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Sample records for robot da vinci

  1. Surgical treatment of parietal defects with "da Vinci" surgical robot.

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, D; Paun, S

    2012-06-12

    The robotic surgery has come through the development of telemedicine and minimally invasive surgery concepts, being developed in the military medicine by NASA during the years 1970-1980. The purpose of this paper is to briefly present our experience in the new field of the robotic surgery, by analyzing the results obtained over a lot of 20 patients operated with the "da Vinci" robot within the last 5 years in the Clinical Emergency Hospital Bucharest for various abdominal defects. PMID:22802899

  2. The da Vinci robot in right adrenalectomy: considerations on technique.

    PubMed

    D'Annibale, Annibale; Fiscon, Valentino; Trevisan, Paolo; Pozzobon, Maurizia; Gianfreda, Valeria; Sovernigo, Gianna; Morpurgo, Emilio; Orsini, Camillo; Del Monte, Daniele

    2004-02-01

    The da Vinci Robotic System (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, CA) became available at the General Surgery Department of Camposampiero Hospital in May 2001. From May 2001 to October 2002, 139 robotic operations were performed, one of which was a right adrenalectomy for a right adrenal mass. The progressive growth of the mass was the indication for surgical excision. Surgical adrenalectomy was successfully completed with da Vinci Robotic System using 5 ports (3 for the robotic system, 2 as service trocars). The wrist-like movements of the instrument's tip easily enabled the detachment of the right hepatic lobe from the gland and vessel isolation, while the 3-dimensional vision facilitated dissection of the veins from the vena cava. PMID:15259586

  3. Da Vinci robot emergency undocking protocol.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, O E; O'Sullivan, S; Hewitt, M; O'Reilly, B A

    2016-09-01

    The role of robot-assisted surgery across gynaecology is evolving with increasing numbers of procedures being undertaken with varying degrees of complexity. While the risk of conversion is low at approximately 1 %, the reasons for conversion are variable. These range from technical issues with the robot, surgical complications such as haemorrhage and anaesthetics issues such as an inability to ventilate the patient adequately. While many conversions to open or laparoscopic approach are not due to life-threatening indications, it is important that the theatre staff are aware of the indication and can perform an emergency undocking as effectively, efficiently and safely as possible when the need arises. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of the literature available outlining such protocols. For this reason, we developed an emergency undocking protocol clearly outlining the role of each theatre staff member and the need for clear concise communication. PMID:27126584

  4. Robotic Partial Nephrectomy with the Da Vinci Xi

    PubMed Central

    Kallingal, George J. S.; Swain, Sanjaya; Darwiche, Fadi; Punnen, Sanoj; Manoharan, Murugesan; Gonzalgo, Mark L.; Parekh, Dipen J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The surgical expertise to perform robotic partial nephrectomy is heavily dependent on technology. The Da Vinci Xi (XI) is the latest robotic surgical platform with significant advancements compared to its predecessor. We describe our operative technique and experience with the XI system for robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). Materials and Methods. Patients with clinical T1 renal masses were offered RPN with the XI. We used laser targeting, autopositioning, and a novel “in-line” port placement to perform RPN. Results. 15 patients underwent RPN with the XI. There were no intraoperative complications and no operative conversions. Mean console time was 101.3 minutes (range 44–176 minutes). Mean ischemia time was 17.5 minutes and estimated blood loss was 120 mLs. 12 of 15 patients had renal cell carcinoma. Two patients had oncocytoma and one had benign cystic disease. All patients had negative surgical margins and pathologic T1 disease. Two postoperative complications were encountered, including one patient who developed a pseudoaneurysm and one readmitted for presumed urinary tract infection. Conclusions. RPN with the XI system can be safely performed. Combining our surgical technique with the technological advancements on the XI offers patients acceptable pathologic and perioperative outcomes. PMID:26977144

  5. [History of robotics: from Archytas of Tarentum until da Vinci robot. (Part I)].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Martín, F M; Millán Rodríguez, F; Salvador Bayarri, J; Palou Redorta, J; Rodríguez Escovar, F; Esquena Fernández, S; Villavicencio Mavrich, H

    2007-02-01

    Robotic surgery is the newst technologic option in urology. To understand how new robots work is interesting to know their history. The desire to design machines imitating humans continued for more than 4000 years. There are references to King-su Tse (clasic China) making up automaton at 500 a. C. Archytas of Tarentum (at around 400 a.C.) is considered the father of mechanical engineering, and one of the occidental robotics classic referents. Heron of Alexandria, Hsieh-Fec, Al-Jazari, Roger Bacon, Juanelo Turriano, Leonardo da Vinci, Vaucanson o von Kempelen were robot inventors in the middle age, renaissance and classicism. At the XIXth century, automaton production underwent a peak and all engineering branches suffered a great development. At 1942 Asimov published the three robotics laws, based on mechanics, electronics and informatics advances. At XXth century robots able to do very complex self governing works were developed, like da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), a very sophisticated robot to assist surgeons. PMID:17645084

  6. Maximizing use of robot-arm no. 3 in daVinci-assisted thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Maeda, Junichi; Yoshida, Koichi; Kato, Yasufumi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2015-05-01

    We have previously reported on the importance of appropriate robot-arm settings and replacement of instrument ports in robot-assisted thoracic surgery, because the thoracic cavity requires a large space to access all lesions in various areas of the thoracic cavity from the apex to the diaphragm and mediastinum and the chest wall. (1 - 3) Moreover, it can be difficult to manipulate the da Vinci Surgical System using only arms No. 1 and No. 2 depending on the tumor location. However, arm No. 3 is usually positioned on the same side as arm No. 2, and sometimes it is only used as an assisting-arm to avoid conflict with other arms ( Fig. 1 ). In this report, we show how robot-arm No. 3 can be used with maximum effectiveness in da Vinci-assisted thoracic surgery. [Figure: see text]. PMID:26011219

  7. [Da Vinci robot-assisted thoracoscopy for primary hyperparathyroidism: a new application in endocrine surgery].

    PubMed

    Brunaud, L; Ayav, A; Bresler, L; Schjött, B

    2008-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a relatively frequent disease whose incidence is often underestimated. It is caused by one or more hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands. Almost all pathologic glands (hyperplasia or adenoma) are located in the neck but 1-2% may be located in the mediastinum and may require a sternotomy or thoracotomy approach for resection. The thoracoscopic approach was proposed in 1994 and the DaVinci robotic system allows performance of this thoracoscopic procedure with the benefits of 3-dimensional vision, and improved surgical dexterity and ergonomics. We report a case of a patient with a parathyroid adenoma located in the aorto-pulmonary window which was resected using a left thoracoscopic approach aided by the Da Vinci robotic system. PMID:18645560

  8. da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery: a cadaver study on feasibility and safety.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this cadaver study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery. Several keyhole craniotomies were fashioned including supraorbital subfrontal, retrosigmoid and supracerebellar infratentorial. In each case, a simple durotomy was performed, and the flap was retracted. The da Vinci surgical system was then used to perform arachnoid dissection towards the deep-seated intracranial cisterns. It was not possible to simultaneously pass the 12-mm endoscope and instruments through the keyhole craniotomy in any of the approaches performed, limiting visualization. The articulated instruments provided greater dexterity than existing tools, but the instrument arms could not be placed in parallel through the keyhole craniotomy and, therefore, could not be advanced to the deep cisterns without significant clashing. The da Vinci console offered considerable ergonomic advantages over the existing operating room arrangement, allowing the operating surgeon to remain non-sterile and seated comfortably throughout the procedure. However, the lack of haptic feedback was a notable limitation. In conclusion, while robotic platforms have the potential to greatly enhance the performance of transcranial approaches, there is strong justification for research into next-generation robots, better suited to keyhole neurosurgery. PMID:25516094

  9. Application of da Vinci® Robot in simple or radical hysterectomy: Tips and tricks

    PubMed Central

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegkes, Ioannis D.

    2016-01-01

    The first robotic simple hysterectomy was performed more than 10 years ago. These days, robotic-assisted hysterectomy is accepted as an alternative surgical approach and is applied both in benign and malignant surgical entities. The two important points that should be taken into account to optimize postoperative outcomes in the early period of a surgeon’s training are how to achieve optimal oncological and functional results. Overcoming any technical challenge, as with any innovative surgical method, leads to an improved surgical operation timewise as well as for patients’ safety. The standardization of the technique and recognition of critical anatomical landmarks are essential for optimal oncological and clinical outcomes on both simple and radical robotic-assisted hysterectomy. Based on our experience, our intention is to present user-friendly tips and tricks to optimize the application of a da Vinci® robot in simple or radical hysterectomies. PMID:27403078

  10. Possible role of DaVinci Robot in uterine transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegkes, Ioannis D.

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery, specifically robotic surgery, became a common technique used by gynecological surgeons over the last decade. The realization of the first human uterine transplantation commenced new perspectives in the treatment of uterine agenesia or infertility in women with history of hysterectomy at a young age. Robot-assisted technique may enhance the safety of the procedure by facilitating the microvascular anastomosis, vaginal anastomosis, and ligaments’ fixation. This study proposes the formation of a multicenter collaboration group to organize a protocol with the aim to clarify the possible role of robotic surgery in uterine transplantation. PMID:26401113

  11. The PAKY, HERMES, AESOP, ZEUS, and da Vinci robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung L; Schulam, Peter

    2004-11-01

    In 1965 Gordon Moore, cofounder of Intel Corporation, made his famous observation now known as Moore's law. He predicted that computing capacity will double every 18 to 24 months. Since then, Moore's law has held true; the number of transistors per integrated computer circuit has doubled every couple of years. This relentless advance in computer technology ensures future advances in robotic technology. The ultimate goal of robotics is to allow surgeons to perform difficult procedures with a level of precision and improved clinical outcomes not possible by conventional methods. Robotics has the potential to enable surgeons with various levels of surgical skill to achieve a uniform outcome. As long as urologists continue to embrace technological advances and incorporate beneficial technology into their practice, the outlook for patients remains bright. PMID:15474593

  12. Understanding the adoption dynamics of medical innovations: affordances of the da Vinci robot in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Abrishami, Payam; Boer, Albert; Horstman, Klasien

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the rather rapid adoption of a new surgical device - the da Vinci robot - in the Netherlands despite the high costs and its controversial clinical benefits. We used the concept 'affordances' as a conceptual-analytic tool to refer to the perceived promises, symbolic meanings, and utility values of an innovation constructed in the wider social context of use. This concept helps us empirically understand robot adoption. Data from 28 in-depth interviews with diverse purposively-sampled stakeholders, and from medical literature, policy documents, Health Technology Assessment reports, congress websites and patients' weblogs/forums between April 2009 and February 2014 were systematically analysed from the perspective of affordances. We distinguished five interrelated affordances of the robot that accounted for shaping and fulfilling its rapid adoption: 'characteristics-related' affordances such as smart nomenclature and novelty, symbolising high-tech clinical excellence; 'research-related' affordances offering medical-technical scientific excellence; 'entrepreneurship-related' affordances for performing better-than-the-competition; 'policy-related' affordances indicating the robot's liberalised provision and its reduced financial risks; and 'communication-related' affordances of the robot in shaping patients' choices and the public's expectations by resonating promising discourses while pushing uncertainties into the background. These affordances make the take-up and use of the da Vinci robot sound perfectly rational and inevitable. This Dutch case study demonstrates the fruitfulness of the affordances approach to empirically capturing the contextual dynamics of technology adoption in health care: exploring in-depth actors' interaction with the technology while considering the interpretative spaces created in situations of use. This approach can best elicit real-life value of innovations, values as defined through the eyes of (potential) users. PMID

  13. Robot-Assisted Cardiac Surgery Using the Da Vinci Surgical System: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eung Re; Lim, Cheong; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Jun Sung; Park, Kay Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background We report our initial experiences of robot-assisted cardiac surgery using the da Vinci Surgical System. Methods Between February 2010 and March 2014, 50 consecutive patients underwent minimally invasive robot-assisted cardiac surgery. Results Robot-assisted cardiac surgery was employed in two cases of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass, 17 cases of mitral valve repair, 10 cases of cardiac myxoma removal, 20 cases of atrial septal defect repair, and one isolated CryoMaze procedure. Average cardiopulmonary bypass time and average aorta cross-clamping time were 194.8±48.6 minutes and 126.1±22.6 minutes in mitral valve repair operations and 132.0±32.0 minutes and 76.1±23.1 minutes in myxoma removal operations, respectively. During atrial septal defect closure operations, the average cardiopulmonary bypass time was 128.3±43.1 minutes. The median length of stay was between five and seven days. The only complication was that one patient needed reoperation to address bleeding. There were no hospital mortalities. Conclusion Robot-assisted cardiac surgery is safe and effective for mitral valve repair, atrial septal defect closure, and cardiac myxoma removal surgery. Reducing operative time depends heavily on the experience of the entire robotic surgical team. PMID:25883892

  14. Side docking of the da Vinci robotic system for radical prostatectomy: advantages over traditional docking.

    PubMed

    Cestari, Andrea; Ferrari, Matteo; Zanoni, Matteo; Sangalli, Mattia; Ghezzi, Massimo; Fabbri, Fabio; Sozzi, Francesco; Rigatti, Patrizio

    2015-09-01

    The standard low lithotomic position, used during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), with prolonged positioning in stirrups together with steep Trendelenburg may expose the patient to neurapraxia phenomena of the lower limbs and can rarely be used in patients with problems of hip abduction. To overcome these hurdles, we evaluated the clinical benefits of "side docking" (SD) of the da Vinci(®) robotic system in comparison to "traditional docking" (TD). A cohort of 120 patients submitted to RARP were prospectively randomized into two groups by docking approach: SD with the patient supine with lower limbs slightly abducted on the operating table, and TD docking time, intraoperative number of collisions between the robotic arms and postoperative neurological problems in the lower limbs were noted. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze outcomes. Docking time was shorter for the SD group [SD: median 13 min (range 10-18); TD: median 21 min (range 15-34)]. None in the SD group and six of 60 patients (10%) in the TD group suffered from temporary (<30 days) unilateral neurological deficits of the lower limbs. In both groups no collisions between the robotic arms occurred. The SD approach is technically feasible. It does not cause collisions between the robotic arms, and is a reliable method for reducing the setup time of RARP. The supine position of the patient may prevent neurological complications of the lower limbs. Based on these results, SD has become the standard docking technique used by our department. PMID:26531205

  15. Early Experience in Da Vinci Robot-Assisted Partial Nephrectomy: An Australian Single Centre Series

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Francis; Savdie, Richard; Chopra, Sam; Yuen, Carlo; Brenner, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives. To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) technique in an Australian setting. Methods. Between November 2010 and July 2014, a total of 76 patients underwent 77 RAPN procedures using the Da Vinci Surgical System© at our institution. 58 of these procedures were performed primarily by the senior author (PB) and are described in this case series. Results. Median operative time was 4 hours (range 1.5–6) and median warm ischaemic time (WIT) was 8 minutes (range 0–30) including 11 cases with zero ischaemic time. All surgical margins were clear with the exception of one patient who had egress of intravascular microscopic tumour outside the capsule to the point of the resection margin. Complications were identified in 9 patients (15.8%). Major complications included conversion to open surgery due to significant venous bleeding (n = 1), reperfusion injury (n = 1), gluteal compartment syndrome (n = 1), DVT/PE (n = 1), and readmission for haematuria (n = 1). Conclusion. This series demonstrates the safety and efficacy of the RAPN technique in an Australian setting when performed by experienced laparoscopic surgeons in a dedicated high volume robotic centre. PMID:26167299

  16. [First 24 Japanese cases of robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy using the daVinci Surgical System].

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Kunihiko; Hatano, Tadashi; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Ozu, Choichiro; Horiguchi, Yutaka; Sakamoto, Noboru; Yonov, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Yoshio; Ohori, Makoto; Tachibana, Masaaki; Patel, Vipul R

    2008-05-01

    In Japan, as of September 2007, prostatectomy is conducted with open surgical procedures in more than 90% of the cases. Following the first reported robotic prostatectomy by Binder, et al. in 2000, a robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) using the daVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, California, USA) has been extensively used as a standard procedure with gratifying results in the United States. In the Asian region, in contrast, RALP is still in an introductory phase. Recently, we introduced RALP in Japan. A total of 24 patients received robotic surgery within a year since August 2006. RALP was completed in all patients without conversion to open surgery, except for the first patient in whom a restriction to a 2-hour operation had been imposed by the Ethical Committee. The mean operative time using the daVinci device and the mean estimated blood loss were 232.0 (range; 136-405) minutes and 313.0 (range; 10-1,000) ml, respectively. The training program we recently developed proved remarkably effective in reducing the learning curve of robotic surgery in Japan, where there is no person with expertise in this operating procedure. In particular, the intraoperative guidance given by the expert was useful after relevant problematic points were delineated by operators who received comprehensive video-based image training and actually performed robot surgery in several cases. With direct intraoperative guidance by the mentor during cases 13 and 14, both the operation time and estimated blood loss was markedly reduced. PMID:18546856

  17. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  18. Placement of {sup 125}I implants with the da Vinci robotic system after video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Pisch, Julianna . E-mail: jpisch@bethisraelny.org; Belsley, Scott J.; Ashton, Robert; Wang Lin; Woode, Rudolph; Connery, Cliff

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using the da Vinci robotic system for radioactive seed placement in the wedge resection margin of pigs' lungs. Methods and materials: Video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection was performed in the upper and lower lobes in pigs. Dummy {sup 125}I seeds embedded in absorbable sutures were sewn into the resection margin with the aid of the da Vinci robotic system without complications. In the 'loop technique,' the seeds were placed in a cylindrical pattern; in the 'longitudinal,' they were above and lateral to the resection margin. Orthogonal radiographs were taken in the operating room. For dose calculation, Variseed 66.7 (Build 11312) software was used. Results: With looping seed placement, in the coronal view, the dose at 1 cm from the source was 97.0 Gy; in the lateral view it was 107.3 Gy. For longitudinal seed placement, the numbers were 89.5 Gy and 70.0 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Robotic technology allows direct placement of radioactive seeds into the resection margin by endoscopic surgery. It overcomes the technical difficulties of manipulating in the narrow chest cavity. With the advent of robotic technology, new options in the treatment of lung cancer, as well as other malignant tumors, will become available.

  19. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy using the Da Vinci Si system: how to improve surgeon autonomy. Our step-by-step technique.

    PubMed

    Davila, Hugo H; Storey, Raul E; Rose, Marc C

    2016-09-01

    Herein, we describe several steps to improve surgeon autonomy during a Left Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy (RALRN), using the Da Vinci Si system. Our kidney cancer program is based on 2 community hospitals. We use the Da Vinci Si system. Access is obtained with the following trocars: Two 8 mm robotic, one 8 mm robotic, bariatric length (arm 3), 15 mm for the assistant and 12 mm for the camera. We use curved monopolar scissors in robotic arm 1, Bipolar Maryland in arm 2, Prograsp Forceps in arm 3, and we alternate throughout the surgery with EndoWrist clip appliers and the vessel sealer. Here, we described three steps and the use of 3 robotic instruments to improve surgeon autonomy. Step 1: the lower pole of the kidney was dissected and this was retracted upwards and laterally. This maneuver was performed using the 3rd robotic arm with the Prograsp Forceps. Step 2: the monopolar scissors was replaced (robotic arm 1) with the robotic EndoWrist clip applier, 10 mm Hem-o-Lok. The renal artery and vein were controlled and transected by the main surgeon. Step 3: the superior, posterolateral dissection and all bleeders were carefully coagulated by the surgeon with the EndoWrist one vessel sealer. We have now performed 15 RALRN following these steps. Our results were: blood loss 300 cc, console time 140 min, operating room time 200 min, anesthesia time 180 min, hospital stay 2.5 days, 1 incisional hernia, pathology: (13) RCC clear cell, (1) chromophobe and (1) papillary type 1. Tumor Stage: (5) T1b, (8) T2a, (2) T2b. We provide a concise, step-by-step technique for radical nephrectomy (RN) using the Da Vinci Si robotic system that may provide more autonomy to the surgeon, while maintaining surgical outcome equivalent to standard laparoscopic RN. PMID:27272759

  20. [Lobectomy for lung cancer using the Da Vinci surgical system].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroshige

    2014-05-01

    Robot-assisted surgery using the da Vinci surgical system has attracted attention because of excellent operability without shaking by joint forceps under the clear vision of a three-dimensional high-definition camera in lung cancer surgery. Although this form of advanced medical care is not yet approved for insurance coverage, it is at the stage of clinical research and expected to be useful in hilar exposure, lymph node dissection, and suturing of the lung parenchyma or bronchus. Lung cancer surgery with the da Vinci system has the advantage of combining thoracotomy and minimally invasive surgery in video-assisted thoracic surgery. However, safety management, education, and significant cost are problems to be resolved. Several important issues such as sharing knowledge and technology of robotic surgery, education, training, development of new instruments, and acquisition of advanced medical insurance are discussed for the future development of robotic surgical systems. PMID:24946522

  1. Feasibility of an endoscopic approach to the axillary nerve and the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii with the help of the Da Vinci Robot.

    PubMed

    Porto de Melo, P M; Garcia, J C; Montero, E F de Souza; Atik, T; Robert, E-G; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P-A

    2013-09-01

    Surgery to transfer the axillary nerve and the nerve of the long head of the triceps presents two obstacles: 1) the access portals are not standardized and 2) the nerves are for their larger part approached through large incisions. The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of an endoscopic microsurgical approach. The posterior aspect of a cadaver shoulder was approached through three communicating mini-incisions. The Da Vinci robot camera was installed on a central trocart, and the instrument arms on the adjacent trocarts. A gas insufflation distended the soft tissues up to the lateral axillary space. The branches of the axillary nerve and the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii muscle were identified. The dissection of the axillary nerve trunk and its branches was easy. The posterior humeral circumflex veins and artery were dissected as well without any difficulty. Finding the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii was found to be more challenging because of its deeper location. Robots properties allow performing conventional microsurgery: elimination of the physiologic tremor and multiplication of the movements. They also facilitate the endoscopic approach of the peripheral nerves, as seen in our results on the terminal branches of the axillary nerve and the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii. PMID:23867724

  2. Hidden sketches by Leonardo da Vinci revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2009-02-01

    Three drawings on the back of Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin and Child with St Anne (circa 1508) have been discovered by researchers led by Michel Menu from the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF) and the Louvre Museum in Paris.

  3. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

  4. The Real Code of Leonardo da Vinci

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Leiv

    2008-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy. Among the researchers and scientists, he is favourably known for his remarkable efforts in scientific work. His investigations of atherosclerosis judiciously combine three separate fields of research. In 1506, he finished his masterpiece, painting of Mona Lisa. A careful clinical examination of the famous painting reveals a yellow irregular leather-like spot at the inner end of the left upper eyelid and a soft bumpy well-defined swelling of the dorsum of the right hand beneath the index finger about 3 cm long. This is probably the first case of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The FH code of Leonardo da Vinci was given immense consideration by scientists like Carl Muller, who described the xanthomas tuberosum and angina pectoris. On the contrary, Akira Endo searched for microbial metabolites that would inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol and finally, Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein published a remarkable series of elegant and insightful papers in the 70s and 80s. They established that the cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) essentially requires the LDL receptor. In conclusion: this was the real Code of Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:19924278

  5. Visual tracking of da Vinci instruments for laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, S.; Kuhn, E.; Bodenstedt, S.; Röhl, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative tracking of laparoscopic instruments is a prerequisite to realize further assistance functions. Since endoscopic images are always available, this sensor input can be used to localize the instruments without special devices or robot kinematics. In this paper, we present an image-based markerless 3D tracking of different da Vinci instruments in near real-time without an explicit model. The method is based on different visual cues to segment the instrument tip, calculates a tip point and uses a multiple object particle filter for tracking. The accuracy and robustness is evaluated with in vivo data.

  6. Laparoscopically assisted total daVinci aorto bifemoral graft bypass with a unique system of graft delivery.

    PubMed

    Martinez, B D; George, P M; Ameer, A; Gerhardinger, A M; Moses, J T; Hansen, J M

    2009-03-01

    We report the first known example of a fully robotic aortobifemoral graft and aortic endarterectomy using the daVinci Surgical System and a unique method for graft delivery using the Endo-Vein Harvester. PMID:18657387

  7. The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…

  8. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    PubMed Central

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  9. Der Telemanipulator daVinci als mechanisches Trackingsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käst, Johannes; Neuhaus, Jochen; Nickel, Felix; Kenngott, Hannes; Engel, Markus; Short, Elaine; Reiter, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Lena

    Der Telemanipulator daVinci (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, Kalifornien) ist ein M aster-Slave System für roboterassistierte minimalinvasive Chirurgie. Da er über integrierte Gelenksensoren verfügt, kann er unter Verwendung der daVinci-API als mechanisches Trackingsystem verwendet werden. In dieser Arbeit evaluieren wir die Präzision und Genauigkeit eines daVinci mit Hilfe eines Genauigkeitsphantoms mit bekannten Maßen. Der ermittelte Positionierungsfehler liegt in der Größenordnung von 6 mm und ist somit für einen Großteil der medizinischen Fragestellungen zu hoch. Zur Reduktion des Fehlers schlagen wir daher eine Kalibrierung der Gelenksensoren vor.

  10. The role of transparency in da Vinci stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Zannoli, Marina; Mamassian, Pascal

    2011-10-15

    The majority of natural scenes contains zones that are visible to one eye only. Past studies have shown that these monocular regions can be seen at a precise depth even though there are no binocular disparities that uniquely constrain their locations in depth. In the so-called da Vinci stereopsis configuration, the monocular region is a vertical line placed next to a binocular rectangular occluder. The opacity of the occluder has been mentioned to be a necessary condition to obtain da Vinci stereopsis. However, this opacity constraint has never been empirically tested. In the present study, we tested whether da Vinci stereopsis and perceptual transparency can interact using a classical da Vinci configuration in which the opacity of the occluder varied. We used two different monocular objects: a line and a disk. We found no effect of the opacity of the occluder on the perceived depth of the monocular object. A careful analysis of the distribution of perceived depth revealed that the monocular object was perceived at a depth that increased with the distance between the object and the occluder. The analysis of the skewness of the distributions was not consistent with a double fusion explanation, favoring an implication of occlusion geometry in da Vinci stereopsis. A simple model that includes the geometry of the scene could account for the results. In summary, the mechanism responsible to locate monocular regions in depth is not sensitive to the material properties of objects, suggesting that da Vinci stereopsis is solved at relatively early stages of disparity processing. PMID:21906614

  11. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Painter, inventor and polymath, born in Vinci (near Empolia), Italy. Although astronomy does not figure large in Leonardo's works, he realized the possibility of constructing a telescope (`making glasses to see the Moon enlarged'). He suggested that `… in order to observe the nature of the planets, open the roof and bring the image of a single planet onto the base of a concave mirror. The image o...

  12. Training and Health. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs in the fields of health and medicine that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) CYTOTRAIN (a transnational vocational training program in cervical cancer screening); (2) Apollo (a program of open and distance learning for paramedical…

  13. The DaVinci Project: Multimedia in Art and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael; Schlosser, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of the DaVinci Project, a collaboration of students, teachers, and researchers in chemistry and art to develop multimedia materials for grades 3-12 visualizing basic concepts in chemistry and visual art. Topics addressed include standards in art and science; the conceptual framework for the project; and project goals,…

  14. The Potential da Vinci in All of Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petto, Sarah; Petto, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by…

  15. Women and Technical Professions. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs for women in technical professions that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) Artemis and Diana (vocational guidance programs to help direct girls toward technology-related careers); (2) CEEWIT (an Internet-based information and…

  16. Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

  17. Towards the Implementation of an Autonomous Camera Algorithm on the da Vinci Platform.

    PubMed

    Eslamian, Shahab; Reisner, Luke A; King, Brady W; Pandya, Abhilash K

    2016-01-01

    Camera positioning is critical for all telerobotic surgical systems. Inadequate visualization of the remote site can lead to serious errors that can jeopardize the patient. An autonomous camera algorithm has been developed on a medical robot (da Vinci) simulator. It is found to be robust in key scenarios of operation. This system behaves with predictable and expected actions for the camera arm with respect to the tool positions. The implementation of this system is described herein. The simulation closely models the methodology needed to implement autonomous camera control in a real hardware system. The camera control algorithm follows three rules: (1) keep the view centered on the tools, (2) keep the zoom level optimized such that the tools never leave the field of view, and (3) avoid unnecessary movement of the camera that may distract/disorient the surgeon. Our future work will apply this algorithm to the real da Vinci hardware. PMID:27046563

  18. The Da Vinci code dynamically de-coded.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mariam

    2005-01-01

    The novel The Da Vinci Code, by Dan Brown has been on best-seller lists for over two years. An examination of Brown's previous novels reveals a well-designed plot line shared by all four novels that not only makes them good "thrillers" but also creates a mythological structure to the novels that draws on common unconscious fantasies in the same way that fairy tales do. One aspect of this mythological structure is the use of evil conspiracies (and benign ones as well) for the protagonist to overcome. In addition, The Da Vinci Code presents a religious theme involving legends about Mary Magdalene. This theme touches on the role of a feminine aspect to divinity in allowing for an erotic connection with the divine. PMID:16448349

  19. DaVinci's Mona Lisa entering the next dimension.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hesslinger, Vera M

    2013-01-01

    For several of Leonardo da Vinci's paintings, such as The Virgin and Child with St Anne or the Mona Lisa, there exist copies produced by his own studio. In case of the Mona Lisa, a quite exceptional, rediscovered studio copy was presented to the public in 2012 by the Prado Museum in Madrid. Not only does it mirror its famous counterpart superficially; it also features the very same corrections to the lower layers, which indicates that da Vinci and the 'copyist' must have elaborated their panels simultaneously. On the basis of subjective (thirty-two participants estimated painter-model constellations) as well as objective data (analysis of trajectories between landmarks of both paintings), we revealed that both versions differ slightly in perspective. We reconstructed the original studio setting and found evidence that the disparity between both paintings mimics human binocular disparity. This points to the possibility that the two Giocondas together might represent the first stereoscopic image in world history. PMID:24303752

  20. Leonardo da Vinci and the origin of semen

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy. PMID:27494016

  1. Da Vinci's codex and the anatomy of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Stephens-Borg, Keith

    2012-08-01

    We usually display a laid-back approach to medical jargon throughout our theatre work. The word 'perioperative' is built from the Greek word 'peri' (around) and the Latin 'operari' (to work). Latin and Greek became the prefixed language of choice for Leonardo da Vinci, and his research was pivotal in determining the way in which surgical procedures are documented. Ancient manuscripts aided the unfolding of the secrets of anatomy, and Leonardo revealed that art was the key in expressive detailed explanation. PMID:23248927

  2. A Value-Engaged Approach for Evaluating the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jennifer C.

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the Bunche Academy was chosen by its district to join in partnership with the Da Vinci Learning Corporation to embark on an ambitious whole-school reform initiative, especially designed by the corporation for low-performing schools. In this chapter, the author describes how, as illustrated in the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Academy context,…

  3. Processing and Visualizing Planetary Data Using DaVinci: Updates for Portability and Scriptable Execution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. S.; Anwar, S.; Hagee, W.; Doerres, D.; Dickensheid, S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2015-06-01

    We present updates to the DaVinci software toolkit that enable stand-alone reading of ISIS3 files, a link between DaVinci and JMARS, the ingestion and use of geospatial information, and a series of executable THEMIS processing scripts.

  4. A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaucer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    "A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum" challenges educators to design programs that boldly embrace the Common Core State Standards by imaginatively drawing from the genius of great men and women such as Leonardo da Vinci. A central figure in the High Renaissance, Leonardo made extraordinary contributions as a…

  5. [Regarding the Manuscript D " Dell' occhio " of Leonardo da Vinci].

    PubMed

    Heitz, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci's Manuscript D consists of five double pages sheets, which, folded in two, comprise ten folios. This document, in the old Tuscan dialect and mirror writing, reveals the ideas of Leonardo on the anatomy of the eye in relation to the formation of images and visual perception. Leonardo explains in particular the behavior of the rays in the eye in terms of refraction and reflection, and is very mechanistic in his conception of the eye and of the visual process. The most significant innovations found in these folios are the concept of the eye as a camera obscura and the intersection of light rays in the interior of the eye. His texts nevertheless show hesitation, doubts and a troubled confusion, reflecting the ideas and uncertainties of his era. He did not share his results in his lifetime, despite both printing and etching being readily available to him. PMID:19852385

  6. Single-Port Surgery: Laboratory Experience with the daVinci Single-Site Platform

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Georges-Pascal; Kaouk, Jihad; Kroh, Matthew; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Falcone, Tommaso

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of a dedicated da Vinci single-port platform in the porcine model in the performance of gynecologic surgery. Methods: This pilot study was conducted in 4 female pigs. All pigs had a general anesthetic and were placed in the supine and flank position. A 2-cm umbilical incision was made, through which a robotic single-port device was placed and pneumoperitoneum obtained. A data set was collected for each procedure and included port placement time, docking time, operative time, blood loss, and complications. Operative times were compared between cases and procedures by use of the Student t test. Results: A total of 28 surgical procedures (8 oophorectomies, 4 hysterectomies, 8 pelvic lymph node dissections, 4 aorto-caval nodal dissections, 2 bladder repairs, 1 uterine horn anastomosis, and 1 radical cystectomy) were performed. There was no statistically significant difference in operating times for symmetrical procedures among animals (P=0.3215). Conclusions: This animal study demonstrates that single-port robotic surgery using a dedicated single-site platform allows performing technically challenging procedures within acceptable operative times and without complications or insertion of additional trocars. PMID:21902962

  7. Aerodynamic design of the Cal Poly Da Vinci Human-Powered Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larwood, Scott; Saiki, Neal

    1990-01-01

    This paper will discuss the methodology used in designing the rotor and drive propellers for the third generation Cal Poly Da Vinci Human-Powered Helicopter. The rotor was designed using a lifting surface, uniform inflow hover analysis code and the propeller was designed using a minimum induced-loss method. Construction, geometry, and operating considerations are discussed as they impact the designs. Optimization of the design performance is also explained. The propellers were tested in a wind tunnel and results are compared with theoretical data. Successful flight tests of the Da Vinci III are discussed.

  8. Leonardo da Vinci, One Year on...a Different Look at Vocational Training in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Magazine, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the success of the Leonardo da Vinci program, a European laboratory of innovation in vocational training, a priority focus of investment in human resources and intelligence, and a way to mobilize innovative forces beyond national boundaries. Trends identified by the program focus on new information and communication technologies. (JOW)

  9. Transparency of Vocational Qualifications: The Leonardo da Vinci Approach. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens; Pettersson, Sten

    This report gives an overview of the situation of transparency of vocational qualifications by presenting measures introduced at the European Community level and by drawing attention to projects within the Leonardo da Vinci Program dealing with the issue. A 16-page executive summary appears first. Chapter 1 provides general background and aims.…

  10. [Freud's identification with men who had 2 mothers: Oedipus, Leonardo da Vinci, Michealangelo and Moses].

    PubMed

    Harsch, H E

    1994-02-01

    In view of the fact that as a child Sigmund Freud was looked after by two mothers--his actual mother and a nursemaid--it is hardly surprising that traces of this pre-oedipal situation, fraught as it was with traumatisation and loss, should be discernible in the works of the creator of psychoanalysis. Freud's continued preoccupation with the Oedipus myth, his interest in "great men" like da Vinci and Michelangelo, and finally his identification with the figure of Moses are pointers not only to the paternal dimension (as long suggested by Freud's biographers) but also to the maternal dimension and its significance for Freud's life and work. The author demonstrates that those mythical and historical figures which Freud identified with--Oedipus, da Vinci, Michelangelo, Moses--themselves all had two mothers and sublimated this traumatic experience into outstanding achievements, the same being true of Freud himself "who solved the famous riddle and was a most powerful man". PMID:8153361

  11. Visual degradation in Leonardo da Vinci's iconic self-portrait: A nanoscale study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, A. Mosca; Pulci, O.; Misiti, M. C.; Lojewska, J.; Teodonio, L.; Violante, C.; Missori, M.

    2014-06-01

    The discoloration of ancient paper, due to the development of oxidized groups acting as chromophores in its chief component, cellulose, is responsible for severe visual degradation in ancient artifacts. By adopting a non-destructive approach based on the combination of optical reflectance measurements and time-dependent density functional theory ab-initio calculations, we describe and quantify the chromophores affecting Leonardo da Vinci's iconic self-portrait. Their relative concentrations are very similar to those measured in modern and ancient samples aged in humid environments. This analysis quantifies the present level of optical degradation of the Leonardo da Vinci's self-portrait which, compared with future measurements, will assess its degradation rate. This is a fundamental information in order to plan appropriate conservation strategies.

  12. The Handedness of Leonardo da Vinci: A Tale of the Complexities of Lateralisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, I. C.; Drury, Helena

    2004-01-01

    The handedness of Leonardo da Vinci is controversial. Although there is little doubt that many of his well-attributed drawings were drawn with the left hand, the hatch marks of the shading going downwards from left to right, it is not clear that he was a natural left-hander, there being some suggestion that he may have become left-handed as the…

  13. Stereoscopic augmented reality for da Vincii™ robotic biliary surgery

    PubMed Central

    Volonté, Francesco; Buchs, Nicolas C.; Pugin, François; Spaltenstein, Joël; Jung, Minoa; Ratib, Osman; Morel, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION New laparoscopic techniques put distance between the surgeon and his patient. PRESENTATION OF CASE 3D volume rendered images directly displayed in the da Vinci surgeon's console fill this gap by allowing the surgeon to fully immerse in its intervention. DISCUSSION During the robotic operation the surgeon has a greater control on the procedure because he can stay more focused not being obliged to turn is sight out of his operative field. Moreover, thanks to depth perception of the rendered images he had a precise view of important anatomical structures. CONCLUSION We describe our preliminary experience in the quest of computer-assisted robotic surgery. PMID:23466685

  14. [The Vitruvian Man: an anatomical drawing for proportions by Leonardo Da Vinci].

    PubMed

    Le Floch-Prigent, P

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to find out and to analyse the text by Vitruvius which inspired the famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci (circa 1490) kept in the Galleria dell'Accademia, in Venezia, Italy: the man inscribed in one circle and in one square. The book "de Architectura" by Vitruvius Marcus Pollio was printed several times since the Renaissance when both the roman architecture of antiquity and this text became very popular. From a French translation by Claude Perrault in 1864, it became easy to find a French translation with the original text in Latin (Paris, 2003, Les Belles Lettres, French text by Pierre Gros). The drawing by Leonardo da Vinci illustrates with great accuracy and fidelity the quotation of Vitruvius (with the exception of two of the 12 main relationships). The genius of Leonardo da Vinci was to keep only one trunk, head and neck for two pairs of limbs: scapular and pelvic; to make the circle tangent to the lower edge of the square; to adjust a few features of the quotation for the equilibrium of the whole figure; and of course to bring his incredible skill as a drawer (one of the best of his century). The drawing was made on a sheet of paper 344x245mm, in black ink which became dark brown with time; several lines complete the figure above and below; a short caption and a horizontal scale appear just under the drawing. The celebrity of the drawing, a symbol of the Renaissance, of the equilibrium of man and mankind, of the universality of the artists and intellectuals of the time (Humanism) made it iconic and it has been constantly reproduced and adapted especially for advertisement and logos, not only in the medical field. PMID:18951824

  15. OCT structural examination of Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targowski, Piotr; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Kaszewska, Ewa A.; Frosinini, Cecilia

    2013-05-01

    Madonna dei Fusi (`Madonna of the Yarnwider') is a spectacular example of Italian Renaissance painting, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. The aim of this study is to give an account of past restoration procedures. The evidence of a former retouching campaign will be presented with cross-sectional images obtained non-invasively with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Specifically, the locations of overpaintings/retouchings with respect to the original paint layer and secondary varnishes will be given. Additionally, the evidence of a former transfer of the pictorial layer to the new canvas support by detecting the presence of its structure incised into paint layer will be shown.

  16. The Da Vinci European BioBank: A Metabolomics-Driven Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Carotenuto, Dario; Luchinat, Claudio; Marcon, Giordana; Rosato, Antonio; Turano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present here the organization of the recently-constituted da Vinci European BioBank (daVEB, https://www.davincieuropeanbiobank.org/it). The biobank was created as an infrastructure to support the activities of the Fiorgen Foundation (http://www.fiorgen.net/), a nonprofit organization that promotes research in the field of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. The way operating procedures concerning samples and data have been developed at daVEB largely stems from the strong metabolomics connotation of Fiorgen and from the involvement of the scientific collaborators of the foundation in international/European projects aimed to tackle the standardization of pre-analytical procedures and the promotion of data standards in metabolomics. PMID:25913579

  17. Leonardo da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius; the shoulder girdle and the spine, a comparison.

    PubMed

    Ganseman, Y; Broos, P

    2008-01-01

    Leonardo Da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius were two important renaissance persons; Vesalius was a surgeon-anatomist who delivered innovative work on the study of the human body, Leonardo da Vinci was an artist who delivered strikingly accurate and beautiful drawings on the human body. Below we compare both masters with regard to their knowledge of the working of the muscles, their method and system of dissection and their system and presentation of the drawings. The investigation consisted of a comparison between both anatomists, in particular concerning their study on the shoulder girdle and spine, by reviewing their original work as well as already existing literature on this subject. The investigation led to the conclusion that the drawings mentioned meant a change in history, and were of high quality, centuries ahead of their time. Both were anatomists, both were revolutionary, only one changed history at the moment itself, while the other changed history centuries later. Leonardo has made beautiful drawings that are at a match with the drawings of today or are even better. Vesalius set the start for medicine as a science as it is until this day. Their lives differed as strongly as their impact. In the light of their time, the achievement they made was extraordinary. PMID:18807610

  18. The uncatchable smile in Leonardo da Vinci's La Bella Principessa portrait.

    PubMed

    Soranzo, Alessandro; Newberry, Michelle

    2015-08-01

    A portrait of uncertain origin recently came to light which, after extensive research and examination, was shown to be that rarest of things: a newly discovered Leonardo da Vinci painting entitled La Bella Principessa. This research presents a new illusion which is similar to that identified in the Mona Lisa; La Bella Principessa's mouth appears to change slant depending on both the Viewing Distance and the Level of Blur applied to a digital version of the portrait. Through a series of psychophysics experiments, it was found that a perceived change in the slant of the La Bella Principessa's mouth influences her expression of contentment thus generating an illusion that we have coined the "uncatchable smile". The elusive quality of the Mona Lisa's smile has been previously reported (Science, 290 (2000) 1299) and so the existence of a similar illusion in a portrait painted prior to the Mona Lisa becomes more interesting. The question remains whether Leonardo da Vinci intended this illusion. In any case, it can be argued that the ambiguity created adds to the portrait's allure. PMID:26049039

  19. Magnetisches Tracking für die Navigation mit dem da Vinci® Surgical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Felix; Wegner, Ingmar; Kenngott, Hannes; Neuhaus, Jochen; Müller-Stich, Beat P.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Gutt, Carsten N.

    In dieser Studie wurde untersucht ob in einem typischen OP-Aufbau mit dem da Vinci® Telemanipulator elektromagnetisches Tracking für die Realisation eines Navigationssystems eingesetzt werden kann. Hierfür wurde in einem realen OP-Aufbau untersucht, wie stark metallische und ferromagnetisch wirksame Objekte wie Operationstisch und Telemanipulator das elektromagnetische Feld des Trackingsystems beeinflussen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der Telemanipulator nur unwesentlich die Störung des Magnetfeldes durch den OP-Tisch verstärkt. Insbesondere die Bewegung der Instrumente im Trackingvolumen verursachte keine zusätzliche relevante Störung des Magnetfeldes. Bei Begrenzung des Trackingvolumens auf eine Länge von 190 mm, Höhe von 200mm und Breite von 400 mm war der maximale Fehler in diesem Bereich an allen Messpunkten kleiner 10 mm. Der Einsatz von elektromagnetischem Tracking für die Navigation mit dem da Vinci® Surgical System ist somit in einem begrenzten Arbeitsvolumen mit hinreichender Genauigkeit möglich.

  20. Virtual Mobility in Reality: A Study of the Use of ICT in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci Mobility Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valjus, Sonja

    An e-mail survey and interviews collected data on use of information and communications technology (ICT) in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci mobility projects from 2000-02. Findings showed that the most common ICT tools used were e-mail, digital tools, and the World Wide Web; ICT was used during all project phases; the most common problems concerned…

  1. Educating in the Design and Construction of Built Environments Accessible to Disabled People: The Leonardo da Vinci AWARD Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattari, Antonio; Dalpra, Michela; Bernardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    An interdisciplinary partnership within an European Leonardo da Vinci project has developed a new approach aimed at educating secondary school students in the creation of built environments accessible to disabled people and at sensitizing them towards the inclusion of people with disabilities in all realms of social life. The AWARD (Accessible…

  2. Spatial awareness in robotic theatre.

    PubMed

    Ark, Sandip; Williams, Joanne

    2016-03-01

    As surgical and anaesthetic procedures become more complex, operating theatres need to be larger and multi-purpose to accommodate specialist equipment such as the Da Vinci Robot. The Da Vinci theatre at The Royal Wolverhampton NHS trust (RWT) is a modern theatre equipped and designed specifically for robotic surgery. When we first began to perform robotic surgery at RWT we faced many challenges on how to maximise the space available to us, whilst striving to minimise the chance of desterilisation. PMID:27149830

  3. Microbiological Analysis of Surfaces of Leonardo Da Vinci's Atlantic Codex: Biodeterioration Risk

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Catia; Pasquariello, Giovanna; Maggi, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    Following the discovery of discoloration on some pages of the Atlantic Codex (AC) of Leonardo da Vinci kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, some investigations have been carried out to verify the presence of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. To verify the presence of microorganisms a noninvasive method of sampling has been used that was efficient and allowed us to highlight the microbial facies of the material that was examined using conventional microbiological techniques. The microclimatic conditions in the storage room as well as the water content of the volume were also assessed. The combined observations allowed the conclusion that the discoloration of suspected biological origin on some pages of AC is not related to the presence or current attack of microbial agents. PMID:25574171

  4. A laminar cortical model of stereopsis and 3D surface perception: closure and da Vinci stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yongqiang; Grossberg, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A laminar cortical model of stereopsis and 3D surface perception is developed and simulated. The model describes how monocular and binocular oriented filtering interact with later stages of 3D boundary formation and surface filling-in in the LGN and cortical areas V1, V2, and V4. It proposes how interactions between layers 4, 3B, and 2/3 in V1 and V2 contribute to stereopsis, and how binocular and monocular information combine to form 3D boundary and surface representations. The model includes two main new developments: (1) It clarifies how surface-to-boundary feedback from V2 thin stripes to pale stripes helps to explain data about stereopsis. This feedback has previously been used to explain data about 3D figure-ground perception. (2) It proposes that the binocular false match problem is subsumed under the Gestalt grouping problem. In particular, the disparity filter, which helps to solve the correspondence problem by eliminating false matches, is realized using inhibitory interneurons as part of the perceptual grouping process by horizontal connections in layer 2/3 of cortical area V2. The enhanced model explains all the psychophysical data previously simulated by Grossberg and Howe (2003), such as contrast variations of dichoptic masking and the correspondence problem, the effect of interocular contrast differences on stereoacuity, Panum's limiting case, the Venetian blind illusion, stereopsis with polarity-reversed stereograms, and da Vinci stereopsis. It also explains psychophysical data about perceptual closure and variations of da Vinci stereopsis that previous models cannot yet explain. PMID:16312095

  5. [The art of Leonardo Da Vinci as a resource to science and the ideal of nursing care].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Maria Aparecida de Luca; de Brito, Isabela Jorge; Dehoul, Marcelo da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical reflection whose goal is to demonstrate the art a nursing team is required to show in order to perform a technical procedure for transfer of solutions from a normal vial to a microdrops vial, based on Leonardo Da Vinci's theoretical referential, inspired by his work called "Vitruvian Man", so that body harmony is kept. The authors emphasize its relationship to nursing care, viewing it from its broadest sense, and its own motto--"Science, Art and Ideal". PMID:15199842

  6. Realization of a single image haze removal system based on DaVinci DM6467T processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhuang

    2014-10-01

    Video monitoring system (VMS) has been extensively applied in domains of target recognition, traffic management, remote sensing, auto navigation and national defence. However the VMS has a strong dependence on the weather, for instance, in foggy weather, the quality of images received by the VMS are distinct degraded and the effective range of VMS is also decreased. All in all, the VMS performs terribly in bad weather. Thus the research of fog degraded images enhancement has very high theoretical and practical application value. A design scheme of a fog degraded images enhancement system based on the TI DaVinci processor is presented in this paper. The main function of the referred system is to extract and digital cameras capture images and execute image enhancement processing to obtain a clear image. The processor used in this system is the dual core TI DaVinci DM6467T - ARM@500MHz+DSP@1GH. A MontaVista Linux operating system is running on the ARM subsystem which handles I/O and application processing. The DSP handles signal processing and the results are available to the ARM subsystem in shared memory.The system benefits from the DaVinci processor so that, with lower power cost and smaller volume, it provides the equivalent image processing capability of a X86 computer. The outcome shows that the system in this paper can process images at 25 frames per second on D1 resolution.

  7. VR robotic surgery: randomized blinded study of the dV-Trainer robotic simulator.

    PubMed

    Lendvay, Thomas S; Casale, Pasquale; Sweet, Robert; Peters, Craig

    2008-01-01

    This research represents a randomized blinded pilot study to evaluate the acceptability and validity of a da Vinci robotic virtual reality simulator platform tested during a pediatric robotic surgery post-graduate course during the annual American Urological Association meeting in June 2007. Course enrollees performed robotic skills tasks on the da Vinci robot and on an offline dV-Trainer and course participant demographic and performance data were analyzed. The majority of learners believed that VR simulation is useful for teaching robotic skills, they believed that the offline trainer can teach robotic skills comparable to a dry lab robotics skills station, and the offline trainer was able to discriminate between experts and novices of robotic surgery, thereby meeting criteria for face, content, and construct validities. This is the first reported acceptability study of a VR robotic surgery simulator as compared to the da Vinci robot system. PMID:18391295

  8. Design of image stabilization system for space remote sensor based on DaVinci technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haoyang; Liu, Zhaojun; Xu, Pengmei

    2011-08-01

    Many factors affect space remote sensor imaging, causing image degradation of contrast and resolution decreasing, which cannot be solved neither by improving resolution of imaging components nor processing of images. In order to meet the imaging requirement of space remote sensor, image stabilization system should be included. In this paper, with a combining method of micro-mechanical and digital image stabilization, an image stabilization system based on DaVinci technology is designed, including imaging and sensing unit, operating and controlling unit and fast steering mirror unit, using TI TMS320DM6446 as the main processor of the image stabilization system, which performs the function of focal plane controlling, image acquisition, motion vector estimating, digital image stabilization operating, fast steering mirror controlling and image outputting. The workflow is as followings: first, through optical system, ground scene is imaged by imaging focal planes. Short exposure images acquired by imaging focal plane are transferred as series to the unit of computing and controlling. Then, inter-frame motion vector is computed from images according to gray projection algorithm, and employed as inputs with image series to do iterative back projection. In this way the final picture is obtained. Meanwhile, the control value obtained from the inter-frame motion vector is sent to the fast steering mirror unit, making compensation to damp vibrations. The results of experiments demonstrate that the image stabilization system improves the imaging performance of space remote sensor.

  9. Elastography Using Multi-Stream GPU: An Application to Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography, In-Vivo and the da Vinci Surgical System

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Nishikant P.; Kang, Hyun Jae; Billings, Seth D.; Taylor, Russell H.; Hager, Gregory D.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-01-01

    A system for real-time ultrasound (US) elastography will advance interventions for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer by advancing methods such as thermal monitoring of tissue ablation. A multi-stream graphics processing unit (GPU) based accelerated normalized cross-correlation (NCC) elastography, with a maximum frame rate of 78 frames per second, is presented in this paper. A study of NCC window size is undertaken to determine the effect on frame rate and the quality of output elastography images. This paper also presents a novel system for Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography (O-TRuE), which extends prior work on an offline method. By tracking the US probe with an electromagnetic (EM) tracker, the system selects in-plane radio frequency (RF) data frames for generating high quality elastograms. A novel method for evaluating the quality of an elastography output stream is presented, suggesting that O-TRuE generates more stable elastograms than generated by untracked, free-hand palpation. Since EM tracking cannot be used in all systems, an integration of real-time elastography and the da Vinci Surgical System is presented and evaluated for elastography stream quality based on our metric. The da Vinci surgical robot is outfitted with a laparoscopic US probe, and palpation motions are autonomously generated by customized software. It is found that a stable output stream can be achieved, which is affected by both the frequency and amplitude of palpation. The GPU framework is validated using data from in-vivo pig liver ablation; the generated elastography images identify the ablated region, outlined more clearly than in the corresponding B-mode US images. PMID:25541954

  10. Elastography using multi-stream GPU: an application to online tracked ultrasound elastography, in-vivo and the da Vinci Surgical System.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Nishikant P; Kang, Hyun Jae; Billings, Seth D; Taylor, Russell H; Hager, Gregory D; Boctor, Emad M

    2014-01-01

    A system for real-time ultrasound (US) elastography will advance interventions for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer by advancing methods such as thermal monitoring of tissue ablation. A multi-stream graphics processing unit (GPU) based accelerated normalized cross-correlation (NCC) elastography, with a maximum frame rate of 78 frames per second, is presented in this paper. A study of NCC window size is undertaken to determine the effect on frame rate and the quality of output elastography images. This paper also presents a novel system for Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography (O-TRuE), which extends prior work on an offline method. By tracking the US probe with an electromagnetic (EM) tracker, the system selects in-plane radio frequency (RF) data frames for generating high quality elastograms. A novel method for evaluating the quality of an elastography output stream is presented, suggesting that O-TRuE generates more stable elastograms than generated by untracked, free-hand palpation. Since EM tracking cannot be used in all systems, an integration of real-time elastography and the da Vinci Surgical System is presented and evaluated for elastography stream quality based on our metric. The da Vinci surgical robot is outfitted with a laparoscopic US probe, and palpation motions are autonomously generated by customized software. It is found that a stable output stream can be achieved, which is affected by both the frequency and amplitude of palpation. The GPU framework is validated using data from in-vivo pig liver ablation; the generated elastography images identify the ablated region, outlined more clearly than in the corresponding B-mode US images. PMID:25541954

  11. The LEONARDO-DA-VINCI pilot project "e-learning-assistant" - Situation-based learning in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Pfefferle, Petra Ina; Van den Stock, Etienne; Nauerth, Annette

    2010-07-01

    E-learning will play an important role in the training portfolio of students in higher and vocational education. Within the LEONARDO-DA-VINCI action programme transnational pilot projects were funded by the European Union, which aimed to improve the usage and quality of e-learning tools in education and professional training. The overall aim of the LEONARDO-DA-VINCI pilot project "e-learning-assistant" was to create new didactical and technical e-learning tools for Europe-wide use in nursing education. Based on a new situation-oriented learning approach, nursing teachers enrolled in the project were instructed to adapt, develop and implement e- and blended learning units. According to the training contents nursing modules were developed by teachers from partner institutions, implemented in the project centers and evaluated by students. The user-package "e-learning-assistant" as a product of the project includes two teacher training units, the authoring tool "synapse" to create situation-based e-learning units, a student's learning platform containing blended learning modules in nursing and an open sourced web-based communication centre. PMID:19883959

  12. Media Images Abbott and Costello Meet the End of the World: Who Is the Enemy in "The Da Vinci Code" and "An Inconvenient Truth?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Popular culture requires readily identifiable villains. Subcultural groups often serve this role, creating controversies. Controversies based on religion are especially bitter. As a rule, religion in the movies is inoffensively sentimental, but "The Da Vinci Code" is both popular and provocative, treading on the dangerous ground of Jesus's…

  13. Realization and optimization of AES algorithm on the TMS320DM6446 based on DaVinci technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Wen-bin; Xiao, Fu-hai

    2013-03-01

    The application of AES algorithm in the digital cinema system avoids video data to be illegal theft or malicious tampering, and solves its security problems. At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of the real-time, scene and transparent encryption of high-speed data streams of audio and video in the information security field, through the in-depth analysis of AES algorithm principle, based on the hardware platform of TMS320DM6446, with the software framework structure of DaVinci, this paper proposes the specific realization methods of AES algorithm in digital video system and its optimization solutions. The test results show digital movies encrypted by AES128 can not play normally, which ensures the security of digital movies. Through the comparison of the performance of AES128 algorithm before optimization and after, the correctness and validity of improved algorithm is verified.

  14. Leonardo da Vinci's drapery studies: characterization of lead white pigments by µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Victor; Calligaro, Thomas; Pichon, Laurent; Wallez, Gilles; Mottin, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    This work focuses on the composition and microstructure of the lead white pigment employed in a set of paintworks, using a combination of µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF, directly applied on five drapery studies attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Département des Arts Graphiques, Musée du Louvre and in the Musée des Beaux- Arts de Rennes. Trace elements present in the composition as well as in the lead white highlights were imaged by 2D scanning XRF. Mineral phases were determined in a fully noninvasive way using a special µ-XRD diffractometer. Phase proportions were estimated by Rietveld refinement. The analytical results obtained will contribute to differentiate lead white qualities and to highlight the artist's technique.

  15. How did Leonardo perceive himself? Metric iconography of da Vinci's self-portraits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Christopher W.

    2010-02-01

    Some eighteen portraits are now recognized of Leonardo in old age, consolidating the impression from his bestestablished self-portrait of an old man with long white hair and beard. However, his appearance when younger is generally regarded as unknown, although he was described as very beautiful as a youth. Application of the principles of metric iconography, the study of the quantitative analysis of the painted images, provides an avenue for the identification of other portraits that may be proposed as valid portraits of Leonardo during various stages of his life, by himself and by his contemporaries. Overall, this approach identifies portraits of Leonardo by Verrocchio, Raphael, Botticelli, and others. Beyond this physiognomic analysis, Leonardo's first known drawing provides further insight into his core motivations. Topographic considerations make clear that the drawing is of the hills behind Vinci with a view overlooking the rocky promontory of the town and the plain stretching out before it. The outcroppings in the foreground bear a striking resemblance to those of his unique composition, 'The Virgin of the Rocks', suggesting a deep childhood appreciation of this wild terrain. and an identification with that religious man of the mountains, John the Baptist, who was also the topic of Leonardo's last known painting. Following this trail leads to a line of possible selfportraits continuing the age-regression concept back to a self view at about two years of age.

  16. [Current status of robotic urologic surgery in Italy].

    PubMed

    Sacco, Emilio; Bientinesi, Riccardo; Bassi, Pier Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The introduction of robot-assisted surgery represents a milestone in the history of surgery. Today, many surgical disciplines make use of the DaVinci robotic system in performing surgery, even complex ones. Italy stands as one of the countries with a greater diffusion of robotics in surgery, particularly in urological surgery. In Italy, every year, numerous urological surgeries are performed with the DaVinci robot; however, costs of this technology are high and, although likely to decrease, constitute a limit to the spread of the same and restricting its use to shared areas. PMID:26429391

  17. The oldest anatomical handmade skull of the world c. 1508: 'the ugliness of growing old' attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

    PubMed

    Missinne, Stefaan J

    2014-06-01

    The author discusses a previously unknown early sixteenth-century renaissance handmade anatomical miniature skull. The small, naturalistic skull made from an agate (calcedonia) stone mixture (mistioni) shows remarkable osteologic details. Dr. Saban was the first to link the skull to Leonardo. The three-dimensional perspective of and the search for the senso comune are discussed. Anatomical errors both in the drawings of Leonardo and this skull are presented. The article ends with the issue of physiognomy, his grotesque faces, the Perspective Communis and his experimenting c. 1508 with the stone mixture and the human skull. Evidence, including the Italian scale based on Crazie and Braccia, chemical analysis leading to a mine in Volterra and Leonardo's search for the soul in the skull are presented. Written references in the inventory of Salai (1524), the inventory of the Villa Riposo (Raffaello Borghini 1584) and Don Ambrogio Mazenta (1635) are reviewed. The author attributes the skull c. 1508 to Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:24853982

  18. The mother relationship and artistic inhibition in the lives of Leonardo da Vinci and Erik H. Erikson.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2008-12-01

    In four earlier articles, I focused on the theme of the relationship of melancholia and the mother, and suggested that the melancholic self may experience humor (Capps, 2007a), play (Capps, 2007b), dreams (Capps, 2008a), and art (Capps, 2008b) as restorative resources. I argued that Erik H. Erikson found these resources to be valuable remedies for his own melancholic condition, which had its origins in the fact that he was illegitimate and was raised solely by his mother until he was three years old, when she remarried. In this article, I focus on two themes in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood (1964): Leonardo's relationship with his mother in early childhood and his inhibitions as an artist. I relate these two themes to Erikson's own early childhood and his failure to achieve his goal as an aspiring artist in his early twenties. The article concludes with a discussion of Erikson's frustrated aspirations to become an artist and his emphasis, in his psychoanalytic work, on children's play. PMID:19093682

  19. Amid the possible causes of a very famous foxing: molecular and microscopic insight into Leonardo da Vinci's self‐portrait

    PubMed Central

    Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja; Pinzari, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Leonardo da Vinci's self‐portrait is affected by foxing spots. The portrait has no fungal or bacterial infections in place, but is contaminated with airborne spores and fungal material that could play a role in its disfigurement. The knowledge of the nature of the stains is of great concern because future conservation treatments should be derived from scientific investigations. The lack of reliable scientific data, due to the non‐culturability of the microorganisms inhabiting the portrait, prompted the investigation of the drawing using non‐invasive and micro‐invasive sampling, in combination with scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging and molecular techniques. The fungus E urotium halophilicum was found in foxing spots using SEM analyses. Oxalates of fungal origin were also documented. Both findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tonophilic fungi germinate on paper metabolizing organic acids, oligosaccharides and proteic compounds, which react chemically with the material at a low water activity, forming brown products and oxidative reactions resulting in foxing spots. Additionally, molecular techniques enabled a screening of the fungi inhabiting the portrait and showed differences when different sampling techniques were employed. Swabs samples showed a high abundance of lichenized Ascomycota, while the membrane filters showed a dominance of A cremonium sp. colonizing the drawing. PMID:26111623

  20. 2D and 3D optical diagnostic techniques applied to Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, R.; Gambino, M. C.; Greco, M.; Marras, L.; Materazzi, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Pelagotti, A.; Pezzati, L.; Poggi, P.; Sanapo, C.

    2005-06-01

    3D measurement and modelling have been traditionally applied to statues, buildings, archeological sites or similar large structures, but rarely to paintings. Recently, however, 3D measurements have been performed successfully also on easel paintings, allowing to detect and document the painting's surface. We used 3D models to integrate the results of various 2D imaging techniques on a common reference frame. These applications show how the 3D shape information, complemented with 2D colour maps as well as with other types of sensory data, provide the most interesting information. The 3D data acquisition was carried out by means of two devices: a high-resolution laser micro-profilometer, composed of a commercial distance meter mounted on a scanning device, and a laser-line scanner. The 2D data acquisitions were carried out using a scanning device for simultaneous RGB colour imaging and IR reflectography, and a UV fluorescence multispectral image acquisition system. We present here the results of the techniques described, applied to the analysis of an important painting of the Italian Reinassance: `Madonna dei Fusi', attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

  1. Peri-operative comparison between daVinci-assisted radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy in obese patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Carter Q.; Ho, Khai-Linh V.; Slezak, Jeffrey M.; Blute, Michael L.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: While the effects of increasing body mass index on prostate cancer epidemiology and surgical approach have recently been studied, its effects on surgical outcomes are less clear. We studied the perioperative outcomes of obese (BMI >= 30) men treated with daVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (DLP) and compared them to those treated with open radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) in a contemporary time frame. Method: After Institutional Review Board approval, we used the Mayo Clinic Radical Prostatectomy database to identify patients who had undergone DLP by a single surgeon and those who had undergone open RRP by a single surgeon between December 2002 and March 2005. Baseline demographics, peri- and post-operative courses, and complications were collected by retrospective chart review, and variables from the two cohorts compared using chi-square method and least-squares method of linear regression where appropriate. Results: 59 patients who had DLP and 76 undergoing RRP were available for study. Baseline demographics were not statistically different between the two cohorts. Although DLP had a significantly lower clinical stage than RRP (p=0.02), pathological stage was not statistically different (p=0.10). Transfusion rates, hospital stay, overall complications, and pathological Gleason were also not significantly different, nor were PSA progression, positive margin rate, or continence at 1 year. After bilateral nerve-sparing, erections suitable for intercourse with or without therapy at 1 year was 88.5% (23/26) for DLP and 61.2% (30/49) for RRP (p=0.01). Follow-up time was similar. Conclusion: For obese patients, DLP appears to have similar perioperative, as well as short-term oncologic and functional outcomes when compared to open RRP.

  2. Michelangelo in Florence, Leonardo in Vinci.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on the lives and works of Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. Focuses on the artwork of the artists and the museums where their work is displayed. Includes museum photographs of their work. (CMK)

  3. Single-port robotic cholecystectomy. Initial and pioneer experience in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schraibman, Vladimir; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Maccapani, Gabriel Naman; Macedo, Antônio Luiz de Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    The technique of a single-port laparoscopy was developed over the last years as an attempt to lower surgical aggression and improve the aesthetic results of the minimally invasive surgery. A new robotic platform used with the da Vinci® Robotic System Single-Site System® (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California, United States) was recently launched on the global market and is still not documented in Brazil. The authors report on the first four robotic single-port cholecystectomies performed with this da Vinci® Robotic System in Brazil. PMID:26398360

  4. Single-port robotic cholecystectomy. Initial and pioneer experience in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schraibman, Vladimir; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Maccapani, Gabriel Naman; Macedo, Antônio Luiz de Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    The technique of a single-port laparoscopy was developed over the last years as an attempt to lower surgical aggression and improve the aesthetic results of the minimally invasive surgery. A new robotic platform used with the da Vinci® Robotic System Single-Site System® (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California, United States) was recently launched on the global market and is still not documented in Brazil. The authors report on the first four robotic single-port cholecystectomies performed with this da Vinci® Robotic System in Brazil. PMID:26398360

  5. Validation of Robotic Surgery Simulator (RoSS).

    PubMed

    Kesavadas, Thenkurussi; Stegemann, Andrew; Sathyaseelan, Gughan; Chowriappa, Ashirwad; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Seixas-Mikelus, Stéfanie; Chandrasekhar, Rameella; Wilding, Gregory; Guru, Khurshid

    2011-01-01

    Recent growth of daVinci Robotic Surgical System as a minimally invasive surgery tool has led to a call for better training of future surgeons. In this paper, a new virtual reality simulator, called RoSS is presented. Initial results from two studies - face and content validity, are very encouraging. 90% of the cohort of expert robotic surgeons felt that the simulator was excellent or somewhat close to the touch and feel of the daVinci console. Content validity of the simulator received 90% approval in some cases. These studies demonstrate that RoSS has the potential of becoming an important training tool for the daVinci surgical robot. PMID:21335803

  6. A psychoanalytic understanding of the desire for knowledge as reflected in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood.

    PubMed

    Blass, Rachel B

    2006-10-01

    The author offers an understanding of the psychoanalytic notion of the desire for knowledge and the possibility of attaining it as it fi nds expression in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood. This understanding has not been explicitly articulated by Freud but may be considered integral to psychoanalysis' Weltanschauung as shaped by Freud's legacy. It emerges through an attempt to explain basic shifts, contradictions, inconsistencies and tensions that become apparent from a close reading of the text of Leonardo. Articulating this implicit understanding of knowledge provides the grounds for a stance on epistemology that is integral to psychoanalysis and relevant to contemporary psychoanalytic concerns on this topic. This epistemology focuses on the necessary involvement of passion, rather than detachment, in the search for knowledge and views the psychoanalytic aim of self-knowledge as a derivative, and most immediate expression, of a broader and more basic human drive to know. PMID:16997725

  7. Transoral robotic surgery of the central skull base: preclinical investigations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Nogueras, F J J; Katati, M J; Arraez Sanchez, M A; Molina Martinez, M; Sanchez Carrion, M

    2014-06-01

    In this study we explored possible applications of the da Vinci system in approaching the skull base at optic chiasm level on two cryopreserved cadavers, using an entirely transoral robotic technique (TORS). We used a standard 12 mm endoscopy and 8 mm terminals. Bone drilling was performed manually. The da Vinci system is equipped with very good illumination and 3D viewing, thus providing excellent vision and great maneuverability even in the less accessible areas of the skull. Our experience demonstrates that an entirely transoral skull base robotic approach to this complex anatomical region has many advantages as compared to traditional techniques. PMID:24077869

  8. Robot-Assisted Pterygium Surgery: Feasibility Study in a Nonliving Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Bourcier, Tristan; Nardin, Mathieu; Sauer, Arnaud; Gaucher, David; Speeg, Claude; Mutter, Didier; Marescaux, Jacques; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the feasibility of pterygium surgery using the DaVinci Si HD robotic surgical system, and to describe a porcine model for pterygium surgery and evaluate its usefulness. Methods The pterygium models were constructed using enucleated pig eyes and cold cuts. Robotically-assisted pterygium surgeries in nonliving biological pterygium models were performed using the DaVinci Si HD robotic surgical system. Twelve models were prepared, and 12 pterygium excision and conjunctival autografts were performed. Results The DaVinci system provided the necessary dexterity to perform delicate ocular surface surgery and robotic tools were safe for the tissues. The mean duration of the surgical procedures was 36 minutes. There were no intraoperative complications and no unexpected events. Conclusions Robotic-assisted pterygium surgery is technically feasible for porcine eyes using the DaVinci Si HD robotic surgical system. The pterygium model that we describe could be of interest for surgical training. Translational Relevance Little research has been done in robotic microsurgery. Animal experimentation will allow the advantages of robotic-assisted microsurgery to be identified, while underlining the improvements and innovations necessary for clinical use. PMID:25722953

  9. [The advancement of robotic surgery--successes, failures, challenges].

    PubMed

    Haidegger, Tamás

    2010-10-10

    Computer-integrated robotic surgery systems appeared more than twenty years ago and since then hundreds of different prototypes have been developed. Only a fraction of them have been commercialized, mostly to support neurosurgical and orthopaedic procedures.Unquestionably, the most successful one is the da Vinci surgical system, primarily deployed in urology and general laparoscopic surgery. It is developed and marketed by Intuitive Surgical Inc. (Sunnyvale, CA, USA), the only profitable company of the segment. The da Vinci made robotic surgery is known and acknowledged throughout the world, and the great results delivered convinced most of the former critics of the technology. Success derived from the well chosen business development strategy, proficiency of the developers, appropriate timing and a huge pot of luck. This article presents the most important features of the da Vinci system, the history of development along with its medical, economical and financial aspects, and seeks the answer why this particular system became successful. PMID:20880803

  10. [Robotic splenectomy--a personal view].

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, C

    2010-01-01

    Until now 40 robotic splenectomies were performed in our department, the first case being done on February 25, 2008. Our data show that robotic splenectomy with the DaVinci surgical system is technically feasible and safe, with good results and without complications. The main advantages are a better tridimensional view and an increased versatility of the surgical instruments. The DaVinci system allows an accurate dissection around the splenic hilum and preservation of the splenic remnant vessels in partial splenectomy. Robotic splenectomy will probably not replace the laparoscopic splenectomy for the most common indications like ITP, hemolytic anemia. It may be a very useful surgical tool in difficult splenectomy: partial splenectomy, splenectomy in liver cirrhosis, splenic tumors or malignant hemopathies. In these cases the robotic approach may shorten the operative time, decrease the blood loss and the risk of remorrhagic complications during surgery and even make possible a minimally invasive splenectomy very difficult to be performed by classical laparoscopy. PMID:20405685

  11. The left ventricle as a mechanical engine: from Leonardo da Vinci to the echocardiographic assessment of peak power output-to-left ventricular mass.

    PubMed

    Dini, Frank L; Guarini, Giacinta; Ballo, Piercarlo; Carluccio, Erberto; Maiello, Maria; Capozza, Paola; Innelli, Pasquale; Rosa, Gian M; Palmiero, Pasquale; Galderisi, Maurizio; Razzolini, Renato; Nodari, Savina

    2013-03-01

    The interpretation of the heart as a mechanical engine dates back to the teachings of Leonardo da Vinci, who was the first to apply the laws of mechanics to the function of the heart. Similar to any mechanical engine, whose performance is proportional to the power generated with respect to weight, the left ventricle can be viewed as a power generator whose performance can be related to left ventricular mass. Stress echocardiography may provide valuable information on the relationship between cardiac performance and recruited left ventricular mass that may be used in distinguishing between adaptive and maladaptive left ventricular remodeling. Peak power output-to-mass, obtained during exercise or pharmacological stress echocardiography, is a measure that reflects the number of watts that are developed by 100 g of left ventricular mass under maximal stimulation. Power output-to-mass may be calculated as left ventricular power output per 100 g of left ventricular mass: 100× left ventricular power output divided by left ventricular mass (W/100 g). A simplified formula to calculate power output-to-mass is as follows: 0.222 × cardiac output (l/min) × mean blood pressure (mmHg)/left ventricular mass (g). When the integrity of myocardial structure is compromised, a mismatch becomes apparent between maximal cardiac power output and left ventricular mass; when this occurs, a reduction of the peak power output-to-mass index is observed. PMID:21934524

  12. Feasibility of Transoral Robotic-Assisted High Resolution Microendoscopic Imaging of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Patsias, Alexis; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A.; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Quang, Timothy; Sikora, Andrew G.; Miles, Brett A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Transoral robotic-assisted oncologic surgery of the head and neck offers promising functional results. Nonetheless, the efficacy of oncologic surgery remains critically dependent on obtaining negative margins. We aimed to integrate a miniaturized high resolution fiberoptic microendoscope (HRME), which provides real time histological assessment, with the da Vinci robotic system (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). Methods Three patients undergoing transoral robotic surgery were prospectively enrolled. Optical imaging of the oropharynx was performed intraoperatively with the robotic-assisted HRME. Results All patients underwent the procedure successfully with no complications. The HRME was successfully integrated with the Da Vinci Robotic system. Several sites of the oropharynx and associated malignancy were imaged, which correlated with the standard histopathological analysis. Conclusions Transoral robotic-assisted high resolution microendoscopic imaging of the oropharynx is a safe and technically feasible approach, providing a real time histological assessment and may serve as a valuable aid in oncologic surgery. PMID:25327825

  13. Robotically Assisted Endoscopic Ovarian Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Wedergren, June S.; Carlson, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Ovarian transposition is the anatomical relocation of the ovaries from the pelvis to the abdomen. Transposition is beneficial in women who are to undergo pelvic radiation, because it allows maintenance of ovarian function and preservation of assisted reproductive capacity. Methods: The da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical™, Mountainview, CA, USA) was used to perform an endoscopic ovarian transposition. The ovaries were mobilized on their respective infundibulopelvic ligaments and sutured to the ipsilateral pericolic gutters. Results: A series of laboratory sessions using the da Vinci system was completed at our institution's training facility. Surgical experience included cadaveric pelvic dissection and abdominopelvic procedures on anesthetized porcine models. Additional didactic and laboratory training, including a certification examination, was obtained from Intuitive Surgical, Inc. The first clinical case of robotically assisted endoscopic ovarian transposition was performed. Conclusions: Robotically assisted endoscopy was successfully used for ovarian transposition. PMID:12723000

  14. [Robotic colorectal surgery: current status and future developments].

    PubMed

    Jayne, D

    2013-08-01

    Robotic assistance has the potential to compensate for the limitations inherent in standard laparoscopic surgery. The daVinci® surgical system remains the only currently available commercial robotic system. It has found popularity in rectal cancer surgery where its application has consistently been shown to reduce the need to convert to open surgery. With this exception, the technological advances of the robotic system have not so far translated into any reproducible patient benefit. The first part of this manuscript presents an overview of the current daVinci® platform, its applications, the evidence base and future developments in colorectal surgery. The second part of the manuscript looks at other robot systems in development and the different innovations and strategies taken to advance minimally invasive surgery.The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental). PMID:23942959

  15. Hand-assisted robotic right donor nephrectomy in patient with total sinus inversus: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Heredia, Raquel; Garcia-Roca, Raquel; Benedetti, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Total situs inversus” is an infrequent congenital condition. The robot has been already proved as a safe and attractive approach for living donor neprectomies. We report here the first right donor nephrectomy in a patient with total sinus inversus that is performed using the Da Vinci platform. PMID:27085108

  16. Guillain-Barre Syndrome After Robotically Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy: First Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shakuri-Rad, Jaschar; Gavin, Patrick W.; Todd, Shawn P.; Tran, Tony T.; Christensen, Cody R.; Shockley, Kenneth F.; Maatman, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Guillain-Barre Syndrome is a well described acute demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy with a likely autoimmune basis characterized by progressive ascending muscle paralysis. Classically, GBS is attributed to antecedent upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. We present the first case of GBS after Robotically Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy using the daVinci® Surgical System. PMID:26793497

  17. Guillain-Barre Syndrome After Robotically Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy: First Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shakuri-Rad, Jaschar; Gavin, Patrick W; Todd, Shawn P; Tran, Tony T; Christensen, Cody R; Shockley, Kenneth F; Maatman, Thomas J

    2015-03-01

    Guillain-Barre Syndrome is a well described acute demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy with a likely autoimmune basis characterized by progressive ascending muscle paralysis. Classically, GBS is attributed to antecedent upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. We present the first case of GBS after Robotically Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy using the daVinci(®) Surgical System. PMID:26793497

  18. Critical analysis of robotic surgery for laryngeal tumours.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Francisco; Menoyo, Alicia; Abrante, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) with the Da Vinci robot has been used for the removal of laryngeal cancers with the objective to improve functional and aesthetic outcomes without worsening survival. The advantages of TORS are described in this article. However, its disadvantages, mainly high cost amongst others, do not make robotic surgery the current treatment of choice for laryngeal tumours; transoral laser surgery is superior in most cases. Major technical improvements are expected. Smaller, more ergonomic, new-generation robots better adapted to the head and neck will probably be available in the near future. PMID:24626048

  19. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed. PMID:25763120

  20. Robotic rectosigmoidectomy - pioneer case report in Brazil. Current scene in colorectal robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Averbach, Marcelo; Popoutchi, Pedro; Marques Jr, Oswaldo Wiliam; Abdalla, Ricardo Z; Podgaec, Sérgio; Abrão, Maurício Simões

    2010-01-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is believed to be technically and oncologically feasible. Robotic surgery is an attractive mode in performing minimally-invasive surgery once it has several advantages if compared to standard laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this paper is to report the first known case of colorectal resection surgery using the robotic assisted surgical device in Brazil. A 35-year-old woman with deep infiltrating endometriosis with rectal involvement was referred for colorectal resection using da Vinci surgical system. The authors also reviewed the most current series and discussed not only the safety and feasibility but also the real benefits of robotic colorectal surgery. PMID:20520984

  1. Reforming Upper Secondary Education in Europe. The Leonardo da Vinci Project Post-16 Strategies. Surveys of Strategies for Post-16 Education To Improve the Parity of Esteem for Initial Vocational Education in Eight European Educational Systems. Theory into Practice 92. Institute for Educational Research Publication Series B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers on the Leonardo da Vinci project: "Looking for Post-16 Education Strategies for Parity of Esteem in Europe" (Lasonen); "Improving Parity of Esteem as a Policy Goal" (Makinen, Volanen); "Alternative Strategies for Parity of Esteem between General/Academic and Vocational Education in Europe" (Kamarainen);…

  2. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Csorba, Roland

    2012-06-24

    Minimally invasive surgery has revolutionized gynecological interventions over the past 30 years. The introduction of the da Vinci robotic surgery in 2005 has resulted in large changes in surgical management. The robotic platform allows less experienced laparoscopic surgeons to perform more complex procedures. It can be utilized mainly in general gynecology and reproductive gynecology. The robot is being increasingly used for procedures such as hysterectomy, myomectomy, adnexal surgery, and tubal anastomosis. In urogynecology, the robot is being utilized for sacrocolopexy as well. In the field of gynecologic oncology, the robot is being increasingly used for hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy in oncologic diseases. Despite the rapid and widespread adaption of robotic surgery in gynecology, there are no randomized trials comparing its efficacy and safety to other traditional surgical approaches. This article presents the development, technical aspects and indications of robotic surgery in gynecology, based on the previously published reviews. Robotic surgery can be highly advantageous with the right amount of training, along with appropriate patient selection. Patients will have less blood loss, less post-operative pain, faster recovery, and fewer complications compared to open surgery and laparoscopy. However, until larger randomized control trials are completed which report long-term outcomes, robotic surgery cannot be stated to have priority over other surgical methods. PMID:22714030

  3. Planning, simulation, and augmented reality for robotic cardiac procedures: The STARS system of the ChIR team.

    PubMed

    Coste-Manière, Eve; Adhami, Louaï; Mourgues, Fabien; Carpentier, Alain

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents STARS (Simulation and Transfer Architecture for Robotic Surgery), a versatile system that aims at enhancing minimally invasive robotic surgery through patient-dependent optimized planning, realistic simulation, safe supervision, and augmented reality. The underlying architecture of the proposed approach is presented, then each component is detailed. An experimental validation is conducted on a dog for a coronary bypass intervention using the Da Vinci(TM) surgical system focusing on planing, registration, and augmented reality trials. PMID:12838484

  4. The Essential Elements of a Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Khara M; Advincula, Arnold P

    2016-09-01

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomies are being performed at higher rates since the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) received US Food and Drug Administration approval in 2005 for gynecologic procedures. Despite the technological advancements over traditional laparoscopy, a discrepancy exists between what the literature states and what the benefits are as seen through the eyes of the end-user. There remains a significant learning curve in the adoption of safe and efficient robotic skills. The authors present important considerations when choosing to perform a robotic hysterectomy and a step-by-step technique. The literature on perioperative outcomes is also reviewed. PMID:27521880

  5. [Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: surgical techniques].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Yuichi; Ogawa, Soichiro; Haga, Nobuhiro; Yanagida, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for the patients with localized prostate cancer is increasingly being adopted around the world. The da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) provides the advantages of simplification and precision of exposure and suturing because of allowing movements of the robotic arm in real time with increased degree of freedom and magnified 3-dimensional view. Therefore, RARP has been expected to provide superior therapeutic benefit to patients in terms of surgical outcome to open or laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. In this review, we provide our technical aspects and tips and tricks of RARP to improve surgical outcome and postoperative quality of life. PMID:26793888

  6. Sensorization of a surgical robotic instrument for force sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzada, Kaspar S.; Yurkewich, Aaron; Xu, Ran; Patel, Rajni V.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the development and application of an approach for sensorizing a surgical robotic instrument for two degree-of-freedom (DOF) lateral force sensing. The sensorized instrument is compatible with the da Vinci® Surgical System and can be used for skills assessment and force control in specific surgical tasks. The sensing technology utilizes a novel layout of four fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors attached to the shaft of a da Vinci® surgical instrument. The two cross-section layout is insensitive to error caused by combined force and torque loads, and the orientation of the sensors minimizes the condition number of the instrument's compliance matrix. To evaluate the instrument's sensing capabilities, its performance was tested using a commercially available force-torque sensor, and showed a resolution of 0.05N at 1 kHz sampling rate. The performance of the sensorized instrument was evaluated by performing three surgical tasks on phantom tissue using the da Vinci® system with the da Vinci Research Kit (dVRK): tissue palpation, knot tightening during suturing and Hem-O-Lok® tightening during knotless suturing. The tasks were designed to demonstrate the robustness of the sensorized force measurement approach. The paper reports the results of further evaluation by a group of expert and novice surgeons performing the three tasks mentioned above.

  7. A prototype surgical manipulator for robotic intraocular micro surgery.

    PubMed

    Mulgaonkar, Amit P; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Jordan, Brett L; Cham, Christopher; Wilson, Jason T; Tsao, Tsu-Chin; Culjat, Martin O

    2009-01-01

    A prototype manipulator system was developed for ophthalmologic microsurgery. The system, consisting of two parallel X-Y stages, can mechanically maintain a fixed-point of rotation at the surface of the eye, potentially reducing trauma during surgical procedures. The initial prototype was designed to function in concert with the da Vinci Surgical System for gross positioning. Robotic tests demonstrated the mechanical fitness of the prototype while an in vitro surgical sclerectomy was performed to demonstrate functionality of the approach. PMID:19377152

  8. Robotics in uro-oncologic surgery

    PubMed Central

    De Lorenzis, Elisa; Palumbo, Carlotta; Cozzi, Gabriele; Talso, Michele; Rosso, Marco; Costa, Beatrice; Gadda, Franco; Rocco, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    In urology, the main use for the robotic technique has been in radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Robotic surgery for other organs, such as the kidneys and bladder, has been less explored. However, partial nephrectomy or radical nephroureterectomy can be difficult for inexperienced laparoscopic surgeons. The advent of the da Vinci robot, with multijointed endowristed instruments and stereoscopic vision, decreases the technical difficulty of intracorporeal suturing and improves the reconstructive steps. The objective of this article is to offer an overview of all robotic procedures recently developed in the field of urology. We evaluate the feasibility of these procedures and their potential advantages and disadvantages. We also describe perioperative, postoperative, and oncologic outcomes of robot-assisted surgery as well as perform a comparison with open and laparoscopic techniques. Comparative data and an adequate follow-up are needed to demonstrate equivalent oncologic outcomes in comparison with traditional open or laparoscopic procedures. PMID:24101943

  9. [Robot-assisted surgery in urology].

    PubMed

    Wirth, G J; Hauser, J; Caviezel, A; Schwartz, J; Fleury, N; Tran, S-N; Iselin, C E

    2008-08-01

    Since 1990, laparoscopic surgery has undergone a tremendous evolution. As patients and surgeons alike push toward minimally invasive surgery, more and more complex operations have been performed by laparoscopy. However, highly complex and technically demanding procedures--such as radical prostatectomy--have revealed the limits of classical laparoscopic surgery. The introduction of the Da Vinci robot has changed the face of modern laparoscopy because it provides the surgeon with three-dimensional vision, more instrumental degrees of freedom, and greater ergonomics. Thus, laparoscopy has been able to strengthen its role in urology and is increasingly being used for radical prostatectomies, pyeloplasties, and ureteral operations such as ureterovesical reimplantations. For most types of operations, functional and early oncological outcomes appear similar to those of conventional laparoscopy or open surgery. The main drawbacks of robotic surgery are the costs of the disposable instruments and maintenance, which overshadow the initial purchase price. The near future will show how European health systems will react to this new financial burden. Our institution, within a university hospital with moderate patient recruitment, was equipped with a four-arm Da Vinci robot in February 2006. As of April 2008, 120 urological operations had been performed. Because robotic surgery is associated with a specific learning curve, divisions with limited case numbers may refrain from doing this type of surgery. The aim of this article is to evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of the initial period of a robotic program in a midsize division. PMID:18551270

  10. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Partial Colpectomy and Intracorporeal Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion (Bricker) for Cervical Adenocarcinoma Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Uzan, Jennifer; Cornou, Caroline; Bensaid, Chérazade; Audenet, François; Ngô, Charlotte; Bats, Anne-Sophie; Lecuru, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Ileal conduit urinary diversion (Bricker) is a standard surgical open procedure. The Da Vinci robot allowed precision for this surgical procedure, especially for intracorporeal suturing. Meanwhile, few reports of robot-assisted laparoscopic ileal conduit diversion (Bricker) are described in the literature. We report the case of a 69-year-old patient with a vaginal recurrence of cervical adenocarcinoma associated with vesicovaginal fistula treated by robot-assisted laparoscopic partial colpectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion (Bricker). The robot-assisted laparoscopic procedure followed all surgical steps of the open procedure. Postoperative period was free of complications. PMID:26634161

  11. Advances in urogynaecological robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Swan, Kimberly; Advincula, Arnold P

    2011-09-01

    • Urogynaecology is a subspecialty practiced by both urologists and gynaecologists specialised in treating women with pelvic floor disorders and urinary incontinence. • While urogynaecology covers a vast range of disorders, two disorders frequently managed by urogynaecologists are pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and pelvic fistulae. • Surgical intervention is often the treatment option for both POP and pelvic fistulae after all conservative options have been attempted. The daVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has applications for the minimally invasive surgical management of POP and pelvic fistulas. • The following review will address the development and current state of robotic assistance in treating these disorders. PMID:21917106

  12. Robotic Single-Site® Sacrocolpopexy: First Report and Technique Using the Single-Site® Wristed Needle Driver

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The recently introduced da Vinci Single-Site® platform offers cosmetic benefits when compared with standard Multi-Site® robotic surgery. The innovative endowristed technology has increased the use of the da Vinci Single-Site® platform. The newly introduced Single-Site® Wristed Needle Driver has made it feasible to perform various surgeries that require multiple laparoscopic sutures and knot tying. Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy is also a type of technically difficult surgery requiring multiple sutures, and there have been no reports of it being performed using the da Vinci Single-Site® platform. Thus, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of robotic single-site (RSS) sacrocolpopexy, and I found this procedure to be feasible and safe. All RSS procedures were completed successfully. The mean operative time was 122.17±22.54 minutes, and the mean blood loss was 66.67±45.02 mL. No operative or major postoperative complications occurred. Additional studies should be performed to assess the benefits of RSS sacrocolpopexy. I present the first six cases of da Vinci Single-Site® surgery in urogynecology and provide a detailed description of the technique. PMID:27189301

  13. Robotics and medicine: A scientific rainbow in hospital

    PubMed Central

    Jeelani, S.; Dany, A.; Anand, B.; Vandana, S.; Maheswaran, T.; Rajkumar, E.

    2015-01-01

    The journey of robotics is a real wonder and astonishingly can be considered as a scientific rainbow showering surprising priceless power in the era of future technologies. The astonishing seven technologies discussed in this paper are da Vinci Robotic surgical system and sperm sorters for infertility, Veebot for blood investigation, Hanako the robotic dental patient for simulating the dental patient and helping a trainee dentist, RP-7 robot who is around-the-clock physician connecting the physician and patient, Robot for Interactive Body Assistance (RIBA) who is a RIBA serving as a nurse, Bushbot serving as a brilliant surgeon, and Virtibot helping in virtual autopsy. Thus, robotics in medicine is a budding field contributing a great lot to human life from before birth to afterlife in seven forms thus gracefully portraying a scientific rainbow in hospital environment. PMID:26538882

  14. Robotics and medicine: A scientific rainbow in hospital.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, S; Dany, A; Anand, B; Vandana, S; Maheswaran, T; Rajkumar, E

    2015-08-01

    The journey of robotics is a real wonder and astonishingly can be considered as a scientific rainbow showering surprising priceless power in the era of future technologies. The astonishing seven technologies discussed in this paper are da Vinci Robotic surgical system and sperm sorters for infertility, Veebot for blood investigation, Hanako the robotic dental patient for simulating the dental patient and helping a trainee dentist, RP-7 robot who is around-the-clock physician connecting the physician and patient, Robot for Interactive Body Assistance (RIBA) who is a RIBA serving as a nurse, Bushbot serving as a brilliant surgeon, and Virtibot helping in virtual autopsy. Thus, robotics in medicine is a budding field contributing a great lot to human life from before birth to afterlife in seven forms thus gracefully portraying a scientific rainbow in hospital environment. PMID:26538882

  15. The Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopy, Isthmusectomy, and Pyeloplasty in a Patient With Horseshoe Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Sheng; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhou, Jun; Hao, Zongyao; Shi, Haoqiang; Zhang, Yifei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this case report was to evaluate the results of isthmusectomy and pyeloplasty of horseshoe kidney with the da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopy system. This case presented 1 patient with left back pain, associated with lower abdominal pain, and then she underwent the isthmusectomy and dismembered pyeloplasty using robotic-assisted laparoscopy simultaneously. The operation was performed by a transperitoneal approach using 5 ports. We cut the renal isthmus by means of bipolar scissors and then closed the renal parenchyma with 3–0 absorbed stitches. The total operation time was 123 min including simultaneous dismembered pyeloplasty. Blood loss was <50 mL. There were no complications either during or after the procedure. The oral nutrition and mobilization were included on the second day after surgery. The peritoneal drainage was removed on the eighth day. Long-term follow-up after treatment showed good results. The da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopy is an alternative to open surgery and laparoscopy, particularly in the correction of congenital defects of the urinary tract. Furthermore, the da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopy technique in isthmusectomy and pyeloplasty is safe for patient as shown by our results. PMID:26765474

  16. Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy Utilizing a Robotic Surgical System

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Keith H.; Daucher, James A.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the use of a robotic surgical system for total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Methods: We report a series of laparoscopic hysterectomies performed using the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System. Participants were women eligible for hysterectomy by standard laparoscopy. Operative times and complications are reported. Results: We completed 10 total laparoscopic hysterectomies between November 2001 and December 2002 with the use of the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System. Operative results were similar to those of standard laparoscopic hysterectomy. Operative time varied from 2 hours 28 minutes to 4 hours 37 minutes. Blood loss varied from 25 mL to 350 mL. Uterine weights varied from 49 g to 227 g. A cystotomy occurred in a patient with a history of a prior cystotomy unrelated to the robotic system. Conclusion: Total laparoscopic hysterectomy is a complex surgical procedure requiring advanced laparoscopic skills. Tasks like lysis of adhesions, suturing, and knot tying were enhanced with the robotic surgical system, thus providing unique advantages over existing standard laparoscopy. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy can be performed using robotic surgical systems. PMID:15791963

  17. Virtual reality surgical simulators- a prerequisite for robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Rajanbabu, Anupama; Drudi, Laura; Lau, Susie; Press, Joshua Z; Gotlieb, Walter H

    2014-06-01

    The field of computer assisted minimally invasive surgery is rapidly expanding worldwide, including in India. With more hospitals in India contemplating the acquisition of a robotic platform, training of robotic surgeons is becoming essential. Virtual reality simulators can be used for surgeons to become acquainted with the robotic console prior to live surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the amount of simulator training required before a surgeon first operates on the da Vinci® Surgical System. Simulations were conducted on the Intuitive Surgical's da Vinci® Robot Skill Simulator using the software obtained from Mimic Technologies. Participants included attending staff surgeons experienced in robotic surgery and novices. A set of seven activities were chosen for each participant. Based on the mean exercise score from the first attempt, staff surgeons outperformed the novices in all exercises. However, the difference in score between the staff and the novices decreased after the participants repeated the exercises and by the sixth attempt most of the novices obtained similar scores to the staff, suggesting that this might be at present the minimum set of repetitions indicated (or required) prior to performing life robotic surgery. PMID:25114465

  18. Robot assisted radical prostatectomy: how I do it. Part II: Surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Roger F; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Zorn, Kevin C

    2013-12-01

    The introduction of the "da Vinci Robotic Surgical System" (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been an important step towards a minimally invasive approach to radical prostatectomy. Technologic peculiarities, such as three-dimensional vision, wristed instrumentation with seven degrees of freedom of motion, lack of tremor, a 10x-magnification and a comfortable seated position for the surgeon has added value to the procedure for the surgeon and the patient. In this article, we describe the 9 step surgical technique for robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) that is currently used in our institution (University of Montreal Hospital Center (CHUM) - Hopital St-Luc). We use the four-arm da Vinci Surgical System. Our experience with RARP is now over 250 cases with the senior surgeon having performed over 1200 RARPs and we have continually refined our technique to improve patient outcomes. PMID:24331353

  19. Robotic surgery in gynecology

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rooma; Sanjay, Madhumati; Rupa, B.; Kumari, Samita

    2015-01-01

    FDA approved Da Vinci Surgical System in 2005 for gynecological surgery. It has been rapidly adopted and it has already assumed an important position at various centers where this is available. It comprises of three components: A surgeon's console, a patient-side cart with four robotic arms and a high-definition three-dimensional (3D) vision system. In this review we have discussed various robotic-assisted laparoscopic benign gynecological procedures like myomectomy, hysterectomy, endometriosis, tubal anastomosis and sacrocolpopexy. A PubMed search was done and relevant published studies were reviewed. Surgeries that can have future applications are also mentioned. At present most studies do not give significant advantage over conventional laparoscopic surgery in benign gynecological disease. However robotics do give an edge in more complex surgeries. The conversion rate to open surgery is lesser with robotic assistance when compared to laparoscopy. For myomectomy surgery, Endo wrist movement of robotic instrument allows better and precise suturing than conventional straight stick laparoscopy. The robotic platform is a logical step forward to laparoscopy and if cost considerations are addressed may become popular among gynecological surgeons world over. PMID:25598600

  20. Robotic surgery in gynecology.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rooma; Sanjay, Madhumati; Rupa, B; Kumari, Samita

    2015-01-01

    FDA approved Da Vinci Surgical System in 2005 for gynecological surgery. It has been rapidly adopted and it has already assumed an important position at various centers where this is available. It comprises of three components: A surgeon's console, a patient-side cart with four robotic arms and a high-definition three-dimensional (3D) vision system. In this review we have discussed various robotic-assisted laparoscopic benign gynecological procedures like myomectomy, hysterectomy, endometriosis, tubal anastomosis and sacrocolpopexy. A PubMed search was done and relevant published studies were reviewed. Surgeries that can have future applications are also mentioned. At present most studies do not give significant advantage over conventional laparoscopic surgery in benign gynecological disease. However robotics do give an edge in more complex surgeries. The conversion rate to open surgery is lesser with robotic assistance when compared to laparoscopy. For myomectomy surgery, Endo wrist movement of robotic instrument allows better and precise suturing than conventional straight stick laparoscopy. The robotic platform is a logical step forward to laparoscopy and if cost considerations are addressed may become popular among gynecological surgeons world over. PMID:25598600

  1. Effects of Visual Force Feedback on Robot-Assisted Surgical Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Reiley, Carol E.; Akinbiyi, Takintope; Burschka, Darius; Chang, David C.; Okamura, Allison M.; Yuh, David D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Direct haptic (force or tactile) feedback is negligible in current surgical robotic systems. The relevance of haptic feedback in robot-assisted performances of surgical tasks is controversial. We studied the effects of visual force feedback (VFF), a haptic feedback surrogate, on tying surgical knots with fine sutures similar to those used in cardiovascular surgery. Methods Using a modified da Vinci robotic system (Intuitive Surgical, Inc.) equipped with force-sensing instrument tips and real-time VFF overlays in the console image, ten surgeons each tied 10 knots with and 10 knots without VFF. Four surgeons had significant prior da Vinci experience while the remaining six surgeons did not. Performance parameters, including suture breakage and secure knots, peak and standard deviation of applied forces, and completion times using 5-0 silk sutures were recorded. Chi-square and Student’s t-test analyses determined differences between groups. Results Among surgeon subjects with robotic experience, no differences in measured performance parameters were found between robot-assisted knot ties executed with and without VFF. Among surgeons without robotic experience, however, VFF was associated with lower suture breakage rates, peak applied forces, and standard deviations of applied forces. VFF did not impart differences in knot completion times or loose knots for either surgeon group. Conclusions VFF resulted in reduced suture breakage, lower forces, and decreased force inconsistencies among novice robotic surgeons, although elapsed time and knot quality were unaffected. In contrast, VFF did not affect these metrics among experienced da Vinci surgeons. These results suggest that VFF primarily benefits novice robot-assisted surgeons, with diminishing benefits among experienced surgeons. PMID:18179942

  2. System for robot-assisted real-time laparoscopic ultrasound elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Seth; Deshmukh, Nishikant; Kang, Hyun Jae; Taylor, Russell; Boctor, Emad M.

    2012-02-01

    Surgical robots provide many advantages for surgery, including minimal invasiveness, precise motion, high dexterity, and crisp stereovision. One limitation of current robotic procedures, compared to open surgery, is the loss of haptic information for such purposes as palpation, which can be very important in minimally invasive tumor resection. Numerous studies have reported the use of real-time ultrasound elastography, in conjunction with conventional B-mode ultrasound, to differentiate malignant from benign lesions. Several groups (including our own) have reported integration of ultrasound with the da Vinci robot, and ultrasound elastography is a very promising image guidance method for robotassisted procedures that will further enable the role of robots in interventions where precise knowledge of sub-surface anatomical features is crucial. We present a novel robot-assisted real-time ultrasound elastography system for minimally invasive robot-assisted interventions. Our system combines a da Vinci surgical robot with a non-clinical experimental software interface, a robotically articulated laparoscopic ultrasound probe, and our GPU-based elastography system. Elasticity and B-mode ultrasound images are displayed as picture-in-picture overlays in the da Vinci console. Our system minimizes dependence on human performance factors by incorporating computer-assisted motion control that automatically generates the tissue palpation required for elastography imaging, while leaving high-level control in the hands of the user. In addition to ensuring consistent strain imaging, the elastography assistance mode avoids the cognitive burden of tedious manual palpation. Preliminary tests of the system with an elasticity phantom demonstrate the ability to differentiate simulated lesions of varied stiffness and to clearly delineate lesion boundaries.

  3. The Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopy, Isthmusectomy, and Pyeloplasty in a Patient With Horseshoe Kidney: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tai, Sheng; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhou, Jun; Hao, Zongyao; Shi, Haoqiang; Zhang, Yifei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to evaluate the results of isthmusectomy and pyeloplasty of horseshoe kidney with the da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopy system.This case presented 1 patient with left back pain, associated with lower abdominal pain, and then she underwent the isthmusectomy and dismembered pyeloplasty using robotic-assisted laparoscopy simultaneously. The operation was performed by a transperitoneal approach using 5 ports.We cut the renal isthmus by means of bipolar scissors and then closed the renal parenchyma with 3-0 absorbed stitches. The total operation time was 123 min including simultaneous dismembered pyeloplasty. Blood loss was <50 mL. There were no complications either during or after the procedure. The oral nutrition and mobilization were included on the second day after surgery. The peritoneal drainage was removed on the eighth day. Long-term follow-up after treatment showed good results.The da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopy is an alternative to open surgery and laparoscopy, particularly in the correction of congenital defects of the urinary tract. Furthermore, the da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopy technique in isthmusectomy and pyeloplasty is safe for patient as shown by our results. PMID:26765474

  4. VINCI: the VLT Interferometer commissioning instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervella, Pierre; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Glindemann, Andreas; Hofmann, Reiner

    2000-07-01

    The Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is a complex system, made of a large number of separated elements. To prepare an early successful operation, it will require a period of extensive testing and verification to ensure that the many devices involved work properly together, and can produce meaningful data. This paper describes the concept chosen for the VLTI commissioning instrument, LEONARDO da VINCI, and details its functionalities. It is a fiber based two-way beam combiner, associated with an artificial star and an alignment verification unit. The technical commissioning of the VLTI is foreseen as a stepwise process: fringes will first be obtained with the commissioning instrument in an autonomous mode (no other parts of the VLTI involved); then the VLTI telescopes and optical trains will be tested in autocollimation; finally fringes will be observed on the sky.

  5. Robotic replacement of the descending aorta in human cadaver.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Norihiko; Sun, You Su; Nifong, L Wiley; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Go; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2006-09-01

    Robot-assisted replacement of the thoracic aorta was performed in a human cadaver. Temporary shunt bypass was established by inserting a left axillary artery catheter and directing it through the aortic arch toward the right femoral artery through the abdominal aorta. The technique utilized the da Vinci surgical system inserted through the 4-cm supramammary working port and two additional thoracoscopic ports. The working port allowed the introduction of an endoscope, endoscopic instruments, and artificial graft and suture materials. The aorta was dissected using the robotic instruments and was clamped with two transthoracic clamps. After transaction of the aorta, a 20-mm polytetrafluoroethylene graft was cut and an end-to-end anastomosis was then performed with running 3-0 Prolene sutures with robotic instruments. The robotic system provides superior optics and allows for enhanced dexterity. Minimally invasive robotic replacement of the descending aorta is an effective procedure and may add benefits for both surgeon and patients. PMID:16934102

  6. Virtual reality robotic surgery simulation curriculum to teach robotic suturing: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Daniel J; Gotlieb, Walter H; Lau, Susie; Zeng, Xing; Samouelian, Vanessa; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Zakrzewski, Helena; Brin, Sonya; Fraser, Shannon A; Korsieporn, Pira; Drudi, Laura; Press, Joshua Z

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this randomized, controlled trial was to assess whether voluntary participation in a proctored, proficiency-based, virtual reality robotic suturing curriculum using the da Vinci(®) Skills Simulator™ improves robotic suturing performance. Residents and attending surgeons were randomized to participation or non-participation during a 5 week training curriculum. Robotic suturing skills were evaluated before and after training using an inanimate vaginal cuff model, which participants sutured for 10 min using the da Vinci(®) Surgical System. Performances were videotaped, anonymized, and subsequently graded independently by three robotic surgeons. 27 participants were randomized. 23 of the 27 completed both the pre- and post-test, 13 in the training group and 10 in the control group. Mean training time in the intervention group was 238 ± 136 min (SD) over the 5 weeks. The primary outcome (improvement in GOALS+ score) and the secondary outcomes (improvement in GEARS, total knots, satisfactory knots, and the virtual reality suture sponge 1 task) were significantly greater in the training group than the control group in unadjusted analysis. After adjusting for lower baseline scores in the training group, improvement in the suture sponge 1 task remained significantly greater in the training group and a trend was demonstrated to greater improvement in the training group for the GOALS+ score, GEARS score, total knots, and satisfactory knots. PMID:26531197

  7. Intraoperative presentation of Bochdalek's hernia in an adult during robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy: An uncommon situation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Cindolo, Luca; Berardinelli, Francesco; Manzi, Arianna; Spagnuolo, Francesca; Fabbri, Elisa; Castellan, Pietro; Petrini, Flavia; Schips, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Bochdalek's diaphragmatic hernia (BDH) is a congenital defect of the diaphragm that usually present during the neonatal period and rarely remain silent until adulthood. We present a 45-year-old-female case with diagnosis of double left kidney tumor prepared for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN). During the preoperative procedure she had a reduction of inspiratory volumes and increased pulmonary pressures: the robotic camera revealed the incidental presence of the left diaphragmatic defect. We report a simultaneous nephron sparing surgery (NSS) and left posterolateral BDH correction done by the da Vinci Surgical Robot (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). PMID:26766808

  8. Robotic Microsurgery Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The increased application of the da Vinci robotic platform (Intuitive Surgical Inc.) for microsurgery has led to the development of new adjunctive surgical instrumentation. In microsurgery, the robotic platform can provide high definition 12×-15× digital magnification, broader range of motion, fine instrument handling with decreased tremor, reduced surgeon fatigue, and improved surgical productivity. This paper presents novel adjunctive tools that provide enhanced optical magnification, micro-Doppler sensing of vessels down to a 1-mm size, vein mapping capabilities, hydro-dissection, micro-ablation technology (with minimal thermal spread-CO2 laser technology), and confocal microscopy to provide imaging at a cellular level. Microsurgical outcomes from the use of these tools in the management of patients with infertility and chronic groin and testicular pain are reviewed. All these instruments have been adapted for the robotic console and enhance the robot-assisted microsurgery experience. As the popularity of robot-assisted microsurgery grows, so will its breadth of instrumentation. PMID:24883272

  9. Robotic microsurgery optimization.

    PubMed

    Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Liverneaux, Philippe; Parekattil, Sijo J

    2014-05-01

    The increased application of the da Vinci robotic platform (Intuitive Surgical Inc.) for microsurgery has led to the development of new adjunctive surgical instrumentation. In microsurgery, the robotic platform can provide high definition 12×-15× digital magnification, broader range of motion, fine instrument handling with decreased tremor, reduced surgeon fatigue, and improved surgical productivity. This paper presents novel adjunctive tools that provide enhanced optical magnification, micro-Doppler sensing of vessels down to a 1-mm size, vein mapping capabilities, hydro-dissection, micro-ablation technology (with minimal thermal spread-CO2 laser technology), and confocal microscopy to provide imaging at a cellular level. Microsurgical outcomes from the use of these tools in the management of patients with infertility and chronic groin and testicular pain are reviewed. All these instruments have been adapted for the robotic console and enhance the robot-assisted microsurgery experience. As the popularity of robot-assisted microsurgery grows, so will its breadth of instrumentation. PMID:24883272

  10. Laparoscopic Robot-Assisted Diaphragm Plication.

    PubMed

    Zwischenberger, Brittany A; Kister, Nathaniel; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Martin, Jeremiah T

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive approaches to diaphragm plication for eventration include thoracoscopic and laparoscopic techniques. The elevated hemidiaphragm and ribs limit thoracoscopic techniques. We report our modification of the laparoscopic approach using robotic assistance with the da Vinci Surgical System, (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) to avoid single-lung ventilation, facilitate exposure, and allow more precise placement of plication sutures to achieve an even tension and maximum plication. Critical steps include creation of a small defect in the diaphragm to equalize pressures between cavities and placement of multiple, pledgeted interrupted horizontal mattresses. PMID:26694286

  11. Robotic Surgical Training in an Academic Institution

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, W. Randolph; Nifong, L. Wiley; Chapman, William H. H.; Felger, Jason E.; Bailey, B. Marcus; Ballint, Tara; Mendleson, Kim G.; Kim, Victor B.; Young, James A.; Albrecht, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To detail robotic procedure development and clinical applications for mitral valve, biliary, and gastric reflux operations, and to implement a multispecialty robotic surgery training curriculum for both surgeons and surgical teams. Summary Background Data Remote, accurate telemanipulation of intracavitary instruments by general and cardiac surgeons is now possible. Complex technologic advancements in surgical robotics require well-designed training programs. Moreover, efficient robotic surgical procedures must be developed methodically and safely implemented clinically. Methods Advanced training on robotic systems provides surgeon confidence when operating in tiny intracavitary spaces. Three-dimensional vision and articulated instrument control are essential. The authors’ two da Vinci robotic systems have been dedicated to procedure development, clinical surgery, and training of surgical specialists. Their center has been the first United States site to train surgeons formally in clinical robotics. Results Established surgeons and residents have been trained using a defined robotic surgical educational curriculum. Also, 30 multispecialty teams have been trained in robotic mechanics and electronics. Initially, robotic procedures were developed experimentally and are described. In the past year the authors have performed 52 robotic-assisted clinical operations: 18 mitral valve repairs, 20 cholecystectomies, and 14 Nissen fundoplications. These respective operations required 108, 28, and 73 minutes of robotic telemanipulation to complete. Procedure times for the last half of the abdominal operations decreased significantly, as did the knot-tying time in mitral operations. There have been no deaths and few complications. One mitral patient had postoperative bleeding. Conclusion Robotic surgery can be performed safely with excellent results. The authors have developed an effective curriculum for training teams in robotic surgery. After training, surgeons

  12. Novel application of simultaneous multi-image display during complex robotic abdominal procedures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The surgical robot offers the potential to integrate multiple views into the surgical console screen, and for the assistant’s monitors to provide real-time views of both fields of operation. This function has the potential to increase patient safety and surgical efficiency during an operation. Herein, we present a novel application of the multi-image display system for simultaneous visualization of endoscopic views during various complex robotic gastrointestinal operations. All operations were performed using the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) with the assistance of Tilepro, multi-input display software, during employment of the intraoperative scopes. Three robotic operations, left hepatectomy with intraoperative common bile duct exploration, low anterior resection, and radical distal subtotal gastrectomy with intracorporeal gastrojejunostomy, were performed by three different surgeons at a tertiary academic medical center. Results The three complex robotic abdominal operations were successfully completed without difficulty or intraoperative complications. The use of the Tilepro to simultaneously visualize the images from the colonoscope, gastroscope, and choledochoscope made it possible to perform additional intraoperative endoscopic procedures without extra monitors or interference with the operations. Conclusion We present a novel use of the multi-input display program on the da Vinci Surgical System to facilitate the performance of intraoperative endoscopies during complex robotic operations. Our study offers another potentially beneficial application of the robotic surgery platform toward integration and simplification of combining additional procedures with complex minimally invasive operations. PMID:24628761

  13. Robot-assisted surgery of the shoulder girdle and brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Facca, Sybille; Hendriks, Sarah; Mantovani, Gustavo; Selber, Jesse C; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    New developments in the surgery of the brachial plexus include the use of less invasive surgical approaches and more precise techniques. The theoretical advantages of the use of robotics versus endoscopy are the disappearance of physiological tremor, three-dimensional vision, high definition, magnification, and superior ergonomics. On a fresh cadaver, a dissection space was created and maintained by insufflation of CO2. The supraclavicular brachial plexus was dissected using the da Vinci robot (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). A segment of the C5 nerve root was grafted robotically. A series of eight clinical cases of nerve damage around the shoulder girdle were operated on using the da Vinci robot. The ability to perform successful microneural repair was confirmed in both the authors' clinical and experimental studies, but the entire potential of robotically assisted microneural surgery was not realized during these initial cases because an open incision was still required. Robotic-assisted surgery of the shoulder girdle and brachial plexus is still in its early stages. It would be ideal to have even finer and more suitable instruments to apply fibrin glue or electrostimulation in nerve surgery. Nevertheless, the prospects of minimally invasive techniques would allow acute and subacute surgical approach of traumatic brachial plexus palsy safely, without significant and cicatricial morbidity. PMID:24872778

  14. Peer Review and Surgical Innovation: Robotic Surgery and Its Hurdles

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Cronin, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The peer review processes as outlined in the Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) is meant ensure quality standard of care through a self-policing mechanism by the medical community. This process grants immunity for people filing a peer review, which is meant to protect whistleblowers. However, it also creates a loophole that can be used maliciously to hinder competition. This is accentuated when surgeons are integrating new technologies, such as robotic surgery, into their practice. With more than 2000 da Vinci robots in use and more than 300 new units being shipped each year, robotic surgery has become a mainstay in the surgical field. The applications for robots continue to expand as surgeons discover their expanding capability. We need a better peer review process. That ensures the peer review is void of competitive bias. Peer reviewers need to be familiar with the procedure and the technology. The current process could stymie innovation in the name of competition. PMID:27517092

  15. Underwater robotic suturing.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Shimada, Masanari; Ishikawa, Norihiko; Watanabe, Go

    2016-06-01

    Background Laparoscopic and robotic surgeries have become popular, and this popularity is increasing. However, the environment in which such surgeries are performed is rarely discussed. Similar to arthrosurgery performed in water, artificial ascites could be a new environment for laparoscopic surgery. This study was performed to determine whether robotic surgery is applicable to complicated suturing underwater. Material and methods A da Vinci Surgical System S was used. A weighted fabric sheet was placed at the bottom of a tank. Identical sets were made for each environment: One tank was dry, and the other was filled with water. The suturing task involved placement of a running silk suture around the perimeter of a small circle. The task was performed eight times in each environment. The task time and integrity score were determined. The integrity score was calculated by evaluating accuracy, tightness, thread damage, and uniformity; each factor was evaluated using a five-point scale. Results Although statistically significant differences were not shown in either task time or integrity score between the underwater and air environments, robotic suturing underwater is not inferior to performance in air. Conclusions The feasibility of robotic suturing underwater was confirmed under the herein-described experimental conditions. PMID:26853072

  16. High-speed 3-dimensional imaging in robot-assisted thoracic surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Akata, Soichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Yoshida, Koichi; Kato, Yasufumi; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2014-06-01

    We used a high-speed 3-dimensional (3D) image analysis system (SYNAPSE VINCENT, Fujifilm Corp, Tokyo, Japan) to determine the best positioning of robotic arms and instruments preoperatively. The da Vinci S (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) was easily set up accurately and rapidly for this operation. Preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation using the SYNAPSE VINCENT for robot-assisted thoracic operations enabled efficient planning of the operation settings. The SYNAPSE VINCENT can detect the tumor location and depict surrounding tissues quickly, accurately, and safely. This system is also excellent for navigational and educational use. PMID:24882302

  17. Poor left ventricular function is not a contraindication for robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Atiq; Garcia, Jose; Deshpande, Seema; Fitzpatrick, Mollie; Odonkor, Patrick; Zimrin, David; Griffith, Bartley; Bonatti, Johannes

    2009-06-01

    Robotic technology has enabled performance of totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting (TECABG). Published series on TECABG were primarily performed in low-risk patients, and little is known about the outcome after totally endoscopic coronary surgery in patients with severely impaired left ventricular function. We report successful endoscopic placement of a left internal mammary artery bypass graft to the left anterior descending artery using the daVinci robotic system in a patient with a severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. PMID:19546067

  18. Robotic intercostal nerve harvest: a feasibility study in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Hideaki; Serradori, Thomas; Mikami, Yoji; Selber, Jesse; Santelmo, Nicola; Facca, Sybille; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the feasibility of robotic intercostal nerve harvest in a pig model. A surgical robot, the da Vinci Model S system, was installed after the creation of 3 ports in the pig's left chest. The posterior edges of the fourth, fifth, and sixth intercostal nerves were isolated at the level of the anterior axillary line. The anterior edges of the nerves were transected at the rib cartilage zone. Three intercostal nerve harvesting procedures, requiring an average of 33 minutes, were successfully performed in 3 pigs without major complications. The advantages of robotic microsurgery for intercostal nerve harvest include elimination of physiological tremor, free movement of joint-equipped robotic arms, and amplification of the surgeon's hand motion by as much as 5 times. Robot-assisted neurolysis may be clinically useful for intercostal nerve harvest for brachial plexus reconstruction. PMID:26207601

  19. Robotic phrenic nerve harvest: a feasibility study in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Porto de Melo, P; Miyamoto, H; Serradori, T; Ruggiero Mantovani, G; Selber, J; Facca, S; Xu, W-D; Santelmo, N; Liverneaux, P

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the feasibility of robotic phrenic nerve harvest in a pig model. A surgical robot (Da Vinci S™ system, Intuitive Surgical(®), Sunnyvale, CA) was installed with three ports on the pig's left chest. The phrenic nerve was transected distally where it enters the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve harvest was successfully performed in 45 minutes without major complications. The advantages of robotic microsurgery for phrenic nerve harvest are the motion scaling up to 5 times, elimination of physiological tremor, and free movement of joint-equipped robotic arms. Robot-assisted neurolysis may be clinically useful for harvesting the phrenic nerve for brachial plexus reconstruction. PMID:25267395

  20. A Pilot Study of Surgical Training Using a Virtual Robotic Surgery Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Tergas, Ana I.; Sheth, Sangini B.; Green, Isabel C.; Giuntoli, Robert L.; Winder, Abigail D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Our objectives were to compare the utility of learning a suturing task on the virtual reality da Vinci Skills Simulator versus the da Vinci Surgical System dry laboratory platform and to assess user satisfaction among novice robotic surgeons. Methods: Medical trainees were enrolled prospectively; one group trained on the virtual reality simulator, and the other group trained on the da Vinci dry laboratory platform. Trainees received pretesting and post-testing on the dry laboratory platform. Participants then completed an anonymous online user experience and satisfaction survey. Results: We enrolled 20 participants. Mean pretest completion times did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Training with either platform was associated with a similar decrease in mean time to completion (simulator platform group, 64.9 seconds [P = .04]; dry laboratory platform group, 63.9 seconds [P < .01]). Most participants (58%) preferred the virtual reality platform. The majority found the training “definitely useful” in improving robotic surgical skills (mean, 4.6) and would attend future training sessions (mean, 4.5). Conclusion: Training on the virtual reality robotic simulator or the dry laboratory robotic surgery platform resulted in significant improvements in time to completion and economy of motion for novice robotic surgeons. Although there was a perception that both simulators improved performance, there was a preference for the virtual reality simulator. Benefits unique to the simulator platform include autonomy of use, computerized performance feedback, and ease of setup. These features may facilitate more efficient and sophisticated simulation training above that of the conventional dry laboratory platform, without loss of efficacy. PMID:23925015

  1. Robotic renal transplantation: first European case.

    PubMed

    Boggi, Ugo; Vistoli, Fabio; Signori, Stefano; D'Imporzano, Simone; Amorese, Gabriella; Consani, Giovanni; Guarracino, Fabio; Melfi, Franca; Mussi, Alfredo; Mosca, Franco

    2011-02-01

    A kidney from a 56-year-old mother was transplanted to her 37-year-old daughter laparoscopically using the daVinci HDSi surgical system. The kidney was introduced into the abdomen through a 7-cm suprapubic incision used also for the uretero-vescical anastomosis. Vascular anastomoses were carried out through a total of three additional ports. Surgery lasted 154 min, including 51 min of warm ischemia of the graft. Urine production started immediately after graft reperfusion. Renal function remains optimal at the longest follow-up of 3 months. The technique employed in this case is discussed in comparison with the only other two contemporary experiences, both from the USA. Furthermore, possible advantages and disadvantages of robotics in kidney transplantation are discussed extensively. We conclude that the daVinci surgical system allows the performance of kidney transplantation under optimal operative conditions. Further experience is needed, but it is likely that solid organ transplantation will not remain immune to robotics. PMID:21091963

  2. Robot-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for stage IIIb mixed germ cell testicular cancer after chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hyub; Kim, Dong Soo; Chang, Sung-Goo; Jeon, Seung Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, especially when performed with the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical), has shown excellent cosmetic results with similar oncologic outcomes to those of open surgery. In this study, we present a case of robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymph node dissection performed in an 18-year-old man who was diagnosed with a stage IIIb mixed germ cell tumor and who was initially treated with radical orchiectomy, followed by chemotherapy. This case shows that robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is technically feasible, safe, and cosmetically favorable, even when performed on patients with high-stage disease or after chemotherapy. PMID:26175874

  3. Robotic totally endoscopic triple coronary artery bypass grafting on the arrested heart: report of the first successful clinical case.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Johannes; Rehman, Atiq; Schwartz, Kimberly; Deshpande, Seema; Kon, Zachary; Lehr, Eric; Zimrin, David; Griffith, Bartley

    2010-12-01

    Robotic technology enables "port only" totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting (TECAB). During early procedure development only single bypass grafts were feasible. Because current referral practice for coronary bypass surgery mostly includes multivessel disease, performance of multiple endoscopic bypass grafts is desirable. We report a case in which a patient received a right internal mammary artery bypass graft to the left anterior descending artery and a left internal mammary artery jump graft to 2 obtuse marginal branches. The procedure was performed through 5 ports on the arrested heart using the daVinci S robotic surgical system. This is the first reported triple bypass grafting procedure using an arrested heart approach. PMID:21169151

  4. Tourism. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 10 projects that have promoted investment in human resources through training in the tourism sector to promote sustainable, or responsible, tourism. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) BEEFT, training of mobility…

  5. Current status of robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Obama, Kazutaka; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2016-05-01

    Although over 3000 da Vinci Surgical System (DVSS) devices have been installed worldwide, robotic surgery for gastric cancer has not yet become widely spread and is only available in several advanced institutions. This is because, at least in part, the advantages of robotic surgery for gastric cancer remain unclear. The safety and feasibility of robotic gastrectomy have been demonstrated in several retrospective studies. However, no sound evidence has been reported to support the superiority of a robotic approach for gastric cancer treatment. In addition, the long-term clinical outcomes following robotic gastrectomy have yet to be clarified. Nevertheless, a robotic approach can potentially overcome the disadvantages of conventional laparoscopic surgery if the advantageous functions of this technique are optimized, such as the use of wristed instruments, tremor filtering and high-resolution 3-D images. The potential advantages of robotic gastrectomy have been discussed in several retrospective studies, including the ability to achieve sufficient lymphadenectomy in the area of the splenic hilum, reductions in local complication rates and a shorter learning curve for the robotic approach compared to conventional laparoscopic gastrectomy. In this review, we present the current status and discuss issues regarding robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. PMID:26019020

  6. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  7. [Robotic laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: update 2008].

    PubMed

    John, H

    2008-03-01

    Radical prostatectomy aims for optimal tumor control, minimal morbidity, and best functional outcomes of urinary continence and erection. With the introduction of the robotic daVinci surgical system an impressive shift from open radical to robotic laparoscopic prostatectomy (RLP) has occurred especially in the USA. Unfortunately, initial and instrumental costs and maintenance fees of the system are still very high. Compared with the open retropubic approach, RLP has a similar short-term outcome in oncological control, potency, and urinary continence but potentially distinctly favorable benefits in blood loss, transfusion rates, and minor complications. However, RLP is still in its infancy compared to open radical prostatectomy. Inter-institutional trials with the same validated questionnaires are necessary for the future to evaluate oncological and functional results conclusively. The individual surgeon's experience with his routinely preferred technique remains the crucial key for a successful oncological and functional outcome in radical prostatectomy, whatever technology is used. PMID:18231769

  8. Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Mick, Stephanie; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Nair, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery has emerged as a feasible and efficient alternative to conventional full sternotomy coronary artery bypass graft surgery in selected patients. This minimally invasive approach using the daVinci robotic system allows fine intrathoracic maneuvers and excellent view of the coronary arteries. Both on-pump and off-pump operations can be performed to treat single and multivessel disease. Hybrid approaches have the potential of offering complete revascularization with the “best of both worlds” from surgery (internal mammary artery anastomosis in less invasive fashion) and percutaneous coronary intervention (least invasive approach). In this article we review the indications, techniques, short and long term results, as well as current developments in totally endoscopic robotic coronary artery bypass operations. PMID:24251021

  9. [Robotic surgery -- the modern surgical treatment of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Ferenc János; Alexander, de la Taille

    2014-09-01

    Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery replaces many open surgery procedures in urology due to its advantages concerning post-operative morbidity. However, the technical challenges and need of learning have limited the application of this method to the work of highly qualified surgeons. The introduction of da Vinci surgical system has offered important technical advantages compared to the laparoscopic surgical procedure. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy became a largely accepted procedure. It has paved the way for urologists to start other, more complex operations, decreasing this way the operative morbidity. The purpose of this article is to overview the history of robotic surgery, its current and future states in the treatment of the cancer. We present our robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and the results. PMID:25260081

  10. Patient Positioning and Port Placement for Robot-Assisted Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Charles; Steinberg, Zoe; Shah, Anup

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The introduction of robotic surgical systems and their integration into minimally invasive procedures have changed the landscape of laparoscopic surgery dramatically. Intuitive Surgical's da Vinci Surgical System was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration for cardiothoracic procedures in the late 1990s. This trend quickly spread through other surgical specialties, with urologists as one of the frontrunners in adoption. Subsequently, pediatric urologists have adopted robot-assisted procedures in selected centers, performing procedures such as pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction, partial and complete nephrectomy, and both intravesical and extravesical ureteral reimplantation. In this article, we will discuss technical considerations related to patient positioning and port placement in pediatric robot-assisted surgery. PMID:24548088

  11. Robotic excision of a pre-coccygeal nerve root tumor

    PubMed Central

    Palep, Jaydeep H.; Mistry, Sheetal; Kumar, Abhaya; Munshi, Mihir; Puranik, Meenakshi; Pednekar, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Pre-coccygeal ganglioneuroma is a rare clinical entity that presents incidentally or with non-specific symptoms. We present a case of a 25 year old housewife who was incidentally diagnosed with pre-coccygeal ganglioneuroma while getting investigated for primary infertility. The patient had no specific complaints except for irregular menstruation which had started 8 months back. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was suggestive of a presacral and pre-coccygeal lesion. Resection of the tumor was done through the anterior approach using the da Vinci Si robotic system. Two robotic arms and one assistant port were used to completely excise the tumor. Robotic excision of such a tumor mass located at a relatively inaccessible area allows enhanced precision and 3-dimentional (3D) view avoiding damage to important surrounding structures. PMID:25598609

  12. [Robot-assisted rectal surgery: hype or progress?].

    PubMed

    Becker, T; Egberts, J E; Schafmayer, C; Aselmann, H

    2016-07-01

    Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer has undergone a significant evolution during the last decades and has become the standard approach in specialized centers with better short-term and comparable oncological outcome to open surgery. The laparoscopic approach remains challenging and has various inherent technical challenges particularly associated with rectal cancer resection. Robotic colorectal surgery using the da Vinci® surgical system has been successfully introduced into clinical practice during recent years and provides specific technical advantages. Studies have shown that the robotic approach in colorectal surgery is safe and feasible with comparable results. It is associated with low conversion rates, more R0 situations for low rectal cancer with larger tumors and more neoadjuvant treatment compared to standard laparoscopy. Robot-assisted surgery is an attractive development of minimally invasive surgery and should also be further evaluated with mandatory monitoring of outcome parameters in registries in Germany. PMID:27334630

  13. Modeling and optimal design of an optical MEMS tactile sensor for use in robotically assisted surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Roozbeh; Kalantari, Masoud; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Dargahi, Javad

    2010-06-01

    Currently, Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) performs through keyhole incisions using commercially available robotic surgery systems. One of the most famous examples of these robotic surgery systems is the da Vinci surgical system. In the current robotic surgery systems like the da Vinci, surgeons are faced with problems such as lack of tactile feedback during the surgery. Therefore, providing a real-time tactile feedback from interaction between surgical instruments and tissue can help the surgeons to perform MIS more reliably. The present paper proposes an optical tactile sensor to measure the contact force between the bio-tissue and the surgical instrument. A model is proposed for simulating the interaction between a flexible membrane and bio-tissue based on the finite element methods. The tissue is considered as a hyperelastic material with the material properties similar to the heart tissue. The flexible membrane is assumed as a thin layer of silicon which can be microfabricated using the technology of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). The simulation results are used to optimize the geometric design parameters of a proposed MEMS tactile sensor for use in robotic surgical systems to perform MIS.

  14. Totally endoscopic robotic resection of left atrial myxoma with persistent left superior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Tarui, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Norihiko; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Go

    2016-07-01

    A 68-year old man with a cardiac tumour was admitted for robotic tumour resection using the da Vinci S Surgical System. While undergoing preoperative examination, he was found to have a persistent left superior vena cava. After general anaesthesia and single-lung ventilation, cardiopulmonary bypass was established, with venous drainage through bilateral internal jugular and right femoral veins and arterial return through the right femoral artery. Robotic tumour resection was performed by four ports in the right chest. There were no difficulties during the operation, and successful tumour resection was achieved with satisfactory margins. He was discharged without complications. Persistent left superior vena cava is very rare, but if diagnosed preoperatively and an appropriate operative plan is made, robotic cardiac surgery can be performed safely. With robotic surgery, cardiac tumour resection can be feasibly performed, with cosmetic benefits. PMID:26989070

  15. Contemporary Series of Robotic-Assisted Distal Ureteral Reconstruction Utilizing Side Docking Position

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Rick C.; Farber, Nicholas J.; Riley, Julie M.; Shilo, Yaniv; Ost, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The robot-assisted approach to distal ureteral reconstruction is increasingly utilized. Traditionally, the robot is docked between the legs in lithotomy position resulting in limited bladder access for stent placement. We examined the use of side docking of the daVinci robot® to perform distal ureteral reconstruction. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of distal ureteral reconstruction (ureteral reimplantation and uretero-ureterostomy) executed robotically was performed at a single institution by a single surgeon. The daVinci robotic® Si surgical platform was positioned at the right side of the patient facing towards the head of the patient, i.e. side docking. Results: A total of 14 cases were identified from 2011–2013. Nine patients underwent ureteral reimplantation for ureteral injury, two for vesicoureteral reflux, one for ureteral stricture, and one for megaureter. One patient had an uretero-ureterostomy for a distal stricture. Three patients required a Boari flap due to extensive ureteral injury. Mean operative time was 286 minutes (189–364), mean estimated blood loss was 40cc (10–200), and mean length of stay was 2.3 days (1–4). Follow-up renal ultrasound was available for review in 10/14 patients and revealed no long-term complications in any patient. Mean follow-up was 20.7 months (0.1–59.3). Conclusion: Robot-assisted laparoscopic distal ureteral reconstruction is safe and effective. Side docking of the robot allows ready access to the perineum and acceptable placement of the robot to successfully complete ureteral repair. PMID:26742974

  16. Robotic-Assisted Upper Face Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Rybakin, Arthur V.; Manturova, Natalia E.; Gladyshev, Dmitriy V.; Kamalov, David M.; Shcherbakov, Kirill G.; Staisupov, Valeriy J.; Kuzin, Danila A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Robotic-assisted technology has not been used in aesthetic surgery so far. The authors examined the feasibility and potential advantages of robotic-assisted technology in upper face rejuvenation surgery, as well as utility of the tools available in the market. Forehead lift was performed along with blepharoplasty in 4 patients. Robotic da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc.) was used at the stage of dissection. The stereo endoscope 30 degrees, 12 mm and later 8.5 mm in diameter, and the set of tools, 8 mm and later 5 mm in diameter, were used. Overall results appeared to be essentially the same as after usual endoscope-assisted brow lift. The advantages of the robotic-assisted surgery were as follows: the best possible display, scalability of the picture; lack of tremor, scalability of the movements’ amplitude; high degree of freedom of movements exceeding human capabilities; quick and easy switch between the endoscope and any of the 3 manipulating arms; and enhanced comfort for a surgeon. The drawbacks noted were as follows: cost, steep learning curve, lack of tactile feedback, and absence of instruments specially adjusted for aesthetic surgery. The authors conclude that robots will enter the field of aesthetic plastic surgery in the same way as endoscopy, the proviso being to adjust tools to the specific needs.

  17. Systematic review of published studies on safety and efficacy of thoracoscopic and robot-assisted lobectomy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroshige

    2014-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of thoracoscopic and robot-assisted lobectomies for primary lung cancer were reviewed in the literature. Thoracoscopic surgery is less invasive compared to thoracotomy, and it has been reported to be superior with regard to the outcome. In addition, the operability of a surgical robot (da Vinci) is favorable and supplements the disadvantages of conventional endoscopic surgery. Robot-assisted lobectomy has been reported to be comparable to thoracoscopic surgery with regard to the safety and efficacy based on analysis of perioperative results and superior with regard to the operability and length of the learning curve. However, a high cost and a long operative time are of concern. Since robot-assisted surgery has been performed only in early cases, the continuation of a comparative investigation may be necessary. PMID:24583699

  18. Predicting the long-term effects of human-robot interaction: a reflection on responsibility in medical robotics.

    PubMed

    Datteri, Edoardo

    2013-03-01

    This article addresses prospective and retrospective responsibility issues connected with medical robotics. It will be suggested that extant conceptual and legal frameworks are sufficient to address and properly settle most retrospective responsibility problems arising in connection with injuries caused by robot behaviours (which will be exemplified here by reference to harms occurred in surgical interventions supported by the Da Vinci robot, reported in the scientific literature and in the press). In addition, it will be pointed out that many prospective responsibility issues connected with medical robotics are nothing but well-known robotics engineering problems in disguise, which are routinely addressed by roboticists as part of their research and development activities: for this reason they do not raise particularly novel ethical issues. In contrast with this, it will be pointed out that novel and challenging prospective responsibility issues may emerge in connection with harmful events caused by normal robot behaviours. This point will be illustrated here in connection with the rehabilitation robot Lokomat. PMID:21800171

  19. Robotic prostatectomy: what we have learned and where we are going.

    PubMed

    Lee, David I

    2009-04-30

    Radical prostatectomy became a mainstay of treatment for prostate cancer in the United States after the pioneering work of Walsh in defining the nerve sparing technique. Efforts to reproduce this operation in a minimally invasive fashion resulted in slow progress that recently have flourished with the application of the daVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) by Menon and colleagues. This article summarizes the origins of robotic prostatectomy, some of the current data regarding this operation and potential future directions. PMID:19430547

  20. Robotic-assisted placement of a hepatic artery infusion catheter for regional chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hellan, Minia; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2008-02-01

    Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy can be of value to patients with metastatic liver disease from colorectal cancer. Arterial infusion therapy requires surgical placement of a catheter into the gastroduodenal artery connected to a subcutaneous infusion pump or port, a procedure involving major abdominal surgery. Placement of chemotherapy infusion catheters by conventional laparoscopic techniques has been described, but is a technically challenging procedure. The purpose of this report is to introduce a new, minimally invasive approach for hepatic artery catheter placement using the DaVinci robotic system with the potential to minimize surgical trauma, pain, and hospital stay, and to render this minimal access procedure more feasible and widely applicable. PMID:17704873

  1. ROBOTIC ASSISTED SINGLE SITE FOR BILATERAL INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR

    PubMed Central

    BOSI, Henrique Rasia; GUIMARÃES, José Ricardo; CAVAZZOLA, Leandro Totti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The inguinal hernia is one of the most frequent surgical diseases, being frequent procedure and surgeon´s everyday practice. Aim: To present technical details in making hernioplasty using robotic equipment on bilateral inguinal hernia repair with single port and preliminary results with the method. Method: The bilateral inguinal hernia repair was performed by using the Single-Site(c) Da Vinci Surgical Access Platform to the abdominal cavity and the placement of clamps. Results: This technique proved to be effective for inguinal hernia and have more aesthetic result when compared to other techniques. Conclusions: Inguinal hernia repair robot-assisted with single-trocar is feasible and effective. However, still has higher costs needing surgical team special training. PMID:27438038

  2. Postoperative care for the robotic surgery bowel resection patient.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Zara R; Salathiel, Mary; Macey, Barbara A; Krenzer, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    A new surgical method is available for colon and rectal surgery. Robotic surgery, using the daVinci Si HD Surgical System, offers surgical advances compared with the traditional open or laparoscopic surgical methods. The potential advantages of robotic technology continue to be explored and its most appropriate functions are yet to be determined. In clinical experience, the use of this surgical method has resulted in changes to postoperative nursing care management. This article describes changes in the management of postoperative patient care including fluid and electrolyte balance, and patient and staff education. Modifications were instituted in the clinical pathway to facilitate an accelerated standard of care. New discharge strategies were implemented to ensure ongoing fluid and electrolyte balance by the patient. A true team effort from a multitude of disciplines was required for the changes in patient care routine to be effective. Outcomes including length of stay and patient satisfaction are presented. PMID:21814060

  3. [Objective surgery -- advanced robotic devices and simulators used for surgical skill assessment].

    PubMed

    Suhánszki, Norbert; Haidegger, Tamás

    2014-12-01

    Robotic assistance became a leading trend in minimally invasive surgery, which is based on the global success of laparoscopic surgery. Manual laparoscopy requires advanced skills and capabilities, which is acquired through tedious learning procedure, while da Vinci type surgical systems offer intuitive control and advanced ergonomics. Nevertheless, in either case, the key issue is to be able to assess objectively the surgeons' skills and capabilities. Robotic devices offer radically new way to collect data during surgical procedures, opening the space for new ways of skill parameterization. This may be revolutionary in MIS training, given the new and objective surgical curriculum and examination methods. The article reviews currently developed skill assessment techniques for robotic surgery and simulators, thoroughly inspecting their validation procedure and utility. In the coming years, these methods will become the mainstream of Western surgical education. PMID:25500641

  4. Robotic single-site combined cholecystectomy and hysterectomy: Advantages and limits

    PubMed Central

    Pluchino, Nicola; Buchs, Nicolas C.; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Wenger, Jean Marie; Morel, Philippe; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Robotic single-site surgery (RSS) represents the latest innovation for clinical use of single incision surgery. Several applications have been reported in urology, general surgery and gynecology with potential application in benign cases as well as in oncology. PRESENTATION OF CASE To further explore potential applications of RSS, we present the first case reported in the literature of combined cholecystectomy and total hysterectomy using the da Vinci Si single-port platform (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). DISCUSSION A critical description of the procedure with potential advantages and limitations of the current platform for combined surgical procedure is provided. CONCLUSION Robotics may facilitate the widespread diffusion of single incision surgery, overcoming current laparoscopic and LESS limitations. However, the available robotic platform still has technical features that will limit its uptake amongst surgeons and further technological development is needed for a wider diffusion of single incision surgery. PMID:25460464

  5. Chylous ascites following robotic lymph node dissection on a patient with metastatic cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Enrique; Soto, Carlos; Nezhat, Farr R.; Gretz, Herbert F.

    2011-01-01

    Chylous ascites is an uncommon postoperative complication of gynecological surgery. We report a case of chylous ascites following a robotic lymph node dissection for a cervical carcinoma. A 38-year-old woman with IB2 cervical adenocarcinoma with a palpable 3 cm left external iliac lymph node was taken to the operating room for robotic-assisted laparoscopic pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection. Patient was discharged on postoperative day 2 after an apparent uncomplicated procedure. The patient was readmitted the hospital on postoperative day 9 with abdominal distention and a CT-scan revealed free fluid in the abdomen and pelvis. A paracentesis demonstrated milky-fluid with an elevated concentration of triglycerides, confirming the diagnosis of chylous ascites. She recovered well with conservative measures. The risk of postoperative chylous ascites following lymph node dissection is still present despite the utilization of new technologies such as the da Vinci robot. PMID:21607099

  6. Combined transoral transnasal robotic-assisted nasopharyngectomy: a cadaveric feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Dallan, Iacopo; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Montevecchi, Filippo; Battaglia, Paolo; Cerchiai, Niccolò; Seccia, Veronica; Vicini, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Surgical management of the nasopharynx is complex. Both traditional and endoscopic transnasal techniques are demanding. Purely transoral robotic nasopharyngectomy has been described but it needs a palatal splitting and is performed with an inferior to superior perspective with a difficult vision of the upper regions. The aim of this study is to investigate a new robotic surgical setting, which is able to overcome the actual limits. The DaVinci Surgical System was used in two cadavers. Dissection was carried out through a combined transnasal-transoral approach and a purely transoral procedure. A complete nasopharyngectomy was performed with both settings. Working and setting times are comparable. The combined approach avoids palatal spitting and permits a more panoramic view of the surgical field with an easier dissection of the upper areas. A robotic palatal sparing nasopharyngectomy is feasible. The combined transnasal-transoral setting seems to offer significant advantages with respect to traditionally purely transoral procedures. PMID:21416233

  7. 2D–3D radiograph to cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) registration for C-arm image-guided robotic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen Pei; Otake, Yoshito; Azizian, Mahdi; Wagner, Oliver J.; Sorger, Jonathan M.; Armand, Mehran; Taylor, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose C-arm radiographs are commonly used for intraoperative image guidance in surgical interventions. Fluoroscopy is a cost-effective real-time modality, although image quality can vary greatly depending on the target anatomy. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans are sometimes available, so 2D–3D registration is needed for intra-procedural guidance. C-arm radiographs were registered to CBCT scans and used for 3D localization of peritumor fiducials during a minimally invasive thoracic intervention with a da Vinci Si robot. Methods Intensity-based 2D–3D registration of intraoperative radiographs to CBCT was performed. The feasible range of X-ray projections achievable by a C-arm positioned around a da Vinci Si surgical robot, configured for robotic wedge resection, was determined using phantom models. Experiments were conducted on synthetic phantoms and animals imaged with an OEC 9600 and a Siemens Artis zeego, representing the spectrum of different C-arm systems currently available for clinical use. Results The image guidance workflow was feasible using either an optically tracked OEC 9600 or a Siemens Artis zeego C-arm, resulting in an angular difference of Δθ : ~ 30°. The two C-arm systems provided TREmean ≤ 2.5 mm and TREmean ≤ 2.0 mm, respectively (i.e., comparable to standard clinical intraoperative navigation systems). Conclusions C-arm 3D localization from dual 2D–3D registered radiographs was feasible and applicable for intraoperative image guidance during da Vinci robotic thoracic interventions using the proposed workflow. Tissue deformation and in vivo experiments are required before clinical evaluation of this system. PMID:25503592

  8. Electrosurgical injuries during robot assisted surgery: insights from the FDA MAUDE database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Andrew; Vilos, George A.; Pautler, Stephen E.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: The da Vinci surgical system requires the use of electrosurgical instruments. The re-use of such instruments creates the potential for stray electrical currents from capacitive coupling and/or insulation failure with subsequent injury. The morbidity of such injuries may negate many of the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. We sought to evaluate the rate and nature of electrosurgical injury (ESI) associated with this device. Methods: The Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database is administered by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and reports adverse events related to medical devices in the United States. We analyzed all incidents in the context of robotic surgery between January 2001 and June 2011 to identify those related to the use of electrosurgery. Results: In the past decade, a total of 605 reports have been submitted to the FDA with regard to adverse events related to the da Vinci robotic surgical platform. Of these, 24 (3.9%) were related to potential or actual ESI. Nine out of the 24 cases (37.5%) resulted in additional surgical intervention for repair. There were 6 bowel injuries of which only one was recognized and managed intra-operatively. The remainder required laparotomy between 5 and 8 days after the initial robotic procedure. Additionally, there were 3 skin burns. The remaining cases required conservative management or resulted in no harm. Conclusion: ESI in the context of robotic surgery is uncommon but remains under-recognized and under-reported. Surgeons performing robot assisted surgery should be aware that ESI can occur with robotic instruments and vigilance for intra- and post-operative complications is paramount.

  9. Visual measurement of suture strain for robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Martell, John; Elmer, Thomas; Gopalsami, Nachappa; Park, Young Soo

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgical procedures offer advantages of smaller incisions, decreased hospital length of stay, and rapid postoperative recovery to the patient. Surgical robots improve access and visualization intraoperatively and have expanded the indications for minimally invasive procedures. A limitation of the DaVinci surgical robot is a lack of sensory feedback to the operative surgeon. Experienced robotic surgeons use visual interpretation of tissue and suture deformation as a surrogate for tactile feedback. A difficulty encountered during robotic surgery is maintaining adequate suture tension while tying knots or following a running anastomotic suture. Displaying suture strain in real time has potential to decrease the learning curve and improve the performance and safety of robotic surgical procedures. Conventional strain measurement methods involve installation of complex sensors on the robotic instruments. This paper presents a noninvasive video processing-based method to determine strain in surgical sutures. The method accurately calculates strain in suture by processing video from the existing surgical camera, making implementation uncomplicated. The video analysis method was developed and validated using video of suture strain standards on a servohydraulic testing system. The video-based suture strain algorithm is shown capable of measuring suture strains of 0.2% with subpixel resolution and proven reliability under various conditions. PMID:21436874

  10. Novel training methods for robotic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Andrew J.; Aron, Monish; Hung, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this review are to summarize the current training modalities and assessment tools used in urological robotic surgery and to propose principles to guide the formation of a comprehensive robotics curriculum. Materials and Methods: The PUBMED database was systematically searched for relevant articles and their citations utilized to broaden our search. These articles were reviewed and summarized with a focus on novel developments. Results: A multitude of training modalities including didactic, dry lab, wet lab, and virtual reality have been developed. The use of these modalities can be divided into basic skills-based exercises and more advanced procedure-based exercises. Clinical training has largely followed traditional methods of surgical teaching with the exception of the unique development of tele-mentoring for the da Vinci interface. Tools to assess both real-life and simulator performance have been developed, including adaptions from Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery and Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill, and novel tools such as Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills. Conclusions: The use of these different entities to create a standardized curriculum for robotic surgery remains elusive. Selection of training modalities and assessment tools should be based upon performance data-based validity and practical feasibility. Comparative assessment of different modalities (cross-modality validity) can help strengthen the development of common skill sets. Constant data collection must occur to guide continuing curriculum improvement. PMID:25097322

  11. Robotic sialoadenectomy of the submandibular gland via a modified face-lift approach.

    PubMed

    De Virgilio, A; Park, Y M; Kim, W S; Lee, S Y; Seol, J H; Kim, S-H

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the advantages and disadvantages of submandibular gland (SMG) resection using a robotic surgical system through a modified face-lift approach. The authors performed robotic sialoadenectomy of the SMG on 5 patients using the daVinci robot system through a modified face-lift approach. Three robotic arms were inserted through a modified face-lift incision; a face-down 30-degree endoscopic arm and two operative arms. The right arm was equipped with a harmonic scalpel and the left arm with a Maryland forceps. In all patients, robotic sialoadenectomy of the SMG was completed successfully. Diagnoses were sialolithiasis in two patients, pleomophic adenoma in two patients, and ranula in one patient. The mean robotic operative time was 90.2 min (range 62-185 min) and that for setting the robotic system was 8.2 min (range 5-15 min). No significant intra-operative or postoperative complications were observed. All patients were satisfied with the outcome and especially the cosmetic results at their last follow-up visit. In the authors opinion robotic sialoadenectomy of the SMG is technically feasible and secures a better cosmetic outcome than endoscopic submandibular resection. PMID:22578632

  12. Diminished suture strength after robotic needle driver manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ricchiuti, Daniel; Cerone, Jeffrey; Shie, Scott; Jetley, Ajay; Noe, Donald; Kovacik, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery has become a routine surgical option for the treatment of prostate cancer. Despite its technical advancements, the da Vinci(®) Surgical System still lacks haptic feedback to the surgeon, resulting in a maximally applied compressive force by the robotic needle driver during every grasping maneuver. Without this perceptional sense of touch and grip control, repetitive robotic needle driver manipulation may unknowingly lead to irreparable damage to fine sutures used during delicate anastomotic repairs. For robotic prostatectomy, any such loss of integrity can potentially lead to premature breakdown of the urethrovesical anastomosis and urine extravasation, especially important for a less-than-perfectly fashioned anastomotic repair. Although it has already been established that overhandling of sutures using handheld laparoscopic instruments can lead to reduced suture strength, it has not been established to what extent this may occur after robotic surgical procedures. We present analytical data and analyses concerning the failure strength of fine sutures commonly used for urethrovesical anastomotic repair during robotic prostatectomy, after repetitive robotic needle driver manipulation. When compared with noncompromised monofilament suture controls, the average maximal failure force after repetitive robotic manipulation was significantly reduced by 35% (p < 0.0001). Similarly, the average maximal failure force of braided sutures was significantly reduced after repetitive robotic manipulation by 3% (p = 0.009). This work demonstrates that significant reductions in monofilament and braided suture strength integrity can occur after customary repetitive manipulation by robotic needle drivers in an ex vivo model, with further research warranted in the in vivo setting. PMID:20653422

  13. [Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: surgical technique].

    PubMed

    Rocco, B; Coelho, R F; Albo, G; Patel, V R

    2010-09-01

    Prostate tumours are among the most frequently diagnosed solid tumours in males (a total of 192,280 new cases in the USA in 2009); since the approval of the PSA test by the Food and Drug Administration in 1986, incidence has risen significantly, particularly in the '90s; furthermore the spread of the PSA test has led to an increased frequency of cancer diagnosis at the localised stage. The standard treatment for tumour of the prostate is retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) which however is not morbidity-free, e.g. intraoperative bleeding, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. This is why the interest of the scientific community has turned increasingly to mini-invasive surgical procedures able to achieve the same oncological results as the open procedure, but which also reduce the impact of the treatment on these patients' quality of life. The first step in this direction was laparoscopic prostatectomy described by Schuessler in 1992 and standardised by Gaston in 1997. However, the technical difficulty inherent in this procedure has limited its more widespread use. In May 2000 Binder and Kramer published a report on the first robot-assisted prostatectomy (RARP) using the Da Vinci system (da Vinci TM, Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). From the original experience, RARP, which exploits the advantages of an enlarged, three-dimensional view and the ability of the instruments to move with 7 degrees of freedom, the technique has spread enormously all over the world. At the time of writing, in the USA, RARP is the most common therapeutic option for the treatment of prostate tumour at localised stage. In the present study we describe the RARP technique proposed by dr. Vipul Patel, head of the Global Robotic Institute (Orlando Fl). PMID:20940698

  14. Robotic Surgical Skills: Acquisition, Maintenance, and Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Karen M.; Lendvay, Thomas S.; Guy, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The degradation in robotic skills that occurs during periods of robotic surgical inactivity in newly trained surgeons was measured. The role of animate training in robotic skill was also assessed. Methods: Robotically naïve resident and attending surgeons underwent training with the da Vinci® robot on needle passage (DN), rocking ring transfer peg board (RPB), and running suture pod tasks (SP). Errors were established to convert actual time to adjusted time. Participants were deemed “proficient” once their adjusted times were within 80% of those set by experienced surgeons through repeated trials. Participants did not use the robot except for repeating the tasks once at 4, 8, and 12 weeks (tests). Participants then underwent animate training and completed a final test within 7 days. Results: Twenty-five attending and 29 resident surgeons enrolled; 3 withdrew. There were significant increases in time to complete each of the tasks, and in errors, by 4 weeks (Adjusted times: DN: 122.9 ± 2.2 to 204.2 ± 11.7, t=6.9, P<.001; RPB: 262.4 ± 2.5 to 364.7 ± 8.0, t=12.4, P<.001; SP: 91.4 ± 1.4 to 169.9 ± 6.8, t=11.3, P<.001). Times decreased following animate training, but not to levels observed after proficiency training for the RPB and SP modules. Conclusions: Robotic surgical skills degrade significantly within 4 weeks of inactivity in newly trained surgeons. Animate training may provide different skills than those acquired in the dry lab. PMID:23477169

  15. Robotics and telesurgery--an update on their position in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Rassweiler, J; Safi, K C; Subotic, S; Teber, D; Frede, T

    2005-01-01

    Laparoscopy is handicapped by the reduction of the range of motion from six to only four degrees of freedom. In complicated cases (i.e. radical prostatectomy), there is often a crossing of the hands of surgeon and assistant. Finally, standard laparoscopes allow only 2D-vision. This has a major impact on technically difficult reconstructive procedures such as laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Solutions include the understanding of the geometry of laparoscopy, but also newly developed surgical robots. During the last five years, there has been an increasing development and experience with robotics in urology. This article reviews the actual results focussing on the benefits and problems of robotics in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Own experiences with robot-assisted surgery include more than 1200 laparoscopic radical prostatectomies using a voice-controlled camera-arm (AESOP) as well as six telesurgical interventions with the da Vinci-system. Substantial experimental studies have been performed focussing on the geometry of laparoscopy and new training concepts such as perfused pelvitrainers and models for simulation of urethrovesical anastomosis. The recent literature on robotics in urology has been reviewed based on a MEDLINE/PUBMED research. The geometry of laparoscopy includes the angles between the instruments which have to be in a range of 25 degrees to 45 degrees ; the angles between the instrument and the working plane that should not exceed 55 degrees ; and the bi-planar angle between the shaft of the needle holder and the needle which has to be adapted according to the anatomical situation in range of 90 degrees to 110 degrees . 3-D-systems have not yet proved to be effective due to handling problems such as shutter glasses, video helmets or reduced brightness. At the moment, there are only two robotic surgical systems (AESOP, da Vinci) in clinical use, of which only the da Vinci provides stereovision and all six degrees of freedom (DOF). To date

  16. Robot assisted radical prostatectomy: how I do it. Part I: Patient preparation and positioning.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Roger F; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Zorn, Kevin C

    2013-10-01

    Radical prostatectomy remains the standard treatment for long term cure of clinically localized prostate cancer, offering excellent oncologic outcomes, with cancer-specific survival approaching 95% at 15 years after surgery. The introduction of the "da Vinci Robotic Surgical System" (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been another important step toward a minimally invasive approach to radical prostatectomy. Technologic peculiarities, such as three-dimensional vision, wristed instrumentation with seven degrees of freedom of motion, lack of tremor, a 10x-magnification and a comfortable seated position for the surgeon has added value to the surgeon and patient. In this first part of a two article series, we describe preoperative patient preparation and positioning protocols for robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) that are currently used in our institution (University of Montreal Hospital Center (CHUM)-Hopital St-Luc). We use the four-arm da Vinci Si Surgical System. Our experience with RARP is now over 250 cases with the senior surgeon having performed over 1200 RARPs and we have continually refined our technique to improve patient outcomes. PMID:24128839

  17. Robot-assisted laparoscopic renal artery aneurysm repair with selective arterial clamping.

    PubMed

    Samarasekera, Dinesh; Autorino, Riccardo; Khalifeh, Ali; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2014-01-01

    Renal artery aneurysms represent a rare clinical entity, and most are managed with endovascular techniques when treatment is indicated. Laparoscopic and robot-assisted repair of renal artery aneurysms has been described; however, few reports exist in the literature. We describe our experience with the surgical management of a 1.6-cm right-sided renal artery aneurysms in a 35-year-old man who presented with flank pain. Using the DaVinci Si surgical platform (Intuitive, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), the aneurysm was resected and the renal artery was reconstructed. Segmental branches of the renal artery were dissected and selectively clamped during resection, allowing for regional rather than global renal ischemia. Operative time was 240 min, with an estimated blood loss of 200 cc. Warm ischemia time was only regional, for a duration of 44 min. Follow-up functional analysis showed preserved renal function in the right kidney. We describe our technique and show the technical feasibility of robot-assisted renal artery aneurysm repair. Furthermore, use of the DaVinci Si system facilitates segmental artery dissection, and allows for selective clamping during reconstruction. This avoids global renal ischemia and optimizes functional preservation. PMID:23692543

  18. Robotic Anterior and Midline Skull Base Surgery: Preclinical Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, Bert W. Weinstein, Gregory S.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To develop a minimally invasive surgical technique to access the midline and anterior skull base using the optical and technical advantages of robotic surgical instrumentation. Methods and Materials: Ten experimental procedures focusing on approaches to the nasopharynx, clivus, sphenoid, pituitary sella, and suprasellar regions were performed on one cadaver and one live mongrel dog. Both the cadaver and canine procedures were performed in an approved training facility using the da Vinci Surgical Robot. For the canine experiments, a transoral robotic surgery (TORS) approach was used, and for the cadaver a newly developed combined cervical-transoral robotic surgery (C-TORS) approach was investigated and compared with standard TORS. The ability to access and dissect tissues within the various areas of the midline and anterior skull base were evaluated, and techniques to enhance visualization and instrumentation were developed. Results: Standard TORS approaches did not provide adequate access to the midline and anterior skull base; however, the newly developed C-TORS approach was successful in providing the surgical access to these regions of the skull base. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is an exciting minimally invasive approach to the skull base that warrants continued preclinical investigation and development.

  19. Current Status of Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery in Pediatric Urology

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic procedures for urological diseases in children have been proven to be safe and effective. However, the availability of laparoscopic procedures is still partly limited to experienced, high-volume centers because the procedures are technically demanding. The da Vinci robot system is being used for an increasing variety of reconstructive procedures because of the advantages of this approach, such as motion scaling, greater optical magnification, stereoscopic vision, increased instrument tip dexterity, and tremor filtration. Particularly in pediatric urologic surgery, where the operational field is limited owing to the small abdominal cavity of children, robotic surgical technology has its own strengths. Currently, robots are used to perform most surgeries in children that can be performed laparoscopically. In this review, we aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the current role of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery in Pediatric Urology by analyzing the published data in this field. A growing body of evidence supports the view that robotic technology is technically feasible and safe in pediatric urological surgery. Robotic technology provides additional benefits for performing reconstructive urologic surgery, such as in pyeloplasty, ureteral reimplantation, and enterocystoplasty procedures. The main limitations to robotic surgery are its high purchase and maintenance costs and that the cost-effectiveness of this technology remains to be validated. PMID:25132942

  20. Current status of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery in pediatric urology.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kun Suk

    2014-08-01

    Laparoscopic procedures for urological diseases in children have been proven to be safe and effective. However, the availability of laparoscopic procedures is still partly limited to experienced, high-volume centers because the procedures are technically demanding. The da Vinci robot system is being used for an increasing variety of reconstructive procedures because of the advantages of this approach, such as motion scaling, greater optical magnification, stereoscopic vision, increased instrument tip dexterity, and tremor filtration. Particularly in pediatric urologic surgery, where the operational field is limited owing to the small abdominal cavity of children, robotic surgical technology has its own strengths. Currently, robots are used to perform most surgeries in children that can be performed laparoscopically. In this review, we aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the current role of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery in Pediatric Urology by analyzing the published data in this field. A growing body of evidence supports the view that robotic technology is technically feasible and safe in pediatric urological surgery. Robotic technology provides additional benefits for performing reconstructive urologic surgery, such as in pyeloplasty, ureteral reimplantation, and enterocystoplasty procedures. The main limitations to robotic surgery are its high purchase and maintenance costs and that the cost-effectiveness of this technology remains to be validated. PMID:25132942

  1. Robotic surgery setup simulation with the integration of inverse-kinematics computation and medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Naoki; Hashizume, Makoto; Konishi, Kozo; Hattori, Asaki

    2006-07-01

    At present, there are representative robot operation systems such as da Vinci and ZEUS which have realized minimally invasive surgery by the use of dexterous manipulators. In the operating room, medical staff must prepare and set up an environment in which the robot has optimal freedom of motion and its functions can be fully demonstrated for every case. The range of motion in which the robot can reach and be maneuvered is restricted by the fixed point of the trocar site. We have developed a preoperative planning system with the function of volume rendering of medical images and automatic positioning by applying an inverse-kinematics computation of surgical robot. The motion of a surgical robot can be simulated in advance with the intuitive interface and kinematics computation program running in the background of the system. If robotic surgery planning with volume rendering of DICOM images is possible, the discussion of a surgical plan can be directly made just after the diagnosis considering the patient-specific structure. This kind of setup platform would be essential for the future introduction of surgical robotics into an operating room. PMID:16828195

  2. Mechanical evaluation of newly developed mouthpiece using polyethylene terephthalate glycol for transoral robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Niimi, Koji; Sato, Takahiro; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2015-12-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS), performed with the da Vinci surgical system (da Vinci), has been classified as a surgical approach for benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity and laryngopharynx. It provides several unique advantages, which include a three-dimensional magnified view, ability to see and work around curves or angles, and the availability of two or three robotic arms. At present, however, the da Vinci surgical system does not provide haptic feedback. The potential risks specific to the transoral use of the da Vinci include tooth injury, mucosal laceration, ocular injury, and mandibular fracture. To prevent such intra-operative tooth injuries, we created a mouthpiece made of polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) individually shaped for the patient's teeth. We compared the safety and efficacy of the PETG mouthpiece with those of a conventional mouthpiece made of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA). To determine the difference in tooth injury resulting from the two types of mouthpiece, we constructed an experimental system to measure load and strain. We measured the dynamic load and the strain from the rod to the tooth using the PETG and EVA mouthpiece. The rod was pressed against the tooth model outfitted with two types of mouthpiece and the dynamic load was measured with a load cell and the strain with a strain gage. The maximum dynamic load was 1.29 ± 0.03 kgf for the PETG mouthpiece and 2.24 ± 0.05 kgf for the EVA mouthpiece. The load against the tooth was thus less for the EVA mouthpiece. The strain was -166.84 ± 3.94 and 48.24 ± 7.77 με, respectively, while the load direction was parallel to that of the tooth axis for the PETG mouthpiece and perpendicular to the tooth axis for the EVA mouthpiece. The PETG mouthpiece reduced the tooth load compared with the EVA mouthpiece and the load direction was in parallel to the tooth axis. The PETG mouthpiece thus enhances tooth safety for TORS. PMID:26530849

  3. Robotic transmesocolonic Pyelolithotomy of horseshoe kidney

    PubMed Central

    Rajih, Emad S; Al-otaibi, Mohammed F; Alkhudair, Waleed K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the use of the robot to perform a transmesocolonic pyelolithotomy of a horseshoe kidney. Materials and Methods A 35-year old female presented with vague abdominal pain. CT scan imaging revealed the presence of a left horseshoe kidney with multiple pelvicalyceal stones. The patient was positioned in the supine position. A total of 4 ports were introduced. A 3-arm da Vinci robotic surgical system was docked, and the arms were connected. First, the dilated renal pelvis was identified behind the thin mesocolon. The mesocolon was entered and renal pelvis was dissected completely from the surrounding fat. Then, the renal pelvis was opened after adequate dissection and stones were visualized inside the calyces. By Prograsp forceps, stones were removed from all the calyces under vision and were extracted from the assistant trocar. Finally, the pylotomy incision was closed using 4 0 Maxon in a continuous fashion and the mesocolon was closed using 3 0 PDS interrupted sutures. A JP drain was placed. Result Operative time was forty-five minutes, blood loss was 100 ml. The patient was discharged after 48 hours with no immediate complications. Conclusion The utilization of minimal invasive surgery using the robot to extract multiple pelvicalyceal stones from a horseshoe kidney without reflecting the mesocolon proved to be a feasible and novel way in the management of complex stone disease improving the outcome with minimal morbidity. PMID:25928526

  4. Modifiable factors to decrease the cost of robotic-assisted procedures.

    PubMed

    Nayeemuddin, Mohammed; Daley, Susan C; Ellsworth, Pamela

    2013-10-01

    In 2000, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the da Vinci Surgical System® for use in the United States. Since that time, the number of surgical robotic systems throughout the United States has continued to grow. The costs for using the system include the initial purchase ($1 million to $2.3 million) plus annual maintenance fees ($100,000 to $150,000) and the cost of limited-use or disposable instruments. Increasing the number of procedures that are performed using the robotic system can decrease the per-procedure costs. Two modifiable factors that contribute to increasing the annual caseload are increasing the number of surgeons capable of using the system and having a properly educated perioperative nursing team. An educated surgical team decreases turnover time, facilitates proper flow of each surgical procedure, and is able to actively and passively solve intraoperative problems. PMID:24075331

  5. String motif-based description of tool motion for detecting skill and gestures in robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ahmidi, Narges; Gao, Yixin; Béjar, Benjamín; Vedula, S Swaroop; Khudanpur, Sanjeev; Vidal, René; Hager, Gregory D

    2013-01-01

    The growing availability of data from robotic and laparoscopic surgery has created new opportunities to investigate the modeling and assessment of surgical technical performance and skill. However, previously published methods for modeling and assessment have not proven to scale well to large and diverse data sets. In this paper, we describe a new approach for simultaneous detection of gestures and skill that can be generalized to different surgical tasks. It consists of two parts: (1) descriptive curve coding (DCC), which transforms the surgical tool motion trajectory into a coded string using accumulated Frenet frames, and (2) common string model (CSM), a classification model using a similarity metric computed from longest common string motifs. We apply DCC-CSM method to detect surgical gestures and skill levels in two kinematic datasets (collected from the da Vinci surgical robot). DCC-CSM method classifies gestures and skill with 87.81% and 91.12% accuracy, respectively. PMID:24505645

  6. Excision of Esophageal Duplication Cysts with Robotic-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Obasi, Patrick Chidi; Varela, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal duplication cysts are infrequent anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract that are predominantly found in children. The conventional surgical approach for removal of these cysts is an open surgery one with a posterolateral thoracotomy incision. However, more recently, these cysts have been excised via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). In this article, we present 2 pediatric patients treated with successful excision of an esophageal duplication cyst via robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS) using the da Vinci surgical system. With robotic technology, precise dissection and complete resection of the thoracic mass was achieved without violating the esophageal mucosa. There were no complications, and the patients did not require placement of a postoperative chest tube. Pathological examination of the mass was consistent with an esophageal (foregut) duplication cyst in both cases. PMID:21902985

  7. The midterm outcome and MACE of robotically enhanced grafting of left anterior descending artery with left internal mammary artery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We assessed the midterm outcome and the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events in UK’s largest Da Vinci assisted robotic coronary revascularisation cohort. This study was set up at the Imperial College NHS Trust, St. Mary’s Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Method Benchmarking approach through retrospective audit of the regional outcomes against standards in the published literature. Data was collected from the patient’s records, communication with the primary care physicians and the national strategic tracing service. The results were compared with the published literature. Patients who underwent robotic assisted coronary revascularisation were included. Other robotic procedures or minimally invasive revascularisation without the use of the Da Vinci robot were excluded. The main outcome measure was the midterm survival up to five years and the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) up to three years. Results Since April 2002, one hundred consecutive patients underwent either off pump robotic assisted single vessel small thoracotomy (SVST, n = 88), or off pump total endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting (TCAB, n = 12). All patients were operated on by the same primary surgeon but different assisting surgeons. All patients received a left internal mammary arterial (LIMA) graft as planned. The primary outcome of total one month and three years MACE and up to five year survival was 0, 9 and 96% respectively. Conclusions The procedural success rates in terms of morbidity and mortality up to five years are compatible to the outcomes observed outside the United Kingdom. These results are not inferior to that of conventional off pump single vessel coronary surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention to the LAD. PMID:24438127

  8. Perioperative Complications of Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery Using Three Robotic Arms at a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Ga Won; Kim, Sang Wun; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sunghoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate perioperative complications of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery in gynecology. Materials and Methods Patients who underwent elective robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery between February 2006 and December 2013 were identified. Robotic procedures were performed using the da Vinci robotic system. Patient demographic data and operative outcomes were prospectively collected in a computerized database and extracted for this study. Results Two hundred and ninety eight patients were identified during the study period. One case was converted to conventional laparoscopy due to mechanical failure of the robot system before the procedure and excluded from review. The median age and body mass index of patients were 48 years and 23.0 kg/m2, respectively. The majority (n=130, 43.6%) of operative procedures was radical hysterectomy, followed by endometrial cancer staging (n=112, 37.6%), total hysterectomy (n=39, 13.1%), and myomectomy (n=17, 5.7%). The median operative time, estimated blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay were 208.5 min, 184.8 mL, and 8.9 days, respectively. The overall complication rate was 18.8% and that for only oncologic cases was 16.1%. Intraoperative complications (n=5, 1.7%) consisted of three vessel injuries, one bowel content leakage during an appendectomy during endometrial cancer staging and one case of bladder injury during radical hysterectomy. Early and late postoperative complications were 14.4% and 2.7%, respectively. Five patients (1.7%) experienced grade 3 complications according to Clavien-Dindo classification and therefore needed further intervention. Conclusion Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery is a feasible approach in gynecology with acceptable complications. PMID:25683998

  9. Transoral robotic surgery for base of tongue neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Sayin, I; Fakhoury, R; Prasad, V M N; Remacle, M; Lawson, G

    2015-01-01

    Surgery to the base of tongue (BOT) in the presence of neoplasm is a challenging topic for head and neck surgeons. This area is difficult to access and includes important neurovascular structures such as the hypoglossal nerve and lingual artery. The pivotal role of the tongue base in swallowing makes planning the surgical approach more challenging. The surgical approaches vary from open neck/mandibulotomy to transoral laser surgery (TLS) which have significant disadvantages. After introduction of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) to otolaryngology practice with the da Vinci Surgical system, we have in our armamentarium a new approach to the BOT. The improved exposure with new retractors, 3-dimensional (3-D) visualization and magnification and advanced motion capacity allow for increased ease to perform surgery in this difficult area. In recent years, several articles published the data about safety and feasibility of TORS for various conditions. This article presents our approach to the BOT for neoplasms including malignant and benign lesions. PMID:26891531

  10. Technical advances in robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Turpen, Ryan; Atalah, Hany; Su, Li-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Since it was introduced in 1999, the da Vinci Surgical System has become an integral tool in urologic surgery, specifically in the management of localized prostate cancer. The original technique of robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) was developed and standardized in 2000 at the Institut Mutualiste Monsouris. Since that time, the technique of RALP has undergone various modifications. The driving force behind the evolution of the RALP technique in the past decade has been based on efforts to improve upon the three main objectives of surgery, namely the ‘trifecta’ of cancer cure and the preservation of potency and of urinary continence. In this review, we aim to provide an update on the midterm oncologic outcomes of RALP and focus specifically on two technical modifications that have been introduced in an effort to optimize the outcomes of potency and earlier return of urinary continence. PMID:21789072

  11. Toward Intraoperative Image-Guided Transoral Robotic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen P; Reaugamornrat, Sureerat; Deguet, Anton; Sorger, Jonathan M; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Richmon, Jeremy; Taylor, Russell H

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of video augmentation on the stereoscopic da Vinci S system with intraoperative image guidance for base of tongue tumor resection in transoral robotic surgery (TORS). Proposed workflow for image-guided TORS begins by identifying and segmenting critical oropharyngeal structures (e.g., the tumor and adjacent arteries and nerves) from preoperative computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These preoperative planned data can be deformably registered to the intraoperative endoscopic view using mobile C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) [1, 2]. Augmentation of TORS endoscopic video defining surgical targets and critical structures has the potential to improve navigation, spatial orientation, and confidence in tumor resection. Experiments in animal specimens achieved statistically significant improvement in target localization error when comparing the proposed image guidance system to simulated current practice. PMID:25525474

  12. Navigation, robotics, and intraoperative imaging in spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Ringel, Florian; Villard, Jimmy; Ryang, Yu-Mi; Meyer, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Spinal navigation is a technique gaining increasing popularity. Different approaches as CT-based or intraoperative imaging-based navigation are available, requiring different methods of patient registration, bearing certain advantages and disadvantages. So far, a large number of studies assessed the accuracy of pedicle screw implantation in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, elucidating the advantages of image guidance. However, a clear proof of patient benefit is missing, so far. Spinal navigation is closely related to intraoperative 3D imaging providing an imaging dataset for navigational use and the opportunity for immediate intraoperative assessment of final screw position giving the option of immediate screw revision if necessary. Thus, postoperative imaging and a potential revision surgery for screw correction become dispensable.Different concept of spinal robotics as the DaVinci system and SpineAssist are under investigation. PMID:24309918

  13. Initial experience of robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jia; Luo, Qingquan; Tan, Qiang; Lin, Hao; Qian, Liqiang; Lin, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS). Methods From May 2009 to May 2013, 48 patients with intrathoracic lesions underwent RATS with the da Vinci® Surgical System was reported (11 lobectomies, 37 mediastinal tumour resections). Results RATS was successfully and safely completed in all 48 patients. Conversion of the operation to open surgery was not needed in any patient. The average operation time was 85.9 min, average blood loss 33 ml, and average hospital stay 3.9 days. No patient required blood transfusion. The only recognized adverse event was the development of a bronchopleural fistula in one patient. Conclusions RATS appears feasible and safe in thoracic surgery. More investigation will be needed in order to determine its possible long-term benefits and cost effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24782317

  14. Objective Measures for Longitudinal Assessment of Robotic Surgery Training

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Jog, Amod; Vagvolgyi, Balazs; Nguyen, Hiep; Hager, Gregory; Chen, Chi Chiung Grace; Yuh, David

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Current robotic training approaches lack criteria for automatically assessing and tracking (over time) technical skills separately from clinical proficiency. We describe the development and validation of a novel automated and objective framework for assessment of training. Methods We are able to record all system variables (stereo instrument video, hand and instrument motion, buttons and pedal events) from the da Vinci surgical systems using a portable archival system integrated with the robotic surgical system. Data can be collected unsupervised, and the archival system does not change system operation in any way. Our open-ended multi-center protocol is collecting surgical skill benchmarking data from 24 trainees to surgical proficiency, subject only to their continued availability. Two independent experts performed structured (OSATS) assessments on longitudinal data from 8 novice and 4 expert surgeons to generate ground truth for training and to validate our computerized statistical analysis methods in identifying ranges of operational and clinical skill measures. Results Objective differences in operational and technical skill between known experts and other subjects were quantified. Longitudinal learning curves and statistical analysis for trainee performance measures are reported. Graphical representations of skills developed for feedback to the trainees are also included. Conclusions We describe an open-ended longitudinal study and automated motion recognition system capable of objectively differentiating between clinical and technical operational skills in robotic surgery. Our results demonstrate a convergence of trainee skill parameters towards those derived from expert robotic surgeons over the course of our training protocol. PMID:22172215

  15. Robotic splenectomy for mesothelial cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lucandri, Giorgio; Felicioni, Francesco; Monsellato, Igor; Alfano, Giovanni; Pernazza, Graziano; Pende, Vito; Mazzocchi, Paolo; Bascone, Bruno; D'Annibale, Annibale

    2011-04-01

    Cystic lesions of the spleen represent a rare entity with an overall incidence of 0.5% among splenectomies. They can remain asymptomatic in 30% to 60% of patients or may cause symptoms for secondary compression of adjacent structures. Peripheral cysts may be suitable for conservative treatment whereas splenectomy is the accepted procedure for bulky and/or central lesions. Laparoscopy is the standard approach for elective splenic surgery, but in the last decade, introduction of the da Vinci robotic system has represented a further improvement in minimally invasive surgery, thanks to 3-dimensional vision and more accurate motion control. Herein, we report a case of a mesothelial splenic cysts successfully treated by robotic splenectomy; some anatomical considerations and technical aspects of robotic procedures have been discussed: it is a feasible and safe approach, particularly indicated in the presence of anatomic features such as an enlarged pancreatic tail and a type II vascular pattern of splenic pedicle. In such patients, the choice of a robotic approach may decrease the risk of intraoperative bleeding, thereby representing a further improvement in laparoscopic techniques. PMID:21471791

  16. Robotic lobectomy: The first Indian report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; Asaf, Belal Bin; Cerfolio, Robert James; Sood, Jayshree; Kumar, Reena

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even today, open lobectomy involves significant morbidity. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy results in lesser blood loss, pain, and hospital stay compared to lobectomy by thoracotomy. Despite being an excellent procedure in expert hands, VATS lobectomy is associated with a longer learning curve because of its inherent basic limitations. The da Vinci surgical system was developed essentially to overcome these limitations. In this study, we report our initial experience with robotic pulmonary resections using the Completely Portal approach with four arms. To the best of our knowledge this is the first series of robotic lobectomy reported from India. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on patient characteristics, operative details, complications, and postoperative recovery were collected in a prospective manner for patients who underwent Robotic Lung resection at our institution between March 2012 and April 2014 for various indications including both benign and malignant cases. RESULTS: Between March 2012 to April 2014, a total of 13 patients were taken up for Robotic Lobectomy with a median age of 57 years. The median operative time was 210 min with a blood loss of 33 ml. R0 clearance was achieved in all patients with malignant disease. The median lymph node yield in nine patients with malignant disease was 19 (range 11-40). There was one intra-operative complication and two postoperative complications. The median hospital stay was 7 days with median duration to chest tube removal being 3 days. CONCLUSION: Robotic lobectomy is feasible and safe. It appears to be oncologically sound surgical treatment for early-stage lung cancer. Comparable benefits over VATS needs to be further evaluated by long-term studies. PMID:25598607

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of robotic-assisted laparoscopy for newly diagnosed uterine cancers

    PubMed Central

    Leitao, Mario M; Bartashnik, Aleksandra; Wagner, Isaac; Lee, Stephen J; Caroline, Ari; Hoskins, William J; Thaler, Howard T; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Sonoda, Yukio; Brown, Carol L; Jewell, Elizabeth L; Barakat, Richard R; Gardner, Ginger J

    2015-01-01

    Objective We assessed the direct costs of 3 surgical approaches in uterine cancer and the cost impact of incorporating robot-assisted surgery. Methods A cost system that allocates the actual cost of resources used to treat each patient, as opposed to borrowing cost data from a billing system, was used to determine direct costs for patients who underwent surgery for uterine cancer from 2009–2010. These costs included all aspects of surgical care up to 6 months after discharge. Total amortized direct costs (AC) included the capital cost of 3 dual console DaVinci Si platforms with 5 years of service contracts. Non-amortized costs (NAC) were also calculated (excluded capital costs). Modeling was performed to estimate the mean cost of surgical care for patients presenting with endometrial cancer from 2007–2010 Results Of 436 cases (132 laparoscopic, 262 robotic, 42 laparotomy), total mean AC/case was $20,489 (laparoscopy), $23,646 (robot), and $24,642 (laparotomy) (P<0.05 [robot vs laparoscopy]; P=0.6 [robot vs laparotomy]). Total NAC/case was $20,289, $20,467, and $24,433, respectively (P=0.9 [robot vs laparoscopy]; P=0.03 [robot vs laparotomy]). The planned surgical approach in 2007 was laparoscopy-68%, robot-8%, and laparotomy-24% compared to 26%, 64%, and 9%, respectively, in 2010 (P<0.001). The modeled mean AC/case was $21,738 in 2007 and $22,678 in 2010 (+$940). NAC was $21,298 in 2007 and $20,573 in 2010 (−$725). Conclusion Laparoscopy is least expensive when including capital acquisition costs. Laparoscopy and robotic surgery are comparable if upfront costs are excluded. There is cost neutralization with the robot when it helps decrease laparotomy rates. PMID:24785856

  18. Robotic lung segmentectomy for malignant and benign lesions

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Alper; Ayalp, Kemal; Uyumaz, Elena; Kaba, Erkan; Demirhan, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Surgical use of robots has evolved over the last 10 years. However, the academic experience with robotic lung segmentectomy remains limited. We aimed to analyze our lung segmentectomy experience with robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Prospectively recorded clinical data of 21 patients who underwent robotic lung anatomic segmentectomy with robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery were retrospectively reviewed. All cases were done using the da Vinci System. A three incision portal technique with a 3 cm utility incision in the posterior 10th to 11th intercostal space was performed. Individual dissection, ligation and division of the hilar structures were performed. Systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection or sampling was performed in 15 patients either with primary or secondary metastatic cancers. Results Fifteen patients (75%) were operated on for malignant lung diseases. Conversion to open surgery was not necessary. Postoperative complications occurred in four patients. Mean console robotic operating time was 84±26 (range, 40-150) minutes. Mean duration of chest tube drainage and mean postoperative hospital stay were 3±2.1 (range, 1-10) and 4±1.4 (range, 2-7) days respectively. The mean number of mediastinal stations and number of dissected lymph nodes were 4.2 and 14.3 (range, 2-21) from mediastinal and 8.1 (range, 2-19) nodes from hilar and interlobar stations respectively. Conclusions Robot-assisted thoracoscopic segmentectomy for malignant and benign lesions appears to be practical, safe, and associated with few complications and short postoperative hospitalization. Lymph node removal also appears oncologically acceptable for early lung cancer patients. Benefits in terms of postoperative pain, respiratory function, and quality of life needs a comparative, prospective series particularly with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. PMID:25093090

  19. Renal artery injury during robot-assisted renal surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Won; Yoon, Young Eun; Kim, Dae Keun; Park, Sung Yul; Moon, Hong Sang; Lee, Tchun Yong

    2010-07-01

    Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is becoming the standard of care for incidentally diagnosed, small renal tumors. With its seven degrees of freedom and three-dimensional vision, the DaVinci robotic surgical system has been used to assist in LPNs. The main disadvantage of robot-assisted surgery, however, is the lack of tactile feedback. We present a case of renal artery injury during robot-assisted renal surgery. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN) was planned for 47-year-old man with a 3.5-cm right renal mass. After standard bowel mobilization, renal hilar dissection was performed. In the attempt to complete the dissection posteriorly, however, there was sudden profuse bleeding. The intraperitoneal pressure immediately increased to 20 mm Hg, and an additional suction device was inserted through the 5-mm liver retractor port. On inspection, there was an injury at the takeoff of the posterior segmental artery. A decision was made to convert to robot-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. The main renal artery and renal vein were controlled with Hem-o-Lok clips. The estimated blood loss was 2,000 mL. Four units of packed red blood cells were transfused intraoperatively. The post-transfusion hemoglobin level was 12.6 g/dL. There were no other perioperative complications. The surgeon should keep in mind that the robotic arms are very powerful and can easily injure major vessels because of lack of tactile feedback. A competent and experienced tableside surgeon is very important in robot-assisted surgery because the unsterile console surgeon cannot immediately react to intraoperative complications. PMID:20590468

  20. Objective Assessment in Residency Based Training for Transoral Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Martin; Malpani, Anand; Li, Ryan; Tantillo, Thomas; Jog, Amod; Blanco, Ray; Ha, Patrick K; Califano, Joseph; Kumar, Rajesh; Richmon, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a robotic surgery training regimen integrating objective skill assessment for otolaryngology and head and neck surgery trainees consisting of training modules of increasing complexity and leading up to procedure specific training. In particular, we investigate applications of such a training approach for surgical extirpation of oropharyngeal tumors via a transoral approach using the da Vinci Robotic system. Study Design Prospective blinded data collection and objective evaluation (OSATS) of three distinct phases using the da Vinci Robotic surgical system. Setting Academic University Medical Engineering/Computer Science laboratory Methods Between September 2010 and July 2011, 8 Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery residents and 4 staff “experts” from an academic hospital participated in three distinct phases of robotic surgery training involving 1) robotic platform operational skills, 2) set-up of the patient side system, and 3) a complete ex-vivo surgical extirpation of an oropharyngeal “tumor” located in the base of tongue. Trainees performed multiple (4) approximately equally spaced training sessions in each stage of the training. In addition to trainees, baseline performance data was obtained for the experts. Each surgical stage was documented with motion and event data captured from the application programming interfaces (API) of the da Vinci system, as well as separate video cameras as appropriate. All data was assessed using automated skill measures of task efficiency, and correlated with structured assessment (OSATS, and similar Likert scale) from three experts to assess expert and trainee differences, and compute automated and expert assessed learning curves. Results Our data shows that such training results in an improved didactic robotic knowledge base and improved clinical efficiency with respect to the set-up and console manipulation. Experts (e.g. average OSATS 25, Stdev. 3.1, module 1 – suturing) and trainees (average

  1. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar robotic functions include: 1. Transport of crew and payloads on the surface of the moon; 2. Offloading payloads from a lunar lander; 3. Handling the deployment of surface systems; with 4. Human commanding of these functions from inside a lunar vehicle, habitat, or extravehicular (space walk), with Earth-based supervision. The systems that will perform these functions may not look like robots from science fiction. In fact, robotic functions may be automated trucks, cranes and winches. Use of this equipment prior to the crew s arrival or in the potentially long periods without crews on the surface, will require that these systems be computer controlled machines. The public release of NASA's Exploration plans at the 2nd Space Exploration Conference (Houston, December 2006) included a lunar outpost with as many as four unique mobility chassis designs. The sequence of lander offloading tasks involved as many as ten payloads, each with a unique set of geometry, mass and interface requirements. This plan was refined during a second phase study concluded in August 2007. Among the many improvements to the exploration plan were a reduction in the number of unique mobility chassis designs and a reduction in unique payload specifications. As the lunar surface system payloads have matured, so have the mobility and offloading functional requirements. While the architecture work continues, the community can expect to see functional requirements in the areas of surface mobility, surface handling, and human-systems interaction as follows: Surface Mobility 1. Transport crew on the lunar surface, accelerating construction tasks, expanding the crew s sphere of influence for scientific exploration, and providing a rapid return to an ascent module in an emergency. The crew transport can be with an un-pressurized rover, a small pressurized rover, or a larger mobile habitat. 2. Transport Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment and construction payloads. 3. Transport habitats and

  2. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's upper atmosphere is an extreme environment: dry, cold, and irradiated. It is unknown whether our aerobiosphere is limited to the transport of life, or there exist organisms that grow and reproduce while airborne (aerophiles); the microenvironments of suspended particles may harbor life at otherwise uninhabited altitudes[2]. The existence of aerophiles would significantly expand the range of planets considered candidates for life by, for example, including the cooler clouds of a hot Venus-like planet. The X project is an effort to engineer a robotic exploration and biosampling payload for a comprehensive survey of Earth's aerobiology. While many one-shot samples have been retrieved from above 15 km, their results are primarily qualitative; variations in method confound comparisons, leaving such major gaps in our knowledge of aerobiology as quantification of populations at different strata and relative species counts[1]. These challenges and X's preliminary solutions are explicated below. X's primary balloon payload is undergoing a series of calibrations before beginning flights in Spring 2012. A suborbital launch is currently planned for Summer 2012. A series of ground samples taken in Winter 2011 is being used to establish baseline counts and identify likely background contaminants.

  3. Improved depth perception with three-dimensional auxiliary display and computer generated three-dimensional panoramic overviews in robot-assisted laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wieringa, Fokko P.; Bouma, Henri; Eendebak, Pieter T.; van Basten, Jean-Paul A.; Beerlage, Harrie P.; Smits, Geert A. H. J.; Bos, Jelte E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. In comparison to open surgery, endoscopic surgery offers impaired depth perception and narrower field-of-view. To improve depth perception, the Da Vinci robot offers three-dimensional (3-D) video on the console for the surgeon but not for assistants, although both must collaborate. We improved the shared perception of the whole surgical team by connecting live 3-D monitors to all three available Da Vinci generations, probed user experience after two years by questionnaire, and compared time measurements of a predefined complex interaction task performed with a 3-D monitor versus two-dimensional. Additionally, we investigated whether the complex mental task of reconstructing a 3-D overview from an endoscopic video can be performed by a computer and shared among users. During the study, 925 robot-assisted laparoscopic procedures were performed in three hospitals, including prostatectomies, cystectomies, and nephrectomies. Thirty-one users participated in our questionnaire. Eighty-four percent preferred 3-D monitors and 100% reported spatial-perception improvement. All participating urologists indicated quicker performance of tasks requiring delicate collaboration (e.g., clip placement) when assistants used 3-D monitors. Eighteen users participated in a timing experiment during a delicate cooperation task in vitro. Teamwork was significantly (40%) faster with the 3-D monitor. Computer-generated 3-D reconstructions from recordings offered very wide interactive panoramas with educational value, although the present embodiment is vulnerable to movement artifacts. PMID:26158026

  4. Cutaneous Feedback of Fingertip Deformation and Vibration for Palpation in Robotic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pacchierotti, Claudio; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Kuchenbecker, Katherine J

    2016-02-01

    Despite its expected clinical benefits, current teleoperated surgical robots do not provide the surgeon with haptic feedback largely because grounded forces can destabilize the system's closed-loop controller. This paper presents an alternative approach that enables the surgeon to feel fingertip contact deformations and vibrations while guaranteeing the teleoperator's stability. We implemented our cutaneous feedback solution on an Intuitive Surgical da Vinci Standard robot by mounting a SynTouch BioTac tactile sensor to the distal end of a surgical instrument and a custom cutaneous display to the corresponding master controller. As the user probes the remote environment, the contact deformations, dc pressure, and ac pressure (vibrations) sensed by the BioTac are directly mapped to input commands for the cutaneous device's motors using a model-free algorithm based on look-up tables. The cutaneous display continually moves, tilts, and vibrates a flat plate at the operator's fingertip to optimally reproduce the tactile sensations experienced by the BioTac. We tested the proposed approach by having eighteen subjects use the augmented da Vinci robot to palpate a heart model with no haptic feedback, only deformation feedback, and deformation plus vibration feedback. Fingertip deformation feedback significantly improved palpation performance by reducing the task completion time, the pressure exerted on the heart model, and the subject's absolute error in detecting the orientation of the embedded plastic stick. Vibration feedback significantly improved palpation performance only for the seven subjects who dragged the BioTac across the model, rather than pressing straight into it. PMID:26186763

  5. First Canadian experience with robotic single-incision pyeloplasty: Comparison with multi-incision technique

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jeffrey; Rowe, Neal; Archambault, Jason; Nastis, Sofia; Sener, Alp; Luke, Patrick P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We compared the outcomes of single-incision, robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty vs. multiple-incision pyeloplasty using the da Vinci robotic system. Methods: We reviewed all consecutive robotic pyeloplasties by a single surgeon from January 2011 to August 2015. A total of 30 procedures were performed (16 single:14 multi-port). Two different single-port devices were compared: the GelPort (Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA) and the Intuitive single-site access port (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). Results: Patient demographics were similar between the two groups. Mean operating time was similar among the single and multi-port groups (225.2 min vs. 198.9 minutes [p=0.33]). There was no significant difference in length of hospital stay in either group (86.2 hr vs. 93.2 hr [p=0.76]). There was no difference in success rates or postoperative complications among groups. Conclusions: Single-port robotic pyeloplasty is non-inferior to multiple-incision robotic surgery in terms of operative times, hospitalization time, success rates, and complications. Verifying these results with larger cohorts is required prior to the wide adoption of this technique. Ongoing objective measurements of cosmesis and patient satisfaction are being evaluated. PMID:27217850

  6. Real-time video fusion using a distributed architecture in robotic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwartowitz, David M.; Rettmann, Maryam E.; Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard A.

    2009-02-01

    The use of medical robotics has been increasing in recent years. This increase in popularity can be attributed to the improvement in dexterity robots provide over traditional laparoscopy, as well as the increasing number of applications of robotic surgery. The daVinci from Intuitive Surgical, one of the more commonly used robotic surgery systems, relies on stereo laparoscopic video for guidance, which restricts visualization to only surface anatomy. Oftentimes the localization of subsurface anatomic structures is critical to the success of surgical intervention. The implementation of image guidance in medical robotics adds the ability to see into the surface; however, current implementations are restrictive in terms of flexibility or scalability, especially in the ability to process real-time video data. We present a system architecture which allows for use of multiple computers through a centralized database; which can fuse additional information to the real-time video stream. This architecture is independent of hardware or software and is extensible to a large number of clinical applications.

  7. Vaginal Cuff Dehiscence in Robotic-Assisted Total Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Shabnam; Gallo, Taryn; Sargent, Anita; ElSahwi, Karim; Silasi, Dan-Arin

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the cumulative incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence in robotic-assisted total hysterectomies in our patients and to provide recommendations to decrease the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence. Methods: This was an observational case series, Canadian Task Force Classification II-3 conducted at an academic and community teaching hospital. A total of 654 patients underwent robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy for both malignant and benign reasons from September 1, 2006 to March 1, 2011 performed by a single surgeon. The da Vinci Surgical System was used for robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Results: There were 3 cases of vaginal cuff dehiscence among 654 robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomies, making our cumulative incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence 0.4%. The mean time between the procedures and vaginal cuff dehiscence was 44.3 d (6.3 wk). All patients were followed up twice after surgery, at 3 to 4 wk and 12 to 16 wk. Conclusion: In our study, the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence after robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy compares favorably to that of total abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy. Our study suggests that the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence is more likely related to the technique of colpotomy and vaginal cuff suturing than to robotic-assisted total hysterectomy per se. With proper technique and patient education, our vaginal dehiscence rate has been 0.4%, which is 2.5 to 10 times less than the previously reported vaginal cuff dehiscence rate in the literature. PMID:23484559

  8. Robotics in Gynecology: Why is this Technology Worth Pursuing?

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Olaya-Guzmán, Emilio José; Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Robotic laparoscopy in gynecology, which started in 2005 when the Da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in gynecologic procedures, represents today a modern, safe, and precise approach to pathology in this field. Since then, a great deal of experience has accumulated, and it has been shown that there is almost no gynecological surgery that cannot be approached with this technology, namely hysterectomy, myomectomy, sacrocolpopexia, and surgery for the treatment of endometriosis. Albeit no advantages have been observed over conventional laparoscopy and some open surgical procedures, robotics do seem to be advantageous in highly complicated procedures when extensive dissection and proper anatomy reestablishment is required, as in the case of oncologic surgery. There is no doubt that implementation of better logistics in finance, training, design, and application will exert a positive effect upon robotics expansion in gynecological medicine. Contrary to expectations, we estimate that a special impact is to be seen in emerging countries where novel technologies have resulted in benefits in the organization of health care systems. PMID:24453521

  9. Technology advances in hospital practices: robotics in treatment of patients.

    PubMed

    Rosiek, Anna; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is widely considered as the treatment of choice for acute cholecystitis. The safety of the procedure and its minimal invasiveness made it a valid treatment option for a patient not responding to antibiotic therapy. Our research shows that patients positively assess this treatment method, but the world's tendency is to turn to a more sophisticated method utilizing robot-assisted surgery as a gold standard. Providing patient with minimally invasive surgical procedures that utilize the state-of-the-art equipment like the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System underscores the commitment to high-quality patient care while enhancing patient safety. The advantages include minimal invasive scarring, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and shorter hospital stay. The move toward less invasive and less morbid procedures and a need to re-create the true open surgical experience have paved the way for the development and application of robotic and computer-assisted systems in surgery in Poland as well as the rest of the world. PMID:25782187

  10. Robotic transabdominal kidney transplantation in a morbidly obese patient.

    PubMed

    Giulianotti, P; Gorodner, V; Sbrana, F; Tzvetanov, I; Jeon, H; Bianco, F; Kinzer, K; Oberholzer, J; Benedetti, E

    2010-06-01

    Kidney transplantation in morbidly obese patients can be technically demanding. Furthermore, morbidly obese patients experience a high rate of wound infections and related complications, which mostly result from the longer length and extent of the incision. These complications can be avoided through minimally invasive surgery; however, conventional laparoscopic instruments are unsuitable for the safe performance of a kidney transplant in morbidly obese patients. Herein, we report the first minimally invasive, total robotic kidney transplant in a morbidly obese patient. A left, deceased donor kidney was transplanted into a 29-year-old woman with a body mass index (BMI) of 41 kg/m(2) who had been on hemodialysis for 5 years. The operation was performed intraabdominally using the DaVinci Robotic Surgical System with 4 trocars and a 7 cm midline incision. The operative time was 223 min, and the blood loss was less than 50 cc. The kidney had immediate graft function. No perioperative complications were observed, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 5 with normal kidney function. Minimally invasive access and robotic technology facilitated the safe performance of a successful kidney transplant in a morbidly obese patient. PMID:20486912

  11. Leonardo Da Vinci, the genius and the monsters. Casual encounters?

    PubMed

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses Leonardo's interest in monsters and deformed reality, one of the lesser known aspects of his vast and multifaceted output. With the possible exception of his studies of physiognomy, relevant drawings, sketches and short stories represent a marginal aspect of his work, but they are nevertheless significant for historians of teratology. The purpose of this study is to provide a broad overview of the relationship between Leonardo and both the literature on mythological monsters and the reports on monstrous births that he either read about or witnessed personally. While aspects of his appreciation and attention to beauty and the pursuit of perfection and good proportions are the elements most emphasised in Leonardo's work, other no less interesting aspects related to deformity have been considered of marginal importance. My analysis will demonstrate that Leonardo approached the realm of monstrosity as if he considered abnormality a mirror of normality, deformity a mirror of harmony, and disease a mirror of health, as if to emphasise that, ultimately, it is the monster that gives the world the gift of normality. Two special cases of monstrosity are analysed: the famous monster of Ravenna, whose image was found among his papers, and a very rare case of parasitic conjoined twins (thoracopagus parasiticus) portrayed for the first time alive, probably in Florence, by Leonardo himself. PMID:25702382

  12. Distance Learning. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 12 projects that use distance learning to promote lifelong learning in adults. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) 3D Project, training in the use of IT tools for 3D simulation and animation and practical…

  13. Scientific Aspects of Leonardo da Vinci's Drawings: An Interdisciplinary Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struthers, Sally A.

    While interdisciplinary courses can help demonstrate the relevance of learning to students and reinforce education from different fields, they can be difficult to implement and are often not cost effective. An interdisciplinary art history course at Ohio's Sinclair Community College incorporates science into the art history curriculum, making use…

  14. Robot Command Interface Using an Audio-Visual Speech Recognition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Alexánder; Gómez, Juan; Prieto, Flavio; Redarce, Tanneguy

    In recent years audio-visual speech recognition has emerged as an active field of research thanks to advances in pattern recognition, signal processing and machine vision. Its ultimate goal is to allow human-computer communication using voice, taking into account the visual information contained in the audio-visual speech signal. This document presents a command's automatic recognition system using audio-visual information. The system is expected to control the laparoscopic robot da Vinci. The audio signal is treated using the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients parametrization method. Besides, features based on the points that define the mouth's outer contour according to the MPEG-4 standard are used in order to extract the visual speech information.

  15. Robotic total endoscopic coronary artery bypass hybrid revascularization procedure in a patient with a preoperative tracheostoma.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Eric J; van Wagenberg, Frans S; Haque, Reyaz; Bonatti, Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Preoperative tracheostoma presents a significant risk of sternal wound complications, mediastinitis, stoma necrosis and tracheal injury in patients requiring cardiac surgery. Several approaches have been described to limit these risks. Robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with a tracheostoma has not been reported. We describe a case of completely endoscopic coronary surgery using the daVinci(®) Si™ system in a patient with a tracheostoma. Single left internal mammary artery grafting to the left coronary artery system was carried out successfully as the first stage of a hybrid revascularization and followed by percutaneous coronary intervention to the circumflex coronary artery. We regard this technique as the most minimally-invasive method of surgical coronary revascularization with a significant potential to reduce the risk of mediastinitis in patients with a tracheostoma. PMID:21297145

  16. Augmented reality and cone beam CT guidance for transoral robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen P; Richmon, Jeremy D; Sorger, Jonathan M; Azizian, Mahdi; Taylor, Russell H

    2015-09-01

    In transoral robotic surgery preoperative image data do not reflect large deformations of the operative workspace from perioperative setup. To address this challenge, in this study we explore image guidance with cone beam computed tomographic angiography to guide the dissection of critical vascular landmarks and resection of base-of-tongue neoplasms with adequate margins for transoral robotic surgery. We identify critical vascular landmarks from perioperative c-arm imaging to augment the stereoscopic view of a da Vinci si robot in addition to incorporating visual feedback from relative tool positions. Experiments resecting base-of-tongue mock tumors were conducted on a series of ex vivo and in vivo animal models comparing the proposed workflow for video augmentation to standard non-augmented practice and alternative, fluoroscopy-based image guidance. Accurate identification of registered augmented critical anatomy during controlled arterial dissection and en bloc mock tumor resection was possible with the augmented reality system. The proposed image-guided robotic system also achieved improved resection ratios of mock tumor margins (1.00) when compared to control scenarios (0.0) and alternative methods of image guidance (0.58). The experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed workflow and advantages of cone beam computed tomography image guidance through video augmentation of the primary stereo endoscopy as compared to control and alternative navigation methods. PMID:26531203

  17. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic wedge resection of a gastric leiomyoma with intraoperative ultrasound localization.

    PubMed

    Abdel Khalek, Mohamed; Joshi, Virendra; Kandil, Emad

    2011-12-01

    Gastric leiomyoma is a rare gastric neoplasm that traditionally has been resected for negative margins using an open approach. The laparoscopic approach may also treat various gastric tumors without opening the gastric cavity. Robotic surgery was developed in response to the limitations and drawbacks of laparoscopic surgery. Herein, we describe a case of robotic-assisted laparoscopic wedge resection of a gastric leiomyoma. A 63-year-old male complaining of abdominal pain was found to have an incidental 3 cm antral mass on an abdominal CT. Endoscopy with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) confirmed a submucosal mass. Biopsy of the lesion was consistent with a leiomyoma. The DaVinci robotic system was used for partial gastrectomy and reconstruction, with the addition of intraoperative ultrasound to localize the lesion intraoperatively. Pathological examination of the resected mass confirmed a diagnosis of leiomyoma with negative margins. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged home on the second postoperative day. Intraoperative endoscopic ultrasound is a safe technique that may improve the success rate of surgery by confirming the location of the lesion. Robotic assistance in gastric resection offers an easy minimally invasive approach to such tumors. This approach can achieve adequate surgical margins and lead to short hospital stays. PMID:21919811

  18. The role of three-dimensional visualization in robotics-assisted cardiac surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Maria; Trejos, Ana Luisa; Rayman, Reiza; Chu, Michael W. A.; Patel, Rajni; Peters, Terry; Kiaii, Bob

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three-dimensional (3D) versus two-dimensional (2D) visualization on the amount of force applied to mitral valve tissue during robotics-assisted mitral valve annuloplasty, and the time to perform the procedure in an ex vivo animal model. In addition, we examined whether these effects are consistent between novices and experts in robotics-assisted cardiac surgery. Methods: A cardiac surgery test-bed was constructed to measure forces applied by the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) during mitral valve annuloplasty. Both experts and novices completed roboticsassisted mitral valve annuloplasty with 2D and 3D visualization. Results: The mean time for both experts and novices to suture the mitral valve annulus and to tie sutures using 3D visualization was significantly less than that required to suture the mitral valve annulus and to tie sutures using 2D vision (p∠0.01). However, there was no significant difference in the maximum force applied by novices to the mitral valve during suturing (p = 0.3) and suture tying (p = 0.6) using either 2D or 3D visualization. Conclusion: This finding suggests that 3D visualization does not fully compensate for the absence of haptic feedback in robotics-assisted cardiac surgery. Keywords: Robotics-assisted surgery, visualization, cardiac surgery

  19. Multi-imager compatible actuation principles in surgical robotics

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, D

    2011-01-01

    Today’s most successful surgical robots are perhaps surgeon-driven systems, such as the daVinci (Intuitive Surgical Inc., USA, www.intuitivesurgical.com). These have already enabled surgery that was unattainable with classic instrumentation; however, at their present level of development, they have limited utility. The drawback of these systems is that they are independent self-contained units, and as such, they do not directly take advantage of patient data. The potential of these new surgical tools lies much further ahead. Integration with medical imaging and information are needed for these devices to achieve their true potential. Surgical robots and especially their subclass of image-guided systems require special design, construction and control compared to industrial types, due to the special requirements of the medical and imaging environments. Imager compatibility raises significant engineering challenges for the development of robotic manipulators with respect to imager access, safety, ergonomics, and above all the non-interference with the functionality of the imager. These apply to all known medical imaging types, but are especially challenging for achieving compatibility with the class of MRI systems. Even though a large majority of robotic components may be redesigned to be constructed of MRI compatible materials, for other components such as the motors used in actuation, prescribing MRI compatible materials alone is not sufficient. The electromagnetic motors most commonly used in robotic actuation, for example, are incompatible by principle. As such, alternate actuation principles using “intervention friendly” energy should be adopted and/or devised for these special surgical and radiological interventions. This paper defines the new concept of Multi-imager Compatibility of surgical manipulators and describes its requirements. Subsequently, the paper gives several recommendations and proposes new actuation principles for this concept. Several

  20. An experimental study about haptic feedback in robotic surgery: may visual feedback substitute tactile feedback?

    PubMed

    Meccariello, Giuseppe; Faedi, Federico; AlGhamdi, Saleh; Montevecchi, Filippo; Firinu, Elisabetta; Zanotti, Claudia; Cavaliere, Davide; Gunelli, Roberta; Taurchini, Marco; Amadori, Andrea; Vicini, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the hypothesis that the experience of the surgeon is sufficient to partially compensate for the lack of haptic feedback of the robotic system da Vinci Si HD (Intuitive (®) ). Twenty-five international surgeons belonging to different areas of surgical specialization were divided into two groups of investigation: experts and non-experts in the use of da Vinci Platform. This allocation was made on the basis of the following criteria: the number of performed procedures, the number of robotic working days and the number of true console hours. All participants underwent a specific test to assess their ability to recognize the thickness of custom-made membranes, without the availability of haptic feedback. After the performance of the surgeons, score was given according to an appropriate evaluation system (time, preciseness, force of tension and finding a metallic object). The analysis of the performances of participants provided the following results: an average score of 8.87 for the experts compared to 3.57 of non-experts with significant difference (P < 0.05). Other parameters of interest as the average time to conduct the test showed a result of 28.8 s for experts and 71.3 s of non-experts. After our results, a significant difference between the two groups in terms of performance was found. Our hypothesis that the expertise ability of the experts might partially overcome the lack of haptic feedback was confirmed. Probably visual feedback may play a role. PMID:26559538

  1. Full robot-assisted gastrectomy with intracorporeal robot-sewn anastomosis produces satisfying outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Xin; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Yan; Pan, Hua-Feng; Li, Jie-Shou

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of full robot-assisted gastrectomy with intracorporeal robot hand-sewn anastomosis in the treatment of gastric cancer. METHODS: From September 2011 to March 2013, 110 consecutive patients with gastric cancer at the authors’ institution were enrolled for robotic gastrectomies. According to tumor location, total gastrectomy, distal or proximal subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy was fully performed by the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System. All construction, including Roux-en-Y jejunal limb, esophagojejunal, gastroduodenal and gastrojejunal anastomoses were fully carried out by the intracorporeal robot-sewn method. At the end of surgery, the specimen was removed through a 3-4 cm incision at the umbilicus trocar point. The details of the surgical technique are well illustrated. The benefits in terms of surgical and oncologic outcomes are well documented, as well as the failure rate and postoperative complications. RESULTS: From a total of 110 enrolled patients, radical gastrectomy could not be performed in 2 patients due to late stage disease; 1 patient was converted to laparotomy because of uncontrollable hemorrhage, and 1 obese patient was converted due to difficult exposure; 2 patients underwent extra-corporeal anastomosis by minilaparotomy to ensure adequate tumor margin. Robot-sewn anastomoses were successfully performed for 12 proximal, 38 distal and 54 total gastrectomies. The average surgical time was 272.52 ± 53.91 min and the average amount of bleeding was 80.78 ± 32.37 mL. The average number of harvested lymph nodes was 23.1 ± 5.3. All specimens showed adequate surgical margin. With regard to tumor staging, 26, 32 and 46 patients were staged as I, II and III, respectively. The average hospitalization time after surgery was 6.2 d. One patient experienced a duodenal stump anastomotic leak, which was mild and treated conservatively. One patient was readmitted for intra-abdominal infection and was

  2. Minimizing Ports During Robotic Partial Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Argun, Omer Burak; Tufek, Ilter; Obek, Can; Tuna, Mustafa Bilal; Keskin, Selcuk; Kural, Ali Riza

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Robotic upper urinary tract surgery is in most of the cases performed utilizing a standard 5 port configuration. Fewer ports can potentially produce a less invasive operation. Taking in consideration the above we report a novel technique for robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy utilizing fewer ports and we test its feasibility and safety profile. Methods: Data on 11 robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomies performed by using our technique from February 2015 through June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The robotic platform used was DaVinci Xi (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, California, USA) with a 3-arm setup. The AirSeal system (SurgiQuest, Milford, Connecticut, USA) was used as a port allowing simultaneous introduction of 2 instruments for the bedside surgeon, obviating the need for an additional (fourth) robotic arm. A long suction-and-irrigation device and atraumatic grasping forceps were used. Both instruments were introduced through the trocar of the AirSeal system, making simultaneous introduction and use possible. We preferred the long suction-and-irrigation device, because it minimizes collision of the instruments. Results: Mean age and BMI of the patients were 55 ±14.6 y and 29.18 ± 6.85, respectively. Seven tumors were on the right side and 4 were on the left. The mean size of the tumors was 32.45 mm (± 11.31). Surgical time was 132.2 minutes (±37.17), with an estimated blood loss and ischemia time of 103.63 mL (±65.92) and 16.72 minutes (±9.52), respectively. One patient had postoperative bleeding that was resolved without transfusion. The median hospitalization period was 3.9 d (±0.53). Loss of intra-abdominal pressure was not observed, and pressure was stable at 10 mm Hg. Conclusion: The AirSeal System and its valveless trocar eliminated the need for an additional port placement in our series. The technique is feasible, safe, and reproducible; therefore, it may be implemented in selected

  3. Robotic and telesurgery: will they change our future?

    PubMed

    Rassweiler, J; Binder, J; Frede, T

    2001-05-01

    In urology, at the end of the last millennium, there was an increasing use of computerized technology, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, microwave therapy and high-energy focused ultrasound. However, experience with manipulating robots in urological surgery is still very limited. Laparoscopic surgery is handicapped by a reduction of the range of motion because of the fixed trocar position. The da Vinci system is the first surgical system to address all these problems adequately. The system consists of two main components: the surgeon's viewing and control console with three-dimensional imaging and the surgical arm unit that positions and manoeuvres detachable surgical instruments. The surgeon performs the procedure seated at the console holding specially designed instruments. Telerobotic laparoscopic radical prostatectomy provides advantages such as stereovision, dexterity and tremor filtering, but there is a learning curve with the device, mainly because of the magnification, the three-dimensional image and the lack of tactile feedback. However, after only a short period of time, the experienced surgeon is able to become familiar with the device. The impact of robotics in urological surgery is therefore very promising, and we are convinced that it will totally change the future of urological surgery. PMID:11371786

  4. Evaluation of robotic minimally invasive surgical skills using motion studies.

    PubMed

    Jun, Seung-Kook; Sathia Narayanan, Madusudanan; Singhal, Pankaj; Garimella, Sudha; Krovi, Venkat

    2013-09-01

    Robotic Minimally Invasive Surgery, and the engendered computer-integration, offers unique opportunities for quantitative computer-based surgical-performance evaluation. In this work, we examine extension of traditional manipulative skill assessment, having deep roots in performance evaluation in manufacturing industries, for applicability to robotic surgical skill evaluation. This method relies on: defining task-level segmentation of modular sub-tasks/micro-motions called 'Therbligs' that can be combined to perform a given task; and analyzing intra- and inter-user performance variance by studying surgeons' performance over each 'Therbligs'. Any of the performance metrics of macro-motions-from motion-economy, tool motion measurements to handed-symmetry-can now be extended over the micro-motion temporal segments. Evaluation studies were based on video recordings of surgical tasks in two settings: first, we examined performance of two representative manipulation exercises (peg board and pick-and-place) on a da Vinci surgical SKILLS simulator. This affords a relatively-controlled and standardized test-scenarios for surgeons with varied experience-levels. Second, task-sequences from real surgical videos were analyzed with a list of predefined 'Therbligs' in order to investigate its overall usefulness. PMID:27000920

  5. Urology residents experience comparable workload profiles when performing live porcine nephrectomies and robotic surgery virtual reality training modules.

    PubMed

    Mouraviev, Vladimir; Klein, Martina; Schommer, Eric; Thiel, David D; Samavedi, Srinivas; Kumar, Anup; Leveillee, Raymond J; Thomas, Raju; Pow-Sang, Julio M; Su, Li-Ming; Mui, Engy; Smith, Roger; Patel, Vipul

    2016-03-01

    In pursuit of improving the quality of residents' education, the Southeastern Section of the American Urological Association (SES AUA) hosts an annual robotic training course for its residents. The workshop involves performing a robotic live porcine nephrectomy as well as virtual reality robotic training modules. The aim of this study was to evaluate workload levels of urology residents when performing a live porcine nephrectomy and the virtual reality robotic surgery training modules employed during this workshop. Twenty-one residents from 14 SES AUA programs participated in 2015. On the first-day residents were taught with didactic lectures by faculty. On the second day, trainees were divided into two groups. Half were asked to perform training modules of the Mimic da Vinci-Trainer (MdVT, Mimic Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA, USA) for 4 h, while the other half performed nephrectomy procedures on a live porcine model using the da Vinci Si robot (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA). After the first 4 h the groups changed places for another 4-h session. All trainees were asked to complete the NASA-TLX 1-page questionnaire following both the MdVT simulation and live animal model sessions. A significant interface and TLX interaction was observed. The interface by TLX interaction was further analyzed to determine whether the scores of each of the six TLX scales varied across the two interfaces. The means of the TLX scores observed at the two interfaces were similar. The only significant difference was observed for frustration, which was significantly higher at the simulation than the animal model, t (20) = 4.12, p = 0.001. This could be due to trainees' familiarity with live anatomical structures over skill set simulations which remain a real challenge to novice surgeons. Another reason might be that the simulator provides performance metrics for specific performance traits as well as composite scores for entire exercises. Novice trainees experienced

  6. Robotic thoracic surgery: The state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; Asaf, Belal Bin

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive thoracic surgery has come a long way. It has rapidly progressed to complex procedures such as lobectomy, pneumonectomy, esophagectomy, and resection of mediastinal tumors. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) offered perceptible benefits over thoracotomy in terms of less postoperative pain and narcotic utilization, shorter ICU and hospital stay, decreased incidence of postoperative complications combined with quicker return to work, and better cosmesis. However, despite its obvious advantages, the General Thoracic Surgical Community has been relatively slow in adapting VATS more widely. The introduction of da Vinci surgical system has helped overcome certain inherent limitations of VATS such as two-dimensional (2D) vision and counter intuitive movement using long rigid instruments allowing thoracic surgeons to perform a plethora of minimally invasive thoracic procedures more efficiently. Although the cumulative experience worldwide is still limited and evolving, Robotic Thoracic Surgery is an evolution over VATS. There is however a lot of concern among established high-volume VATS centers regarding the superiority of the robotic technique. We have over 7 years experience and believe that any new technology designed to make minimal invasive surgery easier and more comfortable for the surgeon is most likely to have better and safer outcomes in the long run. Our only concern is its cost effectiveness and we believe that if the cost factor is removed more and more surgeons will use the technology and it will increase the spectrum and the reach of minimally invasive thoracic surgery. This article reviews worldwide experience with robotic thoracic surgery and addresses the potential benefits and limitations of using the robotic platform for the performance of thoracic surgical procedures. PMID:25598601

  7. History and current status of robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeffrey D; Srivastava, Mukta; Bonatti, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB) is a minimally invasive endoscopic surgical approach using the daVinci robotic telemanipulation system to perform coronary artery bypass grafting on the arrested or beating heart. It is a procedure that can be a useful alternative to the classic open procedure performed through sternotomy. After extensive modeling in cadavers, the first clinical case was performed in June 1998 placing a left internal thoracic artery graft (LITA) to the left anterior descending artery completely robotically on the arrested heart. During the early and late 2000s, international groups have adopted this evolving technology, which has included iterations such as beating-heart TECAB, use of bilateral ITA grafting and radial artery grafting, as well as 3- and 4-vessel TECAB. TECAB is combined with percutaneous coronary intervention in hybrid procedures. Despite increasing complexity of endoscopic coronary bypass surgery, conversion rates to open bypass surgery have dropped significantly and operative times have decreased. Published major morbidities and mortality rates in arrested-and beating-heart TECAB have been cumulatively in the 0-2% range and are considered well within the expected range for these highly complex surgical procedures. Long-term survival and freedom from major adverse events also meet the standards of open bypass surgery. PMID:22893280

  8. Interferometric fringes with MACAO-VLTI corrected starlight and VINCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Robin; Kervella, Pierre; Donaldson, Rob; Kasper, Markus E.; Fedrigo, Enrico; Wallander, Anders; Schoeller, Markus; Housen, Nico; Delplancke, Francoise; Salgado, Fernando; Dupuy, Christophe; Hubin, Norbert N.; Ivanescu, Liviu; Oberti, Sylvain; Paufique, Jerome; Rossi, Silvio; Wittkowski, Markus

    2004-10-01

    We report on observations with MACAO-VLTI to feed the VLT Interferometer in November 2003. The purpose of this observing run was to optimize the feed to the VLTI by varying certain parameters of the curvature AO system and of the interferometer instrument VINCI. All along the main concern about this instrument combination was the differential piston introduced by 2 independent AO systems. A special so-called "piston removal algorithm" has been developed especially for this purpose. Each DM Influence Function is carefully characterized and a pure piston mode is defined to compensate piston over the pupil produced by a given voltage set. Piston is reduced by ~20 using this algorithm. It was found that decreasing the system main gain, while reducing strehl ratio, also reduces high frequency vibrations on the DM and therefore OPD variations. A control frequency of 420 Hz instead of the nominal 350 Hz was found to improve substantially the coupling by reducing the excitation of the DM resonance (~700Hz). On bright stars, an improvement of a factor of 30 in the flux injection into the VINCI fibers was measured. Following these tests a successful observation of the active nucleus of NGC 1068 was performed leading to a visibility of 40.4±5.4% on an average baseline of 45.84 m. The K magnitude in the 60 mas central source is 9.2±0.4. The results already put some interesting constraints on the inner torus and central engine of the nucleus of NGC 1068 but mostly show that the combination MACAO-VLTI and VINCI opens the realm of extragalactic astronomy to interferometry.

  9. MONA, LISA and VINCI Soon Ready to Travel to Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    First Instruments for the VLT Interferometer Summary A few months from now, light from celestial objects will be directed for the first time towards ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). During this "First Light" event and the subsequent test phase, the light will be recorded with a special test instrument, VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument). The main components of this high-tech instrument are aptly named MONA (a system that combines the light beams from several telescopes by means of optical fibers) and LISA (the infrared camera). VINCI was designed and constructed within a fruitful collaboration between ESO and several research institutes and industrial companies in France and Germany . It is now being assembled at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) and will soon be ready for installation at the telescope on Paranal. With the VLTI and VINCI, Europe's astronomers are now entering the first, crucial phase of an exciting scientific and technology venture that will ultimately put the world's most powerful optical/IR interferometric facility in their hands . PR Photo 31/00 : VINCI during tests at the ESO Headquarters in Garching. The VLT Interferometer (VLTI) ESO Press Photo 31/00 ESO Press Photo 31/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 301; 43k] [Normal; JPEG: 800 x 602;208xk] [Full-Res; JPEG: 1923 x 1448; 2.2Mb] PR Photo 31/00 shows the various components of the complex VINCI instrument for the VLT Interferometer , during the current tests at the Optical Laboratory at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). It will later be installed in "clean-room" conditions within the Interferometric Laboratory at the Paranal Observatory. This electronic photo was obtained for documentary purposes. VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument) is the "First Light" instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). Early in 2001, it will be used for the first tests

  10. Electromyographic response is altered during robotic surgical training with augmented feedback.

    PubMed

    Judkins, Timothy N; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Stergiou, Nick

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing prevalence of robotic systems for surgical laparoscopy. We previously developed quantitative measures to assess robotic surgical proficiency, and used augmented feedback to enhance training to reduce applied grip force and increase speed. However, there is also a need to understand the physiological demands of the surgeon during robotic surgery, and if training can reduce these demands. Therefore, the goal of this study was to use clinical biomechanical techniques via electromyography (EMG) to investigate the effects of real-time augmented visual feedback during short-term training on muscular activation and fatigue. Twenty novices were trained in three inanimate surgical tasks with the da Vinci Surgical System. Subjects were divided into five feedback groups (speed, relative phase, grip force, video, and control). Time- and frequency-domain EMG measures were obtained before and after training. Surgical training decreased muscle work as found from mean EMG and EMG envelopes. Grip force feedback further reduced average and total muscle work, while speed feedback increased average muscle work and decreased total muscle work. Training also increased the median frequency response as a result of increased speed and/or reduced fatigue during each task. More diverse motor units were recruited as revealed by increases in the frequency bandwidth post-training. We demonstrated that clinical biomechanics using EMG analysis can help to better understand the effects of training for robotic surgery. Real-time augmented feedback during training can further reduce physiological demands. Future studies will investigate other means of feedback such as biofeedback of EMG during robotic surgery training. PMID:19041972

  11. Robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of a retroperitoneal paracaval tumor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tzu-Chun; Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex T L; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2013-12-01

    During the past few years, robotic surgical systems have been rapidly developed. The progress and advantages of these systems include three-dimensional vision and enhanced ergonomics. These advantages have helped a new generation of minimally invasive surgery to evolve. The da Vinci Surgical System seems to greatly resolve problems (e.g., wide exposure and retraction of peritoneal organs) that are confronted by traditional laparoscopic surgeries for retroperitoneal tumors that are near great vessels. There have been few reported cases concerning laparoscopic excision of retroperitoneal tumors situated between the inferior vena cava, the right renal vessel, and the kidney. We report the use of a robotic surgical system for this type of treatment. A 54-year-old female patient had a hypoechoic lesion near the inferior vena cava and superior to the right renal vessels. It was incidentally found by ultrasound during a health check-up examination. The computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a heterogeneous contrast-enhanced retroperitoneal mass approximately 4.4 cm medial to the right kidney with the inferior vena cava slightly deviated to the left. Robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of the retroperitoneal tumor was performed on October 15, 2010 with an operation time of 135 minutes and an estimated blood loss of less than 30 mL. The J-Vac drainage tube was removed on postoperative Day 3, and the patient was discharged in a stable condition the following day. The pathology of the tumor was retroperitoneal schwannoma. A re-evaluation was arranged postoperatively for the 15-month ambulatory visit. No local recurrence or distal metastasis was present. PMID:24079977

  12. VINCI Altitude Simulation - Vacuum Chamber Design and Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delrez, C.; Collin, B.; Chisogne, J.-P.; Amestoy, S.; Hardouin, E.

    2004-08-01

    a motor driven trolley, a raising/lowering system, The purpose of this article is to describe the design, computation, production and installation of a Simplified altitude Simulation (SAS) package intended for the VINCI engine tests on the PF52bench. a duct for connection to the ejector, an engine ignition viewing system a drive and power supply assembly, a set of measuring instruments, The simulation is used to reconstitute at ground level the same flying conditions as those normally found at the altitude where the Ariane 5 launcher cryogenic engine is fired. a control and monitoring assembly. This PF52 bench, which is being modified, is located on the Snecma Moteurs Space Engine division's test site, at Vernon (France). The design, computation, production and installation of the SAS are under the responsibility of the company AMOS sa, at Angleur (Belgium).

  13. Robotic-assisted thoracoscopic sleeve lobectomy for locally advanced lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mong-Wei; Kuo, Shuenn-Wen; Yang, Shun-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Background The Da Vinci robotic system has been used to enhance the surgeon’s visualization and agility in lung cancer surgery, and thus facilitate refined dissection, knot tying and suturing. However, only a few case reports exist on performing a sleeve lobectomy with a robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS) technique. Here we describe our early experience performing RATS sleeve lobectomies. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting a series of RATS sleeve lobectomies. Methods The six consecutive NSCLC patients who underwent a RATS sleeve lobectomy between November 2013 and July 2015 at the National Taiwan University Hospital were enrolled in this study. The lobectomies were all performed by the same surgeon using a three-arm robotic system with an additional utility incision made for assistance and specimen retrieval. Results Five patients were diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma, while the sixth was diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor. The mean operation time was 436.7 [255–745] minutes. The mean postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) stay and hospital stay were 3.7 [1–11] and 11.3 [3–26] days, respectively. Two (33.3%; 2/6) morbidities were noted, including one pneumonia and one anastomosis stricture. There were no cases of mortality or of conversion to thoracotomy. Conclusions Our experience performing a RATS sleeve lobectomy in the six patients demonstrated the feasibility of RATS in complex lung cancer surgeries. The three-dimensional vision and articulated joint instruments made robotic-assisted bronchial anastomosis easier under the endoscopic setting. Our experience suggests that RATS offers specific advantages with regard to accuracy and safety when performing sleeve lobectomies. PMID:27499965

  14. Exploratorium: Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  15. Installation of a Neuromate Robot for Stereotactic Surgery: Efforts to Conform to Japanese Specifications and an Approach for Clinical Use—Technical Notes

    PubMed Central

    KAJITA, Yasukazu; NAKATSUBO, Daisuke; KATAOKA, Hirotada; NAGAI, Toshiya; NAKURA, Takahiro; WAKABAYASHI, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    The neuromate is a commercially available, image-guided robotic system for use in stereotactic surgery and is employed in Europe and North America. In June 2015, this device was approved in accordance with the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan. The neuromate can be specified to a wide range of stereotactic procedures in Japan. The stereotactic X-ray system, developed by a Japanese manufacturer, is normally attached to the operating table that provides lateral and anteroposterior images to verify the positions of the recording electrodes. The neuromate is designed to be used with the patient in the supine position on a flat operating table. In Japan, deep brain stimulation surgery is widely performed with the patient's head positioned upward so as to minimize cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The robot base where the patient's head is fixed has an adaptation for a tilted head position (by 25 degrees) to accommodate the operating table at proper angle to hold the patient's upper body. After these modifications, the accuracy of neuromate localization was examined on a computed tomography phantom preparation, showing that the root mean square error was 0.12 ± 0.10 mm. In our hospital, robotic surgeries, such as those using the Da Vinci system or neuromate, require operative guidelines directed by the Medical Risk Management Office and Biomedical Research and Innovation Office. These guidelines include directions for use, procedural manuals, and training courses. PMID:26511113

  16. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... computer station and directs the movements of a robot. Small surgical tools are attached to the robot's ...

  17. Virtual Reality Robotic Surgery Warm-Up Improves Task Performance in a Dry Lab Environment: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Lendvay, Thomas S.; Brand, Timothy C.; White, Lee; Kowalewski, Timothy; Jonnadula, Saikiran; Mercer, Laina; Khorsand, Derek; Andros, Justin; Hannaford, Blake; Satava, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-operative simulation “warm-up” has been shown to improve performance and reduce errors in novice and experienced surgeons, yet existing studies have only investigated conventional laparoscopy. We hypothesized a brief virtual reality (VR) robotic warm-up would enhance robotic task performance and reduce errors. Study Design In a two-center randomized trial, fifty-one residents and experienced minimally invasive surgery faculty in General Surgery, Urology, and Gynecology underwent a validated robotic surgery proficiency curriculum on a VR robotic simulator and on the da Vinci surgical robot. Once successfully achieving performance benchmarks, surgeons were randomized to either receive a 3-5 minute VR simulator warm-up or read a leisure book for 10 minutes prior to performing similar and dissimilar (intracorporeal suturing) robotic surgery tasks. The primary outcomes compared were task time, tool path length, economy of motion, technical and cognitive errors. Results Task time (-29.29sec, p=0.001, 95%CI-47.03,-11.56), path length (-79.87mm, p=0.014, 95%CI -144.48,-15.25), and cognitive errors were reduced in the warm-up group compared to the control group for similar tasks. Global technical errors in intracorporeal suturing (0.32, p=0.020, 95%CI 0.06,0.59) were reduced after the dissimilar VR task. When surgeons were stratified by prior robotic and laparoscopic clinical experience, the more experienced surgeons(n=17) demonstrated significant improvements from warm-up in task time (-53.5sec, p=0.001, 95%CI -83.9,-23.0) and economy of motion (0.63mm/sec, p=0.007, 95%CI 0.18,1.09), whereas improvement in these metrics was not statistically significantly appreciated in the less experienced cohort(n=34). Conclusions We observed a significant performance improvement and error reduction rate among surgeons of varying experience after VR warm-up for basic robotic surgery tasks. In addition, the VR warm-up reduced errors on a more complex task (robotic

  18. Interferometric observations of η Carinae with VINCI/VLTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervella, P.

    2007-03-01

    Context: The bright star η Carinae is the most massive and luminous star in our region of the Milky Way. Though it has been extensively studied using many different techniques, its physical nature and the mechanism that led to the creation of the Homunculus nebula are still debated. Aims: We aimed at resolving the central engine of the η Carinae complex in the near-infrared on angular scales of a few milliarcseconds. Methods: We used the VINCI instrument of the VLTI to recombine coherently the light from two telescopes in the K band. Results: We report a total of 142 visibility measurements of η Car, part of which were analyzed by Van Boekel et al. (2003, A&A, 410, L37). These observations were carried out on projected baselines ranging from 8 to 112 m in length, using either two 0.35 m siderostats or two 8-m Unit Telescopes. These observations cover the November 2001-January 2004 period. Conclusions: .The reported visibility data are in satisfactory agreement with the recent results obtained with AMBER/VLTI by Weigelt et al. (2006), asuming that the flux of η Car encircled within 70 mas reaches 56% of the total flux within 1400 mas, in the K band. We also confirm that the squared visibility curve of η Car as a function of spatial frequency follows closely an exponential model. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Three-dimensional surgical navigation model with TilePro display during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Ukimura, Osamu; Aron, Monish; Nakamoto, Masahiko; Shoji, Sunao; Abreu, Andre Luis de Castro; Matsugasumi, Toru; Berger, Andre; Desai, Mihir; Gill, Inderbir S

    2014-06-01

    Abstract To facilitate robotic nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, we developed a novel three-dimensional (3D) surgical navigation model that is displayed on the TilePro function of the da Vinci® surgeon console. Based on 3D transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies, we reconstructed a 3D model of the TRUS-visible, histologically confirmed "index" cancer lesion in 10 consecutive patients. Five key anatomic structures (prostate, image-visible biopsy-proven "index" cancer lesion, neurovascular bundles, urethra, and recorded biopsy trajectories) were image-fused and displayed onto the TilePro function of the robotic console. The 3D model facilitated careful surgical dissection in the vicinity of the biopsy-proven index lesion. Geographic location of the index lesion on the final histology report correlated with the software-created 3D model. Negative surgical margins were achieved in 90%, except for one case with extensive extra-prostate extension. At postoperative 3 months, prostate-specific antigen levels were undetectable (<0.03 ng/mL) in all cases. The initial experience of the navigation model is presented. PMID:24450285

  20. Robot-assisted C7 nerve root transfer from the contralateral healthy side: A preliminary cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Su; Ichihara, Satoshi; Prunières, Guillaume; Peterson, Brett; Facca, Sybille; Xu, Wen-Dong; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Patients with cerebral palsy and spastic hemiplegia may have extremely poor upper extremity function. Unfortunately, many current therapies and treatments for patients with spastic hemiplegia offer very limited improvements. One innovative technique for treating these patients is the use a contralateral C7 nerve root transfer to neurotize the C7 nerve root in the affected limb. This may result not only in less spasticity in the affected limb, but also improved control and motor function vis-a-vis the new connection to the normal cerebral hemisphere. However, contralateral C7 transfers can require large incisions and long nerve grafts. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a contralateral C7 nerve root transfer procedure with the use of a prevertebral minimally invasive robot-assisted technique. In a cadaver, both sides of the C7 root were dissected. The right recipient C7 root was resected as proximally as possible, while the left donor C7 root was resected as distally as possible. With the use of the da Vinci (®) SI surgical robot (Intuitive Surgical ™, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), we were able to eliminate the large incision and use a much shorter nerve graft when performing contralateral C7 nerve transfer. PMID:27117122

  1. Robotic repair of a vesicovaginal fistula in an irradiated field using a dehydrated amniotic allograft as an interposition patch.

    PubMed

    Price, David T; Price, Tina C

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a 66 year old female with a supratrigonal vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) that developed after undergoing radical hysterectomy, chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy for advanced cervical cancer. VVF repairs in an irradiated field are known to be complicated procedures with significant morbidity and a high rate of failure due to the effect of radiation. Amniotic membranes have been demonstrated to improve healing rates in difficult to heal wounds. To decrease morbidity a minimally invasive robotic procedure was performed and a dehydrated amniotic allograft patch was used to augment tissue healing. The VVF was repaired using the da Vinci Surgical System and the amniotic membrane was used as an interposition patch over the repair. There were no operative or postoperative complications and the patient was discharged home on postoperative day one. A cystogram performed 3 weeks postoperatively demonstrated a healed fistula. Follow-up at 5 months revealed no incontinence. This is the first reported case of a robotic VVF repair performed in an irradiated pelvis and the first use of an amniotic membrane allograft in the repair a VVF. PMID:26661412

  2. Laparoscopic gastric bypass to robotic gastric bypass: time and cost commitment involved in training and transitioning an academic surgical practice.

    PubMed

    Lyn-Sue, Jerome R; Winder, Josh S; Kotch, Shannon; Colello, Jacob; Docimo, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the gold standard procedure for weight loss. This relatively complex procedure has excellent outcomes when performed via laparoscopy. The advent of the DaVinci robotic platform has been a technological advancement. Our goal is to provide information regarding the cost, time commitment, and advantages of transitioning an LRYGB program to an RRYGB program in an academic setting. We retrospectively reviewed the last 25 laparoscopic gastric bypass procedures and the first 25 robotic gastric bypass procedures performed by a single surgeon. We compared clinical outcomes and focused on time and hospital cost during this transition phase. There was no significant demographic difference between the groups. The mean age was 41.7 (RRYGB) years vs 43.4 (LRYGM) years. The mean BMI were similar between groups, 45.3 vs 46.5 kg/m(2) for RRYGB and LRYGB. No anastomotic leaks or mortalities were noted. There was one anastomotic stricture in both groups. Excess weight loss was similar in both groups at 1 year. There was a significant increase in operative time with RRYGB, mean 241 min vs mean 174 min (p = 0.0005). Operative time fell by 25 min after the first 10 cases. The hospital cost was also increased with RRYGB mean $5922 vs $4395 (p = 0.03). Transitioning from a laparoscopic to a robotic practice can be done safely, however, the initial operative times were longer and the hospital cost was higher for robotic gastric bypass. We hope in the future that these will decrease after overcoming the learning and as the technology becomes widespread. PMID:26983848

  3. Industrial robots and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Kafrissen, S.; Stephens, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the study of robotics. It provides information of hardware, software, applications and economics. Eleven chapters examine the following: Minicomputers, Microcomputers, and Microprocessors; The Servo-Control System; The Activators; Robot Vision Systems; and Robot Workcell Environments. Twelve appendices supplement the data.

  4. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... Robotic surgery is similar to laparoscopic surgery. It can be performed through smaller cuts than open surgery. ...

  5. Robotic-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery for Gynecologic and Urologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective An application was received to review the evidence on the ‘The Da Vinci Surgical System’ for the treatment of gynecologic malignancies (e.g. endometrial and cervical cancers). Limitations to the current standard of care include the lack of trained physicians on minimally invasive surgery and limited access to minimally invasive surgery for patients. The potential benefits of ‘The Da Vinci Surgical System’ include improved technical manipulation and physician uptake leading to increased surgeries, and treatment and management of these cancers. The demand for robotic surgery for the treatment and management of prostate cancer has been increasing due to its alleged benefits of recovery of erectile function and urinary continence, two important factors of men’s health. The potential technical benefits of robotic surgery leading to improved patient functional outcomes are surgical precision and vision. Clinical Need Uterine and cervical cancers represent 5.4% (4,400 of 81,700) and 1.6% (1,300 of 81,700), respectively, of incident cases of cancer among female cancers in Canada. Uterine cancer, otherwise referred to as endometrial cancer is cancer of the lining of the uterus. The most common treatment option for endometrial cancer is removing the cancer through surgery. A surgical option is the removal of the uterus and cervix through a small incision in the abdomen using a laparoscope which is referred to as total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Risk factors that increase the risk of endometrial cancer include taking estrogen replacement therapy after menopause, being obese, early age at menarche, late age at menopause, being nulliparous, having had high-dose radiation to the pelvis, and use of tamoxifen. Cervical cancer occurs at the lower narrow end of the uterus. There are more treatment options for cervical cancer compared to endometrial cancer, however total laparoscopic hysterectomy is also a treatment option. Risk factors that

  6. Robotic VR simulation to measure competency: a step in the right direction.

    PubMed

    Lallas, Costas D

    2016-02-01

    There is widespread consensus on the vast potential of virtual reality (VR) simulation for robotic surgery; however, there is some debate on its current role in education and clinical practice. One of the conclusions that is consistently drawn across available validation studies is that VR simulation for robotic surgery in its current form appears to most benefit novice surgeons who do not have significant robotic surgery experience and who, amongst other things, require instruction on basic actions of the robot, such as camera movement, clutching, and arm coordination. Clinical translations of these skills include: training junior residents who are first being introduced to robotic cases; and educating an experienced surgeon who does not have formal robotic surgical training and is either seeking credentialing or maintenance of certification. However, once a surgeon has gained some outside experience with a robotic surgical system, whether in the dry lab, wet lab, or operating room settings (i.e. an intermediate or experienced robotic surgeon), there are currently less VR simulation applications. Noureldin, et al introduces another viable application of VR simulation using the da Vinci Surgical Skills Simulator (dVSSS), namely incorporating VR simulation into the Canadian Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) to assess the basic robotic skills of urology Post-Graduate Trainees (PGTs). The authors are astute to transfer the current capabilities of the dVSSS for this utilization. During the OSCE, the station for this segment was only 20 minutes in length, allowing for only two of the less complex dVSSS skills tests. The authors also utilized the MScore performance metrics inherent to the system to evaluate for competency. Their definition of competency was based on the norm-referenced method, in which experts performed the tasks prior to the trainees, and a passing score was defined as the average of the experts' total scores minus one standard deviation

  7. 78 FR 58376 - American Asset Development, Inc., aVinci Media Corp., Ceragenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Marshall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION American Asset Development, Inc., aVinci Media Corp., Ceragenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Marshall... Pharmaceuticals, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended December 31, 2009....

  8. Robotic Transperitoneal Infrarenal Para-Aortic Lymphadenectomy With Double Docking: Technique, Learning Curve, and Perioperative Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Jordi; Barahona, Marc; Pla, Maria Jesus; Rovira, Jordi; Garcia-Tejedor, Amparo; Gil-Ibanez, Blanca; Gaspar, Hugo Manuel; Sabria, Enric; Bartolomé, Carlos; Marti, Lola

    2016-01-01

    Para-aortic lymphadenectomy (PAL) is a challenging procedure performed by minimally invasive surgery in very few centers, owing to its intrinsic technical complexity. We describe and assess the feasibility and learning curve of robotic double-docking transperitoneal infrarenal PAL combined with oncological pelvic surgery. Fifty patients who underwent this procedure using the Da Vinci S surgical system between March 2010 and May 2013 were included. The mean operating time for PAL surgery was 76 minutes (range, 32-150 minutes), and the mean number of lymph nodes per patient was 11.8 (range, 1-44). There were no conversions to laparotomy or laparoscopy. The mean length of hospital stay was 2 days (range, 1-25 days). Statistically significant decreases were noted for mean table rotation time (17 ± 6.8 minutes vs 13 ± 3.6 minutes; p = .02) and mean PAL operating time (85.4 ± 25.8 minutes vs 69.8 ± 24.6 minutes; p = .04) when comparing the first 20 patients and the last 30 patients. The number of nodes was similar in the first 20 patients and last 30 patients. The double-docking transperitoneal infrarenal PAL technique combined with oncological pelvic surgery is feasible, with minimal morbidity and a short learning curve. PMID:26898894

  9. Transaxillary gasless robotic thyroid surgery with nerve monitoring: initial two experince in a North American center.

    PubMed

    Kandil, Emad; Winters, Ryan; Aslam, Rizwan; Friedlander, Paul; Bellows, Charles

    2012-03-01

    Minimally invasive thyroid surgery using various techniques is well described. The present study reviews our initial experience with the technique with added intraoperative monitoring to assess its safety and feasibility. The study group consisted of ten consecutive patients with suspicious thyroid nodules who were candidates for thyroid lobectomy from September to December 2009. All patients underwent intraoperative nerve integrity monitoring and postoperative direct laryngoscopy. The patients' demographic information, operative times, learning curve, complications, and postoperative hospital stay were evaluated. All procedures were successfully completed with intraoperative nerve monitoring. No cases were converted to an open procedure. The median age was 38.5 years (σ = 13.5) and nine of the ten patients were females. The mean operating time was 131 minutes (range 101-203 minutes) and the mean operating time with the da Vinci system was 55 minutes. All patients were discharged home after an overnight stay. One patient developed transient radial nerve neuropathy that resolved spontaneously. There were no other postoperative complications. None of the patients complained of postoperative neck pain. Postoperative laryngoscopy showed intact and mobile vocal cords in all patients. Robotic endoscopic thyroid surgery with gasless transaxillary approach is feasible and safe in the treatment of suspicious thyroid nodules. Monitoring of the RLN during this approach is feasible. PMID:21395464

  10. Robot and robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E. (Inventor); Marzwell, Neville I. (Inventor); Wall, Jonathan N. (Inventor); Poole, Michael D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A robot and robot system that are capable of functioning in a zero-gravity environment are provided. The robot can include a body having a longitudinal axis and having a control unit and a power source. The robot can include a first leg pair including a first leg and a second leg. Each leg of the first leg pair can be pivotally attached to the body and constrained to pivot in a first leg pair plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body.

  11. Benign Prostatic Hyperstatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... done as an open simple prostatectomy or by robotic assisted (DaVinci) laparoscopic simple prostatectomy. Recovery is much easier for the patient after the robotic assisted laparoscopic procedure. ● Suprapubic catheter – A catheter placed ...

  12. Fossa Navicularis Strictures Due to 22F Catheters Used in Robotic Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ahlering, Thomas E.; Gelman, Joel; Skarecky, Douglas W.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Fossa navicularis strictures following radical prostatectomy are reported infrequently. We recently experienced a series of fossa strictures following robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Fossa strictures are usually procedure-induced, arising from urethral trauma or infection; catheter size has not been reported as a factor. We describe herein our experience to determine and prevent fossa navicularis stricture development. Methods: From June 2002 until February 2005, 248 patients underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy with the da Vinci surgical system at our institution. Fossa strictures were diagnosed based on acute onset of obstructive voiding symptoms, IPSS and flow pattern changes, and bougie calibration. During our series, we switched from an 18F to a 22F catheter to avoid inadvertent stapling of the urethra when dividing the dorsal venous complex. All patients had an 18F catheter placed after the anastomosis for 1 week. Parameters were evaluated using Fisher's exact test and the Student t test for means. Results: The 18F catheter group (n=117) developed 1 fossa stricture, whereas the 22F catheter group (n=131) developed 9 fossa strictures (P=0.02). The fossa stricture rate in the 18F group was 0.9% versus 6.9% in the 22F group. The 2 groups had no differences in age, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, International Prostate Symptom Score, urinary bother score, SHIM score, preoperative PSA, operative time, estimated blood loss, cautery use, prostate size, or catheterization time. Conclusions: Using a larger urethral catheter size during intraoperative dissection appears to increase the risk 8-fold for fossa stricture as compared with the 18F catheter. The pneumoperitoneum and prolonged extreme Trendelenberg position could potentially contribute to local urethral ischemia. PMID:17931514

  13. Comparative analysis of resection tools suited for transoral robot-assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Thomas K; Schuler, Patrick J; Bankfalvi, Agnes; Greve, Jens; Heusgen, Lukas; Lang, Stephan; Mattheis, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Introduction of transoral robot-assisted surgery (TORS) has a strong potential to facilitate surgical therapy of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) by decreasing the indication for an external surgical approach. However, the availability of resection tools is limited and comparative studies in the context of TORS are not available. In the context of the newest da Vinci Si HD(®) robotic system, various dissection methods were compared in a surgical animal model using porcine tongue at three different sites representing mucosal, muscular and lymphatic tissue. Resection methods included (a) CO2 laser tube, (b) flexible fiber Tm:YAG laser, (c) monopolar blade, and (d) radio frequency (RF) needle. Specimens were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut, and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Dissected tissue was examined for the width of the incision as well as the individual coagulation zone of each tool at various tissue sites. In addition, instrument costs and performance were determined. The incisions made by the RF needle had the most favourable cutting width and also smaller coagulation defects, as opposed to other tools, granting the best preservation of tumour-adjacent structures and improved pathological assessment. Instrument performance was best evaluated for CO2 laser and RF needle, whereas financial expenses were lowest for RF needle and monopolar blade. Improvement and modification of resection tools for TORS become a relevant criterion in order to facilitate routine usage in the surgical therapy of HNSCC. A consequent decrease in surgical mortality and improved precision of surgical tumour resection could lead to a significant clinical growth potential of TORS. PMID:23846665

  14. Robotic suture of a large caval injury caused by endo-GIA stapler malfunction during laparoscopic wedge resection of liver segments VII and VIII en-bloc with the right hepatic vein.

    PubMed

    Boggi, Ugo; Moretto, Carlo; Vistoli, Fabio; D'Imporzano, Simone; Mosca, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Primary endo-GIA stapler malfunction occurred during robotic wedge resection of liver segments VII and VIII en-bloc with the right hepatic vein, in an obese woman diagnosed with single liver metastasis from a previous carcinoid tumour. Haemorrhage was soon controlled by clamping the vena cava below the injury using two wristed forceps angled at 90 degrees . With the two instruments locked in the holding position the ensuing operative strategy was discussed between surgeon and anaesthesia teams. Using the third robotic arm the caval injury was repaired laparoscopically with interrupted polypropylene sutures. The patient was transfused with two units of packed red blood cells, recovered uneventfully, and was discharged on post-operative day five. We conclude that even the most advanced technologies can fail and that surgeons should be fully aware of the consequences of these malfunctions and be prepared for repair. From this point of view, the da Vinci surgical system seems to have some advantages over classical laparoscopic methods including the ability to lock the wristed instruments in the holding position, the use of three arms by the same operating surgeon, and the extreme facilitation of intracorporeal suturing and knot-tying in deep and narrow spaces, extremely difficult if not impossible with conventional laparoscopic instruments. PMID:19707931

  15. Da Vinci Coding? Using Renaissance Artists’ Depictions of the Brain to Engage Student Interest in Neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a pair of brief, interactive classroom exercises utilizing Renaissance artists’ depictions of the brain to help increase student interest in learning basic neuroanatomy. Undergraduate students provided anonymous quantitative evaluations of both exercises. The feedback data suggest that students found both exercises engaging. The data also suggest that the first exercise increased student interest in learning more about neuroanatomy in general, while the second provided useful practice in identifying major neuroanatomical structures. Overall, the data suggest that these exercises may be a useful addition to courses that introduce or review neuroanatomical concepts. PMID:23805058

  16. Back to the Drawing Board Reconstructing DaVinci's Vitruvian Man to Teach Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaian, C.

    2009-01-01

    In today's high tech world, one hardly expects to see the original chalkboard or blackboard utilized in research, teaching, or scientific communication, but having spent an equal number of years doing both art and biology and dabbling in computer graphics, the author has found the simple technology of the chalkboard and chalk to have incredible…

  17. In Pursuit of Social Betterment: A Proposal to Evaluate the Da Vinci Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.

    2005-01-01

    The author presents a proposal that is roughly based on a contingency-based theory of evaluation developed in his book, "Evaluation: An Integrated Framework for Understanding, Guiding, and Improving Policies and Programs" (Mark, Henry, and Julnes, 2000). He and his coauthors stated in this book that social betterment was the ultimate goal of…

  18. Building Skills and Qualifications among SME Employees. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles 10 European programs that exemplify good practice in building skills and qualifications among employees of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The programs profiled are as follows: (1) TRICTSME (a program providing World Wide Web-based information and communication technologies training for SMEs in manufacturing); (2)…

  19. Social and Occupational Integration of Disadvantaged People. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles nine European programs that exemplify good practice in social and occupational integration of disadvantaged people. The programs profiled are as follows: (1) Restaurant Venezia (a CD-ROM program to improve the reading and writing skills of young people in Luxembourg who have learning difficulties); (2) an integrated…

  20. Moving towards Optimising Demand-Led Learning: The 2005-2007 ECUANET Leonardo Da Vinci Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard; Howard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the key project learning points and outcomes as a guideline for the future quality management of demand-led learning and development. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology was based upon a corporate university blueprint architecture and browser toolkit developed by a member of the…

  1. [From Leonardo Da Vinci to present days; from the history of antiplague costume].

    PubMed

    Kalmykov, A A; Aminev, R M; Korneev, A G; Polyakov, V S; Artebyakin, S V

    2016-01-01

    As a prototype of the antiplague costume can be considered a special clothing, which physicians in medieval Europe wear for protection in plague nidus. Inventor of the first antiplague costume is considered to be a French doctor Charles de Lorme (1619). Much later, in 1878, a Russian professor Pashutin V V offered to use a costume, which looked like a hermetically sealed "bag" with a special breathing device aimed at protection of medical staff. Later, professor O.I. Dogel's respirator became well-known (1889). At the beginning of 20th century as part of the antiplague costume was used a charcoal filter mask, invented by Zelinsky N.D. Requirements to order the use of modern means of individual protection when working in nidus of especially dangerous infections identified sanitary-epidemiological rules, which reflect issues of laboratory workers working and protective clothing, respiratory protection, and view, especially operation, the procedure of putting on, removing and disinfecting antiplague costumes, pneumocostumes, pneumohelmets, isolation suits, gas-protection boxes, etc. PMID:27120957

  2. 4D motion modeling of the coronary arteries from CT images for robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong Ping; Edwards, Eddie; Mei, Lin; Rueckert, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for coronary artery motion modeling from cardiac Computed Tomography( CT) images. The aim of this work is to develop a 4D motion model of the coronaries for image guidance in robotic-assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB) surgery. To utilize the pre-operative cardiac images to guide the minimally invasive surgery, it is essential to have a 4D cardiac motion model to be registered with the stereo endoscopic images acquired intraoperatively using the da Vinci robotic system. In this paper, we are investigating the extraction of the coronary arteries and the modelling of their motion from a dynamic sequence of cardiac CT. We use a multi-scale vesselness filter to enhance vessels in the cardiac CT images. The centerlines of the arteries are extracted using a ridge traversal algorithm. Using this method the coronaries can be extracted in near real-time as only local information is used in vessel tracking. To compute the deformation of the coronaries due to cardiac motion, the motion is extracted from a dynamic sequence of cardiac CT. Each timeframe in this sequence is registered to the end-diastole timeframe of the sequence using a non-rigid registration algorithm based on free-form deformations. Once the images have been registered a dynamic motion model of the coronaries can be obtained by applying the computed free-form deformations to the extracted coronary arteries. To validate the accuracy of the motion model we compare the actual position of the coronaries in each time frame with the predicted position of the coronaries as estimated from the non-rigid registration. We expect that this motion model of coronaries can facilitate the planning of TECAB surgery, and through the registration with real-time endoscopic video images it can reduce the conversion rate from TECAB to conventional procedures.

  3. First Robotic-Assisted Dual Kidney Transplant: Surgical Technique and Report of a Case With 24-month Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Frongia, Mauro; Cadoni, Rossano; Solinas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Open surgery is the gold standard procedure for kidney transplantation. There is a strong rationale for using minimally invasive surgery in patients with end-stage renal disease. A robotic-assisted dual kidney transplant was performed for the first time at our institution. Methods In August 2013, a 63-year-old man with end-stage renal disease and diabetes mellitus under pharmacological control received both kidneys from a 70-year-old marginal donor. Pretransplant donor biopsy demonstrated a bilateral Karpinski score greater than 5. The organs did not exhibit malformations and each had an artery and a vein. The procedure was carried out by a 7-port intraperitoneal approach using the da Vinci surgical system. The procedure was identical for the 2 kidneys except that mobilization of the sigmoid colon was required to introduce the left graft. The renal vessels were anastomosed to the left external iliac vessels. The novel aspect of the technique was the introduction of both grafts through a single, 7-cm upper midline incision. Results Total operative time was 400 minutes and blood loss was 120 mL. Both grafts immediately began functioning. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged on the seventh postoperative day with normal renal function. At 24 months, he is well and does not require hemodialysis. Conclusions Minimally invasive robotic-assisted technology is a promising technique that provides exceptional patient outcomes by reducing operative morbidity, immobilization, and time to recovery, while affording better esthetic results. Selected patients with multiple comorbidities benefit most. Grafts from marginal donors are an extremely valuable resource. PMID:27500234

  4. Robotic surgical training.

    PubMed

    Ben-Or, Sharon; Nifong, L Wiley; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2013-01-01

    In July 2000, the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc) received Food and Drug Administration approval for intracardiac applications, and the first mitral valve repair was done at the East Carolina Heart Institute in May 2000. The system is now approved and used in many surgical specialties. With this disruptive technology and accepted use, surgeons and hospitals are seeking the most efficacious training pathway leading to safe use and responsible credentialing.One of the most important issues related to safe use is assembling the appropriate team of professionals involved with patient care. Moreover, proper patient selection and setting obtainable goals are also important.Creation and maintenance of a successful program are discussed in the article focusing on realistic goals. This begins with a partnership between surgeon leaders, hospital administrators, and industry support. Through this partnership, an appropriate training pathway and clinical pathway for success can be outlined. A timeline can then be created with periods of data analysis and adjustments as necessary. A successful program is attainable by following this pathway and attending to every detail along the journey. PMID:23528718

  5. CASSY Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Anna; Wright, Ann; Rice, Aaron; Shyaka, Claude

    2014-03-01

    The CASSY Robot project involved two square robots coded in RobotC. The goal was to code a robot to do a certain set of tasks autonomously. To begin with, our task was to code the robot so that it would roam a certain area, marked off by black tape. When the robot hit the black tape, it knew to back up and turn around. It was able to do this thanks to the light sensor that was attached to the bottom of the robot. Also, whenever the robot hit an obstacle, it knew to stop, back up, and turn around. This was primarily to prevent the robot from hurting itself if it hit an obstacle. This was accomplished by using touch sensors set up as bumpers. Once that was accomplished, we attached sonar sensors and created code so that one robot was able to find and track the other robot in a sort of intruder/police scenario. The overall goal of this project was to code the robot so that we can test it against a robot coded exactly the same, but using Layered Mode Selection Logic. Professor.

  6. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  7. Basic Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Frank

    This curriculum outline consists of instructional materials and information concerning resources for use in teaching a course in robotics. Addressed in the individual sections of the outline are the following topics: the nature of an industrial robot; the parts of an industrial robot (the manipulator, the power structure, and the control system);…

  8. Perioperative and continence outcomes of robotic radical prostatectomy in elderly Indian men (≥70 years): A sub-group analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rajiv; Gupta, Narmada P.; Akpo, Emmanuel E.; Kumar, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Many healthy elderly Indian men seek surgical treatment for localized prostate cancer. Quite often, radical surgery is not offered to the patients over 70 years of age due to the perception of increased side-effects and complications. We have previously reported our results of robotic radical prostatectomy in a study comprising 150 Indian patients, where almost a quarter of patients were elderly. This subgroup analysis was therefore focused on evaluating perioperative and continence outcomes in elderly men (≥70 years) with localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Between April 2010 and August 2013, 153 men had robot-assisted radical prostatectomy performed by two surgeons. Of the 150 men analyzed, 39 (26%) were aged ≥70 years. All patients underwent robotic prostatectomy using a 4 arm da Vinci surgical system. Pre-operative, intraoperative and post-operative parameters were studied. Check cystogram was performed in all patients prior to catheter removal. Complications were categorized using the Clavien-Dindo classification system. Continence was defined as use of “no pad” or security liner only. All data were recorded prospectively and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: There were no significant intraoperative or perioperative complications in this group. Median blood loss during surgery was 150 mL. None of the patient required blood transfusion. There were two minor complications (5.1%) within the first 30 days of surgery: Minimal anastomotic site leak (one patient) requiring replacement and prolongation of Foley's drainage by 1 week and ileus (one patient). No patient had any cardiopulmonary or vascular complications in the post-operative period. The median duration of hospital stay was 3 days. The median duration of catheterization was 7 days. No patient had problem of bladder neck stenosis in the follow-up period. At 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year of follow-up, 66.7% (n = 26), 74.3% (n = 29), 87.9% (n = 34) and 94

  9. Thymectomy via a subxiphoid approach: single-port and robot-assisted

    PubMed Central

    Kaneda, Shinji; Hachimaru, Ayumi; Tochii, Daisuke; Maeda, Ryo; Tochii, Sachiko; Takagi, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Background We have previously reported on single-port thymectomy (SPT), which involves performing thymectomy via a single subxiphoid incision, and trans-subxiphoid robotic thymectomy (TRT), which is performed using the da Vinci surgical system. The aim of this study was to investigate the early surgical outcomes of thymectomy using the SPT and TRT subxiphoid approaches and to discuss their appropriate uses. Methods The subjects included 80 patients who underwent thymectomy via a subxiphoid approach. These patients were selected from among 99 surgical cases of myasthenia gravis or anterior mediastinal tumors at Fujita Health University Hospital between March 2011 and November 2015. The patients were divided into a SPT group (n=72) and a TRT group (n=8). Results The operative time was shorter in the SPT group compared with that in the TRT group (135±48 and 20±40 min, respectively; P=0.0004). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of blood loss volume (5.9±16.8 and 5.4±4.6 mL, respectively; P=0.48), postoperative hospital stay duration (4.0±2.0 and 4.3±3.6 days, respectively; P=0.21), or the period of postoperative oral analgesic use (10.7±5.4 and 10.1±3.4 days, respectively; P=0.89). There were no intraoperative complications, such as intraoperative bleeding, in either group. In the SPT group, there was one case (1.4%) of postoperative left phrenic nerve paralysis and one case (1.4%) of transient paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. No one died during or after the surgery. Conclusions TRT may be as equally minimally invasive as SPT. In cases where the thymoma has infiltrated the surrounding organs, the extent of the infiltration should be used to determine whether to select TRT, or median sternotomy. PMID:27014473

  10. Improving accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis of endometriosis: Role of firefly in minimal access robotic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lue, John R.; Pyrzak, Adam; Allen, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis continues to be a major primary gynecologic etiology of chronic pelvic pain. The symptom profile, which includes cyclic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia or dyschezia, is nonspecific and does not correlate with the extent or severity of disease. Trans-vaginal or trans-rectal ultrasound, as well as magnetic resonance imaging, can help visualize endometriomas and deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Additionally, there have been no serum marker tests available so far. However, even intraoperatively, the diagnosis may be missed, leading to under diagnosis and delayed or noninitiation of treatment. There are thought to be three distinct endometriotic lesions of the pelvis that are seen laparoscopically. The first is that which is visible on the pelvic peritoneal surface or the surface of the ovary, which is commonly termed peritoneal endometriosis. Second, endometriotic lesions that occur within the ovary and form cysts that are often lined with endometrioid mucosa are termed endometriomas. Lastly, rectovaginal endometriomas are endometriotic lesions that contain a mixture of adipose and fibrous tissue located between the rectum and vagina. All of these lesions can be singular or multiple and the pelvis may contain one or all three types of lesions. The shared histologic feature with all three lesions is the presence of endometrial epithelial cells or endometrial stroma. During a diagnostic procedure, the da-Vinci robot and its firefly mode allow for three dimensional visualization and seven degrees of instrument articulation for meticulous dissection of fibrotic areas of peritoneum that may contain deep infiltrating lesions of endometriosis. This case report describes a relatively new and innovative technique for effectively diagnosing and successfully treating endometriosis when other less invasive methods have failed. PMID:27073317

  11. Preliminary study of transoral robotic surgery for pharyngeal cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Kitano, Hiroya; Fujii, Taihei; Koyama, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Aigo; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2016-03-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) with the da Vinci Surgical System has been used for the removal of pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers with the objective to improve functional and aesthetic outcomes without worsening survival. While TORS has been approved in many countries, Japan's FDA has not yet done so. Our hospital started using TORS with the approval of the Ethical Review Board and the Minimum Invasive Surgical Center Committee at Tottori University. No surgical outcomes of TORS for Japanese patients with head and neck cancer have been reported in Japan. This paper deals with the outcomes and feasibility of TORS for Japanese patients with pharyngeal cancer at our institution. TORS was performed for 10 patients with T1, T2, T3 oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2013 and 2014. This is a single-institutional study. TORS could be completed for all cases, except one patient that was not candidate, and no intraoperative conversion to an open surgical procedure was required. Five patients underwent neck dissection, two of them concurrent and three staged. Of all patients, positive surgical margins were detected in two. The average blood loss including neck dissection was 21.5 ± 33.4 ml, the operation time was 183 ± 36 min and the console time was 103 ± 22 min. No tracheostomy had been performed either pre- or postoperatively, and there was no difference between preoperative and postoperative swallowing functions. In this single-institutional preliminary study, we demonstrated that TORS is a feasible and safe treatment. A clinical multi-institutional study of TORS for laryngopharyngeal cancer has been approved as an advanced medical system study and is under way. In the near future, it is expected that the efficacy and safety of TORS for laryngopharyngeal cancer will be confirmed as the result of this multiple-institutional clinical study in Japan. PMID:26645072

  12. Improving accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis of endometriosis: Role of firefly in minimal access robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lue, John R; Pyrzak, Adam; Allen, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis continues to be a major primary gynecologic etiology of chronic pelvic pain. The symptom profile, which includes cyclic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia or dyschezia, is nonspecific and does not correlate with the extent or severity of disease. Trans-vaginal or trans-rectal ultrasound, as well as magnetic resonance imaging, can help visualize endometriomas and deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Additionally, there have been no serum marker tests available so far. However, even intraoperatively, the diagnosis may be missed, leading to under diagnosis and delayed or noninitiation of treatment. There are thought to be three distinct endometriotic lesions of the pelvis that are seen laparoscopically. The first is that which is visible on the pelvic peritoneal surface or the surface of the ovary, which is commonly termed peritoneal endometriosis. Second, endometriotic lesions that occur within the ovary and form cysts that are often lined with endometrioid mucosa are termed endometriomas. Lastly, rectovaginal endometriomas are endometriotic lesions that contain a mixture of adipose and fibrous tissue located between the rectum and vagina. All of these lesions can be singular or multiple and the pelvis may contain one or all three types of lesions. The shared histologic feature with all three lesions is the presence of endometrial epithelial cells or endometrial stroma. During a diagnostic procedure, the da-Vinci robot and its firefly mode allow for three dimensional visualization and seven degrees of instrument articulation for meticulous dissection of fibrotic areas of peritoneum that may contain deep infiltrating lesions of endometriosis. This case report describes a relatively new and innovative technique for effectively diagnosing and successfully treating endometriosis when other less invasive methods have failed. PMID:27073317

  13. Hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Marron, Lisa C.; Martinez, Michael A.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a hopping robot that includes a misfire tolerant linear actuator suitable for long trips, low energy steering and control, reliable low energy righting, miniature low energy fuel control. The present invention provides a robot with hopping mobility, capable of traversing obstacles significant in size relative to the robot and capable of operation on unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides a hopping robot with misfire-tolerant combustion actuation, and with combustion actuation suitable for use in oxygen-poor environments.

  14. Robotics research

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.; Paul, R.

    1984-01-01

    Organized around a view of robotics as ''the intelligent connection of perception to action,'' the fifty-three contributions collected in this book present leading current research in one of the fastest moving fields of artificial intelligence. Readings Include: Hand-Eye Coordination in Rope Handling; 3-D Balance Using 2-D algorithms. A Model Driven Visual Inspection Module: Stereo Vision: Complexity and Constraints; Interpretation of Contact Geometers from Force Measurement; The Utah MIT Dextrous Hand: Work in Progress; Hierarchical Nonlinear Control for Robots; VAL-11; A Robot Programming Language and Control System; Technological Barriers in Robotics: A Perspective from Industry.

  15. Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lanfranco, Anthony R.; Castellanos, Andres E.; Desai, Jaydev P.; Meyers, William C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the history, development, and current applications of robotics in surgery. Background: Surgical robotics is a new technology that holds significant promise. Robotic surgery is often heralded as the new revolution, and it is one of the most talked about subjects in surgery today. Up to this point in time, however, the drive to develop and obtain robotic devices has been largely driven by the market. There is no doubt that they will become an important tool in the surgical armamentarium, but the extent of their use is still evolving. Methods: A review of the literature was undertaken using Medline. Articles describing the history and development of surgical robots were identified as were articles reporting data on applications. Results: Several centers are currently using surgical robots and publishing data. Most of these early studies report that robotic surgery is feasible. There is, however, a paucity of data regarding costs and benefits of robotics versus conventional techniques. Conclusions: Robotic surgery is still in its infancy and its niche has not yet been well defined. Its current practical uses are mostly confined to smaller surgical procedures. PMID:14685095

  16. Robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A robot having a plurality of interconnected sections is disclosed. Each of the sections includes components which are moveable relative to components of an adjacent section. A plurality of electric motors are operably connected to at least two of said relatively moveable components to effect relative movement. A fitted, removable protective covering surrounds the sections to protect the robot.

  17. Robotics 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  18. Robotic Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning, or AESOP, was developed by Computer Motion, Inc. under a SBIR contract from the Jet Propulsion Lab. AESOP is a robotic endoscopic positioning system used to control the motion of a camera during endoscopic surgery. The camera, which is mounted at the end of a robotic arm, previously had to be held in place by the surgical staff. With AESOP the robotic arm can make more precise and consistent movements. AESOP is also voice controlled by the surgeon. It is hoped that this technology can be used in space repair missions which require precision beyond human dexterity. A new generation of the same technology entitled the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System can make endoscopic procedures even more successful. ZEUS allows the surgeon control various instruments in its robotic arms, allowing for the precision the procedure requires.

  19. Robotic transportation.

    PubMed

    Lob, W S

    1990-09-01

    Mobile robots perform fetch-and-carry tasks autonomously. An intelligent, sensor-equipped mobile robot does not require dedicated pathways or extensive facility modification. In the hospital, mobile robots can be used to carry specimens, pharmaceuticals, meals, etc. between supply centers, patient areas, and laboratories. The HelpMate (Transitions Research Corp.) mobile robot was developed specifically for hospital environments. To reach a desired destination, Help-Mate navigates with an on-board computer that continuously polls a suite of sensors, matches the sensor data against a pre-programmed map of the environment, and issues drive commands and path corrections. A sender operates the robot with a user-friendly menu that prompts for payload insertion and desired destination(s). Upon arrival at its selected destination, the robot prompts the recipient for a security code or physical key and awaits acknowledgement of payload removal. In the future, the integration of HelpMate with robot manipulators, test equipment, and central institutional information systems will open new applications in more localized areas and should help overcome difficulties in filling transport staff positions. PMID:2208684

  20. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures. PMID:24144815

  1. Transoral robotic surgery for hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: 3-year oncologic and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Min; Kim, Won Shik; De Virgilio, Armando; Lee, So Yoon; Seol, Jeong Hun; Kim, Se-Heon

    2012-06-01

    The recent trend in treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer is organ preservation in order to maintain swallowing and speech function as well as improve quality of life. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) can remove hypopharyngeal lesions successfully without an external incision, preserving physiologic functions of affected organs. However, studies have yet to assess the oncologic and functional results of TORS for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer. This prospective study evaluated the oncologic and functional results of TORS for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer obtained at our institution over a period of 3 years and confirmed the validity of TORS as a surgical organ-preserving strategy. Between April 2008 and September 2011, 23 patients who were diagnosed with hypopharyngeal cancer underwent TORS for removal of a primary lesion. The da Vinci Robotic system (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, California) was used to remove the lesion. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze overall survival and disease-free survival. Videopharyngogram study (VEF) was performed and functional outcome swallowing scale (FOSS) was utilized to measure and evaluate swallowing function. Acoustic wave form analysis was conducted to evaluate voice status. Overall survival at 3 years was 89% and disease-free survival was 84%. On the VEF study, serious aspiration or delay of swallowing was not observed during the pharyngeal stage of the swallowing process. Overall, 96% of the patients showed favorable swallowing abilities with an FOSS score ranging from 0 to 2. The fundamental frequency variation (vF0) and jitter were increased upon acoustic waveform analysis (vF0=2.71 ± 0.063, Jitter=2.01 ± 0.034), but the harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) and shimmer were maintained close to the normal range (HNR=1.28 ± 0.001, Shim=1.74 ± 0.036). The oncologic and functional results of TORS were quite acceptable for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer. TORS is a valid treatment option as a

  2. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  3. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  4. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, H.

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs.

  5. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  6. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  7. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  8. Robot Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Tests with robots and the high-fidelity Hubble Space Telescope mockup astronauts use to train for servicing missions have convinced NASA managers it may be possible to maintain and upgrade the orbiting observatory without sending a space shuttle to do the job. In a formal request last week, the agency gave bidders until July 16 to sub-mit proposals for a robotic mission to the space telescope before the end of 2007. At a minimum, the mission would attach a rocket motor to deorbit the telescope safely when its service life ends. In the best case, it would use state-of-the- art robotics to prolong its life on orbit and install new instruments. With the space shuttle off-limits for the job under strict post-Columbia safety policies set by Administrator Sean O'Keefe, NASA has designed a "straw- man" robotic mission that would use an Atlas V or Delta N to launch a 20,ooO-lb. "Hubble Robotic Vehicle" to service the telescope. There, a robotic arm would grapple it, much as the shuttle does.

  9. Rehabilitation robotics

    PubMed Central

    KREBS, H.I.; VOLPE, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician’s toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual’s functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We will provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we will then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We will present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. PMID:23312648

  10. Medical robotics.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management. PMID:21642033

  11. Generic robot architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J; Few, Douglas A

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  12. Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Space Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm) is a 50 foot robot arm used to deploy, retrieve or repair satellites in orbit. Initial spinoff version is designed to remove, inspect and replace large components of Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear reactors, which supply 50 percent of Ontario Hydro's total power reduction. CANDU robot is the first of SPAR's Remote Manipulator Systems intended for remote materials handling operations in nuclear servicing, chemical processing, smelting and manufacturing. Inco Limited used remote manipulator for remote control mining equipment to enhance safety and productivity of Inco's hardrock mining operations. System not only improves safety in a hazardous operation that costs more than a score of lives annually, it also increases productivity fourfold. Remote Manipulator System Division is also manufacturing a line of industrial robots and developing additional system for nuclear servicing, mining, defense and space operations.

  13. Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A commercially available ANDROS Mark V-A robot was used by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as the departure point in the development of the HAZBOT III, a prototype teleoperated mobile robot designed for response to emergencies. Teleoperated robots contribute significantly to reducing human injury levels by performing tasks too hazardous for humans. ANDROS' manufacturer, REMOTEC, Inc., in turn, adopted some of the JPL concepts, particularly the control panel. HAZBOT III has exceptional mobility, employs solid state electronics and brushless DC motors for safer operation, and is designed so combustible gases cannot penetrate areas containing electronics and motors. Other features include the six-degree-of-freedom manipulator, the 30-pound squeeze force parallel jaw gripper and two video cameras, one for general viewing and navigation and the other for manipulation/grasping.

  14. Robot Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Engineers and interns at this NASA field center are building the prototype of a robotic rover that could go where no wheeled rover has gone before-into the dark cold craters at the lunar poles and across the Moon s rugged highlands-like a walking tetrahedron. With NASA pushing to meet President Bush's new exploration objectives, the robots taking shape here today could be on the Moon in a decade. In the longer term, the concept could lead to shape-shifting robot swarms designed to explore distant planetary surfaces in advance of humans. "If you look at all of NASA s projections of the future, anyone s projections of the space program, they re all rigid-body architecture," says Steven Curtis, principal investigator on the effort. "This is not rigid-body. The whole key here is flexibility and reconfigurability with a capital R."

  15. Robotic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, H. I.; Hogan, N.

    2012-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a remarkable shift in the neuro-rehabilitation paradigm. Neuroscientists and clinicians moved away from the perception that the brain is static and hardwired, to a new dynamic understanding that plasticity is a fundamental property of the adult human brain and might be harnessed to remap or create new neural pathways. Capitalizing on this innovative understanding, we introduced a paradigm shift in the clinical practice in 1989 when we initiated the development of the MIT-Manus robot for neuro-rehabilitation and deployed it in the clinic in 1994 10. Since then, we and others have developed and tested a multitude of robotic devices for stroke, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. Here we discuss whether robotic therapy has achieved a level of maturity to justify its broad adoption in the clinical realm as a tool for motor recovery. PMID:23080044

  16. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  17. Robot Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Mecanotron, now division of Robotics and Automation Corporation, developed a quick-change welding method called the Automatic Robotics Tool-change System (ARTS) under Marshall Space Flight Center and Rockwell International contracts. The ARTS system has six tool positions ranging from coarse sanding disks and abrasive wheels to cloth polishing wheels with motors of various horsepower. The system is used by fabricators of plastic body parts for the auto industry, by Texas Instruments for making radar domes, and for advanced composites at Aerospatiale in France.

  18. Beyond Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tally, Beth; Laverdure, Nate

    2006-01-01

    Chantilly High School Academy Robotics Team Number 612 from Chantilly, Virginia, is an award-winning team of high school students actively involved with FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), a multinational nonprofit organization that inspires students to transform culture--making science, math, engineering and…

  19. Robotic Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2007-01-01

    The medical field has many uses for automated and remote-controlled technology. For example, if a tissue sample is only handled in the laboratory by a robotic handling system, then it will never come into contact with a human. Such a system not only helps to automate the medical testing process, but it also helps to reduce the chances of…

  20. Robot-assisted coronary artery bypass grafting improves short-term outcomes compared with minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wenhui; Cai, Junfeng; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Anqing; Ye, Xiaofeng; Li, Haiqing

    2016-01-01

    Background Robot-assisted coronary artery bypass grafts (RACAB) utilizing the da Vinci surgical system are increasingly used and allow the surgeon to conveniently harvest internal mammary arteries (IMAs). The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of off-pump RACAB and minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB) in the short and medium term. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 132 patients with single- or multiple-vessel coronary artery disease who underwent minimally invasive off-pump CABG (OPCAB) between May 2009 and May 2014. The patients were divided into two groups based on the surgical approach, MIDCAB and RACAB group. The anastomosis of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was performed as regular OPCAB through the incision on the beating heart using regular stabilization devices (Genzyme Corporation). The preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative, and follow-up data, including major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), were compared. Results The preoperative data were similar. RACAB significantly shorten the intensive care unit (ICU) stay and postoperative compared with the MIDCAB group (P<0.05). There were 12 (19.7%) patients treated with a two-stage hybrid procedure in the MIDCAB group and 34 (47.9%) patients in the RACAB group (P=0.001). Thirty-day mortality was 1.6% in the MIDCAB group. There were 9 (14.7%) MIDCAB patients and 2 (2.8%) RACAB patients (P=0.013) that developed new arrhythmia. The two groups showed comparable mid-term survival (P=0.246), but the MACCEs were significantly different (P=0.038). Conclusions RACAB may be a valuable alternative for patients requiring single or simple multi-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Although the mid-term mortality outcomes are similar, RACAB improves short-term outcomes and mid-term MACCE-free survival compared with MIDCAB. PMID:27076941

  1. Robotics Education and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Charles C.

    1993-01-01

    Describes characteristics of robots, provides a glossary of related terms, and discusses available careers in the field of robotics. Includes a list of postsecondary institutions with robotics programs. (JOW)

  2. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOEpatents

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  3. What Is the Moral Imperative of Workplace Learning: Unlocking the DaVinci Code of Human Resource Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Tom

    2006-01-01

    In the course of the author's doctoral study, he is exploring the strategic linkages between learning activities in the modern workplace and the long-term success they bring to organisations. For many years, this challenge has been the Holy Grail of human resource (HR) development practitioners, who invest heavily on training and professional…

  4. Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  5. Robotic Stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    UltraStrip Systems, Inc.'s M-200 removes paint from the hulls of ships faster than traditional grit-blasting methods. And, it does so without producing toxic airborne particles common to traditional methods. The M-2000 magnetically attaches itself to the hull of the ship. Its water jets generate 40,000 pounds of pressure per square inch, blasting away paint down to the ships steel substrate. The only by product is water and dried paint chips and these are captured by a vacuum system so no toxic residue can escape. It was built out of a partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the National Robotics Engineering Consortium.

  6. Robots and manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heer, E.

    1981-11-01

    Robots are defined and described for various applications. The key feature of robots is programmability, which allows teleoperation, repair work in hazardous situations, and unsupervised operation in industrial functions. Two types of robots now exist: special purpose, with equipment for a specific task; and general purpose, which include nonservo-controlled robots, servo-controlled robots, and sensory control robots. Sensory robots are the most sophisticated, and are equipped with both internal control sensors and external sensors such as TV cameras, pressure detectors, laser range finders, etc. Sensory feedback to a central computer enables the robots to make appropriate modifications to the control program to adapt to new situations. Pattern recognition and scans for size are features of the TV sensors, and programs to develop a universal effector (hand) are outlined. Finally, robot programming in terms of manual, walkthrough, and textual methods are described, and the potential uses of robots for space and undersea construction and repair are discussed.

  7. Robotic Vision for Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Vision system for robotic welder looks at weld along axis of welding electrode. Gives robot view of most of weld area, including yet-unwelded joint, weld pool, and completed weld bead. Protected within welding-torch body, lens and fiber bundle give robot closeup view of weld in progress. Relayed to video camera on robot manipulator frame, weld image provides data for automatic control of robot motion and welding parameters.

  8. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  9. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  10. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  11. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  12. Robotic sacrocolpopexy

    PubMed Central

    Danforth, Teresa L.; Aron, Monish; Ginsberg, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a prevalent condition with 1 in 9 women seeking surgical treatment by the age of 80 years. Goals of treatment are relief and prevention of symptoms, and restoration of pelvic floor support. The gold standard for surgical treatment of POP has been abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC). However, emerging technologies have allowed for more minimally invasive approach including the use of laparoscopic assisted sacrocolpopexy and robotic assisted sacrocolpopexy (RASC). We performed a PubMed literature search for sacrocolpopexy, “robotic sacrocolpopexy” and “RASC” and reviewed all retrospective, prospective and randomized controlled trials. The techniques, objective and subjective outcomes and complications are discussed. The most frequent technique involves a polypropylene Y mesh attached to the anterior and posterior walls of the vagina with the single arm attached to the sacrum. Multiple concomitant procedures have been described including hysterectomy, anti-incontinence procedures and concomitant vaginal prolapse repairs. There are few studies comparing RASC to ASC, with the longest follow-up data showing no difference in subjective and objective outcomes. Anatomic success rates have been reported at 79-100% with up to 9% of patients requiring successive surgery for recurrence. Subjective success is poorly defined, but has been reported at 88-97%. Most common complications are urinary retention, urinary tract infection, bladder injury and vaginal mucosal injury. Mesh exposure is reported in up to 10% of patients. RASC allows for a minimally invasive approach to treatment of POP with comparable outcomes and low complication rates. PMID:25097320

  13. Hexapod Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begody, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    The project I am working on at NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is a hexapod robot. This project was started by various engineers at the Trick Lab. The goal of this project is to have the hexapod track a yellow ball or possibly another object from left to right and up/down. The purpose is to have it track an object like a real creature. The project will consist of using software and hardware. This project started with a hexapod robot which uses a senor bar to track a yellow ball but with a limited field of vision. The sensor bar acts as the robots "head." Two servos will be added to the hexapod to create flexion and extension of the head. The neck and head servos will have to be programmed to be added to the original memory map of the existing servos. I will be using preexisting code. The main programming language that will be used to add to the preexisting code is C++. The trick modeling and simulation software will also be used in the process to improve its tracking and movement. This project will use a trial and error approach, basically seeing what works and what does not. The first step is to initially understand how the hexapod works. To get a general understanding of how the hexapod maneuvers and plan on how to had a neck and head servo which works with the rest of the body. The second step would be configuring the head and neck servos with the leg servos. During this step, limits will be programmed specifically for the each servo. By doing this, the servo is limited to how far it can rotate both clockwise and counterclockwise and this is to prevent hardware damage. The hexapod will have two modes in which it works in. The first mode will be if the sensor bar does not detect an object. If the object it is programmed to look for is not in its view it will automatically scan from left to right 3 times then up and down once. The second mode will be if the sensor bar does detect the object. In this mode the hexapod will track the object from left to

  14. Multiple robot systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    1987-01-01

    Viewgraphs from a presentation on multiple robot systems in space are included. Topics covered include categories of robots in space; scenarios of robot applications in space; some characteristics of robots in space; and some interesting problems and issues.

  15. Robotic intelligence kernel

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J.

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  16. Humanoid Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Strawser, Phillip A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank N. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a torso, a pair of arms, two hands, a neck, and a head. The torso extends along a primary axis and presents a pair of shoulders. The pair of arms movably extend from a respective one of the pair of shoulders. Each of the arms has a plurality of arm joints. The neck movably extends from the torso along the primary axis. The neck has at least one neck joint. The head movably extends from the neck along the primary axis. The head has at least one head joint. The shoulders are canted toward one another at a shrug angle that is defined between each of the shoulders such that a workspace is defined between the shoulders.

  17. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  18. Modeling robot contour processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, D. E.; Edsall, A. C.

    Robot contour processes include those with contact force like car body grinding or deburring of complex castings, as well as those with little or no contact force like inspection. This paper describes ways of characterizing, identifying, and estimating contours and robot trajectories. Contour and robot are modeled as stochastic processes in order to emphasize that both successive robot cycles and successive industrial workpieces are similar but not exactly the same. The stochastic models can be used to identify the state of a workpiece or process, or to design a filter to estimate workpiece, shape and robot position from robot-based measurements.

  19. Robotic technology in urology.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D; Challacombe, B; Khan, M S; Dasgupta, P

    2006-11-01

    Urology has increasingly become a technology-driven specialty. The advent of robotic surgical systems in the past 10 years has led to urologists becoming the world leaders in the use of such technology. In this paper, we review the history and current status of robotic technology in urology. From the earliest uses of robots for transurethral resection of the prostate, to robotic devices for manipulating laparoscopes and to the current crop of master-slave devices for robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery, the evolution of robotics in the urology operating theatre is presented. Future possibilities, including the prospects for nanotechnology in urology, are awaited. PMID:17099094

  20. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  1. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications. PMID:23582470

  2. Competencies Identification for Robotics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Le D.

    A study focused on the task of identifying competencies for robotics training. The level of robotics training was limited to that of robot technicians. Study objectives were to obtain a list of occupational competencies; to rank their order of importance; and to compare opinions from robot manufacturers, robot users, and robotics educators…

  3. Robotic Surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic

    2007-03-01

    ZAPATA ENGINEERING challenged our engineers and scientists, which included robotics expertise from Carnegie Mellon University, to design a solution to meet our client's requirements for rapid digital geophysical and radiological data collection of a munitions test range with no down-range personnel. A prime concern of the project was to minimize exposure of personnel to unexploded ordnance and radiation. The field season was limited by extreme heat, cold and snow. Geographical Information System (GIS) tools were used throughout this project to accurately define the limits of mapped areas, build a common mapping platform from various client products, track production progress, allocate resources and relate subsurface geophysical information to geographical features for use in rapidly reacquiring targets for investigation. We were hopeful that our platform could meet the proposed 35 acres per day, towing both a geophysical package and a radiological monitoring trailer. We held our breath and crossed our fingers as the autonomous Speedrower began to crawl across the playa lakebed. We met our proposed production rate, and we averaged just less than 50 acres per 12-hour day using the autonomous platform with a path tracking error of less than +/- 4 inches. Our project team mapped over 1,800 acres in an 8-week (4 days per week) timeframe. The expertise of our partner, Carnegie Mellon University, was recently demonstrated when their two autonomous vehicle entries finished second and third at the 2005 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Grand Challenge. 'The Grand Challenge program was established to help foster the development of autonomous vehicle technology that will some day help save the lives of Americans who are protecting our country on the battlefield', said DARPA Grand Challenge Program Manager, Ron Kurjanowicz. Our autonomous remote-controlled vehicle (ARCV) was a modified New Holland 2550 Speedrower retrofitted to allow the machine

  4. Robotic Lander Prototype

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers successfully integrated and completed system testing on a new robotic lander recently at Teledyne Brown Engineering’s facility in Huntsville in support of the Robotic Lunar Lander ...

  5. Robotic space colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, P.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in these technologies, with a particular focus on experimental state-of-the-art robot work crew system demonstrations at JPL, that are being conducted now to begin to realize the futuristic robotic colony vision.

  6. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Mike C.

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Comms is the communication server that transmits information between one or more robots using the RIK and one or more user interfaces. It supports event handling and multiple hardware communication protocols.

  7. Robots and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, James S.

    1984-01-01

    Spectacular advances in microcomputers are forging new technological frontiers in robotics. For example, many factories will be totally automated. Economic implications of the new technology of robotics for the future are examined. (RM)

  8. Robotic Lander Development Project

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Robotic Lander Development Project at the Marshall Center is testing a prototype lander that will aid in the design and development of a new generation of small, smart, versatile robotic lander...

  9. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  10. Robotics research projects report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsia, T.C.

    1983-06-01

    The research results of the Robotics Research Laboratory are summarized. Areas of research include robotic control, a stand-alone vision system for industrial robots, and sensors other than vision that would be useful for image ranging, including ultrasonic and infra-red devices. One particular project involves RHINO, a 6-axis robotic arm that can be manipulated by serial transmission of ASCII command strings to its interfaced controller. (LEW)

  11. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-11-11

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

  12. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, Todd A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

  13. Robotic Follow Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The Robotic Follow Algorithm enables allows any robotic vehicle to follow a moving target while reactively choosing a route around nearby obstacles. The robotic follow behavior can be used with different camera systems and can be used with thermal or visual tracking as well as other tracking methods such as radio frequency tags.

  14. Robotics development programs overview

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-11-01

    This paper discusses the applications of robotics at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) continues to provide support to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many areas of Robotics and Remote Vision. An overview of the current and near term future developments are presented. The driving forces for Robotics and Vision developments at SRS include the classic reasons for industrial robotics installation (i.e. repetitive and undesirable jobs) and those reasons related to radioactive environments. Protection of personnel from both radiation and radioactive contamination benefit greatly from both Robotics and Telerobotics. Additionally, the quality of information available from remote locations benefits greatly from the ability to visually monitor and remotely sense. The systems discussed include a glovebox waste handling and bagout robot, a shielded cells robot for radioactive waste sample transfer, waste handling gantry robots, a two armed master/slave manipulator as an attachment to a gantry robot, navigation robot research/testing, demonstration of the mobile underwater remote cleaning and inspection device, a camera deployment robot to support remote crane operations and for deployment of radiation sensors directly over a hazardous site, and demonstration of a large mobile robot for high radiation environments. Development of specialized and limited life vision/viewing systems for hazardous environments is also discussed.

  15. Building a Better Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  16. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Visualization

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Visualization is the software that supports the user interface. It uses the RIK-C software to communicate information to and from the robot. The RIK-V illustrates the data in a 3D display and provides an operating picture wherein the user can task the robot.

  17. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence and robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included pattern recognition, image processing for intelligent robotics, three-dimensional vision (depth and motion), vision modeling and shape estimation, spatial reasoning, the symbolic processing visual information, robotic sensors and applications, intelligent control architectures for robot systems, robot languages and programming, human-machine interfaces, robotics applications, and architectures of robotics.

  18. Impacts of industrial robots

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.; Miller, S.

    1981-11-01

    This report briefly describes robot technology and goes into more depth about where robots are used, and some of the anticipated social and economic impacts of their use. A number of short term transitional issues, including problems of potential displacement, are discussed. The ways in which robots may impact the economics of batch production are described. A framework for analyzing the impacts of robotics on economywide economic growth and employment is presented. Human resource policy issues are discussed. A chronology of robotics technology is also given.

  19. Microgravity robotics technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A.; Lawrence, Charles; Brush, Andrew S.

    1988-01-01

    A research program to develop technology for robots operating in the microgravity environment of the space station laboratory is described. These robots must be capable of manipulating payloads without causing them to experience harmful levels of acceleration, and the motion of these robots must not disturb adjacent experiments and operations by transmitting reactions that translate into damaging effects throughout the laboratory. Solutions to these problems, based on both mechanism technology and control strategies, are discussed. Methods are presented for reduction of robot base reactions through the use of redundant degrees of freedom, and the development of smoothly operating roller-driven robot joints for microgravity manipulators is discussed.

  20. Walking control of small size humanoid robot: HAJIME ROBOT 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hajime; Nakatsu, Ryohei

    2007-12-01

    HAJIME ROBOT 18 is a fully autonomous biped robot. It has been developed for RoboCup which is a worldwide soccer competition of robots. It is necessary for a robot to have high mobility to play soccer. High speed walking and all directional walking are important to approach and to locate in front of a ball. HAJIME ROBOT achieved these walking. This paper describes walking control of a small size humanoid robot 'HAJIME ROBOT 18' and shows the measurement result of ZMP (Zero Moment Point). HAJIME ROBOT won the Robotics Society of Japan Award in RoboCup 2005 and in RoboCup 2006 Japan Open.

  1. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; McCain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-03-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  2. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  3. Marsupial robots for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.

    2001-02-01

    Marsupial robots are a type of heterogeneous mobile robot team. A mother robot transports, supports, and recovers one or more daughter robots. This paper will cover the marsupial robot concept, the application of law enforcement, and recent results in collaborative teleoperation for the related task of urban search and rescue.

  4. Humanlike Robots - The Upcoming Revolution in Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-01-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  5. [Robotics and laparoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Martínez Ramos, Carlos

    2006-10-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has completely revolutionized modern surgery. In addition to its advantages, however, this approach also presents significant limitations. The most important are loss of the sense of depth, tactile sensation and resistance, as well as loss of natural hand-eye coordination and manual dexterity. The main motivation for the development of surgical robots is the possibility of eliminating all these limitations. Robots have acquired great potential to improve the operative possibilities of surgeons. Given the continual increase in the use of surgical robots, in the near future the structure and appearance of current operating rooms will change. The present article analyzes the origin and development of robotic systems, as well as the characteristics of the latest generation of robots. Because of the strong interest in robotic surgery and its future prospects, surgeons should be familiar with these emerging and innovative techniques. PMID:17040667

  6. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-01-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  7. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-02-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  8. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  9. Robotics and industrial inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Image processing algorithms are discussed, taking into account hidden information in early visual processing, three-dimensional shape recognition by moirecorrelation, spatial-frequency representations of images with scale invariant properties, image-based focusing, the computational structure for the Walsh-Hadamard transform, a hybrid optical/digital moment-based robotic pattern recognition system, affordable implementations of image processing algorithms, and an analysis of low-level computer vision algorithms for implementation on a very large scale integrated processor array. Other topics considered are related to government programs and needs in robotics, DoD research and applications in robotics, time-varying image processing and control, industrial robotics, industrial applications of computer vision, and object perception and mensuration for robotics. Attention is given to laser scanning techniques for automatic inspection of heat-sealed film packages, computer software for robotic vision, and computerized tomography on a logarithmic polar grid.

  10. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  11. INL Multi-Robot Control Interface

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The INL Multi-Robot Control Interface controls many robots through a single user interface. The interface includes a robot display window for each robot showing the robot’s condition. More than one window can be used depending on the number of robots. The user interface also includes a robot control window configured to receive commands for sending to the respective robot and a multi-robot common window showing information received from each robot.

  12. NASA Robot Brain Surgeon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer Michael Guerrero works on the Robot Brain Surgeon testbed in the NeuroEngineering Group at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Principal investigator Dr. Robert W. Mah states that potentially the simple robot will be able to feel brain structures better than any human surgeon, making slow, very precise movements during an operation. The brain surgery robot that may give surgeons finer control of surgical instruments during delicate brain operations is still under development.

  13. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  14. Hopping Robot with Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Edward; Marzwell, Nevellie; Fuller, Sawyer; Fionni, Paolo; Tretton, Andy; Burdick, Joel; Schell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A small prototype mobile robot is capable of (1) hopping to move rapidly or avoid obstacles and then (2) moving relatively slowly and precisely on the ground by use of wheels in the manner of previously reported exploratory robots of the "rover" type. This robot is a descendant of a more primitive hopping robot described in "Minimally Actuated Hopping Robot" (NPO- 20911), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 50. There are many potential applications for robots with hopping and wheeled-locomotion (roving) capabilities in diverse fields of endeavor, including agriculture, search-and-rescue operations, general military operations, removal or safe detonation of land mines, inspection, law enforcement, and scientific exploration on Earth and remote planets. The combination of hopping and roving enables this robot to move rapidly over very rugged terrain, to overcome obstacles several times its height, and then to position itself precisely next to a desired target. Before a long hop, the robot aims itself in the desired hopping azimuth and at a desired takeoff angle above horizontal. The robot approaches the target through a series of hops and short driving operations utilizing the steering wheels for precise positioning.

  15. Advanced robot locomotion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  16. [Robots and intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing. PMID:24558740

  17. Robotics for welding research

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, G.; Jones, J.

    1984-09-01

    The welding metallurgy research and education program at Colorado School of Mines (CSM) is helping industries make the transition toward automation by training students in robotics. Industry's interest is primarily in pick and place operations, although robotics can increase efficiency in areas other than production. Training students to develop fully automated robotic welding systems will usher in new curriculum requirements in the area of computers and microprocessors. The Puma 560 robot is CSM's newest acquisition for welding research 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  18. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  19. The robotics review 1

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib, O.; Craig, J.J.; Lozano-Perez, T.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical and implementation issues in robotics are discussed in reviews of recent investigations. Sections are devoted to programming, planning, and learning; sensing and perception; kinematics, dynamics, and design; and motion and force control. Particular attention is given to a robust layered control system for a mobile robot, camera calibration for three-dimensional machine vision, walking vehicles, design and control of direct-drive vehicles, an efficient parallel algorithm for robot inverse dynamics, stability problems in contact tasks, and kinematics and reaction-moment compensation for satellite-mounted robot manipulators.

  20. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  1. Hazardous Environment Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed video overlay calibration and demonstration techniques for ground-based telerobotics. Through a technology sharing agreement with JPL, Deneb Robotics added this as an option to its robotics software, TELEGRIP. The software is used for remotely operating robots in nuclear and hazardous environments in industries including automotive and medical. The option allows the operator to utilize video to calibrate 3-D computer models with the actual environment, and thus plan and optimize robot trajectories before the program is automatically generated.

  2. Robotic Thumb Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Goza, S. Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An improved robotic thumb for a robotic hand assembly is provided. According to one aspect of the disclosure, improved tendon routing in the robotic thumb provides control of four degrees of freedom with only five tendons. According to another aspect of the disclosure, one of the five degrees of freedom of a human thumb is replaced in the robotic thumb with a permanent twist in the shape of a phalange. According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a position sensor includes a magnet having two portions shaped as circle segments with different center points. The magnet provides a linearized output from a Hall effect sensor.

  3. Asteroid Redirect Mission: Robotic Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation illustrates the robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission. The Asteroid Redirect Vehicle, powered by solar electric propulsion, travels to a large asteroid to robot...

  4. Canadian space robotic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  5. Multi-robot control interface

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J.; Walton, Miles C.

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  6. Robotics technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, Melvin D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on robotics technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: mechanisms; sensors; systems engineering processes for integrated robotics; man/machine cooperative control; 3D-real-time machine perception; multiple arm redundancy control; manipulator control from a movable base; multi-agent reasoning; and surfacing evolution technologies.

  7. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  8. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  9. Robotics in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, D. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technologies play a very important role in our lives. It is hard to imagine how people can get along without personal computers, and companies - without powerful computer centers. Nowadays, many devices make modern medicine more effective. Medicine is developing constantly, so introduction of robots in this sector is a very promising activity. Advances in technology have influenced medicine greatly. Robotic surgery is now actively developing worldwide. Scientists have been carrying out research and practical attempts to create robotic surgeons for more than 20 years, since the mid-80s of the last century. Robotic assistants play an important role in modern medicine. This industry is new enough and is at the early stage of development; despite this, some developments already have worldwide application; they function successfully and bring invaluable help to employees of medical institutions. Today, doctors can perform operations that seemed impossible a few years ago. Such progress in medicine is due to many factors. First, modern operating rooms are equipped with up-to-date equipment, allowing doctors to make operations more accurately and with less risk to the patient. Second, technology has enabled to improve the quality of doctors' training. Various types of robots exist now: assistants, military robots, space, household and medical, of course. Further, we should make a detailed analysis of existing types of robots and their application. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the most popular types of robots used in medicine.

  10. Robotics and Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmison, Glenn A.; And Others

    Robots are becoming increasingly common in American industry. By l990, they will revolutionize the way industry functions, replacing hundreds of workers and doing hot, dirty jobs better and more quickly than the workers could have done them. Robotics should be taught in high school industrial arts programs as a major curriculum component. The…

  11. Robots in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, George; Spain, Tom

    1984-01-01

    Educational robots are defined, their essential characteristics and features are outlined, and their educational applications and what makes them run are discussed. Classroom experiences with five educational robots--Topo, Rhino XR-2, RB5X, Hero I and Tasman Turtle--are described. (MBR)

  12. Next generation space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Oda, Mitsushige; Imai, Ryoichi

    1989-01-01

    The recent research effort on the next generation space robots is presented. The goals of this research are to develop the fundamental technologies and to acquire the design parameters of the next generation space robot. Visual sensing and perception, dexterous manipulation, man machine interface and artificial intelligence techniques such as task planning are identified as the key technologies.

  13. The 50-Minute Robot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Miram R.

    1985-01-01

    Sixth graders built working "robots" (or grasping bars) for remote control use during a unit on simple mechanics. Steps for making a robot are presented, including: cutting the wood, drilling and nailing, assembling the jaws, and making them work. The "jaws," used to pick up objects, illustrate principles of levers. (DH)

  14. Real World Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lisa J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a project for elementary school students in which students build a robot by following instructions and then write a computer program to run their robot by using LabView graphical development software. Uses ROBOLAB curriculum which is designed for grade levels K-12. (YDS)

  15. Education by Robot!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    This article describes BEST (Boosting Engineering, Science, and Technology), a hands-on robotics program founded by Texas Instruments engineers Ted Mahler and Steve Marum. BEST links educators with industry to provide middle and high school students with a peek into the exciting world of robotics, with the goal of inspiring and interesting…

  16. Randomization in robot tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdmann, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of randomization in the solution of robot manipulation tasks. One example of randomization is shown by the strategy of shaking a bin holding a part in order to orient the part in a desired stable state with some high probability. Randomization can be useful for mobile robot navigation and as a means of guiding the design process.

  17. Self-Reconfigurable Robots

    SciTech Connect

    HENSINGER, DAVID M.; JOHNSTON, GABRIEL A.; HINMAN-SWEENEY, ELAINE M.; FEDDEMA, JOHN T.; ESKRIDGE, STEVEN E.

    2002-10-01

    A distributed reconfigurable micro-robotic system is a collection of unlimited numbers of distributed small, homogeneous robots designed to autonomously organize and reorganize in order to achieve mission-specified geometric shapes and functions. This project investigated the design, control, and planning issues for self-configuring and self-organizing robots. In the 2D space a system consisting of two robots was prototyped and successfully displayed automatic docking/undocking to operate dependently or independently. Additional modules were constructed to display the usefulness of a self-configuring system in various situations. In 3D a self-reconfiguring robot system of 4 identical modules was built. Each module connects to its neighbors using rotating actuators. An individual component can move in three dimensions on its neighbors. We have also built a self-reconfiguring robot system consisting of 9-module Crystalline Robot. Each module in this robot is actuated by expansion/contraction. The system is fully distributed, has local communication (to neighbors) capabilities and it has global sensing capabilities.

  18. Mechanochemically Active Soft Robots.

    PubMed

    Gossweiler, Gregory R; Brown, Cameron L; Hewage, Gihan B; Sapiro-Gheiler, Eitan; Trautman, William J; Welshofer, Garrett W; Craig, Stephen L

    2015-10-14

    The functions of soft robotics are intimately tied to their form-channels and voids defined by an elastomeric superstructure that reversibly stores and releases mechanical energy to change shape, grip objects, and achieve complex motions. Here, we demonstrate that covalent polymer mechanochemistry provides a viable mechanism to convert the same mechanical potential energy used for actuation in soft robots into a mechanochromic, covalent chemical response. A bis-alkene functionalized spiropyran (SP) mechanophore is cured into a molded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) soft robot walker and gripper. The stresses and strains necessary for SP activation are compatible with soft robot function. The color change associated with actuation suggests opportunities for not only new color changing or camouflaging strategies, but also the possibility for simultaneous activation of latent chemistry (e.g., release of small molecules, change in mechanical properties, activation of catalysts, etc.) in soft robots. In addition, mechanochromic stress mapping in a functional robotic device might provide a useful design and optimization tool, revealing spatial and temporal force evolution within the robot in a way that might be coupled to autonomous feedback loops that allow the robot to regulate its own activity. The demonstration motivates the simultaneous development of new combinations of mechanophores, materials, and soft, active devices for enhanced functionality. PMID:26390078

  19. Robot Rodeo 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Deuel, Jake

    2013-08-27

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  20. Motivating Students with Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda; Collver, Michael; Kasarda, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the need to advance the number of individuals pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields has gained much attention. The Montgomery County/Virginia Tech Robotics Collaborative (MCVTRC), a yearlong high school robotics program housed in an educational shop facility in Montgomery County, Virginia, seeks to…

  1. Robot Rodeo 2013

    ScienceCinema

    Deuel, Jake

    2014-02-26

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  2. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  3. Going Green Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    In looking at the interesting shapes and sizes of old computer parts, creating robots quickly came to the author's mind. In this article, she describes how computer parts can be used creatively. Students will surely enjoy creating their very own robots while learning about the importance of recycling in the society. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  4. Dictionary of robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, H.

    1985-01-01

    The idea of using robots to perform repetitious tasks quickly, cheaply and efficiently has intrigued humans since the Industrial Revolution. Growth has occurred geometrically from the introduction of the first industrial robot in 1955, and continues, unabated, as industry sales are expected to increase 20-fold with applications in both high technology and industry. The Dictionary defines not only those terms standard to robotics but also those used in areas that are just beginning to be involved. The book offers concise, readable descriptions of robot systems, actions, hardware (including applications), communications, computer control, dynamics, cost justification, feedback, kinematics, man-machine interface, sensors and software. There are references to all major robots and manufacturers in the US, Europe and Japan.

  5. Intelligent Articulated Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyein, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an articulated type of industrial used robot is discussed. The robot is mainly intended to be used in pick and place operation. It will sense the object at the specified place and move it to a desired location. A peripheral interface controller (PIC16F84A) is used as the main controller of the robot. Infrared LED and IR receiver unit for object detection and 4-bit bidirectional universal shift registers (74LS194) and high current and high voltage Darlington transistors arrays (ULN2003) for driving the arms' motors are used in this robot. The amount of rotation for each arm is regulated by the limit switches. The operation of the robot is very simple but it has the ability of to overcome resetting position after power failure. It can continue its work from the last position before the power is failed without needing to come back to home position.

  6. Honda humanoid robots development.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masato; Ogawa, Kenichi

    2007-01-15

    Honda has been doing research on robotics since 1986 with a focus upon bipedal walking technology. The research started with straight and static walking of the first prototype two-legged robot. Now, the continuous transition from walking in a straight line to making a turn has been achieved with the latest humanoid robot ASIMO. ASIMO is the most advanced robot of Honda so far in the mechanism and the control system. ASIMO's configuration allows it to operate freely in the human living space. It could be of practical help to humans with its ability of five-finger arms as well as its walking function. The target of further development of ASIMO is to develop a robot to improve life in human society. Much development work will be continued both mechanically and electronically, staying true to Honda's 'challenging spirit'. PMID:17148047

  7. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  8. A Survey of Space Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, L.; Kortenkamp, D.; Wettergreen, D.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we summarize a survey conducted by NASA to determine the state-of-the-art in space robotics and to predict future robotic capabilities under either nominal and intensive development effort. The space robotics assessment study examined both in-space operations including assembly, inspection, and maintenance and planetary surface operations like mobility and exploration. Applications of robotic autonomy and human-robot cooperation were considered. The study group devised a decomposition of robotic capabilities and then suggested metrics to specify the technical challenges associated with each. The conclusion of this paper identifies possible areas in which investment in space robotics could lead to significant advances of important technologies.

  9. Partner Ballroom Dance Robot -PBDR-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Takahiro; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Nomura, Minoru; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Koizumi, Mizuo; Oconogi, Tatsuya

    In this research, we have developed a dance partner robot, which has been developed as a platform for realizing the effective human-robot coordination with physical interaction. The robot could estimate the next dance step intended by a human and dance the step with the human. This paper introduce the robot referred to as PBDR (Partner Ballroom Dance Robot), which has performed graceful dancing with the human in EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan.

  10. Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has created codes that ensure that a robot will come to a stop at a precise, specified distance from any obstacle regardless of the robot's initial speed, its physical characteristics, and the responsiveness of the low-level motor control schema. This Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots system iteratively adjusts the robot's action in response to information about the robot's environment.

  11. Toward cognitive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, John E.

    2009-05-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop autonomous robotic systems that have the cognitive abilities of humans, including communication, coordination, adapting to novel situations, and learning through experience. Our approach rests on the recent integration of the Soar cognitive architecture with both virtual and physical robotic systems. Soar has been used to develop a wide variety of knowledge-rich agents for complex virtual environments, including distributed training environments and interactive computer games. For development and testing in robotic virtual environments, Soar interfaces to a variety of robotic simulators and a simple mobile robot. We have recently made significant extensions to Soar that add new memories and new non-symbolic reasoning to Soar's original symbolic processing, which should significantly improve Soar abilities for control of robots. These extensions include episodic memory, semantic memory, reinforcement learning, and mental imagery. Episodic memory and semantic memory support the learning and recalling of prior events and situations as well as facts about the world. Reinforcement learning provides the ability of the system to tune its procedural knowledge - knowledge about how to do things. Mental imagery supports the use of diagrammatic and visual representations that are critical to support spatial reasoning. We speculate on the future of unmanned systems and the need for cognitive robotics to support dynamic instruction and taskability.

  12. Future of robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lendvay, Thomas Sean; Hannaford, Blake; Satava, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    In just over a decade, robotic surgery has penetrated almost every surgical subspecialty and has even replaced some of the most commonly performed open oncologic procedures. The initial reports on patient outcomes yielded mixed results, but as more medical centers develop high-volume robotics programs, outcomes appear comparable if not improved for some applications. There are limitations to the current commercially available system, and new robotic platforms, some designed to compete in the current market and some to address niche surgical considerations, are being developed that will change the robotic landscape in the next decade. Adoption of these new systems will be dependent on overcoming barriers to true telesurgery that range from legal to logistical. As additional surgical disciplines embrace robotics and open surgery continues to be replaced by robotic approaches, it will be imperative that adequate education and training keep pace with technology. Methods to enhance surgical performance in robotics through the use of simulation and telementoring promise to accelerate learning curves and perhaps even improve surgical readiness through brief virtual-reality warm-ups and presurgical rehearsal. All these advances will need to be carefully and rigorously validated through not only patient outcomes, but also cost efficiency. PMID:23528717

  13. Door breaching robotic manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Erik; Parrington, Lawrence; von Muehlen, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    As unmanned systems become more commonplace in military, police, and other security forces, they are tasked to perform missions that the original hardware was not designed for. Current military robots are built for rough outdoor conditions and have strong inflexible manipulators designed to handle a wide range of operations. However, these manipulators are not well suited for some essential indoor tasks, including opening doors. This is a complicated kinematic task that places prohibitively difficult control challenges on the robot and the operator. Honeybee and iRobot have designed a modular door-breaching manipulator that mechanically simplifies the demands upon operator and robot. The manipulator connects to the existing robotic arm of the iRobot PackBot EOD. The gripper is optimized for grasping a variety of door knobs, levers, and car-door handles. It works in conjunction with a compliant wrist and magnetic lock-out mechanism that allows the wrist to remain rigid until the gripper has a firm grasp of the handle and then bend with its rotation and the swing of the door. Once the door is unlatched, the operator simply drives the robot through the doorway while the wrist compensates for the complex, multiple degree-of-freedom motion of the door. Once in the doorway the operator releases the handle, the wrist pops back into place, and the robot is ready for the next door. The new manipulator dramatically improves a robot's ability to non-destructively breach doors and perform an inspection of a room's content, a capability that was previously out of reach of unmanned systems.

  14. Robotics in shoulder rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Sicuri, Chiara; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Merolla, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the last few decades, several researches have been conducted in the field of robotic rehabilitation to meet the intensive, repetitive and task-oriented training, with the goal to recover the motor function. Up to now, robotic rehabilitation studies of the upper extremity have generally focused on stroke survivors leaving less explored the field of orthopaedic shoulder rehabilitation. In this review we analyse the present status of robotic technologies, in order to understand which are the current indications and which may be the future perspective for their application in both neurological and orthopaedic shoulder rehabilitation. PMID:25332937

  15. Agile Walking Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.; Waldron, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed agile walking robot operates over rocky, sandy, and sloping terrain. Offers stability and climbing ability superior to other conceptual mobile robots. Equipped with six articulated legs like those of insect, continually feels ground under leg before applying weight to it. If leg sensed unexpected object or failed to make contact with ground at expected point, seeks alternative position within radius of 20 cm. Failing that, robot halts, examines area around foot in detail with laser ranging imager, and replans entire cycle of steps for all legs before proceeding.

  16. Advanced mechanisms for robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of applied research and development at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) on mechanisms and collision avoidance skin for robots is presented. The work on robot end effectors is outlined, followed by a brief discussion of robot-friendly payload latching mechanisms and compliant joints. This is followed by discussions of the collision avoidance/management skin and the GSFC research on magnetorestrictive direct drive motors. A new project, the artificial muscle, is introduced. Each of the devices is described sufficiently to permit a basic understanding of its purpose, capabilities, and operating fundamentals. The implications for commercialization are discussed.

  17. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  18. MVACS Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; Noon, D.; Pixler, G.; Schenker, P.; Ton, T.; Tucker, C.; Zimmerman, W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  19. Architecture for robot intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, II, Richard Alan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a DBAM that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.

  20. Soft Robotics: New Perspectives for Robot Bodyware and Control

    PubMed Central

    Laschi, Cecilia; Cianchetti, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable advances of robotics in the last 50 years, which represent an incredible wealth of knowledge, are based on the fundamental assumption that robots are chains of rigid links. The use of soft materials in robotics, driven not only by new scientific paradigms (biomimetics, morphological computation, and others), but also by many applications (biomedical, service, rescue robots, and many more), is going to overcome these basic assumptions and makes the well-known theories and techniques poorly applicable, opening new perspectives for robot design and control. The current examples of soft robots represent a variety of solutions for actuation and control. Though very first steps, they have the potential for a radical technological change. Soft robotics is not just a new direction of technological development, but a novel approach to robotics, unhinging its fundamentals, with the potential to produce a new generation of robots, in the support of humans in our natural environments. PMID:25022259

  1. Soft Robotics: New Perspectives for Robot Bodyware and Control.

    PubMed

    Laschi, Cecilia; Cianchetti, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable advances of robotics in the last 50 years, which represent an incredible wealth of knowledge, are based on the fundamental assumption that robots are chains of rigid links. The use of soft materials in robotics, driven not only by new scientific paradigms (biomimetics, morphological computation, and others), but also by many applications (biomedical, service, rescue robots, and many more), is going to overcome these basic assumptions and makes the well-known theories and techniques poorly applicable, opening new perspectives for robot design and control. The current examples of soft robots represent a variety of solutions for actuation and control. Though very first steps, they have the potential for a radical technological change. Soft robotics is not just a new direction of technological development, but a novel approach to robotics, unhinging its fundamentals, with the potential to produce a new generation of robots, in the support of humans in our natural environments. PMID:25022259

  2. Software Architecture for Planetary and Lunar Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utz, Hans; Fong, Teny; Nesnas, Iasa A. D.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the role that software architecture plays in space and lunar robotics is shown. The topics include: 1) The Intelligent Robotics Group; 2) The Lunar Mission; 3) Lunar Robotics; and 4) Software Architecture for Space Robotics.

  3. Application of robotics in nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J S; Fisher, J J

    1986-01-01

    Industrial robots and other robotic systems have been successfully applied at the Savannah River nuclear site. These applications, new robotic systems presently under development, general techniques for the employment of robots in nuclear facilities, and future systems are discussed.

  4. Robotics and remote systems applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rabold, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    This article is a review of numerous remote inspection techniques in use at the Savannah River (and other) facilities. These include: (1) reactor tank inspection robot, (2) californium waste removal robot, (3) fuel rod lubrication robot, (4) cesium source manipulation robot, (5) tank 13 survey and decontamination robots, (6) hot gang valve corridor decontamination and junction box removal robots, (7) lead removal from deionizer vessels robot, (8) HB line cleanup robot, (9) remote operation of a front end loader at WIPP, (10) remote overhead video extendible robot, (11) semi-intelligent mobile observing navigator, (12) remote camera systems in the SRS canyons, (13) cameras and borescope for the DWPF, (14) Hanford waste tank camera system, (15) in-tank precipitation camera system, (16) F-area retention basin pipe crawler, (17) waste tank wall crawler and annulus camera, (18) duct inspection, and (19) deionizer resin sampling.

  5. Robotic follow system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J; Anderson, Matthew O

    2007-05-01

    Robot platforms, methods, and computer media are disclosed. The robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for a robot to follow a target in its environment. The method includes receiving a target bearing and sensing whether the robot is blocked front. If the robot is blocked in front, then the robot's motion is adjusted to avoid the nearest obstacle in front. If the robot is not blocked in front, then the method senses whether the robot is blocked toward the target bearing and if so, sets the rotational direction opposite from the target bearing, and adjusts the rotational velocity and translational velocity. If the robot is not blocked toward the target bearing, then the rotational velocity is adjusted proportional to an angle of the target bearing and the translational velocity is adjusted proportional to a distance to the nearest obstacle in front.

  6. K-10 Robots

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robots, scientists, engineers and flight controllers from NASA's Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, Calif., and NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, gathered at NASA Ames to perform a series...

  7. DOE Robotics Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document provide the bimonthly progress reports on the Department of Energy (DOE) Robotics Project by the University of Michigan. Reports are provided for the time periods of December 90/January 91 through June 91/July 91. (FI)

  8. Laser radar in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Carmer, D.C.; Peterson, L.M.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper the authors describe the basic operating principles of laser radar sensors and the typical algorithms used to process laser radar imagery for robotic applications. The authors review 12 laser radar sensors to illustrate the variety of systems that have been applied to robotic applications wherein information extracted from the laser radar data is used to automatically control a mechanism or process. Next, they describe selected robotic applications in seven areas: autonomous vehicle navigation, walking machine foot placement, automated service vehicles, manufacturing and inspection, automotive, military, and agriculture. They conclude with a discussion of the status of laser radar technology and suggest trends seen in the application of laser radar sensors to robotics. Many new applications are expected as the maturity level progresses and system costs are reduced.

  9. FIRST Robotics Kickoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA engineers Scott Olive (left) and Bo Clarke answer questions during the 2007 FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition regional kickoff event held Saturday, Jan. 6, 2007, at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The SSC employees and FIRST Robotics volunteer mentors are standing near a mock-up of the playing field for the FIRST Robotics' 2007 `Rack n' Roll' challenge. Roughly 300 students and adult volunteers - representing 29 high schools from four states - attended the kickoff to hear the rules of `Rack n' Roll.' The teams will spend the next six weeks building and programming robots from parts kits they received Saturday, then battle their creations at regional spring competitions in New Orleans, Houston, Atlanta and other cities around the nation. FIRST aims to inspire students in the pursuit of engineering and technology studies and careers.

  10. Rolling friction robot fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A low friction, object guidance, and gripping finger device for a robotic end effector on a robotic arm is disclosed, having a pair of robotic fingers each having a finger shaft slideably located on a gripper housing attached to the end effector. Each of the robotic fingers has a roller housing attached to the finger shaft. The roller housing has a ball bearing mounted centering roller located at the center, and a pair of ball bearing mounted clamping rollers located on either side of the centering roller. The object has a recess to engage the centering roller and a number of seating ramps for engaging the clamping rollers. The centering roller acts to position and hold the object symmetrically about the centering roller with respect to the X axis and the clamping rollers act to position and hold the object with respect to the Y and Z axis.

  11. Tank-automotive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  12. Biological Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed. PMID:26643022

  13. Lunar robotic maintenance module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    A design for a robotic maintenance module that will assist a mobile 100-meter lunar drill is introduced. The design considers the following areas of interest: the atmospheric conditions, actuator systems, power supply, material selection, weight, cooling system and operation.

  14. Robots in operating theatres.

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, R. A.; Buckingham, R. O.

    1995-01-01

    Robots designed for surgery have three main advantages over humans. They have greater three dimensional spatial accuracy, are more reliable, and can achieve much greater precision. Although few surgical robots are yet in clinical trials one or two have advanced to the stage of seeking approval from the UK's Medical Devices Agency and the US Federal Drug Administration. Safety is a key concern. A robotic device can be designed in an intrinsically safe way by restricting its range of movement to an area where it can do no damage. Furthermore, safety can be increased by making it passive, guided at all times by a surgeon. Nevertheless, some of the most promising developments may come from robots that are active (monitored rather than controlled by the surgeon) and not limited to intrinsically safe motion. Images Fig 1 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:8520340

  15. Robots on the Roof

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is one of the first places that scientists turn when volcanoes, wildfires, pollution plumes, dust storms and many other phenomena—both natural and manmade—...

  16. Robot Grasps Rotating Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Tso, Kam S.; Litwin, Todd E.; Hayati, Samad A.; Bon, Bruce B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental robotic system semiautomatically grasps rotating object, stops rotation, and pulls object to rest in fixture. Based on combination of advanced techniques for sensing and control, constructed to test concepts for robotic recapture of spinning artificial satellites. Potential terrestrial applications for technology developed with help of system includes tracking and grasping of industrial parts on conveyor belts, tracking of vehicles and animals, and soft grasping of moving objects in general.

  17. Robotic inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Escobar Dominguez, Jose E; Gonzalez, Anthony; Donkor, Charan

    2015-09-01

    Inguinal hernias have been described throughout the history of medicine with many efforts to achieve the cure. Currently, with the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, new questions arise: what is going to be the best approach for inguinal hernia repair? Is there a real benefit with the robotic approach? Should minimally invasive hernia surgery be the standard of care? In this report we address these questions by describing our experience with robotic inguinal hernia repair. PMID:26153353

  18. Wheeled hopping robot

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2010-08-17

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  19. Modularity in robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, Delbert; Butler, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Most robotic systems today are designed one at a time, at a high cost of time and money. This wasteful approach has been necessary because the industry has not established a foundation for the continued evolution of intelligent machines. The next generation of robots will have to be generic, versatile machines capable of absorbing new technology rapidly and economically. This approach is demonstrated in the success of the personal computer, which can be upgraded or expanded with new software and hardware at virtually every level. Modularity is perceived as a major opportunity to reduce the 6 to 7 year design cycle time now required for new robotic manipulators, greatly increasing the breadth and speed of diffusion of robotic systems in manufacturing. Modularity and its crucial role in the next generation of intelligent machines are the focus of interest. The main advantages that modularity provides are examined; types of modules needed to create a generic robot are discussed. Structural modules designed by the robotics group at the University of Texas at Austin are examined to demonstrate the advantages of modular design.

  20. Robot goniophotometry at PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, M.; Maass, R.; Sauter, G.

    2015-04-01

    The total luminous flux of a light source is the complete integration of its spectral radiance distribution weighted with the photopic observer and taken over all parts of its surface and over the full solid angle of emittance. The spatial distributions are measured with various types of goniophotometers and the PTB robot goniophotometer is a new type with many unique features. It is built as an arrangement of three robots with arms of more than 6 m in length and with 7 degrees of freedom each. The extreme flexibility of the robots allows computer controlled tracks with variable radii and speeds up to 3 m and 1 m s-1, respectively. One robot aligns the light source and the two other robots move photometers and array spectrometers in their hemispheres simultaneously measuring planar illuminance and the related relative spectral distribution. The robot goniophotometer is optimized for the realisation of the luminous flux unit, the lumen and it is completely characterized in this report. The relevant properties and correction factors are explained, as well as the implementation of techniques for synchronisation and stabilisation of spatially resolved or integrated photometric and colorimetric quantities. Finally, all contributions are combined in the model of evaluation for the (total) luminous flux value and the measurement uncertainty associated with that value is evaluated in the presented uncertainty budget. The goniophotometric determination of the values for colorimetric quantities is explained for the total luminous flux and the spatially distributed radiant power.

  1. Robotic assisted andrological surgery

    PubMed Central

    Parekattil, Sijo J; Gudeloglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy, unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques. This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology. Today, we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology. Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields, such as ophthalmology, hand surgery, plastics and reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor, improved stability, surgeon ergonomics, scalability of motion, multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views, enhanced magnification, and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously. This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery. It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures, such as vasectomy reversal, subinguinal varicocelectomy, targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE). PMID:23241637

  2. Swarm robotics and minimalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkey, Amanda J. C.

    2007-09-01

    Swarm Robotics (SR) is closely related to Swarm Intelligence, and both were initially inspired by studies of social insects. Their guiding principles are based on their biological inspiration and take the form of an emphasis on decentralized local control and communication. Earlier studies went a step further in emphasizing the use of simple reactive robots that only communicate indirectly through the environment. More recently SR studies have moved beyond these constraints to explore the use of non-reactive robots that communicate directly, and that can learn and represent their environment. There is no clear agreement in the literature about how far such extensions of the original principles could go. Should there be any limitations on the individual abilities of the robots used in SR studies? Should knowledge of the capabilities of social insects lead to constraints on the capabilities of individual robots in SR studies? There is a lack of explicit discussion of such questions, and researchers have adopted a variety of constraints for a variety of reasons. A simple taxonomy of swarm robotics is presented here with the aim of addressing and clarifying these questions. The taxonomy distinguishes subareas of SR based on the emphases and justifications for minimalism and individual simplicity.

  3. Robotic assisted andrological surgery.

    PubMed

    Parekattil, Sijo J; Gudeloglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy, unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques. This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology. Today, we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology. Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields, such as ophthalmology, hand surgery, plastics and reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor, improved stability, surgeon ergonomics, scalability of motion, multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views, enhanced magnification, and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously. This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery. It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures, such as vasectomy reversal, subinguinal varicocelectomy, targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE). PMID:23241637

  4. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  5. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 2: Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the rapidly changing field of robotics. The report incorporates definitions of the various types of robots, a summary of the basic concepts, utilized in each of the many technical areas, review of the state of the art and statistics of robot manufacture and usage. Particular attention is paid to the status of robot development, the organizations involved, their activities, and their funding.

  6. Robots for Astrobiology!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boston, Penelope J.

    2016-01-01

    The search for life and its study is known as astrobiology. Conducting that search on other planets in our Solar System is a major goal of NASA and other space agencies, and a driving passion of the community of scientists and engineers around the world. We practice for that search in many ways, from exploring and studying extreme environments on Earth, to developing robots to go to other planets and help us look for any possible life that may be there or may have been there in the past. The unique challenges of space exploration make collaborations between robots and humans essential. The products of those collaborations will be novel and driven by the features of wholly new environments. For space and planetary environments that are intolerable for humans or where humans present an unacceptable risk to possible biologically sensitive sites, autonomous robots or telepresence offer excellent choices. The search for life signs on Mars fits within this category, especially in advance of human landed missions there, but also as assistants and tools once humans reach the Red Planet. For planetary destinations where we do not envision humans ever going in person, like bitterly cold icy moons, or ocean worlds with thick ice roofs that essentially make them planetary-sized ice caves, we will rely on robots alone to visit those environments for us and enable us to explore and understand any life that we may find there. Current generation robots are not quite ready for some of the tasks that we need them to do, so there are many opportunities for roboticists of the future to advance novel types of mobility, autonomy, and bio-inspired robotic designs to help us accomplish our astrobiological goals. We see an exciting partnership between robotics and astrobiology continually strengthening as we jointly pursue the quest to find extraterrestrial life.

  7. Socially intelligent robots: dimensions of human-robot interaction.

    PubMed

    Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2007-04-29

    Social intelligence in robots has a quite recent history in artificial intelligence and robotics. However, it has become increasingly apparent that social and interactive skills are necessary requirements in many application areas and contexts where robots need to interact and collaborate with other robots or humans. Research on human-robot interaction (HRI) poses many challenges regarding the nature of interactivity and 'social behaviour' in robot and humans. The first part of this paper addresses dimensions of HRI, discussing requirements on social skills for robots and introducing the conceptual space of HRI studies. In order to illustrate these concepts, two examples of HRI research are presented. First, research is surveyed which investigates the development of a cognitive robot companion. The aim of this work is to develop social rules for robot behaviour (a 'robotiquette') that is comfortable and acceptable to humans. Second, robots are discussed as possible educational or therapeutic toys for children with autism. The concept of interactive emergence in human-child interactions is highlighted. Different types of play among children are discussed in the light of their potential investigation in human-robot experiments. The paper concludes by examining different paradigms regarding 'social relationships' of robots and people interacting with them. PMID:17301026

  8. Supersmart Robots: The Next Generation of Robots Has Evolutionary Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Robots that can learn new behaviors. Robots that can reproduce themselves. Science fiction? Not anymore. Roboticists at Cornell's Computational Synthesis Lab have developed just such engineered creatures that offer interesting implications for education. The team, headed by Hod Lipson, was intrigued by the question, "How can you get robots to be…

  9. Industrial Robots on the Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Robert; Miller, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Explores the history of robotics and its effects upon the manufacturing industry. Topics include robots' capabilities and limitations, the factory of the future, displacement of the workforce, and implications for management and labor. (SK)

  10. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  11. Robotic Tube-Gap Inspector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.; Maslakowski, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision system measures small gaps between nearly parallel tubes. Robot-held video camera examines closely spaced tubes while computer determines gaps between tubes. Video monitor simultaneously displays data on gaps.

  12. Industrial robots on the line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, R.; Miller, S.

    1982-06-01

    The characteristics, applications, and operational capabilities of currently available robots are examined. Designed to function at tasks of a repetitive, hazardous, or uncreative nature, robot appendages are controlled by microprocessors which permit some simple decision-making on-the-job, and have served for sample gathering on the Mars Viking lander. Critical developmental areas concern active sensors at the robot grappler-object interface, where sufficient data must be gathered for the central processor to which the robot is attached to conclude the state of completion and suitability of the workpiece. Although present robots must be programmed through every step of a particular industrial process, thus limiting each robot to specialized tasks, the potential for closed cells of batch-processing robot-run units is noted to be close to realization. Finally, consideration is given to methods for retraining the human workforce that robots replace

  13. Robots and Kids: Classroom Encounters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Twila

    1984-01-01

    Describes how three different levels of students interacted with three different commercially available robots. Considers the educational value of these devices and provides a list of seven robots (indicating their source, computer compatibility, language, current cost, capabilities, and options). (JN)

  14. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  15. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Alex Janas, robotics operator from the Goddard Space Flight Center, about the Robotic Refueling Mission that has been taking place on the space stati...

  16. Verification of relationships between anthropometric variables among ureteral stents recipients and ureteric lengths: a challenge for Vitruvian-da Vinci theory

    PubMed Central

    Acelam, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine and verify how anthropometric variables correlate to ureteric lengths and how well statistical models approximate the actual ureteric lengths. Materials and methods In this work, 129 charts of endourological patients (71 females and 58 males) were studied retrospectively. Data were gathered from various research centers from North and South America. Continuous data were studied using descriptive statistics. Anthropometric variables (age, body surface area, body weight, obesity, and stature) were utilized as predictors of ureteric lengths. Linear regressions and correlations were used for studying relationships between the predictors and the outcome variables (ureteric lengths); P-value was set at 0.05. To assess how well statistical models were capable of predicting the actual ureteric lengths, percentages (or ratios of matched to mismatched results) were employed. Results The results of the study show that anthropometric variables do not correlate well to ureteric lengths. Statistical models can partially estimate ureteric lengths. Out of the five anthropometric variables studied, three of them: body frame, stature, and weight, each with a P<0.0001, were significant. Two of the variables: age (R2=0.01; P=0.20) and obesity (R2=0.03; P=0.06), were found to be poor estimators of ureteric lengths. None of the predictors reached the expected (match:above:below) ratio of 1:0:0 to qualify as reliable predictors of ureteric lengths. Conclusion There is not sufficient evidence to conclude that anthropometric variables can reliably predict ureteric lengths. These variables appear to lack adequate specificity as they failed to reach the expected (match:above:below) ratio of 1:0:0. Consequently, selections of ureteral stents continue to remain a challenge. However, height (R2=0.68) with the (match:above:below) ratio of 3:3:4 appears suited for use as estimator, but on the basis of decision rule. Additional research is recommended for stent improvements and ureteric length determinations. PMID:26317082

  17. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  18. Teen Sized Humanoid Robot: Archie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Jacky; Byagowi, Ahmad; Anderson, John; Kopacek, Peter

    This paper describes our first teen sized humanoid robot Archie. This robot has been developed in conjunction with Prof. Kopacek’s lab from the Technical University of Vienna. Archie uses brushless motors and harmonic gears with a novel approach to position encoding. Based on our previous experience with small humanoid robots, we developed software to create, store, and play back motions as well as control methods which automatically balance the robot using feedback from an internal measurement unit (IMU).

  19. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  20. Modular robotic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smurlo, Richard P.; Laird, Robin T.

    1991-03-01

    The development of control architectures for mobile systems is typically a task undertaken with each new application. These architectures address different operational needs and tend to be difficult to adapt to more than the problem at hand. The development of a flexible and extendible control system with evolutionary growth potential for use on mobile robots will help alleviate these problems and if made widely available will promote standardization and cornpatibility among systems throughout the industry. The Modular Robotic Architecture (MRA) is a generic control systern that meets the above needs by providing developers with a standard set of software hardware tools that can be used to design modular robots (MODBOTs) with nearly unlimited growth potential. The MODBOT itself is a generic creature that must be customized by the developer for a particular application. The MRA facilitates customization of the MODBOT by providing sensor actuator and processing modules that can be configured in almost any manner as demanded by the application. The Mobile Security Robot (MOSER) is an instance of a MODBOT that is being developed using the MRA. Navigational Sonar Module RF Link Control Station Module hR Link Detection Module Near hR Proximi Sensor Module Fluxgate Compass and Rate Gyro Collision Avoidance Sonar Module Figure 1. Remote platform module configuration of the Mobile Security Robot (MOSER). Acoustical Detection Array Stereoscopic Pan and Tilt Module High Level Processing Module Mobile Base 566

  1. Engineering robust intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Ali, S. M. Alhaj; Ghaffari, M.; Liao, X.; Cao, M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenge of engineering robust intelligent robots. Robust intelligent robots may be considered as ones that not only work in one environment but rather in all types of situations and conditions. Our past work has described sensors for intelligent robots that permit adaptation to changes in the environment. We have also described the combination of these sensors with a "creative controller" that permits adaptive critic, neural network learning, and a dynamic database that permits task selection and criteria adjustment. However, the emphasis of this paper is on engineering solutions which are designed for robust operations and worst case situations such as day night cameras or rain and snow solutions. This ideal model may be compared to various approaches that have been implemented on "production vehicles and equipment" using Ethernet, CAN Bus and JAUS architectures and to modern, embedded, mobile computing architectures. Many prototype intelligent robots have been developed and demonstrated in terms of scientific feasibility but few have reached the stage of a robust engineering solution. Continual innovation and improvement are still required. The significance of this comparison is that it provides some insights that may be useful in designing future robots for various manufacturing, medical, and defense applications where robust and reliable performance is essential.

  2. Robotics, Ethics, and Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel

    It may seem out of character to find a chapter on robotics in a book about nanotechnology, and even more so a chapter on the application of ethics to robots. Indeed, as we shall see, the questions look quite different in these two fields, i.e., in robotics and nanoscience. In short, in the case of robots, we are dealing with artificial beings endowed with higher cognitive faculties, such as language, reasoning, action, and perception, whereas in the case of nano-objects, we are talking about invisible macromolecules which act, move, and duplicate unseen to us. In one case, we find ourselves confronted by a possibly evil double of ourselves, and in the other, a creeping and intangible nebula assails us from all sides. In one case, we are faced with an alter ego which, although unknown, is clearly perceptible, while in the other, an unspeakable ooze, the notorious grey goo, whose properties are both mysterious and sinister, enters and immerses us. This leads to a shift in the ethical problem situation: the notion of responsibility can no longer be worded in the same terms because, despite its otherness, the robot can always be located somewhere, while in the case of nanotechnologies, myriad nanometric objects permeate everywhere, disseminating uncontrollably.

  3. Quantum robots plus environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    1998-07-23

    A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system, including an on board quantum computer and needed ancillary systems, that interacts with an environment of quantum systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include making specified changes in the state of the environment or carrying out measurements on the environment. The environments considered so far, oracles, data bases, and quantum registers, are seen to be special cases of environments considered here. It is also seen that a quantum robot should include a quantum computer and cannot be simply a multistate head. A model of quantum robots and their interactions is discussed in which each task, as a sequence of alternating computation and action phases,is described by a unitary single time step operator T {approx} T{sub a} + T{sub c} (discrete space and time are assumed). The overall system dynamics is described as a sum over paths of completed computation (T{sub c}) and action (T{sub a}) phases. A simple example of a task, measuring the distance between the quantum robot and a particle on a 1D lattice with quantum phase path dispersion present, is analyzed. A decision diagram for the task is presented and analyzed.

  4. The problem with multiple robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Marcus J.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The issues that can arise in research associated with multiple, robotic agents are discussed. Two particular multi-robot projects are presented as examples. This paper was written in the hope that it might ease the transition from single to multiple robot research.

  5. Adaptive Language Games with Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steels, Luc

    2010-11-01

    This paper surveys recent research into language evolution using computer simulations and robotic experiments. This field has made tremendous progress in the past decade going from simple simulations of lexicon formation with animallike cybernetic robots to sophisticated grammatical experiments with humanoid robots.

  6. Humans and Robots. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brief discusses human movement and robotic human movement simulators. The activity for students in grades 5-12 provides a history of robotic movement and includes making an End Effector for the robotic arms used on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS). (MVL)

  7. Flexible control for welding robots

    SciTech Connect

    Mangold, V.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The single limiting characteristic of robot welding applications that typically impairs the success and functionality of a robot welding work cell is workpiece or process-specific variances. Nearly as problematic for most robot arc welding applications in the near term, and potentially a larger problem in the future, is the compatibility of control systems utilized with industrial robots. The robot industry has developed over time in a manner that is significantly different than a related capital equipment genre, metal cutting machine tools. The robot industry, impacted by the overwhelming dominance of Japanese and European producers, have tended toward proprietary control systems that utilized application software that is nonstandard in nature and nontransportable from one robot product to another. This presentation discusses the use of standard platform controls with transportable welding software written in C or C++ code that can greatly increase the flexibility of robot welding operations. The presentation discusses the use of an Adept 1, Allen Bradley and Giddings and Lewis control system interchangeably with the same 6-axis arm robot for arc welding purposes. The flexibility of pin compatible control systems and software that is transportable from one robot line to another will greatly improve robot system performance. The long term maintenance cost and ultimately the financial viability of job shop, small parts robotic arc welding applications will also be enhanced.

  8. Robot Technology: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Paul E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an introduction to robotic technology, and describes current robot models. Three ways of using robots in education are discussed--as exemplars of other processes, as objects of instruction, and as prosthetic aids--and selection criteria are outlined. (17 references) (CLB)

  9. Robotic Design for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Burns, Kaylynn

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of robotic design to interest students in science and engineering. It describes one program, BEST, and resources that area available to design and create a robot. BEST is a competition for sixth and seventh graders that is designed to engage gifted and talented students. A couple of scenarios involving the use of a robot are outlined.

  10. Smart robots: a handbook of intelligent robotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    Smart robots, designed to improve the quality and increase both the productivity and profitability of manufactured goods, are discussed in detail. Attention is focused on: (1) artificial intelligence for smart robots, (2) smart robot systems, (3) sensor-controlled robots, (4) machine vision systems, (5) robot manipulators, (6) locomotion, (7) natural languagae processing, (8) expert systems, and (9) computer integrated manufacturing. Photographs, charts and diagrams illustrate the systems covered. Areas of successful application to date include the automobile industry, textiles, forging, die casting and electronics. 110 references.

  11. Anaesthesia for robotic thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shagun Bhatia; Hariharan, Uma; Kulkarni, Anita; Dabas, Namrata Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Robotic thyroidectomy (RT) is a new gasless, scarless technique which utilises the da Vinci™ surgical robot to excise thyroid tumours. Anaesthetic management must be modified according to the patient position and robotic surgery equipment. Anaesthesiologists need to be geared up to face the new challenges posed by advancements in surgical techniques in order to maintain patient safety. Another vital aspect of this surgery is documenting possible recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, for which a C-Mac D-Blade™ video laryngoscope serves as a valuable tool. Post-operative pain management in RT also merits special attention. PMID:26962257

  12. RX130 Robot Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugal, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In order to create precision magnets for an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a new reverse engineering method has been proposed that uses the magnetic scalar potential to solve for the currents necessary to produce the desired field. To make the magnet it is proposed to use a copper coated G10 form, upon which a drill, mounted on a robotic arm, will carve wires. The accuracy required in the manufacturing of the wires exceeds nominal robot capabilities. However, due to the rigidity as well as the precision servo motor and harmonic gear drivers, there are robots capable of meeting this requirement with proper calibration. Improving the accuracy of an RX130 to be within 35 microns (the accuracy necessary of the wires) is the goal of this project. Using feedback from a displacement sensor, or camera and inverse kinematics it is possible to achieve this accuracy.

  13. The universal robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravec, Hans

    1993-12-01

    Our artifacts are getting smarter, and a loose parallel with the evolution of animal intelligence suggests one future course for them. Computerless industrial machinery exhibits the behavioral flexibility of single-celled organisms. Today's best computer-controlled robots are like the simpler invertebrates. A thousand-fold increase in computer power in the next decade should make possible machines with reptile-like sensory and motor competence. Properly configured, such robots could do in the physical world what personal computers now do in the world of data - act on our behalf as literal-minded slaves. Growing computer power over the next half-century will allow this reptile stage to be surpassed, in stages producing robots that learn like mammals, model their world like primates, and eventually reason like humans. Depending on your point of view, humanity will then have produced a worthy successor, or transcended some of its inherited limitations and so transformed itself into something quite new.

  14. The universal robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moravec, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Our artifacts are getting smarter, and a loose parallel with the evolution of animal intelligence suggests one future course for them. Computerless industrial machinery exhibits the behavioral flexibility of single-celled organisms. Today's best computer-controlled robots are like the simpler invertebrates. A thousand-fold increase in computer power in the next decade should make possible machines with reptile-like sensory and motor competence. Properly configured, such robots could do in the physical world what personal computers now do in the world of data - act on our behalf as literal-minded slaves. Growing computer power over the next half-century will allow this reptile stage to be surpassed, in stages producing robots that learn like mammals, model their world like primates, and eventually reason like humans. Depending on your point of view, humanity will then have produced a worthy successor, or transcended some of its inherited limitations and so transformed itself into something quite new.

  15. Advanced mechanisms for robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of applied research and development at NASA-Goddard (GSFC) on mechanisms and the collision avoidance skin for robots is presented. First the work on robot end effectors is outlined, followed by a brief discussion on robot-friendly payload latching mechanisms and compliant joints. This, in turn, is followed by the collision avoidance/management skin and the GSFC research on magnetostrictive direct drive motors. Finally, a new project, the artificial muscle, is introduced. Each of the devices is described in sufficient detail to permit a basic understanding of its purpose, fundamental principles of operation, and capabilities. In addition, the development status of each is reported along with descriptions of breadboards and prototypes and their test results. In each case, the implications of the research for commercialization is discussed. The chronology of the presentation will give a clear idea of both the evolution of the R&D in recent years and its likely direction in the future.

  16. The Robotic FLOYDS Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, D.

    I will discuss the twin FLOYDS robotic spectrographs, operating at the 2m Faulkes Telescopes North and South. The FLOYDS instruments were designed with supernova classification and monitoring in mind, with a very large wavelength coverage (˜320 to 1000 nm) and a resolution (R ˜ 300 - 500, wavelength dependent) well-matched to the broad features of these and other transient and time domain events. Robotic acquisition of spectroscopic targets is the key ingredient for making robotic spectroscopy possible, and FLOYDS uses a slit-viewing camera with a ˜ 4‧ × 6‧ field to either do direct world coordinate system fitting or standard blind offsets to automatically place science targets into the slit. Future work includes an 'all-electronic' target of opportunity mode, which will allow for fast transient spectroscopy with no human necessary, even for inputting information into a phase 2 GUI. Initial science highlights from FLOYDS will also be presented.

  17. FIRST robots compete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST teams and their robots work to go through the right motions at the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  18. Forward Deployed Robotic Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendle, Bruce E., Jr.; Bornstein, Jonathan A.

    2000-07-01

    Forward Deployed Robotic Unit (FDRU) is a core science and technology objective of the US Army, which will demonstrate the impact of autonomous systems on all phases of future land warfare. It will develop, integrate and demonstrate technology required to achieve robotic and fire control capabilities for future land combat vehicles, e.g., Future Combat Systems, using a system of systems approach that culminates in a field demonstration in 2005. It will also provide the required unmanned assets and conduct the demonstration. Battle Lab Warfighting Experiments and data analysis required to understand the effects of unmanned assets on combat operations. The US Army Tank- Automotive & Armaments Command and the US Army Research Laboratory are teaming in an effort to leverage prior technology achievements in the areas of autonomous mobility, architecture, sensor and robotics system integration; advance the state-of-the-art in these areas; and to provide field demonstration/application of the technologies.

  19. ISS Robotic Student Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, J.; Benavides, J.; Hanson, R.; Cortez, J.; Le Vasseur, D.; Soloway, D.; Oyadomari, K.

    2016-01-01

    The SPHERES facility is a set of three free-flying satellites launched in 2006. In addition to scientists and engineering, middle- and high-school students program the SPHERES during the annual Zero Robotics programming competition. Zero Robotics conducts virtual competitions via simulator and on SPHERES aboard the ISS, with students doing the programming. A web interface allows teams to submit code, receive results, collaborate, and compete in simulator-based initial rounds and semi-final rounds. The final round of each competition is conducted with SPHERES aboard the ISS. At the end of 2017 a new robotic platform called Astrobee will launch, providing new game elements and new ground support for even more student interaction.

  20. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  1. Put Your Robot In, Put Your Robot Out: Sequencing through Programming Robots in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of programming robots on sequencing ability in early childhood. Thirty-four children (ages 4.5-6.5 years) participated in computer programming activities with a developmentally appropriate tool, CHERP, specifically designed to program a robot's behaviors. The children learned to build and program robots over three…

  2. Robot welding process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  3. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  4. Robotic component preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides information on the preparation of robotic components. Component preparation includes pretinning or solder dipping, preforming, and pretrimming of component leads. Since about 70% of all components are axial-leaded resistor-type components, it was decided to begin with them and then later develop capabilities to handle other types. The first workcell is the first phase of an overall system to pretin, preform, and pretrim all components and to feed them to an automatic insertion system. Before use of the robot, a Unimation PUMA Modal 260, pretinning and preforming was done by first hand with a shield and vented booth.

  5. [Nephrectomy - pro robotic].

    PubMed

    Buse, S

    2012-05-01

    The last two decades have witnessed the rapid dissemination of robot-assisted laparoscopic urological surgery related to the technical advantages of this new laparoscopic tool. Master-slave systems ease intracorporeal anastomosis and the performance of technically highly demanding procedures, as reflected by a steep learning curve. Robot-assistance is particularly useful for partial nephrectomy, live-donor kidney transplantation, extended procedures, e.g. upper and lower urogenital tract resection and difficult anatomy as encountered in obese patients or patient with a history of multiple intraperitoneal procedures. PMID:22526189

  6. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  7. Segway robotic mobility platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Morrell, John; Mullens, Katherine D.; Burmeister, Aaron B.; Miles, Susan; Farrington, Nathan; Thomas, Kari M.; Gage, Douglas W.

    2004-12-01

    The Segway Robotic Mobility Platform (RMP) is a new mobile robotic platform based on the self-balancing Segway Human Transporter (HT). The Segway RMP is faster, cheaper, and more agile than existing comparable platforms. It is also rugged, has a small footprint, a zero turning radius, and yet can carry a greater payload. The new geometry of the platform presents researchers with an opportunity to examine novel topics, including people-height sensing and actuation modalities. This paper describes the history and development of the platform, its characteristics, and a summary of current research projects involving the platform at various institutions across the United States.

  8. Transoral robotic thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Clark, James H.; Kim, Hoon Yub

    2015-01-01

    There is currently significant demand for minimally invasive thyroid surgery; however the majority of proposed surgical approaches necessitate a compromise between minimal tissue dissection with a visible cervical scar or extensive tissue dissection with a remote, hidden scar. The development of transoral endoscopic thyroid surgery however provides an approach which is truly minimally invasive, as it conceals the incision within the oral cavity without significantly increasing the amount of required dissection. The transoral endoscopic approach however presents multiple technical challenges, which could be overcome with the incorporation of a robotic operating system. This manuscript summarizes the literature on the feasibility and current clinical experience with transoral robotic thyroid surgery. PMID:26425456

  9. Dextrous robot hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (Editor); Iberall, Thea (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of human hand function and their implications for the design of robot hands are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include human grasp choice and robotic grasp analysis, opposition space and human prehension, coordination in normal and prosthetic reaching, and intelligent exploration by the human hand. Consideration is given to a task-oriented dextrous manipulation architecture, the control architecture for the Belgrade/USC hand, the analysis of multifingered grasping and manipulation, and tactile sensing for shape interpretation. Diagrams, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  10. Robust Software Architecture for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazanian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Garrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Robust Real-Time Reconfigurable Robotics Software Architecture (R4SA) is the name of both a software architecture and software that embodies the architecture. The architecture was conceived in the spirit of current practice in designing modular, hard, realtime aerospace systems. The architecture facilitates the integration of new sensory, motor, and control software modules into the software of a given robotic system. R4SA was developed for initial application aboard exploratory mobile robots on Mars, but is adaptable to terrestrial robotic systems, real-time embedded computing systems in general, and robotic toys.

  11. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  12. SDIO robotics in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Robotics in space supporting the Strategic Defense System (SDS) program is discussed. Ongoing initiatives which are intended to establish an initial Robotics in Space capability are addressed. This is specifically being referred to as the Satellite Servicing System (SSS). This system is based on the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) with a Robotic Manipulator(s) based on the NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) and other SSS equipment required to do the satellite servicing work attached to the OMV. Specific Robotics in Space Requirements which have resulted from the completion of the Robotics Requirements Study Contract are addressed.

  13. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Hibner, Michał; Marianowski, Piotr; Szymusik, Iwona; Wielgós, Mirosław

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of robotic surgery in the first decade of the 21 century was one of the biggest breakthroughs in surgery since the introduction of anesthesia. For the first time in history the surgeon was placed remotely from the patient and was able to operate with the device that has more degrees of freedom than human hand. Initially developed for the US Military in order to allow surgeons to be removed from the battlefield, surgical robots quickly made a leap to the mainstream medicine. One of the first surgical uses for the robot was cardiac surgery but it is urology and prostate surgery that gave it a widespread popularity Gynecologic surgeons caught on very quickly and it is estimated that 31% of hysterectomies done in the United States in 2012 will be done robotically. With over half a million hysterectomies done each year in the US alone, gynecologic surgery is one of the main driving forces behind the growth of robotic surgery Other applications in gynecology include myomectomy oophorectomy and ovarian cystectomy resection of endometriosis and lymphadenectomy Advantages of the surgical robot are clearly seen in myomectomy The wrist motion allows for better more precise suturing than conventional "straight stick" laparoscopy The strength of the arms allow for better pulling of the suture and the third arm for holding the suture on tension. Other advantage of the robot is scaling of the movements when big movement on the outside translates to very fine movement on the inside. This enables much more precise surgery and may be important in the procedures like tubal anastomosis and implantation of the ureter Three-dimensional vision provides excellent depth of field perception. It is important for surgeons who are switching from open surgeries and preliminary evidence shows that it may allow for better identification of lesions like endometriosis. Another big advantage of robotics is that the surgeon sits comfortably with his/her arms and head supported. This

  14. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots. PMID:26581015

  15. Robotic technology in cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Johannes; Vetrovec, George; Riga, Celia; Wazni, Oussama; Stadler, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Robotic technology has been used in cardiovascular medicine since the late 1990s. Interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, endovascular surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and laparoscopic vascular surgery are all fields of application. Robotic devices enable endoscopic reconstructive surgery in narrow spaces and fast, very precise placement of catheters and devices in catheter-based interventions. In all robotic systems, the operator manipulates the robotic arms from a control station or console. In the field of cardiac surgery, mitral valve repair, CABG surgery, atrial septal defect repair, and myxoma resection can be achieved using robotic technology. Furthermore, vascular surgeons can perform a variety of robotically assisted operations to treat aortic, visceral, and peripheral artery disease. In electrophysiology, ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation can be carried out with robotic support. In the past few years, robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention and abdominal aortic endovascular surgery techniques have been developed. The basic feasibility and safety of robotic approaches in cardiovascular medicine has been demonstrated, but learning curves and the high costs associated with this technology have limited its widespread use. Nonetheless, increased procedural speed, accuracy, and reduced exposure to radiation and contrast agent in robotically assisted catheter-based interventions, as well as reduced surgical trauma and shortened patient recovery times after robotic cardiovascular surgery are promising achievements in the field. PMID:24663088

  16. Intelligent robotics research at Waterloo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Andrew K. C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the recent intelligent robotics research being carried out at the PAMI Lab of the University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario. The intelligence control of manipulators is directed and guided by 3-D vision. It is implemented for a mobile robot and robot manipulators in a workcell. The intelligent robotic system is capable of: (1) real-time recognition and location of 3-D objects and obstacles with a single camera system mounted on the robot arm; (2) optimal trajectory planning for a robotic manipulator with obstacle and singularity avoidance capability; and (3) vision directed navigation of a mobile robot. Application of this technology to industrial and space station projects is included in the discussion.

  17. Robotic servicing of EOS instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.; Juberts, Maris

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses robotic servicing of the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) instruments. The goals of implementing a robotic servicing system on EOS would be to maintain the instruments throughout the required mission life and minimize life-cycle costs. To address robot servicing, an initial design concept has been developed which will be applied to a representative EOS instrument. This instrument will be used as a model for determining the most practical level of servicing of its parts, and how to design these parts for robot servicing. Using this representative EOS instrument as a model, a generic design scheme will be developed that can be applied to all EOS instruments. The first task is to determine how to identify which parts must be designed for robot servicing. Next, the requirements imposed on the instruments and the servicing robot when designing for robot serviceability must be examined.

  18. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, N; Monta, M; Fujiura, T

    1996-01-01

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato, petty-tomato, cucumber and grape in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots. PMID:11538961

  19. Cooperative robotics: bringing autonomy to explosive ordnance disposal robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Signore, Michael J.; Czop, Andrew; Hacker, Kurt

    2008-04-01

    An ongoing effort within the US Naval EOD Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV) is exploring the integration of autonomous robotic technologies onto current and future Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot platforms. The Cooperative Robotics program, though the support of the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE), has identified several autonomous robotic technologies useful to the EOD operator, and with the collaboration of academia and industry is in the process of bringing these technologies to EOD robot operators in the field. Initiated in January 2007, the Cooperative Robotics program includes the demonstration of various autonomous technologies to the EOD user community, and the optimization of these technologies for use on small EOD Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) in relevant environments. Through close interaction with actual EOD operators, these autonomous behaviors will be designed to work within the bounds of current EOD Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP). This paper will detail the ongoing and future efforts encompassing the Cooperative Robotics program including: technology demonstrations of autonomous robotic capabilities, development of autonomous capability requirements based on user focus groups, optimization of autonomous UGV behaviors to enable use in relevant environments based on current EOD TTP, and finally the transition of these technologies to current and future EOD robotic systems.

  20. Robot Serviced Space Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A robot serviced space facility includes multiple modules which are identical in physical structure, but selectively differing in function. and purpose. Each module includes multiple like attachment points which are identically placed on each module so as to permit interconnection with immediately adjacent modules. Connection is made through like outwardly extending flange assemblies having identical male and female configurations for interconnecting to and locking to a complementary side of another flange. Multiple rows of interconnected modules permit force, fluid, data and power transfer to be accomplished by redundant circuit paths. Redundant modules of critical subsystems are included. Redundancy of modules and of interconnections results in a space complex with any module being removable upon demand, either for module replacement or facility reconfiguration. without eliminating any vital functions of the complex. Module replacement and facility assembly or reconfiguration are accomplished by a computer controlled articulated walker type robotic manipulator arm assembly having two identical end-effectors in the form of male configurations which are identical to those on module flanges and which interconnect to female configurations on other flanges. The robotic arm assembly moves along a connected set or modules by successively disconnecting, moving and reconnecting alternate ends of itself to a succession of flanges in a walking type maneuver. To transport a module, the robot keeps the transported module attached to one of its end-effectors and uses another flange male configuration of the attached module as a substitute end-effector during walking.

  1. Josef, the Robot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomek, Ivan

    1982-01-01

    Describes "Josef," a robot programing language similar to the LOGO turtle language, which has been designed as an instructional system through which the algorithmic problem-solving skills required in computer programing can be developed and tested in a controlled learning environment. Four figures and a reference list are included. (JL)

  2. Touch Sensor for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primus, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Touch sensor for robot hands provides information about shape of grasped object and force exerted by gripper on object. Pins projecting from sensor create electrical signals when pressed. When grasped object depresses pin, it contacts electrode under it, connecting electrode to common electrode. Sensor indicates where, and how firmly, gripper has touched object.

  3. Information Robots and Manipulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katys, G. P.; And Others

    In the modern concept a robot is a complex automatic cybernetics system capable of executing various operations in the sphere of human activity and in various respects combining the imitative capacity of the physical and mental activity of man. They are a class of automatic information systems intended for search, collection, processing, and…

  4. Robots in the Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Joan; Shanahan, Dolores

    1983-01-01

    Describes work with kindergarten children to improve their development of estimation, decision making, divergent thinking, directionality, numerical concepts, and creative problem solving skills through learning to program and control the robot Big Trak, a truck which moves along the floor in response to their commands. (EAO)

  5. Industrial robot's vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Raskin, Evgeni O.; Komarov, Igor I.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Fedosovsky, Michael E.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the improved economic situation in the high technology sectors, work on the creation of industrial robots and special mobile robotic systems are resumed. Despite this, the robotic control systems mostly remained unchanged. Hence one can see all advantages and disadvantages of these systems. This is due to lack of funds, which could greatly facilitate the work of the operator, and in some cases, completely replace it. The paper is concerned with the complex machine vision of robotic system for monitoring of underground pipelines, which collects and analyzes up to 90% of the necessary information. Vision Systems are used to identify obstacles to the process of movement on a trajectory to determine their origin, dimensions and character. The object is illuminated in a structured light, TV camera records projected structure. Distortions of the structure uniquely determine the shape of the object in view of the camera. The reference illumination is synchronized with the camera. The main parameters of the system are the basic distance between the generator and the lights and the camera parallax angle (the angle between the optical axes of the projection unit and camera).

  6. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  7. Space robot simulator vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  8. Savannah River Site Robotics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2012-06-14

    Meet Sandmantis and Frankie, two advanced robotic devices that are key to cleanup at Savannah River Site. Sandmantis cleans hard, residual waste off huge underground storage tanks. Frankie is equipped with unique satellite capabilities and sensing abilties that can determine what chemicals still reside in the tanks in a cost effective manner.

  9. Artificial intelligence and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, I.C.; Braddock, J.V.; Brown, W.; Langendorf, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    This report examines the state-of-the-art in artificial intelligence and robotics technologies and their potential in terms of Army needs. Assessment includes battlefield technology, research and technology insertions, management considerations and recommendations related to research and development personnel, and recommendations regarding the Army's involvement in the automated plant.

  10. Brain controlled robots.

    PubMed

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    2008-06-01

    In January 2008, Duke University and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) publicized their successful control of a brain-machine interface for a humanoid robot by a monkey brain across the Pacific Ocean. The activities of a few hundred neurons were recorded from a monkey's motor cortex in Miguel Nicolelis's lab at Duke University, and the kinematic features of monkey locomotion on a treadmill were decoded from neural firing rates in real time. The decoded information was sent to a humanoid robot, CB-i, in ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories located in Kyoto, Japan. This robot was developed by the JST International Collaborative Research Project (ICORP) as the "Computational Brain Project." CB-i's locomotion-like movement was video-recorded and projected on a screen in front of the monkey. Although the bidirectional communication used a conventional Internet connection, its delay was suppressed below one over several seconds, partly due to a video-streaming technique, and this encouraged the monkey's voluntary locomotion and influenced its brain activity. This commentary introduces the background and future directions of the brain-controlled robot. PMID:19404467

  11. An Inexpensive Robotics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inigo, R. M.; Angulo, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the design and implementation of a simple robot manipulator. The manipulator has three degrees of freedom and is controlled by a general purpose microcomputer. The basis for the manipulator (which costs under $100) is a simple working model of a crane. (Author/JN)

  12. Mathematics and "Lego" Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janus Halkier; Traeholt, Rune

    2007-01-01

    For the last four years, Soenderholm School, near the town of Aalborg, Northjutland, Denmark, has had an optional subject in the seventh grade called First "Lego" League (FLL). FLL is an international contest which aims to advance pupils' scientific interest. The task is for participants to build and program a "Lego" robot able to solve eight…

  13. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  14. Savannah River Site Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Meet Sandmantis and Frankie, two advanced robotic devices that are key to cleanup at Savannah River Site. Sandmantis cleans hard, residual waste off huge underground storage tanks. Frankie is equipped with unique satellite capabilities and sensing abilties that can determine what chemicals still reside in the tanks in a cost effective manner.

  15. Working with Robots: The Real Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Carol

    1986-01-01

    Looks at some of the realities of life with robots: robots aren't replacing entire shifts of workers; a robot is just a tool; regular plant personnel maintain robots; and job category and seniority dictate who is trained to maintain robots. (CT)

  16. Robotic Rock Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Martial

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a three-month research program undertook jointly by the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and Ames Research Center as part of the Ames' Joint Research Initiative (JRI.) The work was conducted at the Ames Research Center by Mr. Liam Pedersen, a graduate student in the CMU Ph.D. program in Robotics under the supervision Dr. Ted Roush at the Space Science Division of the Ames Research Center from May 15 1999 to August 15, 1999. Dr. Martial Hebert is Mr. Pedersen's research adviser at CMU and is Principal Investigator of this Grant. The goal of this project is to investigate and implement methods suitable for a robotic rover to autonomously identify rocks and minerals in its vicinity, and to statistically characterize the local geological environment. Although primary sensors for these tasks are a reflection spectrometer and color camera, the goal is to create a framework under which data from multiple sensors, and multiple readings on the same object, can be combined in a principled manner. Furthermore, it is envisioned that knowledge of the local area, either a priori or gathered by the robot, will be used to improve classification accuracy. The key results obtained during this project are: The continuation of the development of a rock classifier; development of theoretical statistical methods; development of methods for evaluating and selecting sensors; and experimentation with data mining techniques on the Ames spectral library. The results of this work are being applied at CMU, in particular in the context of the Winter 99 Antarctica expedition in which the classification techniques will be used on the Nomad robot. Conversely, the software developed based on those techniques will continue to be made available to NASA Ames and the data collected from the Nomad experiments will also be made available.

  17. Robot mother ship design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    2000-07-01

    Small physical agents will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensor and mobility characteristics. The mother ship much effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. The mother ship concept presented in this paper includes the case where the mother ship is itself a robot or a manned system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the robot teams. The mother ship must also establish a robust communications network between the agents and is an up-link point for disseminating the intelligence gathered by the smaller agents; and, because of its global knowledge, provides the high-level information fusion, control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. Additionally, the mother ship incorporates battlefield visualization, information fusion, and multi-resolution analysis, and intelligent software agent technology, to support mission planning and execution. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of a robot mother ship. This research includes docking, battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, information fusion, and multi- modal human computer interaction.

  18. Quantum robots and environments

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    1998-08-01

    Quantum robots and their interactions with environments of quantum systems are described, and their study justified. A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system that includes an on-board quantum computer and needed ancillary systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include specified changes in the state of the environment, or carrying out measurements on the environment. Each task is a sequence of alternating computation and action phases. Computation phase activites include determination of the action to be carried out in the next phase, and recording of information on neighborhood environmental system states. Action phase activities include motion of the quantum robot and changes in the neighborhood environment system states. Models of quantum robots and their interactions with environments are described using discrete space and time. A unitary step operator T that gives the single time step dynamics is associated with each task. T=T{sub a}+T{sub c} is a sum of action phase and computation phase step operators. Conditions that T{sub a} and T{sub c} should satisfy are given along with a description of the evolution as a sum over paths of completed phase input and output states. A simple example of a task{emdash}carrying out a measurement on a very simple environment{emdash}is analyzed in detail. A decision tree for the task is presented and discussed in terms of the sums over phase paths. It is seen that no definite times or durations are associated with the phase steps in the tree, and that the tree describes the successive phase steps in each path in the sum over phase paths. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Soldier universal robot controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyams, Jeffrey; Batavia, Parag; Liao, Elizabeth; Somerville, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    The Soldier Universal Robot Controller (SURC) is a modular OCU designed for simultaneous control of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles. It has a well defined, published API., defined using XML schemas, that allows other potential users of the system to develop their own modules for rapid integration with SURC. The SURC architecture is broken down into three layers: User Interface, Core Functions, and Transport. The User Interface layer is the front end module which provides the human computer interface for user control of robots. The Core layer is further divided into the following modules: Capabilities, Tactical, Mobility, and World Model. The Capabilities module keeps track of the known robots and provides a list of specifications and services. The Mobility module provides path planning via D*, while the Tactical module provides higher level mission planning (multi-agent/multi-mission) capabilities for collaborative operations. The World Model module is a relational database which stores world model objects. Finally, a Transport module provides translation from the SURC architecture to the robot specific messaging protocols (such as JAUS). This allows fast integration of new robot protocols into an existing SURC implementation to enable a new system to rapidly leverage existing SURC capabilities. The communication between different modules within the SURC architecture is done via XML. This gives developers and users the flexibility to extend existing messages without breaking backwards compatibility. The modularity of SURC offers users and developers alike the capability to create custom modules and plug them into place, as long as they follow the pre defined messaging API for that module.

  20. Robots hooked on drugs. Robotic automation expands pharmacy services.

    PubMed

    Marietti, C

    1997-11-01

    Hospitals are not known for automating labor-intensive tasks but robots are just beginning to make inroads in health-care. The first--and still only--robot grew from a class assignment to use an established technology in a new growth industry. The established technology was bar coding; the industry health-care; and the result a robotic device for the hospital pharmacy. PMID:10174843