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Sample records for robotic prostate interventions

  1. Robotic Image-Guided Needle Interventions of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Mozer, Pierre C; Partin, Alan W; Stoianovici, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Prostate biopsy and needle-directed prostate therapies are currently performed free-handed or with needle external templates under ultrasound guidance. Direct image-guided intervention robots are modern instruments that have the potential to substantially enhance these procedures. These may increase the accuracy and repeatability with which needles are placed in the gland. The authors’ group has developed a robot for precise prostate targeting that operates remotely alongside the patient in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner, as guided according to the image. PMID:19390670

  2. “MRI Stealth” robot for prostate interventions

    PubMed Central

    STOIANOVICI, DAN; SONG, DANNY; PETRISOR, DORU; URSU, DANIEL; MAZILU, DUMITRU; MUTENER, MICHAEL; SCHAR, MICHAEL; PATRICIU, ALEXANDRU

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports an important achievement in MRI instrumentation, a pneumatic, fully actuated robot located within the scanner alongside the patient and operating under remote control based on the images. Previous MRI robots commonly used piezoelectric actuation limiting their compatibility. Pneumatics is an ideal choice for MRI compatibility because it is decoupled from electromagnetism, but pneumatic actuators were hardly controllable. This achievement was possible due to a recent technology breakthrough, the invention of a new type of pneumatic motor, PneuStep (1), designed for the robot reported here with uncompromised MRI compatibility, high-precision, and medical safety. MrBot is one of the “MRI stealth” robots today (the second is described in this issue by Zangos et al.). Both of these systems are also multi-imager compatible, being able to operate with the imager of choice or cross-imaging modalities. For MRI compatibility the robot is exclusively constructed of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, crystals, rubbers and is electricity free. Light-based encoding is used for feedback, so that all electric components are distally located outside the imager’s room. MRI robots are modern, digital medical instruments in line with advanced imaging equipment and methods. These allow for accessing patients within closed bore scanners and performing interventions under direct (in scanner) imaging feedback. MRI robots could allow e.g. to biopsy small lesions imaged with cutting edge cancer imaging methods, or precisely deploy localized therapy at cancer foci. Our robot is the first to show the feasibility of fully automated in-scanner interventions. It is customized for the prostate and operates transperineally for needle interventions. It can accommodate various needle drivers for different percutaneous procedures such as biopsy, thermal ablations, or brachytherapy. The first needle driver is customized for fully automated low

  3. Advancements in magnetic resonance-guided robotic interventions in the prostate.

    PubMed

    Macura, Katarzyna J; Stoianovici, Dan

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides more detailed anatomical images of the prostate compared with the transrectal ultrasound imaging. Therefore, for the purpose of intervention in the prostate gland, diagnostic or therapeutic, MRI guidance offers a possibility of more precise targeting that may be crucial to the success of prostate interventions. However, access within the scanner is limited for manual instrument handling and the MR environment is most demanding among all imaging equipment with respect to the instrumentation used. A solution to this problem is the use of MR-compatible robots purposely designed to operate in the space and environmental restrictions inside the MR scanner allowing real-time interventions. Building an MRI-compatible robot is a very challenging engineering task because, in addition to the material restrictions that MRI instruments have, the robot requires actuators and sensors that limit the type of energies that can be used. Several important design problems have to be overcome before a successful MR-compatible robot application can be built. A number of MR-compatible robots, ranging from a simple manipulator to a fully automated system, have been developed, proposing ingenious solutions to the design challenge. Several systems have been already tested clinically for prostate biopsy and brachytherapy. As technology matures, precise image guidance for prostate interventions performed or assisted by specialized MR-compatible robotic devices may provide a uniquely accurate solution for guiding the intervention directly based on MR findings and feedback. Such an instrument would become a valuable clinical tool for biopsies directly targeting imaged tumor foci and delivering tumor-centered focal therapy. PMID:19512852

  4. Advancements in Magnetic Resonance–Guided Robotic Interventions in the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Macura, Katarzyna J.; Stoianovici, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides more detailed anatomical images of the prostate compared with the transrectal ultrasound imaging. Therefore, for the purpose of intervention in the prostate gland, diagnostic or therapeutic, MRI guidance offers a possibility of more precise targeting that may be crucial to the success of prostate interventions. However, access within the scanner is limited for manual instrument handling and the MR environment is most demanding among all imaging equipment with respect to the instrumentation used. A solution to this problem is the use of MR-compatible robots purposely designed to operate in the space and environmental restrictions inside the MR scanner allowing real-time interventions. Building an MRI-compatible robot is a very challenging engineering task because, in addition to the material restrictions that MRI instruments have, the robot requires actuators and sensors that limit the type of energies that can be used. Several important design problems have to be overcome before a successful MR-compatible robot application can be built. A number of MR-compatible robots, ranging from a simple manipulator to a fully automated system, have been developed, proposing ingenious solutions to the design challenge. Several systems have been already tested clinically for prostate biopsy and brachytherapy. As technology matures, precise image guidance for prostate interventions performed or assisted by specialized MR-compatible robotic devices may provide a uniquely accurate solution for guiding the intervention directly based on MR findings and feedback. Such an instrument would become a valuable clinical tool for biopsies directly targeting imaged tumor foci and delivering tumor-centered focal therapy. PMID:19512852

  5. Pneumatically Operated MRI-Compatible Needle Placement Robot for Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Mewes, Philip W.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. The strong magnetic field prevents the use of conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intra-prostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. The robot performs needle insertion under real-time 3T MR image guidance; workspace requirements, MR compatibility, and workflow have been evaluated on phantoms. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21686038

  6. A networked modular hardware and software system for MRI-guided robotic prostate interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hao; Shang, Weijian; Harrington, Kevin; Camilo, Alex; Cole, Gregory; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides high resolution multi-parametric imaging, large soft tissue contrast, and interactive image updates making it an ideal modality for diagnosing prostate cancer and guiding surgical tools. Despite a substantial armamentarium of apparatuses and systems has been developed to assist surgical diagnosis and therapy for MRI-guided procedures over last decade, the unified method to develop high fidelity robotic systems in terms of accuracy, dynamic performance, size, robustness and modularity, to work inside close-bore MRI scanner still remains a challenge. In this work, we develop and evaluate an integrated modular hardware and software system to support the surgical workflow of intra-operative MRI, with percutaneous prostate intervention as an illustrative case. Specifically, the distinct apparatuses and methods include: 1) a robot controller system for precision closed loop control of piezoelectric motors, 2) a robot control interface software that connects the 3D Slicer navigation software and the robot controller to exchange robot commands and coordinates using the OpenIGTLink open network communication protocol, and 3) MRI scan plane alignment to the planned path and imaging of the needle as it is inserted into the target location. A preliminary experiment with ex-vivo phantom validates the system workflow, MRI-compatibility and shows that the robotic system has a better than 0.01mm positioning accuracy.

  7. Development and Evaluation of an Actuated MRI-Compatible Robotic System for MRI-Guided Prostate Intervention.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Axel; Song, Sang-Eun; Cho, Nathan B; Iordachita, Iulian; Guion, Peter; Fichtinger, Gabor; Whitcomb, Louis L

    2012-09-12

    This paper reports the design, development, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibility evaluation of an actuated transrectal prostate robot for MRI-guided needle intervention in the prostate. The robot performs actuated needle MRI-guidance with the goals of providing (i) MRI compatibility, (ii) MRI-guided needle placement with accuracy sufficient for targeting clinically significant prostate cancer foci, (iii) reducing interventional procedure times (thus increasing patient comfort and reducing opportunity for needle targeting error due to patient motion), (iv) enabling real-time MRI monitoring of interventional procedures, and (v) reducing the opportunities for error that arise in manually actuated needle placement. The design of the robot, employing piezo-ceramic-motor actuated needle guide positioning and manual needle insertion, is reported. Results of a MRI compatibility study show no reduction of MRI signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) with the motors disabled. Enabling the motors reduces the SNR by 80% without RF shielding, but SNR is only reduced by 40% to 60% with RF shielding. The addition of radio-frequency shielding is shown to significantly reduce image SNR degradation caused by the presence of the robotic device. An accuracy study of MRI-guided biopsy needle placements in a prostate phantom is reported. The study shows an average in-plane targeting error of 2.4 mm with a maximum error of 3.7 mm. These data indicate the system's needle targeting accuracy is similar to that obtained with a previously reported manually actuated system, and is sufficient to reliably sample clinically significant prostate cancer foci under MRI-guidance. PMID:23326181

  8. Development and Evaluation of an Actuated MRI-Compatible Robotic System for MRI-Guided Prostate Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Axel; Song, Sang-Eun; Cho, Nathan B.; Iordachita, Iulian; Guion, Peter; Fichtinger, Gabor; Whitcomb, Louis L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the design, development, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibility evaluation of an actuated transrectal prostate robot for MRI-guided needle intervention in the prostate. The robot performs actuated needle MRI-guidance with the goals of providing (i) MRI compatibility, (ii) MRI-guided needle placement with accuracy sufficient for targeting clinically significant prostate cancer foci, (iii) reducing interventional procedure times (thus increasing patient comfort and reducing opportunity for needle targeting error due to patient motion), (iv) enabling real-time MRI monitoring of interventional procedures, and (v) reducing the opportunities for error that arise in manually actuated needle placement. The design of the robot, employing piezo-ceramic-motor actuated needle guide positioning and manual needle insertion, is reported. Results of a MRI compatibility study show no reduction of MRI signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) with the motors disabled. Enabling the motors reduces the SNR by 80% without RF shielding, but SNR is only reduced by 40% to 60% with RF shielding. The addition of radio-frequency shielding is shown to significantly reduce image SNR degradation caused by the presence of the robotic device. An accuracy study of MRI-guided biopsy needle placements in a prostate phantom is reported. The study shows an average in-plane targeting error of 2.4 mm with a maximum error of 3.7 mm. These data indicate the system’s needle targeting accuracy is similar to that obtained with a previously reported manually actuated system, and is sufficient to reliably sample clinically significant prostate cancer foci under MRI-guidance. PMID:23326181

  9. Preclinical evaluation of an MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for angulated needle placement in transperineal prostate interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Junichi; Song, Sang-Eun; Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Seifabadi, Reza; Cho, Bong Joon; Tuncali, Kemal; Fichtinger, Gabor; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the targeting accuracy of a small profile MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for needle placement that can angulate a needle insertion path into a large accessible target volume. Methods We extended our MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for needle placement to utilize its four degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF) mechanism with two parallel triangular structures and support transperineal prostate biopsies in a closed-bore magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The robot is designed to guide a needle towards a lesion so that a radiologist can manually insert it in the bore. The robot is integrated with navigation software that allows an operator to plan angulated needle insertion by selecting a target and an entry point. The targeting error was evaluated while the angle between the needle insertion path and the static magnetic field was between −5.7° and 5.7° horizontally and between −5.7° and 4.3° vertically in the MRI scanner after sterilizing and draping the device. Results The robot positioned the needle for angulated insertion as specified on the navigation software with overall targeting error of 0.8 ± 0.5 mm along the horizontal axis and 0.8 ± 0.8 mm along the vertical axis. The two-dimensional root-mean-square targeting error on the axial slices as containing the targets was 1.4 mm. Conclusions Our preclinical evaluation demonstrated that the MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for needle placement with the capability to angulate the needle insertion path provides targeting accuracy feasible for clinical MRI-guided prostate interventions. The clinical feasibility has to be established in a clinical study. PMID:22678723

  10. An MRI-Compatible Robotic System With Hybrid Tracking for MRI-Guided Prostate Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian I.; Guion, Peter; Singh, Anurag K.; Kaushal, Aradhana; Ménard, Cynthia; Pinto, Peter A.; Camphausen, Kevin; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the development, evaluation, and first clinical trials of the access to the prostate tissue (APT) II system—a scanner independent system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided transrectal prostate interventions. The system utilizes novel manipulator mechanics employing a steerable needle channel and a novel six degree-of-freedom hybrid tracking method, comprising passive fiducial tracking for initial registration and subsequent incremental motion measurements. Targeting accuracy of the system in prostate phantom experiments and two clinical human-subject procedures is shown to compare favorably with existing systems using passive and active tracking methods. The portable design of the APT II system, using only standard MRI image sequences and minimal custom scanner interfacing, allows the system to be easily used on different MRI scanners. PMID:22009867

  11. An MRI-compatible robotic system with hybrid tracking for MRI-guided prostate intervention.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian I; Guion, Peter; Singh, Anurag K; Kaushal, Aradhana; Ménard, Cynthia; Pinto, Peter A; Camphausen, Kevin; Fichtinger, Gabor; Whitcomb, Louis L

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports the development, evaluation, and first clinical trials of the access to the prostate tissue (APT) II system-a scanner independent system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided transrectal prostate interventions. The system utilizes novel manipulator mechanics employing a steerable needle channel and a novel six degree-of-freedom hybrid tracking method, comprising passive fiducial tracking for initial registration and subsequent incremental motion measurements. Targeting accuracy of the system in prostate phantom experiments and two clinical human-subject procedures is shown to compare favorably with existing systems using passive and active tracking methods. The portable design of the APT II system, using only standard MRI image sequences and minimal custom scanner interfacing, allows the system to be easily used on different MRI scanners. PMID:22009867

  12. Design of a decoupled MRI-compatible force sensor using fiber bragg grating sensors for robot-assisted prostate interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfaredi, Reza; Seifabadi, Reza; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian

    2013-03-01

    During prostate needle insertion, the gland rotates and displaces resulting in needle placement inaccuracy. To compensate for this error, we proposed master-slave needle steering under real-time MRI in a previous study. For MRI-compatibility and accurate motion control, the master (and the slave) robot uses piezo actuators. These actuators however, are non-backdrivable. To cope with this issue, force sensor is required. Force sensor is also required at the slave side to reflect the insertion force to clinician's hand through the master robot. Currently, there is no MRI-compatible force sensor commercially available. In order to generate a combination of linear and rotary motions for needle steering, this study is seeking to develop a MRI-compatible 2 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) force/torque sensor. Fiber Brag Grating (FBG) strain measuring sensors which are proven to be MRI-compatible are used. The active element is made of phosphor-bronze and other parts are made of brass. The force and torque measurements are designed to be entirely decoupled. The sensor measures -20 to 20 N axial force with 0.1 N resolution, and -200 to 200 Nmm axial torque with 1 Nmm resolution. Analytical and Finite Element (FE) analyses are performed to ensure the strains are within the measurable range of the FBG sensors. The sensor is designed to be compact (diameter =15 mm, height =20 mm) and easy to handle and install. The proposed sensor is fabricated and calibrated using a commercial force/torque sensor.

  13. MRI-Safe Robot for Endorectal Prostate Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Sebrecht, Peter; Petrisor, Doru; Coleman, Jonathan; Solomon, Stephen B; Hricak, Hedvig

    2013-09-16

    This paper reports the development of an MRI-Safe robot for direct (interventional) MRI-guided endorectal prostate biopsy. The robot is constructed of nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive materials, and is electricity free, using pneumatic actuation and optical sensors. Targeting biopsy lesions of MRI abnormality presents substantial clinical potential for the management of prostate cancer. The paper describes MRI-Safe requirements, presents the kinematic architecture, design and construction of the robot, and a comprehensive set of preclinical tests for MRI compatibility and needle targeting accuracy. The robot has a compact and simple 3 degree-of-freedom (DoF) structure, two for orienting a needle-guide and one to preset the depth of needle insertion. The actual insertion is performed manually through the guide and up to the preset depth. To reduce the complexity and size of the robot next to the patient, the depth setting DoF is remote. Experimental results show that the robot is safe to use in any MRI environment (MRI-Safe). Comprehensive MRI tests show that the presence and motion of the robot in the MRI scanner cause virtually no image deterioration or signal to noise ratio (SNR) change. Robot's accuracy in bench test, CT-guided in-vitro, MRI-guided in-vitro and animal tests are 0.37mm, 1.10mm, 2.09mm, and 2.58mm respectively. These values are acceptable for clinical use. PMID:25378897

  14. MRI-Safe Robot for Endorectal Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Sebrecht, Peter; Petrisor, Doru; Coleman, Jonathan; Solomon, Stephen B.; Hricak, Hedvig

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the development of an MRI-Safe robot for direct (interventional) MRI-guided endorectal prostate biopsy. The robot is constructed of nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive materials, and is electricity free, using pneumatic actuation and optical sensors. Targeting biopsy lesions of MRI abnormality presents substantial clinical potential for the management of prostate cancer. The paper describes MRI-Safe requirements, presents the kinematic architecture, design and construction of the robot, and a comprehensive set of preclinical tests for MRI compatibility and needle targeting accuracy. The robot has a compact and simple 3 degree-of-freedom (DoF) structure, two for orienting a needle-guide and one to preset the depth of needle insertion. The actual insertion is performed manually through the guide and up to the preset depth. To reduce the complexity and size of the robot next to the patient, the depth setting DoF is remote. Experimental results show that the robot is safe to use in any MRI environment (MRI-Safe). Comprehensive MRI tests show that the presence and motion of the robot in the MRI scanner cause virtually no image deterioration or signal to noise ratio (SNR) change. Robot’s accuracy in bench test, CT-guided in-vitro, MRI-guided in-vitro and animal tests are 0.37mm, 1.10mm, 2.09mm, and 2.58mm respectively. These values are acceptable for clinical use. PMID:25378897

  15. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Dimaio, Simon P; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21057608

  16. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; DiMaio, Simon P.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21057608

  17. MR-Guided Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tempany, Clare; Straus, Sarah; Hata, Nobuhiko; Haker, Steven

    2009-01-01

    In this article the current issues of diagnosis and detection of prostate cancer are reviewed. The limitations for current techniques are highlighted and some possible solutions with MR imaging and MR-guided biopsy approaches are reviewed. There are several different biopsy approaches under investigation. These include transperineal open magnet approaches to closed-bore 1.5T transrectal biopsies. The imaging, image processing, and tracking methods are also discussed. In the arena of therapy, MR guidance has been used in conjunction with radiation methods, either brachytherapy or external delivery. The principles of the radiation treatment, the toxicities, and use of images are outlined. The future role of imaging and image-guided interventions lie with providing a noninvasive surrogate for cancer surveillance or monitoring treatment response. The shift to minimally invasive focal therapies has already begun and will be very exciting when MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery reaches its full potential. PMID:18219689

  18. Piezoelectrically Actuated Robotic System for MRI-Guided Prostate Percutaneous Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hao; Shang, Weijian; Cole, Gregory; Li, Gang; Harrington, Kevin; Camilo, Alexander; Tokuda, Junichi; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fully-actuated robotic system for percutaneous prostate therapy under continuously acquired live magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The system is composed of modular hardware and software to support the surgical workflow of intra-operative MRI-guided surgical procedures. We present the development of a 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) needle placement robot for transperineal prostate interventions. The robot consists of a 3-DOF needle driver module and a 3-DOF Cartesian motion module. The needle driver provides needle cannula translation and rotation (2-DOF) and stylet translation (1-DOF). A custom robot controller consisting of multiple piezoelectric motor drivers provides precision closed-loop control of piezoelectric motors and enables simultaneous robot motion and MR imaging. The developed modular robot control interface software performs image-based registration, kinematics calculation, and exchanges robot commands and coordinates between the navigation software and the robot controller with a new implementation of the open network communication protocol OpenIGTLink. Comprehensive compatibility of the robot is evaluated inside a 3-Tesla MRI scanner using standard imaging sequences and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss is limited to 15%. The image deterioration due to the present and motion of robot demonstrates unobservable image interference. Twenty-five targeted needle placements inside gelatin phantoms utilizing an 18-gauge ceramic needle demonstrated 0.87 mm root mean square (RMS) error in 3D Euclidean distance based on MRI volume segmentation of the image-guided robotic needle placement procedure. PMID:26412962

  19. [Overview of the vascular interventional surgery robot].

    PubMed

    Li, Shenglin; Shen, Jie; Yan, Yonghua; Chen, Daguo

    2013-03-01

    In vascular invasive surgery procedures, because doctors suffered from a large number of X-ray radiation, and it is difficult to manipulate catheter, so vascular interventional robot has been rapidly developed. On the basis of analysis of vascular surgical intervention process, key technologies of vascular interventional surgical robots are provided. The image navigation system, the mechanical structure, control systems and force feedback are also analyzed. PMID:23777068

  20. Robotic Surgery of the Kidney, Bladder, and Prostate.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Arjun; Wagner, Andrew A

    2016-06-01

    Robot-assisted surgery offers the advantages of a minimally invasive approach with greater technical ease and a shorter learning curve than pure laparoscopy. Fueled by the success of the robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, urologists are increasingly using the robotic platform for other advanced operations involving the kidney, ureters, bladder, and prostate. Robotic surgery has been shown to be safe and effective, with good perioperative, functional, and oncologic outcomes. Although cost continues to be a major concern regarding the use of robotic technology, improved efficiency and reduced hospital stays associated with the minimally invasive approach are allowing for better cost-effectiveness. PMID:27261798

  1. Design of a Teleoperated Needle Steering System for MRI-guided Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Seifabadi, Reza; Iordachita, Iulian; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Accurate needle placement plays a key role in success of prostate biopsy and brachytherapy. During percutaneous interventions, the prostate gland rotates and deforms which may cause significant target displacement. In these cases straight needle trajectory is not sufficient for precise targeting. Although needle spinning and fast insertion may be helpful, they do not entirely resolve the issue. We propose robot-assisted bevel-tip needle steering under MRI guidance as a potential solution to compensate for the target displacement. MRI is chosen for its superior soft tissue contrast in prostate imaging. Due to the confined workspace of the MRI scanner and the requirement for the clinician to be present inside the MRI room during the procedure, we designed a MRI-compatible 2-DOF haptic device to command the needle steering slave robot which operates inside the scanner. The needle steering slave robot was designed to be integrated with a previously developed pneumatically actuated transperineal robot for MRI-guided prostate needle placement. We describe design challenges and present the conceptual design of the master and slave robots and the associated controller. PMID:24649480

  2. A fully actuated robotic assistant for MRI-guided prostate biopsy and brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Su, Hao; Shang, Weijian; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare M.; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2013-03-01

    Intra-operative medical imaging enables incorporation of human experience and intelligence in a controlled, closed-loop fashion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an ideal modality for surgical guidance of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, with its ability to perform high resolution, real-time, high soft tissue contrast imaging without ionizing radiation. However, for most current image-guided approaches only static pre-operative images are accessible for guidance, which are unable to provide updated information during a surgical procedure. The high magnetic field, electrical interference, and limited access of closed-bore MRI render great challenges to developing robotic systems that can perform inside a diagnostic high-field MRI while obtaining interactively updated MR images. To overcome these limitations, we are developing a piezoelectrically actuated robotic assistant for actuated percutaneous prostate interventions under real-time MRI guidance. Utilizing a modular design, the system enables coherent and straight forward workflow for various percutaneous interventions, including prostate biopsy sampling and brachytherapy seed placement, using various needle driver configurations. The unified workflow compromises: 1) system hardware and software initialization, 2) fiducial frame registration, 3) target selection and motion planning, 4) moving to the target and performing the intervention (e.g. taking a biopsy sample) under live imaging, and 5) visualization and verification. Phantom experiments of prostate biopsy and brachytherapy were executed under MRI-guidance to evaluate the feasibility of the workflow. The robot successfully performed fully actuated biopsy sampling and delivery of simulated brachytherapy seeds under live MR imaging, as well as precise delivery of a prostate brachytherapy seed distribution with an RMS accuracy of 0.98mm.

  3. MRI-powered Actuators for Robotic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Vartholomeos, Panagiotis; Qin, Lei; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel actuation technology for robotically assisted MRI-guided interventional procedures. Compact and wireless, the actuators are both powered and controlled by the MRI scanner. The design concept and performance limits are described and derived analytically. Simulation and experiments in a clinical MR scanner are used to validate the analysis and to demonstrate the capability of the approach for needle biopsies. The concepts of actuator locking mechanisms and multi-axis control are also introduced. PMID:22287082

  4. Towards Clinically Optimized MRI-guided Surgical Manipulator for Minimally Invasive Prostate Percutaneous Interventions: Constructive Design*

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Sohrab; Fischer, Gregory S.; Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare M.; Iordachita, Iulian

    2013-01-01

    This paper undertakes the modular design and development of a minimally invasive surgical manipulator for MRI-guided transperineal prostate interventions. Severe constraints for the MRI-compatibility to hold the minimum artifact on the image quality and dimensions restraint of the bore scanner shadow the design procedure. Regarding the constructive design, the manipulator kinematics has been optimized and the effective analytical needle workspace is developed and followed by proposing the workflow for the manual needle insertion. A study of the finite element analysis is established and utilized to improve the mechanism weaknesses under some inevitable external forces to ensure the minimum structure deformation. The procedure for attaching a sterile plastic drape on the robot manipulator is discussed. The introduced robotic manipulator herein is aimed for the clinically prostate biopsy and brachytherapy applications. PMID:24683502

  5. Towards Clinically Optimized MRI-guided Surgical Manipulator for Minimally Invasive Prostate Percutaneous Interventions: Constructive Design.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Sohrab; Fischer, Gregory S; Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare M; Iordachita, Iulian

    2013-12-31

    This paper undertakes the modular design and development of a minimally invasive surgical manipulator for MRI-guided transperineal prostate interventions. Severe constraints for the MRI-compatibility to hold the minimum artifact on the image quality and dimensions restraint of the bore scanner shadow the design procedure. Regarding the constructive design, the manipulator kinematics has been optimized and the effective analytical needle workspace is developed and followed by proposing the workflow for the manual needle insertion. A study of the finite element analysis is established and utilized to improve the mechanism weaknesses under some inevitable external forces to ensure the minimum structure deformation. The procedure for attaching a sterile plastic drape on the robot manipulator is discussed. The introduced robotic manipulator herein is aimed for the clinically prostate biopsy and brachytherapy applications. PMID:24683502

  6. Development and preliminary evaluation of an ultrasonic motor actuated needle guide for 3T MRI-guided transperineal prostate interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Tempany, Clare; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2012-02-01

    Image guided prostate interventions have been accelerated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and robotic technologies in the past few years. However, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided procedure still remains as vast majority in clinical practice due to engineering and clinical complexity of the MRI-guided robotic interventions. Subsequently, great advantages and increasing availability of MRI have not been utilized at its maximum capacity in clinic. To benefit patients from the advantages of MRI, we developed an MRI-compatible motorized needle guide device "Smart Template" that resembles a conventional prostate template to perform MRI-guided prostate interventions with minimal changes in the clinical procedure. The requirements and specifications of the Smart Template were identified from our latest MRI-guided intervention system that has been clinically used in manual mode for prostate biopsy. Smart Template consists of vertical and horizontal crossbars that are driven by two ultrasonic motors via timing-belt and mitergear transmissions. Navigation software that controls the crossbar position to provide needle insertion positions was also developed. The software can be operated independently or interactively with an open-source navigation software, 3D Slicer, that has been developed for prostate intervention. As preliminary evaluation, MRI distortion and SNR test were conducted. Significant MRI distortion was found close to the threaded brass alloy components of the template. However, the affected volume was limited outside the clinical region of interest. SNR values over routine MRI scan sequences for prostate biopsy indicated insignificant image degradation during the presence of the robotic system and actuation of the ultrasonic motors.

  7. Precision instrument placement using a 4-DOF robot with integrated fiducials for minimally invasive interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Roland; Lin, Ralph; Cheng, Peng; Kronreif, Gernot; Kornfeld, Martin; Lindisch, David; Wood, Bradford J.; Viswanathan, Anand; Cleary, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    Minimally invasive procedures are increasingly attractive to patients and medical personnel because they can reduce operative trauma, recovery times, and overall costs. However, during these procedures, the physician has a very limited view of the interventional field and the exact position of surgical instruments. We present an image-guided platform for precision placement of surgical instruments based upon a small four degree-of-freedom robot (B-RobII; ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, Vienna, Austria). This platform includes a custom instrument guide with an integrated spiral fiducial pattern as the robot's end-effector, and it uses intra-operative computed tomography (CT) to register the robot to the patient directly before the intervention. The physician can then use a graphical user interface (GUI) to select a path for percutaneous access, and the robot will automatically align the instrument guide along this path. Potential anatomical targets include the liver, kidney, prostate, and spine. This paper describes the robotic platform, workflow, software, and algorithms used by the system. To demonstrate the algorithmic accuracy and suitability of the custom instrument guide, we also present results from experiments as well as estimates of the maximum error between target and instrument tip.

  8. Semi-automatic Segmentation for Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, S. Sara; Chng, Nick; Spadinger, Ingrid; Morris, William J.; Salcudean, Septimiu E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report and characterize a semi-automatic prostate segmentation method for prostate brachytherapy. Based on anatomical evidence and requirements of the treatment procedure, a warped and tapered ellipsoid was found suitable as the a priori 3D shape of the prostate. By transforming the acquired endorectal transverse images of the prostate into ellipses, the shape fitting problem was cast into a convex problem which can be solved efficiently. The average whole gland error between volumes created from manual and semi-automatic contours from 21 patients was 6.63±0.9%. For use in brachytherapy treatment planning, the resulting contours were modified, if deemed necessary, by radiation oncologists prior to treatment. The average whole gland volume error between the volumes computed from semi-automatic contours and those computed from modified contours, from 40 patients, was 5.82±4.15%. The amount of bias in the physicians’ delineations when given an initial semi-automatic contour was measured by comparing the volume error between 10 prostate volumes computed from manual contours with those of modified contours. This error was found to be 7.25±0.39% for the whole gland. Automatic contouring reduced subjectivity, as evidenced by a decrease in segmentation inter- and intra-observer variability from 4.65% and 5.95% for manual segmentation to 3.04% and 3.48% for semi-automatic segmentation, respectively. We characterized the performance of the method relative to the reference obtained from manual segmentation by using a novel approach that divides the prostate region into nine sectors. We analyzed each sector independently as the requirements for segmentation accuracy depend on which region of the prostate is considered. The measured segmentation time is 14±1 seconds with an additional 32±14 seconds for initialization. By assuming 1–3 minutes for modification of the contours, if necessary, a total segmentation time of less than 4 minutes is required

  9. Hand-held transendoscopic robotic manipulators: A transurethral laser prostate surgery case study

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Richard J.; Mitchell, Christopher R.; Herrell, S. Duke; Webster, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural orifice endoscopic surgery can enable incisionless approaches, but a major challenge is the lack of small and dexterous instrumentation. Surgical robots have the potential to meet this need yet often disrupt the clinical workflow. Hand-held robots that combine thin manipulators and endoscopes have the potential to address this by integrating seamlessly into the clinical workflow and enhancing dexterity. As a case study illustrating the potential of this approach, we describe a hand-held robotic system that passes two concentric tube manipulators through a 5 mm port in a rigid endoscope for transurethral laser prostate surgery. This system is intended to catalyze the use of a clinically superior, yet rarely attempted, procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia. This paper describes system design and experiments to evaluate the surgeon’s functional workspace and accuracy using the robot. Phantom and cadaver experiments demonstrate successful completion of the target procedure via prostate lobe resection. PMID:27570361

  10. [Principles of MR-guided interventions, surgery, navigation, and robotics].

    PubMed

    Melzer, A

    2010-08-01

    The application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an imaging technique in interventional and surgical techniques provides a new dimension of soft tissue-oriented precise procedures without exposure to ionizing radiation and nephrotoxic allergenic, iodine-containing contrast agents. The technical capabilities of MRI in combination with interventional devices and systems, navigation, and robotics are discussed. PMID:20700775

  11. Medications and surgical interventions for benign prostatic hyperplasia are potential confounders of prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Modi, Parth; Helfand, Brian T; McVary, Kevin T

    2010-07-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most widely used marker for prostate cancer (CaP) screening and monitoring benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) progression. However, lack of an established abnormal threshold and the presence of other benign processes confound the interpretation of PSA levels. Many factors besides inflammation, trauma, and instrumentation can influence PSA levels; specifically, BPH and its associated medical and surgical therapies frequently complicate the interpretation of this serum blood test. For example, the commonly used 5 alpha reductase inhibitor (5ARI) medications directly affect PSA levels by decreasing prostate volume. The amount of time and potentially even the 5ARI formulary a patient is administered has been implicated to directly impact the degree of reduction in PSA (a proxy for prostate volume). In addition, each of the currently available surgical procedures for BPH appears to remove varying amounts of prostatic adenoma. This directly confounds CaP screening because each procedure is associated with a relatively specific postoperative nadir PSA level, and PSA kinetics are not well described in the literature. Taken together, it is important for clinicians to comprehend that BPH and its associated medical and surgical interventions should directly influence their interpretation of PSA and PSA velocity when screening for CaP or following BPH progression. PMID:20467844

  12. Prostatic Artery Embolization After Failed Urological Interventions for Benign Prostatic Obstruction: A Case Series of Three Patients.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Shivank S; Dalal, Ravi; Gomez, Christopher; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2016-08-01

    Benign prostate obstruction with associated lower urinary tract symptoms is a common diagnosis with multiple minimally invasive treatment options available. Herein, the authors describe three patients who failed prior different urological interventions who underwent prostate artery embolization with a subsequent improvement in symptoms. The positive response suggests that embolization may be an effective treatment alternative in this subset of patients. PMID:27076178

  13. A Community-Driven Intervention for Prostate Cancer Screening in African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Kushal; Ukoli, Flora; Liu, Jianguo; Beech, Derrick; Beard, Katina; Brown, Byron; Sanderson, Maureen; Kenerson, Donna; Cooper, Leslie; Canto, Marie; Blot, Bill; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on prostate cancer screening behavior and knowledge. Participants were 104 African American men, 45 years and older, who had not been screened for prostate cancer with a prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam within the past year. All participants…

  14. A parallel wire robot for epicardial interventions.

    PubMed

    Costanza, Adam D; Wood, Nathan A; Passineau, Michael J; Moraca, Robert J; Bailey, Stephen H; Yoshizumi, Tomo; Riviere, Cameron N

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of a planar parallel wire robot that adheres to the surface of the beating heart and provides a stable platform for minimally invasive epicardial therapies. The device is deployed through a small subxiphoid skin incision and attaches to the heart using suction. This methodology obviates mechanical stabilization and lung deflation, which are typically required during minimally invasive beating-heart surgery. The prototype design involves three vacuum chambers connected by two flexible arms. The chambers adhere to the epicardium, forming the vertices of a triangular base structure. Three cables connect a movable end-effector head to the three bases; the cables then pass out of the body to external actuators. The surgical tool moves within the triangular workspace to perform injections, ablation, or other tasks on the beating heart. Tests in vitro and in vivo were conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of the system. Tests in vivo successfully demonstrated the ability to deploy through a subxiphoid incision, adhere to the surface of the beating heart, move the surgical tool head within the robot's workspace, and perform injections into the myocardium. PMID:25571402

  15. Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy: Comparison of the Open and Robotic Approaches for Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Loeb, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy represents the standard of care for surgical treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. First described in 1904, the operation became widely performed only after advances in diagnostic and surgical techniques occurred later in the century. Over time, open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) became the most common operation for prostate cancer, and excellent long-term survival outcomes have been reported. More recently, minimally invasive techniques such as the robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) were introduced. Despite a lack of prospectively collected, long-term data supporting its use, RALRP has overtaken RRP as the most frequently performed prostate cancer operation in the United States. This article uses currently available data to compare oncologic, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes associated with both the open and robotic approaches to radical prostatectomy. PMID:23172996

  16. Optimism and prostate cancer-specific expectations predict better quality of life after robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Andrea A; Perez, Martin A; Oh, Sindy; Crocitto, Laura

    2012-06-01

    We examined the relations among generalized positive expectations (optimism), prostate-cancer specific expectations, and prostate cancer-related quality of life in a prospective sample of 83 men who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer. Optimism was significantly associated with higher prostate cancer-specific expectations, β = .36, p < .001. In addition, optimism and prostate cancer-specific expectations were independent prospective predictors of better scores on the following prostate cancer-related quality of life scales: Sexual Intimacy and Sexual Confidence; Masculine Self-Esteem (specific expectations only), Health Worry, Cancer Control, and Informed Decision Making (βs > .21, ps < .05). When considered simultaneously, both optimism and specific expectations contributed uniquely to better Health Worry and Cancer Control scores, optimism was a unique predictor of better Sexual Intimacy and Sexual Confidence scores, and specific expectations uniquely predicted higher scores on Informed Decision Making. Although optimism and prostate-cancer specific expectations are related, they contribute uniquely to several prostate cancer-related quality of life outcomes following RALP and may be important targets for quality of life research with this population. PMID:22051931

  17. A Parallel Wire Robot for Epicardial Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Costanza, Adam D.; Wood, Nathan A.; Passineau, Michael J.; Moraca, Robert J.; Bailey, Stephen H.; Yoshizumi, Tomo; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of a planar parallel wire robot that adheres to the surface of the beating heart and provides a stable platform for minimally invasive epicardial therapies. The device is deployed through a small subxiphoid skin incision and attaches to the heart using suction. This methodology obviates mechanical stabilization and lung deflation, which are typically required during minimally invasive beating-heart surgery. The prototype design involves three vacuum chambers connected by two flexible arms. The chambers adhere to the epicardium, forming the vertices of a triangular base structure. Three cables connect a movable end-effector head to the three bases; the cables then pass out of the body to external actuators. The surgical tool moves within the triangular workspace to perform injections, ablation, or other tasks on the beating heart. Tests in vitro and in vivo were conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of the system. Tests in vivo successfully demonstrated the ability to deploy through a subxiphoid incision, adhere to the surface of the beating heart, move the surgical tool head within the robot’s workspace, and perform injections into the myocardium. PMID:25571402

  18. A MR-TRUS registration method for ultrasound-guided prostate interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Rossi, Peter; Mao, Hui; Jani, Ashesh B.; Ogunleye, Tomi; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we reported a MR-TRUS prostate registration method that uses a subject-specific prostate strain model to improve MR-targeted, US-guided prostate interventions (e.g., biopsy and radiotherapy). The proposed algorithm combines a subject-specific prostate strain model with a Bspline transformation to register the prostate gland of the MRI to the TRUS images. The prostate strain model was obtained through US elastography and a 3D strain map of the prostate was generated. The B-spline transformation was calculated by minimizing Euclidean distance between MR and TRUS prostate surfaces. This prostate stain map was used to constrain the B-spline-based transformation to predict and compensate for the internal prostate-gland deformation. This method was validated with a prostate-phantom experiment and a pilot study of 5 prostate-cancer patients. For the phantom study, the mean target registration error (TRE) was 1.3 mm. MR-TRUS registration was also successfully performed for 5 patients with a mean TRE less than 2 mm. The proposed registration method may provide an accurate and robust means of estimating internal prostate-gland deformation, and could be valuable for prostate-cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Treatment and technical intervention time analysis of a robotic stereotactic radiotherapy system.

    PubMed

    Crop, F; Lacornerie, T; Szymczak, H; Felin, A; Bailleux, C; Mirabel, X; Lartigau, E

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a better operational knowledge of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments with CyberKnife(r). An analysis of both In-room Times (IRT) and technical interventions of 5 years of treatments was performed, during which more than 1600 patients were treated for various indications, including liver (21%), lung (29%), intracranial (13%), head and neck (11%) and prostate (7%). Technical interventions were recorded along with the time of the failure, time to the intervention, and the complexity and duration of the repair. Analyses of Time Between Failures (TBF) and Service Disrupting TBF(disr) were performed. Treatment time data and variability per indication and following different system upgrades were evaluated. Large variations of IRTs were found between indications, but also large variations for each indication. The combination of the time reduction Tool (using Iris(r)) and Improved Stop Handling was of major impact to shortening of treatment times. The first implementation of the Iris collimator alone did not lead to significantly shorter IRTs for us except during prostate treatments. This was mostly due to the addition at the same time of larger rotational compensation for prostate treatments (58 instead of 1.58). Significant differences of duration between the first fraction and following fractions of a treatment, representing the necessity of defining imaging parameters and explanation to patients, were found for liver (12 min) and lung treatments using Xsight(r) Spine (5 min). Liver and lung treatments represent the longest IRT's and involve the largest variability's in IRT. The malfunction rate of the system followed a Weibull distribution with the shape and scale parameters of 0.8 and 39.7. Mean TBF(disr) was 68 work hours. 60 to 80% of the service disrupting interventions were resolved within 30-60 min, 5% required external intervention and 30% occurred in the morning. The presented results can be applied in the

  20. A comparison of robotic arm versus gantry linear accelerator stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Avkshtol, Vladimir; Dong, Yanqun; Hayes, Shelly B; Hallman, Mark A; Price, Robert A; Sobczak, Mark L; Horwitz, Eric M; Zaorsky, Nicholas G

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer diagnosed in men in the United States besides skin cancer. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT; 6–15 Gy per fraction, up to 45 minutes per fraction, delivered in five fractions or less, over the course of approximately 2 weeks) is emerging as a popular treatment option for prostate cancer. The American Society for Radiation Oncology now recognizes SBRT for select low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients. SBRT grew from the notion that high doses of radiation typical of brachytherapy could be delivered noninvasively using modern external-beam radiation therapy planning and delivery methods. SBRT is most commonly delivered using either a traditional gantry-mounted linear accelerator or a robotic arm-mounted linear accelerator. In this systematic review article, we compare and contrast the current clinical evidence supporting a gantry vs robotic arm SBRT for prostate cancer. The data for SBRT show encouraging and comparable results in terms of freedom from biochemical failure (>90% for low and intermediate risk at 5–7 years) and acute and late toxicity (<6% grade 3–4 late toxicities). Other outcomes (eg, overall and cancer-specific mortality) cannot be compared, given the indolent course of low-risk prostate cancer. At this time, neither SBRT device is recommended over the other for all patients; however, gantry-based SBRT machines have the abilities of treating larger volumes with conventional fractionation, shorter treatment time per fraction (~15 minutes for gantry vs ~45 minutes for robotic arm), and the ability to achieve better plans among obese patients (since they are able to use energies >6 MV). Finally, SBRT (particularly on a gantry) may also be more cost-effective than conventionally fractionated external-beam radiation therapy. Randomized controlled trials of SBRT using both technologies are underway. PMID:27574585

  1. A comparison of robotic arm versus gantry linear accelerator stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Avkshtol, Vladimir; Dong, Yanqun; Hayes, Shelly B; Hallman, Mark A; Price, Robert A; Sobczak, Mark L; Horwitz, Eric M; Zaorsky, Nicholas G

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer diagnosed in men in the United States besides skin cancer. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT; 6-15 Gy per fraction, up to 45 minutes per fraction, delivered in five fractions or less, over the course of approximately 2 weeks) is emerging as a popular treatment option for prostate cancer. The American Society for Radiation Oncology now recognizes SBRT for select low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients. SBRT grew from the notion that high doses of radiation typical of brachytherapy could be delivered noninvasively using modern external-beam radiation therapy planning and delivery methods. SBRT is most commonly delivered using either a traditional gantry-mounted linear accelerator or a robotic arm-mounted linear accelerator. In this systematic review article, we compare and contrast the current clinical evidence supporting a gantry vs robotic arm SBRT for prostate cancer. The data for SBRT show encouraging and comparable results in terms of freedom from biochemical failure (>90% for low and intermediate risk at 5-7 years) and acute and late toxicity (<6% grade 3-4 late toxicities). Other outcomes (eg, overall and cancer-specific mortality) cannot be compared, given the indolent course of low-risk prostate cancer. At this time, neither SBRT device is recommended over the other for all patients; however, gantry-based SBRT machines have the abilities of treating larger volumes with conventional fractionation, shorter treatment time per fraction (~15 minutes for gantry vs ~45 minutes for robotic arm), and the ability to achieve better plans among obese patients (since they are able to use energies >6 MV). Finally, SBRT (particularly on a gantry) may also be more cost-effective than conventionally fractionated external-beam radiation therapy. Randomized controlled trials of SBRT using both technologies are underway. PMID:27574585

  2. Dose-Escalated Robotic SBRT for Stage I-II Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Meier, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is the precise external delivery of very high-dose radiotherapy to targets in the body, with treatment completed in one to five fractions. SBRT should be an ideal approach for organ-confined prostate cancer because (I) dose-escalation should yield improved rates of cancer control; (II) the unique radiobiology of prostate cancer favors hypofractionation; and (III) the conformal nature of SBRT minimizes high-dose radiation delivery to immediately adjacent organs, potentially reducing complications. This approach is also more convenient for patients, and is cheaper than intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Several external beam platforms are capable of delivering SBRT for early-stage prostate cancer, although most of the mature reported series have employed a robotic non-coplanar platform (i.e., CyberKnife). Several large studies report 5-year biochemical relapse rates which compare favorably to IMRT. Rates of late GU toxicity are similar to those seen with IMRT, and rates of late rectal toxicity may be less than with IMRT and low-dose rate brachytherapy. Patient-reported quality of life (QOL) outcomes appear similar to IMRT in the urinary domain. Bowel QOL may be less adversely affected by SBRT than with other radiation modalities. After 5 years of follow-up, SBRT delivered on a robotic platform is yielding outcomes at least as favorable as IMRT, and may be considered appropriate therapy for stage I-II prostate cancer. PMID:25905037

  3. Dose-Escalated Robotic SBRT for Stage I–II Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is the precise external delivery of very high-dose radiotherapy to targets in the body, with treatment completed in one to five fractions. SBRT should be an ideal approach for organ-confined prostate cancer because (I) dose-escalation should yield improved rates of cancer control; (II) the unique radiobiology of prostate cancer favors hypofractionation; and (III) the conformal nature of SBRT minimizes high-dose radiation delivery to immediately adjacent organs, potentially reducing complications. This approach is also more convenient for patients, and is cheaper than intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Several external beam platforms are capable of delivering SBRT for early-stage prostate cancer, although most of the mature reported series have employed a robotic non-coplanar platform (i.e., CyberKnife). Several large studies report 5-year biochemical relapse rates which compare favorably to IMRT. Rates of late GU toxicity are similar to those seen with IMRT, and rates of late rectal toxicity may be less than with IMRT and low-dose rate brachytherapy. Patient-reported quality of life (QOL) outcomes appear similar to IMRT in the urinary domain. Bowel QOL may be less adversely affected by SBRT than with other radiation modalities. After 5 years of follow-up, SBRT delivered on a robotic platform is yielding outcomes at least as favorable as IMRT, and may be considered appropriate therapy for stage I–II prostate cancer. PMID:25905037

  4. A randomised trial of robotic and open prostatectomy in men with localised prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in the Western world however there is ongoing debate about the optimal treatment strategy for localised disease. While surgery remains the most commonly received treatment for localised disease in Australia more recently a robotic approach has emerged as an alternative to open and laparoscopic surgery. However, high level data is not yet available to support this as a superior approach or to guide treatment decision making between the alternatives. This paper presents the design of a randomised trial of Robotic and Open Prostatectomy for men newly diagnosed with localised prostate cancer that seeks to answer this question. Methods/design 200 men per treatment arm (400 men in total) are being recruited after diagnosis and before treatment through a major public hospital outpatient clinic and randomised to 1) Robotic Prostatectomy or 2) Open Prostatectomy. All robotic prostatectomies are being performed by one surgeon and all open prostatectomies are being performed by one other surgeon. Outcomes are being measured pre-operatively and at 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months post-surgery. Oncological outcomes are being related to positive surgical margins, biochemical recurrence +/− the need for further treatment. Non-oncological outcome measures include: pain, physical and mental functioning, fatigue, summary (preference-based utility scores) and domain-specific QoL (urinary incontinence, bowel function and erectile function), cancer specific distress, psychological distress, decision-related distress and time to return to usual activities. Cost modelling of each approach, as well as full economic appraisal, is also being undertaken. Discussion The study will provide recommendations about the relative benefits of Robotic and Open Prostatectomy to support informed patient decision making about treatment for localised prostate cancer; and to assist in treatment services planning for this patient group. Trial

  5. [Robotic surgery -- the modern surgical treatment of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Ferenc János; Alexander, de la Taille

    2014-09-01

    Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery replaces many open surgery procedures in urology due to its advantages concerning post-operative morbidity. However, the technical challenges and need of learning have limited the application of this method to the work of highly qualified surgeons. The introduction of da Vinci surgical system has offered important technical advantages compared to the laparoscopic surgical procedure. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy became a largely accepted procedure. It has paved the way for urologists to start other, more complex operations, decreasing this way the operative morbidity. The purpose of this article is to overview the history of robotic surgery, its current and future states in the treatment of the cancer. We present our robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and the results. PMID:25260081

  6. Impact of Robotics and Geospatial Technology Interventions on Youth STEM Learning and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Gwen; Barker, Bradley; Grandgenett, Neal; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of robotics and geospatial technologies interventions on middle school youth's learning of and attitudes toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Two interventions were tested. The first was a 40-hour intensive robotics/GPS/GIS summer camp; the second was a 3-hour event modeled on the camp…

  7. Transrectal ultrasound guided manipulation of the canine prostate with minimum intervention.

    PubMed

    Chang, S C; Anthony, S; Koder, P C; Brown, S G

    1997-07-01

    The canine prostate is a widely used and well established animal model for the assessment of therapeutic effects of laser technology in the search for better options for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Conventionally for such experiments, the canine prostate is approached by laparotomy or transperineal urethrotomy. We have demonstrated a technique involving the use of ultrasound guided biopsy of the liver and prostate, and percutaneous laser treatment of the prostate, which has proved to be effective in reducing adverse effects on the experimental animals but without compromising scientific requirements for the experiments. We conclude that state-of-the-art percutaneous procedures not only refine animal intervention significantly but are also technically feasible for most laser studies using the canine prostate as an experimental model in the live animal. PMID:9230502

  8. Efficacy of Robotic-Assisted Prostatectomy in Localized Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval Salinas, Carolina; González Rangel, Andrés L.; Cataño Cataño, Juan G.; Fuentes Pachón, Juan C.; Castillo Londoño, Juan S.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Radical prostatectomy is an effective treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer. The three approaches in current use have been extensively compared in observational studies, which have methodological limitations. Objective. To compare the efficacy and safety of three radical prostatectomy approaches in patients with localized prostate cancer: open, laparoscopic, and robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery. Materials and Methods. A systematic review of the literature was carried out. Databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and CENTRAL were searched for randomized clinical trials that directly compared two or more radical prostatectomy approaches. Selection criteria, methodological rigor, and risk of bias were evaluated by two independent researchers using Cochrane Collaboration's tools. Results. Three trials were included. In one study, laparoscopic surgery was associated with fewer blood loss and transfusion rates than the open procedure, in spite of longer operating time. The other two trials compared laparoscopic and robotic-assisted surgery in which no differences in perioperative outcomes were detected. Nevertheless, robotic-assisted prostatectomy showed more favorable erectile function and urinary continence recovery. Conclusion. At the present time, no clear advantage can be attributed to any of the existing prostatectomy approaches in terms of oncologic outcomes. However, some differences in patient-related outcomes favor the newer methods. Larger trials are required. PMID:24312127

  9. 3T MR Guided in bore transperineal prostate biopsy: A Comparison of robotic and manual needle-guidance templates

    PubMed Central

    Tilak, Gaurie; Tuncali, Kemal; Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Fennessy, Fiona; Fedorov, Andriy; Penzkofer, Tobias; Tempany, Clare; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the utility of a robotic needle-guidance template device as compared to a manual template for in-bore 3T transperineal MR-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods This two-arm mixed retrospective-prospective study included 99 cases of targeted transperineal prostate biopsies. The biopsy needles were aimed at suspicious foci noted on multiparametric 3T MRI using manual template (historical control) as compared with a robotic template. The following data was obtained: the accuracy of average and closest needle placement to the focus, histologic yield, percentage of cancer volume in positive core samples, complication rate, and time to complete the procedure. Results 56 cases were performed using the manual template, and 43 cases were performed using the robotic template. The mean accuracy of the best needle placement attempt was higher in the robotic group (2.39 mm) than the manual group (3.71 mm, p<0.027). The mean core procedure time was shorter in the robotic (90.82min) than the manual group (100.63min, p<0.030). Percentage of cancer volume in positive core samples was higher in robotic group (p<0.001). Cancer yields and complication rates were not statistically different between the two sub-groups (p = 0.557 and p=0.172 respectively). Conclusion The robotic needle-guidance template helps accurate placement of biopsy needles in MRI-guided core biopsy of prostate cancer. PMID:25263213

  10. Reliability of EUCLIDIAN: An autonomous robotic system for image-guided prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Podder, Tarun K.; Buzurovic, Ivan; Huang Ke; Showalter, Timothy; Dicker, Adam P.; Yu, Yan

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Recently, several robotic systems have been developed to perform accurate and consistent image-guided brachytherapy. Before introducing a new device into clinical operations, it is important to assess the reliability and mean time before failure (MTBF) of the system. In this article, the authors present the preclinical evaluation and analysis of the reliability and MTBF of an autonomous robotic system, which is developed for prostate seed implantation. Methods: The authors have considered three steps that are important in reliability growth analysis. These steps are: Identification and isolation of failures, classification of failures, and trend analysis. For any one-of-a-kind product, the reliability enhancement is accomplished through test-fix-test. The authors have used failure mode and effect analysis for collection and analysis of reliability data by identifying and categorizing the failure modes. Failures were classified according to severity. Failures that occurred during the operation of this robotic system were considered as nonhomogenous Poisson process. The failure occurrence trend was analyzed using Laplace test. For analyzing and predicting reliability growth, commonly used and widely accepted models, Duane's model and the Army Material Systems Analysis Activity, i.e., Crow's model, were applied. The MTBF was used as an important measure for assessing the system's reliability. Results: During preclinical testing, 3196 seeds (in 53 test cases) were deposited autonomously by the robot and 14 critical failures were encountered. The majority of the failures occurred during the first few cases. The distribution of failures followed Duane's postulation as well as Crow's postulation of reliability growth. The Laplace test index was -3.82 (<0), indicating a significant trend in failure data, and the failure intervals lengthened gradually. The continuous increase in the failure occurrence interval suggested a trend toward improved reliability. The MTBF

  11. Reliability of EUCLIDIAN: An autonomous robotic system for image-guided prostate brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Podder, Tarun K.; Buzurovic, Ivan; Huang, Ke; Showalter, Timothy; Dicker, Adam P.; Yu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, several robotic systems have been developed to perform accurate and consistent image-guided brachytherapy. Before introducing a new device into clinical operations, it is important to assess the reliability and mean time before failure (MTBF) of the system. In this article, the authors present the preclinical evaluation and analysis of the reliability and MTBF of an autonomous robotic system, which is developed for prostate seed implantation. Methods: The authors have considered three steps that are important in reliability growth analysis. These steps are: Identification and isolation of failures, classification of failures, and trend analysis. For any one-of-a-kind product, the reliability enhancement is accomplished through test-fix-test. The authors have used failure mode and effect analysis for collection and analysis of reliability data by identifying and categorizing the failure modes. Failures were classified according to severity. Failures that occurred during the operation of this robotic system were considered as nonhomogenous Poisson process. The failure occurrence trend was analyzed using Laplace test. For analyzing and predicting reliability growth, commonly used and widely accepted models, Duane’s model and the Army Material Systems Analysis Activity, i.e., Crow’s model, were applied. The MTBF was used as an important measure for assessing the system’s reliability. Results: During preclinical testing, 3196 seeds (in 53 test cases) were deposited autonomously by the robot and 14 critical failures were encountered. The majority of the failures occurred during the first few cases. The distribution of failures followed Duane’s postulation as well as Crow’s postulation of reliability growth. The Laplace test index was −3.82 (<0), indicating a significant trend in failure data, and the failure intervals lengthened gradually. The continuous increase in the failure occurrence interval suggested a trend toward improved

  12. Intra-operative prostate motion tracking using surface markers for robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteghamatian, Mehdi; Sarkar, Kripasindhu; Pautler, Stephen E.; Chen, Elvis C. S.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Radical prostatectomy surgery (RP) is the gold standard for treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Recently, emergence of minimally invasive techniques such as Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (LRP) and Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RARP) has improved the outcomes for prostatectomy. However, it remains difficult for the surgeons to make informed decisions regarding resection margins and nerve sparing since the location of the tumor within the organ is not usually visible in a laparoscopic view. While MRI enables visualization of the salient structures and cancer foci, its efficacy in LRP is reduced unless it is fused into a stereoscopic view such that homologous structures overlap. Registration of the MRI image and peri-operative ultrasound image using a tracked probe can potentially be exploited to bring the pre-operative information into alignment with the patient coordinate system during the procedure. While doing so, prostate motion needs to be compensated in real-time to synchronize the stereoscopic view with the pre-operative MRI during the prostatectomy procedure. In this study, a point-based stereoscopic tracking technique is investigated to compensate for rigid prostate motion so that the same motion can be applied to the pre-operative images. This method benefits from stereoscopic tracking of the surface markers implanted over the surface of the prostate phantom. The average target registration error using this approach was 3.25+/-1.43mm.

  13. Transcription factors: molecular targets for prostate cancer intervention by phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manjinder; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2007-06-01

    With increasing incidence of cancer at most of the sites, and growing economic burden and associated psychological and emotional trauma, it is becoming clearer that more efforts are needed for cancer cure. Since most of the chemotherapeutic drugs are non-selective because they are also toxic to the normal cells, new and improved strategies are needed that selectively target the killing of cancer cells. Since aberrant activation of numerous signaling pathways is a key element of cancer cell survival and growth, blocking all of them is not that practical, which leads to the step where most of them commonly converge; the transcription factors. Recent research efforts, therefore, are also directed on targeting the activity and activation of transcription factors, which ultimately control the expression of genes that are involved in almost all aspects of cell biology. One class of agents that is becoming increasingly successful, not only in targeting signaling cascades, but also transcription factors is phytochemicals present in diet and those consumed as supplement. The added advantage with these agents is that they are mostly non-toxic when compared to chemotherapeutic agents. This review focuses on the efficacy of various phytochemicals in targeting transcription factors such as AR, Sp1, STATs, E2F, Egr1, c-Myc, HIF-1 alpha, NF-kappaB, AP-1, ETS2, GLI and p53 in the context of prostate cancer intervention. PMID:17979630

  14. Patient-specific Deformation Modelling via Elastography: Application to Image-guided Prostate Interventions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Ni, Dong; Qin, Jing; Xu, Ming; Xie, Xiaoyan; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided prostate interventions often require the registration of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images to real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images to provide high-quality guidance. One of the main challenges for registering MR images to TRUS images is how to estimate the TRUS-probe-induced prostate deformation that occurs during TRUS imaging. The combined statistical and biomechanical modeling approach shows promise for the adequate estimation of prostate deformation. However, the right setting of the biomechanical parameters is very crucial for realistic deformation modeling. We propose a patient-specific deformation model equipped with personalized biomechanical parameters obtained from shear wave elastography to reliably predict the prostate deformation during image-guided interventions. Using data acquired from a prostate phantom and twelve patients with suspected prostate cancer, we compared the prostate deformation model with and without patient-specific biomechanical parameters in terms of deformation estimation accuracy. The results show that the patient-specific deformation model possesses favorable model ability, and outperforms the model without patient-specific biomechanical parameters. The employment of the patient-specific biomechanical parameters obtained from elastography for deformation modeling shows promise for providing more precise deformation estimation in applications that use computer-assisted image-guided intervention systems. PMID:27272239

  15. Patient-specific Deformation Modelling via Elastography: Application to Image-guided Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Ni, Dong; Qin, Jing; Xu, Ming; Xie, Xiaoyan; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided prostate interventions often require the registration of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images to real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images to provide high-quality guidance. One of the main challenges for registering MR images to TRUS images is how to estimate the TRUS-probe-induced prostate deformation that occurs during TRUS imaging. The combined statistical and biomechanical modeling approach shows promise for the adequate estimation of prostate deformation. However, the right setting of the biomechanical parameters is very crucial for realistic deformation modeling. We propose a patient-specific deformation model equipped with personalized biomechanical parameters obtained from shear wave elastography to reliably predict the prostate deformation during image-guided interventions. Using data acquired from a prostate phantom and twelve patients with suspected prostate cancer, we compared the prostate deformation model with and without patient-specific biomechanical parameters in terms of deformation estimation accuracy. The results show that the patient-specific deformation model possesses favorable model ability, and outperforms the model without patient-specific biomechanical parameters. The employment of the patient-specific biomechanical parameters obtained from elastography for deformation modeling shows promise for providing more precise deformation estimation in applications that use computer-assisted image-guided intervention systems. PMID:27272239

  16. Preliminary study for motion scaling based control in minimally invasive vascular interventional robot.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhen-Qiu; Bian, Gui-Bin; Xie, Xiao-Liang; Hao, Jian-Long; Gao, Zhan-Jie; Hou, Zeng-Guang

    2015-08-01

    Robot-assisted vascular interventions present promising trend for reducing the X-ray radiation to the surgeon during the operation. However, the control methods in the current vascular interventional robots only repeat the manipulation of the surgeon. While under certain circumstances, it is necessary to scale the manipulation of the surgeon to obtain a higher precision or a shorter manipulation time. A novel control method based on motion scaling for vascular interventional robot is proposed in this paper. The main idea of the method is to change the motion speed ratios between the master and the slave side. The motion scaling based control method is implemented in the vascular interventional robot we've developed before, so the operator can deliver the interventional devices under different motion scaling factors. Experiment studies verify the effectiveness of the motion scaling based control. PMID:26737390

  17. [Locomotion and control study on autonomous interventional diagnostic micro-robots].

    PubMed

    Gu, Da-qiang; Zhou, Yong

    2008-09-01

    This paper introduces the locomotion control and the research status of the autonomous interventional diagnostic micro-robots in detail, outlines technical problems and difficulties now existing, and discusses the developing trend of locomotion control. PMID:19119659

  18. Robotic radical prostatectomy in high-risk prostate cancer: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2015-01-01

    Around 20%–30% of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) still have high-risk PCa disease (HRPC) that requires aggressive treatment. Treatment of HRPC is controversial, and multimodality therapy combining surgery, radiation therapy, and androgen deprivation therapy have been suggested. There has been a trend toward performing radical prostatectomy (RP) in HRPC and currently, robot-assisted laparoscopic RP (RARP) has become the most common approach. Number of publications related to robotic surgery in HRPC is limited in the literature. Tissue and Tumor characteristics might be different in HRPC patients compared to low-risk group and increased surgical experience for RARP is needed. Due to the current literature, RARP seems to have similar oncologic outcomes including surgical margin positivity, biochemical recurrence and recurrence-free survival rates, additional cancer therapy needs and lymph node (LN) yields with similar complication rates compared to open surgery in HRPC. In addition, decreased blood loss, lower rates of blood transfusion and shorter duration of hospital stay seem to be the advantages of robotic surgery in this particular patient group. RARP in HRPC patients seems to be safe and technically feasible with good intermediate-term oncologic results, acceptable morbidities, excellent short-term surgical and pathological outcomes and satisfactory functional results. PMID:25994643

  19. Toward adaptive stereotactic robotic brachytherapy for prostate cancer: demonstration of an adaptive workflow incorporating inverse planning and an MR stealth robot.

    PubMed

    Cunha, J Adam; Hsu, I-Chow; Pouliot, Jean; Roach Iii, Mack; Shinohara, Katsuto; Kurhanewicz, John; Reed, Galen; Stoianovici, Dan

    2010-08-01

    To translate any robot into a clinical environment, it is critical that the robot can seamlessly integrate with all the technology of a modern clinic. MRBot, an MR-stealth brachytherapy delivery device, was used in a closed-bore 3T MRI and a clinical brachytherapy cone beam CT suite. Targets included ceramic dummy seeds, MR-Spectroscopy-sensitive metabolite, and a prostate phantom. Acquired DICOM images were exported to planning software to register the robot coordinates in the imager's frame, contour and verify target locations, create dose plans, and export needle and seed positions to the robot. The coordination of each system element (imaging device, brachytherapy planning system, robot control, robot) was validated with a seed delivery accuracy of within 2 mm in both a phantom and soft tissue. An adaptive workflow was demonstrated by acquiring images after needle insertion and prior to seed deposition. This allows for adjustment if the needle is in the wrong position. Inverse planning (IPSA) was used to generate a seed placement plan and coordinates for ten needles and 29 seeds were transferred to the robot. After every two needles placed, an image was acquired. The placed seeds were identified and validated prior to placing the seeds in the next two needles. The ability to robotically deliver seeds to locations determined by IPSA and the ability of the system to incorporate novel needle patterns were demonstrated. Shown here is the ability to overcome this critical step. An adaptive brachytherapy workflow is demonstrated which integrates a clinical anatomy-based seed location optimization engine and a robotic brachytherapy device. Demonstration of this workflow is a key element of a successful translation to the clinic of the MRI stealth robotic delivery system, MRBot. PMID:20642386

  20. Toward adaptive stereotactic robotic brachytherapy for prostate cancer: Demonstration of an adaptive workflow incorporating inverse planning and an MR stealth robot

    PubMed Central

    CUNHA, J. ADAM; HSU, I-CHOW; POULIOT, JEAN; ROACH, MACK; SHINOHARA, KATSUTO; KURHANEWICZ, JOHN; REED, GALEN; STOIANOVICI, DAN

    2011-01-01

    To translate any robot into a clinical environment, it is critical that the robot can seamlessly integrate with all the technology of a modern clinic. MRBot, an MR-stealth brachytherapy delivery device, was used in a closed-bore 3T MRI and a clinical brachytherapy cone beam CT suite. Targets included ceramic dummy seeds, MR-Spectroscopy-sensitive metabolite, and a prostate phantom. Acquired DICOM images were exported to planning software to register the robot coordinates in the imager’s frame, contour and verify target locations, create dose plans, and export needle and seed positions to the robot. The coordination of each system element (imaging device, brachytherapy planning system, robot control, robot) was validated with a seed delivery accuracy of within 2 mm in both a phantom and soft tissue. An adaptive workflow was demonstrated by acquiring images after needle insertion and prior to seed deposition. This allows for adjustment if the needle is in the wrong position. Inverse planning (IPSA) was used to generate a seed placement plan and coordinates for ten needles and 29 seeds were transferred to the robot. After every two needles placed, an image was acquired. The placed seeds were identified and validated prior to placing the seeds in the next two needles. The ability to robotically deliver seeds to locations determined by IPSA and the ability of the system to incorporate novel needle patterns were demonstrated. Shown here is the ability to overcome this critical step. An adaptive brachytherapy workflow is demonstrated which integrates a clinical anatomy-based seed location optimization engine and a robotic brachytherapy device. Demonstration of this workflow is a key element of a successful translation to the clinic of the MRI stealth robotic delivery system, MRBot. PMID:20642386

  1. Living with prostate cancer: randomised controlled trial of a multimodal supportive care intervention for men with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in developed countries and diagnosis and treatment carries with it substantial morbidity and related unmet supportive care needs. These difficulties may be amplified by physical inactivity and obesity. We propose to apply a multimodal intervention approach that targets both unmet supportive care needs and physical activity. Methods/design A two arm randomised controlled trial will compare usual care to a multimodal supportive care intervention "Living with Prostate Cancer" that will combine self-management with tele-based group peer support. A series of previously validated and reliable self-report measures will be administered to men at four time points: baseline/recruitment (when men are approximately 3-6 months post-diagnosis) and at 3, 6, and 12 months after recruitment and intervention commencement. Social constraints, social support, self-efficacy, group cohesion and therapeutic alliance will be included as potential moderators/mediators of intervention effect. Primary outcomes are unmet supportive care needs and physical activity levels. Secondary outcomes are domain-specific and health-related quality of life (QoL); psychological distress; benefit finding; body mass index and waist circumference. Disease variables (e.g. cancer grade, stage) will be assessed through medical and cancer registry records. An economic evaluation will be conducted alongside the randomised trial. Discussion This study will address a critical but as yet unanswered research question: to identify a population-based way to reduce unmet supportive care needs; promote regular physical activity; and improve disease-specific and health-related QoL for prostate cancer survivors. The study will also determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Trial Registration ACTRN12611000392965 PMID:21791109

  2. Robotic system for MRI-guided prostate biopsy: feasibility of teleoperated needle insertion and ex vivo phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Seifabadi, Reza; Song, Sang-Eun; Krieger, Axel; Cho, Nathan Bongjoon; Tokuda, Junichi; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) combined with robotic assistance has the potential to improve on clinical outcomes of biopsy and local treatment of prostate cancer. Methods We report the workspace optimization and phantom evaluation of a five Degree of Freedom (DOF) parallel pneumatically actuated modular robot for MRI-guided prostate biopsy. To shorten procedure time and consequently increase patient comfort and system accuracy, a prototype of a MRI-compatible master–slave needle driver module using piezo motors was also added to the base robot. Results Variable size workspace was achieved using appropriate link length, compared with the previous design. The 5-DOF targeting accuracy demonstrated an average error of 2.5mm (STD=1.37mm) in a realistic phantom inside a 3T magnet with a bevel-tip 18G needle. The average position tracking error of the master–slave needle driver was always below 0.1mm. Conclusion Phantom experiments showed sufficient accuracy for manual prostate biopsy. Also, the implementation of teleoperated needle insertion was feasible and accurate. These two together suggest the feasibility of accurate fully actuated needle placement into prostate while keeping the clinician supervision over the task. PMID:21698389

  3. Open-source image registration for MRI–TRUS fusion-guided prostate interventions

    PubMed Central

    Khallaghi, Siavash; Sánchez, C. Antonio; Lasso, Andras; Fels, Sidney; Tuncali, Kemal; Sugar, Emily Neubauer; Kapur, Tina; Zhang, Chenxi; Wells, William; Nguyen, Paul L.; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Tempany, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We propose two software tools for non-rigid registration of MRI and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images of the prostate. Our ultimate goal is to develop an open-source solution to support MRI–TRUS fusion image guidance of prostate interventions, such as targeted biopsy for prostate cancer detection and focal therapy. It is widely hypothesized that image registration is an essential component in such systems. Methods The two non-rigid registration methods are: (1) a deformable registration of the prostate segmentation distance maps with B-spline regularization and (2) a finite element-based deformable registration of the segmentation surfaces in the presence of partial data. We evaluate the methods retrospectively using clinical patient image data collected during standard clinical procedures. Computation time and Target Registration Error (TRE) calculated at the expert-identified anatomical landmarks were used as quantitative measures for the evaluation. Results The presented image registration tools were capable of completing deformable registration computation within 5 min. Average TRE was approximately 3 mm for both methods, which is comparable with the slice thickness in our MRI data. Both tools are available under nonrestrictive open-source license. Conclusions We release open-source tools that may be used for registration during MRI–TRUS-guided prostate interventions. Our tools implement novel registration approaches and produce acceptable registration results. We believe these tools will lower the barriers in development and deployment of interventional research solutions and facilitate comparison with similar tools. PMID:25847666

  4. Reconfigurable MRI-guided robotic surgical manipulator: prostate brachytherapy and neurosurgery applications.

    PubMed

    Su, Hao; Iordachita, Iulian I; Yan, Xiaoan; Cole, Gregory A; Fischer, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a modular design approach for robotic surgical manipulator under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The proposed manipulator provides 2 degree of freedom (DOF) Cartesian motion and 2-DOF pitch and yaw motion. Primarily built up with dielectric materials, it utilizes parallel mechanism and is compact in size to fit into the limited space of close-bore MRI scanner. It is ideal for needle based surgical procedures which usually require positioning and orientation control for accurate imaging plane alignment. Specifically, this mechanism is easily reconfigurable to over constrained manipulator structure which provides 2-DOF Cartesian motion by simple structure modification. This modular manipulator integrated with different end-effector modules is investigated for prostate brachytherapy and neurosurgery applications as preliminary evaluation. PMID:22254754

  5. A Fully Sensorized Cooperative Robotic System for Surgical Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Arriaga, Saúl; Vargas, José Emilio; Ramos, Juan M.; Aceves, Marco A.; Gorrostieta, Efren; Kalender, Willi A.

    2012-01-01

    In this research a fully sensorized cooperative robot system for manipulation of needles is presented. The setup consists of a DLR/KUKA Light Weight Robot III especially designed for safe human/robot interaction, a FD-CT robot-driven angiographic C-arm system, and a navigation camera. Also, new control strategies for robot manipulation in the clinical environment are introduced. A method for fast calibration of the involved components and the preliminary accuracy tests of the whole possible errors chain are presented. Calibration of the robot with the navigation system has a residual error of 0.81 mm (rms) with a standard deviation of ±0.41 mm. The accuracy of the robotic system while targeting fixed points at different positions within the workspace is of 1.2 mm (rms) with a standard deviation of ±0.4 mm. After calibration, and due to close loop control, the absolute positioning accuracy was reduced to the navigation camera accuracy which is of 0.35 mm (rms). The implemented control allows the robot to compensate for small patient movements. PMID:23012551

  6. Retropubic Versus Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer: A Comparative Study of Postoperative Complications

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jeman; Kwon, Taekmin; Kyung, Yoon Soo; Hong, Sungwoo; You, Dalsan; Jeong, In Gab

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the complications of radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) with those of robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) performed by a single surgeon for the treatment of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods The postoperative complications of 341 patients who underwent RRP and 524 patients who underwent RALP for prostate cancer at the Asan Medical Center between July 2007 and August 2012 were retrospectively reviewed and compared. Complications were classified according to the modified Clavien classification system. Results RALP was associated with a shorter length of hospital stay (mean, 7.9 days vs. 10.1 days, p<0.001) and duration of urethral catheterization (6.2 days vs. 7.5 days, p<0.001) than RRP. Major complications (Clavien grade III-IV) were less common in the RALP group than in the RRP group (3.4% vs. 7.6%, p=0.006). There were no significant differences in medical complications between procedures. Considering surgical complications, urinary retention (7.0% vs. 2.7%, p=0.002) and wound repair (4.1% vs. 0.2%, p<0.001) were more common after RRP than after RALP. Extravasation of contrast medium during cystography was more common in the RRP group than in the RALP group (10.0% vs. 2.1%, p<0.001). Conclusions RALP is associated with a lower complication rate than RRP. PMID:24255757

  7. Interventional robotic systems: Applications and technology state-of-the-art

    PubMed Central

    CLEARY, KEVIN; MELZER, ANDREAS; WATSON, VANCE; KRONREIF, GERNOT; STOIANOVICI, DAN

    2011-01-01

    Many different robotic systems have been developed for invasive medical procedures. In this article we will focus on robotic systems for image-guided interventions such as biopsy of suspicious lesions, interstitial tumor treatment, or needle placement for spinal blocks and neurolysis. Medical robotics is a young and evolving field and the ultimate role of these systems has yet to be determined. This paper presents four interventional robotics systems designed to work with MRI, CT, fluoroscopy, and ultrasound imaging devices. The details of each system are given along with any phantom, animal, or human trials. The systems include the AcuBot for active needle insertion under CT or fluoroscopy, the B-Rob systems for needle placement using CT or ultrasound, the INNOMOTION for MRI and CT interventions, and the MRBot for MRI procedures. Following these descriptions, the technology issues of image compatibility, registration, patient movement and respiration, force feedback, and control mode are briefly discussed. It is our belief that robotic systems will be an important part of future interventions, but more research and clinical trials are needed. The possibility of performing new clinical procedures that the human cannot achieve remains an ultimate goal for medical robotics. Engineers and physicians should work together to create and validate these systems for the benefits of patients everywhere. PMID:16754193

  8. Combined laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection and robotic-assisted prostatectomy for synchronous double cancer of the rectum and the prostate.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, Hirohiko; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; China, Toshiyuki; Aoki, Jun; Niwa, Koichiro; Ishiyama, Shun; Takahashi, Makoto; Kojima, Yutaka; Goto, Michitoshi; Tomiki, Yuichi; Horie, Shigeo

    2016-05-01

    Here we report a combined laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection and robotic-assisted prostatectomy. A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with T4b low rectal and prostate cancer. The operation was performed after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the rectal cancer. The procedure used eight ports in total, five for laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection and six for robotic-assisted prostatectomy. First, laparoscopic total mesorectal excision including division of the inferior mesenteric artery was performed, and then, robotic dissection of the prostate was performed. The en bloc specimen was removed through the perineal wound. Then, robotic urethrovesical anastomosis was performed. An extraperitoneal end colostomy was created to finish the operation. The operating time was 545 min, and blood loss was 170 mL. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient discharged on postoperative day 17. The combined laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection and robotic-assisted prostatectomy were performed safely without any additional technical difficulty, as both procedures shared port settings and patient positions. PMID:27117964

  9. Trans-rectal interventional MRI: initial prostate biopsy experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Bernadette M.; Behluli, Meliha R.; Feller, John F.; May, Stuart T.; Princenthal, Robert; Winkel, Alex; Kaminsky, David B.

    2010-02-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate gland when evaluated along with T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and their corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps can yield valuable information in patients with rising or elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels1. In some cases, patients present with multiple negative trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsies, often placing the patient into a cycle of active surveillance. Recently, more patients are undergoing TRIM for targeted biopsy of suspicious findings with a cancer yield of ~59% compared to 15% for second TRUS biopsy2 to solve this diagnostic dilemma and plan treatment. Patients were imaged in two separate sessions on a 1.5T magnet using a cardiac phased array parallel imaging coil. Automated CAD software was used to identify areas of wash-out. If a suspicious finding was identified on all sequences it was followed by a second imaging session. Under MRI-guidance, cores were acquired from each target region3. In one case the microscopic diagnosis was prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), in the other it was invasive adenocarcinoma. Patient 1 had two negative TRUS biopsies and a PSA level of 9ng/mL. Patient 2 had a PSA of 7.2ng/mL. He underwent TRUS biopsy which was negative for malignancy. He was able to go on to treatment for his prostate carcinoma (PCa)4. MRI may have an important role in a subset of patients with multiple negative TRUS biopsies and elevated or rising PSA.

  10. Fast and Efficient Radiological Interventions via a Graphical User Interface Commanded Magnetic Resonance Compatible Robotic Device

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Alpay; Christoforou, Eftychios; Brown, Daniel; Tsekos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    The graphical user interface for an MR compatible robotic device has the capability of displaying oblique MR slices in 2D and a 3D virtual environment along with the representation of the robotic arm in order to swiftly complete the intervention. Using the advantages of the MR modality the device saves time and effort, is safer for the medical staff and is more comfortable for the patient. PMID:17946067

  11. Intrafraction Prostate Translations and Rotations During Hypofractionated Robotic Radiation Surgery: Dosimetric Impact of Correction Strategies and Margins

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Steven van de; Valli, Lorella; Aluwini, Shafak; Lanconelli, Nico; Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric impact of intrafraction prostate motion and the effect of robot correction strategies for hypofractionated CyberKnife treatments with a simultaneously integrated boost. Methods and Materials: A total of 548 real-time prostate motion tracks from 17 patients were available for dosimetric simulations of CyberKnife treatments, in which various correction strategies were included. Fixed time intervals between imaging/correction (15, 60, 180, and 360 seconds) were simulated, as well as adaptive timing (ie, the time interval reduced from 60 to 15 seconds in case prostate motion exceeded 3 mm or 2° in consecutive images). The simulated extent of robot corrections was also varied: no corrections, translational corrections only, and translational corrections combined with rotational corrections up to 5°, 10°, and perfect rotational correction. The correction strategies were evaluated for treatment plans with a 0-mm or 3-mm margin around the clinical target volume (CTV). We recorded CTV coverage (V{sub 100%}) and dose-volume parameters of the peripheral zone (boost), rectum, bladder, and urethra. Results: Planned dose parameters were increasingly preserved with larger extents of robot corrections. A time interval between corrections of 60 to 180 seconds provided optimal preservation of CTV coverage. To achieve 98% CTV coverage in 98% of the treatments, translational and rotational corrections up to 10° were required for the 0-mm margin plans, whereas translational and rotational corrections up to 5° were required for the 3-mm margin plans. Rectum and bladder were spared considerably better in the 0-mm margin plans. Adaptive timing did not improve delivered dose. Conclusions: Intrafraction prostate motion substantially affected the delivered dose but was compensated for effectively by robot corrections using a time interval of 60 to 180 seconds. A 0-mm margin required larger extents of additional rotational corrections than a 3

  12. Robotic Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiotherapy, for Isolated Recurrent Primary, Lymph Node or Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Beltramo, Giancarlo; Fariselli, Laura; Fodor, Cristiana; Santoro, Luigi; Vavassori, Andrea; Zerini, Dario; Gherardi, Federica; Ascione, Carmen; Bossi-Zanetti, Isa; Mauro, Roberta; Bregantin, Achille; Bianchi, Livia Corinna; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Orecchia, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of robotic CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA)-based stereotactic radiotherapy (CBK-SRT) for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 2007 and December 2009, 34 consecutive patients/38 lesions were treated (15 patients reirradiated for local recurrence [P], 4 patients reirradiated for anastomosis recurrence [A], 16 patients treated for single lymph node recurrence [LN], and 3 patients treated for single metastasis [M]). In all but 4 patients, [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed. CBK-SRT consisted of reirradiation and first radiotherapy in 27 and 11 lesions, respectively. The median CBK-SRT dose was 30 Gy in 4.5 fractions (P, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; A, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; LN, 33 Gy in 3 fractions; and M, 36 Gy in 3 fractions). In 18 patients (21 lesions) androgen deprivation was added to CBK-SRT (median duration, 16.6 months). Results: The median follow-up was 16.9 months. Acute toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event). Late toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event and 1 Grade 2 event). Biochemical response was observed in 32 of 38 evaluable lesions. Prostate-specific antigen stabilization was seen for 4 lesions, and in 2 cases prostate-specific antigen progression was reported. The 30-month progression-free survival rate was 42.6%. Disease progression was observed for 14 lesions (5, 2, 5, and 2 in Groups P, A, LN, and M respectively). In only 3 cases, in-field progression was seen. At the time of analysis (May 2010), 19 patients are alive with no evidence of disease and 15 are alive with disease. Conclusions: CyberKnife-based stereotactic radiotherapy is a feasible approach for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer, offering excellent in-field tumor

  13. Treatment of prostatic stromal sarcoma with robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in a young adult: A case report

    PubMed Central

    MAO, QI-QI; WANG, SHUO; WANG, PING; QIN, JIE; XIA, DAN; XIE, LI-PING

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports a rare case of prostatic stromal sarcoma (PSS) treated with a robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RLRP). A 32-year-old man presented to the Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China) with obstructive voiding symptoms that had persisted for 2 years. A computed tomography scan of the pelvis revealed an 8-cm prostatic mass protruding into the bladder. A transperineal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy revealed a diagnosis of PSS. An RLRP was performed, and neither chemotherapy nor radiation therapy were administered prior to or subsequent to the surgery. No recurrence of the tumor was indicated at 6 months post-surgery. To the best of our knowledge, ≤30 cases of PSS have been reported in the English literature, and the present study is only the second case to be treated with RLRP. PMID:27073514

  14. Feasibility of robotic radical prostatectomy for medication refractory chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: Initial results

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer; Satkunasivam, Raj; Aron, Monish

    2016-01-01

    Four patients diagnosed with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), met criteria for National Institute of Health (NIH) Category III prostatitis, failed multiple medicinal treatments and underwent robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP). Median operative time (range): 157 (127–259) min. Validated functional questionnaires responses and NIH CP symptom index (NIH-CPSI) score were collected for each patient's status at different time points pre- and post-operatively. Median decreases (range) were: International Prostate Symptom Score – 14 (1–19); Sexual Health Inventory for Men – 6 (−14–22); and NIH-CPSI total – 23.5 (13–33). Median length of follow-up (range) was 34 (24–43) months. RRP appears to be an option for carefully selected patients with medication-refractory CP/CPPS who understand that baseline sexual function may not be restored postoperatively. PMID:27555685

  15. Long-term interventions effects of robotic training on patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Rui; Ye, Miao; Ge, Meng; Xu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the long-term interventions effects of robot-assisted therapy rehabilitation on functional activity levels after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 8 patients (6 males and 2 females) who received anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy lasting for one month. The Timed Up-and-Go test, 10-Meter Walk test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] The average value of the of vastus medialis EMG, Functional Reach Test, and the maximum and average extensor strength of the knee joint isokinetic movement increased significantly, and the time of the 10-Meter Walk test decreased significantly. [Conclusion] These results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic walking training as a long-term intervention.

  16. Robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy following transurethral resection of the prostate: perioperative, oncologic and functional outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Yang, Cheng-Kuang; Ou, Yen-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess surgical, oncologic and functional results after robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) with and without previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Methods: Between December 2005 and January 2010, 200 patients underwent RALP, of whom 16 (8%) had received previous TURP and 184 (92%) had not. Perioperative and postoperative data were compared between those with previous TURP (group 1) and those without previous TURP (group 2). All patients included in the study had at least 1-year follow-up. Results: Preoperative clinical parameters were comparable between both groups. Group 1 patients were found to have significantly more need for bladder neck reconstruction (93.75 % vs. 15.21%, P <0.001), more rectal injury (18.75% vs. 0%, P <0.001), higher incidence of major complications (18.8% vs. 1.1%, P<0.001), and smaller specimen volume (31.63 mL vs. 45.49 mL, P<0.001) than group 2. The 12-month continence rate was 93.8 % in group 1 and 97.8% in group 2 (P =0.344). A nerve-sparing technique was significantly less successfully performed in group 1 patients than in group 2 (33.3% vs. 92.0 %, P=0.001). Conclusions: Performing RALP for prostate cancer in patients who have had previous TURP is a technically demanding procedure and may be potentially associated with a higher perioperative major complication rate in short-term follow-up. Neurovascular bundle preservation is technically more challenging. PMID:25032194

  17. Development of a coordinated controller for robot-assisted shape memory alloy actuated needle for prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Felix Orlando Maria; Franz, Karly; Luan, Yaxin; Zhao, Yan-Jiang; Datla, Naresh; Hutapea, Parsaoran; Dicker, Adam; Yu, Yan; Podder, Tarun

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of a coordinated control system for a robot and robot-driven shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated needle to follow a curvilinear path for percutaneous intervention. The robot driving the needle is considered as the outer loop and the non-linear SMA actuated flexible needle system forms the inner loop. The two feedback control loops are coordinated in such a way that the robot drives the needle considering the needle's actual deflection so that the needle tip reaches the target location with an acceptable accuracy. Simulation results are presented to verify the efficacy of the controller for tracking the overall desired trajectory which includes the combined trajectory of the robot and the needle. PMID:25569971

  18. Effect of Interventions for Premature Ejaculation in the Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis with Secondary Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Qing; Yi, Qing-Tong; Chen, Chu-Hong; Gong, Min

    2016-08-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of interventions for premature ejaculation (PE) in the management of patients with chronic prostatitis and secondary premature ejaculation. Methods Totally 90 patients diagnosed as chronic prostatitis with PE were randomly divided into control group (n=45) and interventional group (n=45). Control group received a conventional therapy consisted of oral administration of antibiotics,α-receptor blocker,and proprietary Chinese medicine for clearing away heat and promoting diuresis. Interventional group received a conventional therapy combined with treatment for ameliorating the PE symptom (oral dapoxetine on-demand and ejaculation control exercise).National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI),Chinese Index of Sexual Function for Premature Ejaculation (CIPE)-5 questionnaires,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were applied for evaluating the treatment outcomes. Results Follow-up was accomplished in 35 and 38 patients in the control and interventional group.The CIPE-5 score,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were significantly improved in both two groups but more significantly in interventional group (all P<0.05). The NIH-CPSI pain,urination,and quality of life subscores and total score were improved significantly in both two groups after treatment,but the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores had been improved more significantly in the interventional group (all P<0.05). The variation of NIH-CPSI was negatively correlated with that of CIPE-5 in both two groups (r=-0.362,P=0.016;r=-0.330,P=0.021). Conclusions For CP with secondary PE patients,the interventions for PE can not only improve the quality of sexual life but also help improve the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores. PE should be routinely screened and treated during the management of CP.p. PMID:27594150

  19. Designing HRD Interventions for Employee-Robot Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Se Jin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify critical causes of work stress and job satisfaction of nurses, which can contribute to find appropriate organizational supports to help nurses effectively work with a surgical robot. Delphi method was employed to identify the critical stressors and the key causes of job satisfaction of nurses working with…

  20. The immediate intervention effects of robotic training in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Ye, Miao

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of robot-assisted therapy on functional activity level after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy and treadmill exercise on different days. The Timed Up-and-Go test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and maximal extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated in both groups before and after the experiment. [Results] The results for the Timed Up-and-Go Test and the 10-Meter Walk Test improved in the robot-assisted rehabilitation group. Surface electromyography of the vastus medialis muscle showed significant increases in maximum and average discharge after the intervention. [Conclusion] The results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic training. PMID:27512258

  1. The immediate intervention effects of robotic training in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Ye, Miao

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of robot-assisted therapy on functional activity level after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy and treadmill exercise on different days. The Timed Up-and-Go test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and maximal extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated in both groups before and after the experiment. [Results] The results for the Timed Up-and-Go Test and the 10-Meter Walk Test improved in the robot-assisted rehabilitation group. Surface electromyography of the vastus medialis muscle showed significant increases in maximum and average discharge after the intervention. [Conclusion] The results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic training. PMID:27512258

  2. Nutrition, dietary interventions and prostate cancer: the latest evidence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Aronson, William; Freedland, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a leading cause of mortality in US men and the prevalence continues to rise world-wide especially in countries where men consume a 'Western-style' diet. Epidemiologic, preclinical and clinical studies suggest a potential role for dietary intake on the incidence and progression of PCa. 'This minireview provides an overview of recent published literature with regard to nutrients, dietary factors, dietary patterns and PCa incidence and progression. Low carbohydrates intake, soy protein, omega-3 (w-3) fat, green teas, tomatoes and tomato products and zyflamend showed promise in reducing PCa risk or progression. A higher saturated fat intake and a higher β-carotene status may increase risk. A 'U' shape relationship may exist between folate, vitamin C, vitamin D and calcium with PCa risk. Despite the inconsistent and inconclusive findings, the potential for a role of dietary intake for the prevention and treatment of PCa is promising. The combination of all the beneficial factors for PCa risk reduction in a healthy dietary pattern may be the best dietary advice. This pattern includes rich fruits and vegetables, reduced refined carbohydrates, total and saturated fats, and reduced cooked meats. Further carefully designed prospective trials are warranted. PMID:25573005

  3. Robust registration method for interventional MRI-guided thermal ablation of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Baowei; Wheaton, Andrew; Lee, Zhenghong; Nagano, Kenichi; Duerk, Jeffrey L.; Wilson, David L.

    2001-05-01

    We are investigating methods to register live-time interventional magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) slice images with a previously obtained, high resolution MRI image volume. The immediate application is for iMRI-guided treatments of prostate cancer. We created and evaluated a slice-to-volume mutual information registration algorithm for MR images with special features to improve robustness. Features included a multi-resolution approach and automatic restarting to avoid local minima. We acquired 3D volume images from a 1.5 T MRI system and simulated iMRI images. To assess the quality of registration, we calculated 3D displacement on a voxel-by-voxel basis over a volume of interest between slice-to-volume registration and volume-to- volume registrations that were previously shown to be quite accurate. More than 500 registration experiments were performed on MR images of volunteers. The slice-to-volume registration algorithm was very robust for transverse images covering the prostate. A 100% success rate was achieved with an acceptance criterion of <1.0 mm displacement error over the prostate. Our automatic slice-to-volume mutual information registration algorithm is robust and probably sufficiently accurate to aid in the application of iMRI- guided thermal ablation of prostate cancer.

  4. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  5. Managing cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer: a systematic review of non-pharmacological interventions.

    PubMed

    Larkin, David; Lopez, Violeta; Aromataris, Edoardo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the best available evidence informing the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for managing cancer-related fatigue in men treated for prostate cancer. This review considered experimental studies that included men with prostate cancer (regardless of staging, previous treatment or comorbidities), aged 18 years and over who were undergoing any treatment, or had completed any treatment for prostate cancer within the previous 12 months. Three interventions were identified for the management of cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer. Evidence from five studies including 447 participants demonstrates the effectiveness of physical activity, both aerobic and resistance exercise, and from three studies including 153 participants suggesting the benefits of psychosocial interventions including education and cognitive behavioural therapy. Health professionals require knowledge of a range of effective interventions aimed at reducing cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer and should incorporate those interventions into their patient management. Although physical activity appears to show the greatest benefit, other non-pharmacological interventions such as education and cognitive behavioural therapy have demonstrated benefit and should also be considered as a strategy in treating this debilitating side effect of cancer and its treatment. PMID:24237792

  6. Perspectives of transurethral robotic laser resection of the prostate: vaporization and coagulation effects with the Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Gideon; Teo, Ming Y.; Kwoh, Chee K.; Ng, Wan S.; Cheng, Wai S.

    2000-05-01

    A longer operating time and steeper learning curve in mastering the techniques for transurethral laser resection of the prostate are the main problems faced by surgeons compared to standard transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). However, these disadvantages can be solved with the introduction of a treatment modality designed and developed based on an integrated system of computer, robotics and laser technology. In vitro experiments were carried out to determine variables affecting the vaporization and coagulation lesions, in order to identify the parameters that could optimize this modality. Human cadaveric prostate and fresh chicken breast tissues were irradiated with different parameters using continuous wave Nd:YAG laser fiber in contact with the tissue. The effects of irrigant flowrate, fiber/tissue angle of inclination, number of passes, direction, speed and power of lase on the volume of tissue vaporized and coagulated, were assessed. A non-contact optical coordinate measuring machine was used to measure the depth and width of the vaporized and coagulated lesion. Results reveal that for each directional vaporization path (forward, clockwise and counter-clockwise), power and speed of lase are the most significant parameters influencing the volume of the vaporized and coagulated lesion. Optimized values of the power and speed of lase at 100 W and 1 - 3 mm/s respectively were obtained from the experiments when the tissues were irradiated in the forward, clockwise and counter-clockwise directions. It was concluded from our study to quantify tissue removal and damage, optimized values of irradiation power and speed could be obtained and implemented in the procedure of transurethral robotic laser resection of the prostate.

  7. Design and Preliminary Accuracy Studies of an MRI-Guided Transrectal Prostate Intervention System

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Axel; Csoma, Csaba; Iordachita, Iulian I.; Guion, Peter; Singh, Anurag K.; Fichtinger, Gabor; Whitcomb, Louis L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a novel system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided transrectal prostate interventions, such as needle biopsy, fiducial marker placement, and therapy delivery. The system utilizes a hybrid tracking method, comprised of passive fiducial tracking for initial registration and subsequent incremental motion measurement along the degrees of freedom using fiber-optical encoders and mechanical scales. Targeting accuracy of the system is evaluated in prostate phantom experiments. Achieved targeting accuracy and procedure times were found to compare favorably with existing systems using passive and active tracking methods. Moreover, the portable design of the system using only standard MRI image sequences and minimal custom scanner interfacing allows the system to be easily used on different MRI scanners. PMID:18044553

  8. Medical robotics and computer-integrated interventional medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Russell H.

    2012-02-01

    Computer-Integrated Interventional Medicine (CIIM) promises to have a profound impact on health care in the next 20 years, much as and for many of the same reasons that the marriage of computers and information processing methods with other technology have had on manufacturing, transportation, and other sectors of our society. Our basic premise is that the steps of creating patient-specific computational models, using these models for planning, registering the models and plans with the actual patient in the operating room, and using this information with appropriate technology to assist in carrying out and monitoring the intervention are best viewed as part of a complete patient-specific intervention process that occurs over many time scales. Further, the information generated in computer-integrated interventions can be captured and analyzed statistically to improve treatment processes. This paper will explore these themes briefly, using examples drawn from our work at the Engineering Research Center for Computer-Integrated Surgical Systems and Technology (CISST ERC).

  9. An affordable compact humanoid robot for Autism Spectrum Disorder interventions in children.

    PubMed

    Dickstein-Fischer, Laurie; Alexander, Elizabeth; Yan, Xiaoan; Su, Hao; Harrington, Kevin; Fischer, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder impacts an ever-increasing number of children. The disorder is marked by social functioning that is characterized by impairment in the use of nonverbal behaviors, failure to develop appropriate peer relationships and lack of social and emotional exchanges. Providing early intervention through the modality of play therapy has been effective in improving behavioral and social outcomes for children with autism. Interacting with humanoid robots that provide simple emotional response and interaction has been shown to improve the communication skills of autistic children. In particular, early intervention and continuous care provide significantly better outcomes. Currently, there are no robots capable of meeting these requirements that are both low-cost and available to families of autistic children for in-home use. This paper proposes the piloting the use of robotics as an improved diagnostic and early intervention tool for autistic children that is affordable, non-threatening, durable, and capable of interacting with an autistic child. This robot has the ability to track the child with its 3 degree of freedom (DOF) eyes and 3-DOF head, open and close its 1-DOF beak and 1-DOF each eyelids, raise its 1-DOF each wings, play sound, and record sound. These attributes will give it the ability to be used for the diagnosis and treatment of autism. As part of this project, the robot and the electronic and control software have been developed, and integrating semi-autonomous interaction, teleoperation from a remote healthcare provider and initiating trials with children in a local clinic are in progress. PMID:22255539

  10. Communication and Intimacy-Enhancing Interventions for Men Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer and Their Partners

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Christian J.; Kenowitz, Joslyn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The sexual dysfunction following prostate cancer treatments often leads to a reduction in intimate contact for couples. A number of psychosocial interventions have been developed to enhance intimacy in these couples. This paper reviews three of these interventions and is a summary of a presentation given as part of a symposium at the 2011 Cancer Survivorship and Sexual Health Meeting. Aim The goal of this presentation was to: (i) review three types of psychosocial interventions; and (ii) describe the methodological issues highlighted by these interventions. Main Outcome Measures Validated measures of relationship intimacy and communication. Methods To be selected, the interventions had to be: a randomized control trial, focus on a couples approach to therapy, and report at least one relationship outcome. Results The results were not consistent within or across studies, and suggest that some specific aspects of the interventions may be helpful for the patient, while other aspects of the studies may be helpful for the partner. The Northouse et al. study suggests that partners may benefit from a focus on couple work, as compared to the patient. The Canada et al. study indicates that when focusing on sexual functioning, working with a couple did not show significant benefit compared to working with a man alone. The study did show, however, that a sexual-based intervention can improve the use of erectile dysfunction treatments and suggests patients may benefit from specific focus on side effects of treatment. The Manne et al. study highlights the importance of targeting these interventions to couples who report distress, and for distressed couples, an intervention can show positive results. Conclusions Intimacy enhancing interventions can be effective for couples, while the partners may benefit more from couples work; the patients may benefit more from focus on specific side effects. PMID:23387918

  11. A Step Towards Developing Adaptive Robot-Mediated Intervention Architecture (ARIA) for Children With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, Esubalew T; Lahiri, Uttama; Swanson, Amy R.; Crittendon, Julie A.; Warren, Zachary E.; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technology, especially robotic technology, has been shown to be appealing to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Such interest may be leveraged to provide repeatable, accurate and individualized intervention services to young children with ASD based on quantitative metrics. However, existing robot-mediated systems tend to have limited adaptive capability that may impact individualization. Our current work seeks to bridge this gap by developing an adaptive and individualized robot-mediated technology for children with ASD. The system is composed of a humanoid robot with its vision augmented by a network of cameras for real-time head tracking using a distributed architecture. Based on the cues from the child’s head movement, the robot intelligently adapts itself in an individualized manner to generate prompts and reinforcements with potential to promote skills in the ASD core deficit area of early social orienting. The system was validated for feasibility, accuracy, and performance. Results from a pilot usability study involving six children with ASD and a control group of six typically developing (TD) children are presented. PMID:23221831

  12. A step towards developing adaptive robot-mediated intervention architecture (ARIA) for children with autism.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Esubalew T; Lahiri, Uttama; Swanson, Amy R; Crittendon, Julie A; Warren, Zachary E; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2013-03-01

    Emerging technology, especially robotic technology, has been shown to be appealing to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Such interest may be leveraged to provide repeatable, accurate and individualized intervention services to young children with ASD based on quantitative metrics. However, existing robot-mediated systems tend to have limited adaptive capability that may impact individualization. Our current work seeks to bridge this gap by developing an adaptive and individualized robot-mediated technology for children with ASD. The system is composed of a humanoid robot with its vision augmented by a network of cameras for real-time head tracking using a distributed architecture. Based on the cues from the child's head movement, the robot intelligently adapts itself in an individualized manner to generate prompts and reinforcements with potential to promote skills in the ASD core deficit area of early social orienting. The system was validated for feasibility, accuracy, and performance. Results from a pilot usability study involving six children with ASD and a control group of six typically developing (TD) children are presented. PMID:23221831

  13. In vivo motion and force measurement of surgical needle intervention during prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Podder, Tarun; Clark, Douglas; Sherman, Jason; Fuller, Dave; Messing, Edward; Rubens, Deborah; Strang, John; Brasacchio, Ralph; Liao, Lydia; Ng, W.-S.; Yu Yan

    2006-08-15

    In this paper, we present needle insertion forces and motion trajectories measured during actual brachytherapy needle insertion while implanting radioactive seeds in the prostate glands of 20 different patients. The needle motion was captured using ultrasound images and a 6 degree-of-freedom electromagnetic-based position sensor. Needle velocity was computed from the position information and the corresponding time stamps. From in vivo data we found the maximum needle insertion forces to be about 15.6 and 8.9 N for 17 gauge (1.47 mm) and 18 gauge (1.27 mm) needles, respectively. Part of this difference in insertion forces is due to the needle size difference (17G and 18G) and the other part is due to the difference in tissue properties that are specific to the individual patient. Some transverse forces were observed, which are attributed to several factors such as tissue heterogeneity, organ movement, human factors in surgery, and the interaction between the template and the needle. However, theses insertion forces are significantly responsible for needle deviation from the desired trajectory and target movement. Therefore, a proper selection of needle and modulated velocity (translational and rotational) may reduce the tissue deformation and target movement by reducing insertion forces and thereby improve the seed delivery accuracy. The knowledge gleaned from this study promises to be useful for not only designing mechanical/robotic systems but also developing a predictive deformation model of the prostate and real-time adaptive controlling of the needle.

  14. Is robotic arm stereotactic body radiation therapy “virtual high dose ratebrachytherapy” for prostate cancer? An analysis of comparative effectiveness using published data [corrected].

    PubMed

    Zaorsky, Nicholas George; Hurwitz, Mark D; Dicker, Adam P; Showalter, Timothy N; Den, Robert B

    2015-05-01

    High-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) monotherapy and robotic arm (i.e., CyberKnife) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are emerging technologies that have become popular treatment options for prostate cancer. Proponents of both HDR-BT monotherapy and robotic arm SBRT claim that these modalities are as efficacious as intensity-modulated radiation therapy in treating prostate cancer. Moreover, proponents of robotic arm SBRT believe it is more effective than HDR-BT monotherapy because SBRT is non-invasive, touting it as 'virtual HDR-BT.' We perform a comparative effective analysis of the two technologies. The tumor control rates and toxicities of HDR-BT monotherapy and robotic arm SBRT are promising. However, at present, it would be inappropriate to state that HDR-BT monotherapy and robotic arm SBRT are as efficacious or effective as other treatment modalities for prostate cancer, which have stronger foundations of evidence. Studies reporting on these technologies have relatively short follow-up time, few patients and are largely retrospective. PMID:25540018

  15. Development and assessment of an evidence-based prostate cancer intervention programme for black men: the W.O.R.D. on prostate cancer video.

    PubMed

    Odedina, Folakemi; Oluwayemisi, Awoyemi O; Pressey, Shannon; Gaddy, Samuel; Egensteiner, Eva; Ojewale, Ezekiel O; Moline, Olivia Myra; Martin, Chloe Marie

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the numerous prostate cancer (CaP) intervention programmes that have been implemented to address the disparities experienced by black men, CaP prevention, risk reduction, and early detection behaviours remain low among black men. The lack of formal theoretical frameworks to guide the development and implementation of interventions has been recognised as one of the primary reasons for the failure of health interventions. Members of the Florida Prostate Cancer Health Disparity (CaPHD) group employed the Personal Model of Prostate Cancer Disparity (PIPCaD) model and the Health Communication Process Model to plan, implement, and evaluate an intervention programme, the 'Working through Outreach to Reduce Disparity (W.O.R.D. on Prostate Cancer)' video for black men. The location for the video was in a barbershop, a popular setting for the targeted group. The video starred CaP survivors, CaP advocates, a radio personality, and barbers. In addition, remarks were provided by a CaP scientist, a urologist, a CaP advocate, a former legislator, and a minister. The W.O.R.D. video was developed to assist black men in meeting the Healthy People 2020 goal for the United States of America. The efficacy of the W.O.R.D. video was successfully established among 143 black men in Florida. Exposure to the video was found to statistically increase CaP knowledge and intention to participate in CaP screening. Furthermore, exposure to the video statistically decreased participants' perception of the number of factors contributing to decision, uncertainty about CaP screening. Participants were highly satisfied with the video content and rated the quality of the video to be very good. Participants also rated the video as credible, informative, useful, relevant, understandable, not too time consuming, clear, and interesting. PMID:25228916

  16. Development and assessment of an evidence-based prostate cancer intervention programme for black men: the W.O.R.D. on prostate cancer video

    PubMed Central

    Odedina, Folakemi; Oluwayemisi, Awoyemi O; Pressey, Shannon; Gaddy, Samuel; Egensteiner, Eva; Ojewale, Ezekiel O; Moline, Olivia Myra; Martin, Chloe Marie

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the numerous prostate cancer (CaP) intervention programmes that have been implemented to address the disparities experienced by black men, CaP prevention, risk reduction, and early detection behaviours remain low among black men. The lack of formal theoretical frameworks to guide the development and implementation of interventions has been recognised as one of the primary reasons for the failure of health interventions. Members of the Florida Prostate Cancer Health Disparity (CaPHD) group employed the Personal Model of Prostate Cancer Disparity (PIPCaD) model and the Health Communication Process Model to plan, implement, and evaluate an intervention programme, the ‘Working through Outreach to Reduce Disparity (W.O.R.D. on Prostate Cancer)’ video for black men. The location for the video was in a barbershop, a popular setting for the targeted group. The video starred CaP survivors, CaP advocates, a radio personality, and barbers. In addition, remarks were provided by a CaP scientist, a urologist, a CaP advocate, a former legislator, and a minister. The W.O.R.D. video was developed to assist black men in meeting the Healthy People 2020 goal for the United States of America. The efficacy of the W.O.R.D. video was successfully established among 143 black men in Florida. Exposure to the video was found to statistically increase CaP knowledge and intention to participate in CaP screening. Furthermore, exposure to the video statistically decreased participants’ perception of the number of factors contributing to decision, uncertainty about CaP screening. Participants were highly satisfied with the video content and rated the quality of the video to be very good. Participants also rated the video as credible, informative, useful, relevant, understandable, not too time consuming, clear, and interesting. PMID:25228916

  17. Effectiveness of Educational Intervention on the Congruence of Prostate and Rectal Contouring as Compared With a Gold Standard in Three-Dimensional Radiotherapy for Prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Szumacher, Ewa; Harnett, Nicole; Warner, Saar; Kelly, Valerie; Danjoux, Cyril; Barker, Ruth; Woo, Milton; Mah, Kathy; Ackerman, Ida; Dubrowski, Adam; Rose, Stuart; Crook, Juanita

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To examine effects of a teaching intervention on precise delineation of the prostate and rectum during planning of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A pretest, posttest, randomized controlled group design was used. During pretest all participants contoured prostate and rectum on planning CT. Afterward, they participated in two types of workshops. The experimental group engaged in an interactive teaching session focused on prostate and rectum MR anatomy compared with CT anatomy. The control group focused on 3D-CRT planning without mention of prostate or rectal contouring. The experimental group practiced on fused MR-CT images, whereas the control group practiced on CT images. All participants completed the posttest. Results: Thirty-one trainees (12 male, 19 female) were randomly assigned to two groups, 17 in the experimental arm, and 14 in the control group. Seventeen felt familiar or very familiar with pelvic organ contouring, 12 somewhat, and 2 had never done it. Thirteen felt confident with organ contouring, 13 somewhat, and 5 not confident. The demographics and composition of groups were analyzed with chi{sup 2} and repeated-measures analysis of variance with the two groups (experimental or control) and two tests (pre- or posttest) as factors. Satisfaction with the course and long-term effects of the course on practice were assessed with immediate and delayed surveys. All performance variables showed a similar pattern of results. Conclusions: The training sessions improved the technical performance similarly in both groups. Participants were satisfied with the course content, and the delayed survey reflected that cognitively participants felt more confident with prostate and rectum contouring and would investigate opportunities to learn more about organ contouring.

  18. Human vs. robot operator error in a needle-based navigation system for percutaneous liver interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier-Hein, Lena; Walsh, Conor J.; Seitel, Alexander; Hanumara, Nevan C.; Shepard, Jo-Anne; Franz, A. M.; Pianka, F.; Müller, Sascha A.; Schmied, Bruno; Slocum, Alexander H.; Gupta, Rajiv; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2009-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) guided percutaneous punctures of the liver for cancer diagnosis and therapy (e.g. tumor biopsy, radiofrequency ablation) are well-established procedures in clinical routine. One of the main challenges related to these interventions is the accurate placement of the needle within the lesion. Several navigation concepts have been introduced to compensate for organ shift and deformation in real-time, yet, the operator error remains an important factor influencing the overall accuracy of the developed systems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the operator error and, thus, the overall insertion error of an existing navigation system could be further reduced by replacing the user with the medical robot Robopsy. For this purpose, we performed navigated needle insertions in a static abdominal phantom as well as in a respiratory liver motion simulator and compared the human operator error with the targeting error performed by the robot. According to the results, the Robopsy driven needle insertion system is able to more accurately align the needle and insert it along its axis compared to a human operator. Integration of the robot into the current navigation system could thus improve targeting accuracy in clinical use.

  19. Master device for teleoperated needle insertion-type interventional robotic system.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hyun Soo; Cho, Jang Ho; Kim, Chul Seung; Lee, Hyuk Jin

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a new master device for teleoperated needle insertion-type interventional robotic system. The 5-DOF master device is optimally designed based on the newly defined interventional procedures and the physicians' requirements. It comprises a 2-DOF rotational mechanism for adjustment of needle orientation, a 2-DOF translational mechanism for fine-tuning of needle entry point, and a handle assembly. The handle assembly includes a 1-DOF translational mechanism for needle insertion and buttons for operation mode selection. The passive actuation modules of the rotational mechanism and the active actuation modules of the translational mechanism are controlled appropriately for the selected mode according to the procedure phase. The needle insertion mechanism also warns the user by vibrating the shaft when the needle reaches the dangerous region. PMID:26737379

  20. Surgical Intervention for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is Correlated With Expression of the AP-1 Transcription Factor Network

    PubMed Central

    Lin-Tsai, Opal; Clark, Peter E.; Miller, Nicole L.; Fowke, Jay H.; Hameed, Omar; Hayward, Simon W.; Strand, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Approximately one-third of patients fail medical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) requiring surgical intervention. Our purpose was to establish a molecular characterization for patients undergoing surgical intervention for LUTS to address therapeutic deficiencies. METHODS Clinical, molecular, and histopathological profiles were analyzed in 26 patients undergoing surgery for severe LUTS. Incidental transitional zone nodules were isolated from 37 patients with mild symptoms undergoing radical prostatectomy. Clinical parameters including age, prostate volume, medication, prostate specific antigen, symptom score, body mass index, and incidence of diabetes were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustments for potential confounding variables was used to examine associations between patient clinical characteristics and molecular targets identified through molecular profiling. RESULTS Compared to incidental BPH, progressive symptomatic BPH was associated with increased expression of the activating protein-1 transcription factor/chemokine network. As expected, inverse correlations were drawn between androgen receptor levels and age, as well as between 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) treatment and tissue prostate specific antigen levels; however, a novel association was also drawn between 5ARI treatment and increased c-FOS expression. CONCLUSIONS This study provides molecular evidence that a network of pro-inflammatory activating protein-1 transcription factors and associated chemokines are highly enriched in symptomatic prostate disease, a profile that molecularly categorizes with many other chronic autoimmune diseases. Because 5ARI treatment was associated with increased c-FOS expression, future studies should explore whether increased activating protein-1 proteins are causal factors in the development of symptomatic prostate disease, inflammation or resistance to

  1. Biomechanically Constrained Surface Registration: Application to MR-TRUS Fusion for Prostate Interventions.

    PubMed

    Khallaghi, Siavash; Sánchez, C Antonio; Rasoulian, Abtin; Sun, Yue; Imani, Farhad; Khojaste, Amir; Goksel, Orcun; Romagnoli, Cesare; Abdi, Hamidreza; Chang, Silvia; Mousavi, Parvin; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron; Fels, Sidney; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2015-11-01

    In surface-based registration for image-guided interventions, the presence of missing data can be a significant issue. This often arises with real-time imaging modalities such as ultrasound, where poor contrast can make tissue boundaries difficult to distinguish from surrounding tissue. Missing data poses two challenges: ambiguity in establishing correspondences; and extrapolation of the deformation field to those missing regions. To address these, we present a novel non-rigid registration method. For establishing correspondences, we use a probabilistic framework based on a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) that treats one surface as a potentially partial observation. To extrapolate and constrain the deformation field, we incorporate biomechanical prior knowledge in the form of a finite element model (FEM). We validate the algorithm, referred to as GMM-FEM, in the context of prostate interventions. Our method leads to a significant reduction in target registration error (TRE) compared to similar state-of-the-art registration algorithms in the case of missing data up to 30%, with a mean TRE of 2.6 mm. The method also performs well when full segmentations are available, leading to TREs that are comparable to or better than other surface-based techniques. We also analyze robustness of our approach, showing that GMM-FEM is a practical and reliable solution for surface-based registration. PMID:26054062

  2. Comparison of a simple dose-guided intervention technique for prostate radiotherapy with existing anatomical image guidance methods

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, G; Mccallum, H M; Pearson, M J M; Lawrence, G P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives A simple dose-guided intervention technique for prostate radiotherapy using an isodose overlay method combined with soft-tissue-based corrective couch shifts has been proposed previously. This planning study assesses the potential clinical impact of such a correction strategy. Methods 10 patients, each with 8–11 on-treatment CT studies (n=97), were assessed using this technique and compared with no intervention, bony anatomy intervention and soft-tissue intervention methods. Each assessment technique used a 4-mm action level for intervention. Outcomes were evaluated using measures of sensitivity, specificity and dosimetric effect, and compared across intervention techniques. Dosimetric effect was defined as the change in dosimetric coverage by the 95% isodose from the no intervention case of an evaluation construct called the verification target volume. Results Bony anatomy, soft tissue and dosimetric overlay-based interventions demonstrated sensitivity of 0.56, 0.73 and 1.00 and specificity of 0.64, 0.20 and 0.66, respectively. A detrimental dosimetric effect was shown in 7% of interventions for each technique, with benefit in 30%, 35% and 55% for bony anatomy, soft tissue and dosimetric overlay techniques, respectively. Conclusion Used in conjunction with soft-tissue-based corrective couch shifts, the dosimetric overlay technique allows effective filtering out of dosimetrically unnecessary interventions, making it more likely that any intervention made will result in improved target volume coverage. PMID:21385920

  3. Registration algorithms for interventional MRI-guided treatment of the prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Baowei; Frinkley, Kristin; Wilson, David L.

    2003-05-01

    We are investigating interventional MRI (iMRI) guided radiofrequency (RF) thermal ablation for the minimally invasive treatment of prostate cancer. Nuclear medicine and MR spectroscopy can detect and localize tumor in the prostate not reliably seen in MR. We are investigating methods to combine the advantages of functional images such as SPECT with iMRI-guided treatments. Our concept is to first register the low-resolution functional images with a high resolution MRI. Then by registering the high-resolution MR volume with live-time iMRI acquisitions, we can, in turn, map the functional data and high-resolution anatomic information to iMRI images for improved tumor targeting. To achieve robust, accurate, and fast registration, we extensively compared different registration algorithms to align iMRI images with a high-resolution MR volume. Then by registering the high-resolution MR image with live-time iMRI acquisitions, we can, in turn, map the functional data and high-resolution anatomic information to iMRI images for improved tumor targeting. In this study, we registered noisy, thick iMRI image slices with high-resolution MR volumes and called this slice-to-volume registration. We investigated two similarity measures, i.e., mutual information and correlation coefficient, and three interpolation methods, i.e., tri-linear, re-normalized sinc, and nearest neighbor. To assess the quality of registration, we calculated 3D displacement on a voxel-by-voxel basis over a volume of interest between slice-to-volume registation and volume-to-volume registration that was previously shown to be quite accurate for these image pairs. Over 300 registration experiments showed that transverse slice images covering the prostate work best with a registration error of only 0.4 +/- 0.2 mm. Error was greater at other slice orientations and positions. Since live-time iMRI images are used for guidance and registered images are used for adjunctive information, the accuracy and robustness of

  4. Selenium and Vitamin E: Cell Type– and Intervention-Specific Tissue Effects in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsavachidou, Dimitra; McDonnell, Timothy J.; Wen, Sijin; Wang, Xuemei; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Pisters, Louis L.; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Wood, Christopher G.; Do, Kim-Anh; Thall, Peter F.; Stephens, Clifton; Efstathiou, Eleni; Taylor, Robert; Menter, David G.; Troncoso, Patricia; Lippman, Scott M.; Logothetis, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Secondary analyses of two randomized, controlled phase III trials demonstrated that selenium and vitamin E could reduce prostate cancer incidence. To characterize pharmacodynamic and gene expression effects associated with use of selenium and vitamin E, we undertook a randomized, placebo-controlled phase IIA study of prostate cancer patients before prostatectomy and created a preoperative model for prostatectomy tissue interrogation. Methods Thirty-nine men with prostate cancer were randomly assigned to treatment with 200 μg of selenium, 400 IU of vitamin E, both, or placebo. Laser capture microdissection of prostatectomy biopsy specimens was used to isolate normal, stromal, and tumor cells. Gene expression in each cell type was studied with microarray analysis and validated with a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. An analysis of variance model was fit to identify genes differentially expressed between treatments and cell types. A beta-uniform mixture model was used to analyze differential expression of genes and to assess the false discovery rate. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The highest numbers of differentially expressed genes by treatment were 1329 (63%) of 2109 genes in normal epithelial cells after selenium treatment, 1354 (66%) of 2051 genes in stromal cells after vitamin E treatment, and 329 (56%) of 587 genes in tumor cells after combination treatment (false discovery rate = 2%). Validation of 21 representative genes across all treatments and all cell types yielded Spearman correlation coefficients between the microarray analysis and the PCR validation ranging from 0.64 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.31 to 0.79) for the vitamin E group to 0.87 (95% CI = 0.53 to 0.99) for the selenium group. The increase in the mean percentage of p53-positive tumor cells in the selenium-treated group (26.3%), compared with that in the placebo-treated group (5%), showed borderline statistical significance

  5. Robotic high-intensity focused ultrasound (rHIFU) for the prostate cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovov, Vyacheslav; Shaplygin, Leonid; Vozdvizhenskiy, Mikhail

    2012-11-01

    Introduction & Objectives: rHIFU shows a successful treatment for localized prostate cancer (PC). Here we explored the effectiveness of the rHIFU treatment for the prostate cancer, hormone-resistant prostate cancer (HRPC) and failure after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and radical prostatectomy (RPE). Materials & Methods: 748 patients were treated in our center between Sep 2007 - February 2012: 137 - hormone-resistance (median time before hormone-resistance 25 months), 286 - received neoadjuvant hormone therapy 6 months, 293 - no treatment before HIFU, 32 - after the EBRT failure. 667 patients underwent TURP+rHIFU, 81 only rHIFU (volume prostate <40cc). Mean follow-up is 38 months (range 3-52). All patients were divided into 3 groups: low risk progression (Gleason <7, stage T1-2N0M0, PSA<20, n= 465), high risk progression - (Gleason ≤9, stage T2-3N0M0, PSA <60, n= 251), after EBRT and RPE failure (n= 39). The mean age of the whole group of patients were 70 (52-89) years, mean prostate volume - 39 (5,5-108) cc. Results: Median PSA level 12 months after rHIFU treatment were 0,04 (0-2,24) ng/ml - low risk group, for high risk group - 0,5 (0-48,4) ng/ml, with failure after EBRT and RPE- 0,5 (0-3,2) ng/ml; 36 months after rHIFU treatment were 0,5 (0,02-3,6) ng/ml - low risk group, for high risk group - 3,2 (0-21,38) ng/ml, with failure after EBRT and RPE - 1,7 (0-9,8) ng/ml. Patients with low risk had 4,5% of progression, with high risk PC - 25%, with failure after EBRT and RPE - 19,6%. Kaplan-Meir analyses of the total group indicated that the risk of progression after 1 year follow-up was 10%, the risk of progression was 23% after 4 years of follow-up. Complications: incontinence I - 17,5%, incontinence II - 7,7%, stricture - 18,2%, fistula - 0,3 %. Conclusions: Our experience shows that rHIFU ablation is safe, minimally invasive, effective treatment with moderate side effects for the PC, hormone-resistant prostate cancer, rHIFU also may be used as a salvage

  6. Improving Quality of Life in Men With Prostate Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Education Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, Stephen J.; Helgeson, Vicki S.; Eton, David T.; Schulz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Men who were recently treated for prostate cancer (N = 250) were randomly assigned to a control group, a group education intervention (GE), or a group education-plus-discussion intervention (GED). Both GE and GED increased prostate cancer knowledge. In the year postintervention, men in the GED condition were less bothered by sexual problems than men in the control condition, and they were more likely to remain steadily employed (93.0%) than men in the GE (75.6%) or control (72.5%) conditions. Among noncollege graduates, GED and GE resulted in better physical functioning than the control condition, and GED resulted in more positive health behaviors than the control or GE condition. Among college graduates, controls were comparable with the GE and GED groups in physical functioning and positive health behaviors. PMID:14570527

  7. MRI-guided robotics at the U of Houston: evolving methodologies for interventions and surgeries.

    PubMed

    Tsekos, Nikolaos V

    2009-01-01

    Currently, we witness the rapid evolution of minimally invasive surgeries (MIS) and image guided interventions (IGI) for offering improved patient management and cost effectiveness. It is well recognized that sustaining and expand this paradigm shift would require new computational methodology that integrates sensing with multimodal imaging, actively controlled robotic manipulators, the patient and the operator. Such approach would include (1) assessing in real-time tissue deformation secondary to the procedure and physiologic motion, (2) monitoring the tool(s) in 3D, and (3) on-the-fly update information about the pathophysiology of the targeted tissue. With those capabilities, real time image guidance may facilitate a paradigm shift and methodological leap from "keyhole" visualization (i.e. endoscopy or laparoscopy) to one that uses a volumetric and informational rich perception of the Area of Operation (AoO). This capability may eventually enable a wider range and level of complexity IGI and MIS. PMID:19964404

  8. Transperitoneal Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Should Be Considered in Prostate Cancer Patients with Pelvic Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Plagakis, Sophie; Foreman, Darren; Sutherland, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We highlight two cases of transperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in patients with pelvic kidneys because of congenital development and renal transplant. These uncommon cases present a challenge to the surgeon contemplating surgery because of access and anomalous vascular and ureteral anatomy. We describe the technical considerations that are paramount in effectively completing transperitoneal RARP, and believe it should be considered as a treatment option in men with pelvic kidneys. PMID:27579412

  9. Transperitoneal Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Should Be Considered in Prostate Cancer Patients with Pelvic Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Plagakis, Sophie; Foreman, Darren; Sutherland, Peter; Fuller, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We highlight two cases of transperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in patients with pelvic kidneys because of congenital development and renal transplant. These uncommon cases present a challenge to the surgeon contemplating surgery because of access and anomalous vascular and ureteral anatomy. We describe the technical considerations that are paramount in effectively completing transperitoneal RARP, and believe it should be considered as a treatment option in men with pelvic kidneys. PMID:27579412

  10. Design of an MRI-compatible robotic stereotactic device for minimally invasive interventions in the breast.

    PubMed

    Larson, Blake T; Erdman, Arthur G; Tsekos, Nikolaos V; Yacoub, Essa; Tsekos, Panagiotis V; Koutlas, Ioannis G

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a robotic device to perform biopsy and therapeutic interventions in the breast with real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The device was designed to allow for (i) stabilization of the breast by compression, (ii) definition of the interventional probe trajectory by setting the height and pitch of a probe insertion apparatus, and (iii) positioning of an interventional probe by setting the depth of insertion. The apparatus is fitted with five computer-controlled degrees of freedom for delivering an interventional procedure. The entire device is constructed of MR compatible materials, i.e. nonmagnetic and non-conductive, to eliminate artifacts and distortion of the MR images. The apparatus is remotely controlled by means of ultrasonic motors and a graphical user interface, providing real-time MR-guided planning and monitoring of the operation. Joint motion measurements found probe placement in less than 50 s and sub-millimeter repeatability of the probe tip for same-direction point-to-point movements. However, backlash in the rotation joint may incur probe tip positional errors of up to 5 mm at a distance of 40 mm from the rotation axis, which may occur for women with large breasts. The imprecision caused by this backlash becomes negligible as the probe tip nears the rotation axis. Real-time MR-guidance will allow the physician to correct this error Compatibility of the device within the MR environment was successfully tested on a 4 Tesla MR human scanner PMID:15543863

  11. A tailored prostate cancer education intervention for low-income African Americans: impact on knowledge and screening.

    PubMed

    Ukoli, Flora A; Patel, Kushal; Hargreaves, Margaret; Beard, Katina; Moton, Pierre J; Bragg, Richard; Beech, Derrick; Davis, Rodney

    2013-02-01

    African American men bear disproportionate burden of prostate cancer (PCa) that can be reduced by early detection. A 15-minute culturally appropriate PCa education intervention developed to communicate effective, relevant, and balanced PCa screening information to low-income African American men was evaluated in men 42 years and older who had not been screened in one year. Of 539 men enrolled, 392 (72.7%) completed the six-month follow-up. Mean age was 54.4±8.9, 34.7% had no high school diploma, and 65.3% earned less than $25,000 annually. Barriers to screening included health insurance (41.4%), discomfort of digital rectal exam (32.1%), and fear of cancer diagnosis (29.9%). Mean knowledge score of 21 points increased from 13.27±3.51 to 14.95±4.14 (p<.001), and prostate-specific antigen screening from 22.1% to 62.8%. Men without high school diploma recorded the lowest post-intervention PCa knowledge and screening rate (47.7%), suggestive of the need for more than a single education session. Annual physicals with free prostate examination can maintain the positive trend observed. PMID:23377736

  12. Perioperative changes in pro and anticoagulant factors in prostate cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic and robotic radical prostatectomy with different anaesthetic techniques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic prostatectomy (LRP) may activate clotting system influencing the risk of perioperative thrombosis in patients with prostate cancer. Moreover, different anaesthetic techniques can also modify coagulant factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects on pro- and anti-coagulant and fibrinolytic factors of two established types of anaesthesia in patients with prostate cancer undergoing elective LRP. Methods 102 patients with primary prostate cancer, who underwent conventional LRP or robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), were studied and divided into 2 groups to receive total intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion (TIVA-TCI) or balanced inhalation anaesthesia (BAL) prior to surgery. Before the induction of anaesthesia (T0), 1 hr (T1) and 24 hrs post-surgery (T2), some pro-coagulant factors, fibronolysis markers, p-selectin and haemostatic system inhibitors were evaluated. Results Both TIVA-TCI and BAL patients showed a marked and significant increase in pro-coagulant factors and consequent reduction in haemostatic system inhibitors in the early post operative period (p???0.004 for each markers). Use of RALP showed a significant increase in prothrombotic markers as compared to LRP. In TIVA patients undergoing LRP, a significant reduction of p-selectin levels between T0 and T2 (p?=?0.001) was observed as compared to BAL, suggesting a better protective effect on platelet activation of anaesthetic agents used for TIVA. Conclusions Both anaesthetic techniques significantly seem to increase the risk of thrombosis in prostate cancer patients undergoing LRP, mainly when the robotic device was utilized, encouraging the use of a peri-operative thromboembolic prophylaxis in these patients. PMID:25129475

  13. Dosimetric and deformation effects of image-guided interventions during stereotactic body radiation therapy of the prostate using an endorectal balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Bernard L.; Gan, Gregory; Diot, Quentin; Kavanagh, Brian; Timmerman, Robert D.; Miften, Moyed

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: During stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for the treatment of prostate cancer, an inflatable endorectal balloon (ERB) may be used to reduce motion of the target and reduce the dose to the posterior rectal wall. This work assessed the dosimetric impact of manual interventions on ERB position in patients receiving prostate SBRT and investigated the impact of ERB interventions on prostate shape. Methods: The data of seven consecutive patients receiving SBRT for the treatment of clinical stage T1cN0M0 prostate cancer enrolled in a multi-institutional, IRB-approved trial were analyzed. The SBRT dose was 50 Gy in five fractions to a planning target volume (PTV) that included the prostate (implanted with three fiducial markers) with a 3-5 mm margin. All plans were based on simulation images that included an ERB inflated with 60 cm{sup 3} of air. Daily kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging was performed to localize the PTV, and an automated fusion with the planning images yielded displacements required for PTV relocalization. When the ERB volume and/or position were judged to yield inaccurate repositioning, manual adjustment (ERB reinflation and/or repositioning) was performed. Based on all 59 CBCT image sets acquired, a deformable registration algorithm was used to determine the dose received by, displacement of, and deformation of the prostate, bladder (BLA), and anterior rectal wall (ARW). This dose tracking methodology was applied to images taken before and after manual adjustment of the ERB (intervention), and the delivered dose was compared to that which would have been delivered in the absence of intervention. Results: Interventions occurred in 24 out of 35 (69%) of the treated fractions. The direct effect of these interventions was an increase in the prostate radiation dose that included 95% of the PTV (D95) from 9.6 {+-} 1.0 to 10.0 {+-} 0.2 Gy (p = 0.06) and an increase in prostate coverage from 94.0% {+-} 8.5% to 97.8% {+-} 1

  14. Intimacy-Enhancing Psychological Intervention for Men Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer and Their Partners: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Manne, S. L.; Kissane, D. W.; Nelson, C. J.; Mulhall, J. P.; Winkel, G.; Zaider, T.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Few couple-focused interventions have been developed to improve distress and relationship outcomes among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer and their partners. Aims We examined the effects of a five session Intimacy-Enhancing Therapy (IET) versus Usual Care (UC) on the psychological and relationship functioning of men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer and their partners. Pre-intervention levels of psychological and relationship functioning were evaluated as moderators of intervention effects. Methods Seventy one survivors and their partners completed a baseline survey and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive five sessions of IET or Usual Care (no treatment). Eight weeks after the baseline assessment, a follow-up survey was administered to survivor and partner. Main outcome measures Distress, well-being, relationship satisfaction, relationship intimacy, and communication were investigated as the main outcomes.. Results IET effects were largely moderated by pre-intervention psychosocial and relationship factors. Those survivors who had higher levels of cancer concerns at pre-treatment had significantly reduced concerns following IET. Similar moderating effects for pre-intervention levels were reported for the effects of IET on self-disclosure, perceived partner disclosure, and perceived partner responsiveness. Among partners beginning the intervention with higher cancer-specific distress, lower marital satisfaction, lower intimacy, and poorer communication, IET improved these outcomes. Conclusions IET had a marginally significant main effect upon survivor well-being but was effective among couples with fewer personal and relationship resources. Subsequent research is needed to replicate these findings with a larger sample and a longer follow-up. PMID:21210958

  15. SU-E-T-125: Dosimetric Comparison of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Using Robotic Versus Traditional Linac Platform in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, T; Rella, J; Yang, J; Sims, C; Fung, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Recent development of an MLC for robotic external beam radiotherapy has the potential of new clinical application in conventionally fractionated radiation therapy. This study offers a dosimetric comparison of IMRT plans using Cyberknife with MLC versus conventional linac plans. Methods: Ten prostate cancer patients treated on a traditional linac with IMRT to 7920cGy at 180cGy/fraction were randomly selected. GTVs were defined as prostate plus proximal seminal vesicles. PTVs were defined as GTV+8mm in all directions except 5mm posteriorly. Conventional IMRT planning was performed on Philips Pinnacle and delivered on a standard linac with CBCT and 10mm collimator leaf width. For each case a Cyberknife plan was created using Accuray Multiplan with same CT data set, contours, and dose constraints. All dosimetric data was transferred to third party software for independent computation of contour volumes and DVH. Delivery efficiency was evaluated using total MU, treatment time, number of beams, and number of segments. Results: Evaluation criteria including percent target coverage, homogeneity index, and conformity index were found to be comparable. All dose constraints from QUANTEC were found to be statistically similar except rectum V50Gy and bladder V65Gy. Average rectum V50Gy was lower for robotic IMRT (30.07%±6.57) versus traditional (34.73%±3.62, p=0.0130). Average bladder V65Gy was lower for robotic (17.87%±12.74) versus traditional (21.03%±11.93, p=0.0405). Linac plans utilized 9 coplanar beams, 48.9±3.8 segments, and 19381±2399MU. Robotic plans utilized 38.4±9.0 non-coplanar beams, 85.5±21.0 segments and 42554.71±16381.54 MU. The average treatment was 15.02±0.60 minutes for traditional versus 20.90±2.51 for robotic. Conclusion: The robotic IMRT plans were comparable to the traditional IMRT plans in meeting the target volume dose objectives. Critical structure dose constraints were largely comparable although statistically significant

  16. Robot-Assisted Extended Pelvic Lymph Nodes Dissection for Prostate Cancer: Personal Surgical Technique and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Francesco, Porpiglia; Stefano, De Luca; Riccardo, Bertolo; Roberto, Passera; Fabrizio, Mele; Matteo, Manfredi; Daniele, Amparore; Ivano, Morra; Cristian, Fiori

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Extended pelvic lymph nodes dissection (EPLND) allows the removal of a higher number of lymph nodes than limited PLND. The aims of this study were to describe our robot-assisted EPLND (RAEPLND) technique with related complications, and to report the number of lymph nodes removed and the rate of lymph nodal metastasis. Materials and Methods: 153 patients underwent RAEPLND prior to robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Indications were defined according to Briganti nomogram, to predict risk of lymph-nodal metastasis. Lymphatic packages covering the distal tract of the common iliac artery, the medial portion of the external iliac artery, the external iliac vein and the internal iliac vessels, together with the obturator and the presacral lymphatic packages were removed on both sides. Results: Median preoperative PSA was 7.5 ng/mL (IQR 5.5–11.5). Median operative time was 150 min (135–170). Median RAEPLND alone operative time was 38 min (32.75–41.25); for right and left side, 18 (15–29) and 20 min (15.75–30) (p=0.567). Median number of lymph nodes retrieved per patient was 25 (19.25–30); 13 (11–16) and 11 (8–15) for right and left side. In 19 patients (12.41%) metastasis was found at the level of pelvic lymph nodes. Median number of positive lymph nodes was 1 (1–4.6) per patient. Complications occurred in 11 patients (7.3%). Conclusions: the number of lymph nodes removed was comparable to published data about open series, allowing the increase of detection rate of lymph nodal metastasis for minimally invasive approach without compromising complications' rate if performing the procedure following reported technique. PMID:26742982

  17. Advancements in MR imaging of the prostate: from diagnosis to interventions.

    PubMed

    Bonekamp, David; Jacobs, Michael A; El-Khouli, Riham; Stoianovici, Dan; Macura, Katarzyna J

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Assessment of prostate cancer can be divided into detection, localization, and staging; accurate assessment is a prerequisite for optimal clinical management and therapy selection. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been shown to be of particular help in localization and staging of prostate cancer. Traditional prostate MR imaging has been based on morphologic imaging with standard T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences, which has limited accuracy. Recent advances include additional functional and physiologic MR imaging techniques (diffusion-weighted imaging, MR spectroscopy, and perfusion imaging), which allow extension of the obtainable information beyond anatomic assessment. Multiparametric MR imaging provides the highest accuracy in diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer. In addition, improvements in MR imaging hardware and software (3-T vs 1.5-T imaging) continue to improve spatial and temporal resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of MR imaging examinations. Another recent advancement in the field is MR imaging guidance for targeted prostate biopsy, which is an alternative to the current standard of transrectal ultrasonography-guided systematic biopsy. PMID:21571651

  18. The Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial: VA/NCI/AHRQ Cooperative Studies Program #407 (PIVOT): design and baseline results of a randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy with watchful waiting for men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilt, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. In the United States, 90% of men with prostate cancer are more than age 60 years, diagnosed by early detection with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test, and have disease believed confined to the prostate gland (clinically localized). Common treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer include watchful waiting (WW), surgery to remove the prostate gland (radical prostatectomy), external-beam radiation therapy and interstitial radiation therapy (brachytherapy), and androgen deprivation. Little is known about the relative effectiveness and harms of treatments because of the paucity of randomized controlled trials. The Department of Veterans Affairs/National Cancer Institute/Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Cooperative Studies Program Study #407:Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial (PIVOT), initiated in 1994, is a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy with WW in men with clinically localized prostate cancer. We describe the study rationale, design, recruitment methods, and baseline characteristics of PIVOT enrollees. We provide comparisons with eligible men declining enrollment and men participating in another recently reported randomized trial of radical prostatectomy vs WW conducted in Scandinavia. We screened 13 022 men with prostate cancer at 52 US medical centers for potential enrollment. From these, 5023 met initial age, comorbidity, and disease eligibility criteria, and a total of 731 men agreed to participate and were randomized. The mean age of enrollees was 67 years. Nearly one-third were African American. Approximately 85% reported that they were fully active. The median PSA was 7.8ng/mL (mean 10.2ng/mL). In three-fourths of men, the primary reason for biopsy leading to a diagnosis of prostate cancer was a PSA elevation or rise. Using previously developed tumor risk

  19. Intraoperative Frozen Section of the Prostate Reduces the Risk of Positive Margin Whilst Ensuring Nerve Sparing in Patients with Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer Undergoing Robotic Radical Prostatectomy: First Reported UK Series

    PubMed Central

    Vasdev, Nikhil; Agarwal, Samita; Rai, Bhavan P.; Soosainathan, Arany; Shaw, Gregory; Chang, Sebastian; Prasad, Venkat; Mohan-S, Gowrie; Adshead, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nerve sparing during robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP) considerably improves post-operative potency and urinary continence as long as it does not compromise oncological outcome. Excision of the neurovascular bundle (NVB) is often performed in patients with intermediate and high risk prostate cancer to reduce the risk of positive surgical margin raising the risk of urinary incontinence and impotence. We present the first UK series outcomes of such patients who underwent an intra-operative frozen section (IOFS) analysis of the prostate during RRP allowing nerve sparing. Patients and Methods We prospectively analysed the data of 40 patients who underwent an IOFS during RRP at our centre from November 2012 until November 2014. Our IOFS technique involved whole lateral circumferential analysis of the prostate during RRP with the corresponding neurovascular tissue. An intrafascial nerve spare was performed and the specimen was removed intra-operatively via an extension of the 12 mm Autosuture™ camera port without undocking robotic arms. It was then painted by the surgeon and sprayed with “Ink Aid” prior to frozen section analysis. The corresponding NVB was excised if the histopathologist found a positive surgical margin on frozen section. Results Median time to extract the specimen, wound closure and re-establishment of pneumoperitoneum increased the operative time by 8 min. Median blood loss for IOFS was 130 ± 97 ml vs. 90 ± 72 ml (p = NS). IOFS was not associated with major complications or with blood transfusion. PSM decreased significantly from non-IOFS RRP series of 28.7 to 7.8% (p < 0.05). Intra-operative PSM on the prostate specimen was seen in 8/40 margin analysis (20%) leading to an excision of the contra-lateral nerve bundle. On analysis of the nerve bundle on a paraffin embedded block, 6 nerve bundle matched tumor on the specimen whereas 2 NVB were retrospectively removed unnecessarily in our series. All 40 patients have undetectable PSA

  20. Effect of using different U/S probe Standoff materials in image geometry for interventional procedures: the example of prostate

    PubMed Central

    Diamantopoulos, Stefanos; Butt, Saeed; Katsilieri, Zaira; Kefala, Vasiliki; Zogal, Pawel; Sakas, George; Baltas, Dimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates the distortion of geometry of catheters and anatomy in acquired U/S images, caused by utilizing various stand-off materials for covering a transrectal bi-planar ultrasound probe in HDR and LDR prostate brachytherapy, biopsy and other interventional procedures. Furthermore, an evaluation of currently established water-bath based quality assurance (QA) procedures is presented. Material and methods Image acquisitions of an ultrasound QA setup were carried out at 5 MHz and 7 MHz. The U/S probe was covered by EA 4015 Silicone Standoff kit, or UA0059 Endocavity balloon filled either with water or one of the following: 40 ml of Endosgel®, Instillagel®, Ultraschall gel or Space OAR™ gel. The differences between images were recorded. Consequently, the dosimetric impact of the observed image distortion was investigated, using a tissue equivalent ultrasound prostate phantom – Model number 053 (CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA, USA). Results By using the EA 4015 Silicone Standoff kit in normal water with sound speed of 1525 m/s, a 3 mm needle shift was observed. The expansion of objects appeared in radial direction. The shift deforms also the PTV (prostate in our case) and other organs at risk (OARs) in the same way leading to overestimation of volume and underestimation of the dose. On the other hand, Instillagel® and Space OAR™ “shrinks” objects in an ultrasound image for 0.65 mm and 0.40 mm, respectively. Conclusions The use of EA 4015 Silicone Standoff kit for image acquisition, leads to erroneous contouring of PTV and OARs and reconstruction and placement of catheters, which results to incorrect dose calculation during prostate brachytherapy. Moreover, the reliability of QA procedures lies mostly in the right temperature of the water used for accurate simulation of real conditions of transrectal ultrasound imaging. PMID:23346130

  1. Prostate cancer nodal oligometastasis accurately assessed using prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography and confirmed histologically following robotic-assisted lymph node dissection

    PubMed Central

    O’Kane, Dermot B.; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Bolton, Damien M.

    2016-01-01

    We herein present a case of a 76-year-old gentleman, where prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PSMA PET-CT) was used to accurately detect prostate cancer (PCa), pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis in the setting of biochemical recurrence following definitive treatment for PCa. The positive PSMA PET-CT result was confirmed with histological examination of the involved pelvic LNs following pelvic LN dissection. PMID:27141207

  2. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate gland biopsy; Transrectal prostate biopsy; Fine needle biopsy of the prostate; Core biopsy of the prostate; Targeted prostate biopsy; Prostate biopsy - transrectal ultrasound (TRUS); Stereotactic ...

  3. A compact mechatronic system for 3D ultrasound guided prostate interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Bax, Jeffrey; Smith, David; Bartha, Laura; Montreuil, Jacques; Sherebrin, Shi; Gardi, Lori; Edirisinghe, Chandima; Fenster, Aaron

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound imaging has improved the treatment of prostate cancer by producing increasingly higher quality images and influencing sophisticated targeting procedures for the insertion of radioactive seeds during brachytherapy. However, it is critical that the needles be placed accurately within the prostate to deliver the therapy to the planned location and avoid complications of damaging surrounding tissues. Methods: The authors have developed a compact mechatronic system, as well as an effective method for guiding and controlling the insertion of transperineal needles into the prostate. This system has been designed to allow guidance of a needle obliquely in 3D space into the prostate, thereby reducing pubic arch interference. The choice of needle trajectory and location in the prostate can be adjusted manually or with computer control. Results: To validate the system, a series of experiments were performed on phantoms. The 3D scan of the string phantom produced minimal geometric error, which was less than 0.4 mm. Needle guidance accuracy tests in agar prostate phantoms showed that the mean error of bead placement was less then 1.6 mm along parallel needle paths that were within 1.2 mm of the intended target and 1 deg. from the preplanned trajectory. At oblique angles of up to 15 deg. relative to the probe axis, beads were placed to within 3.0 mm along a trajectory that were within 2.0 mm of the target with an angular error less than 2 deg. Conclusions: By combining 3D TRUS imaging system to a needle tracking linkage, this system should improve the physician's ability to target and accurately guide a needle to selected targets without the need for the computer to directly manipulate and insert the needle. This would be beneficial as the physician has complete control of the system and can safely maneuver the needle guide around obstacles such as previously placed needles.

  4. Brief Report: Development of a Robotic Intervention Platform for Young Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Zachary; Zheng, Zhi; Das, Shuvajit; Young, Eric M.; Swanson, Amy; Weitlauf, Amy; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly researchers are attempting to develop robotic technologies for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This pilot study investigated the development and application of a novel robotic system capable of dynamic, adaptive, and autonomous interaction during imitation tasks with embedded real-time performance evaluation and…

  5. Brief Report: Development of a Robotic Intervention Platform for Young Children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Warren, Zachary; Zheng, Zhi; Das, Shuvajit; Young, Eric M; Swanson, Amy; Weitlauf, Amy; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2015-12-01

    Increasingly researchers are attempting to develop robotic technologies for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This pilot study investigated the development and application of a novel robotic system capable of dynamic, adaptive, and autonomous interaction during imitation tasks with embedded real-time performance evaluation and feedback. The system was designed to incorporate both a humanoid robot and a human examiner. We compared child performance within system across these conditions in a sample of preschool children with ASD (n = 8) and a control sample of typically developing children (n = 8). The system was well-tolerated in the sample, children with ASD exhibited greater attention to the robotic system than the human administrator, and for children with ASD imitation performance appeared superior during the robotic interaction. PMID:25503680

  6. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar robotic functions include: 1. Transport of crew and payloads on the surface of the moon; 2. Offloading payloads from a lunar lander; 3. Handling the deployment of surface systems; with 4. Human commanding of these functions from inside a lunar vehicle, habitat, or extravehicular (space walk), with Earth-based supervision. The systems that will perform these functions may not look like robots from science fiction. In fact, robotic functions may be automated trucks, cranes and winches. Use of this equipment prior to the crew s arrival or in the potentially long periods without crews on the surface, will require that these systems be computer controlled machines. The public release of NASA's Exploration plans at the 2nd Space Exploration Conference (Houston, December 2006) included a lunar outpost with as many as four unique mobility chassis designs. The sequence of lander offloading tasks involved as many as ten payloads, each with a unique set of geometry, mass and interface requirements. This plan was refined during a second phase study concluded in August 2007. Among the many improvements to the exploration plan were a reduction in the number of unique mobility chassis designs and a reduction in unique payload specifications. As the lunar surface system payloads have matured, so have the mobility and offloading functional requirements. While the architecture work continues, the community can expect to see functional requirements in the areas of surface mobility, surface handling, and human-systems interaction as follows: Surface Mobility 1. Transport crew on the lunar surface, accelerating construction tasks, expanding the crew s sphere of influence for scientific exploration, and providing a rapid return to an ascent module in an emergency. The crew transport can be with an un-pressurized rover, a small pressurized rover, or a larger mobile habitat. 2. Transport Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment and construction payloads. 3. Transport habitats and

  7. Improving Collaborative Play Between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Siblings: The Effectiveness of a Robot-Mediated Intervention Based on Lego® Therapy.

    PubMed

    Huskens, Bibi; Palmen, Annemiek; Van der Werff, Marije; Lourens, Tino; Barakova, Emilia

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a brief robot-mediated intervention based on Lego(®) therapy on improving collaborative behaviors (i.e., interaction initiations, responses, and play together) between children with ASD and their siblings during play sessions, in a therapeutic setting. A concurrent multiple baseline design across three child-sibling pairs was in effect. The robot-intervention resulted in no statistically significant changes in collaborative behaviors of the children with ASD. Despite limited effectiveness of the intervention, this study provides several practical implications and directions for future research. PMID:25428293

  8. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's upper atmosphere is an extreme environment: dry, cold, and irradiated. It is unknown whether our aerobiosphere is limited to the transport of life, or there exist organisms that grow and reproduce while airborne (aerophiles); the microenvironments of suspended particles may harbor life at otherwise uninhabited altitudes[2]. The existence of aerophiles would significantly expand the range of planets considered candidates for life by, for example, including the cooler clouds of a hot Venus-like planet. The X project is an effort to engineer a robotic exploration and biosampling payload for a comprehensive survey of Earth's aerobiology. While many one-shot samples have been retrieved from above 15 km, their results are primarily qualitative; variations in method confound comparisons, leaving such major gaps in our knowledge of aerobiology as quantification of populations at different strata and relative species counts[1]. These challenges and X's preliminary solutions are explicated below. X's primary balloon payload is undergoing a series of calibrations before beginning flights in Spring 2012. A suborbital launch is currently planned for Summer 2012. A series of ground samples taken in Winter 2011 is being used to establish baseline counts and identify likely background contaminants.

  9. Integration and evaluation of a needle-positioning robot with volumetric microcomputed tomography image guidance for small animal stereotactic interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Waspe, Adam C.; McErlain, David D.; Pitelka, Vasek; Holdsworth, David W.; Lacefield, James C.; Fenster, Aaron

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Preclinical research protocols often require insertion of needles to specific targets within small animal brains. To target biologically relevant locations in rodent brains more effectively, a robotic device has been developed that is capable of positioning a needle along oblique trajectories through a single burr hole in the skull under volumetric microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) guidance. Methods: An x-ray compatible stereotactic frame secures the head throughout the procedure using a bite bar, nose clamp, and ear bars. CT-to-robot registration enables structures identified in the image to be mapped to physical coordinates in the brain. Registration is accomplished by injecting a barium sulfate contrast agent as the robot withdraws the needle from predefined points in a phantom. Registration accuracy is affected by the robot-positioning error and is assessed by measuring the surface registration error for the fiducial and target needle tracks (FRE and TRE). This system was demonstrated in situ by injecting 200 {mu}m tungsten beads into rat brains along oblique trajectories through a single burr hole on the top of the skull under micro-CT image guidance. Postintervention micro-CT images of each skull were registered with preintervention high-field magnetic resonance images of the brain to infer the anatomical locations of the beads. Results: Registration using four fiducial needle tracks and one target track produced a FRE and a TRE of 96 and 210 {mu}m, respectively. Evaluation with tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms showed that locations could be targeted with a mean error of 154{+-}113 {mu}m. Conclusions: The integration of a robotic needle-positioning device with volumetric micro-CT image guidance should increase the accuracy and reduce the invasiveness of stereotactic needle interventions in small animals.

  10. My Road Ahead study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of an online psychological intervention for men following treatment for localised prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for psychosocial interventions for men with prostate cancer to promote adaptive coping with the challenges and distress associated with diagnosis, treatment and recovery. In addition, interventions are needed that help to overcome barriers to psychosocial treatment such as limited face-to-face psychosocial support services, a shortage of adequately trained professionals, geographical distance, perceived and personal stigma and a preference for consumer-centric and self-directed learning. My Road Ahead is an online cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) intervention for prostate cancer. This protocol describes a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that will evaluate the efficacy of this online intervention alone, the intervention in combination with a moderated online forum, and the moderated online forum alone. Methods/design This study utilises a RCT design with three groups receiving: 1) the 6-module My Road Ahead intervention alone; 2) the My Road Ahead intervention plus a moderated online forum; and 3) the moderated online forum alone. It is expected that 150 men with localised prostate cancer will be recruited into the RCT. Online measures will assess men’s psychological distress as well as sexual and relationship adjustment at baseline, post-intervention, 3 month follow-up and 6 month follow-up. The study is being conducted in Australia and participants will be recruited from April 2012 to Feb 2014. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of My Road Ahead in reducing psychological distress. Discussion To our knowledge, My Road Ahead is the first self-directed online psychological intervention developed for men who have been treated for localised prostate cancer. The RCT will assess the efficacy of this intervention in improving psychological well-being, sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction and overall quality of life. If successful, this intervention could provide much needed support to men receiving

  11. Robotic technology in urology.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D; Challacombe, B; Khan, M S; Dasgupta, P

    2006-11-01

    Urology has increasingly become a technology-driven specialty. The advent of robotic surgical systems in the past 10 years has led to urologists becoming the world leaders in the use of such technology. In this paper, we review the history and current status of robotic technology in urology. From the earliest uses of robots for transurethral resection of the prostate, to robotic devices for manipulating laparoscopes and to the current crop of master-slave devices for robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery, the evolution of robotics in the urology operating theatre is presented. Future possibilities, including the prospects for nanotechnology in urology, are awaited. PMID:17099094

  12. A Prospective Randomized Trial of Two Different Prostate Biopsy Schemes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-03

    Prostate Cancer; Local Anesthesia; Prostate-Specific Antigen/Blood; Biopsy/Methods; Image-guided Biopsy/Methods; Prostatic Neoplasms/Diagnosis; Prostate/Pathology; Prospective Studies; Humans; Male; Ultrasonography, Interventional/Methods

  13. Operation and force analysis of the guide wire in a minimally invasive vascular interventional surgery robot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue; Wang, Hongbo; Sun, Li; Yu, Hongnian

    2015-03-01

    To develop a robot system for minimally invasive surgery is significant, however the existing minimally invasive surgery robots are not applicable in practical operations, due to their limited functioning and weaker perception. A novel wire feeder is proposed for minimally invasive vascular interventional surgery. It is used for assisting surgeons in delivering a guide wire, balloon and stenting into a specific lesion location. By contrasting those existing wire feeders, the motion methods for delivering and rotating the guide wire in blood vessel are described, and their mechanical realization is presented. A new resistant force detecting method is given in details. The change of the resistance force can help the operator feel the block or embolism existing in front of the guide wire. The driving torque for rotating the guide wire is developed at different positions. Using the CT reconstruction image and extracted vessel paths, the path equation of the blood vessel is obtained. Combining the shapes of the guide wire outside the blood vessel, the whole bending equation of the guide wire is obtained. That is a risk criterion in the delivering process. This process can make operations safer and man-machine interaction more reliable. A novel surgery robot for feeding guide wire is designed, and a risk criterion for the system is given.

  14. Analysis of outcome following robotic assisted radical prostatectomy for patients with high risk prostate cancer as per D’Amico classification

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Narmada Prasad; Murugesan, Anandan; Kumar, Anand; Yadav, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Prognosis of prostate cancer depends on the risk stratification. D’Amico classification, the most commonly used risk stratification method is based on three factors, i.e., prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason grade and clinical stage. The impact of presence of multiple risk factors on prognosis after radical prostatectomy has not been studied in Indian patients. We analyzed the outcome of patients with high-risk disease undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), as per D’Amico classification. Materials and Methods: Our study is a review of the data of all patients with high-risk prostate cancer who underwent RARP between July 2010 and January 2015. Preoperative, perioperative and outcome data were analyzed for patients with high-risk disease as per D’Amico classification. Results: Of 227 patients who underwent RARP, 90 (39.6%) were in the high-risk group. PSA > 20 ng/ml was the most common risk factor, present in 50 (55.6%) patients. All three risk factors were present in 3 patients, and single risk factor was present in 65 patients. Nine (10%) patients had lymphnode involvement, 18 (20%) had positive margin, and 38 (41.1%) had extraprostatic extension (EPE). Among these adverse outcomes, only EPE showed significant association with multiplicity of risk factors. At 12 months, 27.8% had biochemical recurrence (BCR). 92% of patients were continent at 12 months. Conclusion: About 92% of patients with high-risk disease were continent at 12 months, whereas less than one-third of the patients had BCR. EPE was the only outcome associated with multiplicity of risk factors. Adjuvant treatment is not required in two-thirds of patients. PMID:27127353

  15. MO-G-17A-02: Computer Simulation Studies for On-Board Functional and Molecular Imaging of the Prostate Using a Robotic Multi-Pinhole SPECT System

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, L; Bowsher, J; Yin, F; Yan, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate prostate imaging onboard radiation therapy machines using a novel robotic, 49-pinhole Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system. Methods: Computer-simulation studies were performed for region-of-interest (ROI) imaging using a 49-pinhole SPECT collimator and for broad cross-section imaging using a parallel-hole SPECT collimator. A male XCAT phantom was computersimulated in supine position with one 12mm-diameter tumor added in the prostate. A treatment couch was added to the phantom. Four-minute detector trajectories for imaging a 7cm-diameter-sphere ROI encompassing the tumor were investigated with different parameters, including pinhole focal length, pinhole diameter and trajectory starting angle. Pseudo-random Poisson noise was included in the simulated projection data, and SPECT images were reconstructed by OSEM with 4 subsets and up to 10 iterations. Images were evaluated by visual inspection, profiles, and Root-Mean- Square-Error (RMSE). Results: The tumor was well visualized above background by the 49-pinhole SPECT system with different pinhole parameters while it was not visible with parallel-hole SPECT imaging. Minimum RMSEs were 0.30 for 49-pinhole imaging and 0.41 for parallelhole imaging. For parallel-hole imaging, the detector trajectory from rightto- left yielded slightly lower RMSEs than that from posterior to anterior. For 49-pinhole imaging, near-minimum RMSEs were maintained over a broader range of OSEM iterations with a 5mm pinhole diameter and 21cm focal length versus a 2mm diameter pinhole and 18cm focal length. The detector with 21cm pinhole focal length had the shortest rotation radius averaged over the trajectory. Conclusion: On-board functional and molecular prostate imaging may be feasible in 4-minute scan times by robotic SPECT. A 49-pinhole SPECT system could improve such imaging as compared to broadcross-section parallel-hole collimated SPECT imaging. Multi-pinhole imaging can be improved by

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Guided Imagery as Anxiety Reducing Interventions in Breast and Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Charalambous, Andreas; Giannakopoulou, Margarita; Bozas, Evangelos; Paikousis, Lefkios

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To test the effectiveness of guided imagery (GI) and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) as stress reducing interventions in patients with prostate and breast cancer who undergo chemotherapy. Methods. Patients were randomly assigned to either the control group or the intervention group (PMR and GI). Patients were observed for a total duration of 3 weeks and assessed with the SAS and BECK-II questionnaires for anxiety and depression, respectively, in addiotion to two biological markers (saliva cortisol and saliva amylase) (trial registration number: NCT01275872). Results. 256 patients were registered and 236 were randomly assigned. In total 104 were randomised to the control group and 104 to the intervention group. Intervention's mean anxiety score and depression score changes were significantly different compared to the control's (b = −29.4, p < 0.001; b = −29.4, p < 0.001, resp.). Intervention group's cortisol levels before the intervention (0.30 ± 0.25) gradually decreased up to week 3 (0.16 ± 0.18), whilst the control group's cortisol levels before the intervention (0.21 ± 0.22) gradually increased up to week 3 (0.44 ± 0.35). The same interaction appears for the Amylase levels (p < 0.001). Conclusions. The findings showed that patients with prostate and breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy treatment can benefit from PMR and GI sessions to reduce their anxiety and depression. PMID:26347018

  17. Therapeutic Intervention for Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyama, Akira; Whelan, Julia S.; Jackson, Jeffrey L.; Dimitrakoff, Jordan D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) has been treated with several different interventions with limited success. This meta-analysis aims to review all trials reporting on therapeutic intervention for CP/CPPS using the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). Methods We searched Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Pain, Palliative & Supportive Care Trials, the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the NIDDK website between 1947 and December 31, 2011 without language or study type restrictions. All RCTs for CP/CPPS lasting at least 6 weeks, with a minimum of 10 participants per arm, and using the NIH-CPSI score, the criterion standard for CP/CPPS, as an outcome measure were included. Data was extracted from each study by two independent reviewers. Gillbraith and I-squared plots were used for heterogeneity testing and Eggers and Peters methods for publication bias. Quality was assessed using a component approach and meta-regression was used to analyze sources of heterogeneity. Results Mepartricin, percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS), and triple therapy comprised of doxazosin + ibuprofen + thiocolchicoside (DIT) resulted in clinically and statistically significant reduction in NIH-CPSI total score. The same agents and aerobic exercise resulted in clinically and statistically significant NIH-CPSI pain domain score reduction. Acupuncture, DIT, and PTNS were found to produce statistically and clinically significant reductions in the NIH-CPSI voiding domain. A statistically significant placebo effect was found for all outcomes and time analysis showed that efficacy of all treatments increased over time. Alpha-blockers, antibiotics, and combinations of the two failed to show statistically or clinically significant NIH-CPSI reductions. Conclusion Results from this meta-analysis reflect our current inability to effectively manage CP/CPPS. Clinicians and researchers must

  18. So Long, Robot Reader! A Superhero Intervention Plan for Improving Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Barclay; Ferraro, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an engaging means for turning disfluent readers into prosody superstars. Each week students align with Poetry Power Man and his superhero friends to battle the evil Robot Reader and his sidekicks. The Fluency Foursome helps students adhere to the multidimensional aspects of fluency where expression and comprehension are…

  19. Improving Collaborative Play between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Siblings: The Effectiveness of a Robot-Mediated Intervention Based on Lego® Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huskens, Bibi; Palmen, Annemiek; Van der Werff, Marije; Lourens, Tino; Barakova, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a brief robot-mediated intervention based on Lego® therapy on improving collaborative behaviors (i.e., interaction initiations, responses, and play together) between children with ASD and their siblings during play sessions, in a therapeutic setting. A concurrent multiple baseline design…

  20. Robotic intelligence kernel

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J.

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  1. Integrating socially assistive robotics into mental healthcare interventions: applications and recommendations for expanded use.

    PubMed

    Rabbitt, Sarah M; Kazdin, Alan E; Scassellati, Brian

    2015-02-01

    As a field, mental healthcare is faced with major challenges as it attempts to close the huge gap between those who need services and those who receive services. In recent decades, technological advances have provided exciting new resources in this battle. Socially assistive robotics (SAR) is a particularly promising area that has expanded into several exciting mental healthcare applications. Indeed, a growing literature highlights the variety of clinically relevant functions that these robots can serve, from companion to therapeutic play partner. This paper reviews the ways that SAR have already been used in mental health service and research and discusses ways that these applications can be expanded. We also outline the challenges and limitations associated with further integrating SAR into mental healthcare. SAR is not proposed as a replacement for specially trained and knowledgeable professionals nor is it seen as a panacea for all mental healthcare needs. Instead, robots can serve as clinical tools and assistants in a wide range of settings. Given the dramatic growth in this area, now is a critical moment for individuals in the mental healthcare community to become engaged in this research and steer it toward our field's most pressing clinical needs. PMID:25462112

  2. Design and characteristics evaluation of a novel teleoperated robotic catheterization system with force feedback for vascular interventional surgery.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian; Guo, Shuxiang; Yu, Yang

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we proposed a novel master-slave robotic catheterization system with force feedback for VIS (Vascular Interventional Surgery). The force feedback to the operator on the master side is the key factor to improve the safety during VIS. The developed system used the MR (magneto rheological) fluid to realize force feedback, and it used the developed multidimensional monitoring interface to realize the visualization of force feedback, the developed multidimensional monitoring interface can monitor the motion information of the catheter and contact force between catheter tip or side wall and blood vessel wall, and the motion data of the catheter was collected and generated diagram for reference to surgeon. We have developed a force sensor array to detect the contact force between catheter tip or side wall and blood vessel wall. The force information was detected by the developed contact force sensor array when the catheter contacted with the blood vessel. The force feedback and multidimensional information monitoring interface evaluation experiments were done, the tracking characteristic evaluation experiments were also carried out, the experimental results indicated that the developed novel robotic catheterization system with force feedback and visualization of force feedback is effective for VIS, it can improve the safety during VIS. PMID:27499092

  3. A MR-conditional High-torque Pneumatic Stepper Motor for MRI-guided and Robot-assisted Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging allows for visualizing detailed pathological and morphological changes of soft tissue. This increasingly attracts attention on MRI-guided intervention; hence, MR-conditional actuations have been widely investigated for development of image-guided and robot-assisted surgical devices under the MRI. This paper presents a simple design of MR-conditional stepper motor which can provide precise and high-torque actuation without adversely affecting the MR image quality. This stepper motor consists of two MR-conditional pneumatic cylinders and the corresponding supporting structures. Alternating the pressurized air can drive the motor to rotate each step in 3.6° with the motor coupled to a planetary gearbox. Experimental studies were conducted to validate its dynamics performance. Maximum 800mNm output torque can be achieved. The motor accuracy independently varied by two factors: motor operating speed and step size, was also investigated. The motor was tested within a Siemens 3T MRI scanner. The image artifact and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were evaluated in order to study its MRI compliancy. The results show that the presented pneumatic stepper motor generated 2.35% SNR reduction in MR images and no observable artifact was presented besides the motor body itself. The proposed motor test also demonstrates a standard to evaluate the motor capability for later incorporation with motorized devices used in robot-assisted surgery under MRI. PMID:24957635

  4. Prospective assessment of time-dependent changes in quality of life of Japanese patients with prostate cancer following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Akira; Furukawa, Junya; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize changes in the quality of life (QOL) of Japanese patients following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). This study included 298 consecutive localized prostate cancer (PC) patients undergoing RARP. The health-related QOL and disease-specific QOL were assessed using The Medical Outcomes Study 8-Item Short Form (SF-8) and The Extended Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC), respectively, before and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after RARP. At 1 month after RARP, four (physical function, role limitations because of physical health problems, social function and role limitations because of emotional problems) of the eight scores in SF-8 were significantly impaired compared with those of baseline scores. However, all eight scores on all postoperative assessments, except for at 1 month after RARP, showed no significant differences from baseline scores. Although there were no significant differences in the bowel function, bowel bother, sexual bother, hormonal function or hormonal bother between baseline and postoperative assessments of EPIC at all time points, the urinary function, urinary incontinence and sexual function scores at 1, 3 and 6 months after RARP were significantly inferior to those of baseline scores, and urinary bother and urinary irritation/obstruction scores at 1 month after RARP were significantly impaired compared with those of baseline scores. These findings suggest that the health-related QOL of Japanese PC patients undergoing RARP may not be markedly deteriorated following RARP; however, as for the disease-specific QOL, urinary and sexual functions, particularly those early after RARP, appeared to be significantly impaired. PMID:26885662

  5. Feasibility of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy for very-high risk prostate cancer: surgical and oncological outcomes in men aged ≥70 years

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Kyo Chul; Jung, Dae Chul; Lee, Seung Hwan; Choi, Young Deuk; Chung, Byung Ha; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection (RALP-PLND) is a feasible treatment option for high-risk prostate cancer (HPCa), but remains controversial for very high-risk prostate cancer (VHPCa). We aimed to assess the feasibility of RALP-PLND in men ≥70 years with VHPCa features by comparing outcomes to those of HPCa. Methods Among patients aged ≥70 years who underwent RALP-PLND between 2005 and 2012, 101 HPCa patients (31%) (PSA≥20 ng/mL or biopsy Gleason 8–10 or cT3a) and 53 VHPCa patients (16%) (≥cT3b or cN1) were identified. Perioperative, functional, and oncological outcomes were compared between groups. Results Perioperative outcomes including operative time (P=0.917), estimated blood loss (P=0.181), and complications (P=0.239) were comparable. Due to Gleason score downgrading, 19% of HPCa and 4% of VHPCa were actually of intermediate risk. VHPCa revealed higher LN involvements (P=0.002). Discrepancy between clinical and pathological nodal status was more frequent in VHPCa (36% vs. 7%, P<0.01). Nodal metastasis would have been missed in 23% patients without PLND, while 13% of cN1 patients were shown to be metastasis-free by PLND. Continence rates were lower for VHPCa (32% vs. 56%, P=0.013). Although biochemical recurrence-free survival rates were comparable (P=0.648), risk for later adjuvant treatments was higher for VHPCa patients (14% vs. 34%, P<0.01). Conclusions RALP-PLND is a feasible option for VHPCa in elderly patients with satisfactory oncologic outcomes; however, functional outcomes were not as favorable. Patients who are unable to accept the risk of adjuvant therapy and its side effects or incontinence should be deterred from surgical treatment, and other options such as radiation therapy could be an alternative. PMID:25325024

  6. Active Holistic Surveillance: The Nutritional Aspect of Delayed Intervention in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Courtney J.; Habibian, David J.; Katz, Aaron E.; Kosinski, Kaitlin E.; Corcoran, Anthony T.; Fontes, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Active surveillance is an emergent strategy for management of indolent prostate cancer. Our institution's watchful waiting protocol, Active Holistic Surveillance (AHS), implements close monitoring for disease progression along with various chemopreventive agents and attempts to reduce unnecessary biopsies. Our objective is to report on the treatment rates of men on our AHS protocol as well as determine reasons for progression. Materials/Methods. Low risk and low-intermediate risk patients were enrolled in AHS at Winthrop University Hospital between February 2002 and August 2015. Our IRB-approved study analyzed survival rate, discontinuation rates, and definitive treatments for patients in our AHS cohort. Results. 235 patients met inclusion criteria. Median age and follow-up for the cohort were 66 (44–88) years and 42 (3–166) months, respectively. The overall survival for the cohort was 99.6% and the disease specific survival was 100%. A total of 27 (11.5%) patients discontinued AHS. Conclusion. The incorporation of chemopreventive agents in our AHS protocol has allowed patients to prolong definitive treatment for many years. Longer follow-up and additional studies are necessary to further validate the effectiveness of AHS. PMID:27274870

  7. PROSPECTIV—a pilot trial of a nurse-led psychoeducational intervention delivered in primary care to prostate cancer survivors: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Eila; Rose, Peter; Frith, Emma; Hamdy, Freddie; Neal, David; Kastner, Christof; Russell, Simon; Walter, Fiona M; Faithfull, Sara; Wolstenholme, Jane; Perera, Rafael; Weller, David; Campbell, Christine; Wilkinson, Clare; Neal, Richard; Sooriakumaran, Prasanna; Butcher, Hugh; Matthews, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer survivors can experience physical, sexual, psychological and emotional problems, and there is evidence that current follow-up practices fail to meet these men's needs. Studies show that secondary and primary care physicians see a greater role for primary care in delivering follow-up, and that primary care-led follow-up is acceptable to men with prostate cancer. Methods and analysis A two-phase study with target population being men who are 9–24 months from diagnosis. Phase 1 questionnaire aims to recruit 300 men and measure prostate-related quality of life and unmet needs. Men experiencing problems with urinary, bowel, sexual or hormonal function will be eligible for phase 2, a pilot trial of a primary care nurse-led psychoeducational intervention. Consenting eligible participants will be randomised either to intervention plus usual care, or usual care alone (40 men in each arm). The intervention, based on a self-management approach, underpinned by Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, will provide advice and support tailored to these men's needs and address any problems they are experiencing. Telephone follow-up will take place at 6 months. Study outcomes will be measured by a questionnaire at 7 months. Phase 1 will allow us to estimate the prevalence of urinary, sexual, bowel and hormone-related problems in prostate cancer survivors and the level of unmet needs. ‘Usual care’ will also be documented. Phase 2 will provide information on recruitment and retention, acceptability of the intervention/outcome measures, effect sizes of the intervention and cost-effectiveness data, which is required to inform development of a larger, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. The main outcome of interest is change in prostate-cancer-related quality of life. Methodological issues will also be addressed. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been gained (Oxford REC A 12/SC/0500). Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals

  8. SU-E-T-11: A Dosimetric Comparison of Robotic Prostatic Radiosugery Using Multi- Leaf Collimation Vs Circular Collimators

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J; Yang, J; Lamond, J; Lavere, N; Laciano, R; Ding, W; Arrigo, S; Brady, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The study compared the dosimetry plans of Stereotatic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) prostate cancer patients using the M6 Cyberknife with Multi-leaf Collimation (MLC) compared with the plans using G4 Cyberknife with circular collimators. Methods: Eight previously treated prostate cancer patients' SBRT plans using circular collimators, designed with Multiplan v3.5.3, were used as a benchmark. The CT, contours and the optimization scripts were imported into Multiplan v5.0 system and replanned with MLC. The same planning objectives were used: more than 95% of PTV received 36.25Gy, 90% of prostate received 40Gy and maximum dose <45Gy, in five fractions. For organs at risk, less than 1cc of rectum received 36Gy and less than 10cc of bladder received 37Gy. Plans were evaluated on parameters derived from dose volume. The beam number, MU and delivery time were recorded to compare the treatment efficiency. Results: The mean CTV volume was 41.3cc (27.5∼57.6cc) and mean PTV volume was 76.77cc (59.1∼99.7cc). The mean PTV coverage was comparable between MLC (98.87%) and cone (98.74%). MLC plans had a slightly more favorable homogeneity index (1.22) and conformity index (1.17), than the cone (1.24 and 1.15). The mean rectum volume of 36 Gy (0.52cc) of MLC plans was slightly larger than cone (0.38cc) and the mean bladder volume of 37 Gy was smaller in MLC (1.82cc) than in cone plans (3.09cc). The mean number of nodes and beams were 65.9 and 80.5 in MLC vs 65.9 and 203.6 in cone. The mean MUs were significantly less for MLC plans (24,228MUs) than cone (32,347MUs). The total delivery time (which included 5 minutes for setup) was less, 29.6min (26∼32min) for MLC vs 45min (35∼55min) for cone. Conclusion: While the differences in the dosimetry between the MLC and circular collimator plans were rather minor, the MLC plans were much more efficient and required significantly less treatment time.

  9. Personalized, relevance-based Multimodal Robotic Imaging and augmented reality for Computer Assisted Interventions.

    PubMed

    Navab, Nassir; Fellow, Miccai; Hennersperger, Christoph; Frisch, Benjamin; Fürst, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, many researchers in medical image computing and computer assisted interventions across the world focused on the development of the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH), aiming at changing the practice of medicine from classification and treatment of diseases to that of modeling and treating patients. These projects resulted in major advancements in segmentation, registration, morphological, physiological and biomechanical modeling based on state of art medical imaging as well as other sensory data. However, a major issue which has not yet come into the focus is personalizing intra-operative imaging, allowing for optimal treatment. In this paper, we discuss the personalization of imaging and visualization process with particular focus on satisfying the challenging requirements of computer assisted interventions. We discuss such requirements and review a series of scientific contributions made by our research team to tackle some of these major challenges. PMID:27475417

  10. [Blindness after prostate biopsy].

    PubMed

    Heinzelbecker, J; von Zastrow, C; Alken, P

    2009-02-01

    We report on a case of sepsis-associated irreversible blindness in a patient after transrectal rebiopsy of the prostate. The patient was on immunosuppressive and long-term antibiotic treatment. Such a severe complication after transrectal biopsy of the prostate is unusual. Peri-interventional antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the general risk for infections after needle biopsy of the prostate. To avoid severe complications, suitable antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients is recommended. PMID:19037622

  11. Workflow assessment of 3T MRI-guided transperineal targeted prostate biopsy using a robotic needle guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Eun; Tuncali, Kemal; Tokuda, Junichi; Fedorov, Andriy; Penzkofer, Tobias; Fennessy, Fiona; Tempany, Clare; Yoshimitsu, Kitaro; Magill, John; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided transperineal targeted prostate biopsy has become a valuable instrument for detection of prostate cancer in patients with continuing suspicion for aggressive cancer after transrectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) guided biopsy. The MRI-guided procedures are performed using mechanical targeting devices or templates, which suffer from limitations of spatial sampling resolution and/or manual in-bore adjustments. To overcome these limitations, we developed and clinically deployed an MRI-compatible piezoceramic-motor actuated needle guidance device, Smart Template, which allows automated needle guidance with high targeting resolution for use in a wide closed-bore 3-Tesla MRI scanner. One of the main limitations of the MRI-guided procedure is the lengthy procedure time compared to conventional TRUS-guided procedures. In order to optimize the procedure, we assessed workflow of 30 MRI-guided biopsy procedures using the Smart Template with focus on procedure time. An average of 3.4 (range: 2~6) targets were preprocedurally selected per procedure and 2.2 ± 0.8 biopsies were performed for each target with an average insertion attempt of 1.9 ± 0.7 per biopsy. The average technical preparation time was 14 ± 7 min and the in-MRI patient preparation time was 42 ± 7 min. After 21 ± 7 min of initial imaging, 64 ± 12 min of biopsy was performed yielding an average of 10 ± 2 min per tissue sample. The total procedure time occupying the MRI suite was 138 ± 16 min. No noticeable tendency in the length of any time segment was observed over the 30 clinical cases.

  12. Noncoplanar Beam Angle Class Solutions to Replace Time-Consuming Patient-Specific Beam Angle Optimization in Robotic Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Linda Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Aluwini, Shafak; Heijmen, Ben

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate development of a recipe for the creation of a beam angle class solution (CS) for noncoplanar prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy to replace time-consuming individualized beam angle selection (iBAS) without significant loss in plan quality, using the in-house “Erasmus-iCycle” optimizer for fully automated beam profile optimization and iBAS. Methods and Materials: For 30 patients, Erasmus-iCycle was first used to generate 15-, 20-, and 25-beam iBAS plans for a CyberKnife equipped with a multileaf collimator. With these plans, 6 recipes for creation of beam angle CSs were investigated. Plans of 10 patients were used to create CSs based on the recipes, and the other 20 to independently test them. For these tests, Erasmus-iCycle was also used to generate intensity modulated radiation therapy plans for the fixed CS beam setups. Results: Of the tested recipes for CS creation, only 1 resulted in 15-, 20-, and 25-beam noncoplanar CSs without plan deterioration compared with iBAS. For the patient group, mean differences in rectum D{sub 1cc}, V{sub 60GyEq}, V{sub 40GyEq}, and D{sub mean} between 25-beam CS plans and 25-beam plans generated with iBAS were 0.2 ± 0.4 Gy, 0.1% ± 0.2%, 0.2% ± 0.3%, and 0.1 ± 0.2 Gy, respectively. Differences between 15- and 20-beam CS and iBAS plans were also negligible. Plan quality for CS plans relative to iBAS plans was also preserved when narrower planning target volume margins were arranged and when planning target volume dose inhomogeneity was decreased. Using a CS instead of iBAS reduced the computation time by a factor of 14 to 25, mainly depending on beam number, without loss in plan quality. Conclusions: A recipe for creation of robust beam angle CSs for robotic prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy has been developed. Compared with iBAS, computation times decreased by a factor 14 to 25. The use of a CS may avoid long planning times without losses in plan quality.

  13. ProsCan for Couples: Randomised controlled trial of a couples-based sexuality intervention for men with localised prostate cancer who receive radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Schover, Leslie; Halford, Kim; Clutton, Samantha; Ferguson, Megan; Gordon, Louisa; Gardiner, RA; Occhipinti, Stefano; Dunn, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in the Western world. The most substantial long term morbidity from this cancer is sexual dysfunction with consequent adverse changes in couple and intimate relationships. Research to date has not identified an effective way to improve sexual and psychosocial adjustment for both men with prostate cancer and their partners. As well, the efficacy and cost effectiveness of peer counselling as opposed to professional models of service delivery has not yet been empirically tested. This paper presents the design of a three arm randomised controlled trial (peer vs. nurse counselling vs. usual care) that will evaluate the efficacy of two couples-based sexuality interventions (ProsCan for Couples: Peer support vs. nurse counselling) on men's and women's sexual and psychosocial adjustment after surgical treatment for localised prostate cancer; in addition to cost-effectiveness. Methods/design Seventy couples per condition (210 couples in total) will be recruited after diagnosis and before treatment through urology private practices and hospital outpatient clinics and randomised to (1) usual care; (2) eight sessions of peer-delivered telephone support with DVD education; and (3) eight sessions of oncology nurse-delivered telephone counselling with DVD education. Two intervention sessions will be delivered before surgery and six over the six months post-surgery. The intervention will utilise a cognitive behavioural approach along with couple relationship education focussed on relationship enhancement and helping the couple to conjointly manage the stresses of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Participants will be assessed at baseline (before surgery) and 3, 6 and 12 months post-surgery. Outcome measures include: sexual adjustment; unmet sexuality supportive care needs; attitudes to sexual help seeking; psychological adjustment; benefit finding and quality of life. Discussion The study will provide recommendations about

  14. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ørsted, David D; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH as a causal factor for prostate cancer development could improve the accuracy of prognostication and expedite intervention, potentially reducing the number of men who die from prostate cancer. PMID:23165396

  15. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the feasibility of a self-directed coping skills intervention for couples facing prostate cancer: Rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although it is known both patients’ and partners’ reactions to a prostate cancer diagnosis include fear, uncertainty, anxiety and depression with patients’ partners’ reactions mutually determining how they cope with and adjust to the illness, few psychosocial interventions target couples. Those that are available tend to be led by highly trained professionals, limiting their accessibility and long-term sustainability. In addition, it is recognised that patients who might benefit from conventional face-to-face psychosocial interventions do not access these, either by preference or because of geographical or mobility barriers. Self-directed interventions can overcome some of these limitations and have been shown to contribute to patient well-being. This study will examine the feasibility of a self-directed, coping skills intervention for couples affected by cancer, called Coping-Together, and begin to explore its potential impact on couples’ illness adjustment. The pilot version of Coping-Together includes a series of four booklets, a DVD, and a relaxation audio CD. Methods/design In this double-blind, two-group, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 70 couples will be recruited within 4 months of a prostate cancer diagnosis through urology private practices and randomized to: 1) Coping-Together or 2) a minimal ethical care condition. Minimal ethical care condition couples will be mailed information booklets available at the Cancer Council New South Wales and a brochure for the Cancer Council Helpline. The primary outcome (anxiety) and additional secondary outcomes (distress, depression, dyadic adjustment, quality of life, illness or caregiving appraisal, self-efficacy, and dyadic and individual coping) will be assessed at baseline (before receiving study material) and 2 months post-baseline. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis will be conducted. Discussion As partners’ distress rates exceed not only population norms, but also those

  16. Intraoperative Management of an Incidentally Identified Ectopic Ureter Inserting Into the Prostate of a Patient Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Udit; Dauw, Casey A; Li, Amy Y; Miller, David C; Wolf, J Stuart; Morgan, Todd M

    2015-08-01

    Congenital variations in urinary tract anatomy present unique surgical challenges when they present without prior knowledge. Ectopic ureters occur as a rare anatomic variation of the urinary tract and are often associated with duplicated renal collecting systems. While the condition is uncommon, even more atypical is its discovery and subsequent diagnosis during surgical intervention for treatment of localized prostate cancer.We describe the intraoperative management of a unique case of bilateral ectopic ureters, with a right-sided ureter inserting into the prostate of a 54-year-old male undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy. While unknown at the time of surgery, this right-sided ureter was associated with a nonfunctioning right upper renal moiety of a duplex renal collecting system. This aberration was discovered intraoperatively and confirmed with imaging, and a robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy with right distal ureterectomy was performed. PMID:26266359

  17. A randomized controlled trial of an exercise intervention targeting cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors for prostate cancer patients from the RADAR trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Androgen deprivation therapy leads to a number of adverse effects including deterioration of the musculoskeletal system and increased risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic complications. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects, efficacy, retention and compliance of a physical exercise intervention in a large established cohort of prostate cancer patients from the Randomised Androgen Deprivation and Radiotherapy (RADAR) study. Specifically, we aim to compare short- and long-term effects of a prostate cancer-specific supervised exercise program to a standard public health physical activity strategy utilizing printed resources on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Our primary outcomes are cardiorespiratory capacity, abdominal obesity, and lipid and glycemic control, while secondary outcomes include self-reported physical activity, quality of life and psychological distress. Methods/Design Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 370 men from the RADAR study cohort undergoing treatment or previously treated for prostate cancer involving androgen deprivation therapy in the cities of Perth and Newcastle (Australia), and Wellington (New Zealand). Participants will be randomized to (1) supervised resistance/aerobic exercise or (2) printed material comprising general physical activity recommendations. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 6 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 months (end of intervention), and at 6 months follow-up. Discussion This study uses a large existent cohort of patients and will generate valuable information as to the continuing effects of exercise specifically targeting cardiovascular function and disease risk, insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, physical function, quality of life and psychological distress. We expect dissemination of the knowledge gained from this project to reduce risk factors for the development of co-morbid diseases

  18. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Prostate Cancer What is Prostate Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) How Prostate Cancer Occurs Prostate cancer occurs when a tumor forms ...

  19. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING COMPATIBLE ROBOTIC SYSTEM FOR FULLY AUTOMATED BRACHYTHERAPY SEED PLACEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Muntener, Michael; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Bagga, Herman; Kavoussi, Louis; Cleary, Kevin; Stoianovici, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To introduce the development of the first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible robotic system capable of automated brachytherapy seed placement. Methods An MRI-compatible robotic system was conceptualized and manufactured. The entire robot was built of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials. The key technology of the system is a unique pneumatic motor that was specifically developed for this application. Various preclinical experiments were performed to test the robot for precision and imager compatibility. Results The robot was fully operational within all closed-bore MRI scanners. Compatibility tests in scanners of up to 7 Tesla field intensity showed no interference of the robot with the imager. Precision tests in tissue mockups yielded a mean seed placement error of 0.72 ± 0.36 mm. Conclusions The robotic system is fully MRI compatible. The new technology allows for automated and highly accurate operation within MRI scanners and does not deteriorate the MRI quality. We believe that this robot may become a useful instrument for image-guided prostate interventions. PMID:17169653

  20. LEARNING NONRIGID DEFORMATIONS FOR CONSTRAINED POINT-BASED REGISTRATION FOR IMAGE-GUIDED MR-TRUS PROSTATE INTERVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Onofrey, John A.; Staib, Lawrence H.; Sarkar, Saradwata; Venkataraman, Rajesh; Papademetris, Xenophon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents and validates a low-dimensional nonrigid registration method for fusing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) in image-guided prostate biopsy. Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men in the United States. Conventional clinical practice uses TRUS to guide prostate biopsies when there is a suspicion of cancer. Pre-procedural MRI information can reveal lesions and may be fused with intra-procedure TRUS imaging to provide patient-specific, localization of lesions for targeting. The state-of-the-art MRI-TRUS nonrigid image fusion process relies upon semi-automated segmentation of the prostate in both the MRI and TRUS images. In this paper, we develop a fast, automated nonrigid registration approach to MRI-TRUS fusion based on a statistical deformation model of intra-procedural deformations derived from a clinical sample. PMID:26405508

  1. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prostate Diseases Basic Facts & Information What are Prostate Diseases? The prostate—one of the components of ... out anything serious. The Most Common Types of Prostate Diseases Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Prostatitis Prostate cancer ...

  2. [Prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Morote, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Morales-Bárrera, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    The Vall d'Hebron multidisciplinary prostate cancer (PC) team reviews recent advances in the management of this neoplasm. Screening studies with long follow-up show a reduction in mortality, whereas active surveillance is emerging as a therapeutic approach of non-aggressive cancers. New markers increase the specificity of PSA and also allow targeting suspected aggressive cancers. Multiparametric magnetic resonance (mMRI) has emerged as the most effective method in the selection of patients for biopsy and also for local tumor staging. The paradigm of random prostatic biopsy is changing through the fusion techniques that allow guiding ultrasonography-driven biopsy of suspicious areas detected in mMRI. Radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiotherapy (RT) are curative treatments of localized PC and both have experienced significant technological improvements. RP is highly effective and the incorporation of robotic surgery is reducing morbidity. Modern RT allows the possibility of high tumor dose with minimal adjacent dose reducing its toxicity. Androgen deprivation therapy with LHRH analogues remains the treatment of choice for advanced PC, but should be limited to this indication. The loss of bone mass and adverse metabolic effects increases the frequency of fractures and cardiovascular morbimortality. After castration resistance in metastatic disease, new hormone-based drugs have demonstrated efficacy even after chemotherapy resistance. PMID:25727526

  3. Exploratorium: Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  4. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... computer station and directs the movements of a robot. Small surgical tools are attached to the robot's ...

  5. Androgens and prostate disease

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lori A; Page, Stephanie T

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has established the anabolic benefits of testosterone (T) therapy in hypogonadal men. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding the risks of exogenous androgen use in older men and the potential for adverse effects on the prostate gland. Whether T therapy in older, hypogonadal men might worsen lower urinary tract symptoms or exacerbate, unmask, or even incite prostate cancer development has tempered enthusiasm for T therapy, while known prostatic disease has served as a relative contraindication to T therapy. Androgens are necessary for the development and maintenance of the prostate gland. However, epidemiologic studies do not consistently find a positive relationship between endogenous serum androgen concentrations and the risk of prostate disease. Recent data demonstrate that 5α-reductase inhibitors decrease the risk of low-grade prostate cancer, suggesting that modifying androgen metabolism may have beneficial effects on prostate health, yet similar reductions in high-grade disease have not been observed, thereby questioning the true clinical benefits of these agents for chemoprevention. Knowing how to best investigate the relationship between androgens and the development of prostate disease given the lack of large, randomized trials is difficult. Accumulating data challenges the assumption that alterations in serum androgens have parallel effects within the prostate hormonal environment or change androgen-regulated processes within the gland. Long-term intervention studies are needed to truly ascertain the effects of androgen manipulation on prostate tissue and disease risk. However, available data do not support the notion that restoring serum androgens to normal physiologic ranges drives prostate disease. PMID:24407178

  6. SU-E-J-150: Impact of Intrafractional Prostate Motion On the Accuracy and Efficiency of Prostate SBRT Delivery: A Retrospective Analysis of Prostate Tracking Log Files

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, H; Hirsch, A; Willins, J; Kachnic, J; Qureshi, M; Katz, M; Nicholas, B; Keohan, S; De Armas, R; Lu, H; Efstathiou, J; Zietman, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To measure intrafractional prostate motion by time-based stereotactic x-ray imaging and investigate the impact on the accuracy and efficiency of prostate SBRT delivery. Methods: Prostate tracking log files with 1,892 x-ray image registrations from 18 SBRT fractions for 6 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Patient setup and beam delivery sessions were reviewed to identify extended periods of large prostate motion that caused delays in setup or interruptions in beam delivery. The 6D prostate motions were compared to the clinically used PTV margin of 3–5 mm (3 mm posterior, 5 mm all other directions), a hypothetical PTV margin of 2–3 mm (2 mm posterior, 3 mm all other directions), and the rotation correction limits (roll ±2°, pitch ±5° and yaw ±3°) of CyberKnife to quantify beam delivery accuracy. Results: Significant incidents of treatment start delay and beam delivery interruption were observed, mostly related to large pitch rotations of ≥±5°. Optimal setup time of 5–15 minutes was recorded in 61% of the fractions, and optimal beam delivery time of 30–40 minutes in 67% of the fractions. At a default imaging interval of 15 seconds, the percentage of prostate motion beyond PTV margin of 3–5 mm varied among patients, with a mean at 12.8% (range 0.0%–31.1%); and the percentage beyond PTV margin of 2–3 mm was at a mean of 36.0% (range 3.3%–83.1%). These timely detected offsets were all corrected real-time by the robotic manipulator or by operator intervention at the time of treatment interruptions. Conclusion: The durations of patient setup and beam delivery were directly affected by the occurrence of large prostate motion. Frequent imaging of down to 15 second interval is necessary for certain patients. Techniques for reducing prostate motion, such as using endorectal balloon, can be considered to assure consistently higher accuracy and efficiency of prostate SBRT delivery.

  7. Newer concepts in neural anatomy and neurovascular preservation in robotic radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pisipati, Sailaja; Ali, Adnan; Mandalapu, Rao S.; Haines III, George K.; Singhal, Paras; Reddy, Balaji N.; Leung, Robert; Tewari, Ashutosh K.

    2014-01-01

    With more than 60% of radical prostatectomies being performed robotically, robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) has largely replaced the open and laparoscopic approaches and has become the standard of care surgical treatment option for localized prostate cancer in the United States. Accomplishing negative surgical margins while preserving functional outcomes of sexual function and continence play a significant role in determining the success of surgical intervention, particularly since the advent of nerve-sparing (NS) robotic prostatectomy. Recent evidence suggests that NS surgery improves continence in addition to sexual function. In this review, we describe the neuroanatomical concepts and recent developments in the NS technique of RALP with a view to improving the “trifecta” outcomes. PMID:25378822

  8. Prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000380.htm Prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. ...

  9. Prostate brachytherapy

    MedlinePlus

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... CT scan to plan and then place the seeds that deliver radiation into your prostate. The seeds ...

  10. Prostatitis - bacterial

    MedlinePlus

    ... or tender scrotum The provider may perform a digital rectal exam to examine your prostate. During this ... samples may be collected for urinalysis and urine culture . Prostatitis may affect the results of the prostate- ...

  11. Enlarged prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you should still take it. SURGERY Prostate surgery may be recommended if you have: Incontinence Recurrent ... of your prostate gland. Most men who have prostate surgery have improvement in urine flow rates and symptoms. ...

  12. The Prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Prostate Cancer This booklet is about prostate cancer. Learning about ...

  13. Enlarged prostate

    MedlinePlus

    BPH; Benign prostatic hyperplasia (hypertrophy); Prostate - enlarged ... The actual cause of prostate enlargement is unknown. Factors linked to aging and changes in the cells of the testicles may have a role in the growth ...

  14. Robotic technology in cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Johannes; Vetrovec, George; Riga, Celia; Wazni, Oussama; Stadler, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Robotic technology has been used in cardiovascular medicine since the late 1990s. Interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, endovascular surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and laparoscopic vascular surgery are all fields of application. Robotic devices enable endoscopic reconstructive surgery in narrow spaces and fast, very precise placement of catheters and devices in catheter-based interventions. In all robotic systems, the operator manipulates the robotic arms from a control station or console. In the field of cardiac surgery, mitral valve repair, CABG surgery, atrial septal defect repair, and myxoma resection can be achieved using robotic technology. Furthermore, vascular surgeons can perform a variety of robotically assisted operations to treat aortic, visceral, and peripheral artery disease. In electrophysiology, ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation can be carried out with robotic support. In the past few years, robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention and abdominal aortic endovascular surgery techniques have been developed. The basic feasibility and safety of robotic approaches in cardiovascular medicine has been demonstrated, but learning curves and the high costs associated with this technology have limited its widespread use. Nonetheless, increased procedural speed, accuracy, and reduced exposure to radiation and contrast agent in robotically assisted catheter-based interventions, as well as reduced surgical trauma and shortened patient recovery times after robotic cardiovascular surgery are promising achievements in the field. PMID:24663088

  15. Prostatosymphyseal Fistula Treated by Robotic Assisted Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Lucy; Mullarkey, Emma; Woo, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    This case report documents a rare complication of prostate resection following a Greenlight laser procedure. The 75-year-old gentleman involved underwent photoselective vaporisation of the prostate (PVP) for clinically benign prostatic obstruction. Subsequent to PVP, the patient experienced recurrent macroscopic haematuria and pubic pain. Investigations confirmed the presence of a prostate-symphyseal fistula, a rare complication of PVP. We believe this to be the first reported case of successful treatment with robotic assisted radical prostatectomy. PMID:26576316

  16. Industrial robots and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Kafrissen, S.; Stephens, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the study of robotics. It provides information of hardware, software, applications and economics. Eleven chapters examine the following: Minicomputers, Microcomputers, and Microprocessors; The Servo-Control System; The Activators; Robot Vision Systems; and Robot Workcell Environments. Twelve appendices supplement the data.

  17. [Have Case Loads of Radical Surgery for Prostate Cancer Been Concentrated in Hospitals with Robotic Equipment ?--Analyses with Questionnaire Survey and Diagnostic Procedure Combination (DPC) Data].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Taiji; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether installation of robot-assisted surgical equipment in hospitals resulted in concentration of the case loads of radical prostatectomy. We selected 11 areas with populations of around 1 million or more where there were one or more hospitals with robotic equipment and 4 or more without it. In addition, annual changes of case loads for prostatectomy over 4 years from 2010 to 2013 were clearly determined in these areas. The case loads were determined based on the results of a questionnaire survey for the hospitals with robots and on the Diagnostic Procedures Combination data provided by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Wealth for those without such equipment. The concentration of the case loads was principally defined as when hospitals with robots had more predominant proportion of cases than those without them in the comparison between case loads prior to instillation of robots (or in the initial year of the study) and those in the final years. The 11 selected areas included 44 hospitals with robots and 156 without them. Concentration of case loads was found in 5 areas. In 4 areas, installation of robots did not have a specific relation to the distribution pattern s of case loads in hospitals with or without the equipment. The remaining 2 areas tended to have a weak but not definite concentration of case loads. In the areas in which installation did not influence case loads the further analysis revealed that their case loads had already been concentrated in the initial year (2010) of the study. Although the current results were found in a single department of the hospital, robotic installation may result in concentration of prostatectomy case loads for such hospitals in some areas. The current results are intriguing when we consider the future roles of acute care hospitals and beds in our country where the number of aged patients having chronic diseases will increase. In conclusion, installation of robotic equipment may result in concentration

  18. Progression of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer: impact of therapeutic intervention in the post-docetaxel space

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Despite the proven success of hormonal therapy for prostate cancer using chemical or surgical castration, most patients eventually will progress to a phase of the disease that is metastatic and shows resistance to further hormonal manipulation. This has been termed metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Despite this designation, however, there is evidence that androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling and gene expression can persist in mCRPC, even in the face of castrate levels of androgen. This may be due in part to the upregulation of enzymes involved in androgen synthesis, the overexpression of AR, or the emergence of mutant ARs with promiscuous recognition of various steroidal ligands. The therapeutic options were limited and palliative in nature until trials in 2004 demonstrated that docetaxel chemotherapy could significantly improve survival. These results established first-line docetaxel as the standard of care for mCRPC. After resistance to further docetaxel therapy develops, treatment options were once again limited. Recently reported results from phase 3 trials have shown that additional therapy with the novel taxane cabazitaxel (with prednisone), or treatment with the antiandrogen abiraterone (with prednisone) could improve survival for patients with mCRPC following docetaxel therapy. Compared with mitoxantrone/prednisone, cabazitaxel/prednisone significantly improved overall survival, with a 30% reduction in rate of death, in patients with progression of mCRPC after docetaxel therapy in the TROPIC trial. Similarly, abiraterone acetate (an inhibitor of androgen biosynthesis) plus prednisone significantly decreased the rate of death by 35% compared with placebo plus prednisone in mCRPC patients progressing after prior docetaxel therapy in the COU-AA-301 trial. Results of these trials have thus established two additional treatment options for mCRPC patients in the "post-docetaxel space." In view of the continued AR-mediated signaling on m

  19. In-vivo measurement of surgical needle intervention parameters: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Podder, T K; Sherman, J; Fuller, D; Messing, E M; Rubens, D J; Strang, J G; Brasacchio, R A; Yu, Y

    2006-01-01

    Percutaneous intervention is essential in numerous medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In these procedures, accurate insertion of the surgical needle is very important. But precise interstitial intervention is quite challenging. Robot-assisted needle intervention can significantly improve accuracy and consistency of various medical procedures. To design and control any robotic system, the design and control engineers must know the forces that will be encountered by the system and the motion trajectories that the needling mechanism will have to follow. Several researchers have reported needle insertion forces encountered while steering through soft tissue and soft material phantoms, but hardly any in-vivo force measurement data is available in the literature. In this paper, we present needle insertion forces and motion trajectories measured during actual brachytherapy needle insertion while implanting radioactive seeds in the prostate glands of twenty five patients. PMID:17946194

  20. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... Robotic surgery is similar to laparoscopic surgery. It can be performed through smaller cuts than open surgery. ...

  1. The relevance of the procedures related to the physiotherapy in the interventions in patients with prostate cancer: short review with practice approach.

    PubMed

    Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Barbosa Júnior, Mauro Luis; da Cunha Sá-Caputo, Danúbia; de Aguiar, Eliane de Oliveira Guedes; de Lima, Rafaelle Pacheco Carvalho; Santos-Filho, Sebastião David; de Paoli, Severo; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; de Oliveira Bravo Monteiro, Milena; Tavares, Angela

    2014-06-01

    Advances in medical science procedures and their utilization in the field of oncology improved the survival of patients. In consequence, these advances have influenced the practice of physiotherapy. Physiotherapists utilize physical agents with the objective to enhance the health, welfare and quality of life and thus they can play important role in the management and rehabilitation of patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED) are effects normally associated with the radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy due to the damage of the muscles of the pelvic floor (MPV). The aim of this work is to present findings related to the PCa and how the physiotherapist can guide the patient in relation to the knowledge and understanding of the anatomic structures related directly with the pelvic floor, the correct breathing and the perception of the MPV, as other muscles of the pelvis. Interventions of the physiotherapy will re-train the muscles of the pelvis by improving the active retention strength of the MPV in order to overcome the insufficiency (mainly the UI and ED) of the injured muscles. In conclusion, it is suggested to consider and to offer to the PCa patients the techniques related to the physiotherapy before and after the treatment. PMID:25018676

  2. The Relevance of the Procedures Related to the Physiotherapy in the Interventions in Patients with Prostate Cancer: Short Review with Practice Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Barbosa Júnior, Mauro Luis; da Cunha Sá-Caputo, Danúbia; de Aguiar, Eliane de Oliveira Guedes; de Lima, Rafaelle Pacheco Carvalho; Santos-Filho, Sebastião David; de Paoli, Severo; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; de Oliveira Bravo Monteiro, Milena; Tavares, Ângela

    2014-01-01

    Advances in medical science procedures and their utilization in the field of oncology improved the survival of patients. In consequence, these advances have influenced the practice of physiotherapy. Physiotherapists utilize physical agents with the objective to enhance the health, welfare and quality of life and thus they can play important role in the management and rehabilitation of patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED) are effects normally associated with the radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy due to the damage of the muscles of the pelvic floor (MPV). The aim of this work is to present findings related to the PCa and how the physiotherapist can guide the patient in relation to the knowledge and understanding of the anatomic structures related directly with the pelvic floor, the correct breathing and the perception of the MPV, as other muscles of the pelvis. Interventions of the physiotherapy will re-train the muscles of the pelvis by improving the active retention strength of the MPV in order to overcome the insufficiency (mainly the UI and ED) of the injured muscles. In conclusion, it is suggested to consider and to offer to the PCa patients the techniques related to the physiotherapy before and after the treatment. PMID:25018676

  3. Prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  4. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Csorba, Roland

    2012-06-24

    Minimally invasive surgery has revolutionized gynecological interventions over the past 30 years. The introduction of the da Vinci robotic surgery in 2005 has resulted in large changes in surgical management. The robotic platform allows less experienced laparoscopic surgeons to perform more complex procedures. It can be utilized mainly in general gynecology and reproductive gynecology. The robot is being increasingly used for procedures such as hysterectomy, myomectomy, adnexal surgery, and tubal anastomosis. In urogynecology, the robot is being utilized for sacrocolopexy as well. In the field of gynecologic oncology, the robot is being increasingly used for hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy in oncologic diseases. Despite the rapid and widespread adaption of robotic surgery in gynecology, there are no randomized trials comparing its efficacy and safety to other traditional surgical approaches. This article presents the development, technical aspects and indications of robotic surgery in gynecology, based on the previously published reviews. Robotic surgery can be highly advantageous with the right amount of training, along with appropriate patient selection. Patients will have less blood loss, less post-operative pain, faster recovery, and fewer complications compared to open surgery and laparoscopy. However, until larger randomized control trials are completed which report long-term outcomes, robotic surgery cannot be stated to have priority over other surgical methods. PMID:22714030

  5. A pilot randomised controlled trial of personalised care after treatment for prostate cancer (TOPCAT-P): nurse-led holistic-needs assessment and individualised psychoeducational intervention: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Stanciu, Marian Andrei; Morris, Caroline; Makin, Matt; Watson, Eila; Bulger, Jenna; Evans, Richard; Hiscock, Julia; Hoare, Zoë; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Neal, Richard David; Wilkinson, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prostate cancer is common and the incidence is increasing, but more men are living longer after diagnosis, and die with their disease rather than of it. Nonetheless, specific and substantial physical, sexual, emotional and mental health problems often lead to a poor quality of life. Urology services increasingly struggle to cope with the demands of follow-up care, and primary care is likely to play the central role in long-term follow-up. The present phase II trial will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a nurse-led, person-centred psychoeducational intervention, delivered in community or primary care settings. Methods and analysis Prostate cancer survivors diagnosed in the past 9–48 months and currently biochemically stable will be identified from hospital records by their treating clinician. Eligible men would have either completed radical treatment, or would be followed up with prostate specific antigen monitoring and symptom reporting. We will recruit 120 patients who will be randomised to receive either an augmented form of usual care, or an additional nurse-led intervention for a period of 36 weeks. Following the health policy in Wales, the intervention is offered by a key worker, is promoting prudent healthcare and is using a holistic needs assessment. Outcome measures will assess physical symptoms, psychological well-being, confidence in managing own health and quality of life. Healthcare service use will be measured over 36 weeks. Feedback interviews with patients and clinicians will further inform the acceptability of the intervention. Recruitment, attrition, questionnaire completion rates and outcome measures variability will be assessed, and results will inform the design of a future phase III trial and accompanying economic evaluation. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was granted by Bangor University and North Wales REC (13/WA/0291). Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, at scientific

  6. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Mukesh; Patel, Payal; Verma, Mudit

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person's genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed. PMID:24213111

  7. Robot and robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E. (Inventor); Marzwell, Neville I. (Inventor); Wall, Jonathan N. (Inventor); Poole, Michael D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A robot and robot system that are capable of functioning in a zero-gravity environment are provided. The robot can include a body having a longitudinal axis and having a control unit and a power source. The robot can include a first leg pair including a first leg and a second leg. Each leg of the first leg pair can be pivotally attached to the body and constrained to pivot in a first leg pair plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body.

  8. Single-institution comparative study on the outcomes of salvage cryotherapy versus salvage robotic prostatectomy for radio-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Anup; Agarwal, Vidhi; Singh, Prabhjot; Patel, Rupen; Rivas, Rodolfo; Nething, Josh; Muruve, Nic

    2015-01-01

    Background Although primary treatment of localized prostate cancer provides excellent oncologic control, some men who chose radiotherapy experience a recurrence of disease. There is no consensus on the most appropriate management of these patients after radiotherapy failure. In this single-institution review, we compare our oncologic outcome and toxicity between salvage prostatectomy and cryotherapy treatments. Methods From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 23 salvage procedures were performed. Six of those patients underwent salvage prostatectomy while 17 underwent salvage cryotherapy by two high-volume fellowship-trained urologists. Patients being considered for salvage therapy had localized disease at presentation, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 10 ng/mL at recurrence, life expectancy > 10 years at recurrence, and a negative metastatic workup. Patients were followed to observe cancer progression and toxicity of treatment. Results Patients who underwent salvage cryotherapy were statistically older with a higher incidence of hypertension than our salvage prostatectomy cohort. With a mean follow up of 14.1 months and 7.2 months, the incidence of disease progression was 23.5% and 16.7% after salvage cryotherapy and prostatectomy, respectively. The overall complication rate was also 23.5% versus 16.7%, with the most frequent complication after salvage cryotherapy being urethral stricture and after salvage prostatectomy being severe urinary incontinence. There were no rectal injuries with salvage prostatectomy and one rectourethral fistula in the cohort after salvage cryotherapy. Conclusion While recurrences from primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer do occur, there is no consensus on its management. In our experience, salvage procedures were generally safe and effective. Both salvage cryotherapy and salvage prostatectomy allow for adequate cancer control with minimal toxicity. PMID:27014657

  9. Prostate brachytherapy

    MedlinePlus

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... radiation safety precautions. If you have a permanent implant, your provider may tell you to limit the ...

  10. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  11. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Aliotta PJ, Fowler GC. Prostate and seminal vesicle ultrasonography and biopsy. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. ... 1/2015. Trabulsi EJ, Halpern EJ, Gomella LG. Ultrasonography and biopsy of the prostate. In: Wein AJ, ...

  12. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... men younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  13. An MR-conditional high-torque pneumatic stepper motor for MRI-guided and robot-assisted intervention.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging allows for visualizing detailed pathological and morphological changes of soft tissue. MR-conditional actuations have been widely investigated for development of image-guided and robot-assisted surgical devices under the Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This paper presents a simple design of MR-conditional stepper motor which can provide precise and high-torque actuation without adversely affecting the MR image quality. This stepper motor consists of two MR-conditional pneumatic cylinders and the corresponding supporting structures. Alternating the pressurized air can drive the motor to rotate each step in 3.6° with the motor coupled to a planetary gearbox. Experimental studies were conducted to validate its dynamics performance. Maximum 800 mN m output torque is achieved. The motor accuracy independently varied by two factors: motor operating speed and step size, was also investigated. The motor was tested within a 3T Siemens MRI scanner (MAGNETOM Skyra, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) and a 3T GE MRI scanner (GE SignaHDx, GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA). The image artifact and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were evaluated for study of its MRI compliancy. The results show that the presented pneumatic stepper motor generated 2.35% SNR reduction in MR images. No observable artifact was presented besides the motor body itself. The proposed motor test also demonstrates a standard to evaluate the pneumatic motor capability for later incorporation with motorized devices used under MRI. PMID:24957635

  14. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Castillejos-Molina, Ricardo Alonso; Gabilondo-Navarro, Fernando Bernardo

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent tumor found in men worldwide and in Mexico in particular. Age and family history are the main risk factors. The diagnosis is made by prostate biopsy in patients with abnormalities detected in their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels or digital rectal exam (DRE). This article reviews screening and diagnostic methods as well as treatment options for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. PMID:27557386

  15. Stokes polarimetry imaging of dog prostate tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; Johnston, William K., III; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States in 2009. Radical prostatectomy (complete removal of the prostate) is the most common treatment for prostate cancer, however, differentiating prostate tissue from adjacent bladder, nerves, and muscle is difficult. Improved visualization could improve oncologic outcomes and decrease damage to adjacent nerves and muscle important for preservation of potency and continence. A novel Stokes polarimetry imaging (SPI) system was developed and evaluated using a dog prostate specimen in order to examine the feasibility of the system to differentiate prostate from bladder. The degree of linear polarization (DOLP) image maps from linearly polarized light illumination at different visible wavelengths (475, 510, and 650 nm) were constructed. The SPI system used the polarization property of the prostate tissue. The DOLP images allowed advanced differentiation by distinguishing glandular tissue of prostate from the muscular-stromal tissue in the bladder. The DOLP image at 650 nm effectively differentiated prostate and bladder by strong DOLP in bladder. SPI system has the potential to improve surgical outcomes in open or robotic-assisted laparoscopic removal of the prostate. Further in vivo testing is warranted.

  16. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine away from ... and out of the body. A young man's prostate is about the size of a walnut. It ...

  17. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... robotic prostatectomy, which is probably the standard of care today for prostate cancer. This is our eighth ... years ago, and we sometimes have to take care of it surgically. Again, for those viewers that ...

  18. Chronic prostatitis: management strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Adam B; Macejko, Amanda; Taylor, Aisha; Nadler, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    Meares-Stamey 4 glass test, would identify the prostate as the source for a urinary tract infection in chronic bacterial prostatitis. If there is no infection, then the patient is likely to have CP/CPPS. For healthcare providers, the focus of therapy is symptomatic relief. The first therapeutic measure is often a 4- to 6-week course of a fluoroquinolone, which provides relief in 50% of men and is more efficacious if prescribed soon after symptoms begin. Second-line pharmacotherapy involves anti-inflammatory agents for pain symptoms and alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) for urinary symptoms. Potentially more effective is pelvic floor training/biofeedback, but randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this. Third-line agents include 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, glycosaminoglycans, quercetin, cernilton (CN-009) and saw palmetto. For treatment refractory patients, surgical interventions can be offered. Transurethral microwave therapy to ablate prostatic tissue has shown some promise. The treatment algorithm provided in this review involves a 4- to 6-week course of antibacterials, which may be repeated if the initial course provides relief. Pain and urinary symptoms can be ameliorated with anti-inflammatories and alpha-blockers. If the relief is not significant, then patients should be referred for biofeedback. Minimally invasive surgical options should be reserved for treatment-refractory patients. PMID:19192937

  19. What is Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Key statistics for prostate cancer What is prostate cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... through the center of the prostate. Types of prostate cancer Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas . These cancers ...

  20. Investigating the clinical advantages of a robotic linac equipped with a multileaf collimator in the treatment of brain and prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Christopher M; Gottschalk, Alexander R; Lessard, Etienne; Nakamura, Jean L; Pinnaduwage, Dilini; Pouliot, Jean; Sims, Colin; Descovich, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a commercially avail-able CyberKnife system with a multileaf collimator (CK-MLC) for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and standard fractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) applications. Ten prostate and ten intracranial cases were planned for the CK-MLC. Half of these cases were compared with clinically approved SBRT plans generated for the CyberKnife with circular collimators, and the other half were compared with clinically approved standard fractionated IMRT plans generated for conventional linacs. The plans were compared on target coverage, conformity, homogeneity, dose to organs at risk (OAR), low dose to the surrounding tissue, total monitor units (MU), and treatment time. CK-MLC plans generated for the SBRT cases achieved more homogeneous dose to the target than the CK plans with the circular collimators, for equivalent coverage, conformity, and dose to OARs. Total monitor units were reduced by 40% to 70% and treatment time was reduced by half. The CK-MLC plans generated for the standard fractionated cases achieved prescription isodose lines between 86% and 93%, which was 2%-3% below the plans generated for conventional linacs. Compared to standard IMRT plans, the total MU were up to three times greater for the prostate (whole pelvis) plans and up to 1.4 times greater for the intracranial plans. Average treatment time was 25min for the whole pelvis plans and 19 min for the intracranial cases. The CK-MLC system provides significant improvements in treatment time and target homogeneity compared to the CK system with circular collimators, while main-taining high conformity and dose sparing to critical organs. Standard fractionated plans for large target volumes (> 100 cm3) were generated that achieved high prescription isodose levels. The CK-MLC system provides more efficient SRS and SBRT treatments and, in select clinical cases, might be a potential alternative for standard

  1. Reach Out to Enhance Wellness in Older Cancer Survivors (RENEW): Design, Methods and Recruitment Challenges of a Home-based Exercise and Diet Intervention to Improve Physical Function among Long-term Survivors of Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Denise Clutter; Morey, Miriam C.; Sloane, Richard; Stull, Valeda; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Peterson, Bercedis; Pieper, Carl; Hartman, Terryl J.; Miller, Paige E.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Objective Cure rates for cancer are increasing, especially for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Despite positive trends in survivorship, a cancer diagnosis can trigger accelerated functional decline that can threaten independence, reduce quality-of-life and increase health care costs, especially among the elderly who comprise the majority of survivors. Lifestyle interventions may hold promise in reorienting functional decline in older cancer survivors, but few studies have been conducted. Method We describe the design and methods of a randomized controlled trial, RENEW (Reach out to ENhancE Wellness), that tests whether a home-based multi-behavior intervention focused on exercise, and including a low-saturated fat, plant-based diet, would improve physical functioning among 641 older, long-term (≥5 years post-diagnosis) survivors of breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer. Challenges to recruitment are examined. Results 20,015 cases were approached, and screened using a two-step screening process to assure eligibility. This population of long-term, elderly cancer survivors had lower rates of response (∼11%) and higher rates of ineligibility (∼70%) than our previous intervention studies conducted on adults with newly diagnosed cancer. Significantly higher response rates were noted among survivors who were white, younger, and more proximal to diagnosis and breast cancer survivors (p-values < 0.001). Conclusions Older cancer survivors represent a vulnerable population for whom lifestyle interventions may hold promise. RENEW may provide guidance in allocating limited resources in order to maximize recruitment efforts aimed at this needy, but hard-to-reach population. PMID:19117329

  2. ARIES NDA Robot operators` manual

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, N.L.; Nelson, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    The ARIES NDA Robot is an automation device for servicing the material movements for a suite of Non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. This suite of instruments includes a calorimeter, a gamma isotopic system, a segmented gamma scanner (SGS), and a neutron coincidence counter (NCC). Objects moved by the robot include sample cans, standard cans, and instrument plugs. The robot computer has an RS-232 connection with the NDA Host computer, which coordinates robot movements and instrument measurements. The instruments are expected to perform measurements under the direction of the Host without operator intervention. This user`s manual describes system startup, using the main menu, manual operation, and error recovery.

  3. Prostate Cancer for the Internist

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Shikha; Sarmad, Rehan; Arora, Sumant; Dasaraju, Radhikha; Sarmad, Komal

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 240,000 men are diagnosed annually with prostate cancer. Although effective treatment options are available for clinically localized cancer, the potential burdensome co-morbidities and attendant healthcare costs from over diagnosis and over treatment have escalated the discussion and controversy regarding appropriate screening, diagnosis, and optimal management of prostate cancer. Although the lifetime risk of developing prostate cancer is approximately 1 in 6 (~16%), the risk of dying from the disease is only ~2%. The discrepancy between the cancer incidence and lethality has led to widespread scrutiny of prostate cancer patient management, particularly for low-grade, low-stage (indolent) disease. The vast majority of men diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer are treated with interventional therapies despite studies demonstrating that even without treatment, prostate cancer-specific mortality is low. A MedLine/PubMed search was performed using PICO format (Patient, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome) identifying all relevant articles. No restrictions were used for publication dates. The terms “Prostate Cancer”, “Screening”, “Mortality”, “Morbidity” yielded 307 results. “Diagnosis”, “Prognosis” and “Survival” yielded 1504 results. Further filters were applied to narrow down the results using keywords “Prostate cancer screening guidelines 2014”, “Beyond PSA”, “NCCN Guidelines prostate”, “MRI guided Prostate biopsy” yielding 72, 274, 54 and 568 results respectively. Of these, approximately 137 articles were found relevant and were reviewed. References from the reviewed articles were included in the final article. PMID:26713287

  4. Interactive autonomy and robotic skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellner, A.; Maediger, B.

    1994-01-01

    Current concepts of robot-supported operations for space laboratories (payload servicing, inspection, repair, and ORU exchange) are mainly based on the concept of 'interactive autonomy' which implies autonomous behavior of the robot according to predefined timelines, predefined sequences of elementary robot operations and within predefined world models supplying geometrical and other information for parameter instantiation on the one hand, and the ability to override and change the predefined course of activities by human intervention on the other hand. Although in principle a very powerful and useful concept, in practice the confinement of the robot to the abstract world models and predefined activities appears to reduce the robot's stability within real world uncertainties and its applicability to non-predefined parts of the world, calling for frequent corrective interaction by the operator, which in itself may be tedious and time-consuming. Methods are presented to improve this situation by incorporating 'robotic skills' into the concept of interactive autonomy.

  5. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Attard, Gerhardt; Parker, Chris; Eeles, Ros A; Schröder, Fritz; Tomlins, Scott A; Tannock, Ian; Drake, Charles G; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-01-01

    Much progress has been made in research for prostate cancer in the past decade. There is now greater understanding for the genetic basis of familial prostate cancer with identification of rare but high-risk mutations (eg, BRCA2, HOXB13) and low-risk but common alleles (77 identified so far by genome-wide association studies) that could lead to targeted screening of patients at risk. This is especially important because screening for prostate cancer based on prostate-specific antigen remains controversial due to the high rate of overdiagnosis and unnecessary prostate biopsies, despite evidence that it reduces mortality. Classification of prostate cancer into distinct molecular subtypes, including mutually exclusive ETS-gene-fusion-positive and SPINK1-overexpressing, CHD1-loss cancers, could allow stratification of patients for different management strategies. Presently, men with localised disease can have very different prognoses and treatment options, ranging from observation alone through to radical surgery, with few good-quality randomised trials to inform on the best approach for an individual patient. The survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer progressing on androgen-deprivation therapy (castration-resistant prostate cancer) has improved substantially. In addition to docetaxel, which has been used for more than a decade, in the past 4 years five new drugs have shown efficacy with improvements in overall survival leading to licensing for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Because of this rapid change in the therapeutic landscape, no robust data exist to inform on the selection of patients for a specific treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer or the best sequence of administration. Moreover, the high cost of the newer drugs limits their widespread use in several countries. Data from continuing clinical and translational research are urgently needed to improve, and, crucially, to personalise management. PMID

  6. Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco C.; Antunes, Alberto A.

    2013-12-15

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results.

  7. CASSY Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Anna; Wright, Ann; Rice, Aaron; Shyaka, Claude

    2014-03-01

    The CASSY Robot project involved two square robots coded in RobotC. The goal was to code a robot to do a certain set of tasks autonomously. To begin with, our task was to code the robot so that it would roam a certain area, marked off by black tape. When the robot hit the black tape, it knew to back up and turn around. It was able to do this thanks to the light sensor that was attached to the bottom of the robot. Also, whenever the robot hit an obstacle, it knew to stop, back up, and turn around. This was primarily to prevent the robot from hurting itself if it hit an obstacle. This was accomplished by using touch sensors set up as bumpers. Once that was accomplished, we attached sonar sensors and created code so that one robot was able to find and track the other robot in a sort of intruder/police scenario. The overall goal of this project was to code the robot so that we can test it against a robot coded exactly the same, but using Layered Mode Selection Logic. Professor.

  8. The Effects of Rhythm and Robotic Interventions on the Imitation/Praxis, Interpersonal Synchrony, and Motor Performance of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Kaur, Maninderjit; Park, Isabel K.; Gifford, Timothy D.; Marsh, Kerry L.; Bhat, Anjana N.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of three interventions, rhythm, robotic, and standard-of-care, on the imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and overall motor performance of 36 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) between 5 and 12 years of age. Children were matched on age, level of functioning, and services received, prior to random assignment to one of the three groups. Training was provided for 8 weeks with 4 sessions provided each week. We assessed generalized changes in motor skills from the pretest to the posttest using a standardized test of motor performance, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, 2nd edition (BOT-2). We also assessed training-specific changes in imitation/praxis and interpersonal synchrony during an early and a late session. Consistent with the training activities practiced, the rhythm and robot groups improved on the body coordination composite of the BOT-2, whereas the comparison group improved on the fine manual control composite of the BOT-2. All three groups demonstrated improvements in imitation/praxis. The rhythm and robot groups also showed improved interpersonal synchrony performance from the early to the late session. Overall, socially embedded movement-based contexts are valuable in promoting imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and motor performance and should be included within the standard-of-care treatment for children with ASD. PMID:26793394

  9. The Effects of Rhythm and Robotic Interventions on the Imitation/Praxis, Interpersonal Synchrony, and Motor Performance of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sudha M; Kaur, Maninderjit; Park, Isabel K; Gifford, Timothy D; Marsh, Kerry L; Bhat, Anjana N

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of three interventions, rhythm, robotic, and standard-of-care, on the imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and overall motor performance of 36 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) between 5 and 12 years of age. Children were matched on age, level of functioning, and services received, prior to random assignment to one of the three groups. Training was provided for 8 weeks with 4 sessions provided each week. We assessed generalized changes in motor skills from the pretest to the posttest using a standardized test of motor performance, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, 2nd edition (BOT-2). We also assessed training-specific changes in imitation/praxis and interpersonal synchrony during an early and a late session. Consistent with the training activities practiced, the rhythm and robot groups improved on the body coordination composite of the BOT-2, whereas the comparison group improved on the fine manual control composite of the BOT-2. All three groups demonstrated improvements in imitation/praxis. The rhythm and robot groups also showed improved interpersonal synchrony performance from the early to the late session. Overall, socially embedded movement-based contexts are valuable in promoting imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and motor performance and should be included within the standard-of-care treatment for children with ASD. PMID:26793394

  10. Human-robot coordination using scripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Laura E.; Murphy, Robin R.; Craighead, Jeffrey D.

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes an extension of scripts, which have been used to control sequences of robot behavior, to facilitate human-robot coordination. The script mechanism permits the human to both conduct expected, complementary activities with the robot and to intervene opportunistically taking direct control. Scripts address the six major issues associated with human-robot coordination. They allow the human to visualize the robot's mental model of the situation and build a better overall understanding of the situation and what level of autonomy or intervention is needed. It also maintains synchronization of the world and robot models so that control can be seamlessly transferred between human and robot while eliminating "coordination surprise". The extended script mechanism and its implementation in Java on an Inuktun micro-VGTV robot for the technical search task in urban search and rescue is described.

  11. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  12. Basic Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Frank

    This curriculum outline consists of instructional materials and information concerning resources for use in teaching a course in robotics. Addressed in the individual sections of the outline are the following topics: the nature of an industrial robot; the parts of an industrial robot (the manipulator, the power structure, and the control system);…

  13. Robotics in uro-oncologic surgery

    PubMed Central

    De Lorenzis, Elisa; Palumbo, Carlotta; Cozzi, Gabriele; Talso, Michele; Rosso, Marco; Costa, Beatrice; Gadda, Franco; Rocco, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    In urology, the main use for the robotic technique has been in radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Robotic surgery for other organs, such as the kidneys and bladder, has been less explored. However, partial nephrectomy or radical nephroureterectomy can be difficult for inexperienced laparoscopic surgeons. The advent of the da Vinci robot, with multijointed endowristed instruments and stereoscopic vision, decreases the technical difficulty of intracorporeal suturing and improves the reconstructive steps. The objective of this article is to offer an overview of all robotic procedures recently developed in the field of urology. We evaluate the feasibility of these procedures and their potential advantages and disadvantages. We also describe perioperative, postoperative, and oncologic outcomes of robot-assisted surgery as well as perform a comparison with open and laparoscopic techniques. Comparative data and an adequate follow-up are needed to demonstrate equivalent oncologic outcomes in comparison with traditional open or laparoscopic procedures. PMID:24101943

  14. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  15. Prostate Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... F Race . Prostate cancer is most common among African-American men. F Family History . If your father or ... Healthcare Research and Quality Publications Clearinghouse P.O. Box 8547 Silver Spring, MD 20907-8547 1-800- ...

  16. Prostate Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk. Race . Prostate cancer is most common among African-American men. Family history . If your father or brother ... Healthcare Research and Quality Publications Clearinghouse P.O. Box 8547 Silver Spring, MD 20907-8547 1-800- ...

  17. Prostatitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... bladder, such as alcohol, caffeinated foods and drinks, citrus juices, and hot or spicy foods. Drink more ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prostate Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  18. Prostatitis - nonbacterial

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower urinary tract Parasites Pelvic floor muscle problem Sexual abuse Viruses Life stresses and emotional factors may play a part in the problem. Most men with chronic prostatitis have the nonbacterial form.

  19. Advances in Robotic-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy over Time

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Emma F. P.; Boris, Ronald; Masterson, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP), robotics has become increasingly more commonplace in the armamentarium of the urologic surgeon. Robotic utilization has exploded across surgical disciplines well beyond the fields of urology and prostate surgery. The literature detailing technical steps, comparison of large surgical series, and even robotically focused randomized control trials are available for review. RALP, the first robot-assisted surgical procedure to achieve widespread use, has recently become the primary approach for the surgical management of localized prostate cancer. As a result, surgeons are constantly trying to refine and improve upon current technical aspects of the operation. Recent areas of published modifications include bladder neck anastomosis and reconstruction, bladder drainage, nerve sparing approaches and techniques, and perioperative and postoperative management including penile rehabilitation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in perioperative management and surgical technique for RALP. PMID:24327925

  20. Targeted prostate biopsy and MR-guided therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Woodrum, David A; Kawashima, Akira; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Mynderse, Lance A

    2016-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer and second-leading cause of death in men. Many patients with clinically organ-confined prostate cancer undergo definitive treatment of the whole gland including radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, and cryosurgery. Active surveillance is a growing alternative option for patients with documented low-volume, low-grade prostate cancer. With recent advances in software and hardware of MRI, multiparametric MRI of the prostate has been shown to improve the accuracy in detecting and characterizing clinically significant prostate cancer. Targeted biopsy is increasingly utilized to improve the yield of MR-detected, clinically significant prostate cancer and to decrease in detection of indolent prostate cancer. MR-guided targeted biopsy techniques include cognitive MR fusion TRUS biopsy, in-bore transrectal targeted biopsy using robotic transrectal device, and in-bore direct MR-guided transperineal biopsy with a software-based transperineal grid template. In addition, advances in MR compatible thermal ablation technology allow accurate focal or regional delivery of optimal thermal energy to the biopsy-proved, MRI-detected tumor, utilizing cryoablation, laser ablation, high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation under MR guidance and real-time or near simultaneous monitoring of the ablation zone. Herein we present a contemporary review of MR-guided targeted biopsy techniques of MR-detected lesions as well as MR-guided focal or regional thermal ablative therapies for localized naïve and recurrent cancerous foci of the prostate. PMID:26907717

  1. A one-day couple group intervention to enhance sexual recovery for surgically treated men with prostate cancer and their partners: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Daniela; He, Chang; Mitchell, Staci; Wood, David P; Hola, Victor; Thelen-Perry, Steve; Montie, James E

    2013-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the acceptance and effectiveness of a group intervention that provided education about post-prostatectomy sexual recovery and peer support for couples. Couples valued the intervention and retained the information. Partners became accepting of erectile dysfunction and communicated more openly about upsetting topics. PMID:23930447

  2. Midline Prostatic Cyst Marsupialization Using Holmium Laser.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, Mehmet; Goger, Yunus Emre; Piskin, Mesut; Balasar, Mehmet; Kandemir, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Many of the prostatic cysts are asymptomatic and only 5% are symptomatic (Hamper et al., 1990; Higashi et al., 1990). These symptoms include pelvic pain, hematospermia, infertility, voiding dysfunction, prostatitis-like syndrome, and painful ejaculation. Treatment of prostatic cysts includes TRUSG guided drainage, endoscopic transurethral resection, and in some cases even open surgery. In the literature, endoscopic interventions use marsupialization of the midline prostatic cyst with transurethral resection (TUR) or transurethral incision with endoscopic urethrotomy (Dik et al., 1996; Terris, 1995). Holmium: YAG laser was employed for the marsupialization of the cyst wall in midline prostatic cyst treatment for the first time in the present study. Symptoms, treatment, and follow-up are presented in this paper. PMID:26101688

  3. Midline Prostatic Cyst Marsupialization Using Holmium Laser

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, Mehmet; Goger, Yunus Emre; Piskin, Mesut; Balasar, Mehmet; Kandemir, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Many of the prostatic cysts are asymptomatic and only 5% are symptomatic (Hamper et al., 1990; Higashi et al., 1990). These symptoms include pelvic pain, hematospermia, infertility, voiding dysfunction, prostatitis-like syndrome, and painful ejaculation. Treatment of prostatic cysts includes TRUSG guided drainage, endoscopic transurethral resection, and in some cases even open surgery. In the literature, endoscopic interventions use marsupialization of the midline prostatic cyst with transurethral resection (TUR) or transurethral incision with endoscopic urethrotomy (Dik et al., 1996; Terris, 1995). Holmium: YAG laser was employed for the marsupialization of the cyst wall in midline prostatic cyst treatment for the first time in the present study. Symptoms, treatment, and follow-up are presented in this paper. PMID:26101688

  4. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Hibner, Michał; Marianowski, Piotr; Szymusik, Iwona; Wielgós, Mirosław

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of robotic surgery in the first decade of the 21 century was one of the biggest breakthroughs in surgery since the introduction of anesthesia. For the first time in history the surgeon was placed remotely from the patient and was able to operate with the device that has more degrees of freedom than human hand. Initially developed for the US Military in order to allow surgeons to be removed from the battlefield, surgical robots quickly made a leap to the mainstream medicine. One of the first surgical uses for the robot was cardiac surgery but it is urology and prostate surgery that gave it a widespread popularity Gynecologic surgeons caught on very quickly and it is estimated that 31% of hysterectomies done in the United States in 2012 will be done robotically. With over half a million hysterectomies done each year in the US alone, gynecologic surgery is one of the main driving forces behind the growth of robotic surgery Other applications in gynecology include myomectomy oophorectomy and ovarian cystectomy resection of endometriosis and lymphadenectomy Advantages of the surgical robot are clearly seen in myomectomy The wrist motion allows for better more precise suturing than conventional "straight stick" laparoscopy The strength of the arms allow for better pulling of the suture and the third arm for holding the suture on tension. Other advantage of the robot is scaling of the movements when big movement on the outside translates to very fine movement on the inside. This enables much more precise surgery and may be important in the procedures like tubal anastomosis and implantation of the ureter Three-dimensional vision provides excellent depth of field perception. It is important for surgeons who are switching from open surgeries and preliminary evidence shows that it may allow for better identification of lesions like endometriosis. Another big advantage of robotics is that the surgeon sits comfortably with his/her arms and head supported. This

  5. Simultaneous Retzius-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and partial nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Raheem, Ali Abdel; Santok, Glen Denmer; Kim, Dae Keun; Troya, Irela Soto; Alabdulaali, Ibrahim; Choi, Young Deuk

    2016-01-01

    We present a 61-year-old man who was diagnosed with synchronous prostate cancer and suspicious renal cell carcinoma of the right kidney, treated with combined Retzius-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RS-RARP) and robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN). The combined approach using RS-RARP and RAPN is technically feasible and safe surgical option for treatment of concomitant prostate cancer and suspicious renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26981598

  6. Simultaneous Retzius-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Raheem, Ali Abdel; Santok, Glen Denmer; Kim, Dae Keun; Troya, Irela Soto; Alabdulaali, Ibrahim; Choi, Young Deuk; Rha, Koon Ho

    2016-03-01

    We present a 61-year-old man who was diagnosed with synchronous prostate cancer and suspicious renal cell carcinoma of the right kidney, treated with combined Retzius-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RS-RARP) and robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN). The combined approach using RS-RARP and RAPN is technically feasible and safe surgical option for treatment of concomitant prostate cancer and suspicious renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26981598

  7. Benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Forde, James C; Thomas, Dominique Dana Marie; Laor, Leanna; Hossack, Tania; Woo, Henry H; Te, Alexis E; Kaplan, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which causes lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), is a common diagnosis among the ageing male population with increasing prevalence. Many risks factors, both modifiable and non-modifiable, can increase the risk of development and progression of BPH and LUTS. The symptoms can be obstructive (resulting in urinary hesitancy, weak stream, straining or prolonged voiding) or irritative (resulting in increased urinary frequency and urgency, nocturia, urge incontinence and reduced voiding volumes), or can affect the patient after micturition (for example, postvoid dribble or incomplete emptying). BPH occurs when both stromal and epithelial cells of the prostate in the transitional zone proliferate by processes that are thought to be influenced by inflammation and sex hormones, causing prostate enlargement. Patients with LUTS undergo several key diagnostic investigations before being diagnosed with BPH. Treatment options for men with BPH start at watchful waiting and progress through medical to surgical interventions. For the majority of patients, the starting point on the treatment pathway will be dictated by their symptoms and degree of bother. PMID:27147135

  8. Hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Marron, Lisa C.; Martinez, Michael A.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a hopping robot that includes a misfire tolerant linear actuator suitable for long trips, low energy steering and control, reliable low energy righting, miniature low energy fuel control. The present invention provides a robot with hopping mobility, capable of traversing obstacles significant in size relative to the robot and capable of operation on unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides a hopping robot with misfire-tolerant combustion actuation, and with combustion actuation suitable for use in oxygen-poor environments.

  9. Robotics research

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.; Paul, R.

    1984-01-01

    Organized around a view of robotics as ''the intelligent connection of perception to action,'' the fifty-three contributions collected in this book present leading current research in one of the fastest moving fields of artificial intelligence. Readings Include: Hand-Eye Coordination in Rope Handling; 3-D Balance Using 2-D algorithms. A Model Driven Visual Inspection Module: Stereo Vision: Complexity and Constraints; Interpretation of Contact Geometers from Force Measurement; The Utah MIT Dextrous Hand: Work in Progress; Hierarchical Nonlinear Control for Robots; VAL-11; A Robot Programming Language and Control System; Technological Barriers in Robotics: A Perspective from Industry.

  10. Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lanfranco, Anthony R.; Castellanos, Andres E.; Desai, Jaydev P.; Meyers, William C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the history, development, and current applications of robotics in surgery. Background: Surgical robotics is a new technology that holds significant promise. Robotic surgery is often heralded as the new revolution, and it is one of the most talked about subjects in surgery today. Up to this point in time, however, the drive to develop and obtain robotic devices has been largely driven by the market. There is no doubt that they will become an important tool in the surgical armamentarium, but the extent of their use is still evolving. Methods: A review of the literature was undertaken using Medline. Articles describing the history and development of surgical robots were identified as were articles reporting data on applications. Results: Several centers are currently using surgical robots and publishing data. Most of these early studies report that robotic surgery is feasible. There is, however, a paucity of data regarding costs and benefits of robotics versus conventional techniques. Conclusions: Robotic surgery is still in its infancy and its niche has not yet been well defined. Its current practical uses are mostly confined to smaller surgical procedures. PMID:14685095

  11. Exophytic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Blaschko, Sarah D; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2011-08-01

    A 60-year-old man had incidental finding of a multilobular 8 × 7 × 7-cm mass identified posterior to the urinary bladder in continuity with the prostate. The man's prostate-specific antigen was 1.87, and he denied any lower urinary tract symptoms. A transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy demonstrated benign prostatic tissue. A computed tomography-guided needle aspiration demonstrated a benign epithelium-lined cyst, likely prostatic in origin. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a proliferation of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Although prostatic hyperplasia is usually restricted to the prostate gland, hyperplastic nodules occasionally protrude outside the prostate and rarely form exophytic pelvic masses. PMID:20869104

  12. Towards a sustainable modular robot system for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, S. G. M.

    This thesis investigates multiple perspectives of developing an unmanned robotic system suited for planetary terrains. In this case, the unmanned system consists of unit-modular robots. This type of robot has potential to be developed and maintained as a sustainable multi-robot system while located far from direct human intervention. Some characteristics that make this possible are: the cooperation, communication and connectivity among the robot modules, flexibility of individual robot modules, capability of self-healing in the case of a failed module and the ability to generate multiple gaits by means of reconfiguration. To demonstrate the effects of high flexibility of an individual robot module, multiple modules of a four-degree-of-freedom unit-modular robot were developed. The robot was equipped with a novel connector mechanism that made self-healing possible. Also, design strategies included the use of series elastic actuators for better robot-terrain interaction. In addition, various locomotion gaits were generated and explored using the robot modules, which is essential for a modular robot system to achieve robustness and thus successfully navigate and function in a planetary environment. To investigate multi-robot task completion, a biomimetic cooperative load transportation algorithm was developed and simulated. Also, a liquid motion-inspired theory was developed consisting of a large number of robot modules. This can be used to traverse obstacles that inevitably occur in maneuvering over rough terrains such as in a planetary exploration. Keywords: Modular robot, cooperative robots, biomimetics, planetary exploration, sustainability.

  13. A Perspective on Prostate Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Bosland, Maarten C.; Ozten, Nur; Eskra, Jillian N.; Mahmoud, Abeer M.

    2015-01-01

    In this perspective, modifiable carcinogenic factors for the prostate are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of how current knowledge about causation of prostate cancer and chemoprevention of prostate cancer can be used to develop preventive strategies. Prostate cancer is a slowly developing cancer which offers opportunities for preventive interventions. Only a few randomized clinical trials of prostate cancer prevention have been completed. The SELECT study with selenium and vitamin E did not find protective effects, but in two trials with 5α-reductase inhibitors risk was reduced about 25%, showing that chemoprevention is possible and indicating that the androgen receptor is a suitable target. Besides smoking cessation and reduction of obesity, there are no known dietary or life style interventions that will have a major impact on prostate cancer risk. Inflammation of the prostate is an attractive target and aspirin may be a promising candidate agent, but has not been addressed yet in preclinical and clinical studies. Antioxidants other than selenium and vitamin E are unlikely to be very effective and data on several dietary supplements are not encouraging. More candidate agents need to be identified and tested in relevant and adequate preclinical models and Phase II trials that have predictive value for outcome of Phase III randomized studies. Doing this will require a systematic approach comparing preclinical and clinical study outcomes to determine their predictive value of preventive efficacy. PMID:26442200

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate, Including Pre- and Postinterventions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pritesh; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-09-01

    This article systematically reviews the rationale for magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer, in detection and following various treatment methods. A basic discussion of the identification of prostate cancer is imperative to understand postintervention imaging. Each available therapy, including surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and focal therapies will be discussed along with associated imaging findings, providing the reader with a better understanding of current interventions in prostate cancer and imaging. PMID:27582606

  15. Robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A robot having a plurality of interconnected sections is disclosed. Each of the sections includes components which are moveable relative to components of an adjacent section. A plurality of electric motors are operably connected to at least two of said relatively moveable components to effect relative movement. A fitted, removable protective covering surrounds the sections to protect the robot.

  16. Robotics 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  17. Localized Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a decision aid for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (available at http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/prostate_da) ... A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Page 1 of 24 Introduction Men with clinically ...

  18. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... finasteride who did have prostate cancer had more aggressive tumors . The number of deaths from prostate cancer ... men that did not. The number of less aggressive prostate cancers was lower, but the number of ...

  19. Robotic Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning, or AESOP, was developed by Computer Motion, Inc. under a SBIR contract from the Jet Propulsion Lab. AESOP is a robotic endoscopic positioning system used to control the motion of a camera during endoscopic surgery. The camera, which is mounted at the end of a robotic arm, previously had to be held in place by the surgical staff. With AESOP the robotic arm can make more precise and consistent movements. AESOP is also voice controlled by the surgeon. It is hoped that this technology can be used in space repair missions which require precision beyond human dexterity. A new generation of the same technology entitled the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System can make endoscopic procedures even more successful. ZEUS allows the surgeon control various instruments in its robotic arms, allowing for the precision the procedure requires.

  20. Controlling robots with spoken commands

    SciTech Connect

    Beugelsdijk, T.; Phelan, P.

    1987-10-01

    A robotic system for handling radioactive materials has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Because of safety considerations, the robot must be under the control of a human operator continuously. In this paper we describe the implementation of a voice-recognition system that makes such control possible, yet permits the robot to perform preprogrammed manipulations without the operator's intervention. We also describe the training given both the operator and the voice recognition-system, as well as practical problems encountered during routine operation. A speech synthesis unit connected to the robot's control computer provides audible feedback to the operator. Thus, when a task is completed or if an emergency develops, the computer provides an appropriate spoken message. Implementation and operation of this commercially available hardware are discussed.

  1. Design and optimization of a brachytherapy robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltsner, Michael A.

    Trans-rectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) low dose rate (LDR) interstitial brachytherapy has become a popular procedure for the treatment of prostate cancer, the most common type of non-skin cancer among men. The current TRUS technique of LDR implantation may result in less than ideal coverage of the tumor with increased risk of negative response such as rectal toxicity and urinary retention. This technique is limited by the skill of the physician performing the implant, the accuracy of needle localization, and the inherent weaknesses of the procedure itself. The treatment may require 100 or more sources and 25 needles, compounding the inaccuracy of the needle localization procedure. A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy may increase the accuracy of needle placement while minimizing the effect of physician technique in the TRUS procedure. Furthermore, a robot may improve associated toxicities by utilizing angled insertions and freeing implantations from constraints applied by the 0.5 cm-spaced template used in the TRUS method. Within our group, Lin et al. have designed a new type of LDR source. The "directional" source is a seed designed to be partially shielded. Thus, a directional, or anisotropic, source does not emit radiation in all directions. The source can be oriented to irradiate cancerous tissues while sparing normal ones. This type of source necessitates a new, highly accurate method for localization in 6 degrees of freedom. A robot is the best way to accomplish this task accurately. The following presentation of work describes the invention and optimization of a new prostate brachytherapy robot that fulfills these goals. Furthermore, some research has been dedicated to the use of the robot to perform needle insertion tasks (brachytherapy, biopsy, RF ablation, etc.) in nearly any other soft tissue in the body. This can be accomplished with the robot combined with automatic, magnetic tracking.

  2. Simulation of autonomous robotic multiple-core biopsy by 3D ultrasound guidance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kaicheng; Rogers, Albert J; Light, Edward D; Von Allmen, Daniel; Smith, Stephen W

    2010-04-01

    An autonomous multiple-core biopsy system guided by real-time 3D ultrasound and operated by a robotic arm with 6+1 degrees of freedom has been developed. Using a specimen of turkey breast as a tissue phantom, our system was able to first autonomously locate the phantom in the image volume and then perform needle sticks in each of eight sectors in the phantom in a single session, with no human intervention required. Based on the fraction of eight sectors successfully sampled in an experiment of five trials, a success rate of 93% was recorded. This system could have relevance in clinical procedures that involve multiple needle-core sampling such as prostate or breast biopsy. PMID:20687279

  3. Can Robotic Interaction Improve Joint Attention Skills?

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy R.; Bekele, Esubalew; Zhang, Lian; Crittendon, Julie A.; Weitlauf, Amy F.; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2013-01-01

    Although it has often been argued that clinical applications of advanced technology may hold promise for addressing impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relatively few investigations have indexed the impact of intervention and feedback approaches. This pilot study investigated the application of a novel robotic interaction system capable of administering and adjusting joint attention prompts to a small group (n = 6) of children with ASD. Across a series of four sessions, children improved in their ability to orient to prompts administered by the robotic system and continued to display strong attention toward the humanoid robot over time. The results highlight both potential benefits of robotic systems for directed intervention approaches as well as potent limitations of existing humanoid robotic platforms. PMID:24014194

  4. Can Robotic Interaction Improve Joint Attention Skills?

    PubMed

    Warren, Zachary E; Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy R; Bekele, Esubalew; Zhang, Lian; Crittendon, Julie A; Weitlauf, Amy F; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2015-11-01

    Although it has often been argued that clinical applications of advanced technology may hold promise for addressing impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relatively few investigations have indexed the impact of intervention and feedback approaches. This pilot study investigated the application of a novel robotic interaction system capable of administering and adjusting joint attention prompts to a small group (n = 6) of children with ASD. Across a series of four sessions, children improved in their ability to orient to prompts administered by the robotic system and continued to display strong attention toward the humanoid robot over time. The results highlight both potential benefits of robotic systems for directed intervention approaches as well as potent limitations of existing humanoid robotic platforms. PMID:24014194

  5. Combined image-processing algorithms for improved optical coherence tomography of prostate nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab; Weldon, Thomas P.; Fiddy, Michael A.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-07-01

    Cavernous nerves course along the surface of the prostate gland and are responsible for erectile function. These nerves are at risk of injury during surgical removal of a cancerous prostate gland. In this work, a combination of segmentation, denoising, and edge detection algorithms are applied to time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of rat prostate to improve identification of cavernous nerves. First, OCT images of the prostate are segmented to differentiate the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland. Then, a locally adaptive denoising algorithm using a dual-tree complex wavelet transform is applied to reduce speckle noise. Finally, edge detection is used to provide deeper imaging of the prostate gland. Combined application of these three algorithms results in improved signal-to-noise ratio, imaging depth, and automatic identification of the cavernous nerves, which may be of direct benefit for use in laparoscopic and robotic nerve-sparing prostate cancer surgery.

  6. Robotic transportation.

    PubMed

    Lob, W S

    1990-09-01

    Mobile robots perform fetch-and-carry tasks autonomously. An intelligent, sensor-equipped mobile robot does not require dedicated pathways or extensive facility modification. In the hospital, mobile robots can be used to carry specimens, pharmaceuticals, meals, etc. between supply centers, patient areas, and laboratories. The HelpMate (Transitions Research Corp.) mobile robot was developed specifically for hospital environments. To reach a desired destination, Help-Mate navigates with an on-board computer that continuously polls a suite of sensors, matches the sensor data against a pre-programmed map of the environment, and issues drive commands and path corrections. A sender operates the robot with a user-friendly menu that prompts for payload insertion and desired destination(s). Upon arrival at its selected destination, the robot prompts the recipient for a security code or physical key and awaits acknowledgement of payload removal. In the future, the integration of HelpMate with robot manipulators, test equipment, and central institutional information systems will open new applications in more localized areas and should help overcome difficulties in filling transport staff positions. PMID:2208684

  7. N-Myc Drives Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Initiated from Human Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, John K; Phillips, John W; Smith, Bryan A; Park, Jung Wook; Stoyanova, Tanya; McCaffrey, Erin F; Baertsch, Robert; Sokolov, Artem; Meyerowitz, Justin G; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M; Shokat, Kevan M; Gustafson, W Clay; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N

    2016-04-11

    MYCN amplification and overexpression are common in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). However, the impact of aberrant N-Myc expression in prostate tumorigenesis and the cellular origin of NEPC have not been established. We define N-Myc and activated AKT1 as oncogenic components sufficient to transform human prostate epithelial cells to prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC with phenotypic and molecular features of aggressive, late-stage human disease. We directly show that prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC can arise from a common epithelial clone. Further, N-Myc is required for tumor maintenance, and destabilization of N-Myc through Aurora A kinase inhibition reduces tumor burden. Our findings establish N-Myc as a driver of NEPC and a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27050099

  8. Towards a Location-based Service for Early Mental Health Interventions in Disaster Response Using Minimalistic Tele-operated Android Robots Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahidi, H.; Mobasheri, A.; Alimardani, M.; Guan, Q.; Bakillah, M.

    2014-04-01

    Providing early mental health services during disaster is a great challenge in the disaster response phase. Lack of access to adequate mental-health professionals in the early stages of large-scale disasters dramatically influences the trend of a successful mental health aid. In this paper, a conceptual framework has been suggested for adopting cellphone-type tele-operated android robots in the early stages of disasters for providing the early mental health services for disaster survivors by developing a locationbased and participatory approach. The techniques of enabling GI-services in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) environment were studied to overcome the limitations of current centralized services. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to add more flexibility and autonomy to GI web services (WMS, WFS, WPS, etc.) and alleviate to some degree the inherent limitations of these centralized systems. A P2P system Architecture is presented for the location-based service using minimalistic tele-operated android robots, and some key techniques of implementing this service using BestPeer were studied for developing this framework.

  9. [Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: surgical techniques].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Yuichi; Ogawa, Soichiro; Haga, Nobuhiro; Yanagida, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for the patients with localized prostate cancer is increasingly being adopted around the world. The da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) provides the advantages of simplification and precision of exposure and suturing because of allowing movements of the robotic arm in real time with increased degree of freedom and magnified 3-dimensional view. Therefore, RARP has been expected to provide superior therapeutic benefit to patients in terms of surgical outcome to open or laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. In this review, we provide our technical aspects and tips and tricks of RARP to improve surgical outcome and postoperative quality of life. PMID:26793888

  10. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures. PMID:24144815

  11. Development of the men's prostate awareness church training: church-based workshops for African American men.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Darlene R; Holt, Cheryl L; Whitehead, Tony L; Atkinson, Nancy L; Le, Daisy; Wang, Min Qi; Slade, Jimmie L; Muwwakkil, Bettye; Williams, Ralph; Schulz, Emily; Naslund, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of a spiritually based intervention to increase informed decision making for prostate cancer screening through African American churches. The intervention used spiritually themed health messages, incorporated women as supportive health partners, and included a health information technology component. The Men's Prostate Awareness Church Training Project followed a community-based participatory research process to develop educational materials, and training for 40 community health advisors to implement the 4-part prostate health workshop series that will be implemented in 20 churches. Implications are discussed for designing culturally relevant interventions to reduce prostate cancer disparities impacting African American men. PMID:23718958

  12. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  13. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  14. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, H.

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs.

  15. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  16. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  17. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  18. Robot Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Tests with robots and the high-fidelity Hubble Space Telescope mockup astronauts use to train for servicing missions have convinced NASA managers it may be possible to maintain and upgrade the orbiting observatory without sending a space shuttle to do the job. In a formal request last week, the agency gave bidders until July 16 to sub-mit proposals for a robotic mission to the space telescope before the end of 2007. At a minimum, the mission would attach a rocket motor to deorbit the telescope safely when its service life ends. In the best case, it would use state-of-the- art robotics to prolong its life on orbit and install new instruments. With the space shuttle off-limits for the job under strict post-Columbia safety policies set by Administrator Sean O'Keefe, NASA has designed a "straw- man" robotic mission that would use an Atlas V or Delta N to launch a 20,ooO-lb. "Hubble Robotic Vehicle" to service the telescope. There, a robotic arm would grapple it, much as the shuttle does.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Guneyli, Serkan; Erdem, Cemile Zuhal; Erdem, Lutfi Oktay

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the causes of cancer-related deaths. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the best soft tissue resolution and plays an important role in the management of prostate cancer patients. It is the recommended imaging modality for patients with prostate cancer, and it is clinically indicated for diagnosis, staging, tumor localization, detection of tumor aggressiveness, follow-up, and MRI-guided interventions. Multiparametric MRI includes T1- and high-resolution T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. We evaluated MR images of patients with prostate cancer who underwent multiparametric endorectal MRI on a 3.0-T scanner and presented demonstrative images. PMID:27317204

  20. Prostate Stem Cells and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological approaches are available to medically-managed patients with symptomatic BPH before surgical intervention is required. These include daily treatment with alpha-blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors alone or in combination. These medical approaches have two major problems. First, treatments are chronic and must be taken daily. Second, there are significant financial costs and quality of life issues for such chronic treatments. Is it possible to develop effective acute therapy for symptomatic BPH without the long-term androgen deprivation-induced side effects? Two seminal but rarely cited studies of Walsh [Peters, Walsh: N Engl J Med 317:599–604, 1987] and Coffey et al. [Sufrin et al.: Invest Urol 13:418–423, 1976], combined with the growing understanding of the stem cell organization of the prostate stromal (S) and epithelial (E) compartments and their reciprocal paracrine and autocrine interactions provides the rationale for an acute approach. The Walsh study documents that: (1) androgen deprivation disrupts the reciprocal interaction between the prostate S and E thereby decreasing the weight of both compartments and (2) once BPH develops, androgen deprivation does not decrease the number of stem cell units in either the S or E compartments since subsequent androgen restoration fully restores the enlarged gland. The Coffey study documents that acute androgen deprivation sensitizes S–E interactions to radiation induced disruptions so that following radiation, androgen restoration does not induce full gland regrowth. Therefore, effective therapy for symptomatic BPH should be achievable by acute treatment with reversible androgen deprivation for a limited period followed by a single dose of conformal external beam radiation before allowing the man to recovery his normal serum testosterone. PMID:18386293

  1. Defining young in the context of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Lowe, Anthony; Hyde, Melissa K; Zajdlewicz, Leah; Gardiner, Robert A; Sandoe, David; Dunn, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    The experience of prostate cancer is for most men a major life stress with the psychological burden of this disease falling more heavily on those who are younger. Despite this, being young as it applies to prostate cancer is not yet clearly defined with varied chronological approaches applied. However, men's responses to health crises are closely bound to life course and masculinities from which social roles emerge. This paper applied qualitative methodology (structured focus groups and semistructured interviews with expert informants) using interpretative phenomenological analysis to define what it means to be young and have prostate cancer. Structured focus groups were held with 26 consumer advisors (men diagnosed with prostate cancer who provide support to other men with prostate cancer or raise community awareness) and health professionals. As well, 15 men diagnosed with prostate cancer and in their 40s, 50s, or 60s participated in semi-structured interviews. Participants discussed the attributes that describe a young man with prostate cancer and the experience of being young and diagnosed with prostate cancer. Chronological definitions of a young man were absent or inconsistent. Masculine constructions of what it means to be a young man and life course characteristics appear more relevant to defining young as it applies to prostate cancer compared with chronological age. These findings have implications for better understanding the morbidities associated with this illness, and in designing interventions that are oriented to life course and helping young men reconstruct their identities after prostate cancer. PMID:24780936

  2. Defining Young in the Context of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Anthony; Hyde, Melissa K.; Zajdlewicz, Leah; Gardiner, Robert A.; Sandoe, David; Dunn, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The experience of prostate cancer is for most men a major life stress with the psychological burden of this disease falling more heavily on those who are younger. Despite this, being young as it applies to prostate cancer is not yet clearly defined with varied chronological approaches applied. However, men’s responses to health crises are closely bound to life course and masculinities from which social roles emerge. This paper applied qualitative methodology (structured focus groups and semistructured interviews with expert informants) using interpretative phenomenological analysis to define what it means to be young and have prostate cancer. Structured focus groups were held with 26 consumer advisors (men diagnosed with prostate cancer who provide support to other men with prostate cancer or raise community awareness) and health professionals. As well, 15 men diagnosed with prostate cancer and in their 40s, 50s, or 60s participated in semi-structured interviews. Participants discussed the attributes that describe a young man with prostate cancer and the experience of being young and diagnosed with prostate cancer. Chronological definitions of a young man were absent or inconsistent. Masculine constructions of what it means to be a young man and life course characteristics appear more relevant to defining young as it applies to prostate cancer compared with chronological age. These findings have implications for better understanding the morbidities associated with this illness, and in designing interventions that are oriented to life course and helping young men reconstruct their identities after prostate cancer. PMID:24780936

  3. Current Laser Treatments for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The latest technical improvements in the surgical armamentarium are remarkable. In particular, advancements in the urologic field are so exceptional that we could observe the flare-up of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and laser prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) and holmium laser prostatectomy are the most generalized options for laser surgery of BPH, and both modalities have shown good postoperative results. In comparison to transurethral prostatectomy (TURP), they showed similar efficacy and a much lower complication rate in randomized prospective clinical trials. Even in cases of large prostates, laser prostatectomy showed comparable efficacy and safety profiles compared to open prostatectomy. From a technical point of view, PVP is considered to be an easier technique for the urologist to master. Furthermore, patients can be safely followed up in an outpatient clinic. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) mimics open prostatectomy because the adenomatous tissue is peeled off the surgical capsule in both procedures. Therefore, HoLEP shows notable volume reduction of the prostate similar to open prostatectomy with fewer blood transfusions, shorter hospital stay, and cost reduction regardless of prostate size. Outcomes of laser prostatectomy for BPH are encouraging but sometimes are unbalanced because safety and feasibility studies were reported mainly for PVP, whereas long-term data are mostly available for HoLEP. We need longer-term randomized clinical data to identify the reoperation rate of PVP and to determine which procedure is the ideal alternative to TURP and open prostatectomy for each patient. PMID:21165192

  4. The TAOS Robotic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew; Wen, C.-Y.; Wang, J.-H.; Marshall, S. L.; Schwamb, M. E.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Bianco, F. B.; Gimmarco, J.; Porrata, R.; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; Kim, D.-W.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Wang, S.-Y.; Yen, W.-L.; Rice, J. A.; de Pater, I.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Geary, J.; Norton, T.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.

    2011-03-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation survey (TAOS) operate four small telescopes in central Taiwan to search for occultations by small (~1 km diameter) Kuiper Belt Objects. The system is fully robotic, requiring human intervention only in the event of hardware failures. However, the status of the system during observations is monitored remotely via smart-phone. A successor survey, the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) is currently being constructed. This next generation survey will be more than one hundred times as sensitive as the earlier survey. In this paper, we summarize the science goals of the surveys, describe the two surveys, and discuss the lessons learned in automating the TAOS observations.

  5. Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy in a 68-year-old patient with previous heart transplantation and pelvic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Axcrona, Karol; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Hovland, Jarl; Brennhovd, Bjørn; Kongsgaard, Ulf; Giercksky, Karl-Erik

    2012-03-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man who had previously undergone heart transplantation and pelvic irradiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma and who was under active surveillance for prostate cancer. In response to his increased prostate-specific antigen levels and elevated Gleason score, he was offered robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. PMID:22408687

  6. Rehabilitation robotics

    PubMed Central

    KREBS, H.I.; VOLPE, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician’s toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual’s functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We will provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we will then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We will present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. PMID:23312648

  7. Medical robotics.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management. PMID:21642033

  8. Modeling and simulation of tumor-influenced high resolution real-time physics-based breast models for model-guided robotic interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neylon, John; Hasse, Katelyn; Sheng, Ke; Santhanam, Anand P.

    2016-03-01

    Breast radiation therapy is typically delivered to the patient in either supine or prone position. Each of these positioning systems has its limitations in terms of tumor localization, dose to the surrounding normal structures, and patient comfort. We envision developing a pneumatically controlled breast immobilization device that will enable the benefits of both supine and prone positioning. In this paper, we present a physics-based breast deformable model that aids in both the design of the breast immobilization device as well as a control module for the device during every day positioning. The model geometry is generated from a subject's CT scan acquired during the treatment planning stage. A GPU based deformable model is then generated for the breast. A mass-spring-damper approach is then employed for the deformable model, with the spring modeled to represent a hyperelastic tissue behavior. Each voxel of the CT scan is then associated with a mass element, which gives the model its high resolution nature. The subject specific elasticity is then estimated from a CT scan in prone position. Our results show that the model can deform at >60 deformations per second, which satisfies the real-time requirement for robotic positioning. The model interacts with a computer designed immobilization device to position the breast and tumor anatomy in a reproducible location. The design of the immobilization device was also systematically varied based on the breast geometry, tumor location, elasticity distribution and the reproducibility of the desired tumor location.

  9. Generic robot architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J; Few, Douglas A

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  10. A focus group study of factors influencing African-American men's prostate cancer screening behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Odedina, Folakemi T.; Scrivens, John; Emanuel, Angela; LaRose-Pierre, Margareth; Brown, James; Nash, Rowena

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the factors perceived by African-American men as influencing their behavior relative to prostate cancer screening. A total of 49 African-American men, age 40 and above, participated in 10 focus group discussions in Florida. Data collection was between October 12, 2001 and March 9, 2002 in Tallahassee, Tampa, and Miami. Data analysis was conducted using a comprehensive ethnographical analysis, including the use of an ethnographical retrieval program, Nonnumerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing (QSR NUD*IST 4.0) software. Factors identified as influencing prostate cancer screening participation by African-American men were impediments to prostate cancer screening; positive outcome beliefs associated with prostate cancer screening; social influence; negative outcome beliefs associated with prostate cancer screening; resources or opportunities that facilitate prostate cancer screening; prostate cancer knowledge; perceived susceptibility to prostate cancer; perceived threat of prostate cancer; perceived severity of prostate cancer; positive health activities; illness experience; and prostate cancer screening intervention message concept, message source, and message channel. The results of this study may offer an excellent guide to designing effective, culturally sensitive, and relevant interventions, which would increase African-American men's participation in prostate cancer screening. PMID:15233488

  11. Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Space Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm) is a 50 foot robot arm used to deploy, retrieve or repair satellites in orbit. Initial spinoff version is designed to remove, inspect and replace large components of Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear reactors, which supply 50 percent of Ontario Hydro's total power reduction. CANDU robot is the first of SPAR's Remote Manipulator Systems intended for remote materials handling operations in nuclear servicing, chemical processing, smelting and manufacturing. Inco Limited used remote manipulator for remote control mining equipment to enhance safety and productivity of Inco's hardrock mining operations. System not only improves safety in a hazardous operation that costs more than a score of lives annually, it also increases productivity fourfold. Remote Manipulator System Division is also manufacturing a line of industrial robots and developing additional system for nuclear servicing, mining, defense and space operations.

  12. Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A commercially available ANDROS Mark V-A robot was used by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as the departure point in the development of the HAZBOT III, a prototype teleoperated mobile robot designed for response to emergencies. Teleoperated robots contribute significantly to reducing human injury levels by performing tasks too hazardous for humans. ANDROS' manufacturer, REMOTEC, Inc., in turn, adopted some of the JPL concepts, particularly the control panel. HAZBOT III has exceptional mobility, employs solid state electronics and brushless DC motors for safer operation, and is designed so combustible gases cannot penetrate areas containing electronics and motors. Other features include the six-degree-of-freedom manipulator, the 30-pound squeeze force parallel jaw gripper and two video cameras, one for general viewing and navigation and the other for manipulation/grasping.

  13. Robot Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Engineers and interns at this NASA field center are building the prototype of a robotic rover that could go where no wheeled rover has gone before-into the dark cold craters at the lunar poles and across the Moon s rugged highlands-like a walking tetrahedron. With NASA pushing to meet President Bush's new exploration objectives, the robots taking shape here today could be on the Moon in a decade. In the longer term, the concept could lead to shape-shifting robot swarms designed to explore distant planetary surfaces in advance of humans. "If you look at all of NASA s projections of the future, anyone s projections of the space program, they re all rigid-body architecture," says Steven Curtis, principal investigator on the effort. "This is not rigid-body. The whole key here is flexibility and reconfigurability with a capital R."

  14. Robotic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, H. I.; Hogan, N.

    2012-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a remarkable shift in the neuro-rehabilitation paradigm. Neuroscientists and clinicians moved away from the perception that the brain is static and hardwired, to a new dynamic understanding that plasticity is a fundamental property of the adult human brain and might be harnessed to remap or create new neural pathways. Capitalizing on this innovative understanding, we introduced a paradigm shift in the clinical practice in 1989 when we initiated the development of the MIT-Manus robot for neuro-rehabilitation and deployed it in the clinic in 1994 10. Since then, we and others have developed and tested a multitude of robotic devices for stroke, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. Here we discuss whether robotic therapy has achieved a level of maturity to justify its broad adoption in the clinical realm as a tool for motor recovery. PMID:23080044

  15. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  16. Robot Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Mecanotron, now division of Robotics and Automation Corporation, developed a quick-change welding method called the Automatic Robotics Tool-change System (ARTS) under Marshall Space Flight Center and Rockwell International contracts. The ARTS system has six tool positions ranging from coarse sanding disks and abrasive wheels to cloth polishing wheels with motors of various horsepower. The system is used by fabricators of plastic body parts for the auto industry, by Texas Instruments for making radar domes, and for advanced composites at Aerospatiale in France.

  17. The influence of isotope and prostate volume on urinary morbidity after prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Niehaus, Angela; Merrick, Gregory S. . E-mail: gmerrick@wheelinghospital.com; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Adamovich, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of isotope and prostate size on International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) normalization, catheter dependency, and the need for surgical intervention secondary to bladder outlet obstruction after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between January 1998 and June 2003, 976 consecutive patients underwent brachytherapy for clinical stage T1b-T3a (2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer) prostate cancer. Seven hundred eighty-nine (80.8%) were implanted with {sup 103}Pd and 187 (19.2%) with {sup 125}I. The median follow-up was 41.2 months. Patients were stratified into size cohorts {<=}25 cm{sup 3}, 25.1-35 cm{sup 3}, 35.1-45 cm{sup 3}, and >45 cm{sup 3}. Four hundred eighteen patients (42.8%) received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Four hundred eighty-six patients (49.7%) received supplemental external-beam radiation therapy (XRT). In all patients, an alpha blocker was initiated before implantation and continued at least until the IPSS returned to baseline. IPSS resolution was defined as a return to within one point of baseline. The median number of IPSS determinations per patient was 21. Clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters evaluated included patient age, pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, clinical T stage, percent positive biopsies, preimplant IPSS, ultrasound volume, planning volume, isotope, V{sub 100/150/20}, D{sub 9}, urethral dose (average and maximum), supplemental XRT, ADT, and the duration of ADT ({<=}6 months vs. >6 months). Catheter dependency and the need for postsurgical intervention were also evaluated. Results: For both isotopes and all prostate size cohorts, IPSS peaked 1 month after implantation and returned to baseline at a mean of 1.9 months. Stratification of prostate size cohorts by isotope demonstrated no significant differences in prolonged catheter dependency ({>=}5 days), IPSS resolution, or postimplant surgical intervention. In Cox regression analysis, IPSS normalization was best

  18. Prostate biopsy tracking with deformation estimation.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Michael; Mozer, Pierre; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2012-04-01

    Transrectal biopsies under 2D ultrasound (US) control are the current clinical standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. The isoechogenic nature of prostate carcinoma makes it necessary to sample the gland systematically, resulting in a low sensitivity. Also, it is difficult for the clinician to follow the sampling protocol accurately under 2D US control and the exact anatomical location of the biopsy cores is unknown after the intervention. Tracking systems for prostate biopsies make it possible to generate biopsy distribution maps for intra- and post-interventional quality control and 3D visualisation of histological results for diagnosis and treatment planning. They can also guide the clinician toward non-ultrasound targets. In this paper, a volume-swept 3D US based tracking system for fast and accurate estimation of prostate tissue motion is proposed. The entirely image-based system solves the patient motion problem with an a priori model of rectal probe kinematics. Prostate deformations are estimated with elastic registration to maximize accuracy. The system is robust with only 17 registration failures out of 786 (2%) biopsy volumes acquired from 47 patients during biopsy sessions. Accuracy was evaluated to 0.76±0.52 mm using manually segmented fiducials on 687 registered volumes stemming from 40 patients. A clinical protocol for assisted biopsy acquisition was designed and implemented as a biopsy assistance system, which allows to overcome the draw-backs of the standard biopsy procedure. PMID:21705263

  19. Robot-assisted renal surgery: current indications and results.

    PubMed

    Iannetti, A; Gnech, M; Rossanese, M; Abbinante, M; De Giorgi, G; Mottrie, A; Ficarra, V

    2014-03-01

    Robotic technology is the natural evolution and simplification of traditional laparoscopy. Robotic surgery has the same benefits of traditional laparoscopic surgery in terms of cosmetic results, pain control and short in-hospital stay. However, magnified three-dimensional vision and the use of fully articulated wristed-instruments allow to increase the precision control. Recently, robotic surgery has been even more used in urology. In fact, robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is currently the most common treatment used for localized prostate cancer in the United States. Perioperative and functional outcomes resulted significantly better after RARP. As a consequence of the diffusion of RARP, other urological procedures were performed using the robotic approach. Particular attention has been paid to the use of robotic surgery for the treatment of benign and malignant renal diseases. In 2002 the first robot-assisted pyeloplasty was performed followed by the first robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. This last procedure had widespread a lot in the last years and it can currently be considered as the main alternative to the traditional open partial nephrectomy. Finally, the evolution of technology and surgeon skills allowed us to consider the less invasive approaches also for renal transplantation surgery and vena cava tumor thrombectomy. The objective of this review was to analyze current indications and outcomes of robot-assisted procedures for the treatment of benign and malignant renal diseases. PMID:24721937

  20. Role of prostate artery embolization in the management of refractory haematuria of prostatic origin.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Keith; Halpern, Joshua A; McClure, Timothy D; Lewis, Nicholas A; Kably, Isaam; Bhatia, Shivank; Hu, Jim C

    2016-09-01

    Prostatic haematuria is among the most common genitourinary complaints of emergency room visits, distressing and troublesome to men and a challenging clinical problem to the treating physician. The most common aetiologies of prostatic haematuria include benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Prostatic haematuria usually resolves with conservative and medical methods; failure of these interventions results in refractory haematuria of prostatic origin (RHPO), a potentially life-threatening scenario. Several different treatments have been described, with varying degrees of success. Patients with RHPO are often elderly and unfit for radical surgery. Prostate artery embolization (PAE) has evolved as a safe and effective technique in the management of RHPO. Use of a superselective approach optimizes clinical success while minimizing complications. This minimally invasive approach improves patients with haemodynamic instability, serves as a bridge to elective surgery, and is a highly effective treatment for RHPO. It may obviate the need for more invasive and morbid surgical therapies. The aim of the present review was to describe the current management of RHPO and the technique of PAE and to review its efficacy and associated morbidity. PMID:27153766

  1. Beyond Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tally, Beth; Laverdure, Nate

    2006-01-01

    Chantilly High School Academy Robotics Team Number 612 from Chantilly, Virginia, is an award-winning team of high school students actively involved with FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), a multinational nonprofit organization that inspires students to transform culture--making science, math, engineering and…

  2. Robotic Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2007-01-01

    The medical field has many uses for automated and remote-controlled technology. For example, if a tissue sample is only handled in the laboratory by a robotic handling system, then it will never come into contact with a human. Such a system not only helps to automate the medical testing process, but it also helps to reduce the chances of…

  3. NASA Robotic Neurosurgery Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The detection of tissue interface (e.g., normal tissue, cancer, tumor) has been limited clinically to tactile feedback, temperature monitoring, and the use of a miniature ultrasound probe for tissue differentiation during surgical operations, In neurosurgery, the needle used in the standard stereotactic CT or MRI guided brain biopsy provides no information about the tissue being sampled. The tissue sampled depends entirely upon the accuracy with which the localization provided by the preoperative CT or MRI scan is translated to the intracranial biopsy site. In addition, no information about the tissue being traversed by the needle (e.g., a blood vessel) is provided. Hemorrhage due to the biopsy needle tearing a blood vessel within the brain is the most devastating complication of stereotactic CT/MRI guided brain biopsy. A robotic neurosurgery testbed has been developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a spin-off of technologies from space, aeronautics and medical programs. The invention entitled "Robotic Neurosurgery Leading to Multimodality Devices for Tissue Identification" is nearing a state ready for commercialization. The devices will: 1) improve diagnostic accuracy and precision of general surgery, with near term emphasis on stereotactic brain biopsy, 2) automate tissue identification, with near term emphasis on stereotactic brain biopsy, to permit remote control of the procedure, and 3) reduce morbidity for stereotactic brain biopsy. The commercial impact from this work is the potential development of a whole new generation of smart surgical tools to increase the safety, accuracy and efficiency of surgical procedures. Other potential markets include smart surgical tools for tumor ablation in neurosurgery, general exploratory surgery, prostate cancer surgery, and breast cancer surgery.

  4. NASA Robotic Neurosurgery Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The detection of tissue interface (e.g., normal tissue, cancer, tumor) has been limited clinically to tactile feedback, temperature monitoring, and the use of a miniature ultrasound probe for tissue differentiation during surgical operations. In neurosurgery, the needle used in the standard stereotactic CT (Computational Tomography) or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) guided brain biopsy provides no information about the tissue being sampled. The tissue sampled depends entirely upon the accuracy with which the localization provided by the preoperative CT or MRI scan is translated to the intracranial biopsy site. In addition, no information about the tissue being traversed by the needle (e.g., a blood vessel) is provided. Hemorrhage due to the biopsy needle tearing a blood vessel within the brain is the most devastating complication of stereotactic CT/MRI guided brain biopsy. A robotic neurosurgery testbed has been developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a spin-off of technologies from space, aeronautics and medical programs. The invention entitled 'Robotic Neurosurgery Leading to Multimodality Devices for Tissue Identification' is nearing a state ready for commercialization. The devices will: 1) improve diagnostic accuracy and precision of general surgery, with near term emphasis on stereotactic brain biopsy, 2) automate tissue identification, with near term emphasis on stereotactic brain biopsy, to permit remote control of the procedure, and 3) reduce morbidity for stereotactic brain biopsy. The commercial impact from this work is the potential development of a whole new generation of smart surgical tools to increase the safety, accuracy and efficiency of surgical procedures. Other potential markets include smart surgical tools for tumor ablation in neurosurgery, general exploratory surgery, prostate cancer surgery, and breast cancer surgery.

  5. Safety and Efficacy of At-Home Robotic Locomotion Therapy in Individuals with Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: A Prospective, Pre-Post Intervention, Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Rüdiger; Schließmann, Daniel; Plewa, Harry; Schuld, Christian; Gerner, Hans Jürgen; Weidner, Norbert; Hofer, Eberhard P.; Knestel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background The compact Motorized orthosis for home rehabilitation of Gait (MoreGait) was developed for continuation of locomotion training at home. MoreGait generates afferent stimuli of walking with the user in a semi-supine position and provides feedback about deviations from the reference walking pattern. Objective Prospective, pre-post intervention, proof-of-concept study to test the feasibility of an unsupervised home-based application of five MoreGait prototypes in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Methods Twenty-five (5 tetraplegia, 20 paraplegia) participants with chronic (mean time since injury: 5.8 ± 5.4 (standard deviation, SD) years) sensorimotor iSCI (7 ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) C, 18 AIS D; Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II): Interquartile range 9 to 16) completed the training (45 minutes / day, at least 4 days / week, 8 weeks). Baseline status was documented 4 and 2 weeks before and at training onset. Training effects were assessed after 4 and 8 weeks of therapy. Results After therapy, 9 of 25 study participants improved with respect to the dependency on walking aids assessed by the WISCI II. For all individuals, the short-distance walking velocity measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test showed significant improvements compared to baseline (100%) for both self-selected (Mean 139.4% ± 35.5% (SD)) and maximum (Mean 143.1% ± 40.6% (SD)) speed conditions as well as the endurance estimated with the six-minute walk test (Mean 166.6% ± 72.1% (SD)). One device-related adverse event (pressure sore on the big toe) occurred in over 800 training sessions. Conclusions Home-based robotic locomotion training with MoreGait is feasible and safe. The magnitude of functional improvements achieved by MoreGait in individuals with iSCI is well within the range of complex locomotion robots used in hospitals. Thus, unsupervised MoreGait training potentially represents an option to prolong effective training aiming at recovery of locomotor

  6. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  7. Prostate cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... present it is not clear if screening for prostate cancer is helpful for most men. For this reason, ...

  8. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the needles to the prostate gland. Then, very cold gas passes through the needles, creating ice balls that destroy the prostate gland. Warm salt water will flow through the catheter to keep your urethra (the tube from the bladder to ...

  9. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... PCF Spotlight Prostate Cancer Foundation and Major League Baseball Step Up To The Plate To Raise Awareness ... Foundation News Prostate Cancer Foundation and Major League Baseball Step Up To The Plate To Raise Awareness ...

  10. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Laser prostatectomy; Transurethral needle ablation; TUNA; Transurethral incision; TUIP; Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate; HoLep; Interstitial laser coagulation; ILC; Photoselective vaporization of the prostate; PVP; Transurethral ...

  11. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in ... urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or ...

  12. Prostate cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/index National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  13. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  14. Enlarged prostate - after care

    MedlinePlus

    BPH - self-care; Benign prostatic hypertrophy - self-care; Benign prostatic hyperplasia - self-care ... Your health care provider may have you take a medicine called alpha-1- blocker. Most people find that these drugs help ...

  15. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cryotherapy uses very cold temperatures to freeze and kill prostate cancer cells. The goal of cryosurgery is ... Possible short-term side effects of cryotherapy for prostate ... of the penis or scrotum Problems controlling your bladder (more ...

  16. Adaptive heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail the experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  17. Is there any association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Ceylan, Cavit; Kilinc, Fatih; Gazel, Eymen; Resorlu, Berkan; Odabas, Oner

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose We investigated the association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods The data of 440 patients who had undergone prostate biopsies due to high PSA levels and suspicious digital rectal examination findings were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of accompanying NIH IV prostatitis. The exclusion criteria were as follows: Gleason score>6, PSA level>20ng/mL, >2 positive cores, >50% cancerous tissue per biopsy, urinary tract infection, urological interventions at least 1 week previously (cystoscopy, urethral catheterization, or similar procedure), history of prostate biopsy, and history of androgen or 5-alpha reductase use. All patient's age, total PSA and free PSA levels, ratio of free to total PSA, PSA density and prostate volume were recorded. Results In total, 101 patients were included in the study. Histopathological examination revealed only PCa in 78 (77.2%) patients and PCa+NIH IV prostatitis in 23 (22.7%) patients. The median total PSA level was 7.4 (3.5–20.0) ng/mL in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group and 6.5 (0.6–20.0) ng/mL in the PCa group (p=0.67). The PSA level was≤10ng/mL in 60 (76.9%) patients in the PCa group and in 16 (69.6%) patients in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group (p=0.32). Conclusions Our study showed no statistically significant difference in PSA levels between patients with and without NIH IV prostatitis accompanying PCa. PMID:27256190

  18. Robotics Education and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Charles C.

    1993-01-01

    Describes characteristics of robots, provides a glossary of related terms, and discusses available careers in the field of robotics. Includes a list of postsecondary institutions with robotics programs. (JOW)

  19. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOEpatents

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  20. Port site metastasis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    De Bruyne, Peter; Schatteman, Peter; De Naeyer, Geert; Carpentier, Paul; Mottrie, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Port-site metastasis of prostatic adenocarcinoma is rare and usually associated with poor prognosis. We report a case of a young man with a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 4.5 years after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) and extended pelvic lymphadenectomy (ePLND) for a Gleason 7 (4+3) prostate cancer (pT3b pN0 cM0). Choline positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) demonstrated a PET positive subcutaneous recurrence in a previous trocar site accompanied by a PET positive ipsilateral inguinal lymph node. Excision of both lesions was performed, confirming the diagnosis of metastatic prostate cancer. The patient's PSA dropped significantly postoperatively enabling postponement of androgen deprivation treatment up to this date. The etiology of port-site metastasis is multifactorial, including patient and surgery related factors. Such metastases have been scarcely reported following ePLND with or without RALP. Certain surgical precautions can be made to prevent the occurrence. We summarize previously reported mechanisms of development and possible precautionary measures. PMID:26225184

  1. Prostate cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is a blood test that checks the level of PSA in your blood. In some cases, a high level of PSA could mean you have prostate cancer. But other conditions can also cause a high level, such as infection in the prostate or ...

  2. Enlarged Prostate (BPH)

    MedlinePlus

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine out of the body. As men age, their prostate grows bigger. If it gets too large, it ...

  3. Holmium laser enucleation versus simple prostatectomy for treating large prostates: Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Patrick; Alzweri, Laith; Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Somani, Bhaskar K.; Bates, Chris; Aboumarzouk, Omar M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare and evaluate the safety and efficacy of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) and simple prostatectomy for large prostate burdens, as discussion and debate continue about the optimal surgical intervention for this common pathology. Materials and methods A systematic search was conducted for studies comparing HoLEP with simple prostatectomy [open (OP), robot-assisted, laparoscopic] using a sensitive strategy and in accordance with Cochrane collaboration guidelines. Primary parameters of interest were objective measurements including maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) and post-void residual urine volume (PVR), and subjective outcomes including International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and quality of life (QoL). Secondary outcomes of interest included volume of tissue retrieved, catheterisation time, hospital stay, blood loss and serum sodium decrease. Data on baseline characteristics and complications were also collected. Where possible, comparable data were combined and meta-analysis was conducted. Results In all, 310 articles were identified and after screening abstracts (114) and full manuscripts (14), three randomised studies (263 patients) were included, which met our pre-defined inclusion criteria. All these compared HoLEP with OP. The mean transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) volume was 113.9 mL in the HoLEP group and 119.4 mL in the OP group. There was no statistically significant difference in Qmax, PVR, IPSS and QoL at 12 and 24 months between the two interventions. OP was associated with a significantly shorter operative time (P = 0.01) and greater tissue retrieved (P < 0.001). However, with HoLEP there was significantly less blood loss (P < 0.001), patients had a shorter hospital stay (P = 0.03), and were catheterised for significantly fewer hours (P = 0.01). There were no significant differences in the total number of complications recorded amongst HoLEP and OP (P = 0.80). Conclusion The results of the meta

  4. Tips and Tricks for Difficult Prostatic Artery Embolization.

    PubMed

    Bagla, Sandeep; Isaacson, Ari J

    2016-09-01

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is a promising, new, safe, minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, it can be a one of the most technically difficult interventional radiology procedures because of the challenging anatomy involved. To help achieve technical success and limit complications, the authors present here a series of tips and tricks that have been proven useful from prior PAE experience. PMID:27582612

  5. Robotic cystogastrostomy and debridement of walled-off pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Nassour, Ibrahim; Ramzan, Zeeshan; Kukreja, Sachin

    2016-09-01

    Walled-off pancreatic necrosis is a known complication of acute pancreatitis and requires intervention if symptomatic or complicated. Laparoscopic cystogastrostomy as a minimally invasive surgical intervention has been well-described in surgical literature but data on a robotic approach is limited. Here we report a case of robotic cystogastrostomy and debridement of walled-off pancreatic necrosis in a patient with a history of severe biliary pancreatitis. PMID:27039191

  6. Adipocytes promote prostate cancer stem cell self-renewal through amplification of the cholecystokinin autocrine loop

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kai-Dun; Liu, Ji; Jovanovic, Lidija; An, Jiyuan; Hill, Michelle M.; Vela, Ian; Lee, Terence Kin-Wah; Ma, Stephanie; Nelson, Colleen; Russell, Pamela J.; Clements, Judith A.; Ling, Ming-Tat

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has long been linked with prostate cancer progression, although the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. Here, we report that adipocytes promote the enrichment of prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs) through a vicious cycle of autocrine amplification. In the presence of adipocytes, prostate cancer cells actively secrete the peptide hormone cholecystokinin (CCK), which not only stimulates prostate CSC self-renewal, but also induces cathepsin B (CTSB) production of the adipocytes. In return, CTSB facilitates further CCK secretion by the cancer cells. More importantly, inactivation of CCK receptor not only suppresses CTSB secretion by the adipocytes, but also synergizes the inhibitory effect of CTSB inhibitor on adipocyte-promoted prostate CSC self-renewal. In summary, we have uncovered a novel mechanism underlying the mutual interplay between adipocytes and prostate CSCs, which may help explaining the role of adipocytes in prostate cancer progression and provide opportunities for effective intervention. PMID:26700819

  7. Investigation on Requirements of Robotic Platforms to Teach Social Skills to Individuals with Autism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, Chris; Kuester, Deitra; Sheehan, Mark; Dhanya, Sneha

    This paper reports on some of the robotic platforms used in the project AUROSO which investigates the use of robots as educationally useful interventions to improve social interactions for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Our approach to treatment uses an educational intervention based on Socially Assistive Robotics (SAR), the DIR/Floortime intervention model and social script/stories. Requirements are established and a variety of robotic models/platforms were investigated as to the feasibility of an economical, practical and efficient means of helping teach social skills to individuals with ASD for use by teachers, families, service providers and other community organizations.

  8. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant multi-robot cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    ALLIANCE is a software architecture that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of teams of heterogeneous mobile robots performing missions composed of loosely coupled, largely independent subtasks. ALLIANCE allows teams of robots, each of which possesses a variety of high-level functions that it can perform during a mission, to individually select appropriate actions throughout the mission based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and the robot`s own internal states. ALLIANCE is a fully distributed, behavior-based architecture that incorporates the use of mathematically modeled motivations (such as impatience and acquiescence) within each robot to achieve adaptive action selection. Since cooperative robotic teams usually work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, this software architecture allows the robot team members to respond robustly, reliably, flexibly, and coherently to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. The feasibility of this architecture is demonstrated in an implementation on a team of mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup.

  9. Robotic-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery for Gynecologic and Urologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    less post-operative pain management required compared to retropubic surgery, however improved study design and measurement of complications need to be further addressed. Clinical significance of significant findings for length of hospitalizations is low. Laparoscopy: benefits of robotic surgery in terms of less blood loss and fewer individuals requiring transfusions likely owing to the technical difficulty of conventional laparoscopy, in the context of study design limitations. Clinical significance of significant findings for blood loss is low. The potential link between less blood loss, improved visualization and improved functional outcomes is an important consideration for use of robotics. All studies included were observational in nature and therefore the results must be interpreted cautiously. Economic Analysis The objective of this project was to assess the economic impact of robotic-assisted laparoscopy (RAL) for endometrial, cervical, and prostate cancers in the province of Ontario. A budget impact analysis was undertaken to report direct costs associated with open surgery (OS), endoscopic laparoscopy (EL) and robotic-assisted laparoscopy (RAL) based on clinical literature review outcomes, to report a budget impact in the province based on volumes and costs from administrative data sets, and to project a future impact of RAL in Ontario. A cost-effectiveness analysis was not conducted because of the low quality evidence from the clinical literature review. Hospital costs were obtained from the Ontario Case Costing Initiative (OCCI) for the appropriate Canadian Classification of Health Intervention (CCI) codes restricted to selective ICD-10 diagnostic codes after consultation with experts in the field. Physician fees were obtained from the Ontario Schedule of Benefits (OSB) after consultation with experts in the field. Fees were costed based on operation times reported in the clinical literature for the procedures being investigated. Volumes of procedures were

  10. SCRIB expression is deregulated in human prostate cancer, and its deficiency in mice promotes prostate neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Helen B.; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Dow, Lukas E.; Ryan, Andrew; Tennstedt, Pierre; Bogani, Debora; Elsum, Imogen; Greenfield, Andy; Tuveson, David A.; Simon, Ronald; Humbert, Patrick O.

    2011-01-01

    Loss of cellular polarity is a hallmark of epithelial cancers, raising the possibility that regulators of polarity have a role in suppressing tumorigenesis. The Scribble complex is one of at least three interacting protein complexes that have a critical role in establishing and maintaining epithelial polarity. In human colorectal, breast, and endometrial cancers, expression of the Scribble complex member SCRIB is often mislocalized and deregulated. Here, we report that Scrib is indispensable for prostate homeostasis in mice. Scrib heterozygosity initiated prostate hyperplasia, while targeted biallelic Scrib loss predisposed mice to prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. Mechanistically, Scrib was shown to negatively regulate the MAPK cascade to suppress tumorigenesis. Further analysis revealed that prostate-specific loss of Scrib in mice combined with expression of an oncogenic Kras mutation promoted the progression of prostate cancer that recapitulated the human disease. The clinical significance of the work in mice was highlighted by our observation that SCRIB deregulation strongly correlated with poor survival in human prostate cancer. These data suggest that the polarity network could provide a new avenue for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21965329

  11. Barriers and Facilitators of Prostate Cancer Screening among Filipino Men in Hawai’i

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Francisco A.; Landier, Wendy; Ishida, Dianne; Bell, Rose; Cuaresma, Charlene F.; Misola, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To examine perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and to identify potential interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening among Filipino men in Hawai’i. Design Exploratory, qualitative. Setting Community-based settings in Hawai’i. Sample 20 Filipino men, 40 years old or older Methods Focus group discussions were tape-recorded, transcribed, and content analysis performed for emergent themes. Main Research Variables Perceptions regarding prostate cancer, barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and culturally-relevant interventional strategies Findings Perceptions of prostate cancer included fatalism, hopelessness, and dread. Misconceptions regarding causes of prostate cancer, such as frequency of sexual activity, were identified. Barriers to prostate cancer screening included lack of awareness of the need for screening, reticence to seek healthcare when feeling well, fear of cancer diagnosis, financial issues, time constraints, and embarrassment. Presence of urinary symptoms, personal experience with family or friend who had cancer, and receiving recommendations from a healthcare provider regarding screening were facilitators for screening. Potential culturally-relevant interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening included screening recommendations from health professionals and cancer survivors; radio/television commercials and newspaper articles targeted to the Filipino community; informational brochures in Tagalog, Ilocano and/or English; and interactive, educational forums facilitated by Filipino multilingual, male healthcare professionals. Conclusions Culturally-relevant interventions are needed that address barriers to prostate cancer screening participation and misconceptions about causes of prostate cancer. Implications for Nursing Findings provide a foundation for future research regarding development of interventional

  12. Surgical therapy for benign prostatic hypertrophy/bladder outflow obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Thiruchelvam, Nikesh

    2014-01-01

    Monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with endoscopic electrocautery remains the gold standard surgical technique for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) by which all new procedures are compared. We reviewed the current literature, and international urological guidelines and consensus opinion on various surgical options for BPH and present a brief overview of alternative techniques including bipolar TURP, transurethral incision of the prostate, transurethral vaporization of the prostate, laser prostatectomy (with holmium, thulium and potassium titanyl phosphate greenlight lasers) and open prostatectomy (with mention of new techniques including laparoscopic and robotic prostatectomy). Emerging, experimental and less established techniques are also described including endoscopic heat generation (transurethral microwave thermotherapy, radiofrequency transurethral needle ablation of the prostate, high intensity focused ultrasound, hot water induced thermotherapy, pulsed electromagnetic radiofrequency), injection therapy (transurethral ethanol ablation and botulinum toxin) and mechanical devices (intraprostatic stents and urethral lift devices). Despite a plethora of surgical options, none have realistically improved outcomes in the long-term compared with TURP. Improvements have been made on improving surgical morbidity and time in hospital. Questions remain in this area, including what specific elements of bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) result in damage to the urinary tract, how does BPH contribute to BOO and how much prostate volume reduction is necessary to relieve BOO or lower urinary tract symptoms. Given these unanswered questions and the multitude of procedures available, it is clear that appropriate counselling is necessary in all men who undergo BPH surgery. PMID:24744521

  13. Penile Rehabilitation Strategies Among Prostate Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in technical and surgical approaches, erectile dysfunction (ED) remains the most common complication among prostate cancer survivors, adversely impacting quality of life. This article analyzes the concept and rationale of ED rehabilitation programs in prostate cancer patients. Emphasis is placed on the pathophysiology of ED after diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer to understand the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in clinical practice. Available evidence shows that ED is a transient complication following prostate biopsy and cancer diagnosis, with no evidence to support rehabilitation programs in these patients. A small increase in ED and in the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors was reported in patients under active surveillance. Patients should be advised that active surveillance is unlikely to severely affect erectile function, but clinically significant changes in sexual function are possible. Focal therapy could be an intermediate option for patients demanding treatment/refusing active surveillance and invested in maintaining sexual activity. Unlike radical prostatectomy, there is no support for PDE5 inhibitor use to prevent ED after highly conformal external radiotherapy or low-dose rate brachytherapy. Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for ED in prostate cancer patients, the success rates of rehabilitation programs remain low in clinical practice. Alternative strategies to prevent ED appear warranted, with attention toward neuromodulation, nerve grafting, nerve preservation, stem cell therapy, investigation of neuroprotective interventions, and further refinements of radiotherapy dosing and delivery methods. PMID:27222641

  14. Penile Rehabilitation Strategies Among Prostate Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in technical and surgical approaches, erectile dysfunction (ED) remains the most common complication among prostate cancer survivors, adversely impacting quality of life. This article analyzes the concept and rationale of ED rehabilitation programs in prostate cancer patients. Emphasis is placed on the pathophysiology of ED after diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer to understand the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in clinical practice. Available evidence shows that ED is a transient complication following prostate biopsy and cancer diagnosis, with no evidence to support rehabilitation programs in these patients. A small increase in ED and in the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors was reported in patients under active surveillance. Patients should be advised that active surveillance is unlikely to severely affect erectile function, but clinically significant changes in sexual function are possible. Focal therapy could be an intermediate option for patients demanding treatment/refusing active surveillance and invested in maintaining sexual activity. Unlike radical prostatectomy, there is no support for PDE5 inhibitor use to prevent ED after highly conformal external radiotherapy or low-dose rate brachytherapy. Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for ED in prostate cancer patients, the success rates of rehabilitation programs remain low in clinical practice. Alternative strategies to prevent ED appear warranted, with attention toward neuromodulation, nerve grafting, nerve preservation, stem cell therapy, investigation of neuroprotective interventions, and further refinements of radiotherapy dosing and delivery methods. PMID:27222641

  15. Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  16. Robotic Stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    UltraStrip Systems, Inc.'s M-200 removes paint from the hulls of ships faster than traditional grit-blasting methods. And, it does so without producing toxic airborne particles common to traditional methods. The M-2000 magnetically attaches itself to the hull of the ship. Its water jets generate 40,000 pounds of pressure per square inch, blasting away paint down to the ships steel substrate. The only by product is water and dried paint chips and these are captured by a vacuum system so no toxic residue can escape. It was built out of a partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the National Robotics Engineering Consortium.

  17. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  19. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  20. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing ... helps slow the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. ...

  1. Dual arm robotic system with sensory input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozguner, U.

    1987-01-01

    The need for dual arm robots in space station assembly and satellite maintainance is of increasing significance. Such robots will be in greater demand in the future when numerous tasks will be assigned to them to relieve the direct intervention of humans in space. Technological demands from these robots will be high. They will be expected to perform high speed tasks with a certain degree of autonomy. Various levels of sensing will have to be used in a sophisticated control scheme. Ongoing research in control, sensing and real-time software to produce a two-arm robotic system than can accomplish generic assembly tasks is discussed. The control hierarchy and the specific control approach are discussed. A decentralized implementation of model-reference adaptive control using Variable Structure controllers and the incorporation of tactile feedback is considered.

  2. Performance Evaluation Methods for Assistive Robotic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Katherine M.; Feil-Seifer, David J.; Matarić, Maja J.; Yanco, Holly A.

    Robots have been developed for several assistive technology domains, including intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders, eldercare, and post-stroke rehabilitation. Assistive robots have also been used to promote independent living through the use of devices such as intelligent wheelchairs, assistive robotic arms, and external limb prostheses. Work in the broad field of assistive robotic technology can be divided into two major research phases: technology development, in which new devices, software, and interfaces are created; and clinical, in which assistive technology is applied to a given end-user population. Moving from technology development towards clinical applications is a significant challenge. Developing performance metrics for assistive robots poses a related set of challenges. In this paper, we survey several areas of assistive robotic technology in order to derive and demonstrate domain-specific means for evaluating the performance of such systems. We also present two case studies of applied performance measures and a discussion regarding the ubiquity of functional performance measures across the sampled domains. Finally, we present guidelines for incorporating human performance metrics into end-user evaluations of assistive robotic technologies.

  3. Spectrum of prostatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate gland of male reproductive system is about the size of walnut and surrounds the urethra. Most frequently encountered diseases affecting prostate are Prostatitis, Benign prostatic hyperplasia and Prostatic cancer .Our objective of study was to evaluate the spectrum and correlation of prostatic lesions with presenting complaints of patient. Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Pathology Department of Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences during the period of 1st January 2010 to December 2012. Pathology department of Dow Medical College collected specimens from both Civil Hospital and Lyari General Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. Specimens were taken through transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy and radical prostatectomy. A questionnaire was made and information including name, age, ward name of hospital, laboratory number, clinical diagnosis and symptoms were noted in it. Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result During the targeted months, 48 prostatic specimens were received with a mean age of 65.7 + -7.6 years. Common presenting complains were urinary retention in 23(47.9%) patients, followed by dribbling in 12(25%). Out of 48 patients, 42 have Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and 6 have Prostatic Adenocarcinoma. Both Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostatic Adenocarcinoma were more prevalent in the age group of 60-70 years. Conclusion Frequency of prostatic cancer is on the rise and measures should be taken for its early detection. Screening protocols and awareness programs need to be introduced. Screening programs should be focused on level of androgens and molecular pathogenesis. PMID:24063260

  4. Benchmarks for Operative Outcomes of Robotic and Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Alemozaffar, Mehrdad; Sanda, Martin; Yecies, Derek; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Kenfield, Stacey A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) has become increasingly common; however, there have been no nationwide, population-based, non–claims-based studies to evaluate differences in outcomes between RALP and open radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). Objective To determine surgical, oncologic, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes following RALP and RRP in a nationwide cohort. Design, setting, and participants We identified 903 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2000 and 2010 who underwent radical prostatectomy using RALP (n = 282) or RRP (n = 621) as primary treatment. Intervention Radical prostatectomy. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis We compared patients undergoing RALP or RRP across a range of perioperative, oncologic, and HRQOL outcomes. Results and limitations Use of RALP increased during the study period, constituting 85.2% of study subjects in 2009, up from 4.5% in 2003. Patients undergoing RALP compared to RRP were less likely to have a lymph node dissection (51.5% vs 85.4%; p < 0.0001), had less blood loss (207.4 ml vs 852.3 ml; p < 0.0001), were less likely to receive blood transfusions (4.3% vs 30.3%; p < 0.0001), and had shorter hospital stays (1.8 d vs 2.9 d; p < 0.0001). Surgical, oncologic, and HRQOL outcomes did not differ significantly among the groups. In multivariate logistic regression models, there were no significant differences in 3- or 5-yr recurrence-free survival comparing RALP versus RRP (hazard ratios: 0.98 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.46–2.08] and 0.75 [95% CI, 0.18–3.11], respectively). Conclusions In a nationwide cohort of patients undergoing surgical treatment for prostate cancer, RALP was associated with shorter hospital stay, and lower blood loss and transfusion rates than RRP. Surgical oncologic and HRQOL outcomes were similar between groups. Patient summary We studied men throughout the United States with

  5. Robots and manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heer, E.

    1981-11-01

    Robots are defined and described for various applications. The key feature of robots is programmability, which allows teleoperation, repair work in hazardous situations, and unsupervised operation in industrial functions. Two types of robots now exist: special purpose, with equipment for a specific task; and general purpose, which include nonservo-controlled robots, servo-controlled robots, and sensory control robots. Sensory robots are the most sophisticated, and are equipped with both internal control sensors and external sensors such as TV cameras, pressure detectors, laser range finders, etc. Sensory feedback to a central computer enables the robots to make appropriate modifications to the control program to adapt to new situations. Pattern recognition and scans for size are features of the TV sensors, and programs to develop a universal effector (hand) are outlined. Finally, robot programming in terms of manual, walkthrough, and textual methods are described, and the potential uses of robots for space and undersea construction and repair are discussed.

  6. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  7. From training to robot behavior: towards custom scenarios for robotics in training programs for ASD.

    PubMed

    Gillesen, J C C; Barakova, E I; Huskens, B E B M; Feijs, L M G

    2011-01-01

    Successful results have been booked with using robotics in therapy interventions for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, to make the best use of robots, the behavior of the robot needs to be tailored to the learning objectives and personal characteristics of each unique individual with ASD. Currently training practices include adaptation of the training programs to the condition of each individual client, based on the particular learning goals or the mood of the client. To include robots in such training will imply that the trainers are enabled to control a robot through an intuitive interface. For this purpose we use a visual programming environment called TiViPE as an interface between robot and trainer, where scenarios for specific learning objectives can easily be put together as if they were graphical LEGO-like building blocks. This programming platform is linked to the NAO robot from Aldebaran Robotics. A process flow for converting trainers' scenarios was developed to make sure the gist of the original scenarios was kept intact. We give an example of how a scenario is processed, and implemented into the clinical setting, and how detailed parts of a scenario can be developed. PMID:22275585

  8. Robotic Vision for Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Vision system for robotic welder looks at weld along axis of welding electrode. Gives robot view of most of weld area, including yet-unwelded joint, weld pool, and completed weld bead. Protected within welding-torch body, lens and fiber bundle give robot closeup view of weld in progress. Relayed to video camera on robot manipulator frame, weld image provides data for automatic control of robot motion and welding parameters.

  9. Development of a Barbershop-Based Cancer Communication Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Wynn, Theresa A.; Lewis, Ivey; Litaker, Mark S.; Jeames, Sanford; Huckaby, Francine; Stroud, Leonardo; Southward, Penny L.; Simons, Virgil; Lee, Crystal; Ross, Louis; Mitchell, Theodies

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate and colorectal cancer (CRC) rates are disproportionately high among African-American men. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an intervention in which barbers were trained to educate clients about early detection for prostate and CRC. Design/methodology/approach: Working with an advisory panel of local…

  10. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  11. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  12. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  13. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  14. Robotic sacrocolpopexy

    PubMed Central

    Danforth, Teresa L.; Aron, Monish; Ginsberg, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a prevalent condition with 1 in 9 women seeking surgical treatment by the age of 80 years. Goals of treatment are relief and prevention of symptoms, and restoration of pelvic floor support. The gold standard for surgical treatment of POP has been abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC). However, emerging technologies have allowed for more minimally invasive approach including the use of laparoscopic assisted sacrocolpopexy and robotic assisted sacrocolpopexy (RASC). We performed a PubMed literature search for sacrocolpopexy, “robotic sacrocolpopexy” and “RASC” and reviewed all retrospective, prospective and randomized controlled trials. The techniques, objective and subjective outcomes and complications are discussed. The most frequent technique involves a polypropylene Y mesh attached to the anterior and posterior walls of the vagina with the single arm attached to the sacrum. Multiple concomitant procedures have been described including hysterectomy, anti-incontinence procedures and concomitant vaginal prolapse repairs. There are few studies comparing RASC to ASC, with the longest follow-up data showing no difference in subjective and objective outcomes. Anatomic success rates have been reported at 79-100% with up to 9% of patients requiring successive surgery for recurrence. Subjective success is poorly defined, but has been reported at 88-97%. Most common complications are urinary retention, urinary tract infection, bladder injury and vaginal mucosal injury. Mesh exposure is reported in up to 10% of patients. RASC allows for a minimally invasive approach to treatment of POP with comparable outcomes and low complication rates. PMID:25097320

  15. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Androgen deprivation therapy; ADT; Androgen suppression therapy; Combined androgen blockade ... Androgens cause prostate cancer cells to grow. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer lowers the effect level of ...

  16. Hexapod Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begody, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    The project I am working on at NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is a hexapod robot. This project was started by various engineers at the Trick Lab. The goal of this project is to have the hexapod track a yellow ball or possibly another object from left to right and up/down. The purpose is to have it track an object like a real creature. The project will consist of using software and hardware. This project started with a hexapod robot which uses a senor bar to track a yellow ball but with a limited field of vision. The sensor bar acts as the robots "head." Two servos will be added to the hexapod to create flexion and extension of the head. The neck and head servos will have to be programmed to be added to the original memory map of the existing servos. I will be using preexisting code. The main programming language that will be used to add to the preexisting code is C++. The trick modeling and simulation software will also be used in the process to improve its tracking and movement. This project will use a trial and error approach, basically seeing what works and what does not. The first step is to initially understand how the hexapod works. To get a general understanding of how the hexapod maneuvers and plan on how to had a neck and head servo which works with the rest of the body. The second step would be configuring the head and neck servos with the leg servos. During this step, limits will be programmed specifically for the each servo. By doing this, the servo is limited to how far it can rotate both clockwise and counterclockwise and this is to prevent hardware damage. The hexapod will have two modes in which it works in. The first mode will be if the sensor bar does not detect an object. If the object it is programmed to look for is not in its view it will automatically scan from left to right 3 times then up and down once. The second mode will be if the sensor bar does detect the object. In this mode the hexapod will track the object from left to

  17. Can Robotic Interaction Improve Joint Attention Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Zachary E.; Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy R.; Bekele, Esubalew; Zhang, Lian; Crittendon, Julie A.; Weitlauf, Amy F.; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    Although it has often been argued that clinical applications of advanced technology may hold promise for addressing impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relatively few investigations have indexed the impact of intervention and feedback approaches. This pilot study investigated the application of a novel robotic interaction…

  18. Screening for prostate cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weirich, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both the survival and cure rates for many forms of cancer, unfortunately the same has not been true for prostate cancer. In fact, the age-adjusted death rate from prostate cancer has not significantly improved since 1949, and prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in American men, causing the second highest cancer mortality rate. Topics discussed include the following: serum testosterone levels; diagnosis; mortality statistics; prostate-sppecific antigen (PSA) tests; and the Occupational Medicine Services policy at LeRC.

  19. Small robot autonomy in an integrated environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Barry J.; Young, Stuart H.

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Computational and Information Sciences Directorate (CISD) has long been involved in autonomous asset control, specifically as it relates to small robots. Over the past year, CISD has demonstrated the ability to control and view streaming video from an FCS-surrogate PackBot robotic system over multiple network types (Soldier Radio Waveform (SRW), 802.11), as well as tasking the robot to follow both manually (ARL DigitalInk) and autonomously planned (CERDEC C2ORE) GPS waypoint routes. These capabilities remove the "stand alone system" limitations of traditional small robot systems and allow any and all data produced by such platforms to be available to anyone on the network, while at the same time reducing the amount of operator intervention required to utilize a robot. However, assumptions were made about the paths the robot was to traverse, specifically that they would be free from major obstacles. To address these system limitations, CISD is implementing obstacle detection and avoidance (OD/OA) on the PackBot. The OD/OA utilizes COTS ranging sensors with indoor and/or outdoor capabilities, and leverages existing software algorithm components into the existing CISD robotic control architecture. These new capabilities are available in an integrated environment consisting of common command and control (C2) and network interfaces and on multiple platforms (ARL ATRV, LynchBot, PackBot, etc.) due to the modular and platform/network independent architecture that ARL employs. This paper will describe the current robotic control architecture employed by ARL and provide brief descriptions of existing capabilities. Further, the paper will discuss the small robot obstacle detection/avoidance integration effort performed by ARL, along with some preliminary results on its performance and benefits.

  20. Diminished suture strength after robotic needle driver manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ricchiuti, Daniel; Cerone, Jeffrey; Shie, Scott; Jetley, Ajay; Noe, Donald; Kovacik, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery has become a routine surgical option for the treatment of prostate cancer. Despite its technical advancements, the da Vinci(®) Surgical System still lacks haptic feedback to the surgeon, resulting in a maximally applied compressive force by the robotic needle driver during every grasping maneuver. Without this perceptional sense of touch and grip control, repetitive robotic needle driver manipulation may unknowingly lead to irreparable damage to fine sutures used during delicate anastomotic repairs. For robotic prostatectomy, any such loss of integrity can potentially lead to premature breakdown of the urethrovesical anastomosis and urine extravasation, especially important for a less-than-perfectly fashioned anastomotic repair. Although it has already been established that overhandling of sutures using handheld laparoscopic instruments can lead to reduced suture strength, it has not been established to what extent this may occur after robotic surgical procedures. We present analytical data and analyses concerning the failure strength of fine sutures commonly used for urethrovesical anastomotic repair during robotic prostatectomy, after repetitive robotic needle driver manipulation. When compared with noncompromised monofilament suture controls, the average maximal failure force after repetitive robotic manipulation was significantly reduced by 35% (p < 0.0001). Similarly, the average maximal failure force of braided sutures was significantly reduced after repetitive robotic manipulation by 3% (p = 0.009). This work demonstrates that significant reductions in monofilament and braided suture strength integrity can occur after customary repetitive manipulation by robotic needle drivers in an ex vivo model, with further research warranted in the in vivo setting. PMID:20653422

  1. Robot assisted radical prostatectomy: the new standard?

    PubMed

    Laviana, A A; Williams, S B; King, E D; Chuang, R J; Hu, J C

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, the robotic assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) has grown increasingly popular and quickly equated itself as the most commonly used modality to treat locally-confined prostate cancer. Despite increased utilization, there is limited comparative research demonstrating superiority for RARP over the conventional radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). Furthermore, though perioperative and short-term oncologic outcomes are equivalent if not superior for the robotic approach, the optimal utilization of robotic technology remains to be determined with cost serving as a primary driver. In this review, we performed a literature search to identify comparative effectiveness research as it pertains to RARP versus RRP. We performed a PubMed literature search for a review of articles published between 2000 and 2014 using the following keywords to identify pertinent research: "robot or robotic prostatectomy", "open or retropubic prostatectomy", "cost", "resource utilization". Long-term data comparing RARP and RRP remains limited, though short-term positive surgical margins, biochemical recurrence-free survival, and need for adjuvant therapy appear at least equivocal, if not in favor of RARP versus RRP. Functional outcomes including return of continence and potency favor RARP while cost still favors RRP. Nonetheless, the generalization of results remains difficult with surgeon volume playing a large role in improving efficiency and quality. For the foreseeable future, an increasing number of prostatectomies will continue to be performed robotically. Though RARP appears to offer improved functional outcomes with good short-term oncologic outcomes, there is a need for longer-term studies to assess the true value of RARP. Outcomes aside, rigorous, prospective randomized-controlled trials must also be performed on the cost-effectiveness of RARP to determine its overall utility in an era of health care delivery reform. PMID:25424387

  2. Multiple robot systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    1987-01-01

    Viewgraphs from a presentation on multiple robot systems in space are included. Topics covered include categories of robots in space; scenarios of robot applications in space; some characteristics of robots in space; and some interesting problems and issues.

  3. Seminal Vesicle Leiomyoma Mimicking Extra-prostatic Extension of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Stacy J.; Lin, Frank C.; Eldersveld, Jordan M.; Phung, Michael C.; Walker, Jonathan R.; Nguyen, Tan T.

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are common smooth muscle neoplasms; however, leiomyomas of the seminal vesicles are extremely rare. We report a case of seminal vesicle leiomyoma in a 55-year-old African American male who underwent robot assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) for Gleason 8 (4 + 4) adenocarcinoma. An incidental nodule arising from the left seminal vesicle was discovered during surgery, complicating the surgical dissection and suggesting extra-prostatic extension. The histologic findings in this case raised the possibility that this seminal vesicle leiomyoma may have arisen from a remnant of the mid-portion of the Müllerian duct; however, a thorough immunohistochemical (IHC) workup disproved this theory. PMID:27169020

  4. Humanoid Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Strawser, Phillip A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank N. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a torso, a pair of arms, two hands, a neck, and a head. The torso extends along a primary axis and presents a pair of shoulders. The pair of arms movably extend from a respective one of the pair of shoulders. Each of the arms has a plurality of arm joints. The neck movably extends from the torso along the primary axis. The neck has at least one neck joint. The head movably extends from the neck along the primary axis. The head has at least one head joint. The shoulders are canted toward one another at a shrug angle that is defined between each of the shoulders such that a workspace is defined between the shoulders.

  5. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  6. Modeling robot contour processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, D. E.; Edsall, A. C.

    Robot contour processes include those with contact force like car body grinding or deburring of complex castings, as well as those with little or no contact force like inspection. This paper describes ways of characterizing, identifying, and estimating contours and robot trajectories. Contour and robot are modeled as stochastic processes in order to emphasize that both successive robot cycles and successive industrial workpieces are similar but not exactly the same. The stochastic models can be used to identify the state of a workpiece or process, or to design a filter to estimate workpiece, shape and robot position from robot-based measurements.

  7. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  8. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications. PMID:23582470

  9. Hepcidin regulation in prostate and its disruption in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tesfay, Lia; Clausen, Kathryn A.; Kim, Jin W.; Hegde, Poornima; Wang, Xiaohong; Miller, Lance D.; Deng, Zhiyong; Blanchette, Nicole; Arvedson, Tara; Miranti, Cindy K.; Babitt, Jodie L.; Lin, Herbert Y.; Peehl, Donna M.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.

    2015-01-01

    Hepcidin is a circulating peptide hormone made by the liver that is a central regulator of systemic iron uptake and recycling. Here we report that prostate epithelial cells also synthesize hepcidin, and that synthesis and secretion of hepcidin are markedly increased in prostate cancer cells and tissue. Prostatic hepcidin functions as an autocrine hormone, decreasing cell surface ferroportin, an iron exporter, increasing intracellular iron retention, and promoting prostate cancer cell survival. Synthesis of hepcidin in prostate cancer is controlled by a unique intersection of pathways that involves BMP4/7, IL6, Wnt, and the dual BMP and Wnt antagonist, SOSTDC1. Epigenetic silencing of SOSTDC1 through methylation is increased in prostate cancer, and is associated with accelerated disease progression in prostate cancer patients. These results establish a new connection between iron metabolism and prostate cancer, and suggest that prostatic dysregulation of hepcidin contributes to prostate cancer growth and progression. PMID:25858146

  10. Competencies Identification for Robotics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Le D.

    A study focused on the task of identifying competencies for robotics training. The level of robotics training was limited to that of robot technicians. Study objectives were to obtain a list of occupational competencies; to rank their order of importance; and to compare opinions from robot manufacturers, robot users, and robotics educators…

  11. The Prostate Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Frederico R.; Romero, Antonio W.; Filho, Thadeu Brenny; Kulysz, David; Oliveira, Fernando C., Jr.; Filho, Renato Tambara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To help students, residents, and general practitioners to improve the technique, skills, and reproducibility of their prostate examination. Methods: We developed a comprehensive guideline outlining prostate anatomy, indications, patient preparation, positioning, technique, findings, and limitations of this ancient art of urological…

  12. PROSTATE AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project offers the very distinct advantages of human relevance and enhanced susceptibility in the evaluation of environmental impacts on prostate development. The goal of this pilot project is to build a platform to evaluate the developmental origins of later life prostat...

  13. Influence of intrafraction motion on margins for prostate radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Litzenberg, Dale W. . E-mail: litzen@umich.edu; Balter, James M.; Hadley, Scott W.; Sandler, Howard M.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Levine, Lisa

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of intrafraction intervention on margins for prostate radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven supine prostate patients with three implanted transponders were studied. The relative transponder positions were monitored for 8 min and combined with previously measured data on prostate position relative to skin marks. Margins were determined for situations of (1) skin-based positioning, and (2) pretreatment transponder positioning. Intratreatment intervention was simulated assuming conditions of (1) continuous tracking, and (2) a 3-mm threshold for position correction. Results: For skin-based setup without and with inclusion of intrafraction motion, prostate treatments would have required average margins of 8.0, 7.3, and 10.0 mm and 8.2, 10.2, and 12.5 mm, about the left-right, anterior-posterior, and cranial-caudal directions, respectively. Positioning by prostate markers at the start of the treatment fraction reduced these values to 1.8, 5.8, and 7.1 mm, respectively. Interbeam adjustment further reduced margins to an average of 1.4, 2.3, and 1.8 mm. Intrabeam adjustment yielded margins of 1.3, 1.5, and 1.5 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Significant reductions in margins might be achieved by repositioning the patient before each beam, either radiographically or electromagnetically. However, 2 of the 11 patients would have benefited from continuous target tracking and threshold-based intervention.

  14. Computer guidance system for single-incision bimanual robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marina; Turini, Giuseppe; Petroni, Gianluigi; Niccolini, Marta; Menciassi, Arianna; Ferrari, Mauro; Mosca, Franco; Ferrari, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of surgical robotics is following the progress of developments in Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS), which is moving towards Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery (SILS) procedures. The complexity of these techniques has favored the introduction of robotic surgical systems. New bimanual robots, which are completely inserted into the patient's body, have been proposed in order to enhance the surgical gesture in SILS procedures. However, the limited laparoscopic view and the focus on the end-effectors, together with the use of complex robotic devices inside the patient's abdomen, may lead to unexpected collisions, e.g., between the surrounding anatomical organs not involved in the intervention and the surgical robot. This paper describes a computer guidance system, based on patient-specific data, designed to provide intraoperative navigation and assistance in SILS robotic interventions. The navigator has been tested in simulations of some of the surgical tasks involved in a cholecystectomy, using a synthetic anthropomorphic mannequin. The results demonstrate the usability and efficacy of the navigation system, underlining the importance of avoiding unwanted collisions between the robot arms and critical organs. The proposed computer guidance software is able to integrate any bimanual surgical robot design. PMID:22687053

  15. Simultaneous Robot-Assisted Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Partial Nephrectomy and Standard Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hung; Kim, Hong Wook; Oh, Cheol Kyu; Song, Jae Mann; Chung, Byung Ha; Hong, Sung Joon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, patients with urologic malignancies are treated with robot-assisted surgery and the expanded role of robot-assisted surgery includes even those patients with two concomitant primary urologic malignancies. In an effort to further reduce port site-related morbidity, robot-assisted laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (RLESS) has been developed. Therefore, we present herein our early experience and feasibility of simultaneous RLESS partial nephrectomy and standard robotrobot-assisted laparoendoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) on 3 patients with synchronous renal masses and prostate cancer. PMID:24532529

  16. Robotic Surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic

    2007-03-01

    ZAPATA ENGINEERING challenged our engineers and scientists, which included robotics expertise from Carnegie Mellon University, to design a solution to meet our client's requirements for rapid digital geophysical and radiological data collection of a munitions test range with no down-range personnel. A prime concern of the project was to minimize exposure of personnel to unexploded ordnance and radiation. The field season was limited by extreme heat, cold and snow. Geographical Information System (GIS) tools were used throughout this project to accurately define the limits of mapped areas, build a common mapping platform from various client products, track production progress, allocate resources and relate subsurface geophysical information to geographical features for use in rapidly reacquiring targets for investigation. We were hopeful that our platform could meet the proposed 35 acres per day, towing both a geophysical package and a radiological monitoring trailer. We held our breath and crossed our fingers as the autonomous Speedrower began to crawl across the playa lakebed. We met our proposed production rate, and we averaged just less than 50 acres per 12-hour day using the autonomous platform with a path tracking error of less than +/- 4 inches. Our project team mapped over 1,800 acres in an 8-week (4 days per week) timeframe. The expertise of our partner, Carnegie Mellon University, was recently demonstrated when their two autonomous vehicle entries finished second and third at the 2005 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Grand Challenge. 'The Grand Challenge program was established to help foster the development of autonomous vehicle technology that will some day help save the lives of Americans who are protecting our country on the battlefield', said DARPA Grand Challenge Program Manager, Ron Kurjanowicz. Our autonomous remote-controlled vehicle (ARCV) was a modified New Holland 2550 Speedrower retrofitted to allow the machine

  17. Vocal Production of Young Children with Disabilities during Child-Robot Interactions. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Derryberry, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a socially interactive robot on the vocalization production of five children with disabilities (4 with autism, 1 with a sensory processing disorder) were the focus of the intervention study described in this research report. The interventions with each child were conducted over 4 or 5 days in the children's homes and involved…

  18. Uncovering myths and transforming realities among low-SES African-American men: implications for reducing prostate cancer disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Joann T.; Webster, J. DeWitt; Fields, Norma J.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Prostate cancer provides the most dramatic evidence of cancer disparities based on race and ethnicity among U.S. men. African-American men still hold a commanding lead in both prostate cancer incidence and mortality, particularly among those of low socioeconomic status (SES) and the medically underserved. Therefore, the need for early intervention persists. The purpose of this exploratory pilot study was to: a) assess the knowledge of a cohort of low-SES African-American men regarding prostate health/prostate cancer, and b) uncover myths/misinformation as barriers to prostate health decisions and behaviors. PROCEDURES: Asymptomatic African-American men participated in focus groups to candidly discuss: a) health concerns, b) prostate health, c) prostate cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment, and d) factors influencing prostate health decisions/behaviors. FINDINGS: Participants revealed sociocultural and psychological barriers: myths and lack of accurate/adequate knowledge about prostate health and cancer, fear, denial and apathy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest factors that may explain the reluctance and limited participation in prostate health and prostate cancer services among medically underserved, socioeconomically disadvantaged, African-American men. Lack of knowledge, which affects all barriers to care, is amenable to change. Therefore, improvements in prostate cancer outcomes are achievable through culturally and linguistically appropriate health education tailored to their specific needs. PMID:15540880

  19. Robotic Lander Prototype

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers successfully integrated and completed system testing on a new robotic lander recently at Teledyne Brown Engineering’s facility in Huntsville in support of the Robotic Lunar Lander ...

  20. Robotic space colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, P.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in these technologies, with a particular focus on experimental state-of-the-art robot work crew system demonstrations at JPL, that are being conducted now to begin to realize the futuristic robotic colony vision.

  1. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Mike C.

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Comms is the communication server that transmits information between one or more robots using the RIK and one or more user interfaces. It supports event handling and multiple hardware communication protocols.

  2. Robots and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, James S.

    1984-01-01

    Spectacular advances in microcomputers are forging new technological frontiers in robotics. For example, many factories will be totally automated. Economic implications of the new technology of robotics for the future are examined. (RM)

  3. Robotic Lander Development Project

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Robotic Lander Development Project at the Marshall Center is testing a prototype lander that will aid in the design and development of a new generation of small, smart, versatile robotic lander...

  4. Advances in urogynaecological robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Swan, Kimberly; Advincula, Arnold P

    2011-09-01

    • Urogynaecology is a subspecialty practiced by both urologists and gynaecologists specialised in treating women with pelvic floor disorders and urinary incontinence. • While urogynaecology covers a vast range of disorders, two disorders frequently managed by urogynaecologists are pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and pelvic fistulae. • Surgical intervention is often the treatment option for both POP and pelvic fistulae after all conservative options have been attempted. The daVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has applications for the minimally invasive surgical management of POP and pelvic fistulas. • The following review will address the development and current state of robotic assistance in treating these disorders. PMID:21917106

  5. Neural Cell Adhesion Protein CNTN1 Promotes the Metastatic Progression of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Judy; Ojo, Diane; Kapoor, Anil; Lin, Xiaozeng; Pinthus, Jehonathan H; Aziz, Tariq; Bismar, Tarek A; Wei, Fengxiang; Wong, Nicholas; De Melo, Jason; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Major, Pierre; Wood, Geoffrey; Peng, Hao; Tang, Damu

    2016-03-15

    Prostate cancer metastasis is the main cause of disease-related mortality. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying prostate cancer metastasis is critical for effective therapeutic intervention. In this study, we performed gene-expression profiling of prostate cancer stem-like cells (PCSC) derived from DU145 human prostate cancer cells to identify factors involved in metastatic progression. Our studies revealed contactin 1 (CNTN1), a neural cell adhesion protein, to be a prostate cancer-promoting factor. CNTN1 knockdown reduced PCSC-mediated tumor initiation, whereas CNTN1 overexpression enhanced prostate cancer cell invasion in vitro and promoted xenograft tumor formation and lung metastasis in vivo. In addition, CNTN1 overexpression in DU145 cells and corresponding xenograft tumors resulted in elevated AKT activation and reduced E-cadherin (CDH1) expression. CNTN1 expression was not readily detected in normal prostate glands, but was clearly evident on prostate cancer cells in primary tumors and lymph node and bone metastases. Tumors from 637 patients expressing CNTN1 were associated with prostate cancer progression and worse biochemical recurrence-free survival following radical prostatectomy (P < 0.05). Collectively, our findings demonstrate that CNTN1 promotes prostate cancer progression and metastasis, prompting further investigation into the mechanisms that enable neural proteins to become aberrantly expressed in non-neural malignancies. PMID:26795349

  6. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  7. Robotics research projects report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsia, T.C.

    1983-06-01

    The research results of the Robotics Research Laboratory are summarized. Areas of research include robotic control, a stand-alone vision system for industrial robots, and sensors other than vision that would be useful for image ranging, including ultrasonic and infra-red devices. One particular project involves RHINO, a 6-axis robotic arm that can be manipulated by serial transmission of ASCII command strings to its interfaced controller. (LEW)

  8. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy. PMID:27212125

  9. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy. PMID:27212125

  10. [Primary prevention of urologic tumors: prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2011-10-01

    Assessment of the role of vitamins and micronutrients in the primary prevention of prostate cancer has changed dramatically in the past 10 years. Efforts to confirm the efficacy of a single substance have not yet succeeded. Therefore, such recommendations should at present no longer be given. Consideration could even be given to discussing whether additional large-scale interventional studies are expedient in this regard. There is still solid evidence that a well-balanced moderate diet, reduced consumption of milk products, and an Asian or Mediterranean diet are not only beneficial for general good health but can also prevent the development of prostate cancer. This should be the focus of further epidemiological studies. Thus, one can certainly speak of a paradigm shift in the prevention of prostate cancer. In contrast, available data on chemoprevention with 5α-reductase inhibitors is unequivocal: intake of finasteride as well as dutasteride correlates with significantly decreased evidence for prostate cancer. Converting this result into urologic practice remains the topic of extensive controversy. PMID:21927877

  11. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-11-11

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

  12. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, Todd A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

  13. Robotic Follow Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The Robotic Follow Algorithm enables allows any robotic vehicle to follow a moving target while reactively choosing a route around nearby obstacles. The robotic follow behavior can be used with different camera systems and can be used with thermal or visual tracking as well as other tracking methods such as radio frequency tags.

  14. Robotics development programs overview

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-11-01

    This paper discusses the applications of robotics at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) continues to provide support to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many areas of Robotics and Remote Vision. An overview of the current and near term future developments are presented. The driving forces for Robotics and Vision developments at SRS include the classic reasons for industrial robotics installation (i.e. repetitive and undesirable jobs) and those reasons related to radioactive environments. Protection of personnel from both radiation and radioactive contamination benefit greatly from both Robotics and Telerobotics. Additionally, the quality of information available from remote locations benefits greatly from the ability to visually monitor and remotely sense. The systems discussed include a glovebox waste handling and bagout robot, a shielded cells robot for radioactive waste sample transfer, waste handling gantry robots, a two armed master/slave manipulator as an attachment to a gantry robot, navigation robot research/testing, demonstration of the mobile underwater remote cleaning and inspection device, a camera deployment robot to support remote crane operations and for deployment of radiation sensors directly over a hazardous site, and demonstration of a large mobile robot for high radiation environments. Development of specialized and limited life vision/viewing systems for hazardous environments is also discussed.

  15. Building a Better Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  16. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Visualization

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Visualization is the software that supports the user interface. It uses the RIK-C software to communicate information to and from the robot. The RIK-V illustrates the data in a 3D display and provides an operating picture wherein the user can task the robot.

  17. Technology Diffusion and Prostate Cancer Quality of Care

    PubMed Central

    Schroeck, Florian R.; Kaufman, Samuel R.; Jacobs, Bruce L.; Skolarus, Ted A.; Zhang, Yun; Hollenbeck, Brent K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of technological capacity with prostate cancer quality of care. Technological capacity was conceptualized as a market’s ability to provide prostate cancer treatment with new technology, including robotic prostatectomy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we used data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) – Medicare linked database from 2004–2009 to identify men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (n=46,274). We measured technological capacity as the number of providers performing robotic prostatectomy or IMRT per population in a healthcare market. We used multilevel logistic regression to assess the association of technological capacity with receiving quality care according to a set of nationally endorsed quality measures, while adjusting for patient and market characteristics. Results Overall, our findings were mixed with only subtle differences in quality of care when comparing high-tech to low-tech markets. High robotic prostatectomy capacity was associated with better adherence to some quality measures, such as avoiding unnecessary bone scans (79.8% vs. 73.0%, p=0.003) and having follow-up with urologists (67.7% vs. 62.6%, p=0.023). However, for most measures, neither high robotic prostatectomy nor high IMRT capacity were associated with significant increases in adherence rates. In fact, for one measure (treatment by a high-volume provider), high IMRT capacity was associated with lower performance (23.4% vs. 28.5%, p<0.001). Conclusion Our findings suggest that new technology is not clearly associated with higher quality of care. To improve quality, more specific efforts will be needed. PMID:25443905

  18. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer Past ... Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer / Prostate ...

  19. Optimization of prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Weir, James; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Connelly, Roger R.; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    1999-05-01

    Urologists routinely use the systematic sextant needle biopsy technique to detect prostate cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that this technique has a significant sampling error. We have developed a novel 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator based upon 201 whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various prostate needle biopsy protocols. Computerized prostate models have been developed to accurately depict the anatomy of the prostate and all individual tumor foci. We obtained 18-biopsies of each prostate model to determine the detection rates of various biopsy protocols. As a result, the 10- and 12- pattern biopsy protocols had a 99.0 percent detection rate, while the traditional sextant biopsy protocol rate was only 72.6 percent. The 5-region biopsy protocol had a 90.5 percent detection rate. the lateral sextant pattern revealed a detection rate of 95.5 percent, whereas the 4-pattern lateral biopsy protocol had a 93.5 percent detection rate. Our results suggest that all the biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon the five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern. Lateral biopsies in the mid and apical zones of the gland are the most important.

  20. Combining psychological and engineering approaches to utilizing social robots with children with autism.

    PubMed

    Dickstein-Fischer, Laurie; Fischer, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 68 children. Early identification of an ASD is exceedingly important to the introduction of an intervention. We are developing a robot-assisted approach that will serve as an improved diagnostic and early intervention tool for children with autism. The robot, named PABI® (Penguin for Autism Behavioral Interventions), is a compact humanoid robot taking on an expressive cartoon-like embodiment. The robot is affordable, durable, and portable so that it can be used in various settings including schools, clinics, and the home. Thus enabling significantly enhanced and more readily available diagnosis and continuation of care. Through facial expressions, body motion, verbal cues, stereo vision-based tracking, and a tablet computer, the robot is capable of interacting meaningfully with an autistic child. Initial implementations of the robot, as part of a comprehensive treatment model (CTM), include Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) therapy where the child interacts with a tablet computer wirelessly interfaced with the robot. At the same time, the robot makes meaningful expressions and utterances and uses stereo cameras in eyes to track the child, maintain eye contact, and collect data such as affect and gaze direction for charting of progress. In this paper we present the clinical justification, anticipated usage with corresponding requirements, prototype development of the robotic system, and demonstration of a sample application for robot-assisted ABA therapy. PMID:25570078

  1. [Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: surgical technique].

    PubMed

    Rocco, B; Coelho, R F; Albo, G; Patel, V R

    2010-09-01

    Prostate tumours are among the most frequently diagnosed solid tumours in males (a total of 192,280 new cases in the USA in 2009); since the approval of the PSA test by the Food and Drug Administration in 1986, incidence has risen significantly, particularly in the '90s; furthermore the spread of the PSA test has led to an increased frequency of cancer diagnosis at the localised stage. The standard treatment for tumour of the prostate is retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) which however is not morbidity-free, e.g. intraoperative bleeding, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. This is why the interest of the scientific community has turned increasingly to mini-invasive surgical procedures able to achieve the same oncological results as the open procedure, but which also reduce the impact of the treatment on these patients' quality of life. The first step in this direction was laparoscopic prostatectomy described by Schuessler in 1992 and standardised by Gaston in 1997. However, the technical difficulty inherent in this procedure has limited its more widespread use. In May 2000 Binder and Kramer published a report on the first robot-assisted prostatectomy (RARP) using the Da Vinci system (da Vinci TM, Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). From the original experience, RARP, which exploits the advantages of an enlarged, three-dimensional view and the ability of the instruments to move with 7 degrees of freedom, the technique has spread enormously all over the world. At the time of writing, in the USA, RARP is the most common therapeutic option for the treatment of prostate tumour at localised stage. In the present study we describe the RARP technique proposed by dr. Vipul Patel, head of the Global Robotic Institute (Orlando Fl). PMID:20940698

  2. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence and robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included pattern recognition, image processing for intelligent robotics, three-dimensional vision (depth and motion), vision modeling and shape estimation, spatial reasoning, the symbolic processing visual information, robotic sensors and applications, intelligent control architectures for robot systems, robot languages and programming, human-machine interfaces, robotics applications, and architectures of robotics.

  3. Impacts of industrial robots

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.; Miller, S.

    1981-11-01

    This report briefly describes robot technology and goes into more depth about where robots are used, and some of the anticipated social and economic impacts of their use. A number of short term transitional issues, including problems of potential displacement, are discussed. The ways in which robots may impact the economics of batch production are described. A framework for analyzing the impacts of robotics on economywide economic growth and employment is presented. Human resource policy issues are discussed. A chronology of robotics technology is also given.

  4. Microgravity robotics technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A.; Lawrence, Charles; Brush, Andrew S.

    1988-01-01

    A research program to develop technology for robots operating in the microgravity environment of the space station laboratory is described. These robots must be capable of manipulating payloads without causing them to experience harmful levels of acceleration, and the motion of these robots must not disturb adjacent experiments and operations by transmitting reactions that translate into damaging effects throughout the laboratory. Solutions to these problems, based on both mechanism technology and control strategies, are discussed. Methods are presented for reduction of robot base reactions through the use of redundant degrees of freedom, and the development of smoothly operating roller-driven robot joints for microgravity manipulators is discussed.

  5. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vemana, Goutham; Hamilton, Robert J; Andriole, Gerald L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Large prospective randomized trials, such as the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial, and Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), have provided practitioners with considerable data regarding methods of treatment and prevention of prostate cancer. The best-studied medications for prevention are 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Their efficacy and side effects are well characterized. Other medications, dietary nutrients, and supplements have not been as well studied and generally do not demonstrate efficacy for disease prevention with an acceptable level of evidence. PMID:24188663

  6. Walking control of small size humanoid robot: HAJIME ROBOT 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hajime; Nakatsu, Ryohei

    2007-12-01

    HAJIME ROBOT 18 is a fully autonomous biped robot. It has been developed for RoboCup which is a worldwide soccer competition of robots. It is necessary for a robot to have high mobility to play soccer. High speed walking and all directional walking are important to approach and to locate in front of a ball. HAJIME ROBOT achieved these walking. This paper describes walking control of a small size humanoid robot 'HAJIME ROBOT 18' and shows the measurement result of ZMP (Zero Moment Point). HAJIME ROBOT won the Robotics Society of Japan Award in RoboCup 2005 and in RoboCup 2006 Japan Open.

  7. Parents' Judgments of the Acceptability and Importance of Socially Interactive Robots for Intervening with Young Children with Disabilities. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Embler, Davon

    2013-01-01

    A number of different types of socially interactive robots are being used as part of interventions with young children with disabilities to promote their joint attention and language skills. Parents' judgments of two dimensions (acceptance and importance) of the social validity of four different social robots were the focus of the study described…

  8. DREV activities related to military vehicles robotization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montminy, B.

    The Defence Research Establishment Valcartier (DREV) is involved in a number of activities aimed at improving the performance of systems installed aboard military vehicles, automating functions normally carried out by human operators, and adding new functions that become essential to cope with new scenarios and threats. These activities relate to the development of sensors that sense the surrounding environment, processors that interpret the sensor data, and actuators that perform various robotic actions. DREV research related to those activities is reviewed as they relate to robotics which continues to increase the portion of vehicular function that is carried out autonomously. Of special interest is the CF aircraft robotization project which aims to develop an autonomous integrated aircraft protection system to detect and counter threats without any human intervention. This research involves development of means for passive surveillance of the surrounding environment, processing of multisensor data, triggering of sensing-aid devices, and actuation of countermeasures that modify the environment.

  9. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; McCain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-03-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  10. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  11. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: An update on functional and oncologic outcomes, techniques, and advancements in technology.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Daniel; Zargar, Homayoun; Caputo, Peter; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2015-12-01

    The robotic platform has revolutionized the management of prostate cancer over the last 15 years. Several techniques have been developed to improve functional and oncologic outcomes, including meticulous apical and posterior dissection, nerve sparing techniques, bladder neck and urethral length sparing, and anastomotic reconstruction. Future developments involving novel single-site, robotic technology will undoubtedly further the field of minimally invasive urology. These topics are reviewed within this article. PMID:26369794

  12. Recent advances in prostate development and links to prostatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Powers, Ginny L; Marker, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    The prostate is a branched ductal-acinar gland that is part of the male reproductive tract. Prostate development depends upon the integration of steroid hormone signals, paracrine interactions between the stromal and epithelial tissue layers, and the actions of cell autonomous factors. Several genes and signaling pathways are known to be required for one or more steps of prostate development including epithelial budding, duct elongation, branching morphogenesis, and/or cellular differentiation. Recent progress in the field of prostate development has included the application of genome-wide technologies including serial analysis of gene expression, expression profiling microarrays, and other large-scale approaches to identify new genes and pathways that are essential for prostate development. The aggregation of experimental results into online databases by organized multilab projects including the Genitourinary Developmental Molecular Atlas Project has also accelerated the understanding of molecular pathways that function during prostate development and identified links between prostate anatomy and molecular signaling. Rapid progress has also recently been made in understanding the nature and role of candidate stem cells in the developing and adult prostate. This has included the identification of putative prostate stem cell markers, lineage tracing, and organ reconstitution studies. However, several issues regarding their origin, precise nature, and possible role(s) in disease remain unresolved. Nevertheless, several links between prostatic developmental mechanisms and the pathogenesis of prostatic diseases including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer have led to recent progress on targeting developmental pathways as therapeutic strategies for these diseases. PMID:23335485

  13. MRI of the Prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted electronically, printed or copied to a CD. The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system. It is located in front of the rectum ...

  14. Prostate cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects of treatment The chance that treatment can cure your cancer or help you in other ways With stage ... III prostate cancer, the main goal is to cure the cancer by treating it and keeping it from coming ...

  15. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your prostate. They were inserted through your perineum (the area between the scrotum and the anus). ... feel the urge to urinate more often. Your perineum may be tender and bruised. You can use ...

  16. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: Erection problems (impotence) No symptom improvement Passing semen back into your bladder instead of out through ... Whelan JP, Goeree L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of transurethral resection of the prostate versus minimally ...

  17. What Is Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the more likely he is to develop the disease. Physician: Come on back, first room. Narrator: Most ... cancer. Prostate cancer is really a spectrum of diseases where on one end of the spectrum there ...

  18. Prostatic blue nevus.

    PubMed

    Anderco, Denisa; Lazăr, Elena; Tăban, Sorina; Miclea, Fl; Dema, Alis

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old patient with no significant personal urological history. The clinical and ultrasound examination revealed a prostatic gland with increased volume and homogenous appearance. After transurethral resection, multiples gray-brown-blackish prostatic chips were obtained, which could be confused with a malignant melanoma. The histological routine examination in conjunction with the histochemical (Fontana-Masson) and immunohistochemical (S100, HMB45) reactions established the diagnosis of prostatic blue nevus. The presence of melanin in prostatic tissue is an unusual aspect, being encountered three distinct lesions: blue nevus, melanosis and malignant melanoma. Recognition and correct classification of each of these three entities is fundamental, concerning the clinical and prognosis implications. PMID:20809037

  19. Immunotherapy in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Ilya; Thompson, R H; Dong, Haidong; Krco, Christopher; Kwon, Eugene D

    2015-06-01

    Immunotherapy for the treatment of malignant neoplasms has made significant progress over the last 20 years. Multiple molecular targets and clinical agents have been developed recently, particularly in the field of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Sipuleucel-T is currently the only FDA approved immunotherapy for prostate cancer. PSA-TRICOM (Prostvac) currently has a phase III randomized trial underway after a phase II trial showed an improvement in overall survival. Interestingly, both these agents showed improvement in overall survival with no measurable change in disease state, leading to significant controversy as the utility of these agents in prostate cancer. Ipilimumab revealed a benefit for a sub-cohort of men in a post-docetaxel group and is currently undergoing investigation in a pre-docetaxel group. There are a number of other targets such as PD-1 which have shown effectiveness in other neoplasms that will likely be investigated in the future for use in prostate cancer. PMID:25894495

  20. Prostate cancer - treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... when cancer has spread to the bone. External beam radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays pointed ... radiation therapy used to treat prostate cancer. Proton beams target the tumor precisely, so there is less ...

  1. Prostate cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... test. A faster increase could show a more aggressive tumor. A prostate biopsy is done in your ... suggest the cancer is slow growing and not aggressive. Higher numbers indicate a faster growing cancer that ...

  2. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  3. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... abnormal and raises the index of suspicion that cancer may be present. Narrator: While the use of ... examination does not mean that they have prostate cancer. It means that we're concerned about it ...

  4. Prostate cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment of prostate cancer varies depending on the stage of the cancer (i.e., spread) and may include surgical removal, radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal manipulation or a combination of these treatments.

  5. Prostate radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... day. Avoid orange juice, grapefruit juice, and other citrus juices if they make the bowel or bladder ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prostate Cancer Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  6. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rittmaster, Roger S

    2011-06-01

    Over the past two decades, many more men are diagnosed with prostate cancer then die of the disease. This increase in diagnosis has led to aggressive treatment of indolent disease in many individuals and has been the impetus for finding a means of reducing the risk of prostate cancer. In the past decade, there have been eight large trials of prostate cancer risk reduction using dietary supplements, 5α-reductase inhibitors, or anti-estrogens. The only two trials which have demonstrated efficacy are those involving 5α-reductase inhibitors: the PCPT (finasteride) and REDUCE (dutasteride). This review examines prostate cancer risk reduction, with emphasis on conclusions that can be drawn from these two landmark studies. PMID:21604953

  7. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Andrew J; Abouassaly, Robert; Klein, Eric A

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is an appropriate target for primary chemoprevention because of its ubiquity, disease-related mortality, treatment-related morbidity, and long latency period. The PCPT and REDUCE trials demonstrate that this cancer can be prevented by a relatively nontoxic oral pharmacologic agent (5alpha-reductase inhibitors). Evidence from the SELECT trial argues against the recommendation of the use of vitamins and micronutrients as chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Dietary modification may substantially alter a man's risk of prostate cancer, but the specific dietary manipulations that are necessary are poorly defined and these may need to be instituted in early adulthood to be successful. 5alpha-reductase inhibitors represent an effective primary prevention strategy, and these agents should be used more liberally for the prevention of prostate cancer, particularly in high-risk patients. PMID:20152515

  8. Prostate radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... later may include: Problems keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may ... radiation treatment is over. Problems with having an erection are often not seen right away. They may ...

  9. Marsupial robots for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.

    2001-02-01

    Marsupial robots are a type of heterogeneous mobile robot team. A mother robot transports, supports, and recovers one or more daughter robots. This paper will cover the marsupial robot concept, the application of law enforcement, and recent results in collaborative teleoperation for the related task of urban search and rescue.

  10. Angiosarcoma of the Prostate Gland following Brachytherapy for Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arjun; Patnaik, Mrinal M.; Naina, Harris V.

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma is the most common cancer in men, but only a handful of cases of prostatic angiosarcoma have been reported in the literature. Prior radiation therapy for prostatic adenocarcinoma has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for angiosarcoma. The increasing practice of prostate cancer screening and the use of radiation therapy for management of prostatic adenocarcinoma will likely lead to more cases of prostatic angiosarcoma. Diagnosis is made by tissue sampling. Optimal management of these aggressive tumors remains to be defined and outcomes are poor with a high 1-year mortality. Primary care physicians and urologists should be aware of this rare entity and refer these patients to specialist centers where they can be managed by a multidisciplinary team. We report a case of angiosarcoma of the prostate gland diagnosed in a male presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms 5 years after brachytherapy for prostate adenocarcinoma. PMID:26889128

  11. Screening for prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cher, M L; Carroll, P R

    1995-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a serious health care problem in the United States. Whether or not to screen for it has become a timely issue. Although a large number of men have clinically important, asymptomatic, undetected prostate cancer, an even larger number have clinically unimportant cancer. To justify screening programs, not only must we avoid detecting biologically unimportant cancers, we must also detect and effectively treat that subset of tumors that, if undiagnosed, would progress, produce symptoms, and reduce life expectancy. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay, or its variations such as PSA density, PSA velocity, and age-specific reference ranges, and the digital rectal examination are the best tests for detecting clinically important, asymptomatic, curable tumors. Recent data suggest that using serum PSA levels does not result in an overdetection of unimportant tumors. Highly effective, curative treatment of localized prostate cancer is available. These factors promote optimism that screening for prostate cancer will ultimately prove beneficial. Nonetheless, men should be informed regarding the benefits and possible risks before being screened for prostate cancer. PMID:7536993

  12. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Babaian, R.J.; Lamki, L.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The development of hybridoma technology has increased research efforts and clinical applications in the area of radioimmunodetection. Despite the many investigative antibodies directed against prostatic tissue or prostate cancer cell lines, only two have been tested in clinical trials. A 111In-labeled antibody directed against prostate-specific antigen, the best available serum tumor marker for prostate cancer, has shown poor sensitivity in limited clinical radioimmunoimaging trials. Monoclonal antibodies against prostatic acid phosphatase have shown better imaging results, particularly at higher antibody doses (greater than or equal to 40 mg). The limitations of this antibody include the poor results in detecting soft tissue lesions, including the primary lesion; the development of human antimouse antibodies in 50% of the patients at doses greater than or equal to 40 mg; the expense of the antibody; and the fact that better results are currently attainable by other less expensive imaging modalities. If and when a more suitable antibody or fragment is developed, the prospect of improved staging and new treatments using immunologic conjugates carrying therapeutic agents may become realities. Until such time, prostatic cancer will be staged with other currently available imaging modalities and conventional therapies with their limitations will remain state of the art. 56 references.

  13. Robotics and imaging in congenital heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vasilyev, Nikolay V; Dupont, Pierre E; del Nido, Pedro J

    2012-01-01

    The initial success seen in adult cardiac surgery with the application of available robotic systems has not been realized as broadly in pediatric cardiac surgery. The main obstacles include extended set-up time and complexity of the procedures, as well as the large size of the instruments with respect to the size of the child. Moreover, while the main advantage of robotic systems is the ability to minimize incision size, for intracardiac repairs, cardiopulmonary bypass is still required. Catheter-based interventions, on the other hand, have expanded rapidly in both application as well as the complexity of procedures and lesions being treated. However, despite the development of sophisticated devices, robotic systems to aid catheter procedures have not been commonly applied in children. In this article, we describe new catheter-like robotic delivery platforms, which facilitate safe navigation and enable complex repairs, such as tissue approximation and fixation, and tissue removal, inside the beating heart. Additional features including the tracking of rapidly moving tissue targets and novel imaging approaches are described, along with a discussion of future prospects for steerable robotic systems. PMID:22413986

  14. Technical feasibility of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in renal transplant recipients: Results of a series of 12 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Le Clerc, Quentin-Côme; Lecornet, Emilie; Leon, Gregoire; Rigaud, Jerome; Glemain, Pascal; Branchereau, Julien; Karam, Georgess

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluate the technical feasibility of robotic prostatectomy in renal transplant recipients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed preoperative and perioperative settings, as well as functional and oncologic results of 12 patients operated on between 2009 and 2013. Prostatectomy was performed via a transperitoneal approach without any changing in the ports position. The average age was 61.92 ± 2.98 years. The period between transplant and the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was 79.7 months. The mean PSA was 7.34 ng/mL (range: 4.9–11). Results: The operative time was 241.3 ± 35.6 minutes with only one conversion and one transfusion. The intervention was difficult due to adhesions on the side of the graft in 50% of cases. There was a case of obstructive acute renal failure resulting from a hematoma of the Retzius treated by percutaneous nephrostomy at D20. There was a majority of pT2c (72.7%), including 3 positive margins (27.3%) and 2 biochemical relapses treated with radiotherapy and hormonotherapy, respectively. The end point prostate-specific antigen was undetectable. There was no significant difference between preoperative and J7 creatinine (p = 0. 22). Conclusions: Robotic prostatectomy in renal transplant recipients is a safe technique with no serious effects on the allograft. PMID:26279722

  15. First Robotic SPECT for Minimally Invasive Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping.

    PubMed

    Fuerst, Bernhard; Sprung, Julian; Pinto, Francisco; Frisch, Benjamin; Wendler, Thomas; Simon, Hervé; Mengus, Laurent; van den Berg, Nynke S; van der Poel, Henk G; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; Navab, Nassir

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present the usage of a drop-in gamma probe for intra-operative Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging in the scope of minimally invasive robot-assisted interventions. The probe is designed to be inserted and reside inside the abdominal cavity during the intervention. It is grasped during the procedure using a robotic laparoscopic gripper enabling full six degrees of freedom handling by the surgeon. We demonstrate the first deployment of the tracked probe for intra-operative in-patient robotic SPECT enabling augmented-reality image guidance. The hybrid mechanical- and image-based in-patient probe tracking is shown to have an accuracy of 0.2 mm. The overall system performance is evaluated and tested with a phantom for gynecological sentinel lymph node interventions and compared to ground-truth data yielding a mean reconstruction accuracy of 0.67 mm. PMID:26561283

  16. Hydrogen Sulfide Signaling Axis as a Target for Prostate Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wu, Lingyun; Montaut, Sabine; Yang, Guangdong

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was originally considered toxic at elevated levels; however just in the past decade H2S has been proposed to be an important gasotransmitter with various physiological and pathophysiological roles in the body. H2S can be generated endogenously from L-cysteine by multiple enzymes, including cystathionine gamma-lyase, cystathionine beta-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in combination with cysteine aminotransferase. Prostate cancer is a major health concern and no effective treatment for prostate cancers is available. H2S has been shown to inhibit cell survival of androgen-independent, androgen-dependent, and antiandrogen-resistant prostate cancer cells through different mechanisms. Various H2S-releasing compounds, including sulfide salts, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, sulforaphane, and other polysulfides, also have been shown to inhibit prostate cancer growth and metastasis. The expression of H2S-producing enzyme was reduced in both human prostate cancer tissues and prostate cancer cells. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is indispensable for the development of castration resistant prostate cancer, and H2S was shown to inhibit AR transactivation and contributes to antiandrogen-resistant status. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge of H2S signaling in prostate cancer and described the molecular alterations, which may bring this gasotransmitter into the clinic in the near future for developing novel pharmacological and therapeutic interventions for prostate cancer. PMID:27019751

  17. Hydrogen Sulfide Signaling Axis as a Target for Prostate Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wu, Lingyun; Montaut, Sabine; Yang, Guangdong

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was originally considered toxic at elevated levels; however just in the past decade H2S has been proposed to be an important gasotransmitter with various physiological and pathophysiological roles in the body. H2S can be generated endogenously from L-cysteine by multiple enzymes, including cystathionine gamma-lyase, cystathionine beta-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in combination with cysteine aminotransferase. Prostate cancer is a major health concern and no effective treatment for prostate cancers is available. H2S has been shown to inhibit cell survival of androgen-independent, androgen-dependent, and antiandrogen-resistant prostate cancer cells through different mechanisms. Various H2S-releasing compounds, including sulfide salts, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, sulforaphane, and other polysulfides, also have been shown to inhibit prostate cancer growth and metastasis. The expression of H2S-producing enzyme was reduced in both human prostate cancer tissues and prostate cancer cells. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is indispensable for the development of castration resistant prostate cancer, and H2S was shown to inhibit AR transactivation and contributes to antiandrogen-resistant status. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge of H2S signaling in prostate cancer and described the molecular alterations, which may bring this gasotransmitter into the clinic in the near future for developing novel pharmacological and therapeutic interventions for prostate cancer. PMID:27019751

  18. [Advancement in the treatment against prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Nobuo; Abe, Takashige; Maruyama, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement of basic science and medical technology, the treatment against prostate cancer (PC) has dramatically changed. Although the introduction of robotic radical prostatectomy and particle therapies in patients with early stage PC is of much note, the issues on the over-treatment and treatment cost should be heeded. From these points, active surveillance has been an important strategy in these patients. In patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive PC, especially high volume metastases, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with docetaxel has been reported to prolong overall survival compared with ADT alone. Lastly, several novel therapeutic agents have been investigated and shown to be favorable outcomes in patients with castration resistant PC. This review focuses on the recent advancement in the treatment against PCs. PMID:26793875

  19. Humanlike Robots - The Upcoming Revolution in Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-01-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  20. Collective search by mobile robots using alpha-beta coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Robinett, R. III

    1998-04-01

    One important application of mobile robots is searching a geographical region to locate the origin of a specific sensible phenomenon. Mapping mine fields, extraterrestrial and undersea exploration, the location of chemical and biological weapons, and the location of explosive devices are just a few potential applications. Teams of robotic bloodhounds have a simple common goal; to converge on the location of the source phenomenon, confirm its intensity, and to remain aggregated around it until directed to take some other action. In cases where human intervention through teleoperation is not possible, the robot team must be deployed in a territory without supervision, requiring an autonomous decentralized coordination strategy. This paper presents the alpha beta coordination strategy, a family of collective search algorithms that are based on dynamic partitioning of the robotic team into two complementary social roles according to a sensor based status measure. Robots in the alpha role are risk takers, motivated to improve their status by exploring new regions of the search space. Robots in the beta role are motivated to improve but are conservative, and tend to remain aggregated and stationary until the alpha robots have identified better regions of the search space. Roles are determined dynamically by each member of the team based on the status of the individual robot relative to the current state of the collective. Partitioning the robot team into alpha and beta roles results in a balance between exploration and exploitation, and can yield collective energy savings and improved resistance to sensor noise and defectors. Alpha robots waste energy exploring new territory, and are more sensitive to the effects of ambient noise and to defectors reporting inflated status. Beta robots conserve energy by moving in a direct path to regions of confirmed high status.

  1. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer Abiraterone Acetate Bicalutamide Cabazitaxel Casodex (Bicalutamide) Degarelix Docetaxel ...

  2. Understanding Prostate Cancer: Newly Diagnosed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer Newly Diagnosed Newly Diagnosed Staging the Disease Issues ... you care about has recently been diagnosed with prostate cancer, this section will help guide you through the ...

  3. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  4. Feasibility Study of Engaging Barbershops for Prostate Cancer Education in Rural African-American Communities.

    PubMed

    Luque, John S; Roy, Siddhartha; Tarasenko, Yelena N; Ross, Levi; Johnson, Jarrett; Gwede, Clement K

    2015-12-01

    The barbershop is a promising setting where African-American men might receive information and education about prostate cancer. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of engaging rural barbershops as venues for barbers to deliver a prostate cancer education intervention to increase informed decision-making for prostate cancer screening among customers. Twelve barbershops were recruited from two separate micropolitan areas in Georgia as intervention and control sites. Structured interviews were conducted with 11 barbers in both sites about customer characteristics as well as their willingness to participate in the study. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed for analysis. In the intervention site, six barbers completed a survey and a pre-/posttest prostate cancer knowledge instrument following training classes. Barbers reported a wide average range of customers served per week (50 to 300). African-American men made up an average of 87% of customers. Barbers thought prostate cancer was an important discussion topic, felt they would be comfortable discussing it, and supported the participation of their barbershop in the study. For intervention group barbers, there was a statistically significant difference between the average pretest knowledge score of 72% (mean 12.2, SD=3.2) and the posttest knowledge score of 89% (mean 15.2, SD=1.1) (P=0.03) on the 17-item prostate cancer knowledge instrument. Based on the multiple interactions with the barbers, there was high receptivity to the topic and consensus about the importance of addressing prostate cancer with their customers. Rural barbershops represent feasible venues for delivering a prostate cancer education intervention. PMID:25288347

  5. Androgen Receptor as a Driver of Therapeutic Resistance in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Barbara; Collazo, Joanne; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    discuss the current knowledge of mechanisms via which the AR signaling drives therapeutic resistance in prostate cancer metastatic progression and the novel therapeutic interventions targeting AR in CRPC. PMID:24948871

  6. [Robotics and laparoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Martínez Ramos, Carlos

    2006-10-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has completely revolutionized modern surgery. In addition to its advantages, however, this approach also presents significant limitations. The most important are loss of the sense of depth, tactile sensation and resistance, as well as loss of natural hand-eye coordination and manual dexterity. The main motivation for the development of surgical robots is the possibility of eliminating all these limitations. Robots have acquired great potential to improve the operative possibilities of surgeons. Given the continual increase in the use of surgical robots, in the near future the structure and appearance of current operating rooms will change. The present article analyzes the origin and development of robotic systems, as well as the characteristics of the latest generation of robots. Because of the strong interest in robotic surgery and its future prospects, surgeons should be familiar with these emerging and innovative techniques. PMID:17040667

  7. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-01-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  8. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-02-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  9. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  10. Robotics and industrial inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Image processing algorithms are discussed, taking into account hidden information in early visual processing, three-dimensional shape recognition by moirecorrelation, spatial-frequency representations of images with scale invariant properties, image-based focusing, the computational structure for the Walsh-Hadamard transform, a hybrid optical/digital moment-based robotic pattern recognition system, affordable implementations of image processing algorithms, and an analysis of low-level computer vision algorithms for implementation on a very large scale integrated processor array. Other topics considered are related to government programs and needs in robotics, DoD research and applications in robotics, time-varying image processing and control, industrial robotics, industrial applications of computer vision, and object perception and mensuration for robotics. Attention is given to laser scanning techniques for automatic inspection of heat-sealed film packages, computer software for robotic vision, and computerized tomography on a logarithmic polar grid.

  11. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  12. Transurethral Resection of Prostate Abscess: Is It Different from Conventional Transurethral Resection for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia?

    PubMed Central

    Sankhwar, Satyanarayan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To present our experience of prostate abscess management by modified transurethral resection (TUR) technique. Methods. Seventeen men with prostate abscess undergoing TUR between 2003 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Details of demography, surgical procedures, complications, and followup were noted. Results. With a mean age of 61.53 ± 8.58 years, all patients had multifocal abscess cavities. Initially, 6 men underwent classical TUR similar to the technique used for benign prostatic enlargement (group 1). Next, 11 men underwent modified TUR (group 2) in which bladder neck and anterior zone were not resected. The abscess cavities resolved completely, and no patient required a second intervention. One patient in group 1 and three in group 2 had postoperative fever requiring parenteral antibiotics (P = 0.916). Three patients in group 1 had transient urinary incontinence, whereas none of the patients in group 2 had this complication (P = 0.055). Four and five men in group 1 and 2 reported retrograde ejaculation, respectively (P = 0.740). Conclusion. The modified technique of prostate resection edges over conventional TURP in the form of reduced morbidity but maintains its high success rate for complete abscess drainage. It alleviates the need for secondary procedures, having an apparent advantage over limited drainage techniques. Use of this technique is emphasized in cases associated with BPH and lack of proper preoperative imaging. PMID:23840969

  13. Prostate cancer: a newly discovered route for testosterone to reach the prostate : Treatment by super-selective intraprostatic androgen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Gat, Y; Joshua, S; Gornish, M G

    2009-10-01

    The prostate, an androgen-regulated exocrine gland, is an integral part of the male reproductive system which has an essential function in sperm survival and motility in its long hostile route to meet and fertilise the egg in the Fallopian tube. Testosterone is known to be the key, obligatory regulator of the prostate that promotes the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Yet, the pathophysiological mechanism of PCa remains unclear and its causal relation to serum testosterone has not been established. Here, we report on the discovery of a previously unrecognized route of flow of free testosterone (FT), at a concentration of 130 times the physiological levels, reaching the prostate via the testicular and prostate venous drainage systems, bypassing the systemic circulation. This condition results from the malfunction of the vertically oriented testicular venous drainage system in humans, a phenomenon with a prevalence that increases rapidly with age, which causes deviation of the testicular venous flow from its normal route. Early results of an interventional radiological procedure, super-selective intraprostatic androgen deprivation therapy are discussed. This treatment has resulted in decrease in prostate volume, and serum PSA, with disappearance of cancerous cells on repeat biopsies in five of six patients. Some of the unresolved biological enigmatic questions associated with PCa are discussed. We conclude that pathological flow of FT from the testes directly to the prostate in an extremely high concentration via the testicular-prostate venous drainage systems was identified may explain the mechanism for the development of PCa. We suggest a time-window for eradication of localised, androgen-sensitive, PCa cells. We anticipate that this treatment may retard, stop or even reverse the development of the disease. A mechanism for the evolution of PCa is discussed. PMID:19737278

  14. INL Multi-Robot Control Interface

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The INL Multi-Robot Control Interface controls many robots through a single user interface. The interface includes a robot display window for each robot showing the robot’s condition. More than one window can be used depending on the number of robots. The user interface also includes a robot control window configured to receive commands for sending to the respective robot and a multi-robot common window showing information received from each robot.

  15. Robotics as Means to Increase Achievement Scores in an Informal Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bradley S.; Ansorge, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study that examined the use of a science and technology curriculum based on robotics to increase the achievement scores of youth ages 9-11 in an after school program. The study examined and compared the pretest and posttest scores of youth in the robotics intervention with youth in a control group. The results…

  16. Evaluation of short term effects of the IROMEC robotic toy for children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tanja; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc; Vanstipelen, Silvie

    2011-01-01

    Research shows a reduced playfulness in children with developmental disabilities. This is a barrier for participation and children's health and wellbeing. IROMEC is a purposely designed robot to support play in impaired children. The reported study evaluates short-term effects of the IROMEC robot toy supporting play in an occupational therapy intervention for children with developmental disabilities. Two types of play intervention (standard occupational therapy versus robot-facilitated play intervention) were compared regarding their effect on the level of playfulness, on children's general functional development, goal achievement as well as the therapist's evaluation of the added value of a robot-facilitated play intervention. Three young children took part in this single-subject design study. Evaluation was performed through Test of Playfulness (ToP), the IROMEC evaluation questionnaire and qualitative evaluation by the therapists. Results confirmed the IROMEC robot did partly meet the needs of the children and therapists, and positive impact on TOP results was found with two children. This suggests robotic toys can support children with developmental disabilities in enriching play. Long term effect evaluation should verify these positive indications resulting from use of this innovative social robot for children with developmental disabilities. But it also became clear further development of the robot is required. PMID:22275609

  17. NASA Robot Brain Surgeon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer Michael Guerrero works on the Robot Brain Surgeon testbed in the NeuroEngineering Group at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Principal investigator Dr. Robert W. Mah states that potentially the simple robot will be able to feel brain structures better than any human surgeon, making slow, very precise movements during an operation. The brain surgery robot that may give surgeons finer control of surgical instruments during delicate brain operations is still under development.

  18. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  19. MYC and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Cheryl M.; Bieberich, Charles J.; Dang, Chi V.; Nelson, William G.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer, the majority of which is adenocarcinoma, is the most common epithelial cancer affecting a majority of elderly men in Western nations. Its manifestation, however, varies from clinically asymptomatic insidious neoplasms that progress slowly and do not threaten life to one that is highly aggressive with a propensity for metastatic spread and lethality if not treated in time. A number of somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations occur in prostate cancer cells. Some of these changes, such as loss of the tumor suppressors PTEN and p53, are linked to disease progression. Others, such as ETS gene fusions, appear to be linked more with early phases of the disease, such as invasion. Alterations in chromosome 8q24 in the region of MYC have also been linked to disease aggressiveness for many years. However, a number of recent studies in human tissues have indicated that MYC appears to be activated at the earliest phases of prostate cancer (e.g., in tumor-initiating cells) in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, a key precursor lesion to invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma. The initiation and early progression of prostate cancer can be recapitulated in genetically engineered mouse models, permitting a richer understanding of the cause and effects of loss of tumor suppressors and activation of MYC. The combination of studies using human tissues and mouse models paints an emerging molecular picture of prostate cancer development and early progression. This picture reveals that MYC contributes to disease initiation and progression by stimulating an embryonic stem cell–like signature characterized by an enrichment of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and by repressing differentiation. These insights pave the way to potential novel therapeutic concepts based on MYC biology. PMID:21779461

  20. Cholesterol and benign prostate disease.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2011-01-01

    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association between BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept. PMID:21862201

  1. Hopping Robot with Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Edward; Marzwell, Nevellie; Fuller, Sawyer; Fionni, Paolo; Tretton, Andy; Burdick, Joel; Schell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A small prototype mobile robot is capable of (1) hopping to move rapidly or avoid obstacles and then (2) moving relatively slowly and precisely on the ground by use of wheels in the manner of previously reported exploratory robots of the "rover" type. This robot is a descendant of a more primitive hopping robot described in "Minimally Actuated Hopping Robot" (NPO- 20911), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 50. There are many potential applications for robots with hopping and wheeled-locomotion (roving) capabilities in diverse fields of endeavor, including agriculture, search-and-rescue operations, general military operations, removal or safe detonation of land mines, inspection, law enforcement, and scientific exploration on Earth and remote planets. The combination of hopping and roving enables this robot to move rapidly over very rugged terrain, to overcome obstacles several times its height, and then to position itself precisely next to a desired target. Before a long hop, the robot aims itself in the desired hopping azimuth and at a desired takeoff angle above horizontal. The robot approaches the target through a series of hops and short driving operations utilizing the steering wheels for precise positioning.

  2. Advanced robot locomotion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  3. [Robots and intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing. PMID:24558740

  4. Robotics for welding research

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, G.; Jones, J.

    1984-09-01

    The welding metallurgy research and education program at Colorado School of Mines (CSM) is helping industries make the transition toward automation by training students in robotics. Industry's interest is primarily in pick and place operations, although robotics can increase efficiency in areas other than production. Training students to develop fully automated robotic welding systems will usher in new curriculum requirements in the area of computers and microprocessors. The Puma 560 robot is CSM's newest acquisition for welding research 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  5. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  6. The robotics review 1

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib, O.; Craig, J.J.; Lozano-Perez, T.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical and implementation issues in robotics are discussed in reviews of recent investigations. Sections are devoted to programming, planning, and learning; sensing and perception; kinematics, dynamics, and design; and motion and force control. Particular attention is given to a robust layered control system for a mobile robot, camera calibration for three-dimensional machine vision, walking vehicles, design and control of direct-drive vehicles, an efficient parallel algorithm for robot inverse dynamics, stability problems in contact tasks, and kinematics and reaction-moment compensation for satellite-mounted robot manipulators.

  7. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  8. Hazardous Environment Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed video overlay calibration and demonstration techniques for ground-based telerobotics. Through a technology sharing agreement with JPL, Deneb Robotics added this as an option to its robotics software, TELEGRIP. The software is used for remotely operating robots in nuclear and hazardous environments in industries including automotive and medical. The option allows the operator to utilize video to calibrate 3-D computer models with the actual environment, and thus plan and optimize robot trajectories before the program is automatically generated.

  9. Robotic Thumb Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Goza, S. Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An improved robotic thumb for a robotic hand assembly is provided. According to one aspect of the disclosure, improved tendon routing in the robotic thumb provides control of four degrees of freedom with only five tendons. According to another aspect of the disclosure, one of the five degrees of freedom of a human thumb is replaced in the robotic thumb with a permanent twist in the shape of a phalange. According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a position sensor includes a magnet having two portions shaped as circle segments with different center points. The magnet provides a linearized output from a Hall effect sensor.

  10. Asteroid Redirect Mission: Robotic Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation illustrates the robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission. The Asteroid Redirect Vehicle, powered by solar electric propulsion, travels to a large asteroid to robot...

  11. Steroid hormone receptors in prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khalid, B A; Nurshireen, A; Rashidah, M; Zainal, B Y; Roslan, B A; Mahamooth, Z

    1990-06-01

    One hundred and six prostatic tissue samples obtained from transurethral resection were analysed for androgen and estrogen receptors. In 62 of these, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were also assayed. Steroid receptors were assayed using single saturation dose 3H-labelled ligand assays. Ninety percent of the 97 prostatic hyperplasia tissues and six of the nine prostatic carcinoma tissues were positive for androgen receptors. Estrogen receptors were only present in 19% and 33% respectively. Progesterone receptors were present in 70% of the tissues, but glucocorticoid receptors were present in only 16% of prostatic hyperplasia and none in prostatic carcinoma. PMID:1725553

  12. Prostate Cancer Support Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Suzanne; Garrett, Bernie; Bottorff, Joan L.; McKenzie, Michael; Han, Christina S.; Ogrodniczuk, John S.

    2015-01-01

    To understand prostate cancer (PCa) specialists’ views about prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs), a volunteer sample of Canada-based PCa specialists (n = 150), including urologists (n = 100), radiation oncologists (n = 40), and medical oncologists (n = 10) were surveyed. The 56-item questionnaire used in this study included six sets of attitudinal items to measure prostate cancer specialists’ beliefs about positive and negative influences of PCSGs, reasons for attending PCSGs, the attributes of effective PCSGs, and the value of face-to-face and web-based PCSGs. In addition, an open-ended question was included to invite additional input from participants. Results showed that PCSGs were positively valued, particularly for information sharing, education and psychosocial support. Inclusivity, privacy, and accessibility were identified as potential barriers, and recommendations were made for better marketing PCSGs to increase engagement. Findings suggest prostate cancer specialists highly valued the role and potential benefits of face-to-face PCSGs. Information provision and an educational role were perceived as key benefits. Some concerns were expressed about the ability of web-based PCSGs to effectively engage and educate men who experience prostate cancer. PMID:25061087

  13. Canadian space robotic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  14. Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltsner, M. A.; Ferrier, N. J.; Thomadsen, B. R.

    2007-09-01

    A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy implantations has the potential to greatly improve treatment success. Much of the research in robotic surgery focuses on measuring accuracy. However, there exist many factors that must be optimized before an analysis of needle placement accuracy can be determined. Some of these parameters include choice of the needle type, insertion velocity, usefulness of the rotating needle and rotation speed. These parameters may affect the force at which the needle interacts with the tissue. A reduction in force has been shown to decrease the compression of the prostate and potentially increase the accuracy of seed position. Rotating the needle as it is inserted may reduce frictional forces while increasing accuracy. However, needle rotations are considered to increase tissue damage due to the drilling nature of the insertion. We explore many of the factors involved in optimizing a brachytherapy robot, and the potential effects each parameter may have on the procedure. We also investigate the interaction of rotating needles in gel and suggest the rotate-cannula-only method of conical needle insertion to minimize any tissue damage while still maintaining the benefits of reduced force and increased accuracy.

  15. Multi-robot control interface

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J.; Walton, Miles C.

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  16. The Prostate Health Index Selectively Identifies Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Sanda, Martin G.; Broyles, Dennis L.; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Bangma, Chris H.; Wei, John T.; Partin, Alan W.; Klee, George G.; Slawin, Kevin M.; Marks, Leonard S.; van Schaik, Ron H. N.; Chan, Daniel W.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Cruz, Amabelle B.; Mizrahi, Isaac A.; Catalona, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Prostate Health Index (phi) is a new test combining total, free and [-2]proPSA into a single score. It was recently approved by the FDA and is now commercially available in the U.S., Europe and Australia. We investigate whether phi improves specificity for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer and can help reduce prostate cancer over diagnosis. Materials and Methods From a multicenter prospective trial we identified 658 men age 50 years or older with prostate specific antigen 4 to 10 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination who underwent prostate biopsy. In this population we compared the performance of prostate specific antigen, % free prostate specific antigen, [-2]proPSA and phi to predict biopsy results and, specifically, the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer using multiple criteria. Results The Prostate Health Index was significantly higher in men with Gleason 7 or greater and “Epstein significant” cancer. On receiver operating characteristic analysis phi had the highest AUC for overall cancer (AUCs phi 0.708, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.648, [-2]proPSA 0.550 and prostate specific antigen 0.516), Gleason 7 or greater (AUCs phi 0.707, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.661, [-2]proPSA 0.558, prostate specific antigen 0.551) and significant cancer (AUCs phi 0.698, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.654, [-2]proPSA 0.550, prostate specific antigen 0.549). At the 90% sensitivity cut point for phi (a score less than 28.6) 30.1% of patients could have been spared an unnecessary biopsy for benign disease or insignificant prostate cancer compared to 21.7% using percent free prostate specific antigen. Conclusions The new phi test outperforms its individual components of total, free and [-2]proPSA for the identification of clinically significant prostate cancer. Phi may be useful as part of a multivariable approach to reduce prostate biopsies and over diagnosis. PMID:25463993

  17. Prostate PDT dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We provide a review of the current state of dosimetry in prostate photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT of the human prostate has been performed with a number of different photosensitizers and with a variety of dosimetry schemes. The simplest clinical light dose prescription is to quantify the total light energy emitted per length (J/cm) of cylindrical diffusing fibers (CDF) for patients treated with a defined photosensitizer injection per body weight. However, this approach does not take into account the light scattering by tissue and usually underestimates the local light fluence rate, and consequently the fluence. Techniques have been developed to characterize tissue optical properties and light fluence rates in vivo using interstitial measurements during prostate PDT. Optical methods have been developed to characterize tissue absorption and scattering spectra, which in turn provide information about tissue oxygenation and drug concentration. Fluorescence techniques can be used to quantify drug concentrations and photobleaching rates of photosensitizers. PMID:25046988

  18. Prostatic disease and sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sae Woong

    2011-06-01

    Prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are common prostatic diseases. Furthermore, the incidence of prostate cancer has recently shown a rapid increase, even in Korea. Pain caused by prostatitis may induce sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disturbance. And BPH itself, or treatments for BPH, may affect sexual function. In addition, with increased detection of localized prostate cancer, surgical treatments and radiation therapy have also increased, and the treatments may cause sexual dysfunction. Aging is also an important factor in the deterioration of the quality of life of men. Deterioration of quality of life caused by prostate diseases may be affected not only by the prostate diseases themselves but also by the sexual dysfunction caused by the prostate diseases secondarily. Thus, consideration of these points at the time of treatment of prostate disease is required. Therapies suitable to each condition should be selected with an understanding of the close association of prostate diseases and associated sexual dysfunction with the quality of life of males. PMID:21750746

  19. Prostatic Disease and Sexual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are common prostatic diseases. Furthermore, the incidence of prostate cancer has recently shown a rapid increase, even in Korea. Pain caused by prostatitis may induce sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disturbance. And BPH itself, or treatments for BPH, may affect sexual function. In addition, with increased detection of localized prostate cancer, surgical treatments and radiation therapy have also increased, and the treatments may cause sexual dysfunction. Aging is also an important factor in the deterioration of the quality of life of men. Deterioration of quality of life caused by prostate diseases may be affected not only by the prostate diseases themselves but also by the sexual dysfunction caused by the prostate diseases secondarily. Thus, consideration of these points at the time of treatment of prostate disease is required. Therapies suitable to each condition should be selected with an understanding of the close association of prostate diseases and associated sexual dysfunction with the quality of life of males. PMID:21750746

  20. Clinical Perspective of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nilesh; Gaitonde, Krishnanath

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer affecting men today. It largely affects men in the fifth and sixth decade of life. Screening for prostate cancer, though controversial, is still the only way to detect early prostate cancer. Multiple newer options such as blood tests and genetic markers are being used in the clinical domain today to improve cancer detection and avoid unnecessary biopsies. To date, biopsy of the prostate remains the only modality to stratify the grade of cancer. Significant improvements in the imaging technology have improved localizing and detecting the disease. Treatment of prostate cancer is stratified on the basis of the grade and volume of the disease. There are multiple treatment options involved in the management of prostate cancer. Treatment of localized prostate cancer still continues to have very high cure rates and long-term cancer-specific survival rates. PMID:27187167

  1. Robotics technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, Melvin D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on robotics technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: mechanisms; sensors; systems engineering processes for integrated robotics; man/machine cooperative control; 3D-real-time machine perception; multiple arm redundancy control; manipulator control from a movable base; multi-agent reasoning; and surfacing evolution technologies.

  2. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  3. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  4. Robotics in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, D. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technologies play a very important role in our lives. It is hard to imagine how people can get along without personal computers, and companies - without powerful computer centers. Nowadays, many devices make modern medicine more effective. Medicine is developing constantly, so introduction of robots in this sector is a very promising activity. Advances in technology have influenced medicine greatly. Robotic surgery is now actively developing worldwide. Scientists have been carrying out research and practical attempts to create robotic surgeons for more than 20 years, since the mid-80s of the last century. Robotic assistants play an important role in modern medicine. This industry is new enough and is at the early stage of development; despite this, some developments already have worldwide application; they function successfully and bring invaluable help to employees of medical institutions. Today, doctors can perform operations that seemed impossible a few years ago. Such progress in medicine is due to many factors. First, modern operating rooms are equipped with up-to-date equipment, allowing doctors to make operations more accurately and with less risk to the patient. Second, technology has enabled to improve the quality of doctors' training. Various types of robots exist now: assistants, military robots, space, household and medical, of course. Further, we should make a detailed analysis of existing types of robots and their application. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the most popular types of robots used in medicine.

  5. Robotics and Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmison, Glenn A.; And Others

    Robots are becoming increasingly common in American industry. By l990, they will revolutionize the way industry functions, replacing hundreds of workers and doing hot, dirty jobs better and more quickly than the workers could have done them. Robotics should be taught in high school industrial arts programs as a major curriculum component. The…

  6. Robots in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, George; Spain, Tom

    1984-01-01

    Educational robots are defined, their essential characteristics and features are outlined, and their educational applications and what makes them run are discussed. Classroom experiences with five educational robots--Topo, Rhino XR-2, RB5X, Hero I and Tasman Turtle--are described. (MBR)

  7. Next generation space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Oda, Mitsushige; Imai, Ryoichi

    1989-01-01

    The recent research effort on the next generation space robots is presented. The goals of this research are to develop the fundamental technologies and to acquire the design parameters of the next generation space robot. Visual sensing and perception, dexterous manipulation, man machine interface and artificial intelligence techniques such as task planning are identified as the key technologies.

  8. The 50-Minute Robot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Miram R.

    1985-01-01

    Sixth graders built working "robots" (or grasping bars) for remote control use during a unit on simple mechanics. Steps for making a robot are presented, including: cutting the wood, drilling and nailing, assembling the jaws, and making them work. The "jaws," used to pick up objects, illustrate principles of levers. (DH)

  9. Real World Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lisa J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a project for elementary school students in which students build a robot by following instructions and then write a computer program to run their robot by using LabView graphical development software. Uses ROBOLAB curriculum which is designed for grade levels K-12. (YDS)

  10. Education by Robot!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    This article describes BEST (Boosting Engineering, Science, and Technology), a hands-on robotics program founded by Texas Instruments engineers Ted Mahler and Steve Marum. BEST links educators with industry to provide middle and high school students with a peek into the exciting world of robotics, with the goal of inspiring and interesting…

  11. Randomization in robot tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdmann, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of randomization in the solution of robot manipulation tasks. One example of randomization is shown by the strategy of shaking a bin holding a part in order to orient the part in a desired stable state with some high probability. Randomization can be useful for mobile robot navigation and as a means of guiding the design process.

  12. Self-Reconfigurable Robots

    SciTech Connect

    HENSINGER, DAVID M.; JOHNSTON, GABRIEL A.; HINMAN-SWEENEY, ELAINE M.; FEDDEMA, JOHN T.; ESKRIDGE, STEVEN E.

    2002-10-01

    A distributed reconfigurable micro-robotic system is a collection of unlimited numbers of distributed small, homogeneous robots designed to autonomously organize and reorganize in order to achieve mission-specified geometric shapes and functions. This project investigated the design, control, and planning issues for self-configuring and self-organizing robots. In the 2D space a system consisting of two robots was prototyped and successfully displayed automatic docking/undocking to operate dependently or independently. Additional modules were constructed to display the usefulness of a self-configuring system in various situations. In 3D a self-reconfiguring robot system of 4 identical modules was built. Each module connects to its neighbors using rotating actuators. An individual component can move in three dimensions on its neighbors. We have also built a self-reconfiguring robot system consisting of 9-module Crystalline Robot. Each module in this robot is actuated by expansion/contraction. The system is fully distributed, has local communication (to neighbors) capabilities and it has global sensing capabilities.

  13. Mechanochemically Active Soft Robots.

    PubMed

    Gossweiler, Gregory R; Brown, Cameron L; Hewage, Gihan B; Sapiro-Gheiler, Eitan; Trautman, William J; Welshofer, Garrett W; Craig, Stephen L

    2015-10-14

    The functions of soft robotics are intimately tied to their form-channels and voids defined by an elastomeric superstructure that reversibly stores and releases mechanical energy to change shape, grip objects, and achieve complex motions. Here, we demonstrate that covalent polymer mechanochemistry provides a viable mechanism to convert the same mechanical potential energy used for actuation in soft robots into a mechanochromic, covalent chemical response. A bis-alkene functionalized spiropyran (SP) mechanophore is cured into a molded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) soft robot walker and gripper. The stresses and strains necessary for SP activation are compatible with soft robot function. The color change associated with actuation suggests opportunities for not only new color changing or camouflaging strategies, but also the possibility for simultaneous activation of latent chemistry (e.g., release of small molecules, change in mechanical properties, activation of catalysts, etc.) in soft robots. In addition, mechanochromic stress mapping in a functional robotic device might provide a useful design and optimization tool, revealing spatial and temporal force evolution within the robot in a way that might be coupled to autonomous feedback loops that allow the robot to regulate its own activity. The demonstration motivates the simultaneous development of new combinations of mechanophores, materials, and soft, active devices for enhanced functionality. PMID:26390078

  14. Robot Rodeo 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Deuel, Jake

    2013-08-27

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  15. Motivating Students with Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda; Collver, Michael; Kasarda, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the need to advance the number of individuals pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields has gained much attention. The Montgomery County/Virginia Tech Robotics Collaborative (MCVTRC), a yearlong high school robotics program housed in an educational shop facility in Montgomery County, Virginia, seeks to…

  16. Robot Rodeo 2013

    ScienceCinema

    Deuel, Jake

    2014-02-26

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  17. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  18. Going Green Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    In looking at the interesting shapes and sizes of old computer parts, creating robots quickly came to the author's mind. In this article, she describes how computer parts can be used creatively. Students will surely enjoy creating their very own robots while learning about the importance of recycling in the society. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  19. Chemotherapy in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Michael

    2015-10-01

    For approximately a decade, chemotherapy has been shown to prolong life in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Since that time, however, only two agents have proven to prolong life (docetaxel and cabazitaxel). However, in the last year, the addition of chemotherapy to primary hormonal therapy became a standard of care for high-volume castration-sensitive metastatic disease. Here I will review current prostate cancer chemotherapies, mechanisms of resistance to those therapies, and ongoing clinical studies of chemotherapy combinations and novel chemotherapeutics. PMID:26216506

  20. Dictionary of robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, H.

    1985-01-01

    The idea of using robots to perform repetitious tasks quickly, cheaply and efficiently has intrigued humans since the Industrial Revolution. Growth has occurred geometrically from the introduction of the first industrial robot in 1955, and continues, unabated, as industry sales are expected to increase 20-fold with applications in both high technology and industry. The Dictionary defines not only those terms standard to robotics but also those used in areas that are just beginning to be involved. The book offers concise, readable descriptions of robot systems, actions, hardware (including applications), communications, computer control, dynamics, cost justification, feedback, kinematics, man-machine interface, sensors and software. There are references to all major robots and manufacturers in the US, Europe and Japan.

  1. Intelligent Articulated Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyein, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an articulated type of industrial used robot is discussed. The robot is mainly intended to be used in pick and place operation. It will sense the object at the specified place and move it to a desired location. A peripheral interface controller (PIC16F84A) is used as the main controller of the robot. Infrared LED and IR receiver unit for object detection and 4-bit bidirectional universal shift registers (74LS194) and high current and high voltage Darlington transistors arrays (ULN2003) for driving the arms' motors are used in this robot. The amount of rotation for each arm is regulated by the limit switches. The operation of the robot is very simple but it has the ability of to overcome resetting position after power failure. It can continue its work from the last position before the power is failed without needing to come back to home position.

  2. Honda humanoid robots development.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masato; Ogawa, Kenichi

    2007-01-15

    Honda has been doing research on robotics since 1986 with a focus upon bipedal walking technology. The research started with straight and static walking of the first prototype two-legged robot. Now, the continuous transition from walking in a straight line to making a turn has been achieved with the latest humanoid robot ASIMO. ASIMO is the most advanced robot of Honda so far in the mechanism and the control system. ASIMO's configuration allows it to operate freely in the human living space. It could be of practical help to humans with its ability of five-finger arms as well as its walking function. The target of further development of ASIMO is to develop a robot to improve life in human society. Much development work will be continued both mechanically and electronically, staying true to Honda's 'challenging spirit'. PMID:17148047

  3. [Robotics in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Possibilities, chances, risks].

    PubMed

    Hassfeld, S; Raczkowsky, J; Bohner, P; Hofele, C; Holler, C; Mühling, J; Rembold, U

    1997-11-01

    Robot systems are being tested in stereotactic neurosurgical interventions, orthopedic surgery of the hip or knee and advancal endoscopic systems for minimally invasive surgery. In contrast to most industrially manufactured products, objects for medical treatment are characterized by plasticity as well as by complex and individual forms. Thus, features of robots in this field have to be further developed in terms of advanced sensory and specific micromotoric systems. Safety and cooperation between surgeon and robot on the patient in the operating room have to be guaranteed. Extensive three-dimensional diagnosis, computer-aided planning and simulation of the intervention as well as sensory systems that monitor the actual performance of the operation are mandatory parts of this concept. In our interdisciplinary study, we aim to examine whether a robot-given a complete preoperative planning and simulation procedure-is able to perform certain surgical operations more precisely than the surgeon. Examples are drilling with depth control, shaping of bone surface by milling, sawing with defined depth in cranial osteotomies, defined preparation of implant sites and the positioning and insertion of dental and other surgical implants, whereby autonomous employment of the robot is not that which is aspired to in these interventions but rather the interactive support of the surgeon. PMID:9490216

  4. Value of Robotically Assisted Surgery for Mitral Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Koprivanac, Marijan; Kelava, Marta; Goodman, Avi; Jarrett, Craig; Williams, Sarah J.; Gillinov, A. Marc; Bajwa, Gurjyot; Mick, Stephanie L.; Bonatti, Johannes; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2014-01-01

    Importance The value of robotically assisted surgery for mitral valve disease is questioned because the high cost of care associated with robotic technology may outweigh its clinical benefits. Objective To investigate conditions under which benefits of robotic surgery mitigate high technology costs. Design Clinical cohort study comparing costs of robotic vs. three contemporaneous conventional surgical approaches for degenerative mitral disease. Surgery was performed from 2006–2011, and comparisons were based on intent-to-treat, with propensity-matching used to reduce selection bias. Setting Large multi-specialty academic medical center. Participants 1,290 patients aged 57±11 years, 27% women, underwent mitral repair for regurgitation from posterior leaflet prolapse. Robotic surgery was used in 473, complete sternotomy in 227, partial sternotomy in 349, and anterolateral thoracotomy in 241. Three propensity-matched groups were formed based on demographics, symptoms, cardiac and noncardiac comorbidities, valve pathophysiology, and echocardiographic measurements: robotic vs. sternotomy (n=198 pairs) vs. partial sternotomy (n=293 pairs) vs. thoracotomy (n=224 pairs). Interventions Mitral valve repair. Main Outcome Measures Cost of care, expressed as robotic capital investment, maintenance, and direct technical hospital cost, and benefit of care, based on differences in recovery time. Results Median cost of care for robotically assisted surgery exceeded the cost of alternative approaches by 27% (−5%, 68%), 32% (−6%, 70%), and 21% (−2%, 54%) (median [15th, 85th percentiles]) for complete sternotomy, partial sternotomy, and anterolateral thoracotomy, respectively. Higher operative costs were partially offset by lower postoperative costs and earlier return to work: median 35 days for robotic surgery, 49 for complete sternotomy, 56 for partial sternotomy, and 42 for anterolateral thoracotomy. Resulting net differences in cost of robotic surgery vs. the three

  5. Microarray Data Mining for Potential Selenium Targets in Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HAITAO; DONG, YAN; ZHAO, HONGJUAN; BROOKS, JAMES D.; HAWTHORN, LESLEYANN; NOWAK, NORMA; MARSHALL, JAMES R.; GAO, ALLEN C.; IP, CLEMENT

    2008-01-01

    Background A previous clinical trial showed that selenium supplementation significantly reduced the incidence of prostate cancer. We report here a bioinformatics approach to gain new insights into selenium molecular targets that might be relevant to prostate cancer chemoprevention. Materials and Methods We first performed data mining analysis to identify genes which are consistently dysregulated in prostate cancer using published datasets from gene expression profiling of clinical prostate specimens. We then devised a method to systematically analyze three selenium microarray datasets from the LNCaP human prostate cancer cells, and to match the analysis to the cohort of genes implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. Moreover, we compared the selenium datasets with two datasets obtained from expression profiling of androgen-stimulated LNCaP cells. Results We found that selenium reverses the expression of genes implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. In addition, we found that selenium could counteract the effect of androgen on the expression of a subset obtained from androgen-regulated genes. Conclusions The above information provides us with a treasure of new clues to investigate the mechanism of selenium chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Furthermore, these selenium target genes could also serve as biomarkers in future clinical trials to gauge the efficacy of selenium intervention. PMID:18548127

  6. Studying depletion kinetics of circulating prostate cancer cells by in vivo flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangda; Gu, Zhengqin; Guo, Jin; Li, Yan; Chen, Yun; Chen, Tong; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Xunbin

    2011-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in American men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer, after lung cancer. The tumor usually grows slowly and remains confined to the gland for many years. During this time, the tumor produces little or no symptoms or outward signs. As the cancer advances, however, it can metastasize throughout other areas of the body, such as the bones, lungs, and liver. Surgical resection, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current prostate cancer therapies. Treatments for prostate cause both short- and long-term side effects that may be difficult to accept. Molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed to selectively target to unique characteristics of cancer cell growth and metastasis. We have developed the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern prostate cancer cell spread through the microenvironment in vivo in real-time confocal near-infrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess prostate cancer cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of prostate cancer cells. A real- time quantitative monitoring of circulating prostate cancer cells by the in vivo flow cytometer will be useful to assess the effectiveness of the potential therapeutic interventions.

  7. Depletion kinetics of circulating prostate cancer cells studied by in vivo flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangda; Guo, Jin; Li, Yan; Chen, Yun; Gu, Zhengqin; Chen, Tong; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Xunbin

    2010-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in American men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer, after lung cancer. The tumor usually grows slowly and remains confined to the gland for many years. During this time, the tumor produces little or no symptoms or outward signs. As the cancer advances, however, it can metastasize throughout other areas of the body, such as the bones, lungs, and liver. Surgical resection, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current prostate cancer therapies. Treatments for prostate cause both short- and long-term side effects that may be difficult to accept. Molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed to selectively target to unique characteristics of cancer cell growth and metastasis. We have developed the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern prostate cancer cell spread through the microenvironment in vivo in real-time confocal nearinfrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess prostate cancer cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of prostate cancer cells. A real- time quantitative monitoring of circulating prostate cancer cells by the in vivo flow cytometer will be useful to assess the effectiveness of the potential therapeutic interventions.

  8. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  9. Project InterActions: A Multigenerational Robotic Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bers, Marina U.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents Project InterActions, a series of 5-week workshops in which very young learners (4- to 7-year-old children) and their parents come together to build and program a personally meaningful robotic project in the context of a multigenerational robotics-based community of practice. The goal of these family workshops is to teach both parents and children about the mechanical and programming aspects involved in robotics, as well as to initiate them in a learning trajectory with and about technology. Results from this project address different ways in which parents and children learn together and provide insights into how to develop educational interventions that would educate parents, as well as children, in new domains of knowledge and skills such as robotics and new technologies.

  10. Ground operation of robotics on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojcik, Z. Alex; Hunter, David G.; Cantin, Marc R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reflects work carried out on Ground Operated Telerobotics (GOT) in 1992 to refine further the ideas, procedures, and technologies needed to test the procedures in a high latency environment, and to integrate GOT into Space Station Freedom operations. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be in operation for 30 years, and will depend on robots to carry out a significant part of the assembly, maintenance, and utilization workload. Current plans call for on-orbit robotics to be operated by on-board crew members. This approach implies that on-orbit robotics operations use up considerable crew time, and that these operations cannot be carried out when SSF is unmanned. GOT will allow robotic operations to be operated from the ground, with on-orbit crew interventions only when absolutely required. The paper reviews how GOT would be implemented, how GOT operations would be planned and supported, and reviews GOT issues, critical success factors, and benefits.

  11. Spoken commands control robot that handles radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, P.F.; Keddy, C.; Beugelsdojk. T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Several robotic systems have been developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to handle radioactive material. Because of safety considerations, the robotic system must be under direct human supervision and interactive control continuously. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a voice-recognition system that permits this control, yet allows the robot to perform complex preprogrammed manipulations without the operator's intervention. To provide better interactive control, we connected to the robot's control computer, a speech synthesis unit, which provides audible feedback to the operator. Thus upon completion of a task or if an emergency arises, an appropriate spoken message can be reported by the control computer. The training programming and operation of this commercially available system are discussed, as are the practical problems encountered during operations.

  12. Urology pertinent neuroendocrine tumors: focusing on renal pelvis, bladder, prostate located sympathetic functional paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    ALBERTI, C.

    2016-01-01

    Urology pertinent neuroendocrine neoplasias are more and more driving to research attractive contributions mainly as regards the urinary tract paragangliomas, besides the prostate cancer neuroendocrine differentiation. About such visceral sympathetic paragangliomas, a considerable attention is aroused by those concerning the renal pelvis, urinary bladder and, particularly, the prostate gland. Essential catecholamine/adrenergic signal-mediated pathophysiological implications and outlined diagnostic approaches are here taken into consideration. Particularly, to reach an accurate functional diagnostic assessment, both plasma and urine catecholamine level tests are required together with 123I or 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan while 131I-, instead of 123I-, labeled MIBG, proving to be also useful to targeted radionuclide therapy of sympathetic paragangliomas. Nevertheless, a thorough diagnostic confirmation should be obtained by a proper histologic/immunohistochemical study, so that it respectively highlighting the typical “zellballen” cell setting and neuroendocrine tumor cell specific bio-markers such as chromogranin-A, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase. Open/laparoscopic/robot-assisted surgical procedures are performed under α1 (doxazosin, prazosin) - and β(propranolol)-adrenergic blockade to avoid the risk of an intraoperative adrenergic signal-triggered hypertensive crisis, what moreover may occur also during cystoscopy and biopsy in case of bladder or prostate paraganglioma. Given a conceivable likeness, about some adrenergic-mediated pathophysiological implications, between prostate paraganglioma and prostate cancer neuroendocrine transdifferentiation – although as regards two obviously different diseases – a reliable pathogenetic matter concerning prostate paraganglioma is requiring novel research approaches. PMID:27381689

  13. Segmentation of optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab; Weldon, Thomas P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2009-07-01

    The cavernous nerves course along the surface of the prostate and are responsible for erectile function. Improvements in identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery may improve nerve preservation and postoperative sexual potency. Two-dimensional (2-D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the rat prostate were segmented to differentiate the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland. To detect these nerves, three image features were employed: Gabor filter, Daubechies wavelet, and Laws filter. The Gabor feature was applied with different standard deviations in the x and y directions. In the Daubechies wavelet feature, an 8-tap Daubechies orthonormal wavelet was implemented, and the low-pass sub-band was chosen as the filtered image. Last, Laws feature extraction was applied to the images. The features were segmented using a nearest-neighbor classifier. N-ary morphological postprocessing was used to remove small voids. The cavernous nerves were differentiated from the prostate gland with a segmentation error rate of only 0.058+/-0.019. This algorithm may be useful for implementation in clinical endoscopic OCT systems currently being studied for potential intraoperative diagnostic use in laparoscopic and robotic nerve-sparing prostate cancer surgery.

  14. Dietary Polyphenols in Prevention and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Rahul K.; Syed, Deeba N.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent disease affecting males in many Western countries, with an estimated 29,480 deaths in 2014 in the US alone. Incidence rates for prostate cancer deaths have been decreasing since the early 1990s in men of all races/ethnicities, though they remain about 60% higher in African Americans than in any other group. The relationship between dietary polyphenols and the prevention of prostate cancer has been examined previously. Although results are sometimes inconsistent and variable, there is a general agreement that polyphenols hold great promise for the future management of prostate cancer. Various dietary components, including polyphenols, have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties. Generally considered as non-toxic, dietary polyphenols act as key modulators of signaling pathways and are therefore considered ideal chemopreventive agents. Besides possessing various anti-tumor properties, dietary polyphenols also contribute to epigenetic changes associated with the fate of cancer cells and have emerged as potential drugs for therapeutic intervention. Polyphenols have also been shown to affect post-translational modifications and microRNA expressions. This article provides a systematic review of the health benefits of selected dietary polyphenols in prostate cancer, especially focusing on the subclasses of polyphenols, which have a great effect on disease prevention and treatment. PMID:25654230

  15. Molecular profiles of finasteride effects on prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Kim, Jeri

    2009-06-01

    Our inability to distinguish between low-grade prostate cancers that pose no threat and those that can kill compels newly diagnosed early prostate cancer patients to make decisions that may negatively affect their lives needlessly for years afterward. To reliably stratify patients into different risk categories and apply appropriate treatment, we need a better molecular understanding of prostate cancer progression. Androgen ablation therapy and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors reduce dihydrotestosterone levels and increase apoptosis. Because of the differing biological potentials of tumor cells, however, these treatments may, in some cases, worsen outcome by selecting for or inducing adaptation of stronger androgen receptor signaling pathways. Reduced dihydrotestosterone also may be associated with altered survival pathways. Complicating treatment effects further, molecular adaptation may be accelerated by interactions between epithelial and stromal cells. The hypothesis that early prostate cancer cells with differing biological potential may respond differently to finasteride treatment is worth testing. Ongoing studies using a systems biology approach in a preoperative prostate cancer setting are testing this hypothesis toward developing more-rational clinical interventions. PMID:19491289

  16. A Survey of Space Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, L.; Kortenkamp, D.; Wettergreen, D.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we summarize a survey conducted by NASA to determine the state-of-the-art in space robotics and to predict future robotic capabilities under either nominal and intensive development effort. The space robotics assessment study examined both in-space operations including assembly, inspection, and maintenance and planetary surface operations like mobility and exploration. Applications of robotic autonomy and human-robot cooperation were considered. The study group devised a decomposition of robotic capabilities and then suggested metrics to specify the technical challenges associated with each. The conclusion of this paper identifies possible areas in which investment in space robotics could lead to significant advances of important technologies.

  17. What Tests Can Detect Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate cancer early detection What tests can detect prostate cancer early? The tests discussed below are used to ... also found in the blood. Most men without prostate cancer have PSA levels under 4 nanograms per milliliter ( ...

  18. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test result cannot diagnose prostate cancer. Only a prostate biopsy can diagnose this cancer. Your provider will look ... infection Recent tests on your bladder (cystoscopy) or prostate (biopsy) Catheter tube recently placed into your bladder to ...

  19. Survival in prostate cancer prevention trial detailed

    Cancer.gov

    In the NCI-sponsored Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, initial findings from a decade ago showed that the drug finasteride significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer, but among those who did develop prostate cancer, paradoxically, the drug was asso

  20. Prostate Cancer: Take Time to Decide

    MedlinePlus

    ... printing [PDF-983KB] Cancer Home Prostate Cancer: Take Time to Decide Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prostate Cancer: Take Time to Decide Most prostate cancers grow slowly, and ...