Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  12. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, 1934 DETAIL OF ROTUNDA LOOKING NORTH - Old St. Louis Courthouse, Fourth to Broadway, Market to Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  13. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, 1934 Detail of Rotunda looking west. - Old St. Louis Courthouse, Fourth to Broadway, Market to Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, 1934 DETAIL OF EAST PORTICO - Old St. Louis Courthouse, Fourth to Broadway, Market to Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  15. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, 1934 INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING UP INTO THE DOME - Old St. Louis Courthouse, Fourth to Broadway, Market to Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  16. Alexander von Humboldt and the Origins of Landscape Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathewson, Kent

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the life, theories, and influence of Alexander von Humboldt, the early nineteenth century founder of modern geography. Maintains that Humboldt's novel approaches to the study of landscape antiquities have value for contemporary students in cultural and historical geography. (JDH)

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer May 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer May 1968 EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION - Mount Zion United Methodist Church, 1334 Twenty-ninth Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Pierre Robin sequence: Subdivision, data, theories, and treatment - Part 2: Syndromic and nonsyndromic Pierre Robin sequence

    PubMed Central

    Bütow, Kurt-W; Morkel, Jean A.; Naidoo, Sharan; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Context: The disorder currently accepted as Pierre Robin syndrome/anomaly/sequence (PRS) has been plagued by controversy ever since initially being described. Controversy exists not only about the appropriate terminology and etiopathogenesis of the disorder but also about its management. Clinical findings and treatment outcomes of a large database of 266 PRS cases were compared with the current state of knowledge in the scientific literature, relating to history, clinical description, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, theories of oligohydramnios, mandibular catch-up growth, midfacial hyperplasia, and the early management. Aims of Part 2: Contribute to the sparse scientific knowledge about pathogenesis and involved genetics. Subjects and Methods: An analysis of this large database was conducted focusing on genetic involvement, family history, and the incidence of additional syndromes. Results: Beside of differences related to clinical signs of dyspnea, feeding problems and mortality rates, various concomitant syndromes, and genetic abnormalities were found in cases of Fairbairn–Robin triad (FRT) and Siebold–Robin sequence (SRS), in addition to differences in relation to clinical signs of dyspnea, feeding problems, and mortality rates. Conclusion: Multiple FRT cases presented with various concomitant syndromes and genetic abnormalities, but only one type occurred in two SRS cases. The latter presented a significantly different mortality rate when compared to the FRT subgroup.

  19. 62. Detail of bellmouth looking southeast. Photo by Robin Lee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Detail of bellmouth looking southeast. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  20. Astrocytic TDP-43 pathology in Alexander disease.

    PubMed

    Walker, Adam K; Daniels, Christine M LaPash; Goldman, James E; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Messing, Albee

    2014-05-01

    Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic inclusions known as Rosenthal fibers (RFs) within astrocytes, and is caused by dominant mutations in the coding region of the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP is the major astrocytic intermediate filament, and in AxD patient brain tissue GFAP is a major component of RFs. TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is the major pathological protein in almost all cases of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ∼50% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), designated as FTLD-TDP. In ALS and FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 becomes insoluble, ubiquitinated, and pathologically phosphorylated and accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusions in both neurons and glia of affected brain and spinal cord regions. Previously, TDP-43 was detected in RFs of human pilocytic astrocytomas; however, involvement of TDP-43 in AxD has not been determined. Here we show that TDP-43 is present in RFs in AxD patient brains, and that insoluble phosphorylated full-length and high molecular weight TDP-43 accumulates in white matter of such brains. Phosphorylated TDP-43 also accumulates in the detergent-insoluble fraction from affected brain regions of Gfap(R236H/+) knock-in mice, which harbor a GFAP mutation homologous to one that causes AxD in humans, and TDP-43 colocalizes with astrocytic RF pathology in Gfap(R236H/+) mice and transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type GFAP. These findings suggest common pathogenic mechanisms in ALS, FTLD, and AxD, and this is the first report of TDP-43 involvement in a neurological disorder primarily affecting astrocytes. PMID:24806671

  1. The Second-Chance Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric; Lipka, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Nobody wants to be here. In remedial English, earning no credit, stuck. Now--after months of commas, clauses, and four-paragraph essays--students have one last chance to write their way out. Twenty students sit at computers, poised to start the final in-class essay for English 002 at Montgomery College. Anybody can enroll here, and all kinds do.…

  2. Round Robin Study of Rotational Strain Rheometers

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, M.J.

    2000-02-16

    A round robin of testing was performed to compare the performance of rotational dynamic mechanical spectrometers being used within the nuclear weapons complex. Principals from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico; Lockheed Martin Y12 Plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico (polycarbonate only); and Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T), Kansas City, MO, performed identical testing of hydrogen blown polysiloxane S5370 and bisphenol-A polycarbonate. Over an oscillation frequency sweep from 0.01 Hz to 15.9 Hz at 135 C, each site produced shear storage modulus values with standard deviations of less than 5%. The data from Sandia, Y12, and Kansas City agreed to within 4%, while the Los Alamos data differed by as much as 13%. Storage modulus values for a frequency sweep of the S5370 at 35 C had standard deviations between 6% and 8%, and site-to-site agreement averaged 3%. The shear loss modulus values had standard deviations of 5%, 7%, and 52% for the sites participating, while the results differed by 12% on average.

  3. Anisotropic 2-dimensional Robin Hood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, Sergey; Cwilich, Gabriel; Zypman, Fredy

    2009-03-01

    We have considered the Robin Hood model introduced by Zaitsev[1] to discuss flux creep and depinning of interfaces in a two dimensional system. Although the model has been studied extensively analytically in 1-d [2], its scaling laws have been verified numerically only in that case. Recent work suggest that its properties might be important to understand surface friction[3], where its 2-dimensional properties are important. We show that in the 2-dimensional case scaling laws can be found provided one considers carefully the anisotropy of the model, and different ways of introducing that anisotropy lead to different exponents and scaling laws, in analogy with directed percolation, with which this model is closely related[4]. We show that breaking the rotational symmetry between the x and y axes does not change the scaling properties of the model, but the introduction of a preferential direction of accretion (``robbing'' in the language of the model) leads to new scaling exponents. [1] S.I.Zaitsev, Physica A189, 411 (1992) [2] M. Pacuzki, S. Maslov and P.Bak, Phys Rev. E53, 414 (1996) [3] S. Buldyrev, J. Ferrante and F. Zypman Phys. Rev E64, 066110 (2006) [4] G. Odor, Rev. Mod. Phys. 76, 663 (2004) .

  4. Obituary: Donald Alexander Macrae, 1916-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaquist, E. R.

    2007-12-01

    With the passing of Donald Alexander MacRae on 6 December 2006 at age 90, the astronomy community lost a visionary scientist and a great educator in the field. Don MacRae was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 19 February 1916, to Donald Alexander and Laura Geddes (Barnstead) MacRae. His father was originally a classics scholar and preceptor of Greek and Latin at Princeton, but at the time of Don's birth in 1916 he was Dean of the Dalhousie Law School in Halifax. The family moved to Toronto, Ontario, in 1924 when his father joined the faculty of Osgoode Hall Law School in Toronto as a Professor of Law. After the family moved to Toronto, where he received most of his early education, he obtained his undergraduate degree in Mathematics and Physics in 1937 from the University of Toronto (U of T). He obtained the degree of A.M. in 1940 and of Ph.D. in 1943 from Harvard University under the mentorship of Bart Bok in the field of galactic structure. During his early career he worked briefly at the University of Pennsylvania, Cornell University, and Carbide and Chemical Corporation at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. For Don the latter work was a brief and somewhat uneasy association with the Manhattan Project. In 1946, he obtained a position at Case Institute of Technology (now Case Western Reserve University), where he worked until 1953. In 1953, he accepted a position at the U of T, replacing Ralph Williamson, who had earlier introduced Don to the emerging field of radio astronomy while they both were at Cornell. Don's primary research field was stellar spectroscopy, but his interests were much broader than this, and he possessed an abiding ability to interest students and faculty in new and emerging ideas. In the early 1960s he developed a strong interest in the nature and origin of the lunar surface, and discussed these extensively with colleagues. Many of his ideas on this subject were later confirmed by the lunar exploration program. Don's continuing interest in radio astronomy

  5. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U.; Slotwinski, John

    2016-01-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST’s experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed. PMID:27274602

  6. 8. View of southwest rear and southeast side of AlexanderAlmon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of southwest rear and southeast side of Alexander-Almon House with cement block outbuilding to far left, facing north. - Alexander-Almon House, 130 Philip Almon Road, Roopville, Carroll County, GA

  7. Modeling Alexander disease with patient iPSCs reveals cellular and molecular pathology of astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takayuki; Funayama, Misato; Miyake, Michiyo; Tsukita, Kayoko; Era, Takumi; Osaka, Hitoshi; Ayaki, Takashi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Inoue, Haruhisa

    2016-01-01

    Alexander disease is a fatal neurological illness characterized by white-matter degeneration and formation of Rosenthal fibers, which contain glial fibrillary acidic protein as astrocytic inclusion. Alexander disease is mainly caused by a gene mutation encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein, although the underlying pathomechanism remains unclear. We established induced pluripotent stem cells from Alexander disease patients, and differentiated induced pluripotent stem cells into astrocytes. Alexander disease patient astrocytes exhibited Rosenthal fiber-like structures, a key Alexander disease pathology, and increased inflammatory cytokine release compared to healthy control. These results suggested that Alexander disease astrocytes contribute to leukodystrophy and a variety of symptoms as an inflammatory source in the Alexander disease patient brain. Astrocytes, differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells of Alexander disease, could be a cellular model for future translational medicine. PMID:27402089

  8. 12. Detail view of southeast side window of AlexanderAlmon House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail view of southeast side window of Alexander-Almon House with rain barrel at lower left and roof rafter tails at top, facing northwest. - Alexander-Almon House, 130 Philip Almon Road, Roopville, Carroll County, GA

  9. Obituary: Walter Alexander Feibelman, 1930-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oergerle, William

    2005-12-01

    Walter Alexander Feibelman, 79, an astronomer who discovered the E-ring of Saturn, died of a heart attack 19 November 2004 at his home at Riderwood Village in Silver Spring, Maryland. Walter was born 30 October 1925 in Berlin, Germany to Bernard and Dora Feibelman. He came to the United States with his parents in 1941. They were some of the last German Jews to flee Nazi Germany. Years later, he reported his experiences in an account contributed to the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. As a youth, he worked at a cleaning shop and as a soda jerk before taking a course in tool and die making. He worked at the Abbey Photo Corp. in New York and in a model-making firm, where he constructed models of aircraft for use in identification courses by the Army Air Forces. After high school, he attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology and received his BS degree in 1956. Until 1969, he was a research scientist at the University of Pittsburgh. While working as an assistant research professor in physics and astronomy at the University of Pittsburgh in 1967, he examined a photo of Saturn taken a year earlier at the university's Allegheny Observatory. The E-ring -- unlike the bright main rings, A, B, C, D and F -- is faint and not easily spotted. He paired his observation with calculations and announced his discovery, which remained unconfirmed until the Pioneer 11 flyby in 1979. Walter joined the Optical Astronomy Division of Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt in 1969, and worked there until 2002, when he became an emeritus astronomer at NASA. He became associated with the International Ultraviolet Explorer project, and worked on developing detectors for the orbiting observatory's spectrograph. The project turned out to be one of NASA's most successful observatories, operating from 1978 to 1996. In his scientific career, he published more than 200 refereed articles, mainly on hot stars and planetary nebulae. He also wrote papers in the fields of photography, spectroscopy

  10. Obituary: Donald Alexander Macrae, 1916-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaquist, E. R.

    2007-12-01

    With the passing of Donald Alexander MacRae on 6 December 2006 at age 90, the astronomy community lost a visionary scientist and a great educator in the field. Don MacRae was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 19 February 1916, to Donald Alexander and Laura Geddes (Barnstead) MacRae. His father was originally a classics scholar and preceptor of Greek and Latin at Princeton, but at the time of Don's birth in 1916 he was Dean of the Dalhousie Law School in Halifax. The family moved to Toronto, Ontario, in 1924 when his father joined the faculty of Osgoode Hall Law School in Toronto as a Professor of Law. After the family moved to Toronto, where he received most of his early education, he obtained his undergraduate degree in Mathematics and Physics in 1937 from the University of Toronto (U of T). He obtained the degree of A.M. in 1940 and of Ph.D. in 1943 from Harvard University under the mentorship of Bart Bok in the field of galactic structure. During his early career he worked briefly at the University of Pennsylvania, Cornell University, and Carbide and Chemical Corporation at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. For Don the latter work was a brief and somewhat uneasy association with the Manhattan Project. In 1946, he obtained a position at Case Institute of Technology (now Case Western Reserve University), where he worked until 1953. In 1953, he accepted a position at the U of T, replacing Ralph Williamson, who had earlier introduced Don to the emerging field of radio astronomy while they both were at Cornell. Don's primary research field was stellar spectroscopy, but his interests were much broader than this, and he possessed an abiding ability to interest students and faculty in new and emerging ideas. In the early 1960s he developed a strong interest in the nature and origin of the lunar surface, and discussed these extensively with colleagues. Many of his ideas on this subject were later confirmed by the lunar exploration program. Don's continuing interest in radio astronomy

  11. Alexander Falconer Sr Seamen's missionary in New Zealand, son Alexander Falconer medical superintendent for mentally ill, grandson Murray Falconer neurosurgeon.

    PubMed

    Hawgood, Barbara J

    2016-08-01

    Alexander Falconer Sr (1843-1915) came from Scotland to New Zealand. A practical Christian, he set up places of relaxation for miners, sailors and soldiers; he became the Seamen's Missionary. Son, Dr Alexander Falconer (1874-1955) trained at Otago University Medical School. As medical superintendent for the mentally ill, he urged the early introduction of psychotherapy. His son, Murray Falconer (1910-1977) was the first Nuffield Dominions Clinical Fellow, training in neurosurgery in Oxford. He was the first director of the Guy's-Maudsley Neurosurgical Unit in London and was internationally known for the surgical management of temporal lobe epilepsy in adults and children. PMID:26025843

  12. Enhancement of virchow-robin spaces. An MRI evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tsitouridis, I; Papaioannou, S; Arvaniti, M; Tsitouridis, K; Rodokalakis, G; Papastergiou, C

    2009-01-20

    Virchow-Robin spaces are enclosed spaces filled with interstitial fluid and covered with pia that accompany arteries, arterioles, veins and venules as they perforate the brain. They are round, linear or punctuate areas depending on the image that parallel cerebrospinal fluid attenuation or signal intensity. They are classically described as isointense to cerebrospinal fluid on images obtained with all pulse sequences. They appear hypointense relative to brain on T1-weighted MR scans and present a high signal intensity on T2-weighted MR scans. They also show complete signal suppression on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) scans and no enhancement after intravenous contrast administration. However, many pathologic states result in abnormal dilation with an increased number of Virchow-Robin spaces visible on MRI imaging and many pathological conditions cause the spaces to enhance. The purpose of this study is to present the major causes of Virchow-Robin enhancement. PMID:24257044

  13. Alexander Meiklejohn in Search of Freedom and Dignity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tony W.

    1982-01-01

    Assesses the contributions of the philosopher/educator Alexander Meiklejohn. Discusses the influences of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and the U.S. Constitution on Meiklejohn's educational theories, which stressed that human freedom and dignity can be enhanced by rigorous examination of U.S. Supreme Court decisions and the meaning of…

  14. The Century-Old Wisdom of Alexander Graham Bell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornett, Orin

    1990-01-01

    This article reflects on Alexander Graham Bell's 1888 testimony before the Royal Commission of the United Kingdom on the Condition of the Deaf and Dumb, Etc. Excerpts are grouped by reference to (1) language education for the hearing impaired; (2) speechreading; (3) methods of teaching; (4) speech; and (5) sign language. (Author/PB)

  15. Teaching Nuclear Radiation and the Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David R. Lapp

    2008-01-01

    The recent international story about the death of the former KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko has more than just a few wondering about radiation poisoning and the sinister sounding polonium-210. I was preparing to begin a nuclear radiation unit the Monday after Thanksgiving 2006. As it turned out, Litvinenko died Thanksgiving Day after a short and…

  16. Alexander I. Ignatowski: a pioneer in the study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Igor E; Jankovic, Gradimir M

    2013-01-01

    In 1908, Alexander I. Ignatowski (1875-1955) published his pioneering work that first revealed a relationship between cholesterol-rich food and experimental atherosclerosis. This early experimental work paved a way to the metabolic study of the mechanism of atherosclerosis. Herein, we present a brief account of Ignatowski's work and life. PMID:23914012

  17. Journalism and the Educational Views of Alexander Meiklejohn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Mack R.

    Alexander Meiklejohn, who died in 1964 at the age of 92, was a constitutional scholar whose major interest was education. Among Meiklejohn's beliefs were the following: the social good should take precedence over individual achievement; the liberal arts college is the institution best suited to carry out an affirmative reading of the First…

  18. Alexander disease with mild dorsal brainstem atrophy and infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Torisu, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Yamaguchi-Takada, Yui; Yano, Tamami; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sawaishi, Yukio; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-05-01

    We present the case of a Japanese male infant with Alexander disease who developed infantile spasms at 8 months of age. The patient had a cluster of partial seizures at 4 months of age. He presented with mild general hypotonia and developmental delay. Macrocephaly was not observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings fulfilled all MRI-based criteria for the diagnosis of Alexander disease and revealed mild atrophy of the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata with abnormal intensities. DNA analysis disclosed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.1154 C>T, p.S385F) in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene. At 8 months of age, tonic spasms occurred, and electroencephalography (EEG) revealed hypsarrhythmia. Lamotrigine effectively controlled the infantile spasms and improved the abnormal EEG findings. Although most patients with infantile Alexander disease have epilepsy, infantile spasms are rare. This comorbid condition may be associated with the distribution of the brain lesions and the age at onset of Alexander disease. PMID:22818990

  19. 46. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), (from Alexander Brown's Peninsula's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), (from Alexander Brown's Peninsula's Last Street Cars, Daily Press, January 15, 1956) photographer unknown. The first streetcar (with dignitaries) to make the run from Newport News to a new housing development named Hilton Village in September 1918. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  20. The multivariable Alexander polynomial and modern knot theory

    SciTech Connect

    Saleur, H. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-06-01

    This paper is a summary of several recent works (by the author and collaborators) that study the Conway-Alexander link invariant in the light of quantum groups and topological quantum field theories. Their purpose is to understand connections between modern knot theory and more classical topological concepts.

  1. All Aboard the Engine of Reform: Lamar Alexander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1991-01-01

    Transformation of schools is the key to America 2000, an ambitious amalgam of ideas that Secretary of Education Lamar Alexander and his advisers have developed. The program's centerpiece is the creation of 535 "New American Schools" receiving a 1-time $1 million federal grant to develop exemplary programs. A sidebar describes the Department of…

  2. View west of the James and Lucy Alexander gravestone and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of the James and Lucy Alexander gravestone and family plot among other demarcated family plots in the Female Union Band Cemetery. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Round Robin Testing of the Ceramic Waste Form (CWF)

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, C.C.

    2001-10-02

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has participated in a round robin testing program, which was conducted under the auspices of the Department of Energy's Tanks Focus Area (TFA) for Immobilization. The round robin, lead by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), focused on leach testing data of the Ceramic Waste Form (CWF) using the Product Consistency Test (PCT) (ASTM C 1285) and the ANL developed Rapid Water Soluble (RWS) procedure. The CWF is a heterogeneous material comprised of about 70 percent sodalite, 25 percent borosilicate glass binder, 3 percent halite, and 2 percent mixed rare earth and actinide oxides, by mass.

  4. Reading Robin Kelsey's "Archive Style" across the Archival Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the author's comments on Robin Kelsey's "Archive Style: Photographs and Illustrations for U.S. Surveys, 1850-1890," a book about government documents that happen to be visual materials. The word "archive" now has intellectual cache in the academic world, but its currency has little to do with the "real world of archives" as…

  5. ROUND ROBIN ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOL AND CARBONYL SYNTHETIC EXHAUST SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent changes in regulatory practices have brought about a need for speciated analysis of the volatile organic components of vehicle exhaust. he purpose of this study was to allow interested laboratories to participate in a Round Robin so that each could assess their speciation ...

  6. Tongue-lip adhesion in Pierre Robin sequence

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Pierre Robin sequence exhibit varying degrees of airway obstruction and feeding difficulty. In some patients, airway obstruction may be profound, warranting surgical intervention to maintain a patent airway. The purpose of this article is to highlight the advantages of the tongue-lip adhesion procedure for the management of airway obstruction in such patients compared to the currently available options. PMID:26904495

  7. Robin sequence associated with karyotypic mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Salinas, C.F.; Jastrzab, J.M.; Centu, E.S.

    1994-09-01

    Robin sequence is characterized by cleft palate, hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis and respiratory difficulties. The Robin sequence may be observed as an isolated defect or as part of about 33 syndromes; however, to our knowledge, it has never been reported associated with chromosome 22 abnormalities. We examined a two-month-old black boy with a severe case of Robin sequence. Exam revealed a small child with hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis, high palate and respiratory difficulty with continuous apnea episodes resulting in cyanotic lips and nails. In order to relieve the upper airway obstruction, his tongue was attached to the lower lip. Later a tracheostomy was performed. On follow-up exam, this patient was found to have developmental delay. Cytogenetic studies of both peripheral blood and fibroblast cells showed mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities which were designated as follows: 45,XY,-22/46,XY,-22,+r(22)/46,XY. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies confirmed the identity of the r(22) and showed the presence of the DiGeorge locus (D22575) but the absence of the D22539 locus which maps to 22q13.3. Reported cases of r(22) show no association with Robin sequence. However, r(22) has been associated with flat bridge of the nose, bulbous tip of the nose, epicanthus and high palate, all characteristics that we also observed in this case. These unusual cytogenetic findings may be causally related to the dysmorphology found in the patient we report.

  8. Nitric oxide mediates glial-induced neurodegeneration in Alexander disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqun; Hagemann, Tracy L; Kalwa, Hermann; Michel, Thomas; Messing, Albee; Feany, Mel B

    2015-01-01

    Glia play critical roles in maintaining the structure and function of the nervous system; however, the specific contribution that astroglia make to neurodegeneration in human disease states remains largely undefined. Here we use Alexander disease, a serious degenerative neurological disorder caused by astrocyte dysfunction, to identify glial-derived NO as a signalling molecule triggering astrocyte-mediated neuronal degeneration. We further find that NO acts through cGMP signalling in neurons to promote cell death. Glial cells themselves also degenerate, via the DNA damage response and p53. Our findings thus define a specific mechanism for glial-induced non-cell autonomous neuronal cell death, and identify a potential therapeutic target for reducing cellular toxicity in Alexander disease, and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders with glial dysfunction. PMID:26608817

  9. Nitric oxide mediates glial-induced neurodegeneration in Alexander disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqun; Hagemann, Tracy L.; Kalwa, Hermann; Michel, Thomas; Messing, Albee; Feany, Mel B.

    2015-01-01

    Glia play critical roles in maintaining the structure and function of the nervous system; however, the specific contribution that astroglia make to neurodegeneration in human disease states remains largely undefined. Here we use Alexander disease, a serious degenerative neurological disorder caused by astrocyte dysfunction, to identify glial-derived NO as a signalling molecule triggering astrocyte-mediated neuronal degeneration. We further find that NO acts through cGMP signalling in neurons to promote cell death. Glial cells themselves also degenerate, via the DNA damage response and p53. Our findings thus define a specific mechanism for glial-induced non-cell autonomous neuronal cell death, and identify a potential therapeutic target for reducing cellular toxicity in Alexander disease, and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders with glial dysfunction. PMID:26608817

  10. Alexander the Great and West Nile Virus Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Marr, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Alexander the Great died in Babylon in 323 BC. His death at age 32 followed a 2-week febrile illness. Speculated causes of death have included poisoning, assassination, and a number of infectious diseases. One incident, mentioned by Plutarch but not considered by previous investigators, may shed light on the cause of Alexander’s death. The incident, which occurred as he entered Babylon, involved a flock of ravens exhibiting unusual behavior and subsequently dying at his feet. The inexplicable behavior of ravens is reminiscent of avian illness and death weeks before the first human cases of West Nile virus infection were identified in the United States. We posit that Alexander may have died of West Nile encephalitis. PMID:14725285

  11. Dr Alexander Graham Bell--audiologist and speech therapist.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, R C

    1976-09-01

    Alexander Graham Bell is best known for his role in the invention of the telephone. However, he had a lifelong involvement in speech therapy and audiology besides many other medical investigations. He was also awarded an honorary MD degree from Heidelberg University. In this, the 100th anniversary of his invention of the telephone, his life and some of his medical interests are briefly reviewed. PMID:786234

  12. Confirmation of Cosmological Bounces Predicted by Alexander Friedmann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgaliev, Ildus

    2011-06-01

    It is shown that taking into consideration vorticity-related component of cosmological motion averts singularity and explains acceleration of the expansion. No mystic matter with dark energy is needed. That energy belongs to the local rotational motion (vorticity). Einstein's idea on static universe occurs to be encompassing conception for the standard cosmology, as well as for the emerging new (oscillating) one. Alexander Friedman gave to us its verbal model and was the most well prepared to give mathematical one.

  13. Third Structure Determination by Powder Diffractometery Round Robin (SDPDRR-3)

    SciTech Connect

    Le Bail, A.; Cranswick, L; Adil, K; Altomare, A; Avdeev, M; Cerny, R; Cuocci, C; Giacovazzo, C; Halasz, I; et al.

    2009-01-01

    The results from a third structure determination by powder diffractometry (SDPD) round robin are discussed. From the 175 potential participants having downloaded the powder data, nine sent a total of 12 solutions (8 and 4 for samples 1 and 2, respectively, a tetrahydrated calcium tartrate and a lanthanum tungstate). Participants used seven different computer programs for structure solution (ESPOIR, EXPO, FOX, PSSP, SHELXS, SUPERFLIP, and TOPAS), applying Patterson, direct methods, direct space methods, and charge flipping approach. It is concluded that solving a structure from powder data remains a challenge, at least one order of magnitude more difficult than solving a problem with similar complexity from single-crystal data. Nevertheless, a few more steps in the direction of increasing the SDPD rate of success were accomplished since the two previous round robins: this time, not only the computer program developers were successful but also some users. No result was obtained from crystal structure prediction experts.

  14. A robin perches on a branch at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A robin perches on a branch in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with the space center. Robins range throughout North America, from Alaska to Florida. Although considered a harbinger of spring, they do winter in northern states, frequenting cedar bogs and swamps. They also winter in Florida, where they often can be seen in flocks of hundreds near KSC and the wildlife refuge, which comprises 92,000 acres, ranging from hardwood hammocks and pine flatwoods to fresh-water impoundments, salt-water estuaries and brackish marshes. The diverse landscape provides habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles, including such endangered species as Southern bald eagles, wood storks, Florida scrub jays, Atlantic loggerhead and leatherback turtles, osprey, and nearly 5,000 alligators.

  15. Standardization of Solar Mirror Reflectance Measurements - Round Robin Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Meyen, S.; Lupfert, E.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Kennedy, C.

    2010-10-01

    Within the SolarPaces Task III standardization activities, DLR, CIEMAT, and NREL have concentrated on optimizing the procedure to measure the reflectance of solar mirrors. From this work, the laboratories have developed a clear definition of the method and requirements needed of commercial instruments for reliable reflectance results. A round robin test was performed between the three laboratories with samples that represent all of the commercial solar mirrors currently available for concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The results show surprisingly large differences in hemispherical reflectance (sh) of 0.007 and specular reflectance (ss) of 0.004 between the laboratories. These differences indicate the importance of minimum instrument requirements and standardized procedures. Based on these results, the optimal procedure will be formulated and validated with a new round robin test in which a better accuracy is expected. Improved instruments and reference standards are needed to reach the necessary accuracy for cost and efficiency calculations.

  16. Enhancement of robin-virchow spaces MRI evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tsitouridis, I; Papaioannou, S; Arvaniti, M; Tsitouridis, K; Rodokalakis, G; Papastergiou, C

    2008-10-01

    The perivascular spaces are normally microscopic. Even in normal brain some Robin-Virchow spaces are usually seen in the area of substantia innominata at the level of anterior commissure. Many pathologic states result in abnormal dilatation with an increased number of spaces visible on MRI imaging. Dilatation is most commonly associated with anterior abnormalities that arise due to aging, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, hypertension and other vascular risk factors. The precise etiology of dilatation is currently unknown. PMID:24256953

  17. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... a peak flow meter. Photo courtesy of MCAN Asthma, a reality of daily life for more than ...

  18. THINK: A Game of Choice and Chance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ruma; Tadmor-Troyanski, Maayan

    1999-01-01

    Describes a game of chance in which players can maximize their expected gain by making appropriate decisions. Explains that developing an optimal strategy involves computing probabilities and conditional expected values. (Author/ASK)

  19. The early history of chance in evolution.

    PubMed

    Pence, Charles H

    2015-04-01

    Work throughout the history and philosophy of biology frequently employs 'chance', 'unpredictability', 'probability', and many similar terms. One common way of understanding how these concepts were introduced in evolution focuses on two central issues: the first use of statistical methods in evolution (Galton), and the first use of the concept of "objective chance" in evolution (Wright). I argue that while this approach has merit, it fails to fully capture interesting philosophical reflections on the role of chance expounded by two of Galton's students, Karl Pearson and W.F.R. Weldon. Considering a question more familiar from contemporary philosophy of biology--the relationship between our statistical theories of evolution and the processes in the world those theories describe--is, I claim, a more fruitful way to approach both these two historical actors and the broader development of chance in evolution. PMID:26466463

  20. Theory of a curved planar waveguide with Robin boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Olendski, O; Mikhailovska, L

    2010-03-01

    A model of a thin straight strip with a uniformly curved section and with boundary requirements zeroing at the edges a linear superposition of the wave function and its normal derivative (Robin boundary condition) is analyzed theoretically within the framework of the linear Schrödinger equation and is applied to the study of the processes in the bent magnetic multilayers, superconducting films and metallic ferrite-filled waveguides. In particular, subband thresholds of the straight and curved parts of the film are calculated and analyzed as a function of the Robin parameter 1/Lambda , with Lambda being an extrapolation length entering Robin boundary condition. For the arbitrary Robin coefficients which are equal on the opposite interfaces of the strip and for all bend parameters the lowest-mode energy of the continuously curved duct is always smaller than its straight counterpart. Accordingly, the bound state below the fundamental propagation threshold of the straight arms always exists as a result of the bend. In terms of the superconductivity language it means an increased critical temperature of the curved film compared to its straight counterpart. Localized-level dependence on the parameters of the curve is investigated with its energy decreasing with increasing bend angle and decreasing bend radius. Conditions of the bound-state existence for the different Robin parameters on the opposite edges are analyzed too; in particular, it is shown that the bound state below the first transverse threshold of the straight arm always exists if the inner extrapolation length is not larger than the outer one. In the opposite case there is a range of the bend parameters where the curved film cannot trap the wave and form the localized mode; for example, for the fixed bend radius the bound state emerges from the continuum at some nonzero bend angle that depends on the difference of the two lengths Lambda at the opposite interfaces. Various transport properties of the film

  1. On the meaning of chance in biology

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Chance has somewhat different meanings in different contexts, and can be taken to be either ontological (as in quantum indeterminacy) or epistemological (as in stochastic uncertainty). Here I argue that, whether or not it stems from physical indeterminacy, chance is a fundamental biological reality that is meaningless outside the context of knowledge. To say that something happened by chance means that it did not happen by design. This of course is a cornerstone of Darwin’s theory of evolution: random undirected variation is the creative wellspring upon which natural selection acts to sculpt the functional form (and hence apparent design) of organisms. In his essay Chance & Necessity, Jacques Monod argued that an intellectually honest commitment to objectivity requires that we accord chance a central role in an otherwise mechanistic biology, and suggested that doing so may well place the origin of life outside the realm of scientific tractability. While that may be true, ongoing research on the origin of life problem suggests that abiogenesis may have been possible, and perhaps even probable, under the conditions that existed on primordial earth. Following others, I argue that the world should be viewed as causally open, i.e. primordially indeterminate or vague. Accordingly, chance ought to be the default scientific explanation for origination, a universal ‘null hypothesis’ to be assumed until disproven. In this framework, creation of anything new manifests freedom (allowing for chance), and causation manifests constraint, the developmental emergence of which establishes the space of possibilities that may by chance be realized. PMID:25870720

  2. Extra Chance Generalized Hybrid Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Cédric M.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    We study a method, Extra Chance Generalized Hybrid Monte Carlo, to avoid rejections in the Hybrid Monte Carlo method and related algorithms. In the spirit of delayed rejection, whenever a rejection would occur, extra work is done to find a fresh proposal that, hopefully, may be accepted. We present experiments that clearly indicate that the additional work per sample carried out in the extra chance approach clearly pays in terms of the quality of the samples generated.

  3. Pierre Robin sequence: Subdivision, data, theories, and treatment – Part 3: Prevailing controversial theories related to Pierre Robin sequence

    PubMed Central

    Bütow, Kurt-W; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur; Morkel, Jean A.; Naidoo, Sharan

    2016-01-01

    Context: The disorder currently accepted as Pierre Robin syndrome/anomaly/sequence (PRS) has been plagued by controversy ever since initially being described. Controversy exists not only about the appropriate terminology and etiopathogenesis of the disorder but also about its management. Therefore, clinical findings and treatment outcomes of a large database of 266 PRS cases were compared with the current state of knowledge in the scientific literature related to history, clinical description, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, theories of oligohydramnios, mandibular catch-up growth, midfacial hyperplasia, and the early management. Aim: The aims of Part 3 debate the controversial biological theories relating to PRS. Materials and Methods: Oligo-/poly-hydramnios, mandibular catch-up growth, and midfacial hyperplasia, the three in the literature most prevailing theories related to PRS, have been compared and discussed with the findings provided by this large database of 266 Siebold-Robin sequence (SRS) and Fairbairn-Robin triad (FRT) cases. Results: History and clinical findings evaluated in this database refute the first two theories. Although manifold midfacial appearances were demonstrated in FRT cases, a third of all SRS cases presented with mid-facial hyperplasia. Conclusion: The three main biological theories regarding PRS could not be verified after thorough analysis of the database. PMID:27563605

  4. Alexander technique and Feldenkrais method: a critical overview.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjiv; Janssen, Kristy; DeCelle, Sharon

    2004-11-01

    This article develops an overall better understanding of the Alexander technique and Feldenkrais method. Initially, a brief history is provided to lay the groundwork for the development of these techniques. A description of the techniques, training requirements, and mechanism of action follows. Indications, contraindications, and patient selection are discussed. This article reviews and identifies what research has been completed and what areas need further investigation. Overall, the goal is to establish a guide to aid in determining who may benefit from these techniques and outcomes to expect when using these techniques. PMID:15458754

  5. [Alexander Borodin--physician, chemist, scientist, teacher and composer].

    PubMed

    Vik, T

    1998-12-10

    Concert programmes and CD covers suggest that the Russian composer Alexander Borodin (1833-87) was also a great scientist. In this article we examine this proposition. Borodin was born in St. Petersburg as the illegitimate son of a Russian nobleman. As a boy his talents ranged from music to chemistry and languages. Borodin studied medicine at the Medico-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg from 1850 to 1855 and defended his doctoral thesis on the similarity between arsenic and phosphoric acid in 1858. He did not, however, feel comfortable in his role as a doctor, and soon started to work as a chemist. In 1864 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the Medico-Surgical Academy. In 1861, Borodin attended the first international congress of chemistry in Karlsruhe, and he was among the founders of the Russian Chemical Society in 1868. He published 42 articles and was a friend of Dmitri Mendeleev, the scientist who described the periodic system. In 1872, Borodin started the first medical courses for women in Russia. It seems warranted to conclude that Alexander Borodin was indeed a great scientist and university teacher, though his immortality was earned by his leisure time activities. PMID:9914755

  6. Alexander disease - astrogliopathy considered as leukodystrophy - experience of an institution.

    PubMed

    Mierzewska, Hanna; Mierzewska-Schmidt, Magdalena; Salomons, Gajja S; Dudzińska, Magdalena; Szczepanik, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Alexander Disease (ALXDRD) is an autosomal dominant leukodystrophy caused by mutation in one allele of GFAP gene, encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Most cases occur due to de novo. There are three clinical subtypes of ALXDRD: infantile, juvenile and adult form, but congenital form is also outlined. The disease's spectrum comprises of macrocephaly, progressive pyramidal signs, and seizures in congenital and infantile subtypes. Neuropathologically are enormous number of Rosenthal fibers (RF) mainly around vessels, in subependymal and subpial regions are found. The diagnosis is based on the typical findings on MRI: diffuse white mater lesions with frontal regions preponderance and possibly on the detection of the gene mutation. Here we present six Polish children affected of Alexander disease with congenital (1), infantile (4) and juvenile (1) form. Five of them were previously misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy or unspecific developmental delay; two patients had MRI because of another suspicion, before specific diagnosis was established. Molecular analysis performed in four cases confirmed mutations of GFAP gene; all mutation were de novo. The role of astroglia in brain is shortly reviewed. PMID:27442695

  7. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of... Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. (a) Definition. The term “Port Alexander” includes the entire inlet from its head to its entrance from Chatham Strait. (b) Speed. The speed of all vessels of 5 tons...

  8. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of... Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. (a) Definition. The term “Port Alexander” includes the entire inlet from its head to its entrance from Chatham Strait. (b) Speed. The speed of all vessels of 5 tons...

  9. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of... Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. (a) Definition. The term “Port Alexander” includes the entire inlet from its head to its entrance from Chatham Strait. (b) Speed. The speed of all vessels of 5 tons...

  10. Kinesthetic Ventures Informed by the Work of F. M. Alexander, Stanislavski, Peirce, and Freud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Ed; Wright, Ben; Protzel, Michael, Ed.

    This book is about education harvested from self-observation. F. Matthias Alexander (1869-1955) studied the experience of self formation, working with motor habits. His method is used in performing arts training to enhance bodily and vocal expression. Like Alexander, Konstantine Stanislavski (1863-1938) and Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) studied human…

  11. 76 FR 28226 - Ndahendekire Barbara v. African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia; Alco Logistics, Llc; Brenda Alexander...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Ndahendekire Barbara v. African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia; Alco Logistics, Llc; Brenda Alexander; and AIR 7 Seas... ``Complainant,'' against African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia, ALCO Logistics, LLC; Brenda Alexander; and Air 7 Seas Transport Logistics, Inc.; hereinafter ``Respondents''. Complainant asserts that she is acting agent...

  12. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of... Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. (a) Definition. The term “Port Alexander” includes the entire inlet from its head to its entrance from Chatham Strait. (b) Speed. The speed of all vessels of 5 tons...

  13. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of... Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. (a) Definition. The term “Port Alexander” includes the entire inlet from its head to its entrance from Chatham Strait. (b) Speed. The speed of all vessels of 5 tons...

  14. Ecological investigation of a hazardous waste site, Warner Robins, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M.; Billig, P.

    1993-05-01

    Landfill No. 4 and the sludge lagoon at Robins Air Force Base, Warner Robins, Georgia, were added to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List in 1987 because of highpotential for contaminant migration. Warner Robins is located approximately 90 miles southeast of Atlanta. In 1990 CH2M HILL conducted a Remedial Investigation at the base that recommended that further ecological assessment investigations be conducted (CH2M HILL 1990). The subject paper is the result of this recommendation. The ecological study was carried out by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)Division of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., working jointly with its subcontractor CDM (CDM 1992a). The primary area of investigation (Zone 1) included the sludge lagoon, Landfill No. 4, the wetland area east of the landfill and west of Hannah Road (including two sewage treatment ponds), and the area between Hannah Road and Horse Creek (Fig. 1). The bottomland forest wetlands of Zone 1 extend from the landfill east to Horse Creek. Surface water and groundwater flow across Zone 1 is generally in an easterly direction toward Horse Creek. Horse Creek is a south-flowing tributary of the Ocmulgee River Floodplain. The objective of the study was to perform a quantitative analysis of ecological risk associated with the ecosystems present in Zone 1. This investigation was unique because the assessment was to be based upon many measurement endpoints resulting in both location-specific data and data that would assess the condition of the overall ecosystem. The study was segregated into five distinct field investigations: hydrology, surface water and sediment, aquatic biology, wetlands ecology, and wildlife biology.

  15. Clusters of eigenvalues for the magnetic Laplacian with Robin condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goffeng, Magnus; Kachmar, Ayman; Persson Sundqvist, Mikael

    2016-06-01

    We study the Schrödinger operator with a constant magnetic field in the exterior of a compact domain in Euclidean space. Functions in the domain of the operator are subject to a boundary condition of the third type (a magnetic Robin condition). In addition to the Landau levels, we obtain that the spectrum of this operator consists of clusters of eigenvalues around the Landau levels and that they do accumulate to the Landau levels from below. We give a precise asymptotic formula for the rate of accumulation of eigenvalues in these clusters, which is independent of the boundary condition.

  16. Outdoor performance results for NBS Round Robin collector no. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency of a PPG flat-plate solar collector was evaluated utilizing an outdoor solar collector test facility at the NASA-Lewis Research Center, as part of the National Bureau of Standards 'round robin' collector test program. The correlation equation for collector thermal efficiency Eta curve fit of the data was: Eta = 0.666 - 1.003(Btu/hr-sq ft-F) Theta, where the parameter Theta is the difference between the average fluid temperature and the ambient temperature, all divided by the total flux impinging on the collector.

  17. "Always the Outlaw": The Potential for Subversion of the Metanarrative in Retellings of Robin Hood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines six recent retellings of Robin Hood and concentrates on the representation of class, religion and gender in the texts. The question is asked: "what values do the texts implicitly or explicitly arm?" The idea that Robin Hood retellings are systematic of a socially and politically conservative ideology is interrogated by…

  18. Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda) infection in a European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) in Britain.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Katie M; Harris, Eileen; Pocknell, Ann M; John, Shinto K; Macgregor, Shaheed K; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2014-10-01

    A European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) found dead in England had marked blepharitis and periocular alopecia associated with Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda: Aproctidae) and concurrent mixed fungal infections. Aprocta cylindrica should be considered a differential diagnosis in periocular abnormalities of robins and other insectivorous, migratory passerines in Western Europe. PMID:25121405

  19. International Round-Robin Testing of Bulk Thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Bottner, Harold; Konig, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolett, Alex; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Sharp, Jeff; Lo, Jason; Keinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo I.

    2011-11-01

    Two international round-robin studies were conducted on transport properties measurements of bulk thermoelectric materials. The study discovered current measurement problems. In order to get ZT of a material four separate transport measurements must be taken. The round-robin study showed that among the four properties Seebeck coefficient is the one can be measured consistently. Electrical resistivity has +4-9% scatter. Thermal diffusivity has similar +5-10% scatter. The reliability of the above three properties can be improved by standardizing test procedures and enforcing system calibrations. The worst problem was found in specific heat measurements using DSC. The probability of making measurement error is great due to the fact three separate runs must be taken to determine Cp and the baseline shift is always an issue for commercial DSC. It is suggest the Dulong Petit limit be always used as a guide line for Cp. Procedures have been developed to eliminate operator and system errors. The IEA-AMT annex is developing standard procedures for transport properties testing.

  20. Mycoplasmosis in captive crows and robins from Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Wellehan, J F; Calsamiglia, M; Ley, D H; Zens, M S; Amonsin, A; Kapur, V

    2001-07-01

    Mycoplasma sturni is a recently described organism previously associated with conjunctivitis in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) and blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata). Herein we describe the isolation of M. sturni from an American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) presenting with conjunctivitis. A nested-PCR was designed for identification of M. sturni in clinical specimens and the sensitivity of the reaction was found to be 10 colony-changing units. The organism was found in asymptomatic American crows caged with a nestmate of the crow with conjunctivitis. Mycoplasma sturni also was found in asymptomatic American robins (Turdus migratorius) and in a European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) housed at the same facility as the crows. Heterogenity of M. sturni isolates from different host species was found by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Heterogeneity also was found among M. sturni isolates recovered from American crows. We suggest that M. sturni can successfully infect American crows and American robins with or without the presence of clinical disease. Furthermore, we demonstrate that nested-PCR is an effective method for the detection of M. sturni and that substantial genetic heterogeneity exists among natural isolates of this bacterial pathogen. PMID:11504228

  1. Alexander the Great's tombolos at Tyre and Alexandria, eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriner, N.; Goiran, J. P.; Morhange, C.

    2008-08-01

    Tyre and Alexandria's coastlines are today characterised by wave-dominated tombolos, peculiar sand isthmuses that link former islands to the adjacent continent. Paradoxically, despite a long history of inquiry into spit and barrier formation, understanding of the dynamics and sedimentary history of tombolos over the Holocene timescale is poor. At Tyre and Alexandria we demonstrate that these rare coastal features are the heritage of a long history of natural morphodynamic forcing and human impacts. In 332 BC, following a protracted seven-month siege of the city, Alexander the Great's engineers cleverly exploited a shallow sublittoral sand bank to seize the island fortress; Tyre's causeway served as a prototype for Alexandria's Heptastadium built a few months later. We report stratigraphic and geomorphological data from the two sand spits, proposing a chronostratigraphic model of tombolo evolution.

  2. Alexander Thomas Augusta--physician, teacher and human rights activist.

    PubMed

    Butts, Heather M

    2005-01-01

    Commissioned surgeon of colored volunteers, April 4, 1863, with the rank of Major. Commissioned regimental surgeon on the 7th Regiment of U.S. Colored Troops, October 2, 1863. Brevet Lieutenant Colonel of Volunteers, March 13, 1865, for faithful and meritorious services--mustered out October 13, 1866. So reads the tombstone at Arlington National Cemetery of Alexander Thomas Augusta, the first black surgeon commissioned in the Union Army during the Civil War and the first black officer-rank soldier to be buried at Arlington Cemetery. He was also instrumental in founding the institutions that later became the hospital and medical college of Howard University and the National Medical Association. PMID:15719881

  3. Teaching Nuclear Radiation and the Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapp, David R.

    2008-03-01

    The recent international story about the death of the former KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko has more than just a few wondering about radiation poisoning and the sinister sounding polonium-210. I was preparing to begin a nuclear radiation unit the Monday after Thanksgiving 2006. As it turned out, Litvinenko died Thanksgiving Day after a short and terrible three-week illness. Having the story continue to unfold throughout the next two weeks of the new unit provided a daily opportunity for students to see the relevance of what we were doing in class. My students were able to have meaningful and informed conversations with their peers and parents over an important international event. They even began to feel a bit like authorities themselves when listening to experts respond to media questions about polonium-210 and nuclear radiation in general. This paper discusses some of the ways that the story of Litvinenko was used while presenting the topic of nuclear radiation.

  4. The Astronomer Alexander I. Postoiev (1900-1976)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, P. M.; Matsuura, O. T.

    This is a biographical note on the life of Dr Alexander I. Postoiev, a victim of Stalin's purge of Soviet astronomers in 1936-1937 (McCutcheon, 1985). Along with his family, he left the Soviet Union in 1943, and lived in Germany as a refugee and "displaced person" until 1952, when he moved to Brazil. Then he started the second part of his professional career. Thanks to his efforts the Astronomical and Geophysical Institute (IAG) from the University of Sao Paulo (USP) was involved, for the first time, in programme of international cooperation, thus contributing to the institutional consolidation of IAG/USP as a leading centre of astronomical research and teaching today in Brazil.

  5. Alexander von Humboldt's perceptions of colonial Spanish America.

    PubMed

    Rebok, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an in-depth analysis of Alexander von Humboldt's descriptions and critical comments on the colonial society of the different regions he visited during his well-known expedition through the Americas (1799-1804). The criticisms of colonialism that he expressed, reflecting his personal convictions, have already been the focal point of many studies, but Humboldt also was able to offer a more differentiated assessment through comparisons of regional and local traditions and developments. This essay focuses on his personal diaries, which offer many interesting comments on colonial societies. These considerations and impressions made during the expedition are of particular scholarly value since they were not subject to censorship of any kind. PMID:19852391

  6. A Second Chance School in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbacher, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    Hungary's "Belvarosi Tanoda" Secondary School offers an informal, flexible environment and alternative teaching methods for students who have had problems in other schools. The "Belvarosi Tanoda" (which translates as downtown school) is a second chance school for students who have dropped out of upper secondary education. It has been providing…

  7. Response to Gelman Comments in Chance Magazine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carl Blackman Letter to the Editor of Chance Magazine: I appreciate being given the opportunity to comment on an editorial column by Andrew Gelman, entitled "Ethics and Statistics", that appeared in 2011, volume 24, no. 4, pages 51-53, in which my colleagues and I and our 1988 ...

  8. Can Lifelong Learning Reshape Life Chances?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen; Schoon, Ingrid; Weale, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the expansion of post-school education and incentives to participate in lifelong learning, institutions and labour markets continue to interlock in shaping life chances according to starting social position, family and private resources. The dominant view that the economic and social returns to public investment in adult learning are too…

  9. New Chance. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "New Chance," a program for young welfare mothers who have dropped out of school, aims to improve both their employment potential and their parenting skills. Participants take GED (General Educational Development) preparation classes and complete a parenting and life skills curriculum. Once they complete this first phase of the program, they can…

  10. Effects of Alexander Technique training experience on gait behavior in older adults.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew M; Anderson, David I; Allen, Diane D; Ross, Christopher; Hamel, Kate A

    2015-07-01

    Heightened fall risk, potentially caused by aging-related changes in gait, is a serious health issue faced by older adults. The Alexander Technique is thought to improve balance and motor function; however, the technique's effect on gait has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Alexander Technique training in older adults on the temporospatial characteristics of gait and medio-lateral center of mass displacement during fast and comfortably paced over-ground walking. Six licensed Alexander Technique teachers and seven controls between the ages of 60 and 75 years of age participated in the study. Alexander Technique teachers exhibited a reduction in medio-lateral center of mass displacement during fast paced walking compared to comfortably paced walking that was not present in controls. Due to this difference Alexander Technique teachers displayed a smaller medio-lateral Center of Mass displacement compared to controls during fast paced walking. Alexander Technique teachers also demonstrated significantly smaller stride width and lower gait timing variability compared to controls. These findings, which suggest superior control of dynamic stability during gait and potentially reduced fall risk in Alexander Technique teachers, warrant further study. PMID:26118520

  11. Interference phenomena in the dynamical Casimir effect for a single mirror with Robin conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Jeferson D. Lima; Braga, Alessandra N.; Rego, Andreson L. C.; Alves, Danilo T.

    2015-07-01

    In the literature, the interference phenomenon in the particle creation via the dynamical Casimir effect is investigated for cavities with two moving mirrors. Here, considering the Robin boundary condition (BC), we investigate the interference phenomenon produced by just a single moving mirror. Specifically, we consider a real massless scalar field in 1 +1 dimensions submitted to a Robin BC with a time-dependent Robin parameter at the instantaneous position of a moving mirror, and compute the expressions for the spectral distribution and the rate of created particles. These expressions, which include interference terms, generalize those found in the literature related to the isolated effects of a Robin BC with a time-dependent Robin parameter for a fixed mirror, or a Robin BC with a time-independent Robin parameter for a moving mirror. Differently from models where the problem of interference in the dynamical Casimir effect is considered for cavities with two Dirichlet moving mirrors, in the present model the spectrum is a continuum, and the interference pattern exhibits new features, in the sense that different regions of the spectrum can be affected in different manners by constructive or destructive effects. Furthermore, we also investigate interference in the context of superconducting circuits.

  12. Jacques Monod and Chance and Necessity.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Charles Darwin proposed the theory that evolution of live organisms is based on random variation and natural selection. Jacques Monod, in his classic book Chance and Necessity, published 45 years ago, presented his thesis that the biosphere does not contain a predictable class of objects or events, but constitutes a particular occurrence, compatible indeed with the first principles but not deducible from those principles. The biosphere is therefore essentially unpredictable. In his book, Monod expounded at length on the conflict between science and religion. He saw religion as a collection of primitive myths that had been blown to shreds by science. At every turn, Monod emphasized the role of chance in human existence, an idea that is antithetical to essentially every religious doctrine that places humans as some inevitable intention of a Creator. PMID:26558946

  13. Functions with constant Laplacian satisfying homogeneous Robin boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keady, Grant; McNabb, Alex

    1993-01-01

    The authors study properties of real-valued functions u defined over {Omega}, a simply-connected domain in RN for which the Laplacian of u is constant in {Omega}, and which satisfy, on the boundary of {Omega}, the Robin boundary condition u+{beta}({partial}u/{partial}n)=0. Here n is the outward normal and {beta}[≥]0. When N=2 and {beta}=0, this is the classical St Venant torsion problem, but the concern in this paper is with N[≥]2 and {beta}[≥]0. Results concerning the magnitude um and location zm of the maximum value of u, and estimates for the functional S{beta}={int}{Omega}u, and the maxima pm and qm of |{nabla}u| and |{partial}u/{partial}n|, respectively, are established using comparison theorems and variational arguments.

  14. Robins Air Force Base solar cogeneration facility, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-08-01

    A conceptual design and cost estimate for a demonstration solar facility to generate electricity and deliver process steam to the existing base distribution systems is considered. The solar energy system is a central receiver arrangement. The technical approach to the project and the rationale for selecting the site at Robins Air Force Base are discussed. The evaluation of alternative configurations considered to have potential for improving the facility value is summarized. The solar facility is described, including system level functional requirements, design, operation, performance, cost, safety, environmental, institutional, and regulatory considerations. The design, functional requirements and operating characteristics which influence cost or performance for each subsystem are described. The subsystems are the collector, receiver/tower, master control, electric power generation, and facility steam and feedwater subsystems.

  15. Round robin testing of a percolation column leaching procedure.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Roeland; Spooren, Jeroen; Quaghebeur, Mieke; Broos, Kris; Kenis, Cindy; Debaene, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Round robin test results of a percolation column leaching procedure (CEN/TS 14405:2004), organised by the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), over a time span of 13years with a participation of between 8 and 18 different laboratories are presented and discussed. Focus is on the leachability of heavy metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn from mineral waste materials. By performing statistical analyses on the obtained results, insight into the reproducibility and repeatability of the column leaching test is gathered. A ratio of 1:3 between intra- and inter-laboratory variability is found. The reproducibility of the eluates' element concentrations differ significantly between elements, materials and fractions (i.e. different liquid-to-solid ratios). The reproducibility is discussed in light of the application of the column leaching test for legal and environmental policy purposes. In addition, the performances of laboratories are compared. PMID:27311350

  16. Absorptance Measurements of Optical Coatings - A Round Robin

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R; Taylor, J R; Wu, Z L; Boccara, C A; Broulik, U; Commandre, M; DiJon, J; Fleig, C; Giesen, A; Fan, Z X; Kuo, P K; Lalezari, R; Moncur, K; Obramski, H-J; Reicher, D; Ristau, D; Roche, P; Steiger, B; Thomsen, M; von Gunten, M

    2000-10-26

    An international round robin study was conducted on the absorption measurement of laser-quality coatings. Sets of optically coated samples were made by a ''reactive DC magnetron'' sputtering and an ion beam sputtering deposition process. The sample set included a high reflector at 514 nm and a high reflector for the near infrared (1030 to 1318 nm), single layers of silicon dioxide, tantalum pentoxide, and hafnium dioxide. For calibration purposes, a sample metalized with hafnium and an uncoated, superpolished fused silica substrate were also included. The set was sent to laboratory groups for absorptance measurement of these coatings. Whenever possible, each group was to measure a common, central area and another area specifically assigned to the respective group. Specific test protocols were also suggested in regards to the laser exposure time, power density, and surface preparation.

  17. The OLI Radiometric Scale Realization Round Robin Measurement Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutlip, Hansford; Cole,Jerold; Johnson, B. Carol; Maxwell, Stephen; Markham, Brian; Ong, Lawrence; Hom, Milton; Biggar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    A round robin radiometric scale realization was performed at the Ball Aerospace Radiometric Calibration Laboratory in January/February 2011 in support of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) Program. Participants included Ball Aerospace, NIST, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and the University of Arizona. The eight day campaign included multiple observations of three integrating sphere sources by nine radiometers. The objective of the campaign was to validate the radiance calibration uncertainty ascribed to the integrating sphere used to calibrate the OLI instrument. The instrument level calibration source uncertainty was validated by quatnifying: (1) the long term stability of the NIST calibrated radiance artifact, (2) the responsivity scale of the Ball Aerospace transfer radiometer and (3) the operational characteristics of the large integrating sphere.

  18. PARENT Quick Blind Round-Robin Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braatz, Brett G.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Meyer, Ryan M.

    2014-09-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) whose goal is to investigate the effectiveness of current and novel nondestructive examination procedures and techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. This is to be done by conducting a series of open and blind international round-robin tests on a set of piping components that include large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds. The blind testing is being conducted in two segments, one is called Quick-Blind and the other is called Blind. The Quick-Blind testing and destructive analysis of the test blocks has been completed. This report describes the four Quick-Blind test blocks used, summarizes their destructive analysis, gives an overview of the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques applied, provides an analysis inspection data, and presents the conclusions drawn.

  19. Joint Chance-Constrained Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J. Bob

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel dynamic programming algorithm with a joint chance constraint, which explicitly bounds the risk of failure in order to maintain the state within a specified feasible region. A joint chance constraint cannot be handled by existing constrained dynamic programming approaches since their application is limited to constraints in the same form as the cost function, that is, an expectation over a sum of one-stage costs. We overcome this challenge by reformulating the joint chance constraint into a constraint on an expectation over a sum of indicator functions, which can be incorporated into the cost function by dualizing the optimization problem. As a result, the primal variables can be optimized by a standard dynamic programming, while the dual variable is optimized by a root-finding algorithm that converges exponentially. Error bounds on the primal and dual objective values are rigorously derived. We demonstrate the algorithm on a path planning problem, as well as an optimal control problem for Mars entry, descent and landing. The simulations are conducted using a real terrain data of Mars, with four million discrete states at each time step.

  20. Round robin test for odour testing of migration waters.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Thomas; Günther, Herbert

    2015-04-15

    For a round robin test for EN 1420-1 (Odour assessment for organic materials in contact with drinking water) with 14 contributing laboratories from 10 European countries segments of a plastic pipe were sent to the laboratories which performed a migration test and an odour analysis of the migration waters (water that had contact with the organic material) according to the procedure described in the standard from 1999. In addition reference substances (Methyl tert-butyl ether, 1-butanol and hexanal) were investigated for their suitability to qualify the panels and the individual panellists. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and 1-butanol proved to be suitable for this purpose, whereas hexanal showed a wide distribution of the individual odour threshold concentrations. Both possible testing options (unforced and forced choice) were performed and gave similar results. However, with respect to the qualification of the panellists and the data analysis the unforced choice procedure showed advantages. As human olfactory perception is used for the analysis, the reproducibility and the comparability between laboratories is of particular concern. For the pipe material the TON results of the different laboratories were in a range of ±1.5 dilutions based on a dilution factor of 2. This might be improved by taking the individual sensitivities of the panellists into account more strongly. Appropriate measures for the improvement of the test method appear to be the use of the proposed reference substances for the training of the panellists as well as the auditing and the selection of the panellists. The results of this round robin test are used in the revision process of the standard. PMID:25687419

  1. Alexander Disease: A Novel Mutation in GFAP Leading to Epilepsia Partialis Continua.

    PubMed

    Bonthius, Daniel J; Karacay, Bahri

    2016-06-01

    Alexander disease is a genetically induced leukodystrophy, due to dominant mutations in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP ) gene, causing dysfunction of astrocytes. We have identified a novel GFAP mutation, associated with a novel phenotype for Alexander disease. A boy with global developmental delay and hypertonia was found to have a leukodystrophy. Genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous point mutation in exon 6 of the GFAP gene. The guanine-to-adenine change causes substitution of the normal glutamic acid codon (GAG) with a mutant lysine codon (AAG) at position 312 (E312 K mutation). At the age of 4 years, the child developed epilepsia partialis continua, consisting of unabating motor seizures involving the unilateral perioral muscles. Epilepsia partialis continua has not previously been reported in association with Alexander disease. Whether and how the E312 K mutation produces pathologic changes and clinical signs that are unique from other Alexander disease-inducing mutations in GFAP remain to be determined. PMID:26719496

  2. The effect of Alexander technique training program: A qualitative study of ordinary behavior application.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Baek, Soon Gi

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to configure and apply the Alexander technique training program and assess the effect of program through physical, emotional and behavioral aspects. To achieve the research aims, qualitative research method had been conducted, subjecting 8 people, who were participating in Alexander Technique training program for this study. The study used focus group interview method for collecting date and employed for the interview method by mixing the semi-structured and unstructured questionnaire. The results were followings. First, one could develop body awareness and body consciousness through experiencing lived bodily sensation. Second, from Alexander Technique training program, people experienced psycho & physical's equilibrium. Third, one could change not only the manner of use of body but also the attitude to the life from conscious attention to daily ordinary movement. The results provided empirical evidence of Alexander Technique training program's functions in terms of physical, emotional and behavioral aspect through the process of consciousness control from lived body education. PMID:25610819

  3. IN MEMORIAM: In Memoriam: Alexander A Golovin and Alexei M Oparin In Memoriam: Alexander A Golovin and Alexei M Oparin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    In Memoriam of Alexander A Golovin (1962-2008) Alexander (Sasha) Golovin passed away on 10 September 2008. Sasha's scientific heritage includes seminal works in different fields of physics, from Marangoni convection to self-assembly of quantum dots, and from combustion fronts to anomalous diffusion in flows and on a crystal surface. A graduate of the Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, he had very broad scientific interests and a unique ability to identify and solve new, intellectually challenging and technologically important problems. One of the basic fields of Sasha's research was the fluid dynamics in systems with interfaces. His favorite subject was the motion of droplets, bubbles and particles in the presence of heat and mass transfer. Sasha's early works contained the discovery of the spontaneous motion of droplets due to the Marangoni effect and the investigation of the interaction between solid particles, bubbles and droplets caused by the Marangoni effect, which is a crucial factor that determines the effect of heat/mass transfer on the rate of coalescence. In both cases, Sasha's work was the first in a long sequence of papers written by different authors. Later, Sasha returned to that field when studying such fascinating subjects as levitation of droplets above the surface of an evaporating liquid and encapsulation of particles and bubbles by an advancing solidification front. The subject of interfacial hydrodynamics overlaps with another basic field of Sasha's research, the theory of pattern formation. The contribution of Sasha's work to the modern understanding of the variety of pattern formation phenomena is significant. It includes the analysis of the interaction between long-wave and short-wave instability modes in Marangoni convection, investigation of the large-scale Marangoni convection that led to the prediction of different patterns including quasipatterns, and the description of various non-potential effects in Marangoni convection

  4. Alexander Forbes, Walter Cannon, and science-based literature.

    PubMed

    Garson, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The Harvard physiologists Alexander Forbes (1882-1965) and Walter Bradford Cannon (1871-1945) had an enormous impact on the physiology and neuroscience of the twentieth century. In addition to their voluminous scientific output, they also used literature to reflect on the nature of science itself and its social significance. Forbes wrote a novel, The Radio Gunner, a literary memoir, Quest for a Northern Air Route, and several short stories. Cannon, in addition to several books of popular science, wrote a literary memoir in the last year of his life, The Way of an Investigator. The following will provide a brief overview of the life and work of Forbes and Cannon. It will then discuss the way that Forbes used literature to express his views about the changing role of communications technology in the military, and his evolving view of the nervous system itself as a kind of information-processing device. It will go on to discuss the way that Cannon used literature to articulate the horrors he witnessed on the battlefield, as well as to contribute to the philosophy of science, and in particular, to the logic of scientific discovery. Finally, it will consider the historical and philosophical value of deeper investigation of the literary productions of scientists. PMID:24290268

  5. Expedition 8 Crew Interviews: Alexander Y. Kaleri - FE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Russian cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Flight Engineer on Expedition 8 to the International Space Station (ISS), answers interview questions on this video, either himself or with the help of an interpreter. The questions cover: 1) The goal of the expedition; 2) The place in history of Mir; 3) The reaction to the loss of Columbia in Houston; 4) Why the rewards of spaceflight are worth the risks; 5) Why he decided to become a cosmonaut; 6) His memory of Yuri Gagarin's first flight; 7) What happens on a Soyuz capsule during launch and flight; 8) Are Soyuz maneuvers automatic or manual; 8) How the ISS science mission will be advanced during his stay; 9) The responsibilities of a Flight Engineer onboard the ISS; 10) Extravehicular activity (EVA) plans at that time; 11) The Shuttle Return to Flight and his preference for a Shuttle or Soyuz landing; 12) Why the last Soyuz landing was too rough; 13) The most valueable contribution of the ISS program.

  6. What is the alternative to the Alexander-Orbach relation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Igor M.

    2016-03-01

    The Alexander-Orbach (AO) relation d w = 2d f /d s connecting the fractal dimension of a random walk’s (RW) trajectory d w or the exponent of anomalous diffusion α = 2/d w on a fractal structure with the fractal and spectral dimension of the structure itself plays a key role in discussion of dynamical properties of complex systems including living cells and single biomolecules. This relation however does not hold universally and breaks down for some structures like diffusion limited aggregates and Eden trees. We show that the alternative to the AO relation is the explicit dependence of the coefficient of the anomalous diffusion on the system’s size, i.e. the absence of its thermodynamical limit. The prerequisite for its breakdown is the dependence of the local structure of possible steps of the RW on the system’s size. The discussion is illustrated by the examples of diffusion on a Koch curve (AO-conform) and on a Cantor dust (violating AO relation).

  7. The Realm of Fairy Story: J.R.R. Tolkien and Robin McKinley's "Beauty."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolsey, Daniel P.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the development of a modern fairy tale with respect to J.R.R. Tolkien's mapping of its features, terrain, and emotional geography. Discusses Robin McKinley's "Beauty," an example of a modern fantasy. (PRA)

  8. Pierre Robin Sequence: A Familial, Clinical, and Pathoanatomical Record of an Affected Dachshund.

    PubMed

    Moura, Enio; Wagner, José L; Cirio, Silvana M; Pimpão, Cláudia T

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a spontaneous case of Pierre Robin sequence in a nonhuman animal species. A miniature dachshund with micrognathia developed glossoptosis, respiratory distress, dysphagia, temporomandibular ankylosis, and a misaligned upper jaw. The severity of this condition resulted in death by obstructive apnea at the age of 8 mo. Dogs with Pierre Robin sequence can provide further knowledge and a greater understanding of this abnormality, leading to better management of affected individuals and improvement of therapeutic methods. PMID:26355589

  9. Pierre Robin Sequence and Treacher Collins Hypoplastic Mandible Comparison Using Three-Dimensional Morphometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Michael T.; Levi, Benjamin; Hyun, Jeong S.; Lo, David D.; Montoro, Daniel T.; Lisiecki, Jeffrey; Bradley, James P.; Buchman, Steven R.; Longaker, Michael T.; Wan, Derrick C.

    2012-01-01

    Pierre Robin sequence and Treacher Collins syndrome are both associated with mandibular hypoplasia. It has been hypothesized, however, that the mandible may be differentially affected. The purpose of this study was to therefore compare mandibular morphology in children with Pierre Robin sequence to children with Treacher Collins syndrome using three-dimensional analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans. A retrospective analysis was performed identifying children with Pierre Robin sequence and Treacher Collins syndrome receiving CT scans. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed and ramus height, mandibular body length, and gonial angle were measured. These were then compared to control children with normal mandibles and to clinical norms corrected for age and sex based on previously published measurements. Mandibular body length was found to be significantly shorter for children with Pierre Robin sequence while ramus height was significantly shorter for children with Treacher Collins syndrome. This resulted in distinctly different ramus height/mandibular body length ratios. In addition, the gonial angle was more obtuse in both the Pierre Robin sequence and Treacher Collins syndrome groups compared with the controls. Three-dimensional mandibular morphometric analysis in patients with Pierre Robin sequence and Treacher Collins syndrome thus revealed distinctly different patterns of mandibular hypoplasia relative to normal controls. These findings underscore distinct considerations which must be made in surgical planning for reconstruction. PMID:23154353

  10. Virchow-Robin space and aquaporin-4: new insights on an old friend.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Tsutomu

    2014-08-28

    Recent studies have strongly indicated that the classic circulation model of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is no longer valid. The production of CSF is not only dependent on the choroid plexus but also on water flux in the peri-capillary (Virchow Robin) space. Historically, CSF flow through the Virchow Robin space is known as interstitial flow, the physiological significance of which is now fully understood. This article briefly reviews the modern concept of CSF physiology and the Virchow-Robin space, in particular its functionalities critical for central nervous system neural activities. Water influx into the Virchow Robin space and, hence, interstitial flow is regulated by aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) localized in the endfeet of astrocytes, connecting the intracellular cytosolic fluid space of astrocytes and the Virchow Robin space. Interstitial flow has a functionality equivalent to systemic lymphatics, on which clearance of β-amyloid is strongly dependent. Autoregulation of brain blood flow serves to maintain a constant inner capillary fluid pressure, allowing fluid pressure of the Virchow Robin space to regulate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) based on AQP-4 gating. Excess heat produced by neural activities is effectively removed from the area of activation by increased rCBF by closing AQP-4 channels. This neural flow coupling (NFC) is likely mediated by heat generated proton channels. PMID:25165047

  11. Chance Events in Career Development: Influence, Control and Multiplicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Jim E. H.; Pryor, Robert G. L.; Chan, Eva Wing Man; Rijanto, Jeniyanti

    2009-01-01

    This article reports three studies on the nature and impact of chance events. The first study investigated chance events in terms of the dimensions of influence and control. The second and third studies investigated the effects of multiplicity of chance events on career development are in terms of respondents' own careers and then in terms of…

  12. Cyclicity in Silurian island-arc carbonates, Alexander terrane, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kittredge, L.E.; Soja, C.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Silurian carbonates from Alaska (Alexander terrane) record the evolution of a submarine platform during waning volcanism in an island arc. A detailed stratigraphic analysis of a 47 meter-thick sequence revealed the existence of cyclically repeated limestones: coral-stromatoporoid wackestones alternate with oncoid packstones and bioturbated, silty lime mudstones. The coral-stromatoporoid deposits are characterized by a low-diversity assemblage of dendroid corals, massive stromatoporoids, Atrypoidea brachiopods, and rare occurrences of biostromes associated with Solenopora, high-spired gastropods, and crinoids. Oncoids typically are 2-6 mm in diameter and form massive, meter-thick units. Coated grains are symmetrically developed, have a shell or algal nucleus, and are also a minor component of coral-stromatoporoid beds. These lithologic units form seven, shallowing-upwards cycles (parasequences) that range in thickness from 3-9 meters. Coral-stomatoporoid wackestones form the base of each cycle and grade upwards into oncoid packstones with silty, lime mudstones at the top. This succession of lithofacies within each cycle reflects an increase in energy levels from relatively deeper water environments to relatively shallower ones. The lack of abrasion in the corals and stromatoporoids suggests predominantly quiet-water conditions in shallow subtidal areas affected by periodic turbulence. Comparison with correlative sections in Alaska and lack of correspondence with global sea level curves suggest that the primary cause of cyclicity was tectonic perturbations with secondary eustatic effects. Cyclic deposition in peri/subtidal sites was terminated by rapid drowning of the carbonate platform during late Silurian orogenesis.

  13. The life and death of Alexander Bogdanov, physician.

    PubMed

    Huestis, D W

    1996-08-01

    It was early in April in 1928 when the word went out in Moscow that Alexander Bogdanov had died. He was a controversial figure, an old Bolshevik who had left that party long before the 1917 revolution and never returned. All the same, he had had Lenin's respect as a scientist (as long as he stayed out of politics). More recently, he also had the support of the new party strong man, Stalin. Bogdanov opposed the growing despotism of the "dictatorship of the proletariat", under which slogan Communist autocracy was being developed. But he was respected as a tireless propagandist for the socialist cause, an enthusiastic teacher of the proletariat, and a writer of arcane science and philosophy. Bogdanov was held in such respect that Communist bigwigs spoke glowingly at the funeral, praising his intellect, courage, and dedication to science and humanity. They did not fail to point out that he had split with his one-time friend, Lenin, and had succumbed to ideological "errors". Indeed, he had powerful enemies in the early Soviet state. Bogdanov was a physician, economist, philosopher, natural scientist, writer of utopian science fiction, poet, teacher, politician (unsuccesful), lifelong revolutionary, forerunner of what we now call cybernetics and organizational science, and founder of the world's first institution devoted entirely to the field of blood transfusion. You could call him a Renaissance man. Although he clearly fitted the category of the late-nineteenth-century Russian intellectual revolutionary, Bogdanov differed from most of them in being no dilettante. More than just a theorist, he was an active scientist and physician. As a teacher, he firmly believed that education and indoctrination could alter people's ways of thinking and behaving, and that humanity could be perfected under socialism. Like many revolutionaries, Bogdanov tried to keep ahead of the Tsar's police by using a variety of pseudonyms, among them Riadavoy, Werner, Maximov, and Bogdanov. After

  14. Astrocyte pathology in Alexander disease causes a marked inflammatory environment.

    PubMed

    Olabarria, Markel; Putilina, Maria; Riemer, Ellen C; Goldman, James E

    2015-10-01

    Astrocytes and microglia are commonly involved in a wide variety of CNS pathologies. However, they are typically involved in a secondary response in which many cell types are affected simultaneously and therefore it is difficult to know their contributions to the pathology. Here, we show that pathological astrocytes in a mouse model of Alexander disease (AxD; GFAP (Tg);Gfap (+/R236H)) cause a pronounced immune response. We have studied the inflammatory response in the hippocampus and spinal cord of these mice and have found marked microglial activation, which follows that of astrocytes in a spatial pathological progression, as shown by increased levels of Iba1 and microglial cell (Iba1+) density. RNA sequencing and subsequent gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that a majority of the most upregulated genes in GFAP (Tg);Gfap (+/R236H) mice are directly associated with immune function and that cytokine and chemokine GO attributes represent nearly a third of the total immune attributes. Cytokine and chemokine analysis showed CXCL10 and CCL2 to be the most and earliest increased molecules, showing concentrations as high as EAE or stroke models. CXCL10 was localized exclusively to astrocytes while CCL2 was also present in microglia. Despite the high levels of CXCL10 and CCL2, T cell infiltration was mild and no B cells were found. Thus, mutations in GFAP are sufficient to trigger a profound inflammatory response. The cellular stress caused by the accumulation of GFAP likely leads to the production of inflammatory molecules and microglial activation. Examination of human AxD CNS tissues also revealed microglial activation and T cell infiltrates. Therefore, the inflammatory environment may play an important role in producing the neuronal dysfunction and seizures of AxD. PMID:26296699

  15. Second Chance or No Chance? A Case Study of One Urban Alternative Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy-Lewis, Brianna L.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study focuses on a school created to educate expelled students, specifically examining the relationships between educators' beliefs and philosophies and daily school life. At this school, Kelly's ("Last chance high." Yale University Press, New Haven, 1993) competing philosophies of "traditionalism" and…

  16. Robin sequence: A European survey on current practice patterns.

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Manouk J S; Joosten, Koen F M; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Koudstaal, Maarten J; Hoeve, Hans L J; van der Schroeff, Marc P; Wolvius, Eppo B

    2015-10-01

    To provide an overview of current practice patterns with regard to Robin sequence (RS) patients in Europe, a survey was conducted among European clinicians. This online survey consisted of different sections assessing characteristics of the respondent and clinic, definition, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. In total, surveys from 101 different European clinics were included in the analysis, and 56 different RS definitions were returned. The majority (72%) of the respondents used a sleep study system to determine the severity of the airway obstruction. A total of 63% used flexible endoscopy and 16% used rigid endoscopy in the diagnostic process. Treatment of the airway obstruction differed considerably between the different countries. Prone positioning for mild airway obstruction was the treatment modality used most often (63%). When prone positioning was not successful, a nasopharyngeal airway was used (62%). Surgical therapies varied considerably among countries. For severe obstruction, mandibular distraction was performed most frequently. Three-quarters of the respondents noted the presence of catch-up growth in their patient population. This first European survey study on definition and management of RS shows that there are considerable differences within Europe. Therefore, we would encourage the establishment of national (and international) guidelines to optimize RS patient care. PMID:26315273

  17. Ecological investigation of a hazardous waste site, Warner Robins, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M.C. ); Billig, P. )

    1993-01-01

    Zone 1, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, has been designated a National Priorities List Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The Remedial Investigation for Zone 1 recommended a quantitative analysis of ecological risk. To accomplish this task a characterization of the bottomland hardwood forest ecosystem present on the base was required. This ecological characterization included the study of hydrology, aquatic and wildlife biology, and wetlands ecology where potential impacts were in question. In addition, a suitable reference area was studied. The hydrologic investigation consisted primarily of the installation of water level recorders and staff gauges, collection of surface water data, installation of piezometers and collection of groundwater data, and the collection of rainfall data. The aquatic biology investigation centered around the sampling of benthic macroinvertebrate communities, bioassay toxicity tests for surface water and sediment, fish sampling, aquatic macrophyte collection, macrophyte collection, and emergent and free-floating plant collection. The wildlife biology investigation focused on a breeding bird survey. The wetlands ecology investigation comprised the collection of soil and vegetation samples and using the Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET) to assess the functions and values of the wetlands present.

  18. DWPF STARTUP FRIT VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT ROUND ROBIN RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Russell, Renee L.; Workman, Phyllis J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Smith, Donald E.; Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.

    2012-07-31

    A viscosity standard is needed to replace the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) glasses currently being used to calibrate viscosity measurement equipment. The current NIST glasses are either unavailable or less than ideal for calibrating equipment to measure the viscosity of high-level waste glasses. This report documents the results of a viscosity round robin study conducted on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) startup frit. DWPF startup frit was selected because its viscosity-temperature relationship is similar to most DWPF and Hanford high-level waste glass compositions. The glass underwent grinding and blending to homogenize the large (100 lb) batch. Portions of the batch were supplied to the laboratories (named A through H) for viscosity measurements following a specified temperature schedule with a temperature range of 1150 C to 950 C and with an option to measure viscosity at lower temperatures if their equipment was capable of measuring at the higher viscosities. Results were used to fit the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher and Arrhenius equations to viscosity as a function of temperature for the entire temperature range of 460 C through 1250 C as well as the limited temperature interval of approximately 950 C through 1250 C. The standard errors for confidence and prediction were determined for the fitted models.

  19. The Coastcolour project regional algorithm round robin exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddick, K.; Brockmann, C.; Doerffer, R.; Lee, Z.; Brotas, V.; Fomferra, N.; Groom, S.; Krasemann, H.; Martinez-Vicente, V.; Sa, C.; Santer, R.; Sathyendranath, S.; Stelzer, K.; Pinnock, S.

    2010-10-01

    The MERIS instrument delivers a unique dataset of ocean colour measurements of the coastal zone, at 300m resolution and with a unique spectral band set. The motivation for the Coastcolour project is to fully exploit the potential of the MERIS instrument for remote sensing of the coastal zone. The general objective of the project is to develop, demonstrate, validate and intercompare different processing algorithms for MERIS over a global range of coastal water types in order to identify best practices. In this paper the Coastcolour project is presented in general and the Regional Algorithm Round Robin (RARR) exercise is described in detail. The RARR has the objective of determining the best approach to retrieval of chlorophyll a and other marine products (e.g. Inherent Optical Properties) for each of the Coastcolour coastal water test sites. Benchmark datasets of reflectances at MERIS bands will be distributed to algorithm provider participants for testing of both global (Coastcolour and other) algorithms and site-specific local algorithms. Results from all algorithms will be analysed and compared according to a uniform methodology. Participation of algorithm providers from outside the Coastcolour consortium is encouraged.

  20. Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin Study - Vibration Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) tested two identical gearboxes. One was tested on the NWTCs 2.5 MW dynamometer and the other was field tested in a turbine in a nearby wind plant. In the field, the test gearbox experienced two oil loss events that resulted in damage to its internal bearings and gears. Since the damage was not severe, the test gearbox was removed from the field and retested in the NWTCs dynamometer before it was disassembled. During the dynamometer retest, some vibration data along with testing condition information were collected. These data enabled NREL to launch a Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin project, as described in this report. The main objective of this project was to evaluate different vibration analysis algorithms used in wind turbine condition monitoring (CM) and find out whether the typical practices are effective. With involvement of both academic researchers and industrial partners, the project sets an example on providing cutting edge research results back to industry.

  1. Mixed-Strategy Chance Constrained Optimal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel chance constrained optimal control (CCOC) algorithm that chooses a control action probabilistically. A CCOC problem is to find a control input that minimizes the expected cost while guaranteeing that the probability of violating a set of constraints is below a user-specified threshold. We show that a probabilistic control approach, which we refer to as a mixed control strategy, enables us to obtain a cost that is better than what deterministic control strategies can achieve when the CCOC problem is nonconvex. The resulting mixed-strategy CCOC problem turns out to be a convexification of the original nonconvex CCOC problem. Furthermore, we also show that a mixed control strategy only needs to "mix" up to two deterministic control actions in order to achieve optimality. Building upon an iterative dual optimization, the proposed algorithm quickly converges to the optimal mixed control strategy with a user-specified tolerance.

  2. Chance of Necessity: Modeling Origins of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental nature of processes that led to the emergence of life has been a subject of long-standing debate. One view holds that the origin of life is an event governed by chance, and the result of so many random events is unpredictable. This view was eloquently expressed by Jacques Monod in his book Chance or Necessity. In an alternative view, the origin of life is considered a deterministic event. Its details need not be deterministic in every respect, but the overall behavior is predictable. A corollary to the deterministic view is that the emergence of life must have been determined primarily by universal chemistry and biochemistry rather than by subtle details of environmental conditions. In my lecture I will explore two different paradigms for the emergence of life and discuss their implications for predictability and universality of life-forming processes. The dominant approach is that the origin of life was guided by information stored in nucleic acids (the RNA World hypothesis). In this view, selection of improved combinations of nucleic acids obtained through random mutations drove evolution of biological systems from their conception. An alternative hypothesis states that the formation of protocellular metabolism was driven by non-genomic processes. Even though these processes were highly stochastic the outcome was largely deterministic, strongly constrained by laws of chemistry. I will argue that self-replication of macromolecules was not required at the early stages of evolution; the reproduction of cellular functions alone was sufficient for self-maintenance of protocells. In fact, the precise transfer of information between successive generations of the earliest protocells was unnecessary and could have impeded the discovery of cellular metabolism. I will also show that such concepts as speciation and fitness to the environment, developed in the context of genomic evolution also hold in the absence of a genome.

  3. Obituary: Alexander (Andy) Franz Lubenow, 1956-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, Marc William

    2006-12-01

    Alexander (Andy) Franz Lubenow, Program Coordinator at the Space Telescope Science Institute, was diagnosed with cancer of the gallbladder, pancreas, and liver in May 2005 and died on 29 September 2005. He was forty-nine. Andy was born to Bodo and Helen Lubenow in St. Paul, Minnesota on 4 January 1956. In 1964 at the age of eight, he moved with his family to Buenos Aires, Argentina, and attended the American Community School there until returning with his family in 1973 to St. Paul. Argentina had a big impact on Andy's future as an astronomer. He later recalled how he had observed and was puzzled by the "upside-down" appearance of the Moon in the southern hemisphere. In Argentina, he built his first telescope using a mirror he had ground himself. He never parted ways with that instrument. Andy did not follow a standard educational track. He spent two years at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota, before transferring to the University of Minnesota, where he earned his bachelor's degree and began work towards a master's degree in astrophysics. Later he transferred to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he remained until Dr. Peter Stockman hired him to work on the Hubble Space Telescope project. While in school, he worked as a teacher's assistant, taught night school, and gave demonstrations of stargazing. He was an excellent teacher and had a flair for writing. He later wrote articles for a sailing magazine and a pilot's magazine. Andy was a very practical, meticulous, and steady worker, attributes that he combined with an understated and dry sense of humor. He was always able to find a way through a problem, no matter how sticky. If a job required him to roll up his sleeves and get it done through hard work, he would persevere. Nevertheless, he was always on the lookout for an easier way. He had no patience for being forced to deal with stupid things for stupid reasons. At work at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Andy was

  4. Alexander von Humboldt's charts of the Earth's magnetic field: an assessment based on modern models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, M.; Korte, M.; Soloviev, A.; Gvishiani, A.

    2010-11-01

    The 19th century witnessed a resurgence of interest in Earth's magnetic field. Both observational and theoretical aspects were involved, and one of the emblematic figures of this period was Alexander von Humboldt. Throughout a long life he maintained a strong interest in a broad area of subjects, however, here we are interested in his role in geomagnetism, and particularly in his pioneering contributions to charting the geomagnetic field. Alexander von Humboldt efforts in measuring and charting the Earth's magnetic field are recounted and the maps of declination, inclination and total intensity he had prepared are compared, favorably, with maps for the same epoch based on a modern model of the geomagnetic field, gufm1. This modern assessment of the accuracy of von Humboldt's geomagnetic charts illustrates the importance of his work, being also our homage to the 150th anniversary of the death of Alexander von Humboldt.

  5. Management, breeding, and health records from a captive colony of pekin robins (Leiothrix lutea), 2001 - 2010.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Cláudio E F; de Oliveira, Luiz G S; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Zimermann, Francielli C; Stein, Gisele; Marks, Fernanda; Cerva, Cristine; Lieberknecht, Carlos; Canal, Claudio W; Driemeier, David

    2011-09-01

    Pekin robins (Leiothrix lutea) were once the most widely kept softbills in captivity. As a result of the Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES-1997), the worldwide trade of wild-caught pekin robins has been prohibited due to the depletion of native populations of this species. In Brazil, as in other countries, pekin robins imported prior to the enactment of the CITES have disappeared from aviaries because the end of the birds' natural life span has passed, and only very few captive-bred pekin robins now exist. While captive propagation fails to address the primary causes of wild bird population decline, it might help the recovery of populations of this species. This article presents records made over a 10-yr period of a captive colony of pekin robins. Emphasis is placed on the management of the flock, the ailments affecting the birds, and the findings associated with bird losses. The main causes of bird losses included rearing management failures and age-related disorders. PMID:22950318

  6. Reasoning about "Capability": Wild Robins Respond to Limb Visibility in Humans.

    PubMed

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Little comparative work has focused on what nonhumans understand about what physical acts others are capable of performing, and none has yet done so in the wild, or within a competitive framework. This study shows that North Island robins visually attend to human limbs in the context of determining who to steal food from. We presented 24 wild North Island Robins (Petroica longipes) with two experimenters. Robins could choose to steal a mealworm from one of two experimenters: one whose limbs were exposed and one who underwent a range of visual obstructions in two experiments. In most conditions, robins preferred to steal food located near the experimenter whose limbs were obscured by a cloth or board rather than food located near the experimenter whose limbs were not obscured. The robins' responses indicate that human limb visibility is associated with reduced access to food. Current findings lay the groundwork for a closer look at the potential general use of causal reasoning in an inter-specific context of using limbs to perform physical acts, specifically within the context of pilfering. This study presents one of the first tests of the role of visual attendance of potential limb availability in a competitive context, and could provide an alternative hypothesis for how other species have passed tests designed to examine what individuals understand about the physical acts others are capable of performing. PMID:27455334

  7. 75 FR 49926 - Arena Energy, L.P. v. Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Arena Energy, L.P. v. Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Complaint.... (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC (Respondent) alleging that...

  8. Chance and Necessity in Eye Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin has proposed the theory that evolution of live organisms is based on random variation and natural selection. Jacques Monod in his classic book Chance and Necessity, published 40 years ago, presented his thesis “that the biosphere does not contain a predictable class of objects or events, but constitutes a particular occurrence, compatible indeed with the first principles, but not deducible from those principals and therefore, essentially unpredictable.” Recent discoveries in eye evolution are in agreement with both of these theses. They confirm Darwin's assumption of a simple eye prototype and lend strong support for the notion of a monophyletic origin of the various eye types. Considering the complexity of the underlying gene regulatory networks the unpredictability is obvious. The evolution of the Hox gene cluster and the specification of the body plan starting from an evolutionary prototype segment is discussed. In the course of evolution, a series of similar prototypic segments gradually undergoes cephalization anteriorly and caudalization posteriorly through diversification of the Hox genes. PMID:21979158

  9. West Nile Virus Infection in American Robins: New Insights on Dose Response

    PubMed Central

    VanDalen, Kaci K.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Clark, Larry; McLean, Robert G.; Smeraski, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a vector-borne pathogen that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The natural transmission cycle of WNV involves mosquito vectors and avian hosts, which vary in their competency to transmit the virus. American robins are an abundant backyard species in the United States and appear to have an important role in the amplification and dissemination of WNV. In this study we examine the response of American robins to infection with various WNV doses within the range of those administered by some natural mosquito vectors. Thirty American robins were assigned a WNV dosage treatment and needle inoculated with 100.95 PFU, 101.26 PFU, 102.15 PFU, or 103.15 PFU. Serum samples were tested for the presence of infectious WNV and/or antibodies, while oral swabs were tested for the presence of WNV RNA. Five of the 30 (17%) robins had neutralizing antibodies to WNV prior to the experiment and none developed viremia or shed WNV RNA. The proportion of WNV-seronegative birds that became viremic after WNV inoculation increased in a dose dependent manner. At the lowest dose, only 40% (2/5) of the inoculated birds developed productive infections while at the highest dose, 100% (7/7) of the birds became viremic. Oral shedding of WNV RNA followed a similar trend where robins inoculated with the lower two doses were less likely to shed viral RNA (25%) than robins inoculated with one of the higher doses (92%). Viremia titers and morbidity did not increase in a dose dependent manner; only two birds succumbed to infection and, interestingly, both were inoculated with the lowest dose of WNV. It is clear that the disease ecology of WNV is a complex interplay of hosts, vectors, and viral dose delivered. PMID:23844218

  10. An International Round-Robin Test of NDE Reliability for PWSCC

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, George J.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Moyer, Carol E.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we describe the round robin tests that have been designed and are being conducted in the international program. Participants in the PINC have offered more than 30 test blocks for use in round-robin tests of NDE effectiveness. The test blocks have more than 130 flaws in nickel-base weld metal that are intended to simulate PWSCC in a variety of component geometries. NDE techniques representative of current in-service inspections are being applied, along with emerging NDE approaches.

  11. Connect the Book. Always Inventing: A Photobiography of Alexander Graham Bell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    Cell phones, video phones, voice messaging?one wonders what Alexander Graham Bell would have thought about the many venues today for electronic communication with one another. Bell's March 10, 1876 invention is now 128 years old, but there is no doubt that Bell's "talking machine" changed the world. This article presents a brief review of the…

  12. Friendly Letters on the Correspondence of Helen Keller, Anne Sullivan, and Alexander Graham Bell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Burton

    1985-01-01

    Excerpts from the letters between Alexander Graham Bell and Anne Sullivan and Helen Keller are given to illustrate the educational and personal growth of Helen Keller as well as the educational philosophy of Bell regarding the education of the deaf blind. (DB)

  13. Popular Response to Public Education in the Reign of Tsar Alexander I (1801-1825).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Franklin A.

    1984-01-01

    Tsar Alexander I of Russia created a ministry of public education and promulgated laws to provide elementary and secondary schools and higher education institutions for all classes of the population. The public took a great interest in education and actively participated in the funding of schools at every level. (RM)

  14. Holocene morphogenesis of Alexander the Great's isthmus at Tyre in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Meulé, Samuel

    2007-05-01

    In 332 B.C., Alexander the Great constructed an ≈1,000-m-long causeway to seize the offshore island of Tyre. The logistics behind this engineering feat have long troubled archaeologists. Using the Holocene sedimentary record, we demonstrate that Alexander's engineers cleverly exploited a shallow proto-tombolo, or sublittoral sand spit, to breach the offshore city's defensive impregnability. We elucidate a three-phase geomorphological model for the spit's evolution. Settled since the Bronze Age, the area's geological record manifests a long history of natural and anthropogenic forcings. (i) Leeward of the island breakwater, the maximum flooding surface (e.g., drowning of the subaerial land surfaces by seawater) is dated ≈8000 B.P. Fine-grained sediments and brackish and marine-lagoonal faunas translate shallow, low-energy water bodies at this time. Shelter was afforded by Tyre's elongated sandstone reefs, which acted as a 6-km natural breakwater. (ii) By 6000 B.P., sea-level rise had reduced the dimensions of the island from 6 to 4 km. The leeward wave shadow generated by this island, allied with high sediment supply after 3000 B.P., culminated in a natural wave-dominated proto-tombolo within 1-2 m of mean sea level by the time of Alexander the Great (4th century B.C.). (iii) After 332 B.C., construction of Alexander's causeway entrained a complete anthropogenic metamorphosis of the Tyrian coastal system.

  15. Russia's Literary Genius Alexander Pushkin: The Great-Grandson of an African Slave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbery, Anne

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Pushkin, Russia's most celebrated literary figure, descended from an African slave. On both parents' sides, he was related to Avram Petrovich Gannibal, who was born to an African prince and abducted to become a slave to a Russian diplomat. Pushkin chose to pride himself on both his aristocratic life and his African ancestry. (SM)

  16. Alexander Bain's CUE in the Post-Modern World: Unity Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryden, Phyllis

    In 1866, Alexander Bain proposed that by evaluating unity, coherence, and emphasis (which he brought together under the acronym "CUE"), students could judge the effectiveness of their written paragraphs. One hundred twenty-five years later, the proposition is still central to composition instruction. A review of modern writing textbooks reveals…

  17. Charles Alexander Eastman's "From the Deep Woods to Civilization" and the Shaping of Native Manhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayers, Peter L.

    2008-01-01

    Malea Powell has argued that Charles Alexander Eastman "imagined new possibilities for Native resistance and survival in the face of violent assimilation strategies." To Eastman, Natives had little choice but to acculturate to white society if they were going to resist white domination and survive. But gaining full equality in U.S. society proved…

  18. Holocene morphogenesis of Alexander the Great's isthmus at Tyre in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Meulé, Samuel

    2007-01-01

    In 332 B.C., Alexander the Great constructed an ≈1,000-m-long causeway to seize the offshore island of Tyre. The logistics behind this engineering feat have long troubled archaeologists. Using the Holocene sedimentary record, we demonstrate that Alexander's engineers cleverly exploited a shallow proto-tombolo, or sublittoral sand spit, to breach the offshore city's defensive impregnability. We elucidate a three-phase geomorphological model for the spit's evolution. Settled since the Bronze Age, the area's geological record manifests a long history of natural and anthropogenic forcings. (i) Leeward of the island breakwater, the maximum flooding surface (e.g., drowning of the subaerial land surfaces by seawater) is dated ≈8000 B.P. Fine-grained sediments and brackish and marine-lagoonal faunas translate shallow, low-energy water bodies at this time. Shelter was afforded by Tyre's elongated sandstone reefs, which acted as a 6-km natural breakwater. (ii) By 6000 B.P., sea-level rise had reduced the dimensions of the island from 6 to 4 km. The leeward wave shadow generated by this island, allied with high sediment supply after 3000 B.P., culminated in a natural wave-dominated proto-tombolo within 1–2 m of mean sea level by the time of Alexander the Great (4th century B.C.). (iii) After 332 B.C., construction of Alexander's causeway entrained a complete anthropogenic metamorphosis of the Tyrian coastal system. PMID:17517668

  19. "In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great" PBS Series. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide correlates with the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television series "In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great" hosted by historian Michael Wood. The four episodes of the series are entitled: "Son of God"; "Lord of Asia"; "Across the Hindu Kush"; and "To the Ends of the Earth." The guide consists of four core units related…

  20. Alexander Cameron Rutherford: A Gentleman and a Scholar. Documents in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodysh, Henry W.

    2000-01-01

    Provides information about Alexander Cameron Rutherford, a provincial politician. Includes a letter written by Rutherford in 1912 that provides insights into his responsibilities to the general public, information about Rutherford himself, the economic conditions of Alberta, Canada in 1912, and information about the individual to whom it was…

  1. Old Age, the Ancient Military, and Alexander's Army: Positive Examples for a Graying America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kebric, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Presents examples from ancient Greece and Rome illustrating working aged and intergenerational dependence. Describes normal active participation of elderly as officers and common soldiers in ancient military as example of their capabilities. Notes that Alexander the Great's army, in particular, depended on contributions of older men. (Author/NB)

  2. Another View of Dynamic Criteria: A Critical Reanalysis of Barrett, Caldwell, and Alexander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, James T.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A critical reanalysis of Barrett, Caldwell, and Alexander's (1985) critique of dynamic criteria. Summarizes and questions Barrett, et al.'s three definitions of dynamic criteria and their conclusion that reported temporal changes in criteria could be explained by methodological artifacts. A greater focus on dynamic criteria as constructs is…

  3. Rejoinder to Austin, Humphreys, and Hulin: Critical Reanalysis of Barrett, Caldwell and Alexander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Gerald V.; Alexander, Ralph A.

    1989-01-01

    Responds to Austin, Humphreys, and Hulin's (1989) critique of Barrett, Caldwell, and Alexander, suggesting that the burden of proof still rests on the advocates of the concept of dynamic criteria, and that empirical support is lacking for the existence of dynamic criteria as a simplex. Contrary evidence from educational, organizations, and…

  4. 76 FR 54800 - Sandy Alexander, Clifton, NJ; Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Sandy Alexander, Clifton, NJ; Notice of Negative Determination on... (subject firm). The Department's Notice was published in the Federal Register on February 2, 2011 (76 FR... resulted in a negative determination based on the findings that the petitioning worker group did not...

  5. Identification of metapopulation dynamics among Northern Goshawks of the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and Coastal British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; McClaren, Erica L.; Doyle, Frank I.; Titus, K.; Sage, George K.; Wilson, Robert E.; Gust, J.R.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Northern Goshawks occupying the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and coastal British Columbia nest primarily in old-growth and mature forest, which results in spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of individuals across the landscape. We used microsatellite and mitochondrial data to infer genetic structure, gene flow, and fluctuations in population demography through evolutionary time. Patterns in the genetic signatures were used to assess predictions associated with the three population models: panmixia, metapopulation, and isolated populations. Population genetic structure was observed along with asymmetry in gene flow estimates that changed directionality at different temporal scales, consistent with metapopulation model predictions. Therefore, Northern Goshawk assemblages located in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia interact through a metapopulation framework, though they may not fit the classic model of a metapopulation. Long-term population sources (coastal mainland British Columbia) and sinks (Revillagigedo and Vancouver islands) were identified. However, there was no trend through evolutionary time in the directionality of dispersal among the remaining assemblages, suggestive of a rescue-effect dynamic. Admiralty, Douglas, and Chichagof island complex appears to be an evolutionarily recent source population in the Alexander Archipelago. In addition, Kupreanof island complex and Kispiox Forest District populations have high dispersal rates to populations in close geographic proximity and potentially serve as local source populations. Metapopulation dynamics occurring in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia by Northern Goshawks highlight the importance of both occupied and unoccupied habitats to long-term population persistence of goshawks in this region.

  6. The effect of Alexander technique training program: A qualitative study of ordinary behavior application

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Baek, Soon Gi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to configure and apply the Alexander technique training program and assess the effect of program through physical, emotional and behavioral aspects. To achieve the research aims, qualitative research method had been conducted, subjecting 8 people, who were participating in Alexander Technique training program for this study. The study used focus group interview method for collecting date and employed for the interview method by mixing the semi-structured and unstructured questionnaire. The results were followings. First, one could develop body awareness and body consciousness through experiencing lived bodily sensation. Second, from Alexander Technique training program, people experienced psycho & physical’s equilibrium. Third, one could change not only the manner of use of body but also the attitude to the life from conscious attention to daily ordinary movement. The results provided empirical evidence of Alexander Technique training program’s functions in terms of physical, emotional and behavioral aspect through the process of consciousness control from lived body education. PMID:25610819

  7. A Disciplinary Immigrant. Alexander Smith at the University of Chicago, 1894-1911

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The publication in 1906 of Alexander Smith's "Introduction to general inorganic chemistry" inaugurated a decisive change in chemical pedagogy in the US, the effects of which are still evident. The nature and extent of Smith's innovations are described through a comparison of his text to its source material and contemporaries. His authoritative…

  8. Fault system polarity: A matter of chance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpfer, Martin; Childs, Conrad; Manzocchi, Tom; Walsh, John; Nicol, Andy; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    Many normal fault systems and, on a smaller scale, fracture boudinage exhibit asymmetry so that one fault dip direction dominates. The fraction of throw (or heave) accommodated by faults with the same dip direction in relation to the total fault system throw (or heave) is a quantitative measure of fault system asymmetry and termed 'polarity'. It is a common belief that the formation of domino and shear band boudinage with a monoclinic symmetry requires a component of layer parallel shearing, whereas torn boudins reflect coaxial flow. Moreover, domains of parallel faults are frequently used to infer the presence of a common décollement. Here we show, using Distinct Element Method (DEM) models in which rock is represented by an assemblage of bonded circular particles, that asymmetric fault systems can emerge under symmetric boundary conditions. The pre-requisite for the development of domains of parallel faults is however that the medium surrounding the brittle layer has a very low strength. We demonstrate that, if the 'competence' contrast between the brittle layer and the surrounding material ('jacket', or 'matrix') is high, the fault dip directions and hence fault system polarity can be explained using a random process. The results imply that domains of parallel faults are, for the conditions and properties used in our models, in fact a matter of chance. Our models suggest that domino and shear band boudinage can be an unreliable shear-sense indicator. Moreover, the presence of a décollement should not be inferred on the basis of a domain of parallel faults only.

  9. The chances of detecting life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sephton, Mark A.; Carter, Jonathan N.

    2015-07-01

    Missions to Mars progressively reveal the past and present habitability of the red planet. The current priority for Mars science is the recognition of definitive biosignatures related to past or present life. Success of life detection missions requires choices of the best mission design, location on Mars and particular sample to be analyzed. It is essential therefore to incorporate as much information as possible into the mission planning stages to maximize the precious opportunities provided by robotic operation on Mars. Bayesian statistics allow us to accommodate the many unknowns associated with a mission that has yet to take place. We have used Bayesian statistics to reveal that although in situ missions are less complex the overall probabilities of a successful mission to detect biosignatures on Mars are higher for sample return. If a mission has been designed with safe landing and operation as a priority, recognizing and avoiding those samples that do not contain the target biosignature is the most important characteristic, while for a mission where the best possible samples have been targeted the probability that the sample contains the target biosignature and that it can be correctly detected is the most dominant issue. Usefully, Bayesian statistics can be used to evaluate the chances of detecting past or present life for missions to different landing sites on Mars. A comparative assessment of Eberswelde Crater and Gale Crater indicates a higher probability of success for the latter and the probabilities of success are consistently higher for the sample return mission variant. Bayesian statistics, therefore, can inform future Mars mission planning steps to help maximize the possibility of success.

  10. Telemedicine in Iran: Chances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Hajialiasghari, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Technology is likely to transform the way care is delivered at home and in the community. Telemedicine, the child of IT and Medicine sciences is the use of telecommunication equipment and information technology to provide clinical care to individuals at distant sites and the transmission of medical and surgical information and images needed to provide that care. Undoubtedly, the advantages outweight its disadvantages, but just like any other innovations, it has some drawbacks. The present study outlines telemedicine strong and weak points. In this regard a survey has been done in Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran. METHODS Between 14th May and 14th August 2012, 90 medical specialist men and 42 women from different hospitals of Tehran Medical Sciences University, Iran were enrolled by a simple ran- dom sampling method. They all completed a questionnaire to consider what are telemedicine chances and challenges. RESULTS Making use of telemedicine was a profitable alternative in remote, rural/urban places especially in new project of “family physician” presented by Iran Ministry of Health. The results also highlighted that security considerations was an inevitable challenge of telemedicine, while shorter hospital stays and reduced warm ischemic time, and reduced morbidity and mortality rates were telemedicine merits. Despite most previous studies results, telemedicine has been recognised as a cost-effective alternative. Cultural, language distinctions as well as the level of literacy were barriers on deploying tele- medicine. There was no strong evidence showing that using telemedicine caused a decrease in tactile feedback. CONCLUSION We need to fully understand and consider various outcomes and challenges of telemedicine before applying it. PMID:25489500

  11. Pierre Robin sequence: Subdivision, data, theories, and treatment - Part 4: Recommended management and treatment of Pierre Robin sequence and its application

    PubMed Central

    Bütow, Kurt-W; Naidoo, Sharan; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur; Morkel, Jean A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The disorder currently accepted as Pierre Robin syndrome/anomaly/sequence (PRS) has been plagued by controversy ever since initially being described. Controversy exists not only about the appropriate terminology and etiopathogenesis of the disorder but also about its management. Therefore, clinical findings and treatment outcomes of a large database of 266 PRS cases were compared with the current state of knowledge in the scientific literature related to history, clinical description, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, theories of oligohydramnios, mandibular catch-up growth, midfacial hyperplasia, and early management. Aims of Part 4: To provide a systematic treatment protocol for Fairbairn–Robin triad (FRT) and Siebold Robin sequence (SRS) patients based on clinical findings and experience with 266 PRS cases. Subjects and Methods: A plethora of treatment modalities and their outcome in literature have been compared to those applied in this database and their outcomes. Results: The management of SRS/FRT depends on various factors including compromised airways, feeding difficulties, as well as the sequence of the reconstructive ladder. Conclusion: Based on the novel PRS subdivisions, a stepwise sequential treatment approach is outlined, addressing the particular needs of each disorder systematically.

  12. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons: The Language of Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2015-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the "Australian Curriculum," this issue focuses on the Statistics and probability strand and the sub-strand of Chance. In the Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2015), students are not asked to list outcomes of chance experiments and represent…

  13. Obituary: Alexander (Andy) Franz Lubenow, 1956-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, Marc William

    2006-12-01

    Alexander (Andy) Franz Lubenow, Program Coordinator at the Space Telescope Science Institute, was diagnosed with cancer of the gallbladder, pancreas, and liver in May 2005 and died on 29 September 2005. He was forty-nine. Andy was born to Bodo and Helen Lubenow in St. Paul, Minnesota on 4 January 1956. In 1964 at the age of eight, he moved with his family to Buenos Aires, Argentina, and attended the American Community School there until returning with his family in 1973 to St. Paul. Argentina had a big impact on Andy's future as an astronomer. He later recalled how he had observed and was puzzled by the "upside-down" appearance of the Moon in the southern hemisphere. In Argentina, he built his first telescope using a mirror he had ground himself. He never parted ways with that instrument. Andy did not follow a standard educational track. He spent two years at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota, before transferring to the University of Minnesota, where he earned his bachelor's degree and began work towards a master's degree in astrophysics. Later he transferred to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he remained until Dr. Peter Stockman hired him to work on the Hubble Space Telescope project. While in school, he worked as a teacher's assistant, taught night school, and gave demonstrations of stargazing. He was an excellent teacher and had a flair for writing. He later wrote articles for a sailing magazine and a pilot's magazine. Andy was a very practical, meticulous, and steady worker, attributes that he combined with an understated and dry sense of humor. He was always able to find a way through a problem, no matter how sticky. If a job required him to roll up his sleeves and get it done through hard work, he would persevere. Nevertheless, he was always on the lookout for an easier way. He had no patience for being forced to deal with stupid things for stupid reasons. At work at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Andy was

  14. "Girls Who Do Things": The Protagonists of Robin McKinley's Fantasy Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Lynn Moss

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that in her novels of fairy tale/fantasy fiction for adolescents, Robin McKinley emphasizes the values found in most fantasy fiction, courage and honor. Also suggests she makes an important contribution to balancing gender roles in young adult fiction by portraying female characters who are physically strong, smart, and courageous. (RS)

  15. Development of a new lattice physics code robin for PWR application

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.; Chen, G.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a description of methodologies and preliminary verification results of a new lattice physics code ROBIN, being developed for PWR application at Shanghai NuStar Nuclear Power Technology Co., Ltd. The methods used in ROBIN to fulfill various tasks of lattice physics analysis are an integration of historical methods and new methods that came into being very recently. Not only these methods like equivalence theory for resonance treatment and method of characteristics for neutron transport calculation are adopted, as they are applied in many of today's production-level LWR lattice codes, but also very useful new methods like the enhanced neutron current method for Dancoff correction in large and complicated geometry and the log linear rate constant power depletion method for Gd-bearing fuel are implemented in the code. A small sample of verification results are provided to illustrate the type of accuracy achievable using ROBIN. It is demonstrated that ROBIN is capable of satisfying most of the needs for PWR lattice analysis and has the potential to become a production quality code in the future. (authors)

  16. Nudging Fledgling Teen Readers from the Nest: From Round Robin to Real Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Ginni Chase; Combs, Dorie

    2011-01-01

    Middle and Secondary teachers often find it difficult to help their students read textbooks and other instructional materials. In order to ensure they read the text, teachers may rely on "round robin reading" and other ineffective strategies. In this article, the authors explain why this strategy hinders comprehension, fluency and development of…

  17. LLNL participation in the fourth international interlaboratory comparison test (Round Robin 4)

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.; Haas, J.S.; Whipple, R.E.; Andresen, B.D.; Eagle, R.J.

    1993-11-01

    Compounds selected for spiking the Round Robin 4 samples (soil and water) were examples of decomposition products associated with CW agents that might be found during the course of a CWC inspection. They also represented a range of precursor materials; they are polar and contain acidic or basic moieties or both. The included benzilic acid, 3-quinuclidinol, diisopropylamino ethanol, and methylphosphonic acid.

  18. Preliminary results of the round-robin testing of F82H

    SciTech Connect

    Shiba, K.; Yamanouchi, N.; Tohyama, A.

    1996-10-01

    Preliminary results of metallurgical, physical and mechanical properties of low activation ferritic steel F82H (IEA heat) were obtained in the round-robin test in Japan. The properties of IEA heat F82H were almost the same as the original F82H.

  19. Summary of results from the IPIRG-2 round-robin analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, S.; Olson, R.; Rosenfield, A.; Wilkowski, G.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents a summary of the results from three one-day international round-robin workshops which were organized by Battelle in conjunction with the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) Program. The objective of these workshops was to develop a consensus in handling difficult analytical problems in leak-before-break and pipe flaw evaluations. The workshops, which were held August 5, 1993, March 4, 1994, and October 21, 1994 at Columbus, Ohio, involved various technical presentations on the related research efforts by the IPIRG-2 member organizations and solutions to several round-robin problems. Following review by the IPIRG-2 members, four sets of round-robin problems were developed. They involved: (1) evaluations of fracture properties and pipe loads, (2) crack-opening and leak-rate evaluations, (3) dynamic analysis of cracked pipes, and (4) evaluations of elbows. A total of 18 organizations from the United States, Japan, Korea, and Europe solved these round-robin problems. The analysis techniques employed by the participants included both finite element and engineering methods. Based on the results from these analyses, several important observations were made concerning the predictive capability of the current fracture-mechanics and thermal-hydraulics models for their applications in nuclear piping and piping welds.

  20. Difficult intubation in an infant with Pierre Robin syndrome and concomitant tongue tie.

    PubMed

    Jones, S E; Derrick, G M

    1998-01-01

    Intubation and airway difficulties may be assumed in infants with Pierre Robin syndrome. We report a case of a six month old cleft palate repair who also had a tongue tie which compounded the problem. He was eventually intubated using the two anaesthetist technique. The contribution of the tongue tie is assessed. PMID:9836218

  1. Repulsive Casimir effect from extra dimensions and Robin boundary conditions: From branes to pistons

    SciTech Connect

    Elizalde, E.; Odintsov, S. D.; Saharian, A. A.

    2009-03-15

    We evaluate the Casimir energy and force for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling parameter, subject to Robin boundary conditions on two codimension-one parallel plates, located on a (D+1)-dimensional background spacetime with an arbitrary internal space. The most general case of different Robin coefficients on the two separate plates is considered. With independence of the geometry of the internal space, the Casimir forces are seen to be attractive for special cases of Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on both plates and repulsive for Dirichlet boundary conditions on one plate and Neumann boundary conditions on the other. For Robin boundary conditions, the Casimir forces can be either attractive or repulsive, depending on the Robin coefficients and the separation between the plates, what is actually remarkable and useful. Indeed, we demonstrate the existence of an equilibrium point for the interplate distance, which is stabilized due to the Casimir force, and show that stability is enhanced by the presence of the extra dimensions. Applications of these properties in braneworld models are discussed. Finally, the corresponding results are generalized to the geometry of a piston of arbitrary cross section.

  2. Prevalence of filarioid nematodes and trypanosomes in American robins and house sparrows, Chicago USA☆

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Gabriel L.; Anderson, Tavis K.; Berry, Garrett E.; Makohon-Moore, Alvin P.; Crafton, Jeffrey C.; Brawn, Jeffrey D.; Dolinski, Amanda C.; Krebs, Bethany L.; Ruiz, Marilyn O.; Muzzall, Patrick M.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Walker, Edward D.

    2012-01-01

    Hosts are commonly infected with a suite of parasites, and interactions among these parasites can affect the size, structure, and behavior of host–parasite communities. As an important step to understanding the significance of co-circulating parasites, we describe prevalence of co-circulating hemoparasites in two important avian amplification hosts for West Nile virus (WNV), the American robin (Turdus migratorius) and house sparrow (Passer domesticus), during the 2010–2011 in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Rates of nematode microfilariemia were 1.5% of the robins (n = 70) and 4.2% of the house sparrows (n = 72) collected during the day and 11.1% of the roosting robins (n = 63) and 0% of the house sparrows (n = 11) collected at night. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes from these parasites resolved two clades of filarioid nematodes. Microscopy revealed that 18.0% of American robins (n = 133) and 16.9% of house sparrows (n = 83) hosted trypanosomes in the blood. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences from the 18s rRNA gene revealed that the trypanosomes fall within previously described avian trypanosome clades. These results document hemoparasites in the blood of WNV hosts in a center of endemic WNV transmission, suggesting a potential for direct or indirect interactions with the virus. PMID:24533314

  3. On the Duty of Educating Respect: A Response to Robin Barrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Graham

    2006-01-01

    This article is a response to Robin Barrow's John Wilson Memorial Lecture "On the duty of not taking offence". The present article takes issue with some of Barrow's claims and explores further the implications for moral education of some current views on the giving and taking of offence. Accounts are offered both of "inherent offensiveness" (an…

  4. Chance and time: Cutting the Gordian knot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagar, Amit

    One of the recurrent problems in the foundations of physics is to explain why we rarely observe certain phenomena that are allowed by our theories and laws. In thermodynamics, for example, the spontaneous approach towards equilibrium is ubiquitous yet the time-reversal-invariant laws that presumably govern thermal behaviour in the microscopic level equally allow spontaneous approach away from equilibrium to occur. Why are the former processes frequently observed while the latter are almost never reported? Another example comes from quantum mechanics where the formalism, if considered complete and universally applicable, predicts the existence of macroscopic superpositions---monstrous Schrodinger cats---and these are never observed: while electrons and atoms enjoy the cloudiness of waves, macroscopic objects are always localized to definite positions. A well-known explanatory framework due to Ludwig Boltzmann traces the rarity of "abnormal" thermodynamic phenomena to the scarcity of the initial conditions that lead to it. After all, physical laws are no more than algorithms and these are expected to generate different results according to different initial conditions, hence Boltzmann's insight that violations of thermodynamic laws are possible but highly improbable. Yet Boltzmann introduces probabilities into this explanatory scheme, and since the latter is couched in terms of classical mechanics, these probabilities must be interpreted as a result of ignorance of the exact state the system is in. Quantum mechanics has taught us otherwise. Here the attempts to explain why we never observe macroscopic superpositions have led to different interpretations of the formalism and to different solutions to the quantum measurement problem. These solutions introduce additional interpretations to the meaning of probability over and above ignorance of the definite state of the physical system: quantum probabilities may result from pure chance. Notwithstanding the success of the

  5. The Use of "Ability" Measures as Controls for Concurrent or Subsequent Achievement (Comment on Alexander et al., ASR, October 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James S.

    1982-01-01

    Comments upon a 1981 article by Alexander, Pallas, and Cook. Discusses whether particular standardized tests measure achievement or ability and the implications of this issue for school effects research. (GC)

  6. An Ice Age Refugium for Large Mammals in the Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, Timothy H.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Shields, Gerald F.

    1996-09-01

    Genetic and paleontological evidence are combining to provide a new and surprising picture of mammalian biogeography in southeastern Alaska. Prior to our study, the brown and black bears of the Alexander Archipelago were considered postglacial immigrants that never had overlapping ranges. Vertebrate fossils from caves on Prince of Wales Island now demonstrate that brown and black bears coexisted there (and even inhabited the same caves) both before and after the last glaciation. Differences in mtDNA sequences suggest that living brown bears of the Alexander Archipelago comprise a distinct clade and are more closely related to polar bears than to their mainland conspecifics. We conclude that brown bears, and perhaps other large mammals, have continuously inhabited the archipelago for at least 40,000 yr and that habitable refugia were therefore available throughout the last glaciation.

  7. Pennsylvanian pluton stitching of Wrangellia and the Alexander terrane, Wrangell Mountains, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.C.; Bergman, S.C.; Cushing, G.W. ); Plafker, G. ); Campbell, R.B.; Dodds, C.J. ); McClelland, W.C. ); Mueller, P.A. ); MacKevett, E.M. Jr.

    1988-11-01

    A quartz monzonite-syenite-alkali granite plutonic complex in eastern Alaska crosscuts the contact of the Alexander terrane and Wrangellia and intrudes the basement rocks of both terranes. Zircon U-Pb data indicate an intrusion age of 309 {plus minus} 5 Ma (Middle Pennsylvanian) for the pluton, and {sup 40}K-{sup 40}Ar age for hornblende separates indicate cooling to about 450 C during Middle Pennsylvanian-Early Permian time. The new field relations and age data demonstrate the Wrangellia and the Alexander terrane were contiguous during the Middle Pennsylvanian. This conclusion provides an important new constraint on paleogeographic reconstructions of the northwest Cordillera, and necessitates reassessment of stratigraphic and paleomagnetic data that were cited as evidence that the terranes evolved separately until the late Mesozoic.

  8. Paleozoic paleomagnetism and northward drift of the Alexander Terrane, southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Der Voo, Rob; Jones, Meridee; Gromme, C. Sherman; Eberlein, G. Donald; Churkin, Michael, Jr.

    1980-10-01

    Paleozoic limestone, graywacke, sandstone, milestone, red beds and volcanic rocks of the Alexander terrane, southeastern Alaska, have yielded six paleomagnetic pole positions after thermal and alternating-field demagnetization. These poles are from sample groups of late Middle Ordovician, Late Ordovician, Devonian, Late Devonian, and early and late Carboniferous age. To test various tectonic models for the structural development of this part of western North America, the paleomagnetic results are compared to those for the North American craton. It is found that the observed inclination and declination values deviate significantly from the values predicted for the present-day position of the Alexander terrane (55.5N, 133.5W). Better matching can be obtained for a paleoposition of the terrane at about 40N, 120W, in the present position of western Nevada and northeastern California. In addition, an in situ 25° clockwise rotation of the terrane is required to restore it to its original position.

  9. Clinical Experience in Late Antiquity: Alexander of Tralles and the Therapy of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bouras-vallianatos, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Alexander of Tralles, writing in the late sixth century, combined his wide-ranging practical knowledge with earlier medical theories. This article shows how clinical experience is used in Alexander’s works by concentrating on his therapeutic advice on epilepsy and, in particular, on pharmacology and the group of so-called natural remedies. I argue that clinical testing is used not only for the introduction of new medicines but also as an instrument for checking the therapeutic effect of popular healing practices. On another level, this article discusses Alexander’s role as the author of a medical compendium; it suggests that by marking the cases of clinical testing with a set of recurrent expressions, Alexander leads his audience to reflect on his medical authority and personal contribution. PMID:25045178

  10. [Physician of Obukhov school (90 years of the birth of Alexander Nikolayevich Senenko)].

    PubMed

    Simonenko, V B

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of December 2011 turns the 90th anniversary of a prominent national physician Alexander Nikolayevich Senenko. He was an educatee of the two academies--Military Medical Kirov (graduated with honors in March 1944) and the Naval Medical (VMMA), where he studied at post-graduate at the Department of Faculty Therapy (1950-1953). The results of the scientific work of the department summarized in the monograph of Gogin E.E., Senenko A.N., Tyurin E.I., "Arterial Hypertension" (1978, 1983). Monograph of Senenko A.N. "Heart and focal infection" (1973) has not lost its scientific and practical importance to this day. Shortly before the death (June 1, 1991), Alexander Nikolaevich completed the major work on the role of focal infection in the pathology of internal organs. In all he published over 250 scientific papers, including one textbook, four monographs and several major textbooks. PMID:22545454

  11. Paleozoic paleomagnetism and northward drift of the Alexander terrane, southeastern Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Der Voo, R.; Jones, M.; Gromme, C.S.; Eberlein, G.D.; Churkin, M., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Paleozoic limestone, greywacke, sandstone, mudstone, red beds and volcanic rocks of the Alexander terrane, SE Alaska, have yielded six paleomagnetic pole positions after thermal and alternating-field demagnetization. These poles are from sample groups of late Middle Ordovician, Late Ordovician, Devonian, Late Devonian, and early and late Carboniferous age. To test various tectonic models for the structural development of this part of western N America, the paleomagnetic results are compared to those for the N American craton. It is found that the observed inclination and declination values deviate significantly from the values predicted for the present-day position of the Alexander terrance (55.5 N, 133.5 W). Better matching can be obtained for a paleoposition of the terrane at about 40 N, 120 W, in the present position of western Nevada and NE California. In addition, an in situ 25o clockwise rotation of the terrane is required to restore it to its original position.-Authors

  12. Pregnancy Problems? Boost the Chance of Having a Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chance of Having a Baby For those who dream of being parents, pregnancy problems can be tremendously ... doesn’t work, doctors may recommend medication, surgery, artificial insemination (in which a woman is injected with ...

  13. Doctors May Be Missing Chances to Treat Prediabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Doctors May Be Missing Chances to Treat Prediabetes Study found many patients with higher-than-normal ... HealthDay News) -- A large number of Americans with prediabetes aren't being treated for the condition, which ...

  14. Professor Robert McNeill Alexander CBE FRS (1934-2016).

    PubMed

    Ker, Robert F

    2016-07-01

    Robert McNeill Alexander, known to friends and colleagues as 'Neill', was a zoologist with an engineer's eye for how animals work. He used mathematical models to show how evolution has produced optimal designs. His skill was to choose appropriate models: realistic enough to contain the essence of a problem and yet simple enough to be tractable. He wrote fluently and easily: 23 books, 280 papers and a CD-ROM entitled How Animals Move. PMID:27385751

  15. PLC/PRF/5 (Alexander) hepatoma cell line: further characterization and studies of infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Daemer, R J; Feinstone, S M; Alexander, J J; Tully, J G; London, W T; Wong, D C; Purcell, R H

    1980-01-01

    The Alexander hepatoma cell line, PLC/PRF/5, was studied for evidence of hepatitis B virus markers and alpha-fetoprotein. Only hepatitis B surface antigen and alpha-fetoprotein were detected. Induction experiments with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and inoculation of chimpanzees with whole cells or tissue culture fluid did not reveal evidence of synthesis of additional hepatitis B virus markers or of production of infectious virus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6160110

  16. Scaphopoda from the Alexander Terrane, Southeast Alaska-The first occurrence of Scaphopoda in the Silurian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohr, D.M.; Blodgett, R.B.; Baichtal, J.

    2006-01-01

    The scaphopods Dentalium hecetaensis n. sp. and Rhytiodentalium cf. kentuckyensis Pojeta et Runnegar, 1979, are described from Ludlow-age strata of the Heceta Limestone on Prince of Wales Island, Southeast Alaska. This is the first occurrence of Silurian scaphopods known to date. They are part of a diverse macrobenthic fauna of the Alexander terrane, an accreted southern Alaskan terrane of Siberian or Uralian affinities. ?? 2006 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  17. Alexander H. Leighton's and Jane Murphy's scientific contributions in psychiatric epidemiology: a personal appreciation.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marc-Adélard

    2006-03-01

    This article introduces the special issue of Transcultural Psychiatry in honour of Alexander Leighton. A sketch of his research career is followed by a discussion of the work of his wife, Dr. Jane Murphy, first on St. Lawrence Island, near the Bering Strait, and later as a key figure in the Stirling County project. A brief conclusion highlights the main aspects of their joint legacy to cultural psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:16671389

  18. Teachers' professional development needs and current practices at the Alexander Science Center School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargus, Gerald Vincent

    This investigation represents an in-depth understanding of teacher professional development at the Alexander Science Center School, a dependent charter museum school established through a partnership between the California Science Center and Los Angeles Unified School District. Three methods of data collection were used. A survey was distributed and collected from the school's teachers, resulting in a prioritized list of teacher professional development needs, as well as a summary of teachers' opinions about the school's existing professional development program. In addition, six key stakeholders in the school's professional development program were interviewed for the study. Finally, documents related to the school's professional development program were analyzed. Data collected from the interviews and documents were used to develop an understand various components of the Alexander Science Center School's professional development program. Teachers identified seven areas that had a high-priority for future professional development including developing skills far working with below-grade-level students, improving the analytical skills of student in mathematics, working with English Language Learners, improving students' overall reading ability levels, developing teachers' content-area knowledge for science, integrating science across the curriculum, and incorporating hands-on activity-based learning strategies to teach science. Professional development needs identified by Alexander Science Center School teachers were categorized based on their focus on content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, or curricular knowledge. Analysis of data collected through interviews and documents revealed that the Alexander Science Center School's professional development program consisted of six venues for providing professional development for teachers including weekly "banked time" sessions taking place within the standard school day, grade-level meetings, teacher support

  19. Reproduction and growth in American robins at the Feed Materials Production Center

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, D.R.; Jones, F.A. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    Birds have been useful in environmental monitoring within forest ecosystems and at a variety of industrial sites. Growth analyses have been shown to be a sensitive measure of environmental stress in gulls, eagles, and in passerine birds. As part of an intensive year-long baseline ecological study investigations were initiated in late spring 1987 in order to characterize growth and reproductive success in Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura) and American Robins (Turdus migratorius) at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). The current study was initiated in order to determine whether the pattern of suppressed growth and reproduction in FMPC birds still existed onsite. We selected only American robins (Turdus migratorius) for study because they appeared the most severely affected in 1987. 44 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. 1995 Area 1 bird survey/Zone 1, Operable Unit 2, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Robins Air Force Base is located in Warner Robins, Georgia, approximately 90 miles southeast of Atlanta, Georgia. As part of the Baseline Investigation (CDM Federal 1994) a two day bird survey was conducted by M. C. Wade (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and B.A. Beatty (CDM Federal Programs) in May 1995. The subject area of investigation includes the sludge lagoon, Landfill No. 4, and the wetland area east of the landfill and west of Hannah Road (including two ponds). This is known as Area 1. The Area 1 wetlands include bottomland hardwood forest, stream, and pond habitats. The objectives of this survey were to document bird species using the Area I wetlands and to see if the change in hydrology (due to the installation of the Sewage Treatment Plant effluent diversion and stormwater runon control systems) has resulted in changes at Area 1 since the previous survey of May 1992 (CDM Federal 1994).

  1. Results of ASTM round robin testing for mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. Kevin; Martin, Roderick H.

    1992-01-01

    The results are summarized of several interlaboratory 'round robin' test programs for measuring the mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of advanced fiber reinforced composite materials. Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests were conducted by participants in ASTM committee D30 on High Modulus Fibers and their Composites and by representatives of the European Group on Fracture (EGF) and the Japanese Industrial Standards Group (JIS). DCB tests were performed on three AS4 carbon fiber reinforced composite materials: AS4/3501-6 with a brittle epoxy matrix; AS4/BP907 with a tough epoxy matrix; and AS4/PEEK with a tough thermoplastic matrix. Difficulties encountered in manufacturing panels, as well as conducting the tests are discussed. Critical issues that developed during the course of the testing are highlighted. Results of the round robin testing used to determine the precision of the ASTM DCB test standard are summarized.

  2. Pierre Robin sequence: Subdivision, data, theories, and treatment - Part 1: History, subdivisions, and data

    PubMed Central

    Bütow, Kurt-W; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur; Morkel, Jean A.; Naidoo, Sharan

    2016-01-01

    Context: The disorder currently accepted as Pierre Robin syndrome/anomaly/sequence (PRS) has been plagued by controversy ever since initially being described. Controversy exists not only about the appropriate terminology and etiopathogenesis of the disorder but also about its management. Therefore, clinical findings and treatment outcomes of a large database of 266 PRS cases were compared with the current state of knowledge in scientific literature related to history, clinical description, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, theories of oligohydramnios, mandibular catch-up growth, midfacial hyperplasia, and the timing of management. Aims of Part 1: Display disparities of the widely published subject of PRS that exist within the literature. Subjects and Methods: A literature search related to diagnostic criteria was compared to findings of one of the largest PRS databases worldwide. Results: Regarding diagnostic criteria two subdivisions, the Fairbairn–Robin triad (FRT) and the Siebold–Robin sequence (SRS) can be clearly distinguished. Both present with micrognathia and glossoptosis, the former with, the latter, however, without a palatal cleft. Conclusions: According to clear diagnostic criteria, PRS has to be subdivided in the future into FRT and SRS cases, as they may require different treatment approaches. PMID:27563603

  3. Virchow-Robin Spaces: Correlations with Polysomnography-Derived Sleep Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Berezuk, Courtney; Ramirez, Joel; Gao, Fuqiang; Scott, Christopher J.M.; Huroy, Menal; Swartz, Richard H.; Murray, Brian J.; Black, Sandra E.; Boulos, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To test the hypothesis that enlarged Virchow-Robin space volumes (VRS) are associated with objective measures of poor quality sleep. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Patients: Twenty-six patients being evaluated for cerebrovascular disease were assessed using polysomnography and high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging. Measurements and Results: Regionalized VRS were quantified from three-dimensional high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and correlated with measures of polysomnography-derived sleep parameters while controlling for age, stroke volume, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid volume. Sleep efficiency was negatively correlated with total VRS (rho = −0.47, P = 0.03) and basal ganglia VRS (rho = −0.54, P = 0.01), whereas wake after sleep onset was positively correlated with basal ganglia VRS (rho = 0.52, P = 0.02). Furthermore, VRS in the basal ganglia were negatively correlated with duration of N3 (rho = −0.53, P = 0.01). Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that sleep may play a role in perivascular clearance in ischemic brain disease, and invite future research into the potential relevance of Virchow-Robin spaces as an imaging biomarker for nocturnal metabolite clearance. Citation: Berezuk C, Ramirez J, Gao F, Scott CJ, Huroy M, Swartz RH, Murray BJ, Black SE, Boulos MI. Virchow-Robin spaces: correlations with polysomnography-derived sleep parameters. SLEEP 2015;38(6):853–858. PMID:26163465

  4. The spirit of St Louis: the contributions of Lee N. Robins to North American psychiatric epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Nancy D

    2014-08-01

    This article takes up the history of North American psychiatric epidemiology with reference to production of knowledge concerning sociopathic or antisocial personality disorder and drug dependence, abuse, and/or addiction. These overlapping arenas provide a microcosm within which to explore the larger shift of postwar psychiatric epidemiology from community studies based on psychological scales to studies based on specific diagnostic criteria. This paper places the figure of sociologist Lee Nelken Robins within the context of the Department of Psychiatry in the School of Medicine at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri. The St Louis research group--to which Robins was both marginal and central--developed the basis for specific diagnostic criteria and was joined by Robert Spitzer, Jean Endicott and other architects of DSM-III in reorienting American psychiatry towards medical, biological and epidemiological models. Robins was a key linchpin working at the nexus of the psychiatric epidemiological and sociological drug addiction research networks. This article situates her work within the broader set of societal and governmental transformations leading to the technologically sophisticated turn in American psychiatric epidemiology and research on the aetiology of drug abuse and mental health and illness. PMID:24368750

  5. Origin of Silurian reefs in the Alexander Terrane of southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Soja, C.M. )

    1991-04-01

    Lower to Upper Silurian (upper Llandovery-Ludlow) limestones belonging to the Heceta Formation record several episodes of reef growth in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. As the oldest carbonates of wide-spread distribution in the region, the Heceta limestones represent the earliest development of a shallow-marine platform within the Alexander arc and the oldest foundation for reef evolution. These deposits provide important insights into the dynamic processes, styles, and bathymetry associated with reef growth in tectonically active oceanic islands. Massive stromatoporoids, corals, and red algae are preserved in fragmental rudstones and represent a fringing reef that formed at the seaward edge of the incipient marine shelf. Accessory constituents in this reef include crinoids and the cyanobacterium Girvanella. Small biostromes were constructed by ramose corals and stromatoporoids on oncolitic substrates in backreef or lagoonal environments. These buildups were associated with low-diversity assemblages of brachiopods and with gastropods, amphiporids, calcareous algae and cyanobacteria. Microbial boundstones reflect the widespread encrustation of cyanobacteria and calcified microproblematica on shelly debris as stromatolitic mats that resulted in the development of a stromatactoid-bearing mud mound and a barrier reef complex. Epiphytaceans, other microbes, and aphrosalpingid sponges were the primary frame-builders of the barrier reefs. These buildups attained significant relief at the shelf margin and shed detritus as slumped blocks and debris flows into deep-water sites along the slope. The similarity of these stromatolitic-aphrosalpingid reefs to those from Siluro-Devonian strata of autochthonous southwestern Alaska suggests paleobiogeographic ties of the Alexander terrane to cratonal North America during the Silurian.

  6. Ultrastructure of the tegument of Metamicrocotyla macracantha (Alexander, 1954) Koratha, 1955 (Monogenea, Microcotylidae).

    PubMed

    Cohen, S C; Kohn, A; Baptista-Farias, M F

    2004-02-01

    The ultrastructure of the body tegument of Metamicrocotyla macracantha (Alexander, 1954) Koratha, 1955, parasite of Mugil liza from Brazil, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The body tegument is composed of an external syncytial layer, musculature, and an inner layer containing tegumental cells. The syncytium consists of a matrix containing three types of body inclusions and mitochondria. The musculature is constituted of several layers of longitudinal and circular muscle fibers. The tegumental cells present a well-developed nucleus, cytoplasm filled with ribosomes, rough endoplasmatic reticulum and mitochondria, and characteristic organelles of tegumental cells. PMID:15195361

  7. Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Murnane, Richard, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As the incomes of affluent and poor families have diverged over the past three decades, so too has the educational performance of their children. But how exactly do the forces of rising inequality affect the educational attainment and life chances of low-income children? In "Whither Opportunity?" a distinguished team of economists,…

  8. Provision of Second-Chance Education: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Many students do not benefit from mainstream education and are forced to leave it. Governments and non-government organisations concerned with the social injustice and problems that such rejection could cause offer these students second-chance education programmes. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of such opportunities, using…

  9. Learning Strategies of Students Attending a "Second Chance" School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Sylvie C.; Langevin, Louise; Robert, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in Quebec with 608 students (aged 16-19) in four "second chance" schools of the greater Montreal area. The objectives were twofold: (a) to identify the strategies of these students in the context of five learning activities; and (b) to compare the strategies of students who had withdrawn from school after their mandatory…

  10. A Second Chance at Education for Early School Leavers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidano, Cain; Tabasso, Domenico; Tseng, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to better understand the factors that affect the chances of re-engaging early school leavers in education, with a particular focus on the importance of time out from school (duration dependence) and school-related factors. Using data from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth and duration…

  11. Second Chances Academy: Alternative School or Pathway to Prison?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass; Powell, Keyona L.

    2016-01-01

    This case considers the leadership challenge facing district officials in a mid-sized urban-suburban school district receiving negative media coverage for the overrepresentation of poor, Black, and Latino males in its alternative high school, Second Chances Academy. Many of its students also qualify for special education and English learner…

  12. Choice and Chance in Life: The Game of "Skunk."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutlag, Dan

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a game to present middle-grade students that involves both choice and chance to help them understand the significance and usefulness of mathematical probability. Discusses winning versus self-improvement and provides a student worksheet to help students in thinking about the game. (MKR)

  13. Choice or Chance: Questioning Dimensions within the Idea of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Bernadette

    1995-01-01

    Explores how ideas of harmony and coercion play out in metaphors of community. Suggests four dimensions as continua along which communities could be described: choice/chance, time/space, abstract/concrete, and affinity/proximity. Concludes that breaking up the clearly bounded, either/or approach to modeling community can better accommodate the…

  14. Blind insight: metacognitive discrimination despite chance task performance.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ryan B; Dienes, Zoltan; Barrett, Adam B; Bor, Daniel; Seth, Anil K

    2014-12-01

    Blindsight and other examples of unconscious knowledge and perception demonstrate dissociations between judgment accuracy and metacognition: Studies reveal that participants' judgment accuracy can be above chance while their confidence ratings fail to discriminate right from wrong answers. Here, we demonstrated the opposite dissociation: a reliable relationship between confidence and judgment accuracy (demonstrating metacognition) despite judgment accuracy being no better than chance. We evaluated the judgments of 450 participants who completed an AGL task. For each trial, participants decided whether a stimulus conformed to a given set of rules and rated their confidence in that judgment. We identified participants who performed at chance on the discrimination task, utilizing a subset of their responses, and then assessed the accuracy and the confidence-accuracy relationship of their remaining responses. Analyses revealed above-chance metacognition among participants who did not exhibit decision accuracy. This important new phenomenon, which we term blind insight, poses critical challenges to prevailing models of metacognition grounded in signal detection theory. PMID:25384551

  15. The Notions of Chance and Probabilities in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikiforidou, Zoi; Pange, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Chance, randomness and probability constitute statistical notions that are interrelated and characterize the logicomathematical thinking of children. Traditional theories support that probabilistic thinking evolves after the age of 7. However, recent research has underlined that children, as young as 4, may possess and develop basic notions,…

  16. The Common Core Initiative: What Are the Chances of Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards have been adopted by 46 states and the District of Columbia. They enjoy a huge following of well-wishers and supporters who are optimistic that the standards will boost achievement in U.S. schools. Setting aside the cheerleading and fond hopes, what are the real chances of success? The most reasonable prediction is…

  17. Seating and Grouping Choices: A Chance for Making Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Isadora Jung-Hsiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how international students negotiated their chances for making contact with other students in higher education and how such effort affected their educational experiences in Australia. In the past few decades, international students have formed part of the increasingly diverse multicultural student population in Australian…

  18. Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Murnane, Richard, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As the incomes of affluent and poor families have diverged over the past three decades, so too has the educational performance of their children. But how exactly do the forces of rising inequality affect the educational attainment and life chances of low-income children? In "Whither Opportunity?" a distinguished team of economists, sociologists,…

  19. Boys and "Second Chance" Education: Same Jeans, Different Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Mark G.

    This paper examines the perceptions and interactions of disadvantaged young people returning to mainstream education through Street Kids Access Tertiary Education (SKATE), a university bridging program in Sydney, Australia. Although both males and females in the study shared common backgrounds of disadvantage, "second-chance" educational success…

  20. On the Robin-Transmission Boundary Value Problems for the Nonlinear Darcy-Forchheimer-Brinkman and Navier-Stokes Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohr, Mirela; de Cristoforis, Massimo Lanza; Wendland, Wolfgang L.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study a boundary value problem of Robin-transmission type for the nonlinear Darcy-Forchheimer-Brinkman and Navier-Stokes systems in two adjacent bounded Lipschitz domains in {{{R}}n (nin {2,3})}, with linear transmission conditions on the internal Lipschitz interface and a linear Robin condition on the remaining part of the Lipschitz boundary. We also consider a Robin-transmission problem for the same nonlinear systems subject to nonlinear transmission conditions on the internal Lipschitz interface and a nonlinear Robin condition on the remaining part of the boundary. For each of these problems we exploit layer potential theoretic methods combined with fixed point theorems in order to show existence results in Sobolev spaces, when the given data are suitably small in {L^2}-based Sobolev spaces or in some Besov spaces. For the first mentioned problem, which corresponds to linear Robin and transmission conditions, we also show a uniqueness result. Note that the Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy equation is a nonlinear equation that describes saturated porous media fluid flows.

  1. Alexander Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... there are no ethnic, racial, geographic, or cultural/economic differences in its distribution. Is there any treatment? ... Fax: 815-748-0844 Prepared by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  2. Trace element analysis of Alexander the Great's silver tetradrachms minted in Macedonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.; Katsanos, A. A.; Touratsoglou, J.

    2000-11-01

    The coinage of Alexander the Great presents a special interest because of its international character in the frame of the ancient times. At least 31 mints (from Aigai to Babylon and from Pella to Alexandreia) operated in the vast state, which was created by Alexander in just over 10 years (334-323 BC). Impressive quantities of tetradrachms were consequently minted for the economic affairs of an expanding state. The mints continued to be active and after the premature death of the Macedonian king, producing among others and tetradrachms in his name. The elemental chemical composition of silver tetradrachms minted in Amphipolis as well as in other Macedonian Greek cities was analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), and 12 elements were determined. The problem of the patina (silver corrosion layer) effects on the results was examined by analysis before and after the corrosion product removal. From the results of the chemical composition, a similar numismatic policy is deduced for all the analysed coin as well as metal provenance indications for some of the coins.

  3. Possible refugia in the Alexander Archipelago of southeastern Alaska during the late Wisconsin glaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, P.E.; Ager, T.A.; Baichtal, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    The interpretation of the extent of late Wisconsin glaciation in southeastern Alaska has varied between geologists and biologists. Maps and reports of the region prepared by geologists commonly indicated that late Wisconsin ice extended as a large uniform front west to the edge of the continental shelf. However, the distribution of plants and animals in the region has led many biologists to suggest that there may have been ice-free areas that served as refugia during the late Wisconsin. Based on analyses of aerial photographs, topographic maps, and bathymetric charts, in conjunction with a review of previous literature and reconnaissance fieldwork throughout the region, this study presents data supporting a limited ice extent in the Alexander Archipelago during the late Wisconsin and identifies possible ice-free areas that may have served as refugia. These areas include (1) the Fairweather Ground, (2) the Herbert Graves Island area, (3) the western coast of southern Baranof Island and adjacent continental shelf, (4) Coronation Island and the adjacent continental shelf, (5) the Warren Island area, (6) the continental shelf from west of Heceta Island to Forrester Island in the south, (7) parts of the west coast of southern Dall Island, and (8) lowland areas in southern Prince of Wales Island. The identification of these possible refugia has bearing on the recolonization of the Alexander Archipelago, as they could have served as centers of biotic dispersal upon regional deglaciation and as stepping stones for early humans with a maritime tradition entering the western hemisphere from Asia. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  4. A Fourth Chance for Second Chance Programs: Lessons from the Old for the New. Policy Issues Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangum, Garth; Mangum, Stephen; Sum, Andrew

    The 36-year effort to provide a second chance at labor market success for disadvantaged and dislocated youth and adults was reviewed. The following issues were considered: (1) current legislative proposals; (2) lessons from past employment and training programs; (3) the labor market challenges faced by young adults, older workers, dislocated…

  5. Round robin investigation of methods for recovering human enteric viruses from sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, S M; Schaub, S A; Wellings, F M; Berman, D; Glass, J S; Hurst, C J; Brashear, D A; Sorber, C A; Moore, B E; Bitton, G

    1984-01-01

    To select a tentative standard method for detection of viruses in sludge the American Society for Testing and Materials D19:24:04:04 Subcommittee Task Group initiated round robin comparative testing of two procedures that, after initial screening of several methodologies, were found to meet the basic criteria considered essential by the task group. Eight task group member laboratories agreed to perform round robin testing of the two candidate methods, namely, The Environmental Protection Agency or low pH-AlCl3 method and the Glass or sonication-extraction method. Five different types of sludge were tested. For each particular type of sludge, a single laboratory was designated to collect the sludge in a single sampling, make samples, and ship it to the participating laboratories. In most cases, participating laboratories completed all the tests within 48 h of sample arrival. To establish the reproducibility of the methods, each laboratory tested each sludge sample in triplicate for the two candidate virus methods. Each processed sludge sample was quantitatively assayed for viruses by the procedures of each individual round robin laboratory. To attain a more uniform standard of comparison, a sample of each processed sample from all laboratories was reassayed with one cell line and passage number by a single laboratory (Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio). When the data were statistically analyzed, the Environmental Protection Agency method was found to yield slightly higher virus recoveries for all sludge types, except the dewatered sludge. The precisions of both methods were not significantly different.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6093689

  6. Metabolizable energy in Chinese tallow fruit for Yellow-rumped Warblers, Northern Cardinals, and American Robins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, M.J.; Barrow, W.C., Jr.; Jeske, C.; Rohwer, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    The invasive exotic Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) produces an abundant fruit crop, which is primarily bird-dispersed. The fruit pulp of tallow is lipid-rich, high in saturated fatty acids, and consumed by many bird species. Long-chained fatty acids can be difficult for many birds to digest and we investigated the ability of tallow consumers to assimilate energy in the pulp. We used the total collection method and compared apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of tallow fruit for three species of birds with differing fruit composition in their natural diets. All birds exhibited nitrogen deficits and lost body mass during the trials. Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) lost more mass (8.73%/day) than Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata) (5.29%/day) and American Robins (Turdus migratorius) (5.48%/day), and had larger nitrogen deficits (-120.1 mg N/g diet) than both species as well (-36.4 mg N/g diet and -68.9 mg N/g diet, respectively). Food intake relative to metabolic body mass was highest in Yellow-rumped Warblers (0.70 g-dry/g 0.75??day). Northern Cardinal and American Robin food intake was lower and did not differ from each other (both species: 0.13 g-dry/g 0.75??day). Nitrogen corrected values of AME were used to make species comparisons. Yellow-rumped-Warblers exhibited the highest values of AME (30.00 kJ/g), followed by American Robins (23.90 kJ/g), and Northern Cardinals (14.34 kJ/g). We suggest tallow may be an important winter food source for Yellow-rumped Warblers where their ranges overlap.

  7. A bird distribution model for ring recovery data: where do the European robins go?

    PubMed Central

    Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Liechti, Felix; Thorup, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    For the study of migratory connectivity, birds have been individually marked by metal rings for more than 100 years. The resulting ring recovery data have been compiled in numerous bird migration atlases. However, estimation of what proportion of a particular population is migrating to which region is confounded by spatial heterogeneity in ring recovery probability. We present a product multinomial model that enables quantifying the continent-wide distribution of different bird populations during different seasons based on ring recovery data while accounting for spatial heterogeneity of ring recovery probability. We applied the model to an example data set of the European robin Erithacus rubecula. We assumed that ring recovery probability was equal between different groups of birds and that survival probability was constant. Simulated data indicate that violation of the assumption of constant survival did not affect our estimated bird distribution parameters but biased the estimates for recovery probability. Posterior predictive model checking indicated a good general model fit but also revealed lack of fit for a few groups of birds. This lack of fit may be due to between-group differences in the spatial distribution on smaller scales within regions. We found that 48% of the Scandinavian robins, but only 31% of the central European robins, wintered in northern Africa. The remaining parts of both populations wintered in southern and central Europe. Therefore, a substantial part of the Scandinavian population appears to leap over individuals from the central European population during migration. The model is applied to summary tables of numbers of ringed and recovered birds. This allows us to handle very large data sets as, for example, those presented in bird migration atlases. PMID:24683455

  8. Geohydrology and water-chemistry of the Alexander Valley, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, Loren F.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2006-01-01

    This study of the geohydrology and water chemistry of the Alexander Valley, California, was done to provide an improved scientific basis for addressing emerging water-management issues, including potential increases in water demand and changes in flows in the Russian River. The study tasks included (1) evaluation of existing geohydrological, geophysical, and geochemical data; (2) collection and analysis of new geohydrologic data, including subsurface lithologic data, ground-water levels, and streamflow records; and (3) collection and analysis of new water-chemistry data. The estimated total water use for the Alexander Valley for 1999 was approximately 15,800 acre-feet. About 13,500 acre-feet of this amount was for agricultural use, primarily vineyards, and about 2,300 acre-feet was for municipal/industrial use. Ground water is the main source of water supply for this area. The main sources of ground water in the Alexander Valley are the Quaternary alluvial deposits, the Glen Ellen Formation, and the Sonoma Volcanics. The alluvial units, where sufficiently thick and saturated, comprise the best aquifer in the study area. Average recharge to the Alexander Valley is estimated from a simple, basinwide water budget. On the basis of an estimated annual average of 298,000 acre-feet of precipitation, 160,000 acre-feet of runoff, and 113,000 to 133,000 acre-feet of evapotranspiration, about 5,000 to 25,000 acre-feet per year is available for ground-water recharge. Because this estimate is based on differences between large numbers, there is significant uncertainty in this recharge estimate. Long-term changes in ground-water levels are evident in parts of the study area, but because of the sparse network and lack of data on well construction and lithology, it is uncertain if any significant changes have occurred in the northern part of the study area since 1980. In the southern half of the study area, ground-water levels generally were lower at the end of the 2002 irrigation

  9. Inversion of Robin coefficient by a spectral stochastic finite element approach

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Bangti Zou Jun

    2008-03-01

    This paper investigates a variational approach to the nonlinear stochastic inverse problem of probabilistically calibrating the Robin coefficient from boundary measurements for the steady-state heat conduction. The problem is formulated into an optimization problem, and mathematical properties relevant to its numerical computations are investigated. The spectral stochastic finite element method using polynomial chaos is utilized for the discretization of the optimization problem, and its convergence is analyzed. The nonlinear conjugate gradient method is derived for the optimization system. Numerical results for several two-dimensional problems are presented to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the stochastic finite element method.

  10. Trustworthiness of measurement devices in round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhu; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-02-01

    Round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution (RRDPS QKD) has been proposed to raise the noise tolerability of the channel. However, in practice, the measurement device in RRDPS QKD may be imperfect. Here, we show that, with these imperfections, the security of RRDPS may be damaged by proposing two attacks for RRDPS systems with uncharacterized measurement devices. One is valid even for a system with unit total efficiency, while the other is valid even when a single-photon state is sent. To prevent these attacks, either security arguments need to be fundamentally revised or further practical assumptions on the measurement device should be put.

  11. Results of a round-robin exercise on read-across.

    PubMed

    Benfenati, E; Belli, M; Borges, T; Casimiro, E; Cester, J; Fernandez, A; Gini, G; Honma, M; Kinzl, M; Knauf, R; Manganaro, A; Mombelli, E; Petoumenou, M I; Paparella, M; Paris, P; Raitano, G

    2016-05-01

    A round-robin exercise was conducted within the CALEIDOS LIFE project. The participants were invited to assess the hazard posed by a substance, applying in silico methods and read-across approaches. The exercise was based on three endpoints: mutagenicity, bioconcentration factor and fish acute toxicity. Nine chemicals were assigned for each endpoint and the participants were invited to complete a specific questionnaire communicating their conclusions. The interesting aspect of this exercise is the justification behind the answers more than the final prediction in itself. Which tools were used? How did the approach selected affect the final answer? PMID:27167159

  12. Characterization of reproduction and growth of American robins at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, D.R.; Ambrose, D.M.; Simpson, J.C. )

    1992-11-01

    As part of a Biological and Ecological Site Characterization of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), suppressed growth in onsite American robin nestlings was discovered in 1987 and in 1990. However, the causal factors relating to suppressed growth were not investigated. This study was initiated to determine if growth suppression still existed, and if so, the possible relationship of FEMP land management practices and soil contaminants through food chains to growth and reproductive fitness. This study was expanded to include five offsite sampling sites, as well as analyses of soils and earthworms for uranium, pesticides/herbicides, and heavy metals.

  13. Airway obstruction after lingual frenulectomy in two infants with Pierre-Robin Sequence.

    PubMed

    Genther, Dane J; Skinner, Margaret L; Bailey, Patti J; Capone, Randolph B; Byrne, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Pierre-Robin Sequence (PRS) is defined as the triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate and affects approximately 1/8500 births. Airway obstruction is common in infants with PRS and results from glossoptosis leading to pharyngeal obstruction. Any procedure that increases the severity of glossoptosis, such as lingual frenulectomy, may increase the risk of obstruction or aggravate existing obstruction. This report discusses two cases of significant airway decompensation after lingual frenulectomy requiring surgical intervention in infants with PRS. We suggest that lingual frenulectomy be contraindicated in infants with PRS or suspected PRS due to the possible increased risk of airway obstruction. PMID:26187546

  14. Breaking integrability at the boundary: the sine-Gordon model with Robin boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Robert; Dorey, Patrick; Parini, Robert

    2016-04-01

    We explore boundary scattering in the sine-Gordon model with a non-integrable family of Robin boundary conditions. The soliton content of the field after collision is analysed using a numerical implementation of the direct scattering problem associated with the inverse scattering method. We find that an antikink may be reflected into various combinations of an antikink, a kink, and one or more breathers, depending on the values of the initial antikink velocity and a parameter associated with the boundary condition. In addition we observe regions with an intricate resonance structure arising from the creation of an intermediate breather whose recollision with the boundary is highly dependent on the breather phase.

  15. The Sixth SeaWiFS/SIMBIOS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Thomas; Bailey, Sean

    1998-01-01

    For the sixth Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-6), NASA personnel carried the same four Satlantic in-water radiometers to nine separate laboratories and calibrated them. Two of the sensors were seven-channel radiance heads and two were seven-channel irradiance heads. The calibration and data reduction procedures used at each site followed that laboratory's normal procedures. The reference lamps normally used for the calibration of these types of instruments by the various laboratories were also used for this experiment. NASA personnel processed the data to produce calibration parameters from the various laboratories

  16. Chance-Constrained Guidance With Non-Convex Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Missions to small bodies, such as comets or asteroids, require autonomous guidance for descent to these small bodies. Such guidance is made challenging by uncertainty in the position and velocity of the spacecraft, as well as the uncertainty in the gravitational field around the small body. In addition, the requirement to avoid collision with the asteroid represents a non-convex constraint that means finding the optimal guidance trajectory, in general, is intractable. In this innovation, a new approach is proposed for chance-constrained optimal guidance with non-convex constraints. Chance-constrained guidance takes into account uncertainty so that the probability of collision is below a specified threshold. In this approach, a new bounding method has been developed to obtain a set of decomposed chance constraints that is a sufficient condition of the original chance constraint. The decomposition of the chance constraint enables its efficient evaluation, as well as the application of the branch and bound method. Branch and bound enables non-convex problems to be solved efficiently to global optimality. Considering the problem of finite-horizon robust optimal control of dynamic systems under Gaussian-distributed stochastic uncertainty, with state and control constraints, a discrete-time, continuous-state linear dynamics model is assumed. Gaussian-distributed stochastic uncertainty is a more natural model for exogenous disturbances such as wind gusts and turbulence than the previously studied set-bounded models. However, with stochastic uncertainty, it is often impossible to guarantee that state constraints are satisfied, because there is typically a non-zero probability of having a disturbance that is large enough to push the state out of the feasible region. An effective framework to address robustness with stochastic uncertainty is optimization with chance constraints. These require that the probability of violating the state constraints (i.e., the probability of

  17. A coinsidence, a chance or a misfortune? Hangman's fracture.

    PubMed

    Dalbayrak, Sedat; Yaman, Onur

    2014-01-01

    William R. Francis and Bassam El-Effendi shared a common ground: they were the first individuals to classify Hangman's Fractures. Interestingly, although they were unaware of each other, they classified and published their findings in the same year, published in the same edition of the same journal (but on different pages). This new classification system was a chance for notoriety for El-Effendi, yet it was a misfortune for Francis. Both physicians graduated in 1973 (from different universities). Also fellows at different universities in 1981, they were also both unaware they studied the same topic. Coincidentally, their paths crossed in the same edition of a journal where their studies were published in the same year, which was unprecedented in the literature. One classification scheme is well-known while the other is almost completely unheard of for no apparent reason other than chance for one and misfortune for the other. PMID:25168333

  18. Beyond chance? The persistence of performance in online poker.

    PubMed

    Potter van Loon, Rogier J D; van den Assem, Martijn J; van Dolder, Dennie

    2015-01-01

    A major issue in the widespread controversy about the legality of poker and the appropriate taxation of winnings is whether poker should be considered a game of skill or a game of chance. To inform this debate we present an analysis into the role of skill in the performance of online poker players, using a large database with hundreds of millions of player-hand observations from real money ring games at three different stakes levels. We find that players whose earlier profitability was in the top (bottom) deciles perform better (worse) and are substantially more likely to end up in the top (bottom) performance deciles of the following time period. Regression analyses of performance on historical performance and other skill-related proxies provide further evidence for persistence and predictability. Simulations point out that skill dominates chance when performance is measured over 1,500 or more hands of play. PMID:25729862

  19. Beyond Chance? The Persistence of Performance in Online Poker

    PubMed Central

    Potter van Loon, Rogier J. D.; van den Assem, Martijn J.; van Dolder, Dennie

    2015-01-01

    A major issue in the widespread controversy about the legality of poker and the appropriate taxation of winnings is whether poker should be considered a game of skill or a game of chance. To inform this debate we present an analysis into the role of skill in the performance of online poker players, using a large database with hundreds of millions of player-hand observations from real money ring games at three different stakes levels. We find that players whose earlier profitability was in the top (bottom) deciles perform better (worse) and are substantially more likely to end up in the top (bottom) performance deciles of the following time period. Regression analyses of performance on historical performance and other skill-related proxies provide further evidence for persistence and predictability. Simulations point out that skill dominates chance when performance is measured over 1,500 or more hands of play. PMID:25729862

  20. Sea WiFS Technical Report Series: The fourth SeaWIFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-4), May 1995. vol. 37

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. Carol; Mueller, James L.; Bruce, Sally S.; Early, Edward A.; Houston, Jeanne M.; O'Brian, Thomas R.; Thompson, Ambler; Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the fourth Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-4), which was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on 3-10 May 1995. The agenda for SIRREX-4 was established by a consensus reached at the conclusion of SIRREX-3: there should be an emphasis on training and work to foster and encourage uniform use of accepted protocols for calibrating radiometric instruments in the laboratory. The goal was to host the activity in a setting where proper techniques could be discussed and demonstrated. It seemed appealing to split the day between morning lectures and afternoon laboratory exercises or practicals. The former gave the user community a chance to present what was important to them and discuss it with acknowledged experts in radiometry, while the latter presented a unique opportunity for training and evaluation in the presence of these same experts. The five laboratory sessions were concerned with (1) determining the responsivity of a spectroradiometer and the spectral radiance of an unknown integrating sphere source, (2) demonstrating spectral field calibration procedures for an integrating sphere using three different instruments, (3) measuring spectral radiance using the plaque method, (4) setting up and aligning lamp calibration transfer standards using the NIST specifications for irradiance measurements, and (5) characterizing radiometric instruments. In addition to documenting some supplemental studies performed outside the laboratory sessions, this report includes an evaluation of the hardware that has been used during the SIRREX activities plus a critical evaluation of SIRREX objectives.

  1. Chance, purpose, and progress in evolution and christianity.

    PubMed

    Mix, Lucas J; Masel, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Evolutionary biology has a complex relationship with ideas of chance, purpose, and progress. Probability plays a subtle role; strikingly, founding figures in statistics were motivated by evolutionary questions. The findings of evolutionary biology have been used both in support of narratives of progress, and in their deconstruction. Likewise, professional biologists bring to their scientific work a set of preconceptions about chance and progress, grounded in their philosophical, religious, and/or political views. From the religious side, questions of purpose are ever-present. We explore this interplay in five broad categories: chance, progress, intelligence, eugenics, and the evolution of religious practices, each the subject of a semester long symposium. The intellectual influence of evolutionary biology has had a broad societal impact in these areas. Based on our experience, we draw attention to a number of relevant facts that, while accepted by experts in their respective fields, may be unfamiliar outside them. We list common areas of miscommunication, including specific examples and discussing causes: sometimes semantics and sometimes more substantive knowledge barriers. We also make recommendations for those attempting similar dialogue. PMID:24754485

  2. Re-calibration of the magnetic compass in hand-raised European robins (Erithacus rubecula).

    PubMed

    Alert, Bianca; Michalik, Andreas; Thiele, Nadine; Bottesch, Michael; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds can use a variety of environmental cues for orientation. A primary calibration between the celestial and magnetic compasses seems to be fundamental prior to a bird's first autumn migration. Releasing hand-raised or rescued young birds back into the wild might therefore be a problem because they might not have established a functional orientation system during their first calendar year. Here, we test whether hand-raised European robins that did not develop any functional compass before or during their first autumn migration could relearn to orient if they were exposed to natural celestial cues during the subsequent winter and spring. When tested in the geomagnetic field without access to celestial cues, these birds could orient in their species-specific spring migratory direction. In contrast, control birds that were deprived of any natural celestial cues throughout remained unable to orient. Our experiments suggest that European robins are still capable of establishing a functional orientation system after their first autumn. Although the external reference remains speculative, most likely, natural celestial cues enabled our birds to calibrate their magnetic compass. Our data suggest that avian compass systems are more flexible than previously believed and have implications for the release of hand-reared migratory birds. PMID:26388258

  3. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  4. Round robin comparison of tensile results on GlidCop Al25

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.J.; Zinkle, S.J.; Fabritsiev, S.A.; Pokrovsky, A.S.

    1998-09-01

    A round robin comparison of the tensile properties of GlidCop{trademark} Al25 oxide dispersion strengthened copper was initiated between collaborating laboratories to evaluate the test and analysis procedures used in the irradiation experiments in SRIAR in Dimitrovgrad. The tests were conducted using the same tensile specimen geometry as used in previous irradiation experiments, with tests at each laboratory being conducted in air or vacuum at 25, 150, and 300 C at a strain rate of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1}. The strength of the GlidCop Al25 decreased as the test temperature increased, with no observable effect of testing in air versus vacuum on the yield and ultimate strengths. The uniform elongation decreased by almost a factor of 3 when the test temperature was raised from room temperature to 300 C, but the total elongation remained roughly constant over the range of test temperatures. Any effect of testing in air on the ductility may have been masked by the scatter introduced into the results because each laboratory tested the specimens in a different grip setup. In light of this, the results of the round robin tests demonstrated that the test and analysis procedures produced essentially the same values for tensile yield and ultimate, but significant variability was present in both the uniform and total elongation measurements due to the gripping technique.

  5. Re-calibration of the magnetic compass in hand-raised European robins (Erithacus rubecula)

    PubMed Central

    Alert, Bianca; Michalik, Andreas; Thiele, Nadine; Bottesch, Michael; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds can use a variety of environmental cues for orientation. A primary calibration between the celestial and magnetic compasses seems to be fundamental prior to a bird’s first autumn migration. Releasing hand-raised or rescued young birds back into the wild might therefore be a problem because they might not have established a functional orientation system during their first calendar year. Here, we test whether hand-raised European robins that did not develop any functional compass before or during their first autumn migration could relearn to orient if they were exposed to natural celestial cues during the subsequent winter and spring. When tested in the geomagnetic field without access to celestial cues, these birds could orient in their species-specific spring migratory direction. In contrast, control birds that were deprived of any natural celestial cues throughout remained unable to orient. Our experiments suggest that European robins are still capable of establishing a functional orientation system after their first autumn. Although the external reference remains speculative, most likely, natural celestial cues enabled our birds to calibrate their magnetic compass. Our data suggest that avian compass systems are more flexible than previously believed and have implications for the release of hand-reared migratory birds. PMID:26388258

  6. Comparative study of coupling coefficients in Dirichlet-Robin procedure for fluid-structure aerothermal simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errera, M.-P.; Duchaine, F.

    2016-05-01

    This paper tests the performance of coupling coefficients of a Dirichlet-Robin transmission procedure in the context of steady conjugate heat transfer (CHT). Particular emphasis is put on the optimal coefficients highlighted recently in a theoretical study based on a normal mode stability analysis. This work can be seen as the logical continuation of that study in order to assess the relevance of the coefficients provided by the model problem in a realistic aerothermal computation. First, the numerical and physical CHT modeling methodologies are presented. Then, the optimal procedure applied to a Dirichlet-Robin algorithm (one-coefficient method) is briefly described. In order to gauge the ability of this model to predict the stability and convergence properties of a realistic case, it is compared on a heated cylinder in a flowfield test case. A series of five coupling coefficients and three Fourier numbers are considered. These parameters are introduced into the model problem as data to compute the amplification factor and the stability limits. The stability and convergence properties predicted by the model problem are then compared to those obtained in the CHT computation. This comparison shows an excellent overall agreement. Moreover, for all the Fourier numbers considered, the numerical solution is stable and oscillation-free when the optimal coefficient of the model problem is used. This would suggest that the one-dimensional normal mode analysis can provide relevant coefficients directly applicable to real CHT problems.

  7. Learning Multirobot Hose Transportation and Deployment by Distributed Round-Robin Q-Learning

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Gauna, Borja; Etxeberria-Agiriano, Ismael; Graña, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL) algorithms face two main difficulties: the curse of dimensionality, and environment non-stationarity due to the independent learning processes carried out by the agents concurrently. In this paper we formalize and prove the convergence of a Distributed Round Robin Q-learning (D-RR-QL) algorithm for cooperative systems. The computational complexity of this algorithm increases linearly with the number of agents. Moreover, it eliminates environment non sta tionarity by carrying a round-robin scheduling of the action selection and execution. That this learning scheme allows the implementation of Modular State-Action Vetoes (MSAV) in cooperative multi-agent systems, which speeds up learning convergence in over-constrained systems by vetoing state-action pairs which lead to undesired termination states (UTS) in the relevant state-action subspace. Each agent’s local state-action value function learning is an independent process, including the MSAV policies. Coordination of locally optimal policies to obtain the global optimal joint policy is achieved by a greedy selection procedure using message passing. We show that D-RR-QL improves over state-of-the-art approaches, such as Distributed Q-Learning, Team Q-Learning and Coordinated Reinforcement Learning in a paradigmatic Linked Multi-Component Robotic System (L-MCRS) control problem: the hose transportation task. L-MCRS are over-constrained systems with many UTS induced by the interaction of the passive linking element and the active mobile robots. PMID:26158587

  8. Reconstruction of an unknown cavity with Robin boundary condition inside a heat conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Gen; Wang, Haibing

    2015-12-01

    Active thermography is a non-destructive testing technique to detect the internal structure of a heat conductor, which is widely applied in industrial engineering. In this paper, we consider the problem of identifying an unknown cavity with Robin boundary condition inside a heat conductor from boundary measurements. To set up the inverse problem mathematically, we first state the corresponding forward problem and show its well-posedness in an anisotropic Sobolev space by the integral equation method. Then, taking the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map as mathematically idealized measurement data for the active thermography, we present a linear sampling method for reconstructing the unknown Robin-type cavity and give its mathematical justification by using the layer potential argument. In addition, we analyze the indicator function used in this method and show its pointwise asymptotic behavior by investigating the reflected solution of the fundamental solution. Based on our asymptotic analysis, we can establish a pointwise reconstruction scheme for the boundary of the cavity, and can also know the distance to the unknown cavity as we probe it from its inside. The numerical results are presented to show the performance of the reconstruction scheme and the asymptotic behavior.

  9. Learning Multirobot Hose Transportation and Deployment by Distributed Round-Robin Q-Learning.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gauna, Borja; Etxeberria-Agiriano, Ismael; Graña, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL) algorithms face two main difficulties: the curse of dimensionality, and environment non-stationarity due to the independent learning processes carried out by the agents concurrently. In this paper we formalize and prove the convergence of a Distributed Round Robin Q-learning (D-RR-QL) algorithm for cooperative systems. The computational complexity of this algorithm increases linearly with the number of agents. Moreover, it eliminates environment non sta tionarity by carrying a round-robin scheduling of the action selection and execution. That this learning scheme allows the implementation of Modular State-Action Vetoes (MSAV) in cooperative multi-agent systems, which speeds up learning convergence in over-constrained systems by vetoing state-action pairs which lead to undesired termination states (UTS) in the relevant state-action subspace. Each agent's local state-action value function learning is an independent process, including the MSAV policies. Coordination of locally optimal policies to obtain the global optimal joint policy is achieved by a greedy selection procedure using message passing. We show that D-RR-QL improves over state-of-the-art approaches, such as Distributed Q-Learning, Team Q-Learning and Coordinated Reinforcement Learning in a paradigmatic Linked Multi-Component Robotic System (L-MCRS) control problem: the hose transportation task. L-MCRS are over-constrained systems with many UTS induced by the interaction of the passive linking element and the active mobile robots. PMID:26158587

  10. The liquidus temperature of nuclear waste glasses: an international Round-Robin Study

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lang, Jesse B.; Marra, James C.; Johnson, Fabienne; Peeler, David K.; Leonelli, Cristina; Ferrari, Anna M.; Lancellotti, Isabella; Dussossoy, Jean-Lue A.; Hand, Russell J.; Schofield, James M.; Connelly, Andrew J.; Short, Rick; Harrison, Mike T.

    2012-12-01

    Ten institutions from five countries participated in a Round Robin study to contribute to the Precision and Bias section of an American Society for Testing and Materials standard procedure that Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing for measuring the liquidus temperature (TL) of radioactive and simulated waste glasses. In this study, three separate TL measurement methods were a gradient temperature (GT) method, a uniform temperature (UT) method, and a crystal fraction extrapolation (CF) method. Three different glasses were measured with a combination of these three methods. The TL values reported by different institutions are generally consistent and vary within a narrow range. The precision of a TL measurement was evaluated as ±10°C regardless of the method used for making the measurement. The Round Robin glasses were all previously studied at PNNL and included ARG-1 (Glass A), Zr-9 (Glass B), and AmCm2-19 (Glass C), with measured TL values spanning the temperature range ~960-1240°C. The three methods discussed here in more detail are the GT, UT, and CF methods. A best-case precision for TL has been obtained from the data, even though the data were not acquired for all three glasses using all three methods from each participating organization.

  11. The Four Domains of Moral Education: The Contributions of Dewey, Alexander and Goleman to a Comprehensive Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Ronald Lee

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to place a neglected dimension of John Dewey's work into its proper context. Examines the works of Dewey, F. Matthias Alexander, and Daniel Goldman to create four domains that must be addressed by a truly comprehensive model of moral education: direct external, indirect external, direct internal, and indirect internal. (DSK)

  12. Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming’s lucky fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been...

  13. Growing Community: The Impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the Social and Learning Environment in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K.; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has…

  14. Dr. Charles Alexander Eastman, Sioux Physician-Author, 1858-1939. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students of a 19th century American Indian physician and author, Charles Alexander Eastman (Sioux), includes photographs of Dr. Eastman and his wife. A teacher's guide following the bibliography contains information on the Sioux Uprising of 1862 and the Wounded Knee Massacre, learning objectives and directions for…

  15. Reliance on Arbitral Awards in Title VII Suits: Implications of Alexander v. Gardner-Denver and Public Employment Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David R.

    1976-01-01

    The 1974 Supreme Court decision in Alexander v. Gardner-Denver Co. resolved the controversy in the lower courts concerning the finality of an arbitration award when concurrent or subsequent court action is brought under Title VII. For journal availability see HE 508 844. (LBH)

  16. On the Social Psychology of Higher Education: A Bibliography of Alexander W. Astin. Public Administration Series Bibliography, P-688.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quay, Richard H.

    A bibliography of articles by Alexander W. Astin on the social psychology of higher education is presented. Entries are presented by year, starting with 1980 and dating back to 1956. Topics that are covered include: equal access to higher education, student persistence and attrition, higher education policy, selective admissions and open…

  17. Effects of traumatic brain injury on reactive astrogliosis and seizures in mouse models of Alexander disease

    PubMed Central

    Cotrina, Maria Luisa; Chen, Michael; Han, Xiaoning; Iliff, Jeffrey; Ren, Zeguang; Sun, Wei; Hagemann, Tracy; Goldman, James; Messing, Albee; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    Alexander disease (AxD) is the only known human pathology caused by mutations in an astrocyte-specific gene, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). These mutations result in abnormal GFAP accumulations that promote seizures, motor delays and, ultimately, death. The exact contribution of increased, abnormal levels of astrocytic mutant GFAP in the development and progression of the epileptic phenotype is not clear, and we addressed this question using two mouse models of AxD. Comparison of brain seizure activity spontaneously and after traumatic brain injury (TBI), an effective way to trigger seizures, revealed that abnormal GFAP accumulation contributes to abnormal brain activity (increased interictal discharges) but is not a risk factor for the development of epilepsy after TBI. These data highlight the need to further explore the complex and heterogeneous response of astrocytes towards injury and the involvement of GFAP in the progression of AxD. PMID:25069089

  18. Finding revelation in anthropology: Alexander Winchell, William Robertson Smith and the heretical imperative.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, David N

    2015-09-01

    Anthropological inquiry has often been considered an agent of intellectual secularization. Not least is this so in the sphere of religion, where anthropological accounts have often been taken to represent the triumph of naturalism. This metanarrative, however, fails to recognize that naturalistic explanations could sometimes be espoused for religious purposes and in defence of confessional creeds. This essay examines two late nineteenth-century figures--Alexander Winchell in the United States and William Robertson Smith in Britain--who found in anthropological analysis resources to bolster rather than undermine faith. In both cases these individuals found themselves on the receiving end of ecclesiastical censure and were dismissed from their positions at church-governed institutions. But their motivation was to vindicate divine revelation, in Winchell's case from the physical anthropology of human origins and in Smith's from the cultural anthropology of Semitic ritual. PMID:26256313

  19. Neuromusicology or Musiconeurology? "Omni-art" in Alexander Scriabin as a Fount of Ideas.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2016-01-01

    Science can uncover neural mechanisms by looking at the work of artists. The ingenuity of a titan of classical music, the Russian composer Alexander Scriabin (1872-1915), in combining all the sensory modalities into a polyphony of aesthetical experience, and his creation of a chord based on fourths rather than the conventional thirds are proposed as putative points of departure for insight, in future studies, into the neural processes that underlie the perception of beauty, individually or universally. Scriabin's "Omni-art" was a new synthesis of music, philosophy and religion, and a new aesthetic language, a unification of music, vision, olfaction, drama, poetry, dance, image, and conceptualization, all governed by logic, in the quest for the integrative action of the human mind toward a "higher reality" of which music is only a component. PMID:27014167

  20. Bryan Coast, English Coast, Alexander Island, Fallieres Coast, and Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Antarctica shows the Bryan Coast (lower left), the English Coast (lower central), Alexander Island (middle right), the Fallieres Coast (top right), and the Bellingshausen Sea. The entire continent has been dedicated to peaceful scientific investigation since 1961, with the signing of the Antarctic Treaty.The waters surrounding Antarctica are intensely cold. Salt water freezes at -2C, allowing sea ice to form. The middle left portion of the image shows quite a lot of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea. During the Antarctic winter, when data for this image was acquired, Antarctica doubles in size to about 28.5 million square km (or about 11 million square miles), and temperatures in the -60C range are common.This true-color image was compiled from MODIS data gathered March 29, 2002. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  1. The name of the father: conflict between Louis and Alexander Agassiz and the Embiotoca surfperch radiation.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, G

    2009-04-01

    The surfperch genus Embiotoca currently comprises two species, Embiotoca jacksoni, the black surfperch, and Embiotoca lateralis, the striped surfperch. Originally, however, Louis Agassiz described a third species in the genus Embiotoca, the rainbow surfperch, Embiotoca caryi. This latter name was changed by Louis' son, Alexander, to Hypsurus caryi, a name that remains valid. In this study, new molecular data (3545 bp of DNA from four mitochondrial and two nuclear DNA regions) indicated that the rainbow surfperch should be retained within the genus Embiotoca, a result consistent with recent morphological data. Adaptive radiation combined with sexual selection resulting in rapid morphological changes in the rainbow surfperch may have contributed to the conflicting position of this species. PMID:20735618

  2. Neuromusicology or Musiconeurology? “Omni-art” in Alexander Scriabin as a Fount of Ideas

    PubMed Central

    Triarhou, Lazaros C.

    2016-01-01

    Science can uncover neural mechanisms by looking at the work of artists. The ingenuity of a titan of classical music, the Russian composer Alexander Scriabin (1872–1915), in combining all the sensory modalities into a polyphony of aesthetical experience, and his creation of a chord based on fourths rather than the conventional thirds are proposed as putative points of departure for insight, in future studies, into the neural processes that underlie the perception of beauty, individually or universally. Scriabin’s “Omni-art” was a new synthesis of music, philosophy and religion, and a new aesthetic language, a unification of music, vision, olfaction, drama, poetry, dance, image, and conceptualization, all governed by logic, in the quest for the integrative action of the human mind toward a “higher reality” of which music is only a component. PMID:27014167

  3. Alteration of glial-neuronal metabolic interactions in a mouse model of Alexander disease

    PubMed Central

    Meisingset, Tore Wergeland; Risa, Øystein; Brenner, Michael; Messing, Albee; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Alexander disease is a rare and usually fatal neurological disorder characterized by the abundant presence of protein aggregates in astrocytes. Most cases result from dominant missense de novo mutations in the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), but how these mutations lead to aggregate formation and compromise function is not known. A transgenic mouse line (Tg73.7) over-expressing human GFAP produces astrocytic aggregates indistinguishable from those seen in the human disease, making them a model of this disorder. To investigate possible metabolic changes associated with Alexander disease Tg73.7 mice and controls were injected simultaneously with [1-13C]glucose to analyze neuronal metabolism and [1,2-13C]acetate to monitor astrocytic metabolism. Brain extracts were analyzed by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify amounts of several key metabolites, and by 13C MRS to analyze amino acid neurotransmitter metabolism. In the cerebral cortex, reduced utilization of [1,2-13C]acetate was observed for synthesis of glutamine, glutamate, and GABA, and the concentration of the marker for neuronal mitochondrial metabolism, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), was decreased. This indicates impaired astrocytic and neuronal metabolism and decreased transfer of glutamine from astrocytes to neurons compared to control mice. In the cerebellum, glutamine and GABA content and labeling from [1-13C]glucose were increased. Evidence for brain edema was found in the increased amount of water and of the osmoregulators myo-inositol and taurine. It can be concluded that astrocyte – neuronal interactions were altered differently in distinct regions. PMID:20544858

  4. Silurian trace fossils in carbonate turbidites from the Alexander Arc of southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Soja, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Early to Late Silurian (Wenlock-Ludlow) body and trace fossils from the Heceta Formation are preserved in the oldest widespread carbonates in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. They represent the earliest shelly benthos to inhabit a diversity of marine environments and are important indicators of the early stages in benthic community development within this ancient island arc. The trace fossils are significant because they add to a small but growing body of knowledge about ichnofaunas in deep-water Paleozoic carbonates. Proximal to medial carbonate turbidites yield a low-diversity suite of trace fossils that comprises five distinct types of biogenic structures. Bedding planes reveal simple epichnial burrows (Planolites), cross-cutting burrows (Fucusopsis), and tiny cylindrical burrows. These and other casts, including chondrites( )-like burrow clusters, represent the feeding activities (fodinichnia) of preturbidite animals. Hypichnial burrows and rare endichnial traces reflect the activities of postturbidite animals. Broken and offset traces indicate that infaunal biota commenced burrowing before slumping and subsequent soft-sediment deformation. The abundance and density of trace fossils increases offshore in the medial turbidites associated with a decrease in the size and amount of coarse particles and with an increase in mud and preserved organic material. Although diversity levels are similar in the proximal and medial turbidite facies, they are much lower than in Paleozoic siliciclastic turbidites. This may reflect unfavorable environmental conditions for infaunal biota or paleobiogeographic isolation of the Alexander terrane during the Silurian. A greater use of trace fossils in terrane analysis will help to resolve this issue and should provide new data for reconstructing the paleogeography of circum-Pacific terranes.

  5. Language Disorders from a Developmental Perspective: Essays in Honor of Robin S. Chapman. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The last 25 years have witnessed an explosion of research at the intersection of typical language development and child language disorders. A pioneer in bringing these fields of study together is Robin S. Chapman, Emerita, University of Wisconsin. This contributed volume honors her with chapters written by former students and colleagues, who track…

  6. A comparison of the nesting success of mourning doves and American robins in conventionally managed and organic orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fluetsch, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken to document more closely the effects of operational pesticide use on non-target avian species. Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) and American Robin (Turdus migratorius) nesting activity was monitored in three organic and three conventional orchards during two breeding seasons. Surveys were conducted to characterize the avian community within orchards under both management practices. Organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides, known to be extremely toxic to birds, were repeatedly sprayed during the peaks in dove and robin breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 85.5% of the nests tested during routine spray operations. The threat of direct pesticide exposure to eggs, nestlings, and adult birds was considerable. Nest daily survival rates (DSRs) for both doves and robins, were significantly higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards in 1991 and years combined (P < 0.05). Species diversity was significantly greater in the organic orchards (H = 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H = 1.79). Results suggest that repeated applications of pesticides, within the conventional orchards, directly or indirectly, affected the reproductive success of doves and robins, as well as influenced species diversity within the treated orchards. Organic orchards appear to provide more favorable nesting and foraging habitat for birds than conventional orchards.

  7. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Continuous Boundary Force method for Navier-Stokes equations subject to Robin boundary condition

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wenxiao; Bao, Jie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2014-02-15

    Robin boundary condition for the Navier-Stokes equations is used to model slip conditions at the fluid-solid boundaries. A novel Continuous Boundary Force (CBF) method is proposed for solving the Navier-Stokes equations subject to Robin boundary condition. In the CBF method, the Robin boundary condition at boundary is replaced by the homogeneous Neumann boundary condition at the boundary and a volumetric force term added to the momentum conservation equation. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is used to solve the resulting Navier-Stokes equations. We present solutions for two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows in domains bounded by flat and curved boundaries subject to various forms of the Robin boundary condition. The numerical accuracy and convergence are examined through comparison of the SPH-CBF results with the solutions of finite difference or finite element method. Taken the no-slip boundary condition as a special case of slip boundary condition, we demonstrate that the SPH-CBF method describes accurately both no-slip and slip conditions.

  8. Women Who Survive Childhood Cancer Stand Good Chance of Having Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157927.html Women Who Survive Childhood Cancer Stand Good Chance of Having Kids: Study But same may ... survive childhood cancer after receiving chemotherapy stand a good chance of having children, but the same doesn' ...

  9. Study: Smoking Hikes Chances of Early Death for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158127.html Study: Smoking Hikes Chances of Early Death for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients But risk declines after ... HealthDay News) -- Smoking increases the chances of early death in people with rheumatoid arthritis, but quitting smoking ...

  10. A round robin approach to the analysis of bisphenol a (BPA) in human blood samples

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous, yet there are concerns about whether BPA can be measured in human blood. This Round Robin was designed to address this concern through three goals: 1) to identify collection materials, reagents and detection apparatuses that do not contribute BPA to serum; 2) to identify sensitive and precise methods to accurately measure unconjugated BPA (uBPA) and BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G), a metabolite, in serum; and 3) to evaluate whether inadvertent hydrolysis of BPA-G occurs during sample handling and processing. Methods Four laboratories participated in this Round Robin. Laboratories screened materials to identify BPA contamination in collection and analysis materials. Serum was spiked with concentrations of uBPA and/or BPA-G ranging from 0.09-19.5 (uBPA) and 0.5-32 (BPA-G) ng/mL. Additional samples were preserved unspiked as ‘environmental’ samples. Blinded samples were provided to laboratories that used LC/MSMS to simultaneously quantify uBPA and BPA-G. To determine whether inadvertent hydrolysis of BPA metabolites occurred, samples spiked with only BPA-G were analyzed for the presence of uBPA. Finally, three laboratories compared direct and indirect methods of quantifying BPA-G. Results We identified collection materials and reagents that did not introduce BPA contamination. In the blinded spiked sample analysis, all laboratories were able to distinguish low from high values of uBPA and BPA-G, for the whole spiked sample range and for those samples spiked with the three lowest concentrations (0.5-3.1 ng/ml). By completion of the Round Robin, three laboratories had verified methods for the analysis of uBPA and two verified for the analysis of BPA-G (verification determined by: 4 of 5 samples within 20% of spiked concentrations). In the analysis of BPA-G only spiked samples, all laboratories reported BPA-G was the majority of BPA detected (92.2 – 100%). Finally, laboratories were more likely to be verified

  11. MEMS Young’s Modulus and Step Height Measurements With Round Robin Results

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Janet; Allen, Richard A.; McGray, Craig D.; Geist, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Young’s modulus and step height round robin experiment, completed in April 2009, which compares Young’s modulus and step height measurement results at a number of laboratories. The purpose of the round robin was to provide data for the precision and bias statements of two \\ related Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI) standard test methods for MEMS. The technical basis for the test methods on Young’s modulus and step height measurements are also provided in this paper. Using the same test method, the goal of the round robin was to assess the repeatability of measurements at one laboratory, by the same operator, with the same equipment, in the shortest practical period of time as well as the reproducibility of measurements with independent data sets from unique combinations of measurement setups and researchers. Both the repeatability and reproducibility measurements were done on random test structures made of the same homogeneous material. The average repeatability Young’s modulus value (as obtained from resonating oxide cantilevers) was 64.2 GPa with 95 % limits of ± 10.3 % and an average combined standard uncertainty value of 3.1 GPa. The average reproducibility Young’s modulus value was 62.8 GPa with 95 % limits of ± 11.0 % and an average combined standard uncertainty value of 3.0 GPa. The average repeatability step height value (for a metal2-over-poly1 step from active area to field oxide) was 0.477 μm with 95 % limits of 7.9 % and an average combined standard uncertainty value of 0.014 μm. The average reproducibility step height value was 0.481 μm with 95 % limits of ± 6.2 % and an average combined standard uncertainty value of 0.014 μm. In summary, this paper demonstrates that a reliable methodology can be used to measure Young’s modulus and step height. Furthermore, a micro and nano technology (MNT) 5-in-1 standard reference material (SRM) can

  12. Robin: An Intuitive Wizard Application for R-Based Expression Microarray Quality Assessment and Analysis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Marc; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Krüger, Peter; Nagel, Axel; Hannemann, Jan; Giorgi, Federico M.; Childs, Liam; Osorio, Sonia; Walther, Dirk; Selbig, Joachim; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Stitt, Mark; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Usadel, Björn

    2010-01-01

    The wide application of high-throughput transcriptomics using microarrays has generated a plethora of technical platforms, data repositories, and sophisticated statistical analysis methods, leaving the individual scientist with the problem of choosing the appropriate approach to address a biological question. Several software applications that provide a rich environment for microarray analysis and data storage are available (e.g. GeneSpring, EMMA2), but these are mostly commercial or require an advanced informatics infrastructure. There is a need for a noncommercial, easy-to-use graphical application that aids the lab researcher to find the proper method to analyze microarray data, without this requiring expert understanding of the complex underlying statistics, or programming skills. We have developed Robin, a Java-based graphical wizard application that harnesses the advanced statistical analysis functions of the R/BioConductor project. Robin implements streamlined workflows that guide the user through all steps of two-color, single-color, or Affymetrix microarray analysis. It provides functions for thorough quality assessment of the data and automatically generates warnings to notify the user of potential outliers, low-quality chips, or low statistical power. The results are generated in a standard format that allows ready use with both specialized analysis tools like MapMan and PageMan and generic spreadsheet applications. To further improve user friendliness, Robin includes both integrated help and comprehensive external documentation. To demonstrate the statistical power and ease of use of the workflows in Robin, we present a case study in which we apply Robin to analyze a two-color microarray experiment comparing gene expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves, flowers, and roots. PMID:20388663

  13. [Adolescents in Web 2.0: risks and chances ].

    PubMed

    Salisch, Maria von

    2014-01-01

    That almost all adolescents possess an individual access to the internet and that they use it every day, lays the foundation for the improved means of self presentation and participation that are known by the notion of Web 2.0. Social networks and other interactive internet formats give rise to new risks like cyber mobbing which is the topic of three contributions. At the same time, Web 2.0 offers chances in the form of online counseling and online therapy that cater to the preferences of media-friendly target group of adolescents. PMID:24877775

  14. Faked state attacks on realistic round robin DPS quantum key distribution systems and countermeasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakoshi, T.

    2015-05-01

    In May 2014, a new quantum key distribution protocol named "Round Robin Differential-Phase-Shift Quantum Key Distribution (RR DPS QKD)" was proposed. It has a special feature that the key consumption via privacy amplification is a small constant because RR DPS QKD guarantees its security by information causality, not by information-disturbance trade-off. Therefore, the authors claimed that RR DPS QKD systems does not need to monitor the disturbance by an attacker in the quantum channel. However, this study shows that a modified Faked-State Attack (or so-called bright illumination attack) can hack a RR DPS QKD system almost perfectly if it is implemented with realistic detectors even information-causality guarantees the security of RR DPS QKD protocol. Therefore, this study also proposes a possible Measurement-Device-Independent RR DPS QKD system to avoid the modified Faked-State Attack.

  15. The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); McLean, Scott; Sherman, Jennifer; Small, Mark; Lazin, Gordana; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Brown, James W.; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities during the seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7) held at Satlantic, Inc. (Halifax, Canada). The overall objective of SIRREX-7 was to determine the uncertainties of radiometric calibrations and measurements at a single calibration facility. Specifically, this involved the estimation of the uncertainties in a) lamp standards, b) plaque standards (including the uncertainties associated with plaque illumination non-uniformity), c) radiance calibrations, and d) irradiance calibrations. The investigation of the uncertainties in lamp standards included a comparison between a calibration of a new FEL by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Optronic Laboratories, Inc. In addition, the rotation and polarization sensitivity of radiometers were determined, and a procedure for transferring an absolute calibration to portable light sources was defined and executed.

  16. Experimental Passive Round-Robin Differential Phase-Shift Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jian-Yu; Cao, Zhu; Liu, Yang; Shen-Tu, Guo-Liang; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2015-05-01

    In quantum key distribution (QKD), the bit error rate is used to estimate the information leakage and hence determines the amount of privacy amplification—making the final key private by shortening the key. In general, there exists a threshold of the error rate for each scheme, above which no secure key can be generated. This threshold puts a restriction on the environment noises. For example, a widely used QKD protocol, the Bennett-Brassard protocol, cannot tolerate error rates beyond 25%. A new protocol, round-robin differential phase-shifted (RRDPS) QKD, essentially removes this restriction and can in principle tolerate more environment disturbance. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a passive RRDPS QKD scheme. In particular, our 500 MHz passive RRDPS QKD system is able to generate a secure key over 50 km with a bit error rate as high as 29%. This scheme should find its applications in noisy environment conditions.

  17. Neumann and Robin boundary conditions for heat conduction modeling using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaili Sikarudi, M. A.; Nikseresht, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Smoothed particle hydrodynamics is a robust Lagrangian particle method which is widely used in various applications, from astrophysics to hydrodynamics and heat conduction. It has intrinsic capabilities for simulating large deformation, composites, multiphysics events, and multiphase fluid flows. It is vital to use reliable boundary conditions when boundary value problems like heat conduction or Poisson equation for incompressible flows are solved. Since smoothed particle hydrodynamics is not a boundary fitted grids method, implementation of boundary conditions can be problematic. Many methods have been proposed for enhancing the accuracy of implementation of boundary conditions. In the present study a new approach for facilitating the implementation of Robin and Neumann boundary conditions is proposed and proven to give accurate results. Also there is no need to use complicated preprocessing as in virtual particle method. The new method is compared to an equivalent one dimensional moving least square scheme and it is shown that the present method is less sensitive to particle disorder.

  18. Practical round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Bao, Wan-Su; Zhou, Chun; Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Mu-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Recently, a novel protocol named round-robin differential phase-shift (RRDPS) quantum key distribution [Nature 509, 475(2014)] has been proposed. It can estimate information leakage without monitoring bit error rate. In this paper, we study the performance of RRDPS using heralded single photon source (HSPS) without and with decoy-state method, then compare it with the performance of weak coherent pulses (WCPs). From numerical simulation, we can see that HSPS performs better especially for shorter packet and higher bit error rate. Moreover, we propose a general theory of decoy-state method for RRDPS protocol based on only three decoy states and one signal state. Taking WCPs as an example, the three-intensity decoy-state protocol can distribute secret keys over a distance of 128 km when the length of pulses packet is 32, which confirms great practical interest of our method. PMID:27607679

  19. Inflammatory proteins and the severity of dilated Virchow-Robin Spaces in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Satizabal, Claudia L; Zhu, Yi-Cheng; Dufouil, Carole; Tzourio, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest dilated Virchow-Robin Spaces (dVRS) could be a manifestation of cerebral small-vessel disease, but little is known about their risk factors. As inflammation has been associated with other brain MRI findings, we investigated whether interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein were associated with the severity of dVRS in the eldery. dVRS were assessed in basal ganglia and white matter and rated on a severity scale. We found that elevated interleukin-6 levels were associated with higher severity of dVRS in basal ganglia, suggesting that inflammation might be associated with the burden of dVRS in the elderly. PMID:22976070

  20. Stress analysis of the cracked lap shear specimens: An ASTM round robin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1986-01-01

    This ASTM Round Robin was conducted to evaluate the state of the art in stress analysis of adhesively bonded joint specimens. Specifically, the participants were asked to calculate the strain-energy-release rate for two different geometry cracked lap shear (CLS) specimens at four different debond lengths. The various analytical techniques consisted of 2- and 3-dimensional finite element analysis, beam theory, plate theory, and a combination of beam theory and finite element analysis. The results were examined in terms of the total strain-energy-release rate and the mode I to mode II ratio as a function of debond length for each specimen geometry. These results basically clustered into two groups: geometric linear or geometric nonlinear analysis. The geometric nonlinear analysis is required to properly analyze the CLS specimens. The 3-D finite element analysis gave indications of edge closure plus some mode III loading. Each participant described his analytical technique and results. Nine laboratories participated.

  1. A reverberation room round robin on the determination of absorption coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kath, U.

    In ten reverberation rooms with very different volumes and different room shapes, the absorption coefficients for mineral fiber mat were measured. The particular feature of this round robin was that the absorption material was much thicker than in other similar experiments and that it was measured not only with an area of 12 sq m on the floor, but also as a complete surface covering of a small wall in order to avoid the edge effect. The decay curves were evaluated in at least two institutions and the absorption coefficients were calculated using the Eyring equation. The absorption coefficients were quite dispersed from one room to another and also from one-third octave band to the adjacent ones. Errors due to change are small, thus one is dealing with systematic errors.

  2. An inexact fuzzy-chance-constrained air quality management model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Guohe; Qin, Xiaosheng

    2010-07-01

    Regional air pollution is a major concern for almost every country because it not only directly relates to economic development, but also poses significant threats to environment and public health. In this study, an inexact fuzzy-chance-constrained air quality management model (IFAMM) was developed for regional air quality management under uncertainty. IFAMM was formulated through integrating interval linear programming (ILP) within a fuzzy-chance-constrained programming (FCCP) framework and could deal with uncertainties expressed as not only possibilistic distributions but also discrete intervals in air quality management systems. Moreover, the constraints with fuzzy variables could be satisfied at different confidence levels such that various solutions with different risk and cost considerations could be obtained. The developed model was applied to a hypothetical case of regional air quality management. Six abatement technologies and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission trading under uncertainty were taken into consideration. The results demonstrated that IFAMM could help decision-makers generate cost-effective air quality management patterns, gain in-depth insights into effects of the uncertainties, and analyze tradeoffs between system economy and reliability. The results also implied that the trading scheme could achieve lower total abatement cost than a nontrading one. PMID:20681428

  3. Entrepreneurs, chance, and the deterministic concentration of wealth.

    PubMed

    Fargione, Joseph E; Lehman, Clarence; Polasky, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In many economies, wealth is strikingly concentrated. Entrepreneurs--individuals with ownership in for-profit enterprises--comprise a large portion of the wealthiest individuals, and their behavior may help explain patterns in the national distribution of wealth. Entrepreneurs are less diversified and more heavily invested in their own companies than is commonly assumed in economic models. We present an intentionally simplified individual-based model of wealth generation among entrepreneurs to assess the role of chance and determinism in the distribution of wealth. We demonstrate that chance alone, combined with the deterministic effects of compounding returns, can lead to unlimited concentration of wealth, such that the percentage of all wealth owned by a few entrepreneurs eventually approaches 100%. Specifically, concentration of wealth results when the rate of return on investment varies by entrepreneur and by time. This result is robust to inclusion of realities such as differing skill among entrepreneurs. The most likely overall growth rate of the economy decreases as businesses become less diverse, suggesting that high concentrations of wealth may adversely affect a country's economic growth. We show that a tax on large inherited fortunes, applied to a small portion of the most fortunate in the population, can efficiently arrest the concentration of wealth at intermediate levels. PMID:21814540

  4. Future Chances and Challenges for Near Surface Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, U.; Meyer, U.

    2011-12-01

    Near surface geophysics provides information from global to local scale: a) Standardized geophysical observations are utilized e.g. in risk management frameworks beyond the national level a) Specific tasks in local or regional frameworks as mine flooding or ground water recharge monitoring are required. Either way, near surface geophysics is connected more than ever to technical problems and thus is vastly adopted by engineering. This is a chance and challenge at the same time. The chance is to make near surface geophysics more useful in applied and practical issues, the challenge is to develop new profiles and research directions. Recent satellite earth observation missions have much enhanced capabilities to observe near surface features and changes but generally very limited penetration. Near surface geophysics can bridge the gap between surface characterization and subsurface structures. Subsurface structures as aquifer systems, layering, deposits and mineralization can be determined by non-invasive near surface geophysics. A special challenge here is the enhanced interpretation of the physical data combined with an improved understanding of complex subsurface processes. Moreover, the limits of the interpretation and the measurements need to be quantified. Another future challenge is to gain a better and reliable understanding of soil - water cycles and gaseous flows via near surface geophysics. New methods and techniques that did not seem feasible in the past must reviewed whilst technology developed. This includes squids for magnetics and electromagnetics applications, nuclear magnetic resonance methods etc.

  5. Entrepreneurs, Chance, and the Deterministic Concentration of Wealth

    PubMed Central

    Fargione, Joseph E.; Lehman, Clarence; Polasky, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In many economies, wealth is strikingly concentrated. Entrepreneurs–individuals with ownership in for-profit enterprises–comprise a large portion of the wealthiest individuals, and their behavior may help explain patterns in the national distribution of wealth. Entrepreneurs are less diversified and more heavily invested in their own companies than is commonly assumed in economic models. We present an intentionally simplified individual-based model of wealth generation among entrepreneurs to assess the role of chance and determinism in the distribution of wealth. We demonstrate that chance alone, combined with the deterministic effects of compounding returns, can lead to unlimited concentration of wealth, such that the percentage of all wealth owned by a few entrepreneurs eventually approaches 100%. Specifically, concentration of wealth results when the rate of return on investment varies by entrepreneur and by time. This result is robust to inclusion of realities such as differing skill among entrepreneurs. The most likely overall growth rate of the economy decreases as businesses become less diverse, suggesting that high concentrations of wealth may adversely affect a country's economic growth. We show that a tax on large inherited fortunes, applied to a small portion of the most fortunate in the population, can efficiently arrest the concentration of wealth at intermediate levels. PMID:21814540

  6. Hierarchical Bayesian Model Averaging for Chance Constrained Remediation Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitsazan, N.; Tsai, F. T.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater remediation designs are heavily relying on simulation models which are subjected to various sources of uncertainty in their predictions. To develop a robust remediation design, it is crucial to understand the effect of uncertainty sources. In this research, we introduce a hierarchical Bayesian model averaging (HBMA) framework to segregate and prioritize sources of uncertainty in a multi-layer frame, where each layer targets a source of uncertainty. The HBMA framework provides an insight to uncertainty priorities and propagation. In addition, HBMA allows evaluating model weights in different hierarchy levels and assessing the relative importance of models in each level. To account for uncertainty, we employ a chance constrained (CC) programming for stochastic remediation design. Chance constrained programming was implemented traditionally to account for parameter uncertainty. Recently, many studies suggested that model structure uncertainty is not negligible compared to parameter uncertainty. Using chance constrained programming along with HBMA can provide a rigorous tool for groundwater remediation designs under uncertainty. In this research, the HBMA-CC was applied to a remediation design in a synthetic aquifer. The design was to develop a scavenger well approach to mitigate saltwater intrusion toward production wells. HBMA was employed to assess uncertainties from model structure, parameter estimation and kriging interpolation. An improved harmony search optimization method was used to find the optimal location of the scavenger well. We evaluated prediction variances of chloride concentration at the production wells through the HBMA framework. The results showed that choosing the single best model may lead to a significant error in evaluating prediction variances for two reasons. First, considering the single best model, variances that stem from uncertainty in the model structure will be ignored. Second, considering the best model with non

  7. [The life history of Alexander Numan (1780-1852) during his time in Groningen].

    PubMed

    Mathijsen, A H

    2001-01-01

    Until the time Numan took on his professorship at the newly established Veterinary School in Utrecht in 1822, he had lived in the Province of Groningen. In order to understand why the minister of Public Education appointed a village doctor from the north of the country as professor for the practice of veteriary medicine, and after some years as director of the school, it was felt essential to investigate his earlier life period. The main sources used are two obituaries, resp. written by his son who was a professor of Law at Groningen University, and by his friend prof. Willem Vrolik who was the secretary of the Academy of Science, supplemented by family histories and some archival research. After a short description of his descent, youth adn education follows the main part devoted to his writings, his medical practice and membership of the Provincial Medical Commission and the Commission for Agriculture. In an appendix some genealogical data are presented on the family of his wife and their children. Alexander lost his father, who was a minister of the Reformed Church, when he was ten years old. He received his education in the circle of family members. A brother of his father, also a minister, teached him Greek and Latin. After this uncle had left the province, he lived in the home of another minister who teached him the modern languages. As this man was involved in politics of the Baravian Republic, young Alexander was exposed to many discussions on the polity of the State. After his mother had remarried with a medical doctor, this man, and also his brother who had a medical practice in another part of the province, complemented the education with an introduction in the sciences. Experiences in their dispensaries, where some knowledge of botany and chemistry could be obtained, and discussions when accompanying them on their visits to patients, were decisive in the choice of his profession. Only at the age of twenty he entered the Medical Faculty of Groningen

  8. "Outstanding Services to Negro Health": Dr. Dorothy Boulding Ferebee, Dr. Virginia M. Alexander, and Black Women Physicians' Public Health Activism.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Vanessa Northington

    2016-08-01

    An examination of the lives and careers of physician-activists Dorothy Boulding Ferebee (1898-1972) and Virginia M. Alexander (1899-1949) demonstrates how Black physicians in the first half of the 20th century used public health to improve the health of Black Americans and provides insights into the experiences of Black women physicians. I discuss their professional and personal backgrounds and analyze their divergent strategies to address health inequities. Ferebee used her leadership in Black women's organizations to develop public health programs and become a national advocate for Black health. Alexander, a Quaker, used her religious connections to urge Whites to combat racism in medicine. She also conducted public health research and connected it to health activism. Both were passionate advocates of health equity long before it gained prominence as a major public health issue. An analysis of their work illuminates past efforts to improve the health of Black Americans. PMID:27310348

  9. Welding Brass Tits on the Armor: An Examination of the Quest Metaphor in Robin McKinley's "The Hero and the Crown."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Anna E.

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the notion of woman as hero along with the basic quest imagery used by Robin McKinley in her novel "The Hero and the Crown." Compares this story with other quest stories involving women searching for selfhood. (HB)

  10. Exceeding chance level by chance: The caveat of theoretical chance levels in brain signal classification and statistical assessment of decoding accuracy.

    PubMed

    Combrisson, Etienne; Jerbi, Karim

    2015-07-30

    Machine learning techniques are increasingly used in neuroscience to classify brain signals. Decoding performance is reflected by how much the classification results depart from the rate achieved by purely random classification. In a 2-class or 4-class classification problem, the chance levels are thus 50% or 25% respectively. However, such thresholds hold for an infinite number of data samples but not for small data sets. While this limitation is widely recognized in the machine learning field, it is unfortunately sometimes still overlooked or ignored in the emerging field of brain signal classification. Incidentally, this field is often faced with the difficulty of low sample size. In this study we demonstrate how applying signal classification to Gaussian random signals can yield decoding accuracies of up to 70% or higher in two-class decoding with small sample sets. Most importantly, we provide a thorough quantification of the severity and the parameters affecting this limitation using simulations in which we manipulate sample size, class number, cross-validation parameters (k-fold, leave-one-out and repetition number) and classifier type (Linear-Discriminant Analysis, Naïve Bayesian and Support Vector Machine). In addition to raising a red flag of caution, we illustrate the use of analytical and empirical solutions (binomial formula and permutation tests) that tackle the problem by providing statistical significance levels (p-values) for the decoding accuracy, taking sample size into account. Finally, we illustrate the relevance of our simulations and statistical tests on real brain data by assessing noise-level classifications in Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) baseline recordings. PMID:25596422

  11. 100-Year Flood-It's All About Chance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Dinicola, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In the 1960's, the United States government decided to use the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood as the basis for the National Flood Insurance Program. The 1-percent AEP flood was thought to be a fair balance between protecting the public and overly stringent regulation. Because the 1-percent AEP flood has a 1 in 100 chance of being equaled or exceeded in any 1 year, and it has an average recurrence interval of 100 years, it often is referred to as the '100-year flood'. The term '100-year flood' is part of the national lexicon, but is often a source of confusion by those not familiar with flood science and statistics. This poster is an attempt to explain the concept, probabilistic nature, and inherent uncertainties of the '100-year flood' to the layman.

  12. Emergency contraception: a second chance at preventing adolescent unintended pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gold, M A

    1997-08-01

    Adolescent pregnancy challenges the United States and Europe. For most sexually active adolescents, pregnancy is unintended. Emergency contraception, also called the "morning-after treatment" or postcoital contraception is a way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. In February 1997, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of certain oral contraceptive pills for emergency contraception. There are currently six brands of pills marketed in the United States that can be prescribed to, conform to the FDA-approved regimen. When emergency contraceptive pills are initiated within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, they reduce the risk of pregnancy by 75%. Contraindications are the same as those used for ongoing contraceptive pills. The most common side effects are nausea, vomiting, menstrual disturbances, breast tenderness, abdominal cramping, dizziness, headache, and mood changes. Routinely counseling all adolescents about emergency contraceptive pills and increasing access to them can give adolescents a second chance at preventing pregnancy. PMID:9300185

  13. Chance and necessity in the selection of nucleic acid catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorsch, J. R.; Szostak, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    In Tom Stoppard's famous play [Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead], the ill-fated heroes toss a coin 101 times. The first 100 times they do so the coin lands heads up. The chance of this happening is approximately 1 in 10(30), a sequence of events so rare that one might argue that it could only happen in such a delightful fiction. Similarly rare events, however, may underlie the origins of biological catalysis. What is the probability that an RNA, DNA, or protein molecule of a given random sequence will display a particular catalytic activity? The answer to this question determines whether a collection of such sequences, such as might result from prebiotic chemistry on the early earth, is extremely likely or unlikely to contain catalytically active molecules, and hence whether the origin of life itself is a virtually inevitable consequence of chemical laws or merely a bizarre fluke. The fact that a priori estimates of this probability, given by otherwise informed chemists and biologists, ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-50), inspired us to begin to address the question experimentally. As it turns out, the chance that a given random sequence RNA molecule will be able to catalyze an RNA polymerase-like phosphoryl transfer reaction is close to 1 in 10(13), rare enough, to be sure, but nevertheless in a range that is comfortably accessible by experiment. It is the purpose of this Account to describe the recent advances in combinatorial biochemistry that have made it possible for us to explore the abundance and diversity of catalysts existing in nucleic acid sequence space.

  14. James Alexander Lindsay (1856-1931), and his clinical axioms and aphorisms.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Caoimhghin S; Moynihan, John B

    2012-09-01

    John Alexander Lindsay was born at Fintona, county Tyrone in 1856, and at the age of 23 he graduated in medicine at the Royal University of Ireland. After two years in London and Europe he returned to Belfast to join the staff at the Royal Victoria Hospital and in 1899 he was appointed to the professorship of medicine. He was valued by the students for his clarity and by his colleagues for his many extracurricular contributions to the medical profession in the positions entrusted to him. He published monographs on Diseases of the Lungs, and the Climatic Treatment of Consumption, but his later Medical Axioms show his deep appreciation of studied clinical observation. Although practice was changing in the new century Lindsay displayed an ability to change with the new requirements, as evidenced by his lecture on electrocardiography as president of the section of medicine of the Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland in 1915. He was impressed by the way the string galvanometer changed attention from stenosis and incompetence of the valves to the cardiac musculature, but rightly suspected that there was more to be told about the state of the myocardium than Einthoven's three leads revealed. His death occurred in Belfast in 1931. PMID:23620615

  15. James Alexander Lindsay (1856–1931), and his clinical axioms and aphorisms

    PubMed Central

    Breathnach, Caoimhghin S; Moynihan, John B

    2012-01-01

    John Alexander Lindsay was born at Fintona, county Tyrone in 1856, and at the age of 23 he graduated in medicine at the Royal University of Ireland. After two years in London and Europe he returned to Belfast to join the staff at the Royal Victoria Hospital and in 1899 he was appointed to the professorship of medicine. He was valued by the students for his clarity and by his colleagues for his many extracurricular contributions to the medical profession in the positions entrusted to him. He published monographs on Diseases of the Lungs, and the Climatic Treatment of Consumption, but his later Medical Axioms show his deep appreciation of studied clinical observation. Although practice was changing in the new century Lindsay displayed an ability to change with the new requirements, as evidenced by his lecture on electrocardiography as president of the section of medicine of the Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland in 1915. He was impressed by the way the string galvanometer changed attention from stenosis and incompetence of the valves to the cardiac musculature, but rightly suspected that there was more to be told about the state of the myocardium than Einthoven's three leads revealed. His death occurred in Belfast in 1931. PMID:23620615

  16. Alexander Scriabin: his chronic right-hand pain and Its impact on his piano compositions.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    Alexander Scriabin was an outstanding pianist and an avant-garde composer who influenced later generations with his innovative "multimedia" conceptions of aesthetic experience. As an adolescent, he was systematically trained as a concert pianist and received lessons from Vassily Safonoff, one of the founders of the legendary Russian Piano School. At age 20, Scriabin suffered an overuse injury of his right hand when attempting to improve the sound quality of his piano touch. This injury caused a deep crisis and influenced his later composition style in his piano works. From this time on, his works were frequently dominated by unusual virtuosic use and wide spans of his left hand. Rest, restricted repertoire, and an increased focus on composition contributed to recovery; however, he always remained anxious concerning the stamina of his right hand. The case report impressively demonstrates the stressors an aspiring young pianist had to cope with at the end of the nineteenth century. Furthermore, it is a convincing example of how resource-oriented behavior and intuition lead to the improvement of health status. Differential diagnoses and the modern concept of multimodal pain therapy in chronic overuse injury will be discussed from a historical perspective. PMID:25684291

  17. Testing the equality of students' performance using Alexander-Govern test with adaptive trimmed means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Suhaida; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Yusof, Zahayu Md

    2014-06-01

    Analyzing the equality of independent group has to be done with caution. The classical approaches such as ttest for two groups and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for more than two groups always are favorable selection by researchers. However, sometime these methods were abused by the presence of nonnormality or variance heterogeneity or both. It is known that ANOVA is restricted to the assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance. In real life data, sometimes these requirements are hard to attain. The Alexander-Govern test with adaptive trimmed mean (AG_atm) is one approach that can be chosen as alternative to the classical tests when their assumptions are violated. In this paper, the performances of AG_atm were compared to the original AG test and ANOVA using simulated and real life data. The simulation study proved that the AG_atm performs better than the original AG test and the classical test. For real life data, student's performance in decision analysis course, measured by final examination score was chosen. Based on the exploratory data analysis, this data found to have problem of nonnormality.

  18. International Round-Robin Study on Thermoelectric Transport Properties of n-type Half-Heusler from 300 K to 773 K

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Hsin; Bai, Shengqiang; Chen, Lidong; Cuenat, Alexander; Joshi, Giri; Kleinke, Holger; Konig, Jan; Lee, Hee Woong; Martin, Joshua; Oh, Min-Wook; et al

    2015-01-01

    International transport property measurement round-robins have been conducted by the Thermoelectric Annex under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT). The previous round-robins used commercially available bismuth telluride as the testing material, with the goals of understanding measurement issues and developing standard testing procedures. The current round-robin extended the measurement temperature range to 773 K. It was designed to meet the increasing demands for reliable transport data of thermoelectric materials for power generation applications. Eleven laboratories from six IEA-AMT member countries participated in this study. Half-Heusler (n-type) material prepared by GMZ Energy was selectedmore » for the round-robin. The measured transport properties showed narrower distribution on uncertainties compared to previous round-robin efforts. The study intentionally included multiple testing methods and instrument types. Over the full temperature range, the measurement discrepancies on the figure of merit, ZT, in this round-robin were ±1.5 to ±16.4% from the averages.« less

  19. International Round-Robin Study on Thermoelectric Transport Properties of n-type Half-Heusler from 300 K to 773 K

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; Bai, Shengqiang; Chen, Lidong; Cuenat, Alexander; Joshi, Giri; Kleinke, Holger; Konig, Jan; Lee, Hee Woong; Martin, Joshua; Oh, Min-Wook; Porter, Wallace D.; Ren, Zhifeng; Salvador, James R.; Sharp, Jeff W.; Taylor, Patrick; Thompson, Alan J.; Tseng, Yu -Chih

    2015-01-01

    International transport property measurement round-robins have been conducted by the Thermoelectric Annex under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT). The previous round-robins used commercially available bismuth telluride as the testing material, with the goals of understanding measurement issues and developing standard testing procedures. The current round-robin extended the measurement temperature range to 773 K. It was designed to meet the increasing demands for reliable transport data of thermoelectric materials for power generation applications. Eleven laboratories from six IEA-AMT member countries participated in this study. Half-Heusler (n-type) material prepared by GMZ Energy was selected for the round-robin. The measured transport properties showed narrower distribution on uncertainties compared to previous round-robin efforts. The study intentionally included multiple testing methods and instrument types. Over the full temperature range, the measurement discrepancies on the figure of merit, ZT, in this round-robin were ±1.5 to ±16.4% from the averages.

  20. International Round-Robin Study of the Thermoelectric Transport Properties of an n-Type Half-Heusler Compound from 300 K to 773 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsin; Bai, Shengqiang; Chen, Lidong; Cuenat, Alexander; Joshi, Giri; Kleinke, Holger; König, Jan; Lee, Hee Woong; Martin, Joshua; Oh, Min-Wook; Porter, Wallace D.; Ren, Zhifeng; Salvador, James; Sharp, Jeff; Taylor, Patrick; Thompson, Alan J.; Tseng, Y. C.

    2015-11-01

    International transport property-measurement round-robins have been conducted by the thermoelectric annex under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT). Two previous round-robins used commercially available bismuth telluride as the test material, with the objectives of understanding measurement issues and developing standard testing procedures. This round-robin extended the measurement temperature range to 773 K. It was designed to meet the increasing demands for reliable transport data for thermoelectric materials used for power-generation applications. Eleven laboratories from six IEA-AMT member countries participated in the study. A half-Heusler ( n-type) material prepared by GMZ Energy was selected for the round-robin. The measured transport properties had a narrower distribution of uncertainty than previous round-robin results. The study intentionally included multiple testing methods and instrument types. Over the full temperature range, the measurement discrepancies for the figure of merit, ZT, in this round-robin were ±11.5 to ±16.4% from the averages.

  1. [Successful tracheal intubation using the GlideScope AVL in a pediatric patient with Pierre Robin syndrome].

    PubMed

    Iwai, Hidetaka; Mouri, Hideyuki; Hirabayashi, Yoshihiro; Takeuchi, Mamoru

    2014-06-01

    We report a successful use of GlideScope AVL in a pediatric patient with Pierre Robin syndrome. A 36-day-old boy weighing 2.8 kg with Pierre Robin syndrome presented for tracheostomy after several weeks of trial airway management in prone position, who had failed to relieve his obstructive apnea. The Pentax-AWS videolaryngoscope equipped with the neonate Introck could not visualize his glottic opening. The GlideScope AVL single-use video laryngoscope equipping the #1 stat captured the view of the vocal cords. A tracheal tube (2.5 mm ID) with 90 degrees angled stylet, however, did not advance into the glottic opening, colliding with the anterior wall of the larynx and/or the laryngeal ventricle. Bending the tip of the stylet in a direction opposite to the inherent memory of the tube facilitated the placement of the tube into the trachea PMID:24979857

  2. Result of International Round Robin Test on Young's Modulus Measurement of 304L and 316L Steels at Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, K.; Ogata, T.; Nyilas, A.; Walsh, R. P.; Toplosky, V. J.; Millet, M. F.; Shindo, Y.; Fujii, H.; Ohmiya, S.; Ishio, K.; Nakajima, H.; Takano, K.; Mitterbacher, H.; Gigante, P.

    2006-03-31

    Ogata et al. reported in 1996 results of international Round Robin tests on mechanical property measurement of several metals at cryogenic temperatures. Following the report, the standard deviation of Young's modulus of 316L steel is much larger than those of yield and tensile strengths, that is, 4.6 % of the mean value for Young's modulus, while 1.4 % and 1.6 % of the mean values for yield and for tensile strengths, respectively. Therefore, an international Round Robin test on Young's modulus of two austenitic stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures under the participation often institutes from four nations has been initiated within these two years. As a result, the ratios of standard deviation to the mean values are 4.2 % for 304L and 3.6 % for 316L. Such a drop in the standard deviation is attributable to the decrease in the number of institute owing to the application of single extensometer or direct strain gage technique.

  3. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Continuous Boundary Force method for Navier-Stokes equations subject to a Robin boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Bao, Jie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre

    2013-11-01

    A Continuous Boundary Force (CBF) method was developed for implementing Robin (Navier) boundary condition (BC) that can describe no-slip or slip conditions (slip length from zero to infinity) at the fluid-solid interface. In the CBF method the Robin BC is replaced by a homogeneous Neumann BC and an additional volumetric source term in the governing momentum equation. The formulation is derived based on an approximation of the sharp boundary with a diffuse interface of finite thickness, across which the BC is reformulated by means of a smoothed characteristic function. The CBF method is easy to be implemented in Lagrangian particle-based methods. We first implemented it in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to solve numerically the Navier-Stokes equations subject to spatial-independent or dependent Robin BC in two and three dimensions. The numerical accuracy and convergence is examined through comparisons with the corresponding finite difference or finite element solutions. The CBF method is further implemented in smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD), a mesoscale scheme, for modeling slip flows commonly existent in micro/nano channels and microfluidic devices. The authors acknowledge the funding support by the ASCR Program of the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Results of a round-robin experiment on reflectivity measurements at a wavelength of 1.06 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Detlef; Fleig, Christoph; Erhard, Andrea; Letsch, Andreas; Giesen, Adolf; Jupe, Marco; Starke, Kai; Ristau, Detlev; Wilhelm, Oswald; Huber, Rudolf A.; Haspel, Rainer; Schuhmann, Uwe; Scharfenorth, Chris; Eichler, Hans Joachim; Gliech, Stefan; Duparre, Angela; Schulz-Grosser, Michael; Krasilnikova, Anna; Haise, Alexandra; Riede, Wolfgang; Balachninaite, Ona; Grigonis, Rimantas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas; Kazakevich, Vladimir

    2003-05-01

    Within the EUREKA-project EU 2359 (Instruments and Standard Test Procedures for Laser Beam and Optics Characterization) a "Round-Robin"-experiment on reflectivity measurements at the wavelength λ = 1.06 μm has been carried out. The topic of this "Round-Robin"-experiment was the evaluation of the Working Draft ISO/WD 13697 and Committee Draft ISO/CD 15368 and the comparison to simple transmission and reflectivity measurements. For the determination of transmittance and reflectance of laser components, commercially available spectrophotometers are used in industry to monitor the quality at a medium accuracy level. If a higher level of precision is required, especially to resolve the reflectivity of high-reflecting dielectric mirrors, the measurement set-up described in ISO/WD 13697 should be preferred. This standard procedure was elaborated in the framework of the CHOCLAB project. This paper analyzes the results of the "Round-Robin"-experiment the accuracy and comparability of measurements according to different methods will be given.

  5. The First SeaWiFS HPLC Analysis Round-Robin Experiment (SeaHARRE-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Claustre, Herve; Ras, Josephine; VanHeukelem, Laurie; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Targa, Cristina; vanderLinde, Dirk; Barlow, Ray; Sessions, Heather

    2001-01-01

    Four laboratories, which had contributed to various aspects of SeaWiFS calibration and validation activities, participated in the first SeaWiFS HPLC Analysis Round-Robin Experiment (SeaHARRE-1): Horn Point Laboratory (USA), the Joint Research Centre (Italy), the Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Marines (France), and the Marine and Coastal Management group (South Africa). The analyses of the data are presented in Chapter 1 and the individual methods of the four groups are presented in Chapters 2-5. The average (or overall) conclusions of the round-robin are derived from 12 in situ stations occupied during a cruise in the Mediterranean Sea, although, only 11 stations are used in the analyses. The data set is composed of 12 replicates taken during each sampling opportunity with 3 replicates going to each of the 4 laboratories. The average (or overall) results from the intercomparison of 15 pigments or pigment associations are as follows (in some cases, data subsets that exclude pigments which were not analyzed by all the laboratories, or that had unusually large variances, are used to exclude a variety of problematic pigments): a) the accuracy of the four methods in determining the concentration of total chlorophyll a is 7.9%, (one method did not separate mono- and divinyl chlorophyll a, and if the samples containing significant divinyl chlorophyll a concentrations are ignored, the four methods have an accuracy of 6.7%); b) the accuracy in determining the full set of pigments is 19.1%; c) there is a reduction in accuracy of approximately - 12.2% for every decade (factor of 10) decrease in concentration (based on a data subset); d) the precision of the four methods using a subset data is 8.617( 6.2% for an edited subset); e) the repeatability of the four methods using the subset data is 9.2% (7.2%; for an edited subset, and f) the reproducibility of the four methods using the subset data is 21.31% (15.0% for an edited subset).

  6. Death by polonium-210: lessons learned from the murder of former Soviet spy Alexander Litvinenko.

    PubMed

    McFee, Robin B; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2009-02-01

    The medical response to radiation--whether the result of radiological warfare, terrorist deployment of improvised radiation dispersal weapons, political assassination, occupational or industrial accidents or the medically radiated patient remains one of the least taught among all disciplines within medical education. In the aftermath of 9/11 among medical vulnerabilities to toxicant threats, of all the categories of weapons of mass destruction (WMD)--whether using the CBRNE (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, explosive) or NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) acronym--radiation is the least taught in professional schools, responder cultures or civil preparedness organizations. To date, few health care professionals (HCP) possess the fundamental knowledge or skills to identify and diagnose, let alone treat a radiation victim; this vulnerability made even more obvious in the aftermath of the high profile assassination of former Russian agent Alexander Litvinenko. He was poisoned with Polonium210. Radioactive substances are ubiquitous with radiation sources being in or transported through virtually every region nationwide. It is essential to increase preparedness among community and rural health care facilities as well as urban and university hospitals. Managing radiation injuries effectively requires access to specialized equipment and expertise. Radiation sickness is progressive and may require acute, critical and long-term care throughout the course of illness. Regardless of the source, preparedness rests upon acknowledging a threat exists and dedicating the resources to address the risks including the enhancement of training and equipment. Mass or individual exposures to radiation present unique challenges to the entire response continuum from law enforcement, first responders and emergency medical care. Increased education about and practice in responding to radiological threats is essential to enhance preparedness. PMID:19292030

  7. Bathymetric gradients within a Paleozoic Island Arc, southeastern Alaska (Alexander Terrane)

    SciTech Connect

    Soja, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Early to Late Silurian (Wenlock-Ludlow) limestones belonging to the Heceta Formation reflect bathymetric gradients within the ancient island arc exposed in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. These rocks record the earliest occurrence of widespread carbonate deposition in the region and represent the earliest foundation for shallow-water platform development within the arc. The excellent preservation of platform, platform margin, and slope deposits contrasts with the poor preservation of many marine sediments that originated within other island arcs. Hence, these limestones provide important insights into the styles, processes, and bathymetry of carbonate deposition in island arcs. Carbonate depositional sites within the arc extended laterally from nearshore intertidal and relatively shallow subtidal zones of a marine platform, to the seaward margins of a rimmed shelf, and into deeper subtidal areas of a slope environment. Fossiliferous deposits that originated on the platform comprise a diversity of shelly benthos, including corals and stromatoporoids in growth position. Dasycladacean algae, oncoids, and Amphipora also indicate shallow-water conditions. Organic buildups and reefs were constructed by cyanobacteria, massive stromatoporoids, corals, and algae at the platform margin. Deposition beyond the seaward edge of the shelf is evident from the carbonate turbidites that consist of skeletal debris of shallow-water derivation and an absence of coarse siliciclastic detritus. Sedimentation and resedimentation along a bathymetric gradient within the arc is especially well illustrated by the carbonate breccias that are enclosed within these deep subtidal sediments. They comprise detached stromatolites and clasts of shallow-water origin that were derived from the platform and its margin during periodic slumping of the shelf edge.

  8. Prelude to Everest: Alexander M. Kellas and the 1920 high altitude scientific expedition to Kamet.

    PubMed

    Rodway, George W

    2004-01-01

    Following his untimely death due to illness during the early stages of the first Mount Everest Reconnaissance Expedition in 1921, Alexander M. Kellas has received relatively little attention in either mountaineering or scientific literature. He remains an obscure figure despite his noteworthy contributions to high altitude physiology and exploration. He can be considered not only one of the finest exploratory Himalayan mountaineers in history, but also the first person to apply state-of-the-art knowledge of high altitude physiology to field investigations at altitudes over 6000 m. By the time of his death, it is extremely likely that Kellas had spent more time above 6000 m than anyone on Earth, undertaking no fewer than eight Himalayan expeditions between 1907 and 1921. This article revisits and examines in some detail the most ambitious high altitude physiological field study undertaken through the second decade of the 20th century, A. M. Kellas and Henry T. Morshead's 1920 Kamet Expedition. This undertaking by Kellas and Morshead was unique because it specifically emphasized investigation of the practical difficulties inherent in climbing at very high altitudes. During this endeavor, Kellas carried out the first rigorous tests of the value of supplementary oxygen for climbing at high altitude. The results of the field studies conducted during the 1920 Kamet Expedition provided strong support for the use of supplementary oxygen at high altitude. However, after Kellas died on the approach march to Everest the following year, the British mountaineering establishment did not again have a similar proponent or exponent of extreme altitude field research until physiologist Griffith Pugh once again took up the challenge in the early 1950s. PMID:15454003

  9. Neuromechanical interference of posture on movement: evidence from Alexander technique teachers rising from a chair

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Timothy W.; Mian, Omar S.; Peters, Amy

    2014-01-01

    While Alexander technique (AT) teachers have been reported to stand up by shifting weight gradually as they incline the trunk forward, healthy untrained (HU) adults appear unable to rise in this way. This study examines the hypothesis that HU have difficulty rising smoothly, and that this difficulty relates to reported differences in postural stiffness between groups. A wide range of movement durations (1–8 s) and anteroposterior foot placements were studied under the instruction to rise at a uniform rate. Before seat-off (SO) there were clear and profound performance differences between groups, particularly for slower movements, that could not be explained by strength differences. For each movement duration, HU used approximately twice the forward center-of-mass (CoM) velocity and vertical feet-loading rate as AT. For slow movements, HU violated task instruction by abruptly speeding up and rapidly shifting weight just before SO. In contrast, AT shifted weight gradually while smoothly advancing the CoM, achieving a more anterior CoM at SO. A neuromechanical model revealed a mechanism whereby stiffness affects standing up by exacerbating a conflict between postural and balance constraints. Thus activating leg extensors to take body weight hinders forward CoM progression toward the feet. HU's abrupt weight shift can be explained by reliance on momentum to stretch stiff leg extensors. AT's smooth rises can be explained by heightened dynamic tone control that reduces leg extensor resistance and improves force transmission across the trunk. Our results suggest postural control shapes movement coordination through a dynamic “postural frame” that affects the resistive behavior of the body. PMID:25085609

  10. [The story of biosimilars--chance or threat?].

    PubMed

    Woroń, Jaroslaw; Kocić, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    Patent protection on some key biologic drugs is going to expire soon. Therefore, chances are rising for biopharmaceutical manufacturers to develop and market biosimilars (follow-on biologics). These drugs are approved when similarity to reference biological medicine is proven: in terms of quality, safety or efficacy. In September 2013 European Medicines Agency authorized the first biosimilar monoclonal antibody-infliximab. Doubts considering follow-on biologics are related to their safety and efficacy. The majority of them are associated with the new phenomenon for biological products in clinical use and drug approval processes. These are: extrapolation of indications, immunogenicity and interchangeability. The case of interchangeability poses a threat that it would be impossible to determine which drug is responsible for adverse event, even if brand names and batch numbers of reference and biosimilar products are known. Biosimilar product is authorized if it has shown efficacy and safety in some of indications. When approved, its use will be extrapolated on other indications of the reference product. The aim of following article is to describe some current issues on biosimilars safety, approval procedures and legal solutions in Poland. PMID:25546996

  11. A Second's Chance: Gang Violence Task Force prevention program.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K Michael; Griner, Devan; Guarino, Michelle; Drabik-Medeiros, Bernie; Williams, Kristy

    2012-01-01

    We describe a gang violence intervention and define targets for prevention. At-risk youths were identified through courts, public schools, and law enforcement regarding gang-related activities. They participated in "A Second's Chance," a true-to-life mock emergency department resuscitation and death of a gang member provided over an 18-month period. A questionnaire was completed by each participant. Forty-nine youths identified as at risk for gang involvement participated (37 male and 12 female, P < 0.001). Average age was 14.5 years (range, 10 to 19 years); 32 were black, 9 Hispanic, 6 white, and 2 other (P < 0.05). Seventeen (35%) had prior arrests (P = 0.059), 13 (77%) of whom had multiple arrests (P < 0.05). Forty-one (84%) reported a family member jailed (P < 0.001). Forty-two (86%) witnessed neighborhood criminal drug activity (P < 0.001). Household leadership was predominately maternal (24 [49%], (P < 0.05). Forty-four (90%) participants provided positive meaningful responses to the intervention (P < 0.001). Gang violence prevention should be channeled through maternal family members. History of incarcerated relatives, acquaintances, and neighborhood exposure to drugs and crime may represent additional risk factors for gang-related involvement. Demonstrations of gang violence scenarios raise awareness to consequences of gang-related activities. Family and neighborhood characteristics should be included in development of intervention scenarios. PMID:22273322

  12. The (dubious?) benefits of second chances in batterer intervention programs.

    PubMed

    Scott, Katreena; King, Colin; McGinn, Holly; Hosseini, Narges

    2013-05-01

    In batterer intervention programs, there are conflicting recommendations about best practices for responding to client dropout. Risk management philosophies emphasize the importance of swift and sure sanctions for failure to comply with program attendance requirements. In contrast, change theory emphasizes the importance of providing clients with multiple opportunities to engage in treatment. To clarify the implications of each of these philosophies, the current study examined rates of program dropout, reinstatement, and completion in a consecutive sample of 294 probation-mandated clients referred to a large batterer intervention program. Just over half (53.7%) of men completed intervention on their first attempt. Over the 2-year follow-up study period, 73 clients were reinstated once by the intervention program, 23 clients were reinstated twice, and 5 clients reinstated three (or more) times. Reinstated clients were, in general, more similar to men who failed to complete than those who completed on their first attempt. Although rates of dropout at each reentry point were quite high (56% to 80%), 32 of the 73 (43.7%) reinstated clients eventually completed. There were significant costs associated with providing clients with additional chances to complete the program, with successful reinstatement requiring an average of 7.55 phone calls to clients, 3.82 phone calls to referral agents, one letter, and 0.73 in-person meetings. Results are discussed in terms of practice and policy implications of risk management and change theory approaches to dropout. PMID:23277469

  13. Genetic differentiation in the Mexican endemic Rufous-backed Robin, Turdus rufopalliatus (Passeriformes: Turdidae).

    PubMed

    Montaño-Rendón, Mauricio; Sánchez-González, Luis A; Hernández-Alonso, Germán; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G

    2015-01-01

    The Rufous-backed Robin (Turdus rufopalliatus) is endemic to deciduous and semideciduous tropical forests of western Mexico. Of the currently recognized subspecies, T. r. graysoni, from the Tres Marías Islands and nearby coastal Nayarit, has been considered a separate species; however, this treatment has been challenged due to an apparent contact zone on the mainland, although no hybrids have ever been recorded. Here, we use mitochondrial DNA sequences from individuals sampled across the species' range to assess their phylogeographic relationships. We found reciprocal monophyly between Tres Marías Islands and mainland populations, which share no haplotypes between them. Evolutionary divergence detected within T. rufopalliatus suggests that mainland and island populations have been isolated from each other, and divergence decreases if insular populations are excluded. Demographic parameters suggest that populations are in the process of a rapid expansion from ancestral populations with a lower population size. These results are consistent with morphometric and plumage differences that have been used to recognize the Tres Marías Islands populations from the mainland ones, thus suggesting species status of the island form. PMID:26624454

  14. Analytical Round Robin for Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Surface Cracked Plates: Phase I Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, D. N.; Allen, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical round robin for the elastic-plastic analysis of surface cracks in flat plates was conducted with 15 participants. Experimental results from a surface crack tension test in 2219-T8 aluminum plate provided the basis for the inter-laboratory study (ILS). The study proceeded in a blind fashion given that the analysis methodology was not specified to the participants, and key experimental results were withheld. This approach allowed the ILS to serve as a current measure of the state of the art for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. The analytical results and the associated methodologies were collected for comparison, and sources of variability were studied and isolated. The results of the study revealed that the J-integral analysis methodology using the domain integral method is robust, providing reliable J-integral values without being overly sensitive to modeling details. General modeling choices such as analysis code, model size (mesh density), crack tip meshing, or boundary conditions, were not found to be sources of significant variability. For analyses controlled only by far-field boundary conditions, the greatest source of variability in the J-integral assessment is introduced through the constitutive model. This variability can be substantially reduced by using crack mouth opening displacements to anchor the assessment. Conclusions provide recommendations for analysis standardization.

  15. Summary report for the interlaboratory round robin on the MCC-1 static leach test method

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.W.; Daniel, J.L.

    1982-03-01

    The MCC-1 Static Leach Test Method Round Robbin (RR) was conducted by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) over a period of 15 months, 1980-82. A total of 25 laboratories provided data in connection with the RR. All together these laboratories tested 769 waste form specimens using the 1980 draft of MCC-1. The specimens tested were approximately one gram wafers cut by the laboratory from samples provided by MCC: NBS borosilicate glass; core dillings of basalt from the Hanford Reservation; and MCC Type 76-68 simulated waste glass. These specimens were tested for 3, 7, 14, 28 days in ovens at 90/sup 0/C using three different leachants. The resulting leachates were analyzed for elemental concentrations, and elemental mass losses were calculated. The specimens were weighed before and after leaching to determine specimen mass loss. This summary report on the round robin has two major parts: Part I provides plots of the data (which are listed in an Appendix) and summary statistics so that the participating laboratories can compare performance with other laboratories. From these plots and summaries, each laboratory also can identify its problem areas. Part II discusses the statistical analysis of the data, and characterizes the precision of the MCC-1 Static Leach Test Method at the time the RR was conducted. The precision characterization indicates that the MCC and waste form community need to institute tighter control of MCC-1 and similar testing practices to reduce the impact of between-laboratory differences on statistical comparisons.

  16. Ultrasound Metrology in Mexico: a round robin test for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amezola Luna, R.; López Sánchez, A. L.; Elías Juárez, A. A.

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents preliminary statistical results from an on-going imaging medical ultrasound study, of particular relevance for gynecology and obstetrics areas. Its scope is twofold, firstly to compile the medical ultrasound infrastructure available in cities of Queretaro-Mexico, and second to promote the use of traceable measurement standards as a key aspect to assure quality of ultrasound examinations performed by medical specialists. The experimental methodology is based on a round robin test using an ultrasound phantom for medical imaging. The physician, using its own ultrasound machine, couplant and facilities, measures the size and depth of a set of pre-defined reflecting and absorbing targets of the reference phantom, which simulate human illnesses. Measurements performed give the medical specialist an objective feedback regarding some performance characteristics of their ultrasound examination systems, such as measurement system accuracy, dead zone, axial resolution, depth of penetration and anechoic targets detection. By the end of March 2010, 66 entities with medical ultrasound facilities, from both public and private institutions, have performed measurements. A network of medical ultrasound calibration laboratories in Mexico, with traceability to The International System of Units via national measurement standards, may indeed contribute to reduce measurement deviations and thus attain better diagnostics.

  17. Robin Sequence: From Diagnosis to Development of an Effective Management Plan

    PubMed Central

    Sie, Kathleen C.; Hopper, Richard A.; Glass, Robin P.; Hing, Anne V.; Cunningham, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and resultant airway obstruction is known as Robin sequence (RS). Although RS is a well-recognized clinical entity, there is wide variability in the diagnosis and care of children born with RS. Systematic evaluations of treatments and clinical outcomes for children with RS are lacking despite the advances in clinical care over the past 20 years. We explore the pathogenesis, developmental and genetic models, morphology, and syndromes and malformations associated with RS. Current classification systems for RS do not account for the heterogeneity among infants with RS, and they do not allow for prediction of the optimal management course for an individual child. Although upper airway obstruction for some infants with RS can be treated adequately with positioning, other children may require a tracheostomy. Care must be customized for each patient with RS, and health care providers must understand the anatomy and mechanism of airway obstruction to develop an individualized treatment plan to improve breathing and achieve optimal growth and development. In this article we provide a comprehensive overview of evaluation strategies and therapeutic options for children born with RS. We also propose a conceptual treatment protocol to guide the provider who is caring for a child with RS. PMID:21464188

  18. Experimental round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Huai; Cao, Yuan; Dai, Hui; Lin, Jin; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Wei; Xu, Yu; Guan, Jian-Yu; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Xiongfeng; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-03-01

    In conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, security is guaranteed by estimating the amount of leaked information. Such estimation tends to overrate, leading to a fundamental threshold of the bit error rate, which becomes a bottleneck of practical QKD development. This bottleneck is broken through by the recent work of round-robin differential phase-shift (RRDPS) protocol, which eliminates the fundamental threshold of the bit error rate. The key challenge for the implementation of the RRDPS scheme lies in the realization of a variable-delay Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which requires active and random choice of many delays. By designing an optical system with multiple switches and employing an active phase stabilization technology, we successfully construct a variable-delay interferometer with 127 actively selectable delays. With this measurement, we experimentally demonstrate the RRDPS protocol and obtain a final key rate of 15.54 bps with a total loss of 18 dB and an error rate of 8.9%.

  19. SERI results from the PEP 1987 Summit Round Robin and a comparison of photovoltaic calibration methods

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.A.; Waddington, D.; Rummel, S.; Myers, D.R.; Stoffel, T.L.; Osterwald, C.R.

    1989-03-01

    The SERI results for the Photovoltaic Solar Energy Project (PEP) 1987 summit round robin are presented and the proposed International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) technical committee TC82 global calibration method is evaluated in this report. The global calibration method has a +-4% uncertainty in the short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) including random and nonrandom error sources. This uncertainty can be reduced +-3% if the global normal method is used and the direct component of the total irradiance is measured with a primary absolute cavity radiometer. Nearly half of the uncertainty for various primary and secondary PV calibration methods is nonrandom. If a +-4% uncertainty in I/sub sc/ under standard reporting conditions is acceptable, then the global calibration method with spectral corrections is suitable for cells or modules. If a primary reference device with an uncertainty less than +-3% is required, then the global method is unsuitable. The SERI primary direct normal calibration method has a +-1% uncertainty in I/sub sc/ as verified by comparison with primary AMO cells. If a +-1% primary reference cell is used for secondary calibrations, then a +-2% uncertainty could be achieved for reference cells or modules. 37 refs., 29 figs., 42 tabs.

  20. Stainless Steel Round Robin Test: Centrifugally cast stainless steel screening phase

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, D.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Heasler, P.G.; Burck, E.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Centrifugally Cast Stainless Steel Round Robin Test (CCSSRRT). The CCSSRRT is the first phase of an effort to investigate and improve the capability and reliability of NDE inspections of light water reactor piping systems. This phase was a screening test to identify the most promising procedures presently available for CCSS. The next phase will be an in-depth program to evaluate the capability and reliability of inservice inspections (ISI) for piping. In the CCSSRRT, 15 centrifugally cast stainless steel pipe sections containing welds and laboratory-grown thermal fatigue cracks in both columnar and equiaxed base material were used. These pipe specimens were inspected by a total of 18 teams from Europe and the United States using a variety of NDE techniques, mostly ultrasonic (UT). The inspections were carried out at the team's facilities and included inspections from both sides of the weld and inspections restricted to one side of the weld. The results of the CCSSRRT make it apparent that a more detailed study on the capability and reliability of procedures to inspect stainless steel materials is needed to better understand the specific material and flaw properties and how they affect the outcome of an inspection.

  1. [The concept of loss of chance: A major evolution in the definition of damage or how to prevent litigation for loss of chance?].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T-D

    2016-07-01

    The concept of medical error in responsibility litigation was based until the past last years on a necessary direct and definite causal link between fault and injury. In France, since the 1960s and increasingly during the last decade, the idea of loss of chance arose, considered as a new and genuine prejudice (practically, a fixable damage); it became the subject of several legal precedents from the Cour de cassation and the Conseil d'État. Thus, plaintiffs may currently demand a compensation for a loss of chance even though a doubt exists on the causal link between the fault and the observed damage. The most frequent litigation circumstances implying a loss of chance are lack of information, lack or delay in diagnosis, delay in action, and default in medical assessment. Based on practical cases, the author presents the most propitious situations where litigation for loss of chance may occur and discusses possible preventive measures. PMID:27342945

  2. Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex, Alexander terrane (southeastern Alaska): evidence for Early Jurassic rifting prior to accretion with North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Karl, Susan M.; Keppie, J. Duncan; Kontak, Daniel J.; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The circular Bokan Mountain complex (BMC) on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, is a Jurassic peralkaline granitic intrusion about 3 km in diameter that crosscuts igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane. The BMC hosts significant rare metal (rare earth elements, Y, U, Th, Zr, and Nb) mineralization related to the last stage of BMC emplacement. U–Pb (zircon) and 40Ar/39Ar (amphibole and whole-rock) geochronology indicates the following sequence of intrusive activity: (i) a Paleozoic basement composed mainly of 469 ± 4 Ma granitic rocks; (ii) intrusion of the BMC at 177 ± 1 Ma followed by rapid cooling through ca. 550 °C at 176 ± 1 Ma that was synchronous with mineralization associated with vertical, WNW-trending pegmatites, felsic dikes, and aegirine–fluorite veins and late-stage, sinistral shear deformation; and (iii) intrusion of crosscutting lamprophyre dikes at >150 Ma and again at ca. 105 Ma. The peralkaline nature of the BMC and the WNW trend of associated dikes suggest intrusion during NE–SW rifting that was followed by NE–SW shortening during the waning stages of BMC emplacement. The 177 Ma BMC was synchronous with other magmatic centres in the Alexander terrane, such as (1) the Dora Bay peralkaline stock and (2) the bimodal Moffatt volcanic suite located ~30 km north and ~100 km SE of the BMC, respectively. This regional magmatism is interpreted to represent a regional extensional event that precedes deposition of the Late Jurassic – Cretaceous Gravina sequence that oversteps the Wrangellia and Alexander exotic accreted terranes and the Taku and Yukon–Tanana pericratonic terranes of the Canadian–Alaskan Cordillera.

  3. About hypotheses and paradigms: exploring the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kaellis, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Hypotheses generally conform to paradigms which, over time, change, usually tardily, after they have become increasingly difficult to sustain under the impact of non-conforming evidence and alternative hypotheses, but more important, when they no longer are comfortably ensconced in the surrounding social-economic-political-cultural milieu. It is asserted that this milieu is the most important factor in shaping scientific theorizing. Some examples are cited: the rejection of the evidence that the world orbits around the sun (suspected by Pythagoras) in favor of centuries-long firm adherence to the Ptolemaic geocentric system; the early acceptance of Natural Selection in spite of its tautological essence and only conjectural supporting evidence, because it justified contemporaneous social-political ideologies as typified by, e.g., Spencer and Malthus. Economic, social, and cultural factors are cited as providing the ground, i.e., ideational substrate, for what is cited as the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm (DCP), that has increasingly dominated physics, biology, and medicine for over a century and which invokes small, discrete packets of energy/matter (quanta, genes, microorganisms, aberrant cells) functioning within an environment of statistical, not determined, causality. There is speculation on a possible paradigmatic shift from the DCP, which has fostered the proliferation, parallel with ("splitting") taxonomy, of alleged individual disease entities, their diagnoses, and, when available, their specific remedies, something particularly prominent in, e.g., psychiatry's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, a codified compendium of alleged mental and behavioral disorders, but evident in any textbook of diagnosis and treatment of physical ailments. This presumed paradigm shift may be reflected in Western medicine, presently increasingly empirical and atomized, towards a growing acceptance of a more generalized, subject-oriented, approach to health and disease, a non

  4. Second-Chance Signal Transduction Explains Cooperative Flagellar Switching

    PubMed Central

    Zot, Henry G.; Hasbun, Javier E.; Van Minh, Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    The reversal of flagellar motion (switching) results from the interaction between a switch complex of the flagellar rotor and a torque-generating stationary unit, or stator (motor unit). To explain the steeply cooperative ligand-induced switching, present models propose allosteric interactions between subunits of the rotor, but do not address the possibility of a reaction that stimulates a bidirectional motor unit to reverse direction of torque. During flagellar motion, the binding of a ligand-bound switch complex at the dwell site could excite a motor unit. The probability that another switch complex of the rotor, moving according to steady-state rotation, will reach the same dwell site before that motor unit returns to ground state will be determined by the independent decay rate of the excited-state motor unit. Here, we derive an analytical expression for the energy coupling between a switch complex and a motor unit of the stator complex of a flagellum, and demonstrate that this model accounts for the cooperative switching response without the need for allosteric interactions. The analytical result can be reproduced by simulation when (1) the motion of the rotor delivers a subsequent ligand-bound switch to the excited motor unit, thereby providing the excited motor unit with a second chance to remain excited, and (2) the outputs from multiple independent motor units are constrained to a single all-or-none event. In this proposed model, a motor unit and switch complex represent the components of a mathematically defined signal transduction mechanism in which energy coupling is driven by steady-state and is regulated by stochastic ligand binding. Mathematical derivation of the model shows the analytical function to be a general form of the Hill equation (Hill AV (1910) The possible effects of the aggregation of the molecules of haemoglobin on its dissociation curves. J Physiol 40: iv–vii). PMID:22844429

  5. Youth Chance. A Program of the San Francisco Mayor's Office of Employment and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser & Ogden Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    The San Francisco-based YMCA Youth Chance began in 1978 as a Youth Community Conservation and Improvement "sweat program"--a means of providing unemployed high school dropouts with CETA (Comprehensive Employment and Training Act)-funded jobs. Youth Chance continues to train males and females, 16-19 years of age, who meet CETA requirements.…

  6. An asset and liability management (ALM) model using integrated chance constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh; Mitra, Gautam; Roman, Diana

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses and develops a Two Stage Integrated Chance Constraints Programming for the Employees Provident Fund Malaysia. The main aim is to manage, that is, balance assets and liabilities. Integrated Chance Constraints not only limit the event of underfunding but also the amount of underfunding. This paper includes the numerical illustration.

  7. Taking a Chance: Education for Aesthetic Judgment and the Criticism of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of the antifoundationalist thought of Cavell with a particular focus on his idea of "chance in aesthetic experience," as a framework through which to destabilize the prevailing discourse of education centering on freedom and control. I try to present the idea of chance in a particular way, which…

  8. Chance-corrected classification for use in discriminant analysis: Ecological applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, K.; Mosher, J.A.; Williams, B.K.

    1984-01-01

    A method for evaluating the classification table from a discriminant analysis is described. The statistic, kappa, is useful to ecologists in that it removes the effects of chance. It is useful even with equal group sample sizes although the need for a chance-corrected measure of prediction becomes greater with more dissimilar group sample sizes. Examples are presented.

  9. The Relationship of Risk Status to Self-Esteem and Perceived Life Chances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Frank C.; Latt, Ilisha K.; Perlinski, Melissa A.

    1999-01-01

    Compared 103 students on global self-esteem and perceived life chances. Thirty-three were in a continuation high school, 20 participated in a mentoring program, and 50 were in a program for the academically gifted. The groups did not differ in global self-esteem, but students at the continuation school had lower scores for perceived life chances.…

  10. Investment in Second-Chance Education for Adults and Income Development in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Stehlik, Tom; Strandh, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between the second chance of increase in formal education amongst low-educated adults in Sweden and long-term wage development. Despite the awareness of the role of education for employability and individuals' overall life chances, surprisingly few studies have investigated the wage effects of…

  11. On Similarity Coefficients for 2x2 Tables and Correction for Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies correction for chance in coefficients that are linear functions of the observed proportion of agreement. The paper unifies and extends various results on correction for chance in the literature. A specific class of coefficients is used to illustrate the results derived in this paper. Coefficients in this class, e.g. the simple…

  12. Starting a Second Chance Home: A Guide for Policymakers and Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Kathy; Kelly, Lisa M.

    This guide outlines 10 basic steps for policymakers and practitioners interested in creating Second Chance Homes in their areas. Second Chance Homes provide stable, nurturing environments for teen families with access to child care, education, job training, counseling, and advice on parenting and life skills. The guide is based on interviews with…

  13. 77 FR 35743 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SECOND CHANCE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SECOND CHANCE.... ADDRESSES: Comments should refer to docket number MARAD-2012-0067. Written comments may be submitted by hand... the vessel SECOND CHANCE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Small group charters.''...

  14. The Fourth SeaWiFS HPLC Analysis Round-Robin Experiment (SeaHARRE-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; Thomas, Crystal S.; van Heukelem, Laurie; Schlueter, louise; Russ, Mary E.; Ras, Josephine; Claustre, Herve; Clementson, Lesley; Canuti, Elisabetta; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Perl, Jason; Normandeau, Claire; Cullen, John; Kienast, Markus; Pinckney, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Ten international laboratories specializing in the determination of marine pigment concentrations using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were intercompared using in situ samples and a mixed pigment sample. Although prior Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Round-Robin Experiment (SeaHARRE) activities conducted in open-ocean waters covered a wide dynamic range in productivity, and some of the samples were collected in the coastal zone, none of the activities involved exclusively coastal samples. Consequently, SeaHARRE-4 was organized and executed as a strictly coastal activity and the field samples were collected from primarily eutrophic waters within the coastal zone of Denmark. The more restrictive perspective limited the dynamic range in chlorophyll concentration to approximately one and a half orders of magnitude (previous activities covered more than two orders of magnitude). The method intercomparisons were used for the following objectives: a) estimate the uncertainties in quantitating individual pigments and higher-order variables formed from sums and ratios; b) confirm if the chlorophyll a accuracy requirements for ocean color validation activities (approximately 25%, although 15% would allow for algorithm refinement) can be met in coastal waters; c) establish the reduction in uncertainties as a result of applying QA procedures; d) show the importance of establishing a properly defined referencing system in the computation of uncertainties; e) quantify the analytical benefits of performance metrics, and f) demonstrate the utility of a laboratory mix in understanding method performance. In addition, the remote sensing requirements for the in situ determination of total chlorophyll a were investigated to determine whether or not the average uncertainty for this measurement is being satisfied.

  15. The Second SeaWiFS HPLC Analysis Round-Robin Experiment (SeaHARRE-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Eight international laboratories specializing in the determination of marine pigment concentrations using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were intercompared using in situ samples and a variety of laboratory standards. The field samples were collected primarily from eutrophic waters, although mesotrophic waters were also sampled to create a dynamic range in chlorophyll concentration spanning approximately two orders of magnitude (0.3 25.8 mg m-3). The intercomparisons were used to establish the following: a) the uncertainties in quantitating individual pigments and higher-order variables (sums, ratios, and indices); b) an evaluation of spectrophotometric versus HPLC uncertainties in the determination of total chlorophyll a; and c) the reduction in uncertainties as a result of applying quality assurance (QA) procedures associated with extraction, separation, injection, degradation, detection, calibration, and reporting (particularly limits of detection and quantitation). In addition, the remote sensing requirements for the in situ determination of total chlorophyll a were investigated to determine whether or not the average uncertainty for this measurement is being satisfied. The culmination of the activity was a validation of the round-robin methodology plus the development of the requirements for validating an individual HPLC method. The validation process includes the measurements required to initially demonstrate a pigment is validated, and the measurements that must be made during sample analysis to confirm a method remains validated. The so-called performance-based metrics developed here describe a set of thresholds for a variety of easily-measured parameters with a corresponding set of performance categories. The aggregate set of performance parameters and categories establish a) the overall performance capability of the method, and b) whether or not the capability is consistent with the required accuracy objectives.

  16. Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March 2000 (DARR-00)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francois; D'Alimonte, Davide; Maritorena, Stephane; McLean, Scott; Sildam, Juri; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The accurate determination of upper ocean apparent optical properties (AOPs) is essential for the vicarious calibration of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) instrument and the validation of the derived data products. To evaluate the importance of data analysis methods upon derived AOP values, the Second Data Analysis Round Robin (DARR-00) activity was planned during the latter half of 1999 and executed during March 2000. The focus of the study was the intercomparison of several standard AOP parameters: (1) the upwelled radiance immediately below the sea surface, L(sub u)(0(-),lambda); (2) the downward irradiance immediately below the sea surface, E(sub d)(0(-),lambda); (3) the diffuse attenuation coefficients from the upwelling radiance and the downward irradiance profiles, L(sub L)(lambda) and K(sub d)(lambda), respectively; (4) the incident solar irradiance immediately above the sea surface, E(sub d)(0(+),lambda); (5) the remote sensing reflectance, R(sub rs)(lambda); (6) the normalized water-leaving radiance, [L(sub W)(lambda)](sub N); (7) the upward irradiance immediately below the sea surface, E(sub u)(0(-)), which is used with the upwelled radiance to derive the nadir Q-factor immediately below the sea surface, Q(sub n)(0(-),lambda); and (8) ancillary parameters like the solar zenith angle, theta, and the total chlorophyll concentration, C(sub Ta), derived from the optical data through statistical algorithms. In the results reported here, different methodologies from three research groups were applied to an identical set of 40 multispectral casts in order to evaluate the degree to which differences in data analysis methods influence AOP estimation, and whether any general improvements can be made. The overall results of DARR-00 are presented in Chapter 1 and the individual methods used by the three groups and their data processors are presented in Chapters 2-4.

  17. Novel round-robin tabu search algorithm for prostate cancer classification and diagnosis using multispectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad Atif; Bouridane, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    Quantitative cell imagery in cancer pathology has progressed greatly in the last 25 years. The application areas are mainly those in which the diagnosis is still critically reliant upon the analysis of biopsy samples, which remains the only conclusive method for making an accurate diagnosis of the disease. Biopsies are usually analyzed by a trained pathologist who, by analyzing the biopsies under a microscope, assesses the normality or malignancy of the samples submitted. Different grades of malignancy correspond to different structural patterns as well as to apparent textures. In the case of prostate cancer, four major groups have to be recognized: stroma, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and prostatic carcinoma. Recently, multispectral imagery has been used to solve this multiclass problem. Unlike conventional RGB color space, multispectral images allow the acquisition of a large number of spectral bands within the visible spectrum, resulting in a large feature vector size. For such a high dimensionality, pattern recognition techniques suffer from the well-known "curse-of-dimensionality" problem. This paper proposes a novel round-robin tabu search (RR-TS) algorithm to address the curse-of-dimensionality for this multiclass problem. The experiments have been carried out on a number of prostate cancer textured multispectral images, and the results obtained have been assessed and compared with previously reported works. The system achieved 98%-100% classification accuracy when testing on two datasets. It outperformed principal component/linear discriminant classifier (PCA-LDA), tabu search/nearest neighbor classifier (TS-1NN), and bagging/boosting with decision tree (C4.5) classifier. PMID:17044412

  18. The grand experiment, a historical account of a museum/school partnership: The Alexander Science Center School of Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heughins, Andrew R.

    This study tells the history of The Alexander Science Center School, a museum/school partnership between the Los Angeles Unified School District and the California Science Center created with the goal of becoming a national model in elementary science education. To provide a background to the development of the school, this study explores the definition of what constitutes a museum school, including the existence of a formal partnership between a school district and a museum and systemic change in the partner institutions leading to a marriage of formal and informal learning styles. In addition, the literature review explores the unique models of museum/school partnerships developed in the United States. The history of the Alexander Science Center School is told in a narrative style using documentation from the schools development and through interviews with individuals who played key roles, from the schools inception through its opening. The study covers the initiation of concept, architectural design, formation of the partnership, and development of the curriculum. The study also identifies the roadblocks encountered in the schools development and makes recommendations for school districts and institutions seeking to create future museum school projects. In addition, a comparison is made other recently studied museum schools to provide a context for the school's historical and programmatic development.

  19. Results from an International Measurement Round Robin of III-V Triple Junction Solar Cells under Air Mass Zero

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, Chris; Goodbody, Chris; Baur, Carsten; Sharps, Paul; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Yoo, Henry; Sahlstrom, Ted; Walters, Robert; Lorentzen, Justin; Nocerino, John; Khan, Osman; Cravens, Robert; Valles, Juan; Toporow, Chantal; Gomez, Trinidad,; Bazan, Loreto Pazos; Bailey, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an international measurement round robin of monolithic, triple-junction, GaInP/GaAs/Ge space solar cells. Eight laboratories representing national labs, solar cell vendors and space solar cell consumers, measured cells using in-house reference cells and compared those results to measurements made where each lab used the same set of reference cells. The results show that most of the discrepancy between laboratories is likely due to the quality of the standard cells rather than the measurement system or solar simulator used.

  20. The influence of magnetic total intensity and inclination on directions preferred by migrating European robins (Erithacus rubecula)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiltschko, W.

    1972-01-01

    The directional orientation of migratory European robins in relation to magnetic cues is analyzed. Major efforts were made to determine what information the birds derive from the fields. It was determined that magnetic fields provide: (1) field intensity which determines whether the magnetic field can be used for orientation, (2) a means by which axial direction may be perceived, and (3) a means by which the bird can find the north direction. The north direction is sensed from the angle between gravity and the magnetic field.

  1. Analysis of Round Robin Test for Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement of Wall Thinned Pipe in Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Joon; Lee, Joon-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Ho

    2008-02-01

    It is well recognized that one of the most serious problems on the maintenance of piping system in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is the wall thinning of carbon steel pipe components. The objective of this research is to verify confidence of wall thinning measurement system by conducting Round Robin Test (RRT). 23 specimens with different size and shape of pipe were used according to standard practice in RRT. The gage R&R analysis was introduced for each sigma quality level, so that repeatability and reproducibility can be estimated from RRT results.

  2. Robustness of the round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum-key-distribution protocol against source flaws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Akihiro; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a new type of quantum key distribution, called the round-robin differential-phase-shift (RRDPS) protocol [T. Sasaki et al., Nature (London) 509, 475 (2014), 10.1038/nature13303], was proposed, where the security can be guaranteed without monitoring any statistics. In this Rapid Communication, we investigate source imperfections and side-channel attacks on the source of this protocol. We show that only three assumptions are needed for the security, and no detailed characterizations of the source or the side-channel attacks are needed. This high robustness is another striking advantage of the RRDPS protocol over other protocols.

  3. Resonant alteration of propagation in guiding structures with complex Robin parameter and its magnetic-field-induced restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Olendski, O.

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Solutions of the wave equation are analyzed for the confined circular geometry with complex Robin boundary conditions. > Sharp extremum is found in the energy dependence on the imaginary part of the extrapolation length. > Nonzero real part of the Robin length or/and magnetic field wipe out the resonance. - Abstract: Solutions of the scalar Helmholtz wave equation are derived for the analysis of the transport and thermodynamic properties of the two-dimensional disk and three-dimensional infinitely long straight wire in the external uniform longitudinal magnetic field B under the assumption that the Robin boundary condition contains extrapolation length {Lambda} with nonzero imaginary part {Lambda}{sub i}. As a result of this complexity, the self-adjointness of the Hamiltonian is lost, its eigenvalues E become complex too and the discrete bound states of the disk characteristic for the real {Lambda} turn into the corresponding quasibound states with their lifetime defined by the eigenenergies imaginary parts E{sub i}. Accordingly, the longitudinal flux undergoes an alteration as it flows along the wire with its attenuation/amplification being E{sub i}-dependent too. It is shown that, for zero magnetic field, the component E{sub i} as a function of the Robin imaginary part exhibits a pronounced sharp extremum with its magnitude being the largest for the zero real part {Lambda}{sub r} of the extrapolation length. Increasing magnitude of {Lambda}{sub r} quenches the E{sub i} - {Lambda}{sub i} resonance and at very large {Lambda}{sub r} the eigenenergies E approach the asymptotic real values independent of {Lambda}{sub i}. The extremum is also wiped out by the magnetic field when, for the large B, the energies tend to the Landau levels. Mathematical and physical interpretations of the obtained results are provided; in particular, it is shown that the finite lifetime of the disk quasibound states stems from the {Lambda}{sub i}-induced currents flowing

  4. Analysis of soil samples for chemical warfare agents: Canadian contribution to a multinational round-robin analytical exercise. Memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    D'Agostino, P.A.; Provost, L.R.; Sawyer, T.W.; Weiss, M.T.

    1990-04-01

    VX and two VX related compounds, diethyl methylphosphonate and bis(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl) disulfide, were confirmed at the 2 to 40 micrograms/gram level as the principal components in three of four soil samples distributed by Finland as part of a multinational round robin exercise designed to evaluate laboratory methodologies. Several other compounds related to VX, were also identified in extracts of the soil samples. Keywords: Gas chromatography, Canada, Soil samples, Diethyl methylphosphonate, Mass spectrometry, Bis(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl) disulfide, Bioassay, Defence research establishment suffield(dres), VX, Military chemical agents, International relations, Neuron, Tissue culture, Chemical agent detection.

  5. An assessment of DDT and other chlorinated compounds and the reproductive success of American robins (Turdus migratonrius) breeding in fruit orchards.

    PubMed

    Gill, Harpreet; Wilson, Laurie K; Cheng, Kimberly M; Elliott, John E

    2003-01-01

    Although DDT was banned in the 1970s, American robins (Turdus migratorius) breeding in fruit orchards of the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, continue to be contaminated with DDT and its metabolites. The objectives of our study were (1) to assess organochlorine (OC) contamination in robins breeding in Okanagan orchards (1993-1995, 1997-1998) and (2) to determine if exposure affected reproductive success when compared to robins from non-orchard habitat (lower mainland, British Columbia). Robins in orchards had total DDT egg residues of 48.64 mg/kg (geometric mean; n = 92) while those in non-orchard habitat had 1.10 mg/kg (geometric mean; n = 26), wet weight. The probability of nest survival during the incubation period was 96.7% (confidence interval: 95.7-97.5%; n = 165) in orchard habitat and 96.7% (confidence interval: 94.6-98.1%; n = 28) in non-orchard habitat. During the nestling period the probability of nest survival was 98.2% (confidence interval: 97.2-98.9%; n = 123) in orchard habitat and 96.2% (confidence interval: 92.8-98.0%; n = 34) in non-orchard habitat. Clutch (p < 0.0001) and brood size (p = 0.0133) were larger in orchards (n = 150 and n = 93, respectively) compared to non-orchard nests (n = 42 and n = 23, respectively) with no difference in fledge rate. DDE (r2 = 0.11, p = 0.0030, n = 68) and dieldrin (r2 = 0.29, p < 0.0001, n = 68) were negatively correlated with fledge rate in robin eggs collected from orchard habitat, however, low r2 values signify minimal biological significance. Although American robins nesting in Okanagan orchards are exposed to high OC levels, reproductive success does not appear to be negatively impacted. PMID:12739861

  6. Contraceptive use and perceptions of chance and ability of conceiving in women electing abortion.

    PubMed

    Klein, P M

    1983-01-01

    A convenient sample of 32 women seeking abortion was studied to determine the relationship between a woman's use of birth control and her perception of her chance and ability of conceiving. Subjects were between the ages of 16 and 29 years, white, unmarried, and gravida one. The Consistency Chance and Ability inventory, a self-report questionnaire, was completed by each subject. The data show a relationship between a woman's use of birth control and her perception of her chance and ability of conceiving. How nurses can assist women in making choices about contraceptive use is discussed. PMID:6553106

  7. Explicating a gut feel--Benchmarking the chance for exploration success

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.A. )

    1994-12-26

    There is a 50--50 chance for adequate trap, seal, source, reservoir, and the likelihood for oil. So, the probability for a successful oil find is 3%. A checklist of 33 inquiries is offered as a yardstick for measuring the adequacy of petroleum prospect factor conditions. Each of the inquiries is a part of an overall test that good prospects should pass. Application of the checklist results in probability assignments to the chance for commercial exploration success. The paper discusses exploration forecasts, industry standards, prospect assessment critical paths, historical rates of success, exploration yardsticks, the checklist, applying the checklist, a case study, and its chance for commerciality.

  8. CHANCE: comprehensive software for quality control and validation of ChIP-seq data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    ChIP-seq is a powerful method for obtaining genome-wide maps of protein-DNA interactions and epigenetic modifications. CHANCE (CHip-seq ANalytics and Confidence Estimation) is a standalone package for ChIP-seq quality control and protocol optimization. Our user-friendly graphical software quickly estimates the strength and quality of immunoprecipitations, identifies biases, compares the user's data with ENCODE's large collection of published datasets, performs multi-sample normalization, checks against quantitative PCR-validated control regions, and produces informative graphical reports. CHANCE is available at https://github.com/songlab/chance. PMID:23068444

  9. Results of the "carbon conference" international aerosol carbon round robin test stage I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Heidrun; Laskus, Lothar; Jürgen Abraham, Hans; Baltensperger, Urs; Lavanchy, Vincent; Bizjak, Mirko; Burba, Peter; Cachier, Helene; Crow, Dale; Chow, Judith; Gnauk, Thomas; Even, Arja; ten Brink, H. M.; Giesen, Klaus-Peter; Hitzenberger, Regina; Hueglin, Christoph; Maenhaut, Willy; Pio, Casimiro; Carvalho, Abel; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Toom-Sauntry, Desiree; Puxbaum, Hans

    An international round robin test on the analysis of carbonaceous aerosols on quartz fiber filters sampled at an urban site was organized by the Vienna University of Technology. Seventeen laboratories participated using nine different thermal and optical methods. For the analysis of total carbon (TC), a good agreement of the values obtained by all laboratories was found (7 and 9% r.s.d.) with only two outliers in the complete data set. In contrast the results of the determination of elemental carbon (EC) in two not pre-extracted samples were highly variable ranging over more than one order of magnitude and the relative standard deviations (r.s.d.) of the means were 36.6 and 45.5%. The laboratories that obtained similar results by using methods which reduce the charring artifact were put together to a new data set in order to approach a "real EC" value. The new data set consisting of the results of 10 laboratories using seven different methods showed 16 and 24% lower averages and r.s.d. of 14 and 24% for the two not pre-extracted samples. Taking the current filters as "equivalents" for urban aerosol samples we conclude that the following methods can be used for the analysis of EC in carbonaceous aerosols: thermal methods with an optical feature to correct for charring during pyrolysis, two-step thermal procedures reducing charring during pyrolysis, the VDI 2465/1 method (removal of OC by solvent extraction and thermodesorption in nitrogen) and the VDI 2465/2 method (combustion of OC and EC at different temperatures) with an additional pre-extraction with a dimethyl formamide (DMF)/toluene mixture. Only thermal methods without any correction for charring during pyrolysis and the VDI 2465/2 method were outside the range of twice the standard deviation of the new data set. For a filter sample pre-extracted with the DMF/toluene mixture the average and r.s.d. from all laboratories (20.7 μgC; 24.4% r.s.d.) was very similar as for the laboratory set reduced to 10

  10. Bilateral Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis in the Neonate with Pierre Robin Sequence and Airway Obstruction: A Primary Option

    PubMed Central

    Zenha, Horácio; Azevedo, Luis; Rios, Leonor; Pereira, Alberto; Pinto, Armindo; Barroso, Maria Luz; Costa, Horácio

    2012-01-01

    Children with craniofacial abnormalities associated with retromicrognathia and glossoptosis often have compromised upper airway flow. In severe cases, emergency intubation is necessary immediately after birth, and tracheostomy is advocated to manage the airway in the neonatal period and to allow for feeding. Early intervention with bilateral mandibular osteogenesis avoids the need for tracheostomy, along with its complications, and it targets the primary etiologic factor of the problem—the anomalous anatomy of the mandible. We report two neonates with severe Pierre Robin sequence managed with bilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis on day 9 and day 11 of life. The surgical techniques and distraction and consolidation periods were similar apart from the distraction devices used. The procedures were successful with early extubation (day 5 and day 7), oral feeding tolerance (day 11 and day 13) and hospital discharge (day 19 and day 18). Total mandibular distraction was 19 mm and 23.45 mm, respectively. No major complications were reported. Medium to long-term results were good. Bilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis in the neonate is a safe and accurate procedure and is the primary option in cases of selected severe Pierre Robin sequence. PMID:23450076

  11. Do patients with isolated Pierre Robin Sequence have worse outcomes after cleft palate repair: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wan, Teng; Chen, Yang; Wang, Guomin

    2015-08-01

    Cleft palate repair for Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) patients has always been a challenge for surgeons and anesthetists. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the outcome of cleft palate repair for PRS patients compared with cleft palate-only patients. All papers published before October 2014 were searched in the databases PubMed and MEDLINE. Search terms included "Pierre Robin Sequence," "cleft palate repair," and "speech result." Additional studies were identified by hand searching the reference lists of the papers retrieved from electronic search. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of the studies. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. All but one study had multiple deficiencies in study designs. Four studies assessed the fistula rate of both groups, and all studies assessed some aspect of the speech results. Conflicting results and a lack of high-quality and long-term outcomes of reviewed studies provided no conclusive scientific evidence about whether the outcome of cleft palate repair for PRS patients was better or worse than cleft palate-only patients. Further well-designed, well-controlled, and long-term studies are needed. PMID:26187812

  12. Round-robin evaluation of nadir ozone profile retrievals: methodology and application to MetOp-A GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, A.; Lambert, J.-C.; Granville, J.; Miles, G.; Siddans, R.; van Peet, J. C. A.; van der A, R. J.; Hubert, D.; Verhoelst, T.; Delcloo, A.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Kivi, R.; Stubi, R.; Zehner, C.

    2015-05-01

    A methodology for the round-robin evaluation and the geophysical validation of ozone profile data retrieved from nadir UV backscatter satellite measurements is detailed and discussed, consisting of data set content studies, information content studies, co-location studies, and comparisons with reference measurements. Within the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative on ozone (Ozone_cci project), the proposed round-robin procedure is applied to two nadir ozone profile data sets retrieved at the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL, United Kingdom), using their respective OPERA v1.26 and RAL v2.1 optimal estimation algorithms, from MetOp-A GOME-2 (i.e. the second generation Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment on the first Meteorological Operational Satellite) measurements taken in 2008. The ground-based comparisons use ozonesonde and lidar profiles as reference data, acquired by the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde programme (SHADOZ), and other stations of the World Meteorological Organisation's Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO GAW). This direct illustration highlights practical issues that inevitably emerge from discrepancies in e.g. profile representation and vertical smoothing, for which different recipes are investigated and discussed. Several approaches for information content quantification, vertical resolution estimation, and reference profile resampling are compared and applied as well. The paper concludes with compliance estimates of the two GOME-2 ozone profile data sets with user requirements from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and from climate modellers.

  13. State estimation for a class of artificial neural networks with stochastically corrupted measurements under Round-Robin protocol.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuqiang; Wang, Zidong; Wei, Guoliang; Alsaadi, Fuad E; Hayat, Tasawar

    2016-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the state estimation problem for a class of artificial neural networks (ANNs) without the assumptions of monotonicity or differentiability of the activation functions. The measured outputs are corrupted by stochastic noise signal whose intensity is quantified by a nonlinear function. In order to accommodate the bandwidth limit of the communication channel between the ANN and the state estimator, an equal allocation scheme (i.e. Round-Robin protocol) of the communication resource is employed to effectively mitigate data congestions and save energies. A set of zero-order holders (ZOHs) is utilized to store the received measurements, such that the utilization of the received measurements can be maximized. An update matrix approach is developed to handle the time-varying yet periodic time-delays resulting from the adoption of the Round-Robin protocol. The aim of the proposed problem is to design a state estimator such that the error dynamics is exponentially ultimately bounded. A combination of the Lyapunov stability theory and the stochastic analysis technique is used to derive some easy-to-test conditions for the existence of the desired state estimator. The estimator gains are characterized by the solution to a convex optimization problem that is solved via the semi-definite programme method. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed estimation approach. PMID:26930589

  14. Evaluation of NDE Round-Robin Exercises Using the NRC Steam Generator Mockup at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Muscara, Joseph; Kupperman, David S.; Bakhtiari, Sasab; Park, Jang-Yul; Shack, William J.

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses round-robin exercises using the NRC steam generator (SG) mock-up at Argonne National Laboratory to assess inspection reliability. The purpose of the round robins was to assess the current reliability of SG tubing inservice inspection, determine the probability of detection (POD) as function of flaw size or severity, and assess the capability for sizing of flaws. For the round robin and subsequent evaluation completed in 2001, eleven teams participated. Bobbin and rotating coil mock-up data collected by qualified industry personnel were evaluated. The mock-up contains hundreds of cracks and simulations of artifacts such as corrosion deposits and tube support plates that make detection and characterization of cracks more difficult in operating steam generators than in most laboratory situations. An expert Task Group from industry, Argonne National Laboratory, and the NRC have reviewed the signals from the laboratory-grown cracks used in the mock-up to ensure that they provide reasonable simulations of those obtained in the field. The mock-up contains 400 tube openings. Each tube contains nine 22.2-mm (7/8-in.) diameter, 30.5-cm (1-ft) long, Alloy 600 test sections. The flaws are located in the tube sheet near the roll transition zone (RTZ), in the tube support plate (TSP), and in the free-span. The flaws are primarily intergranular stress corrosion cracks (axial and circumferential, ID and OD) though intergranular attack (IGA) wear and fatigue cracks are also present, as well as cracks in dents. In addition to the simulated tube sheet and TSP the mock-up has simulated sludge and magnetite deposits. A multiparameter eddy current algorithm, validated for mock-up flaws, provided a detailed isometric plot for every flaw and was used to establish the reference state of defects in the mock-up. The detection results for the 11 teams were used to develop POD curves as a function of maximum depth, voltage and the parameter m p, for the various types of

  15. Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, Stroke, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, Stroke, Study Suggests But there was a slightly ... aromatase inhibitors doesn't raise the risk of heart attacks and strokes among breast cancer survivors, a new ...

  16. Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, Stroke, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158441.html Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, ... the risk of heart attacks and strokes among breast cancer survivors, a new study suggests. However, the researchers ...

  17. Chance between holism and reductionism: tensions in the conceptualisation of Life.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Charles T

    2012-09-01

    In debates between holism and reductionism in biology, from the early twentieth century to more recent re-enactments involving genetic reductionism, developmental systems theory or systems biology, the role of chance - the presence of theories invoking chance as a strong explanatory principle - is hardly ever acknowledged. Conversely, Darwinian models of chance and selection (Dennett, 1995; Kupiec, 1996, 2009) sit awkwardly with reductionist and holistic concepts, which they alternately challenge or approve of. I suggest that the juxtaposition of chance and the holism-reductionism pair (at multiple levels, ontological and methodological, pertaining to the vision of scientific practice as well as to the foundations of a vision of Nature, implicit or explicit) allows the theorist to shed some new light on these perennial tensions in the conceptualisation of Life. PMID:22613260

  18. In vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activity of native and ricin conjugated monoclonal antibodies to HBs antigen for Alexander primary liver cell carcinoma cells and tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Oladapo, J M; Goodall, A H; de Koning, R; Parmar, J; Brown, D; Thomas, H C

    1984-01-01

    In in vitro and in vivo systems, native or ricin conjugated monoclonal anti-HBs, are capable of inhibiting or slowing the growth of Alexander primary hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Failure of the immune response to this component of the hepatitis B virus may be one permissive factor in the development of some primary liver cell carcinoma in chronic HBV carriers. PMID:6329921

  19. Alexander Graham Bell's Patent for the Telephone and Thomas Edison's Patent for the Electric Lamp. The Constitution Community: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schur, Joan Brodsky

    In 1876 Americans held a Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) to celebrate the nation's birth 100 years earlier. Machinery Hall drew the most admiration and wonder. Alexander Graham Bell exhibited the first telephone, and Thomas Alva Edison presented the automatic telegraph, one of more than 1,000 inventions he would patent in his…

  20. Prevention and Early Intervention: Individual Differences as Risk Factors for the Mental Health of Children. A Festschrift for Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, William B., Ed.; McDevitt, Sean C., Ed.

    This collection of essays, in honor of child psychiatry pioneers Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas, focuses on their idea that important life outcomes are the product of ongoing interactions between a child's behavioral style and the complimentarity or lack of fit of the parenting environment. Following an introduction, the remaining chapters are:…

  1. The Question of Sign-Language and the Utility of Signs in the Instruction of the Deaf: Two Papers by Alexander Graham Bell (1898)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, M.

    2005-01-01

    Alexander Graham Bell is often portrayed as either hero or villain of deaf individuals and the Deaf community. His writings, however, indicate that he was neither, and was not as clearly definite in his beliefs about language as is often supposed. The following two articles, reprinted from The Educator (1898), Vol. V, pp. 3?4 and pp. 38?44,…

  2. Linguistic Values and Religious Experience: An Analysis of the Clothing Metaphors in Alexander Richardson's Ramist-Puritan Lectures on Speech, "Speech is a garment to cloath our reason."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John Charles

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes Alexander Richardson's clothing metaphors which connected Ramist precepts to social values and philosophic assumptions drawn from the fields of fashion, psychology, and Puritan theology. Describes how these metaphors presented the Puritan community with an orientation toward listening and inculcated the Puritan speech community with…

  3. Discuss: If Essays Are Dead, Then Where Does That Leave Everything Else? A Response to: Shirley Alexander's "Buying Essays: How to Make Sure Assessment Is Authentic"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Professor Shirley Alexander is the Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Vice-President (Teaching, Learning & Equity) at the University of Technology, Sydney. On 12 November 2014, an article of hers appeared in "The Conversation": "Buying essays: how to make sure assessment is authentic." That article traverses, in an abbreviated way,…

  4. James Sowerby: meteorites and his meteoritic sword made for the Emperor of Russia, Alexander I, in 1814

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    James Sowerby included meteorites in his publications of British and exotic natural history and so raised interest in their nature and origins at a time of much debate and involving the President of the Royal Society, Sir Joseph Banks. The celebrations over the defeat of France in 1814 prompted Sowerby to make a sword from the Cape of Good Hope iron meteorite to present to the Russian Emperor, Alexander I, at the time of his state visit to London in June 1814 and in recognition of his achievements in bringing peace to Europe. The story of its attempted presentation, its final reception and the following response, including publications, all helped to increase interest in meteorites and their properties. The rediscovery of the sword after a lengthy disappearance probably brings an unusual saga to a fitting close.

  5. Map of glacial limits and possible refugia in the southern Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, during the late Wisconsin glaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, Paul E.; Ager, Thomas A.; Baichtal, James F.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2003-01-01

    During the late Wisconsin glaciation (circa 26,000-13,000 carbon-14 yr BP) the Cordilleran glacier complex formed vast ice fields and large glaciers along the crest of the Coast Mountains. As these glaciers flowed west to the Pacific Ocean, they were joined by local glaciers originating on the higher reaches of the Alexander Archipelago (Mann and Hamiltion, 1995). This extensive volume of ice was channeled into deep troughs (present-day fiords) that formed major outlet glaciers, such as the glaciers that occupied Chatham Strait and Dixon Entrance. In several places along the coast, deep glacially scoured submarine troughs indicate that glaciers reached to the edge of the continental shelf. For instance, the glacier that extended into the Dixon Entrance trough is known to have extended to the edge of the continental shelf. Its retreat began sometime after 16,000-15,000 carbon-14 yr BP (Barrie and Conway, 1999).

  6. The evolution of ultrahigh carbon steels - from the Great Pyramids, to Alexander the Great, to Y2K

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J

    1999-10-01

    Hypereutectoid steels containing between about 1 and 2.1 wt%C, and now known as ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCS), have both a rich history (dating back to the time of Alexander the Great, i.e. {approximately} 300 BC) and an interesting, recent, technological period of development (from 1975 to the present). The connections between the modern UHCS and their ancient counterparts, and in particular Damascus steels, have received considerable attention. In addition to monolithic products, UHCS have also been used in both ancient and modern times in laminated composites. In the present paper, a summary of the modern development of UHCS and UHCS-containing laminates is given, and parallels are drawn with ancient materials. Also, ancient laminated composites containing other steels are described; controversial issues and a possible solution related to the age of such a laminate found in the Great Pyramid of Gizeh are discussed.

  7. The appearance of the artist to the people: the creativity, personality and malady of Alexander Ivanov (1806-58).

    PubMed

    Lerner, Vladimir; Witztum, Eliezer

    2005-02-01

    Alexander Ivanov was an outstanding Russian painter who lived in the middle of the nineteenth century, during the romantic period. He did not accept romanticism but instead tried to create his own original style, an ambitious combination of spiritual profundity and a manner of execution unparalleled in Western European art. Ivanov's intention and style are best reflected in his major work The Appearance of Christ to the People, a picture on which he worked for over 20 years. He painted more than 400 sketches of the picture while attempting to bring his masterpiece to perfection. At the end of his life Ivanov became disillusioned, renounced his strong religious conviction and became suspicious. This study examines the influence of his background, life story and personality on the creative process. From a diagnostic perspective, Ivanov's personality featured obsessive, narcissistic and schizoid traits. In his final years he suffered from a delusional disorder. PMID:15682233

  8. Forced sea-level change in a forearc basin related to subduction of a spreading ridge: the Fossil Bluff Group (Jurassic-Cretaceous), Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, David

    2015-04-01

    During the Mesozoic, the Antarctic Peninsula was the site of an active volcanic arc related to the eastwards subduction of proto-Pacific oceanic crust. Alexander Island is the largest of the many islands that lie on the western (fore-arc) side of the Antarctic Peninsula; it forms one of the best-exposed ancient fore-arcs in the world. The pre-Tertiary rocks can be divided into two main units. The LeMay Group (Jurassic-Tertiary) forms the structural basement to Alexander Island and comprises greenschist-facies metasedimentary rocks. It is interpreted as a Mesozoic accretionary prism. The Fossil Bluff Group unconformably overlies and is faulted against the LeMay Group; it represents the sedimentary fill of a coeval fore-arc basin. Subduction ceased due to a series of Cenozoic ridge-trench collisions which began off Alexander Island at 50 Ma and got progressively younger to the north. However, the approach of the ridge can be inferred from the Mesozoic deposits of the Fossil Bluff Group (Jurassic-Cretaceous) in Alexander Island. In this paper, I will show that the ocean floor being subducted became progressively shallower through Jurassic and Cretaceous time (by at least 1,000 m). The result in the forearc basin was a sudden shallowing in water depths from at least 1,000 m at 125 Ma, to emergent at 100 Ma. This forced shallowing ended sedimentation in the basin and resulted in considerable topography on Alexander Island that persists to the present day.

  9. A 9-11 Perspective: "Connect for Kids" Editor Susan Phillips Interviews Robin Goodman. Connect for Kids: Guidance for Grown-Ups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan

    As a child psychologist based at New York University in Manhattan, Dr. Robin Goodman is well-placed to understand the myriad ways children have been affected by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, and the many strategies they have found to cope or to avoid dealing with the trauma. This article presents an interview with Dr. Goodman in which…

  10. Organochlorine insecticide residues and PCBs in tissues of woodcock, mourning doves, and robins from east-central, Illinois, 1978-79

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.R.; Duzan, R.E.; Siemers, R.J.

    1983-10-01

    Reported here are levels in ppm of heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE (DDE), and PCB residues assayed in muscle, heart, liver, brain, and fatty tissues of woodcock (Philohelo minor), mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura), and robins (Turdus migratorium) from east-central Illinois in 1978 and 1979.

  11. Results of x-ray mirror round-robin metrology measurements at the APS, ESRF, and SPring-8 optical metrology laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Assoufid, L.; Rommeveaux, A.; Ohashi, H.; Yamauchi, K.; Mimura, H.; Qian, J.; Hignette, O.; Ishikawa, T.; Morawe, C.; Macrander, A.T.; Khounsary, A.; Goto, S.; Experimental Facilities Division; ESRF; SPring-8; Osaka Univ.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the first series of round-robin metrology measurements of x-ray mirrors organized at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the USA, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France, and the Super Photon Ring (SPring-8) (in a collaboration with Osaka University, ) in Japan. This work is part of the three institutions' three-way agreement to promote a direct exchange of research information and experience amongst their specialists. The purpose of the metrology round robin is to compare the performance and limitations of the instrumentation used at the optical metrology laboratories of these facilities and to set the basis for establishing guidelines and procedures to accurately perform the measurements. The optics used in the measurements were selected to reflect typical, as well as state of the art, in mirror fabrication. The first series of the round robin measurements focuses on flat and cylindrical mirrors with varying sizes and quality. Three mirrors (two flats and one cylinder) were successively measured using long trace profilers. Although the three facilities' LTPs are of different design, the measurements were found to be in excellent agreement. The maximum discrepancy of the rms slope error values is 0.1 {micro}rad, that of the rms shape error was 3 nm, and they all relate to the measurement of the cylindrical mirror. The next round-robin measurements will deal with elliptical and spherical optics.

  12. A round-robin gamma stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry interinstitution comparison of calibration protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Drzymala, R. E.; Alvarez, P. E.; Bednarz, G.; Bourland, J. D.; DeWerd, L. A.; Ma, L.; Meltsner, S. G.; Neyman, G.; Novotny, J.; Petti, P. L.; Rivard, M. J.; Shiu, A. S.; Goetsch, S. J.

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Absorbed dose calibration for gamma stereotactic radiosurgery is challenging due to the unique geometric conditions, dosimetry characteristics, and nonstandard field size of these devices. Members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 178 on Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance have participated in a round-robin exchange of calibrated measurement instrumentation and phantoms exploring two approved and two proposed calibration protocols or formalisms on ten gamma radiosurgery units. The objectives of this study were to benchmark and compare new formalisms to existing calibration methods, while maintaining traceability to U.S. primary dosimetry calibration laboratory standards. Methods: Nine institutions made measurements using ten gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units in three different 160 mm diameter spherical phantoms [acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic, Solid Water, and liquid water] and in air using a positioning jig. Two calibrated miniature ionization chambers and one calibrated electrometer were circulated for all measurements. Reference dose-rates at the phantom center were determined using the well-established AAPM TG-21 or TG-51 dose calibration protocols and using two proposed dose calibration protocols/formalisms: an in-air protocol and a formalism proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) working group for small and nonstandard radiation fields. Each institution’s results were normalized to the dose-rate determined at that institution using the TG-21 protocol in the ABS phantom. Results: Percentages of dose-rates within 1.5% of the reference dose-rate (TG-21 + ABS phantom) for the eight chamber-protocol-phantom combinations were the following: 88% for TG-21, 70% for TG-51, 93% for the new IAEA nonstandard-field formalism, and 65% for the new in-air protocol. Averages and standard deviations for dose-rates over all measurements relative to the TG-21 + ABS

  13. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Z. Q. J.; Lowhorn, N. D.; Wong-Ng, W.; Zhang, W.; Thomas, E. L.; Otani, M.; Green, M. L.; Tran, T. N.; Caylor, C.; Dilley, N. R.; Downey, A.; Edwards, B.; Elsner, N.; Ghamaty, S.; Hogan, T.; Jie, Q.; Li, Q.; Martin, J.; Nolas, G.; Obara, H.; Sharp, J.; Venkatasubramanian, R.; Willigan, R.; Yang, J.; Tritt, T.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™) for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials—undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy). Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  14. Surgical Management of Pierre Robin Sequence: Using Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis to Address Hypoventilation and Failure to Thrive in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Scott, Andrew R

    2016-04-01

    Mandibular hypoplasia may present in isolation or in the context of glossoptosis and a U-shaped, incomplete cleft palate. This latter triad is referred to as Pierre Robin sequence. Deleterious effects of micrognathia that may present during infancy are due primarily to glossoptosis or posterior displacement of the tongue. This tongue base prolapse may cause varying degrees of upper airway obstruction. A surgical option for management of tongue base airway obstruction secondary to mandibular hypoplasia is neonatal mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Herein, the author seeks to outline the benefits and limitations of early mandibular distraction osteogenesis as a way of managing airway obstruction and feeding difficulty in newborns with micrognathia. A description of the author's operative technique as well as potential complications and pitfalls will also be discussed. PMID:27097139

  15. Practical Quantum Private Database Queries Based on Passive Round-Robin Differential Phase-shift Quantum Key Distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Yang, Yu-Guang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    A novel quantum private database query protocol is proposed, based on passive round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution. Compared with previous quantum private database query protocols, the present protocol has the following unique merits: (i) the user Alice can obtain one and only one key bit so that both the efficiency and security of the present protocol can be ensured, and (ii) it does not require to change the length difference of the two arms in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and just chooses two pulses passively to interfere with so that it is much simpler and more practical. The present protocol is also proved to be secure in terms of the user security and database security. PMID:27539654

  16. Practical Quantum Private Database Queries Based on Passive Round-Robin Differential Phase-shift Quantum Key Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Yang, Yu-Guang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    A novel quantum private database query protocol is proposed, based on passive round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution. Compared with previous quantum private database query protocols, the present protocol has the following unique merits: (i) the user Alice can obtain one and only one key bit so that both the efficiency and security of the present protocol can be ensured, and (ii) it does not require to change the length difference of the two arms in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and just chooses two pulses passively to interfere with so that it is much simpler and more practical. The present protocol is also proved to be secure in terms of the user security and database security. PMID:27539654

  17. Conformance of clinical practice to established recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolic disease: Robin revisited.

    PubMed

    White, T M; Kellis, D S; Hightower, S F

    1994-01-01

    Over a decade ago, Dr. Robin expressed concern regarding overdiagnosis and overtreatment of pulmonary embolism. Since that time, significant advances have been forthcoming in the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolic disease. Using Continuous Quality Improvement concepts, this study revisits Robin's concerns and assesses the conformance of clinical practice at one institution with established requirements for the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolic disease to identify remaining opportunities to improve care. The study design is a retrospective chart review. Medical records of all patients (N = 63) discharged from a university-affiliated teaching hospital from 7/1/89 to 6/30/90 with a diagnosis of primary venous thromboembolic disease were studied. Requirements for the diagnosis and treatment were established through review of the medical literature. Conformance to these requirements was assessed and described. Descriptive statistics were used. Only 7 of 63 charts (11%) met all requirements for the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolic disease. Fifty-six charts (89%) failed to meet at least one criterion. There was no evidence of overdiagnosis of venous thromboembolic disease in patients with a discharge diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (N = 17). Eight of 62 patients (13%) demonstrated potential overdiagnosis of venous thromboembolic disease involving the lower extremities. Nine of 60 (15%) heparin therapies demonstrated significant nonconformance to recommendations. Fifty-four of 59 (91%) warfarin therapies failed to conform to recommendations. Eighty-three percent of these warfarin errors were considered to be technical. However, 17% were determined to be clinically significant. Of 5 patients treated with a transvenous filter device, 1 failed to meet therapeutic requirements. No patients received thrombolytic therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7819822

  18. Teaching and Learning the Interplay Between Chance and Determinism in Nonlinear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrou, Dimitrios; Duit, Reinders

    2014-02-01

    That the interplay of random and deterministic processes may result in both the limited predictability of nonlinear systems and the formation of structures seems to be a most valuable general insight into the nature of science. This study investigates the possibility of teaching and learning the interplay of chance and determinism in nonlinear systems in school science instruction. An analysis of the relevant scientific literature and an explorative learning process study with 30 11th-grade students are included. Three experiments displaying the behaviour of nonlinear systems (deterministic chaos, self-organization and fractals) and one experiment demonstrating the behaviour of linear systems were discussed using a teaching experiment design. The findings show that although the majority of students initially considered chance and determinism as contradictory conceptions, they finally developed sound explanations concerning the interplay of chance and determinism in the investigated nonlinear systems.

  19. On meeting capital requirements with a chance-constrained optimization model.

    PubMed

    Atta Mills, Ebenezer Fiifi Emire; Yu, Bo; Gu, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a capital to risk asset ratio chance-constrained optimization model in the presence of loans, treasury bill, fixed assets and non-interest earning assets. To model the dynamics of loans, we introduce a modified CreditMetrics approach. This leads to development of a deterministic convex counterpart of capital to risk asset ratio chance constraint. We pursue the scope of analyzing our model under the worst-case scenario i.e. loan default. The theoretical model is analyzed by applying numerical procedures, in order to administer valuable insights from a financial outlook. Our results suggest that, our capital to risk asset ratio chance-constrained optimization model guarantees banks of meeting capital requirements of Basel III with a likelihood of 95 % irrespective of changes in future market value of assets. PMID:27186464

  20. A tractable approximation of non-convex chance constrained optimization with non-Gaussian uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geletu, Abebe; Klöppel, Michael; Hoffmann, Armin; Li, Pu

    2015-04-01

    Chance constrained optimization problems in engineering applications possess highly nonlinear process models and non-convex structures. As a result, solving a nonlinear non-convex chance constrained optimization (CCOPT) problem remains as a challenging task. The major difficulty lies in the evaluation of probability values and gradients of inequality constraints which are nonlinear functions of stochastic variables. This article proposes a novel analytic approximation to improve the tractability of smooth non-convex chance constraints. The approximation uses a smooth parametric function to define a sequence of smooth nonlinear programs (NLPs). The sequence of optimal solutions of these NLPs remains always feasible and converges to the solution set of the CCOPT problem. Furthermore, Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) points of the approximating problems converge to a subset of KKT points of the CCOPT problem. Another feature of this approach is that it can handle uncertainties with both Gaussian and/or non-Gaussian distributions.

  1. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit Keynote Presentation (Frederick W. Smith, FedEx Corporation), with Introduction by Senator Lamar Alexander (TN)

    ScienceCinema

    Smith, Frederick W. (FedEx Corporation, Chairman, President and CEO)

    2014-04-09

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. Following introduction by Senator Lamar Alexander of Tennessee, Frederick W. Smith, Chairman, President, and CEO of FedEx Corporation, gave the third keynote presentation of the day.

  2. Using the Alexander Collection to measure the effects of climate change on the grasshoppers of the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nufio, C. R.; Bowers, D. M.; Guralnick, R. P.

    2007-12-01

    The current study utilizes the recently curated and databased Alexander Grasshopper Collection coupled with a new resurvey program to measure the effects of climate change on grasshoppers found along an elevational gradient in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. The Alexander Collection is composed of approximately 19,000 pinned grasshoppers and a series of field data notebooks from a three year 1958-1960 survey project. During these survey years, Alexander processed over 65,000 grasshoppers from repeatedly sampled sites along an elevational gradient from Boulder (1530 m elev.) to Mt Evans (3900m elev.) in the Colorado Front Range. Data from 2006 shows that at mid-elevation sites grasshoppers are becoming adults 15-28 days earlier than they did nearly a half century ago. We found no changes in the time to reach adulthood at the high elevation sites. Preliminary data from 2007 (a year with milder spring temperatures) suggests that unlike the dramatic patterns documented in 2006, that the time to reach adulthood for grasshoppers at low and high elevation sites was not much different than it was 50 years ago. In 2007, several grasshopper species at mid-elevation did become adults earlier than they had a half century ago.

  3. Genetic Ablation of Nrf2/Antioxidant Response Pathway in Alexander Disease Mice Reduces Hippocampal Gliosis but Does Not Impact Survival

    PubMed Central

    Hagemann, Tracy L.; Jobe, Emily M.; Messing, Albee

    2012-01-01

    In Alexander disease (AxD) the presence of mutant glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the major intermediate filament of astrocytes, triggers protein aggregation, with marked induction of a stress response mediated by the transcription factor, Nrf2. To clarify the role of Nrf2 in AxD, we have crossed Gfap mutant and transgenic mouse models into an Nrf2 null background. Deletion of Nrf2 eliminates the phase II stress response normally present in mouse models of AxD, but causes no change in body weight or lifespan, even in a severe lethal model. AxD astrocytes without Nrf2 retain features of reactivity, such as expression of the endothelin-B receptor, but have lower Gfap levels, a decrease in p62 protein and reduced iron accumulation, particularly in hippocampus. Microglial activation, indicated by Iba1 expression, is also diminished. Although the Nrf2 response is generally considered beneficial, these results show that in the context of AxD, loss of the antioxidant pathway has no obvious negative effects, while actually decreasing Gfap accumulation and pathology. Given the attention Nrf2 is receiving as a potential therapeutic target in AxD and other neurodegenerative diseases, it will be interesting to see whether induction of Nrf2, beyond the endogenous response, is beneficial or not in these same models. PMID:22693571

  4. Listening to the whispers of matter through Arabic hermeticism: new studies on The Book of the Treasure of Alexander.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Jubran, Safa Abou Chahla

    2008-07-01

    The Jabirian Corpus refers to the K. Thahirat Al-'Iskandar, "The Book of the Treasure of Alexander" (hereafter BTA), as one of several forgeries suggesting that alchemical secrets were hidden in inscriptions in various places. The book was neglected until 1926, when Julius Ruska discussed it in his work on the Emerald Tablet, placing the BTA within the literature related to the development of Arabic alchemy. His preliminary study became an essential reference and encouraged many scholars to work on the BTA in the following decades. Some years ago, we completed the first translation of the BTA into a Western language. The work was based on the acephalous Escorial manuscript, which we identified as a fourteenth-century copy of the BTA. This manuscript is peculiar, as part of it is encoded. After finishing our translation, we started to establish the text of the BTA. At present, the text is in process of fixation--to be followed by textual criticism--and has been the main focus of a thorough study of ours on medieval hermeticism and alchemy. A sample of the work currently in progress is presented in this paper: an analysis of the variations between different manuscripts along with a study and English translation of its alchemical chapter. PMID:19048971

  5. Growing community: the impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the social and learning environment in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie

    2012-08-01

    This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has a positive impact on student engagement, social connections, and confidence within and beyond the school gates. Primary evidence for the research question came from qualitative data collected from students, parents, teachers, volunteers, school principals, and specialist staff through interviews, focus groups, and participant observations. This was supported by analyses of quantitative data on child quality of life, cooperative behaviors, teacher perceptions of the school environment, and school-level educational outcome and absenteeism data. Results showed that some of the program attributes valued most highly by study participants included increased student engagement and confidence, opportunities for experiential and integrated learning, teamwork, building social skills, and connections and links between schools and their communities. In this analysis, quantitative findings failed to support findings from the primary analysis. Limitations as well as benefits of a mixed-methods approach to evaluation of complex community interventions are discussed. PMID:22167317

  6. ``The Waters I am Entering No One yet Has Crossed'': Alexander Friedman and the Origins of Modern Cosmology*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belenkiy, A.

    2013-04-01

    Ninety years ago, in 1922, Alexander Friedman (1888-1925) demonstrated for the first time that the General Relativity equations admit non-static solutions and thus the Universe may expand, contract, collapse, and even be born. The fundamental equations he derived still provide the basis for the current cosmological theories of the Big Bang and the Accelerating Universe. Later, in 1924, he was the first to realize that General Relativity allows the Universe to be infinite. Friedman's ideas initially met strong resistance from Einstein, yet from 1931 he became their staunchest supporter. This essay connects Friedman's cosmological ideas with the 1998-2004 results of the astronomical observations that led to the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics. It also describes Friedman's little known topological ideas of how to check General Relativity in practice and compares his contributions to those of Georges Lemaître. Recently discovered corpus of Friedman's writings in the Ehrenfest Archives at Leiden University sheds some new light on the circumstances surrounding his 1922 work and his relations with Paul Ehrenfest.

  7. Alexander von Humboldt: galvanism, animal electricity, and self-experimentation part 1: formative years, naturphilosophie, and galvanism.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Piccolino, Marco; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    During the 1790s, Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), who showed an early interest in many facets of natural philosophy and natural history, delved into the controversial subject of galvanism and animal electricity, hoping to shed light on the basic nature of the nerve force. He was motivated by his broad worldview, the experiments of Luigi Galvani, who favored animal electricity in more than a few specialized fishes, and the thinking of Alessandro Volta, who accepted specialized fish electricity but was not willing to generalize to other animals, thinking Galvani's frog experiments flawed by his use of metals. Differing from many German Naturphilosophen, who shunned "violent" experiments, the newest instruments, and detailed measurement, Humboldt conducted thousands of galvanic experiments on animals and animal parts, as well as many on his own body, some of which caused him great pain. He interpreted his results as supporting some but not all of the claims made by both Galvani and Volta. Notably, because of certain negative findings and phenomenological differences, he remained skeptical about the intrinsic animal force being qualitatively identical to true electricity. Hence, he referred to a "galvanic force," not animal electricity, in his letters and publications, a theoretical position he would abandon with Volta's help early in the new century. PMID:23581538

  8. Second metrology round-robin of APS, ESRF and SPring-8 laboratories of elliptical and spherical hard-x-ray mirrors.

    SciTech Connect

    Rommeveaux, A.; Assoufid, L.; Ohashi, H.; Mimura, H.; Yamauchi, K.; Qian, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Morawe, C.; Macrander, A.T.; Khounsary, A.; Goto, S.; X-Ray Science Division; ESRF; JASRI SPring-8; Osaka Univ.; Riken SPring-8 Center

    2007-01-01

    The first series of metrology round-robin measurements carried out in 2005 at the APS, ESRF and SPring-8 metrology laboratories involving two flat x-ray mirrors and a cylindrical x-ray mirror has shown excellent agreement among the three facilities Long Trace Profilers (LTP) despite their architectural differences. Because of the growing interest in diffraction-limited hard x-ray K-B focusing mirrors, it was decided to extend the round robin measurements to spherical and aspheric x-ray mirrors. The strong surface slope variation of these mirrors presents a real challenge to LTP. As a result, new LTP measurement protocol has to be developed and implemented to ensure measurement accuracy and consistency. In this paper, different measurement techniques and procedures will be described, the results will be discussed, and comparison will be extended to micro-stitching interferometry measurements performed at Osaka University, Japan.

  9. Enhancing Students' Critical Awareness in a Second Chance School in Greece: Reality or Wishful Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efstathiou, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about a case study investigating into a Second Chance School in Greece as an institution for raising students' social awareness along the principles of critical pedagogy. Through the prism of symbolic interactionism, students' and teachers' negotiated perspectives formulating school and classroom culture reveal that students'…

  10. Second Chance Education Matters! Income Trajectories of Poorly Educated Non-Nordics in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Bonfanti, Sara; Strandh, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the long-term impact of second chance education (SCE) on incomes of poorly educated individuals who live in Sweden but were not born in a Nordic country, using data on income changes from 1992 to 2003 compiled by Statistics Sweden. Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses show that participation in SCE increased the work…

  11. Second Chance Schools: The Results of a European Pilot Project. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    Thirteen Second Chance Schools in 11 countries attempt to fight school failure and social exclusion in the European Union (EU) by enabling pupils who have at most completed lower secondary school to acquire basic skills that will allow them to embark on a strategy of lifelong learning while supporting the innovation and the growth of the European…

  12. Youth and the Workplace: Second-Chance Programs and the Hard-to-Serve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas J.; And Others

    The task of addressing the complex and deeply rooted problems faced by the nation's at-risk youth is one that largely falls outside the scope of traditional institutions. Investment in the development and operation of "second-chance" education and employment programs has historically been inadequate, haphazard, and uncertain. The gains in the area…

  13. "I've Always Believed in Second or Third Chance Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Few university leaders can speak with as much authority about the transformative power of learning as Mary Stuart, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Lincoln. She knows first-hand both what it is like to be poor and down on her luck and how "second chance" education and a willingness to work hard and take risks can turn lives around. Stuart is…

  14. Is There Any Chance to Get Ahead? Education Aspirations and Expectations of Migrant Families in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Anita

    2012-01-01

    In China, there is a growing group of "migrant children", who reside in the city but do not have full rights to access education. Many have been granted a chance to study in public schools after the policy change, but they continue to have lower educational outcomes than the local students. To understand the inequality, this paper examines the…

  15. Project First Chance: Arizona Behavior Analysis Interactive Outreach Program, July 1, 1981 to June 30, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jeanne McRae

    The final report describes activities of Project First Chance, Interactive Outreach Project, a program to stimulate the development of improvement of educational services to preschool handicapped children and their families. The project was also designed to provide outreach to culturally diverse populations (primarily Navajos) and to programs in…

  16. Understanding the Link Between Discrimination, Mental Health Outcomes, and Life Chances Among Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arajo, Beverly; Borrell, Luisa

    2006-01-01

    Discriminatory experiences have been found to be related to poor mental health outcomes and negative life chances among marginalized communities in the United States. However, little is known about the impact of perceived discrimination on the Latino population. The present article reviews and critiques existing empirical evidence linking…

  17. Conspirators in a Neo-Liberal Agenda? Adult Educators in Second-Chance Private Training Establishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study that explored the impact of neo-liberal policy and ideology on educators and directors working in second-chance Private Training Establishments (PTEs) which were created at the height of the neo-liberal reforms in New Zealand. By examining the experiences of 14 educators and directors in four…

  18. Evaluation Report of Dartmouth's A Better Chance Program. Research and Evaluation Report Series No. 53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Albuquerque, NM.

    Requested by the Director of the Office of Indian Education Programs, this evaluation of the A Better Chance (ABC) Program administered by the New England Regional ABC Office headquartered on the campus of Dartmouth College consists of 17 parts, each comprised of at least 2 separate statements titled "Observations" and "Recommendations" regarding…

  19. Chance in Science: The Discovery of Electromagnetism by H. C. Oersted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2005-01-01

    Ignoring the role of chance in science distorts the nature of the scientific process. Teachers can address this issue by means of several in-depth historical case studies, such as the discovery of electromagnetism by Oersted. Oersted was led to his lecture experiment by logic (two new hypotheses), but its success from the first trial was largely…

  20. "Technology: Chance or Choice?"--A Museum Exhibit on the Impact of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucko, David A.

    1983-01-01

    The Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago) has created a new exhibit, "Technology: Chance or Choice?," which emphasizes the human impact on technology. Development of and techniques used in the exhibit are discussed. The latter include microcomputers placed throughout the exhibit to pose questions about critical issues raised by particular…

  1. Unequal Chances to Participate in Adult Learning: International Perspectives. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 83

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell; Milana, Marcella

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this booklet is to document cross-national patterns of adult learning, and in particular the unequal chances to participate in adult learning. In so doing, an effort is made to identify important motivating factors for participating in adult learning. The specific objectives of the booklet are to: (1) make available the…

  2. Teaching and Learning the Interplay between Chance and Determinism in Nonlinear Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrou, Dimitrios; Duit, Reinders

    2014-01-01

    That the interplay of random and deterministic processes may result in both the limited predictability of nonlinear systems and the formation of structures seems to be a most valuable general insight into the nature of science. This study investigates the possibility of teaching and learning the interplay of chance and determinism in nonlinear…

  3. A Teaching and Learning Sequence about the Interplay of Chance and Determinism in Nonlinear Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrou, D.; Duit, R.; Komorek, M.

    2008-01-01

    A teaching and learning sequence aimed at introducing upper secondary school students to the interplay between chance and determinism in nonlinear systems is presented. Three experiments concerning nonlinear systems (deterministic chaos, self-organization and fractals) and one experiment concerning linear systems are introduced. Thirty upper…

  4. Don't Take a Chance with a Heart Attack: Know the Facts and Act Fast

    MedlinePlus

    heart attack Know the symptoms. Take action. call Don’t Take a Chance With a Heart Attack: Know the Facts and Act Fast “ One evening ... didn’t think I could be having a heart attack. I didn’t expect it to happen to ...

  5. Combining Skype with Blogging: A Chance to Stop Reinforcement of Stereotypes in Intercultural Exchanges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, L. Lynette

    2015-01-01

    This papers looks into whether combining Skype, blogging and class discussions reinforces or refutes stereotypes. The hypothesis was that some students do not have an adequate chance to reflect on their skype experience and course content. To see if students have made improvements in reducing stereotypes, the Standards for Foreign Language…

  6. Programme Content Orientation in Vocational Education and Training and Life Chances--A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kap, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of vocational education and training systems rarely conduct systematic comparisons of the content of educational programmes, partly because of methodological difficulties. Yet, comparing the organisation of curricula can increase our understanding of how programme design reflects orientation towards various life chances in…

  7. Importance of record length with respect to estimating the 1-percent chance flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow gages have been established in every State in the Nation, Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. From these st reamflow records, estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are often developed and used to design transportation and water- conveyance structures to protect lives and property, and to determine flood-insurance rates. Probably the most recognizable flood statistic computed from USGS stream gaging records is the 1- percent (%) chance flood; better known has the 100-year flood. By definition, this is a flood that has a 1% chance of occurring in any given year. The 1% chance flood is a statistical estimate that can be significantly influenced by length of record and extreme flood events captured in that record. Consequently, it is typically recommended that flood statistics be updated on some regular interval such as every 10 years. This paper examines the influence of record length on the 1% chance flood for the Broad River in Georgia and the substantial difference that can occur in the estimate based on record length and the hydrologic conditions under which that record was collected. 

  8. Increasing the Chances for Deeper Change through Person-Centered Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Beth; O'Brien, John; O'Brien, Connie Lyle

    This brief paper offers an inventory to help implement change strategies and achieve person-centered planning for people with severe disabilities. The inventory is intended to examine use of 12 resources that facilitate change and increase the chance of good outcomes. A visual display of the model on which the inventory is based is provided first.…

  9. Leadership Distinctions: The Impact of Leadership on Teachers of "Second Chance Reading"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Rebecca Sue

    2012-01-01

    For as long as time, struggling adolescent readers have filled classrooms and communities. In many cases, these functional aliterates typically could read, yet could not understand or evaluate text, provide relevant details, or support inferences about the written documents they had read. "Second Chance Reading" (SCR), an instructional…

  10. Different Ways in Which Students Handle Chance Encounters in the Explorative Setting of a Dice Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the ways in which Swedish seventh grade students (12 and 13 years old) handle chance encounters. Four groups of students working in pairs participated in the study. In the group discussions, which were tape-recorded and fully transcribed, the students were encouraged to explore strategies for winning a…

  11. Acting on Behalf of Youth: Chance Hunt--Seattle Public Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Few might think there is much of a connection between acting and librarianship, but Chance Hunt says his acting career in Los Angeles provided him with skills he uses today as a youth services librarian, from programming with kids to representing the library at citywide meetings. Hunt oversees system-wide services for children and teens at the…

  12. A Consensual Qualitative Research Study of the Transformation from High School Dropout to Second Chance Alumni

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jayne E.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on understanding the perceived process of change, outcomes and influencing factors experienced by high school graduates of Urban Corps of San Diego County (UCO) from a bioecological theory of human development standpoint. UCO is a second chance high school diploma-job training program that offers students free mental health…

  13. Kindergarten Readiness Impacts of the Arkansas Better Chance State Prekindergarten Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustedt, Jason T.; Jung, Kwanghee; Barnett, W. Steven; Williams, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Enrollment in state-funded pre-K programs prior to kindergarten entry has become increasingly common. As each state develops its own model for pre-K, rigorous studies of the impacts of state-specific programs are needed. This study investigates impacts of the Arkansas Better Chance (ABC) initiative at kindergarten entry using a…

  14. The Influence of Chance and Contingency Factors on the Vocational Choice Process of Nonprofessional Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Paul R.; Slaney, Robert B.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the perceived influence of chance and contingency factors on nonprofessional workers' career choices. Results suggest unpredictable events do impact nonprofessional employees but employees are more likely to view career choices as rationally made, considering interests, vocational and financial needs, and social responsibility.…

  15. Rosenman's "Serendipity and Scientific Discovery" Revisited: Toward Defining Types of Chance Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.; Yaber O., Guillermo E.

    1994-01-01

    The role of serendipity or "chance in all its forms" in scientific discovery is considered. The need to differentiate between purely accidental events and Rothenberg's "articulations of error" when discussing scientific discoveries is stressed. Examples of articulations of errors are noted, including Fleming (penicillin), Roentgen (X-ray effect),…

  16. Education's Effects on Individual Life Chances and on Development: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Walter W.; Oketch, Moses

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of human capital skills largely created through education on life's chances over the life cycle. Qualifications as a measure of these skills affect earnings, and schooling affects private and social non-market benefits beyond earnings. Private non-market benefits include better own-health, child health, spousal…

  17. Second Chances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Karen Anne

    2007-01-01

    Accommodating change in existing buildings on a college campus or in a school district is challenging, but manageable. The key to successful adaptive reuse is thoughtful and thorough decision-making. Why consider recycling existing buildings? There are many reasons, including limited institutional resources, the increasing cost of new…

  18. ROBIN: a platform for evaluating automatic target recognition algorithms: I. Overview of the project and presentation of the SAGEM DS competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos, D.; Lonnoy, J.; Guillerm, Q.; Jurie, F.; Herbin, S.; D'Angelo, E.

    2008-04-01

    The last five years have seen a renewal of Automatic Target Recognition applications, mainly because of the latest advances in machine learning techniques. In this context, large collections of image datasets are essential for training algorithms as well as for their evaluation. Indeed, the recent proliferation of recognition algorithms, generally applied to slightly different problems, make their comparisons through clean evaluation campaigns necessary. The ROBIN project tries to fulfil these two needs by putting unclassified datasets, ground truths, competitions and metrics for the evaluation of ATR algorithms at the disposition of the scientific community. The scope of this project includes single and multi-class generic target detection and generic target recognition, in military and security contexts. From our knowledge, it is the first time that a database of this importance (several hundred thousands of visible and infrared hand annotated images) has been publicly released. Funded by the French Ministry of Defence (DGA) and by the French Ministry of Research, ROBIN is one of the ten Techno-vision projects. Techno-vision is a large and ambitious government initiative for building evaluation means for computer vision technologies, for various application contexts. ROBIN's consortium includes major companies and research centres involved in Computer Vision R&D in the field of defence: Bertin Technologies, CNES, ECA, DGA, EADS, INRIA, ONERA, MBDA, SAGEM, THALES. This paper, which first gives an overview of the whole project, is focused on one of ROBIN's key competitions, the SAGEM Defence Security database. This dataset contains more than eight hundred ground and aerial infrared images of six different vehicles in cluttered scenes including distracters. Two different sets of data are available for each target. The first set includes different views of each vehicle at close range in a "simple" background, and can be used to train algorithms. The second set

  19. Plasma cholinesterase inhibition in the clay-colored robin (Turdus grayi) exposed to diazinon in maradol papaya crops in Yucatan, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cobos, V.M.; Mora, M.A.; Escalona, G.

    2006-01-01

    The use of organophosphorous pesticides in agriculture can result in intoxication of birds foraging in sprayed crops. Effects on birds resulting from pesticide intoxication are varied and include behavioral and reproductive effects, including death. One widely used insecticide in Maradol papaya crops is diazinon which has been associated with various incidents of intoxication and death of wild birds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of diazinon application to papaya crops on plasma cholinesterase activity of the clay-colored robin (Turdus grayi). We captured clay-colored robins foraging in a papaya crop the following day after the field had been sprayed with diazinon at a dose of 1.5 kg/ha during March and May, respectively. We took a blood sample from the brachialis vein of the birds captured and measured plasma enzymatic activity. The plasma samples from birds used as controls were taken during the same time period and were analyzed in a similar way. Enzymatic activity of males was greater than that of females (53,52%) and mean cholinesterase inhibition was 49.43%. Cholinesterase inhibition was greater during May than in March probably due to more continuous exposure and ingestion of the insecticide through food and possible absorption through the skin. This degree of enzymatic inhibition is possibly affecting the behavior of the clay-colored robin and could result in death in severe cases.

  20. [Unequal living conditions and health chances in preschool children: support protective factors - limit risk factors].

    PubMed

    Horstkotte, E; Zimmermann, E

    2008-11-01

    Manifestations of an aggravation of social antagonisms and increased reports about childhood poverty and child abuse have unleashed a broad debate about the situation of children in risk-laden circumstances. More and more children are affected by relative poverty and disadvantage. An increase in the number children under 15 who receive social assistance can also be registered in Bremen, this share even increased to 60% in especially burdened districts. Against this background, the Bremen Health Department used a socio-spatial analysis to determine whether the utilisation of health examinations and the social and cultural participation chances of preschool children differed according to their living conditions. To this end, selected data from the school entrance examinations from 1998 to 2005 were analysed in regard to their relevance for the participation chances in different child-related dimensions of the life situation. Contradictory developments could be found, both in the dimension of the utilisation of health examinations and in the dimension of social and cultural participation chances. Children from disadvantaged neighbourhoods exhibited a lower utilisation of health examinations and less chances for social and cultural participation than children from more well-to-do residential areas. Trend calculations for the years 1998 to 2005 show an increasing discrepancy between children from disadvantaged and those from well-to-do neighbourhoods. Disadvantaged life situations - with the danger of increasing exclusion - appear to be establishing themselves in Bremen. The resources of children and families for dealing with risk-laden life situations have to be strengthened. Effective and long-lasting prevention approaches have to be developed and implemented at the local level. Kindergartens and schools could serve as centres for community networking strategies. Integrated concepts for action in the respective social areas are necessary to protect children and

  1. Volume 14: The first SeaWiFS intercalibration round-robin experiment, SIRREX-1, July 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, James L.; Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The results of the first Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-1), which was held at the Center for Hydro-Optics and Remote Sensing (CHORS) at San Diego State University (SDSU) on 27-31 July 1992 are presetend. Oceanographic radiometers to be used in the SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Program will be calibrated by individuals from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), CHORS, and seven other laboratories. The purpose of the SIRREX experiments is to assure the radiometric standards used in all of these laboratories are referenced to the same scales of spectral irradiance and radiance, which will be maintained by GSFC and periodically recalibrated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The spectral irradiance scale of GSFC's FEL lamp number F269 (recalibrated by NIST in October 1992) was transferred to lamps belonging to the 9 participating laboratories; l set of lamp transfer measurements (involving 4 of the lamps) was precise to within less than 1 percent and meets SeaWiFS goals, but a second set (involving another 14 lamps) did not. The spectral radiance scale of the GSFC 40-inch integrating sphere source was transferred to integrating sphere radiance sources belonging to four of the other laboratories. Reflectance plaques, used for irradiance-to-radiance transfer by five of the laboratories, were compared, but spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF's) were not determined quantitatively. Also reported are results of similar comparisons (in October 1992) between the GSFC scales of spectral irradiance and radiance and those used by the Hughes/Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) to calibrate and characterize the SeaWiFS instrument. This first set of intercalibration round-robin experiments was a valuable learning experience for all participants, and led to several important procedural changes, which

  2. Transport Properties of Bulk Thermoelectrics An International Round-Robin Study, Part I: Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Bottner, Harold; Konig, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolett, Alex; Senawiratne, Jayantha; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Gilbert, Partricia; Sharp, Jeff; Lo, Jason; Keinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research and development of high temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential of converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as an important area for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is Part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main focuses in Part I are on two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.

  3. NASA-Langley Research Center's participation in a round-robin comparison between some current crack-propagation prediction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, C. M.; Lewis, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    A round-robin study was conducted which evaluated and compared different methods currently in practice for predicting crack growth in surface-cracked specimens. This report describes the prediction methods used by the Fracture Mechanics Engineering Section, at NASA-Langley Research Center, and presents a comparison between predicted crack growth and crack growth observed in laboratory experiments. For tests at higher stress levels, the correlation between predicted and experimentally determined crack growth was generally quite good. For tests at lower stress levels, the predicted number of cycles to reach a given crack length was consistently higher than the experimentally determined number of cycles. This consistent overestimation of the number of cycles could have resulted from a lack of definition of crack-growth data at low values of the stress intensity range. Generally, the predicted critical flaw sizes were smaller than the experimentally determined critical flaw sizes. This underestimation probably resulted from using plane-strain fracture toughness values to predict failure rather than the more appropriate values based on maximum load.

  4. Analysis of the Second ASTM Round-Robin Program on Opening-Load Measurement using the adjusted compliance ratio technique

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, J.K.; Phillips, E.P.

    1999-07-01

    The results of the Second Round-Robin on Opening-Load Measurement established the basis for a recent addition to ASTM E 647--``Recommended Practice for Determination of Fatigue Crack Opening Load from Compliance''. The technique involves characterizing the deviation in linearity of a load-displacement curve and reporting, as a minimum, the opening load corresponding to a 2% slope offset. The opening load and associated {Delta}K{sub eff} values reported showed significant scatter although this scatter was reduced when the data were subjected to a rigorous accept/reject criterion. Refinements in the method of handling data with high noise have further reduced scatter compared with the original analysis. Since each participant provided digitized load-displacement curves, the data from 17 test samples (10 participants) were reanalyzed using the adjusted compliance ratio (ACR) technique to evaluate {Delta}K{sub eff}. A comparison between the two methods shows that the ACR technique gives a higher mean value of {Delta}K{sub eff} than does the ASTM procedure. The ACR technique also shows a stronger correlation with crack growth rate data than does the ASTM procedure, with a slope comparable to that of a typical fatigue crack growth rate test. However, the mean value of {Delta}K{sub eff} based on the ASTM procedure shows better agreement with high stress ratio closure free data than does the ACR technique. This seemingly contradictory result can be partially explained in terms of second-order effects not normally considered significant.

  5. Variation at Innate Immunity Toll-Like Receptor Genes in a Bottlenecked Population of a New Zealand Robin

    PubMed Central

    Grueber, Catherine E.; Wallis, Graham P.; King, Tania M.; Jamieson, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an ancient family of genes encoding transmembrane proteins that bind pathogen-specific molecules and initiate both innate and adaptive aspects of the immune response. Our goal was to determine whether these genes show sufficient genetic diversity in a bottlenecked population to be a useful addition or alternative to the more commonly employed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotyping in a conservation genetics context. We amplified all known avian TLR genes in a severely bottlenecked population of New Zealand's Stewart Island robin (Petroica australis rakiura), for which reduced microsatellite diversity was previously observed. We genotyped 17–24 birds from a reintroduced island population (including the 12 founders) for nine genes, seven of which were polymorphic. We observed a total of 24 single-nucleotide polymorphisms overall, 15 of which were non-synonymous, representing up to five amino-acid variants at a locus. One locus (TLR1LB) showed evidence of past directional selection. Results also confirmed a passerine duplication of TLR7. The levels of TLR diversity that we observe are sufficient to justify their further use in addressing conservation genetic questions, even in bottlenecked populations. PMID:23024782

  6. Transport Properties of Bulk Thermoelectrics—An International Round-Robin Study, Part I: Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D.; Böttner, Harald; König, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolet, Alex; Senawiratne, Jayantha; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Gilbert, Patricia; Sharp, Jeff W.; Lo, Jason; Kleinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo

    2013-04-01

    Recent research and development of high-temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential for converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air-conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, still needs to be improved from the current value of 1.0 to 1.5 to above 2.0 to be competitive with other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods, and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as a key component for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the Implementing Agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main foci in part I are the measurement of two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.

  7. Identification of novel craniofacial regulatory domains located far upstream of SOX9 and disrupted in Pierre Robin sequence

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher T.; Attanasio, Catia; Bhatia, Shipra; Benko, Sabina; Ansari, Morad; Tan, Tiong Y.; Munnich, Arnold; Pennacchio, Len A.; Abadie, Véronique; Temple, I. Karen; Goldenberg, Alice; van Heyningen, Veronica; Amiel, Jeanne; FitzPatrick, David; Kleinjan, Dirk A.; Visel, Axel; Lyonnet, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the coding sequence of SOX9 cause campomelic dysplasia (CD), a disorder of skeletal development associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSDs). Translocations, deletions and duplications within a ~2 Mb region upstream of SOX9 can recapitulate the CD-DSD phenotype fully or partially, suggesting the existence of an unusually large cis-regulatory control region. Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a craniofacial disorder that is frequently an endophenotype of CD and a locus for isolated PRS at ~1.2-1.5 Mb upstream of SOX9 has been previously reported. The craniofacial regulatory potential within this locus, and within the greater genomic domain surrounding SOX9, remains poorly defined. We report two novel deletions upstream of SOX9 in families with PRS, allowing refinement of the regions harbouring candidate craniofacial regulatory elements. In parallel, ChIP-Seq for p300 binding sites in mouse craniofacial tissue led to the identification of several novel craniofacial enhancers at the SOX9 locus, which were validated in transgenic reporter mice and zebrafish. Notably, some of the functionally validated elements fall within the PRS deletions. These studies suggest that multiple non-coding elements contribute to the craniofacial regulation of SOX9 expression, and that their disruption results in PRS. PMID:24934569

  8. Alexander Ya. Orolv - Well-Known Scientist and Recognized Organizer of Astronmoical Research. Little Known Facts of His Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, Ya. S.; Vavilova, I. B.; Korsun', A. A.

    Alexander Ya. Orlov is a well-known astronomer and geophysicist as well as a worldrecognized organizer of scientific research in Russia, the USSR, and Ukraine. Orlov has formulated his main scientific ideas during the Odesa's period of life. He studied a tidal deformation of the Earth and its polar motion using the gravity and latitude observations. He has proposed new defenitions of a mean pole and a mean latitude, as wel as a new method for determing the Earth pole coordinates. To the end of 1940-ties, the Orlov's scientific ideas were implemented and stimulated a development of a research field, which is now called as Astrogeodynamics or Space Geodynamics. Among the representatives of the Orlov's scientific school are about 20 Doctors of Sciences and more than 40 Candidates of Sciences, including the members of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and other countries. Among them are N.Stoyko-Radilenko (France), J.Witkowski (Poland), V.Zhardetsky (Yugoslavia-Austria-USA), D.Pyaskovsky, Z.Aksent'eva, E.Lavrentieva, N.Popov, E.Fedorov and A.Korol in Ukraine. The deserved followers of the Orlov's scientific ideas were also I.Androsov, I.Dyukov, K.Mansurova, B.Novopashennyj, N.V.Zimmerman in Russia and M.Bursa (Chesh Republic), who worked with him, as well as his sons, A.A.Orlov and B.A. Orlov. The Orlov's life and scientific activity were fully described in many articles. For that reason in this paper we will focus on the little-known facts of the Orlov's scientific-organizational activity, for example, the Orlov's appointments as a director of observatories in Odesa, Poltava, m.Pip-Ivan, Pulkovo, and Kyiv; interesesting facts related to his membership in the Academies of Sciences of the USSR and Ukrainian SSR; organization of a large-scale program on the latitude observations and gravimetric survey. We describe briefly his life and his astrogeodynamic scientific school.

  9. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops held in Conjunction with Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) EGU Conferences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, C. E.; Cifelli, F.

    2014-12-01

    Given the increasing success of the GIFT workshops held in conjunction with the General Assemblies, since 2010 EGU has also developed a series of GIFT workshops held in conjunction with AvH conferences. The Alexander von Humboldt Conference Series of the European Geosciences Union are a series of meetings held outside of Europe, in particular in South America, Africa or Asia, on selected topics of geosciences with a socio-economic impact for regions on these continents, jointly organised with the scientists and their institutes and the institutions of these regions. Associated GIFT workshops were held in Merida, Yucatan, on the theme of Climate Change, Natural Hazards and Societies (March 2010), then in Penang, Malaysia (June 2011) on the theme of Ocean Acidification, in November 2012 in Cusco (Peru) on the theme of Natural Disasters, Global Change and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites, finally in Istanbul (March 2014) on "High Impact Natural Hazards Related to the Euro-Mediterranean Region. The next GIFT workshop is already planned for October 2015 in Adis Ababa (Ethiopia) on the theme "Water". In each case, the GIFT workshop was held on the last two days of the AvH conference and reunited 40-45 teachers from the nation where the AvH was held. Keynote speakers from AvH were speakers to the GIFT workshops which also included hands-on activities animated by sciences educators. In 3 cases of the 4 cases, these GIFT workshops represented the first workshop specifically aimed at teachers held in the country, and therefore represents a significant Earth Sciences contribution to secondary education in non European countries.

  10. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops held in Conjunction with Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) EGU Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Cifelli, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    The Alexander von Humboldt Conference Series of the European Geosciences Union are a series of meetings held outside of Europe, in particular in South America, Africa or Asia, on selected topics of geosciences with a socio-economic impact for regions on these continents, jointly organised with the scientists and their institutes and the institutions of these regions. Given the increasing success of the GIFT workshops held in conjunction with the General Assemblies, since 2010 EGU has also developed a series of GIFT workshops held in conjunction with AvH conferences. Associated GIFT workshops were held in Merida, Yucatan, on the theme of Climate Change, Natural Hazards and Societies (March 2010), then in Penang, Malaysia (June 2011) on the theme of Ocean Acidification, in November 2012 in Cusco (Peru) on the theme of Natural Disasters, Global Change and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites, finally in Istanbul (March 2014) on "High Impact Natural Hazards Related to the Euro-Mediterranean Region. The next GIFT workshop is already planned for October 2015 in Adis Ababa (Ethiopia) on the theme "Water". In each case, the GIFT workshop was held on the last two days of the AvH conference and reunited 40-45 teachers from the nation where the AvH was held. Keynote speakers from AvH were speakers to the GIFT workshops which also included hands-on activities animated by sciences educators. These GIFT workshops represented the first workshops specifically aimed at teachers held in the country, and therefore represents a significant Earth Sciences contribution to secondary education in non European countries.

  11. Alexander von Humboldt: galvanism, animal electricity, and self-experimentation part 2: the electric eel, animal electricity, and later years.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Piccolino, Marco; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    After extensive experimentation during the 1790s, Alexander von Humboldt remained skeptical about "animal electricity" (and metallic electricity), writing instead about an ill-defined galvanic force. With his worldview and wishing to learn more, he studied electric eels in South America just as the new century began, again using his body as a scientific instrument in many of his experiments. As had been the case in the past and for many of the same reasons, some of his findings with the electric eel (and soon after, Italian torpedoes) seemed to argue against biological electricity. But he no longer used galvanic terminology when describing his electric fish experiments. The fact that he now wrote about animal electricity rather than a different "galvanic" force owed much to Alessandro Volta, who had come forth with his "pile" (battery) for multipling the physical and perceptable effects of otherwise weak electricity in 1800, while Humboldt was deep in South America. Humboldt probably read about and saw voltaic batteries in the United States in 1804, but the time he spent with Volta in 1805 was probably more significant in his conversion from a galvanic to an electrical framework for understanding nerve and muscle physiology. Although he did not continue his animal electricity research program after this time, Humboldt retained his worldview of a unified nature and continued to believe in intrinsic animal electricity. He also served as a patron to some of the most important figures in the new field of electrophysiology (e.g., Hermann Helmholtz and Emil du Bois-Reymond), helping to take the research that he had participated in to the next level. PMID:23581510

  12. Chance Constrained Input Relaxation to Congestion in Stochastic DEA. An Application to Iranian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Kheirollahi, Hooshang; Matin, Behzad Karami; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Alavijeh, Mehdi Mirzaei

    2015-01-01

    This article developed an approached model of congestion, based on relaxed combination of inputs, in stochastic data envelopment analysis (SDEA) with chance constrained programming approaches. Classic data envelopment analysis models with deterministic data have been used by many authors to identify congestion and estimate its levels; however, data envelopment analysis with stochastic data were rarely used to identify congestion. This article used chance constrained programming approaches to replace stochastic models with ‘‘deterministic equivalents”. This substitution leads us to non-linear problems that should be solved. Finally, the proposed method based on relaxed combination of inputs was used to identify congestion input in six Iranian hospital with one input and two outputs in the period of 2009 to 2012. PMID:25946925

  13. Chance Constrained Input Relaxation to Congestion in Stochastic DEA. An Application to Iranian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kheirollahi, Hooshang; Matin, Behzad Karami; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Alavijeh, Mehdi Mirzaei

    2015-01-01

    This article developed an approached model of congestion, based on relaxed combination of inputs, in stochastic data envelopment analysis (SDEA) with chance constrained programming approaches. Classic data envelopment analysis models with deterministic data have been used by many authors to identify congestion and estimate its levels; however, data envelopment analysis with stochastic data were rarely used to identify congestion. This article used chance constrained programming approaches to replace stochastic models with "deterministic equivalents". This substitution leads us to non-linear problems that should be solved. Finally, the proposed method based on relaxed combination of inputs was used to identify congestion input in six Iranian hospital with one input and two outputs in the period of 2009 to 2012. PMID:25946925

  14. Behavioral health problems, ex-offender reentry policies, and the "Second Chance Act".

    PubMed

    Pogorzelski, Wendy; Wolff, Nancy; Pan, Ko-Yu; Blitz, Cynthia L

    2005-10-01

    The federal "Second Chance Act of 2005" calls for expanding reentry services for people leaving prison, yet existing policies restrict access to needed services for those with criminal records. We examined the interaction between individual-level characteristics and policy-level restrictions related to criminal conviction, and the likely effects on access to resources upon reentry, using a sample of prisoners with Axis I mental disorders (n=3073). We identified multiple challenges related to convictions, including restricted access to housing, public assistance, and other resources. Invisible punishments embedded within existing policies were inconsistent with the call for second chances. Without modification of federal and state policies, the ability of reentry services to foster behavioral health and community reintegration is limited. PMID:16131635

  15. Inexact fuzzy integer chance constraint programming approach for noise control within an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kai; Huang, Gordon; Dai, Liming; Fan, Yurui

    2016-08-01

    This article introduces an inexact fuzzy integer chance constraint programming (IFICCP) approach for identifying noise reduction strategy under uncertainty. The IFICCP method integrates the interval programming and fuzzy chance constraint programming approaches into a framework, which is able to deal with uncertainties expressed as intervals and fuzziness. The proposed IFICCP model can be converted into two deterministic submodels corresponding to the optimistic and pessimistic conditions. The modelling approach is applied to a hypothetical control measure selection problem for noise reduction. Results of the case study indicate that useful solutions for noise control practices can be acquired. Three acceptable noise levels for two communities are considered. For each acceptable noise level, several decision alternatives have been obtained and analysed under different fuzzy confidence levels, which reflect the trade-offs between environmental and economic considerations.

  16. Double-sided fuzzy chance-constrained linear fractional programming approach for water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Liang; Li, Yongping; Huang, Guohe

    2016-06-01

    A double-sided fuzzy chance-constrained fractional programming (DFCFP) method is developed for planning water resources management under uncertainty. In DFCFP the system marginal benefit per unit of input under uncertainty can also be balanced. The DFCFP is applied to a real case of water resources management in the Zhangweinan River Basin, China. The results show that the amounts of water allocated to the two cities (Anyang and Handan) would be different under minimum and maximum reliability degrees. It was found that the marginal benefit of the system solved by DFCFP is bigger than the system benefit under the minimum and maximum reliability degrees, which not only improve economic efficiency in the mass, but also remedy water deficiency. Compared with the traditional double-sided fuzzy chance-constrained programming (DFCP) method, the solutions obtained from DFCFP are significantly higher, and the DFCFP has advantages in water conservation.

  17. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits

    PubMed Central

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review. PMID:24403388

  18. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits.

    PubMed

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review. PMID:24403388

  19. Stock management in hospital pharmacy using chance-constrained model predictive control.

    PubMed

    Jurado, I; Maestre, J M; Velarde, P; Ocampo-Martinez, C; Fernández, I; Tejera, B Isla; Prado, J R Del

    2016-05-01

    One of the most important problems in the pharmacy department of a hospital is stock management. The clinical need for drugs must be satisfied with limited work labor while minimizing the use of economic resources. The complexity of the problem resides in the random nature of the drug demand and the multiple constraints that must be taken into account in every decision. In this article, chance-constrained model predictive control is proposed to deal with this problem. The flexibility of model predictive control allows taking into account explicitly the different objectives and constraints involved in the problem while the use of chance constraints provides a trade-off between conservativeness and efficiency. The solution proposed is assessed to study its implementation in two Spanish hospitals. PMID:26724992

  20. A fuzzy fractional chance-constrained programming model for air quality management under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Wen, Zhi; Xu, Ye

    2016-01-01

    A fuzzy fractional chance-constrained programming model (FFCCPM) was developed for dealing with air quality management under uncertainty. FFCCPM integrates a fractional programming model and a double-sided fuzzy chance-constrained programming model. It considers the ratio between total treated pollutant amounts and system cost in the objective function; the constraints with fuzzy variables can be satisfied under some predetermined confidence levels and reliability scenarios. The air quality management system in Fengrun district, Tangshan City, China, was used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. The obtained results indicated that the proposed model was suitable in describing and providing an overview of a studied management system for decision makers, generating various cost-effective air pollution-abatement alternatives. The strategy with a balance between system economy and reliability was recommended for decision makers. The successful application of FFCCPM in Fengrun district provides a good example of real-world regional air quality management.

  1. Last chance therapies and managed care. Pluralism, fair procedures, and legitimacy.

    PubMed

    Daniels, N; Sabin, J E

    1998-01-01

    How can health plans make fair determinations about when "experimental" (and costly) treatments such as high dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation should be covered despite lack of clear clinical consensus about their benefits? Different models for managing "last chance" therapies evolving in some health plans offer promising examples of how issues of fairness and legitimacy in decision-making can be addressed. PMID:9589291

  2. Multiple lines of evidence risk assessment of American robins exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDDS) in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Tazelaar, Dustin L; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Coefield, Sarah J; Bradley, Patrick W; Roark, Shaun A; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P; Bursian, Steven J; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2013-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in Tittabawassee River floodplain soils and biota downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA, are greater than regional background concentrations. From 2005 to 2008, a multiple lines of evidence approach was utilized to evaluate the potential for effects of PCDD/DFs on American robins (Turdus migratorius) breeding in the floodplains. A dietary-based assessment indicated there was potential for adverse effects for American robins predicted to have the greatest exposures. Conversely, a tissue-based risk assessment based on site-specific PCDD/DF concentrations in American robin eggs indicated minimal potential for adverse effects. An assessment based on reproductive endpoints indicated that measures of hatch success in study areas were significantly less than those of reference areas. However, there was no dose-response relationship between that endpoint and concentrations of PCDD/DF. Although dietary-based exposure and reproductive endpoint assessments predicted potential for adverse effects to resident American robins, the tissue-based assessment indicates minimal to no potential for adverse effects, which is reinforced by the fact the response was not dose related. It is likely that the dietary assessment is overly conservative given the inherent uncertainties of estimating dietary exposure relative to direct tissue-based assessment measures. Based on the available data, it can be concluded that exposure to PCDD/DFs in the Tittabawassee River floodplain would not likely result in adverse population-level effects to American robins. PMID:23424046

  3. The Neotropical tanyderid Araucoderus gloriosus (Alexander) (Diptera, Tanyderidae), with description of the egg, larva and pupa, redescription of adults, and notes on natural history.

    PubMed

    Madriz, R Isaí; Courtney, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    Larvae, pupae and adults of Araucoderus gloriosus (Alexander) were collected during fieldwork in Chilean Patagonia, December 2013 and January 2014. Eggs were obtained from females that oviposited in captivity. Association of all life stages is based on co-occurrence and rearing of individual larvae to adults. A diagnosis for the genus and species is provided. Descriptions of the egg, larva and pupa and redescriptions of the male and female are completed. Eggs of A. gloriosus are the first described for Tanyderidae. Natural history characteristics for this species, including microhabitat, copulatory behavior and oviposition, are discussed. PMID:27615889

  4. Disruption of the ERK/MAPK pathway in neural crest cells as a potential cause of Pierre Robin sequence.

    PubMed

    Parada, Carolina; Han, Dong; Grimaldi, Alexandre; Sarrión, Patricia; Park, Shery S; Pelikan, Richard; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A; Chai, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Disrupted ERK1/2 signaling is associated with several developmental syndromes in humans. To understand the function of ERK2 (MAPK1) in the postmigratory neural crest populating the craniofacial region, we studied two mouse models: Wnt1-Cre;Erk2(fl/fl) and Osr2-Cre;Erk2(fl/fl). Wnt1-Cre;Erk2(fl/fl) mice exhibited cleft palate, malformed tongue, micrognathia and mandibular asymmetry. Cleft palate in these mice was associated with delay/failure of palatal shelf elevation caused by tongue malposition and micrognathia. Osr2-Cre;Erk2(fl/fl) mice, in which the Erk2 deletion is restricted to the palatal mesenchyme, did not display cleft palate, suggesting that palatal clefting in Wnt1-Cre;Erk2(fl/fl) mice is a secondary defect. Tongues in Wnt1-Cre;Erk2(fl/fl) mice exhibited microglossia, malposition, disruption of the muscle patterning and compromised tendon development. The tongue phenotype was extensively rescued after culture in isolation, indicating that it might also be a secondary defect. The primary malformations in Wnt1-Cre;Erk2(fl/fl) mice, namely micrognathia and mandibular asymmetry, are linked to an early osteogenic differentiation defect. Collectively, our study demonstrates that mutation of Erk2 in neural crest derivatives phenocopies the human Pierre Robin sequence and highlights the interconnection of palate, tongue and mandible development. Because the ERK pathway serves as a crucial point of convergence for multiple signaling pathways, our study will facilitate a better understanding of the molecular regulatory mechanisms of craniofacial development. PMID:26395480

  5. Causes of aging are likely to be many: robin holliday and changing molecular approaches to cell aging, 1963-1988.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lijing

    2014-01-01

    Causal complexities involved in biological phenomena often generate ambiguous experimental results that may create epistemic niches for new approaches and interpretations. The exploration for new approaches may foment momentum of larger epistemological shifts, and thereby introduce the possibilities of adopting new technologies. This paper describes British molecular biologist Robin Holliday's cell aging research from 1963 to the 1980s that transformed from simple hypothesis testing to working on various alternative and integrative approaches designed to deal with complex data. In the 1960s, hoping to use biochemical investigations of cells to settle a debate about whether DNA mutations or protein errors caused aging, Holliday carried out a series of experiments with fruit flies, fungi, and human fibroblast cells. The results seemed to demonstrate that cytoplasmic protein errors caused cell aging. However, other scientists obtained contradictory results and raised issues about potential flaws in Holliday's experiments. In the 1970s, working as the director of the Genetics Division of the National Institute for Medical Research in Mill Hill, United Kingdom, Holliday relied on available talents of his associates, including computational expertise, to explore alternative hypotheses and approaches. By the early 1980s, they had worked out an epigenetic explanation and had established integrative, evolutionary models of cell aging that incorporated both DNA mutations and protein errors as critical factors. By delineating Holliday's research path from simply testing hypotheses to integrating multiple factors involved in aging, this paper offers an account of the difficulties in targeting molecular cause in cell aging around the 1970s, whose failures nevertheless opened up an epistemic niche for integration. PMID:24777854

  6. Socioeconomic inequalities in informal payments for health care: An assessment of the 'Robin Hood' hypothesis in 33 African countries.

    PubMed

    Kankeu, Hyacinthe Tchewonpi; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    In almost all African countries, informal payments are frequently made when accessing health care. Some literature suggests that the informal payment system could lead to quasi-redistribution among patients, with physicians playing a 'Robin Hood' role, subsidizing the poor at the expense of the rich. We empirically tested this assumption with data from the rounds 3 and 5 of the Afrobarometer surveys conducted in 18 and 33 African countries respectively, from 2005 to 2006 for round 3 and from 2011 to 2013 for round 5. In these surveys, nationally representative samples of people aged 18 years or more were randomly selected in each country, with sizes varying between 1048 and 2400 for round 3 and between 1190 and 2407 for round 5. We used the 'normalized' concentration index, the poor/rich gap and the odds ratio to assess the level of inequality in the payment of bribes to access care at the local public health facility and implemented two decomposition techniques to identify the contributors to the observed inequalities. We obtained that: i) the socioeconomic gradient in informal payments is in favor of the rich in almost all countries, indicating a rather regressive system; ii) this is mainly due to the socioeconomic disadvantage itself, to poor/rich differences in supply side factors like lack of medicines, absence of doctors and long waiting times, as well as regional disparities. Although essentially empirical, the paper highlights the need for African health systems to undergo substantial country-specific reforms in order to better protect the worse-off from financial risk when they seek care. PMID:26808336

  7. Neonatal Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis Reduces Cleft Palate Width and Lengthens Soft Palate, Influencing Palatoplasty in Patients With Pierre Robin Sequence.

    PubMed

    Collares, Marcus V M; Duarte, Daniele W; Sobral, Davi S; Portinho, Ciro P; Faller, Gustavo J; Fraga, Mariana M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of neonatal mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) on cleft dimensions and on early palatoplasty outcomes in patients with Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS). In a prospective cohort study that enrolled 24 nonsyndromic patients with PRS, 12 submitted to the MDO group and 12 patients not treated (non-MDO group), the authors compared patients for cleft palate dimensions through 7 morphometric measurements at the moment of palatoplasty and for early palatoplasty outcomes. At palatoplasty, the MDO group presented a significant shorter distance between the posterior nasal spines (PNS-PNS, P < 0.001) and between uvular bases (UB-UB, P < 0.001), representing a reduction in cleft palate width. They also had significant soft palate lengthening represented by a larger distance between UB and retromolar space (UB-RM, P < 0.001) and UB and PNS (UB-PNS, P = 0.014). Their UB moved away from the posterior wall of the nasopharynx (UB-NPH, P < 0.001). The MDO group had a length of operative time significantly shorter (P < 0.001) and no early palatoplasty complications compared with the non-MDO group. In conclusion, MDO acted as an orthopedic procedure that reduced cleft palate width and elongated the soft palate in patients with PRS. These modifications enabled a reduction of around 11% in the length of operative time of palatoplasty (P < 0.001). PMID:27315309

  8. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods applied for the analysis of a Round Robin sample containing materials present in samples of works of art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Keulen, Henk

    2009-07-01

    The Users' Group for Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography (MaSC) was established as a discussion forum for scientists involved in the study of artworks and cultural artefacts who wish to exchange information regarding sampling strategies and protocols, preparation of samples, chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis, data treatment and interpretation of results. Comparing protocols and different approaches to the interpretation of results requires the use of standard reference materials and Round Robin tests. To this end, an artificial, complex Round Robin sample was sent to fifteen laboratories specializing in the analysis of cultural materials. Ten of the participants analyzed the sample and reported their results, which were anonymously discussed at the MaSC meeting in Philadelphia, September 2007. In this paper, the results of the confirming GC/MS analysis of the sample by the author are presented and compared with the results of the participants. The confirming analysis was performed with thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation GC/MS in combination with pyrolysis, and by a combined method for the analysis of proteins and carbohydrates. A number of different instrumental setups and methods were used by the Round Robin participants. The results show that stepwise extraction followed by different types of derivatization is a successful approach for the analysis and identification of complex samples. A disadvantage is the need for relatively large samples, which are not always available in practice. Pyrolysis with or without tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) or hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) was used by four of the participants. The results show that thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation GC/MS in combination with pyrolysis is a powerful technique for the analysis of multi-component samples. The presence of gums and proteins can be indicated. Synthetic resins such as acrylics can also be analyzed in combination with the traditional binders and

  9. A report on the Round Robin Program conducted to evaluate the proposed ASTM standard test method for determining the plane strain crack arrest fracture toughness, K/sub Ia/, of ferritic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, D.B.; Chona, R.; Fourney, W.L.; Irwin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the results from a Round Robin Program that was conducted during 1983-1985 to evaluate a proposed ASTM Test Method for Crack Arrest Fracture Toughness of Ferritic Materials. The Round Robin attracted a total of twenty-seven participants from the United States, Canada, Europe and Japan, each of whom agreed to test three specimens of A514 bridge steel, three specimens of A588 bridge steel, and six specimens of A533 Grade B Class 1 reactor pressure vessel steel. Twenty-one participants completed their testing and forwarded test results for inclusion and discussion in this report. Modifications to the proposed test method that are called for in the light of the experience gained from the Round Robin are also discussed. The test method has been revised and is currently in the process of being considered by ASTM Committee E-24 on Fracture Testing as a Proposed Standard Test Method. 20 refs., 44 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Analytical model for temperature distribution of an end diode-pumped laser slab with Robin boundary conditions by Green’s function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghtader Dindarlu, M. H.; Kavosh Tehrani, M.; Saghafifar, H.; Maleki, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an analytical model is introduced for temperature distribution of an end diode-pumped laser slab by Green’s function method. To solve the heat equation, Robin boundary conditions are considered because four lateral faces of the slab are cooled by water. An analytical model is extracted for single and dual end-pumping configuration. For an example, the 2D and 3D temperature distributions are plotted and our analytical model is validated by numerical solution based on the finite element method (FEM). The results show that our model has very good agreement with numerical solution. Furthermore, dependence of the temperature distribution on absorbed pump power is shown.

  11. Dislocation-density-based modeling of the plastic behavior of 4H-SiC single crystals using the Alexander-Haasen model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, B.; Kakimoto, K.

    2014-01-01

    To dynamically model the plastic deformation of 4H-SiC single crystals during physical vapor transport (PVT) growth, the Alexander-Haasen model, originally proposed for the elemental semiconductor, is extended into IV-IV compound semiconductors. By fitting the model parameters to the experimental data, we show that the Alexander-Haasen model can describe the plastic deformation of 4H-SiC single crystals if the activation of the carbon-core partial dislocation is modeled in the high-temperature region (above 1000 °C) and the silicon-core partial dislocation is modeled in the low-temperature region (below 1000 °C). We then apply the same model to the dynamical deformation process of a 4H-SiC single crystal during PVT growth. The time evolution of the dislocation density is shown, and the effects of the cooling time on the final dislocation density, residual stress and stacking faults are also examined.

  12. Correlation of Emkuckfaw Group metagraywackes with the Wedowee Group, Northern Piedmont, Alabama: Implications for the interpretation of the Alexander City fault

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, D.B. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Recent field studies to clarify stratigraphic relationships between the Elkahatchee Quartz Diorite Gneiss and the Brevard zone lead to the interpretation that part of the Emuckfaw Group is correlative with, and probably structurally continuous with, part of the Wedowee Group. The Josie Leg formation of Bieler and Deininger (1987) is a sequence of metagraywackes and interbedded metapelites; it is here interpreted as a coarse submarine fan facies. The northwestern contact of the unit, frequently mapped as the Alexander City fault, maps into the Wadley Line in the New Site and Daviston quadrangles. The southeastern contact is a sheared contact with structurally overlying migmatitic rocks that include quartzites and calcsilicates. The Josie Leg and Wedowee rocks form a southwesterly plunging synform in which the Elkahatchee lies. Where the contact between the units is gently dipping it is mapped as the Wadley line. Where the contact has been folded and dips steeply, it is highly sheared and is mapped as the Alexander City fault. It is impossible to determine at this time how much the section has been attenuated during the shearing. Although the contact has been interpreted as structural, the data are not unambiguous. The Josie Leg/Wedowee contact may be a stratigraphic contact with the apparent structural discordance reflecting the different mechanical behavior of the contrasting lithologies.

  13. FMR1 Genotype with Autoimmunity-Associated Polycystic Ovary-Like Phenotype and Decreased Pregnancy Chance

    PubMed Central

    Gleicher, Norbert; Weghofer, Andrea; Lee, Irene H.; Barad, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The FMR1 gene partially appears to control ovarian reserve, with a specific ovarian sub-genotype statistically associated with a polycystic ovary (PCO)- like phenotype. Some forms of PCO have been associated with autoimmunity. We, therefore, investigated in multiple regression analyses associations of ovary-specific FMR1 genotypes with autoimmunity and pregnancy chances (with in vitro fertilization, IVF) in 339 consecutive infertile women (455 IVF cycles), 75 with PCO-like phenotype, adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, medication dosage and number of oocytes retrieved. Patients included 183 (54.0%) with normal (norm) and 156 (46%) with heterozygous (het) FMR1 genotypes; 133 (39.2%) demonstrated laboratory evidence of autoimmunity: 51.1% of het-norm/low, 38.3% of norm and 24.2% het-norm/high genotype and sub-genotypes demonstrated autoimmunity (p = 0.003). Prevalence of autoimmunity increased further in PCO-like phenotype patients with het-norm/low genotype (83.3%), remained unchanged with norm (34.0%) and decreased in het-norm/high women (10.0%; P<0.0001). Pregnancy rates were significantly higher with norm (38.6%) than het-norm/low (22.2%, p = 0.001). FMR1 sub-genotype het-norm/low is strongly associated with autoimmunity and decreased pregnancy chances in IVF, reaffirming the importance of the distal long arm of the X chromosome (FMR1 maps at Xq27.3) for autoimmunity, ovarian function and, likely, pregnancy chance with IVF. PMID:21179569

  14. Biomechanics of Thoracolumbar Burst and Chance-Type Fractures during Fall from Height

    PubMed Central

    Ivancic, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design In vitro biomechanical study. Objective To investigate the biomechanics of thoracolumbar burst and Chance-type fractures during fall from height. Methods Our model consisted of a three-vertebra human thoracolumbar specimen (n = 4) stabilized with muscle force replication and mounted within an impact dummy. Each specimen was subjected to a single fall from an average height of 2.1 m with average velocity at impact of 6.4 m/s. Biomechanical responses were determined using impact load data combined with high-speed movie analyses. Injuries to the middle vertebra of each spinal segment were evaluated using imaging and dissection. Results Average peak compressive forces occurred within 10 milliseconds of impact and reached 40.3 kN at the ground, 7.1 kN at the lower vertebra, and 3.6 kN at the upper vertebra. Subsequently, average peak flexion (55.0 degrees) and tensile forces (0.7 kN upper vertebra, 0.3 kN lower vertebra) occurred between 43.0 and 60.0 milliseconds. The middle vertebra of all specimens sustained pedicle and endplate fractures with comminution, bursting, and reduced height of its vertebral body. Chance-type fractures were observed consisting of a horizontal split fracture through the laminae and pedicles extending anteriorly through the vertebral body. Conclusions We hypothesize that the compression fractures of the pedicles and vertebral body together with burst fracture occurred at the time of peak spinal compression, 10 milliseconds. Subsequently, the onset of Chance-type fracture occurred at 20 milliseconds through the already fractured and weakened pedicles and vertebral body due to flexion-distraction and a forward shifting spinal axis of rotation. PMID:25083357

  15. Chance fracture in an older patient with positive sagittal imbalance and previous lumbar arthrodesis: what can be done?

    PubMed

    Zwolak, Pawel; Kröber, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The Chance fracture occurs frequently in school-aged patients' population and is related to flexion-distraction injury in motor vehicle accidents. It is so called seat-belt syndrome because the seatbelt lies over the abdomen. After sudden deceleration bends the child around the lap belt causing injuries to the abdomen, and the spine (e.g., Chance fracture). The Chance fracture after a low energy fall in elderly patient's population has rarely been reported. We present an 82 years old patient who suffered unrecognized Chance fracture after a low energy fall. The management of this patient with positive sagittal imbalance and previous arthrodesis consisted of decompression, Smith-Petersen osteotomy and posterior pedicle screw instrumentation. PMID:26846301

  16. How to Help Your Children Stay Healthy: Tips to Lower Their Chances of Getting Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Community Organizations​ ​​ Alternate Versions How to Help Your Children Stay Healthy: Tips to Lower Their Chances of Getting Type 2 Diabetes (PDF, 1.49 MB) You can also order print versions ...

  17. Is poker a game of skill or chance? A quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gerhard; von Meduna, Marc; Brosowski, Tim; Hayer, Tobias

    2013-09-01

    Due to intensive marketing and the rapid growth of online gambling, poker currently enjoys great popularity among large sections of the population. Although poker is legally a game of chance in most countries, some (particularly operators of private poker web sites) argue that it should be regarded as a game of skill or sport because the outcome of the game primarily depends on individual aptitude and skill. The available findings indicate that skill plays a meaningful role; however, serious methodological weaknesses and the absence of reliable information regarding the relative importance of chance and skill considerably limit the validity of extant research. Adopting a quasi-experimental approach, the present study examined the extent to which the influence of poker playing skill was more important than card distribution. Three average players and three experts sat down at a six-player table and played 60 computer-based hands of the poker variant "Texas Hold'em" for money. In each hand, one of the average players and one expert received (a) better-than-average cards (winner's box), (b) average cards (neutral box) and (c) worse-than-average cards (loser's box). The standardized manipulation of the card distribution controlled the factor of chance to determine differences in performance between the average and expert groups. Overall, 150 individuals participated in a "fixed-limit" game variant, and 150 individuals participated in a "no-limit" game variant. ANOVA results showed that experts did not outperform average players in terms of final cash balance. Rather, card distribution was the decisive factor for successful poker playing. However, expert players were better able to minimize losses when confronted with disadvantageous conditions (i.e., worse-than-average cards). No significant differences were observed between the game variants. Furthermore, supplementary analyses confirm differential game-related actions dependent on the card distribution, player status

  18. End-of-life care in psychiatry: 'one chance to get it right'.

    PubMed

    Galappathie, Nuwan; Khan, Sobia Tamim

    2016-02-01

    End-of-life care has been given increasing importance within healthcare settings. In June 2014, the Leadership Alliance for the Care of Dying People published One Chance to Get it Right. This nationally accepted guidance replaces previous end-of-life care pathways such as the Liverpool Care Pathway and outlines how dying patients should be managed irrespective of setting. Increasingly, patients with mental health problems are entering their final days of life within psychiatric in-patient or acute hospital settings, and psychiatrists need to be aware of the new guidance and ready to implement it within psychiatric practice. PMID:26958359

  19. End-of-life care in psychiatry: ‘one chance to get it right’

    PubMed Central

    Galappathie, Nuwan; Khan, Sobia Tamim

    2016-01-01

    End-of-life care has been given increasing importance within healthcare settings. In June 2014, the Leadership Alliance for the Care of Dying People published One Chance to Get it Right. This nationally accepted guidance replaces previous end-of-life care pathways such as the Liverpool Care Pathway and outlines how dying patients should be managed irrespective of setting. Increasingly, patients with mental health problems are entering their final days of life within psychiatric in-patient or acute hospital settings, and psychiatrists need to be aware of the new guidance and ready to implement it within psychiatric practice. PMID:26958359

  20. Conducting the Student Interview. It's your best early chance to spot candidates not suited for EMS.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mike

    2015-06-01

    Student interviews help ensure a match between classroom imperatives and candidates'capabilities. Exploring students'maturity and judgment is often more important than confirming their academic proficiency. Walking into an interview unprepared can be as damaging for interviewers as for interviewees. Selecting the right people and the right process for conducting interviews depends on planning and practice. A team approach to interviewing can be particularly effective if team members take the time to discuss topics and roles before meeting with candidates. Although imprecise, interviews increase the chances that instructors and students will achieve mutually satisfying results, particularly when students play active roles. Next time we'll cover patient interviews. PMID:26137835

  1. Seatbelt syndrome with superior mesenteric artery syndrome: leave nothing to chance!

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Animesh A.; Singla, Apresh A.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of seatbelts to legislation has dramatically reduced mortality and morbidity from motor vehicle accidents. However, overtime evidence has emerged of ‘seatbelt syndrome’ (SBS), particularly in the paediatric population. The report describes the diagnosis and management of this rare injury in a 12-year-old boy who sustained a chance lumbar fracture and mesenteric tear resulting in small bowel obstruction. His stay was subsequently complicated by superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome. This is the first documented case of SBS with SMA syndrome. High index of suspicion and continuity of care, particularly in the setting of a ‘seatbelt sign’, is paramount to timely diagnosis and management. PMID:26564612

  2. Beyond freedom and dignity at 40: comments on behavioral science, the future, and chance (2007).

    PubMed

    Leigland, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Forty years after the publication of Beyond Freedom and Dignity (Skinner, 1971) and the continuing growth of behavior analysis, the future of humanity and the role of behavioral science in that future remain uncertain. A recent paper by Chance (2007) documented a shift in Skinner's views during the last years of his life. Skinner had long advocated a science and technology of behavior for finding and engineering solutions to cultural and global problems and advancing human development. This optimism had given way under a gradual realization that the science of behavior was in fact showing how such problems were unlikely to be solved in time to avert a variety of possible disasters. Chance described nine behavioral phenomena that appear to interfere with effective problem-solving behavior on a large scale and in effective time frames. These phenomena are reviewed toward an analysis of common themes. Research is also reviewed that involves nonverbal, verbal, and cultural contingencies that may lead to applications designed to address the common themes. Problems and strategies of implementation are also discussed. The challenges are daunting, but may nevertheless be regarded as technical problems best suited for a science and technology of behavior. PMID:22532749

  3. PHYSICS OF PREDETERMINED EVENTS: Complementarity States of Choice-Chance Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Manuel

    2011-04-01

    We find that the deterministic application of choice-chance mechanics, as applied in the Tempt Destiny experiment, is also reflected in the construct of the double-slit experiment and that the complementary results obtained by this treatment mirror that of Niels Bohr's principle of complementarity as well as reveal Einstein's hidden variables. Whereas the double-slit experiment serves to reveal the deterministic and indeterministic behavioral characteristics of our physical world, the Tempt Destiny experiment serves to reveal the deterministic and indeterministic behavioral characteristics of our actions. The unifying factor shared by both experiments is that they are of the same construct yielding similar results from the same energy. Given that, we seek to establish if the fundamental states of energy, i.e, certainty and probability, are indeed predetermined. Over the span of ten years, the Tempt Destiny experimental model of pairing choice and chance events has statistically obtained consistent results of absolute value. The evidence clearly infers that the fundamental mechanics of energy is a complement of two mutually exclusive mechanisms that bring into being - as opposed to revealing - the predetermined state of an event as either certain or probable, although not both simultaneously.

  4. Beyond Freedom and Dignity at 40: Comments on Behavioral Science, the Future, and Chance (2007)

    PubMed Central

    Leigland, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Forty years after the publication of Beyond Freedom and Dignity (Skinner, 1971) and the continuing growth of behavior analysis, the future of humanity and the role of behavioral science in that future remain uncertain. A recent paper by Chance (2007) documented a shift in Skinner's views during the last years of his life. Skinner had long advocated a science and technology of behavior for finding and engineering solutions to cultural and global problems and advancing human development. This optimism had given way under a gradual realization that the science of behavior was in fact showing how such problems were unlikely to be solved in time to avert a variety of possible disasters. Chance described nine behavioral phenomena that appear to interfere with effective problem-solving behavior on a large scale and in effective time frames. These phenomena are reviewed toward an analysis of common themes. Research is also reviewed that involves nonverbal, verbal, and cultural contingencies that may lead to applications designed to address the common themes. Problems and strategies of implementation are also discussed. The challenges are daunting, but may nevertheless be regarded as technical problems best suited for a science and technology of behavior. PMID:22532749

  5. Management of Occupational Exposure to Engineered Nanoparticles Through a Chance-Constrained Nonlinear Programming Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Shu-Shen; Chen, Yu; Yang, Feng-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Critical environmental and human health concerns are associated with the rapidly growing fields of nanotechnology and manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). The main risk arises from occupational exposure via chronic inhalation of nanoparticles. This research presents a chance-constrained nonlinear programming (CCNLP) optimization approach, which is developed to maximize the nanaomaterial production and minimize the risks of workplace exposure to MNMs. The CCNLP method integrates nonlinear programming (NLP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP), and handles uncertainties associated with both the nanomaterial production and workplace exposure control. The CCNLP method was examined through a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) manufacturing process. The study results provide optimal production strategies and alternatives. It reveal that a high control measure guarantees that environmental health and safety (EHS) standards regulations are met, while a lower control level leads to increased risk of violating EHS regulations. The CCNLP optimization approach is a decision support tool for the optimization of the increasing MNMS manufacturing with workplace safety constraints under uncertainties. PMID:23531490

  6. Combined use of a McGrath® MAC video laryngoscope and Frova Intubating Introducer in a patient with Pierre Robin syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongsuk; Kim, Jeong Eun; Jeong, Da Hye; Lee, Jaemin

    2014-04-01

    Patients with Pierre Robin syndrome are characterized by micrognathia, retrognathia, glossoptosis, and respiratory obstruction and are prone to have a difficult-to-intubate airway. The McGrath® MAC video laryngoscope provides a better view of the glottis than a Macintosh laryngoscope, but it is not easy to insert an endotracheal tube through the vocal cords because a video laryngoscope has a much greater curvature than that of a conventional direct laryngoscope and an endotracheal tube has a different curvature. The Frova Intubating Introducer is used as a railroad for an endotracheal tube in cases of a difficult airway. We thought that a combination of these two devices would make it easy to insert an endotracheal tube through the vocal cords, as a McGrath® MAC video laryngoscope provides a better glottic view and the Frova Intubating Introducer is a useful device for placing an endotracheal tube through the glottis. We report a successful endotracheal intubation with use of the McGrath® MAC video laryngoscope and Frova Intubating Introducer in a patient with Pierre Robin syndrome. PMID:24851168

  7. Results of the second Round Robin on opening-load measurement conducted by ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on crack closure measurement and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, E.P.

    1993-11-01

    A second experimental Round Robin on the measurement of the crack opening load in fatigue crack growth tests has been completed by the ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis. Fourteen laboratories participated in the testing of aluminum alloy compact tension specimens. Opening-load measurements were made at three crack lengths during constant Delta K, constant stress ratio tests by most of the participants. Four participants made opening-load measurements during threshold tests. All opening-load measurements were based on the analysis of specimens compliance behavior, where the displacement/strain was measured either at the crack mouth or the mid-height back face location. The Round Robin data were analyzed for opening load using two non-subjective analysis methods: the compliance offset and the correlation coefficient methods. The scatter in the opening load results was significantly reduced when some of the results were excluded from the analysis population based on an accept/reject criterion for raw data quality. The compliance offset and correlation coefficient opening load analysis methods produced similar results for data populations that had been screened to eliminate poor quality data.

  8. Migratory connectivity and effects of winter temperatures on migratory behaviour of the European robin Erithacus rubecula: a continent-wide analysis.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Roberto; Cuervo, José Javier; du Feu, Chris; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Musitelli, Federica; Rubolini, Diego; Sicurella, Beatrice; Spina, Fernando; Saino, Nicola; Møller, Anders Pape

    2016-05-01

    Many partially migratory species show phenotypically divergent populations in terms of migratory behaviour, with climate hypothesized to be a major driver of such variability through its differential effects on sedentary and migratory individuals. Based on long-term (1947-2011) bird ringing data, we analysed phenotypic differentiation of migratory behaviour among populations of the European robin Erithacus rubecula across Europe. We showed that clusters of populations sharing breeding and wintering ranges varied from partial (British Isles and Western Europe, NW cluster) to completely migratory (Scandinavia and north-eastern Europe, NE cluster). Distance migrated by birds of the NE (but not of the NW) cluster decreased through time because of a north-eastwards shift in the wintering grounds. Moreover, when winter temperatures in the breeding areas were cold, individuals from the NE cluster also migrated longer distances, while those of the NW cluster moved over shorter distances. Climatic conditions may therefore affect migratory behaviour of robins, although large geographical variation in response to climate seems to exist. PMID:26820488

  9. Results of the Round Robin on opening-load measurement conducted by ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edward P.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental Round Robin on the measurement of the opening load in fatigue crack growth tests was conducted on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis. The Round Robin evaluated the current level of consistency of opening load measurements among laboratories and to identify causes for observed inconsistency. Eleven laboratories participated in the testing of compact and middle-crack specimens. Opening-load measurements were made for crack growth at two stress-intensity factor levels, three crack lengths, and following an overload. All opening-load measurements were based on the analysis of specimen compliance data. When all of the results reported (from all participants, all measurement methods, and all data analysis methods) for a given test condition were pooled, the range of opening loads was very large--typically spanning the lower half of the fatigue loading cycle. Part of the large scatter in the reported opening-load results was ascribed to consistent differences in results produced by the various methods used to measure specimen compliance and to evaluate the opening load from the compliance data. Another significant portion of the scatter was ascribed to lab-to-lab differences in producing the compliance data when using nominally the same method of measurement.

  10. Results of the second Round Robin on opening-load measurement conducted by ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on crack closure measurement and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    A second experimental Round Robin on the measurement of the crack opening load in fatigue crack growth tests has been completed by the ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis. Fourteen laboratories participated in the testing of aluminum alloy compact tension specimens. Opening-load measurements were made at three crack lengths during constant Delta K, constant stress ratio tests by most of the participants. Four participants made opening-load measurements during threshold tests. All opening-load measurements were based on the analysis of specimens compliance behavior, where the displacement/strain was measured either at the crack mouth or the mid-height back face location. The Round Robin data were analyzed for opening load using two non-subjective analysis methods: the compliance offset and the correlation coefficient methods. The scatter in the opening load results was significantly reduced when some of the results were excluded from the analysis population based on an accept/reject criterion for raw data quality. The compliance offset and correlation coefficient opening load analysis methods produced similar results for data populations that had been screened to eliminate poor quality data.

  11. Biases on Initial Mass Function Determinations. II. Real Multiple Systems and Chance Superpositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.

    2008-04-01

    When calculating stellar initial mass functions (IMFs) for young clusters, one has to take into account that (1) most massive stars are born in multiple systems, (2) most IMFs are derived from data that cannot resolve such systems, and (3) multiple chance superpositions between members are expected to happen if the cluster is too distant. In this article I use numerical experiments to model the consequences of those phenomena on the observed color-magnitude diagrams and the IMFs derived from them. Real multiple systems affect the observed or apparent massive-star MF slope little but can create a significant population of apparently ultramassive stars. Chance superpositions produce only small biases when the number of superimposed stars is low but, once a certain number threshold is reached, they can affect both the observed slope and the apparent stellar upper mass limit. I apply these experiments to two well known massive young clusters in the Local Group, NGC 3603 and R136. In both cases I show that the observed population of stars with masses above 120 M⊙ can be explained by the effects of unresolved objects, mostly real multiple systems for NGC 3603 and a combination of real and chance-alignment multiple systems for R136. Therefore, the case for the reality of a stellar upper mass limit at solar or near-solar metallicities is strengthened, with a possible value even lower than 150 M⊙. An IMF slope somewhat flatter than Salpeter or Kroupa with γ between -1.6 and -2.0 is derived for the central region of NGC 3603, with a significant contribution to the uncertainty arising from the imprecise knowledge of the distance to the cluster. The IMF at the very center of R136 cannot be measured with the currently available data but the situation could change with new HST observations. This article is partially based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), some of them associated with GO program 10602 and the rest gathered from the archive

  12. The High Court's lost chance in medical negligence: Tabet v Gett (2010) 240 CLR 537.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; McEwan, Alexandra

    2010-12-01

    In 2010 the High Court of Australia in Tabet v Gett (2010) 240 CLR 537 determined an appeal in a medical negligence case concerning a six-year-old girl who had presented to a major paediatric hospital with symptoms over several weeks of headaches and vomiting after a recent history of chicken pox. The differential diagnosis was varicella, meningitis or encephalitis and two days later, after she deteriorated neurologically, she received a lumbar puncture. Three days later she suffered a seizure and irreversible brain damage. A CT scan performed at that point showed a brain tumour. As Australia does not have a no-fault system providing compensation to cover the long-term care required for such a condition, the girl (through her parents and lawyers) sued her treating physician. She alleged that, because a cerebral CT scan was not performed when clinically indicated after the diagnosis of meningitis or encephalitis and before the lumbar puncture, she had "lost the chance" to have her brain tumour treated before she sustained permanent brain damage. She succeeded at first instance, but lost on appeal. The High Court also rejected her claim, holding unanimously that there were no policy reasons to allow recovery of damages based on possible (less than 50%) "loss of a chance" of a better medical outcome. The court held that the law of torts in Australia required "all or nothing" proof that physical injury was caused or contributed to by a negligent party. The High Court, however, did not exclude loss of chance as forming the substance of a probable (greater than 50%) claim in medical negligence in some future case. In the meantime, patients injured in Australia as a result of possible medical negligence (particularly in the intractable difficult instances of late diagnosis) must face the injustice of the significant day-to-day care needs of victims being carried by family members and the taxpayer-funded public hospital system. The High Court in Tabet v Gett again provides

  13. Young children do not succeed in choice tasks that imply evaluating chances.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Vittorio; Fontanari, Laura; Gonzalez, Michel; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Blaye, Agnès

    2016-07-01

    Preverbal infants manifest probabilistic intuitions in their reactions to the outcomes of simple physical processes and in their choices. Their ability conflicts with the evidence that, before the age of about 5years, children's verbal judgments do not reveal probability understanding. To assess these conflicting results, three studies tested 3-5-year-olds on choice tasks on which infants perform successfully. The results showed that children of all age groups made optimal choices in tasks that did not require forming probabilistic expectations. In probabilistic tasks, however, only 5-year-olds made optimal choices. Younger children performed at random and/or were guided by superficial heuristics. These results suggest caution in interpreting infants' ability to evaluate chance, and indicate that the development of this ability may not follow a linear trajectory. PMID:27015350

  14. Fuzzy multi-objective chance-constrained programming model for hazardous materials transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jiaoman; Yu, Lean; Li, Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Hazardous materials transportation is an important and hot issue of public safety. Based on the shortest path model, this paper presents a fuzzy multi-objective programming model that minimizes the transportation risk to life, travel time and fuel consumption. First, we present the risk model, travel time model and fuel consumption model. Furthermore, we formulate a chance-constrained programming model within the framework of credibility theory, in which the lengths of arcs in the transportation network are assumed to be fuzzy variables. A hybrid intelligent algorithm integrating fuzzy simulation and genetic algorithm is designed for finding a satisfactory solution. Finally, some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed model and algorithm.

  15. [Staying healthy at work--chances and risks in the daily routine of nursing].

    PubMed

    Kuhlmey, A

    1995-12-01

    They assist others to be healthy. On the other hand overwork, burnout and emotional disturbance are discussed more often within this particular occupational group than in any other professional fields. What makes nursing staff so vulnerable? What are the risks of care? What are the chances of making the work process of care healthy? How can we help the nursing staff to grow old in their own profession? This text is looking for answers to these questions. The author focuses on three topics: Nursing care as a female occupation, results of international research in the field of special demands in the working situation of nurses and organisational resources of nursing care to promote health at the work places of nursing personnel. PMID:8562799

  16. The Unparalleled Systems Engineering of MSL's Backup Entry, Descent, and Landing System: Second Chance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roumeliotis, Chris; Grinblat, Jonathan; Reeves, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Second Chance (SECC) was a bare bones version of Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) Entry Descent & Landing (EDL) flight software that ran on Curiosity's backup computer, which could have taken over swiftly in the event of a reset of Curiosity's prime computer, in order to land her safely on Mars. Without SECC, a reset of Curiosity's prime computer would have lead to catastrophic mission failure. Even though a reset of the prime computer never occurred, SECC had the important responsibility as EDL's guardian angel, and this responsibility would not have seen such success without unparalleled systems engineering. This paper will focus on the systems engineering behind SECC: Covering a brief overview of SECC's design, the intense schedule to use SECC as a backup system, the verification and validation of the system's "Do No Harm" mandate, the system's overall functional performance, and finally, its use on the fateful day of August 5th, 2012.

  17. Chance and serendipity in science: two examples from my own career.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The usual scientific paper follows a rather narrowly (but not ever rigidly) defined pattern. Both the author and the journal like to see a linear logical presentation of a "story." Seldom does the paper give the reader the "backstory." Where did the idea come from in the first place? How many false leads led down blind alleys? What happened by chance and what by logical planning? Was there an element of serendipity involved? Perhaps as we enter the paperless era and do not have to count words quite so religiously, it may be possible to encourage a more freewheeling scientific paper, but for now, we have to rely on the historians of science and/or those who "tell all" about their own research. "Reflections" seems an appropriate space for the latter. I have chosen two scenarios from my own career in which happy accidents played important roles but, unhappily, received little recognition in my published papers. PMID:21908608

  18. [Scale Relativity Theory in living beings morphogenesis: fratal, determinism and chance].

    PubMed

    Chaline, J

    2012-10-01

    The Scale Relativity Theory has many biological applications from linear to non-linear and, from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. Self-similar laws have been used as model for the description of a huge number of biological systems. Theses laws may explain the origin of basal life structures. Log-periodic behaviors of acceleration or deceleration can be applied to branching macroevolution, to the time sequences of major evolutionary leaps. The existence of such a law does not mean that the role of chance in evolution is reduced, but instead that randomness and contingency may occur within a framework which may itself be structured in a partly statistical way. The scale relativity theory can open new perspectives in evolution. PMID:22579013

  19. A Chance-Constrained Multimodel Approach to Design a Saltwater Intrusion Mitigation Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitsazan, N.; Tsai, F. T.

    2011-12-01

    This study proposes a Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) framework to design a saltwater intrusion mitigation plan under uncertainty for the "1,500-foot" sand in the Baton Rouge area. The Baton Rouge aquifer system is separated by the west-east trending Baton Rouge fault. Historically, aquifers south of the fault contain salt water and north of the fault contain fresh water. Excessive groundwater withdrawal has caused saltwater encroachment in several freshwater aquifers. Particularly, undesirable chloride concentration was detected in a few production wells that screened the "1,500-foot" sand. A remediation plan using scavenger wells is proposed to stop brackish water reaching the production wells. Due to limited geological and hydrogeological data, different saltwater intrusion models were developed and calibrated based on combinations of different boundary conditions, fault permeability, and aquifer hydraulic conductivity. To assess uncertainty of predicted groundwater head and chloride concentration due to limited data, we adopt BMA to integrate all simulation models in the remediation design. The model weights in the BMA framework reflect the model importance based on the data evidence. The advantage of using BMA is to provide the insight on sources of uncertainty and uncertainty propagation within and between models. The overriding objective of the remediation design is to search for best locations and minimal extraction rates for the scavenger wells. The key constraints are set to ensure required groundwater head and chloride concentration levels at control points are met. We proposed a chance-constrained formulation under the BMA framework to take into account uncertainties in the constraints. The methodology is applied to a synthetic case for the validation purpose and the results show that the designs under the chance-constrained BMA framework are more reliable than those from the best model, but more expensive. We then apply the methodology to design a

  20. Estimating the chance of success in IVF treatment using a ranking algorithm.

    PubMed

    Güvenir, H Altay; Misirli, Gizem; Dilbaz, Serdar; Ozdegirmenci, Ozlem; Demir, Berfu; Dilbaz, Berna

    2015-09-01

    In medicine, estimating the chance of success for treatment is important in deciding whether to begin the treatment or not. This paper focuses on the domain of in vitro fertilization (IVF), where estimating the outcome of a treatment is very crucial in the decision to proceed with treatment for both the clinicians and the infertile couples. IVF treatment is a stressful and costly process. It is very stressful for couples who want to have a baby. If an initial evaluation indicates a low pregnancy rate, decision of the couple may change not to start the IVF treatment. The aim of this study is twofold, firstly, to develop a technique that can be used to estimate the chance of success for a couple who wants to have a baby and secondly, to determine the attributes and their particular values affecting the outcome in IVF treatment. We propose a new technique, called success estimation using a ranking algorithm (SERA), for estimating the success of a treatment using a ranking-based algorithm. The particular ranking algorithm used here is RIMARC. The performance of the new algorithm is compared with two well-known algorithms that assign class probabilities to query instances. The algorithms used in the comparison are Naïve Bayes Classifier and Random Forest. The comparison is done in terms of area under the ROC curve, accuracy and execution time, using tenfold stratified cross-validation. The results indicate that the proposed SERA algorithm has a potential to be used successfully to estimate the probability of success in medical treatment. PMID:25894468