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Sample records for robust pore size

  1. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow; Lee, Elizabeth; Kallam, Alekhya; Majumdar, Partha; Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J.; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Bahr, James; Klein, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  2. Pore-size ion-size correlations for carbon supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmiola, John

    2009-08-01

    Carbon supercapacitors, which are energy storage devices that use ion adsorption on the surface of highly porous materials to store charge, have numerous advantages over other power-source technologies, but could realize further gains if their electrodes were properly optimized. This could lead to fleet-wide improvements in economy, performance, lifetime and environmental impact of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), as well as enable or advance many other applications. To determine correlations between ion-size and pore-size in carbon supercapacitors, we generated a well-characterized set of porous carbide-derived carbons (CDC) with average pore sizes from 0.6 to 2.25 nm and used them to probe the limits of understanding. Performing the first systematic study of the effect of pore size on capacitance showed that, in general, decreasing the pore size below the size of the solvated ion, or to precisely the size of the ionic liquid ion, allowed higher accumulation of charge. Using CDC with properly tuned porosity showed excellent performance in H2SO 4, ˜200 F/g, and performance superior to all prior reported results in organic (CH3CH2)4NBF4 (TEABF 4) electrolytes as well as l-ethyl-3-methyl immidazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI) ionic liquid, ˜150 F/g. This work conclusively showed that precisely matching the pore size with the ion size is the key factor for maximizing capacitance. Understanding that pores significantly larger than the effective ion size do not have large contributions to energy storage, work on dense porous CDC films on conductive substrates showed ˜100% larger volumetric capacitance than any previously reported. Depositing patterned films of carbide and electrical contacts could lead to microfabricated energy storage devices directly on a chip, or built up in layers for performances yet unrealized.

  3. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurovs, Richard; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell; Blach, Tomasz P

    2012-01-01

    The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total

  4. A robust model for pore-water chemistry of clayrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaucher, E. C.; Tournassat, C.; Pearson, F. J.; Blanc, P.; Crouzet, C.; Lerouge, C.; Altmann, S.

    2009-11-01

    The chemistry of pore water is an important property of clayrocks being considered as host rocks for long-term storage of radioactive waste. It may be difficult, if not impossible, to obtain water samples for chemical analysis from such rocks because of their low hydraulic conductivity. This paper presents an approach for calculating the pore-water compositions of clayrocks from laboratory-measured properties of core samples, including their leachable Cl and SO 4 concentrations and analysed exchangeable cations, and from mineral and cation exchange equilibria based on the formation mineralogy. New core sampling and analysis procedures are presented that reduce or quantify side reactions such as sample oxidation (e.g. pyrite) and soluble mineral dissolution (celestite, SrSO 4) that affect measured SO 4 concentrations and exchangeable cation distributions. The model considers phase equilibria only with minerals that are observed in the formation including the principal clay phases. The model has been used to calculate the composition of mobile pore water in the Callovo-Oxfordian clayrock and validated against measurements of water chemistry made in an underground research laboratory in that formation. The model reproduces the measured, in situ pore-water composition without any estimated parameters. All required parameters can be obtained from core sample analysis. We highlight the need to consider only those mineral phases which can be shown to be in equilibrium with contacting pore water. The consequence of this is that some conceptual models available in the literature appear not to be appropriate for modelling clayrocks, particularly those considering high temperature and/or high pressure detrital phases as chemical buffers of pore water. The robustness of our model with respect to uncertainties in the log K values of clay phases is also demonstrated. Large uncertainties in log K values for clay minerals have relatively small effects on modelled pore

  5. Nanofiltration membranes with narrowed pore size distribution via pore wall modification.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Lv, Yan; Qiu, Wen-Ze; Wu, Jian; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2016-06-30

    We propose a novel strategy for narrowing down the pore size distribution of ready-made nanofiltration membranes (NFMs) via pore wall modification. NFMs were subjected to the filtration of a highly reactive molecule solution, during which large pores were selectively reduced in size. The as-treated NFMs have high monovalent ion/divalent ion selectivity. PMID:27321407

  6. Preparation of mesoporous cadmium sulfide nanoparticles with moderate pore size

    SciTech Connect

    Han Zhaohui Zhu, Huaiyong; Shi, Jeffrey; Parkinson, Gordon; Lu, G.Q.

    2007-03-15

    The preparation of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles that have a moderate pore size is reported. This preparation method involves a hydrothermal process that produces a precursor mixture and a following acid treatment of the precursor to get the porous material. The majority of the particles have a pore size close to 20nm, which complements and fills in the gap between the existing cadmium sulfide materials, which usually have a pore size either less than 10nm or are well above 100nm.

  7. Decreasing transmembrane segment length greatly decreases perfringolysin O pore size

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Qingqing; Li, Huilin; Wang, Tong; London, Erwin

    2015-04-08

    Perfringolysin O (PFO) is a transmembrane (TM) β-barrel protein that inserts into mammalian cell membranes. Once inserted into membranes, PFO assembles into pore-forming oligomers containing 30–50 PFO monomers. These form a pore of up to 300 Å, far exceeding the size of most other proteinaceous pores. In this study, we found that altering PFO TM segment length can alter the size of PFO pores. A PFO mutant with lengthened TM segments oligomerized to a similar extent as wild-type PFO, and exhibited pore-forming activity and a pore size very similar to wild-type PFO as measured by electron microscopy and a leakage assay. In contrast, PFO with shortened TM segments exhibited a large reduction in pore-forming activity and pore size. This suggests that the interaction between TM segments can greatly affect the size of pores formed by TM β-barrel proteins. PFO may be a promising candidate for engineering pore size for various applications.

  8. Decreasing transmembrane segment length greatly decreases perfringolysin O pore size

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Qingqing; Li, Huilin; Wang, Tong; London, Erwin

    2015-04-08

    Perfringolysin O (PFO) is a transmembrane (TM) β-barrel protein that inserts into mammalian cell membranes. Once inserted into membranes, PFO assembles into pore-forming oligomers containing 30–50 PFO monomers. These form a pore of up to 300 Å, far exceeding the size of most other proteinaceous pores. In this study, we found that altering PFO TM segment length can alter the size of PFO pores. A PFO mutant with lengthened TM segments oligomerized to a similar extent as wild-type PFO, and exhibited pore-forming activity and a pore size very similar to wild-type PFO as measured by electron microscopy and a leakagemore » assay. In contrast, PFO with shortened TM segments exhibited a large reduction in pore-forming activity and pore size. This suggests that the interaction between TM segments can greatly affect the size of pores formed by TM β-barrel proteins. PFO may be a promising candidate for engineering pore size for various applications.« less

  9. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga`s mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  10. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga's mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  11. Influence of Pore Size on Fracture Strength of Porous Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keigo; Tsukidate, Hironori; Murakami, Akira; Miyata, Hiroshi

    Porous ceramics possess the excellent penetration and adiabatic characteristics, etc., and are used as heatproof filter materials for environmental equipments, etc. Moreover, porous ceramics controlled with porosity and pore size in the wide range have been actively developed. However, how the strength characteristics of porous ceramics are influenced by porosity and pore size of the material are not understood still enough. In this research, the evaluation tests on fracture strength, fracture energy and fracture toughness of porous alumina ceramics which porosity are almost equal, while pore sizes are different mutually were performed, and the relation between the pore size and the fracture strength was studied. The tests results show that the dispersion of fracture strength data is few though fracture strength of porous ceramics is lower than that of high-density ceramics. The relation based on linear fracture mechanics between the defect size and the fracture strength is valid when the one that a pore accompanies with the peculiar defect of the material was regarded as a defect size. In addition, fracture energy increases with the increase of pore size, and this seems based on a crooked propagation path of a crack. Finally, the process zone fracture model with considering the effect of the pore and grain size of the material is proposed. According to this model, for all pore size and crack length, it was shown that the fracture strengths of cracked specimens are evaluated.

  12. Mechanical properties, pore size distribution, and pore solution of fly ash-belite cement mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, A.; Goni, S.; Macias, A.; Luxan, M.P.

    1999-11-01

    The mechanical properties, pore size distribution, and extracted pore solution of fly ash-belite cement (FABC) mortars were studied for a period of 200 days. The influence of the calcination temperature, which ranged from 700 to 900 C, of the fly ash-belite cement was discussed. The evolution with hydration time of the pore size distribution was followed by mercury intrusion porosimetry, and the results correlated with those of flexural and compressive strength. The pore solution was expressed and analyzed at different times of hydration.

  13. Pore size engineering applied to starved electrochemical cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, K. M.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    To maximize performance in starved, multiplate cells, the cell design should rely on techniques which widen the volume tolerance characteristics. These involve engineering capillary pressure differences between the components of an electrochemical cell and using these forces to promote redistribution of electrolyte to the desired optimum values. This can be implemented in practice by prescribing pore size distributions for porous back-up plates, reservoirs, and electrodes. In addition, electrolyte volume management can be controlled by incorporating different pore size distributions into the separator. In a nickel/hydrogen cell, the separator must contain pores similar in size to the small pores of both the nickel and hydrogen electrodes in order to maintain an optimum conductive path for the electrolyte. The pore size distributions of all components should overlap in such a way as to prevent drying of the separator and/or flooding of the hydrogen electrode.

  14. Size of diffusion pore of Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Ishii, J; Nakae, T

    1988-03-01

    The diffusion pore of the outer membrane of Alcaligenes faecalis was shown to be substantially smaller than the Escherichia coli porin pore. In experiments with intact cells, pentoses and hexoses penetrated into the NaCl-expanded periplasm, whereas saccharides of Mr greater than 342 did not. Cells treated with 0.5 M saccharides of Mr greater than 342 weighed 33 to 38% less than cells treated with isotonic solution, suggesting that these saccharides do not permeate through the outer membrane. The diffusion rates of various solutes through the liposome membranes reconstituted from the Mr-43,000 outer membrane protein showed the following characteristics. (i) The relative diffusion rates of pentoses, hexoses, and methylhexoses appeared to be about 1.0, 0.6, and negligibly small, respectively. (ii) The diffusion rate of glucose appeared to be about 1/10th that with the E. coli B porin. (iii) The diffusion rate of gluconic acid was five to seven times higher than that of glucose. (iv) The diffusion rates of beta-lactam antibiotics appeared to be 40 to less than 10% of those with the E. coli B porin. PMID:2835003

  15. Size of diffusion pore of Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, J; Nakae, T

    1988-01-01

    The diffusion pore of the outer membrane of Alcaligenes faecalis was shown to be substantially smaller than the Escherichia coli porin pore. In experiments with intact cells, pentoses and hexoses penetrated into the NaCl-expanded periplasm, whereas saccharides of Mr greater than 342 did not. Cells treated with 0.5 M saccharides of Mr greater than 342 weighed 33 to 38% less than cells treated with isotonic solution, suggesting that these saccharides do not permeate through the outer membrane. The diffusion rates of various solutes through the liposome membranes reconstituted from the Mr-43,000 outer membrane protein showed the following characteristics. (i) The relative diffusion rates of pentoses, hexoses, and methylhexoses appeared to be about 1.0, 0.6, and negligibly small, respectively. (ii) The diffusion rate of glucose appeared to be about 1/10th that with the E. coli B porin. (iii) The diffusion rate of gluconic acid was five to seven times higher than that of glucose. (iv) The diffusion rates of beta-lactam antibiotics appeared to be 40 to less than 10% of those with the E. coli B porin. Images PMID:2835003

  16. Porosity, pore size distribution and in situ strength of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bhattacharjee, B

    2003-01-01

    In this study, in situ strength of concrete was determined through compression test of cores drilled out from laboratory cast beams. The apparent porosity and pore size distribution of the same concrete were determined through mercury intrusion porosimetry, performed on small-drilled cores. The normal-strength concrete mixes used in the experimental investigation were designed to exhibit a wide variation in their strengths. To ensure further variation in porosity, pore size distribution and strength, two modes of compaction, two varieties of coarse aggregates, different levels of age, curing period and exposure condition of concrete were also introduced in experimental scheme. With the data so generated, an appraisal of the most frequently referred relationships involving strength, porosity and pore size of cement-based materials was carried out. Finally, a new empirical model relating the in situ strength of concrete with porosity, pore size characteristics, cement content, aggregate type, exposure conditions, etc., is presented.

  17. A fast and robust new pore-network extraction method based on hybrid median axis and maximal inscribed ball techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofey, Sizonenko; Karsanina, Marina; Byuk, Irina; Gerke, Kirill

    2016-04-01

    To characterize pore structure relevant to single and multi-phase flow modelling it is of special interest to extract topology of the pore space. This is usually achieved using so-called pore-network models. Such models are useful not only to characterize pore space and pore size distributions, but also provide means to simulate flow and transport with very limited computational resources compared to other pore-scale modelling techniques. The main drawback of the pore-network approach is that they have first to simplify the pore space geometry. This crucial step is both time consuming and prone to numerous errors. Two most popular methods based on median axis or inscribed maximal balls have their own strong sides and disadvantages. To address aforementioned problems related to pore-network extraction here we propose a novel method utilizing the advantages of both popular approaches. Combining two algorithms resulted in much faster and robust extraction methodology. Moreover, we have found that accurate topology representation requires extension of the conventional pore-body and pore-throat classification. We test our new methodology using pore structures with "analytical solutions" such as different sphere packs. In addition, we rigorously compare it against inscribed maximal balls methodology's results using numerous 3D images of sandstone and carbonate rocks, soils and some other porous materials. Another verification includes permeability calculations which are also compared both against lab data and voxel based pore-scale modelling simulations. This work was partially supported by RFBR grant 15-34-20989 (X-ray tomography and image fusion) and RSF grant 14-17-00658 (image segmentation and pore-scale modelling).

  18. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  19. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  20. Porous Boron Nitride with Tunable Pore Size.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jun; Wu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2014-01-16

    On the basis of a global structural search and first-principles calculations, we predict two types of porous boron-nitride (BN) networks that can be built up with zigzag BN nanoribbons (BNNRs). The BNNRs are either directly connected with puckered B (N) atoms at the edge (type I) or connected with sp(3)-bonded BN chains (type II). Besides mechanical stability, these materials are predicted to be thermally stable at 1000 K. The porous BN materials entail large surface areas, ranging from 2800 to 4800 m(2)/g. In particular, type-II BN material with relatively large pores is highly favorable for hydrogen storage because the computed hydrogen adsorption energy (-0.18 eV) is very close to the optimal adsorption energy (-0.15 eV) suggested for reversible hydrogen storage at room temperature. Moreover, the type-II materials are semiconductors with width-dependent direct bandgaps, rendering the type-II BN materials promising not only for hydrogen storage but also for optoelectronic and photonic applications. PMID:26270717

  1. Estimation of pore size distribution using concentric double pulsed-field gradient NMR.

    PubMed

    Benjamini, Dan; Nevo, Uri

    2013-05-01

    Estimation of pore size distribution of well calibrated phantoms using NMR is demonstrated here for the first time. Porous materials are a central constituent in fields as diverse as biology, geology, and oil drilling. Noninvasive characterization of monodisperse porous samples using conventional pulsed-field gradient (PFG) NMR is a well-established method. However, estimation of pore size distribution of heterogeneous polydisperse systems, which comprise most of the materials found in nature, remains extremely challenging. Concentric double pulsed-field gradient (CDPFG) is a 2-D technique where both q (the amplitude of the diffusion gradient) and φ (the relative angle between the gradient pairs) are varied. A recent prediction indicates this method should produce a more accurate and robust estimation of pore size distribution than its conventional 1-D versions. Five well defined size distribution phantoms, consisting of 1-5 different pore sizes in the range of 5-25 μm were used. The estimated pore size distributions were all in good agreement with the known theoretical size distributions, and were obtained without any a priori assumption on the size distribution model. These findings support that in addition to its theoretical benefits, the CDPFG method is experimentally reliable. Furthermore, by adding the angle parameter, sensitivity to small compartment sizes is increased without the use of strong gradients, thus making CDPFG safe for biological applications. PMID:23548563

  2. Using radial NMR profiles to characterize pore size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deriche, Rachid; Treilhard, John

    2012-02-01

    Extracting information about axon diameter distributions in the brain is a challenging task which provides useful information for medical purposes; for example, the ability to characterize and monitor axon diameters would be useful in diagnosing and investigating diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)1 or autism.2 Three families of operators are defined by Ozarslan,3 whose action upon an NMR attenuation signal extracts the moments of the pore size distribution of the ensemble under consideration; also a numerical method is proposed to continuously reconstruct a discretely sampled attenuation profile using the eigenfunctions of the simple harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian: the SHORE basis. The work presented here extends Ozarlan's method to other bases that can offer a better description of attenuation signal behaviour; in particular, we propose the use of the radial Spherical Polar Fourier (SPF) basis. Testing is performed to contrast the efficacy of the radial SPF basis and SHORE basis in practical attenuation signal reconstruction. The robustness of the method to additive noise is tested and analysed. We demonstrate that a low-order attenuation signal reconstruction outperforms a higher-order reconstruction in subsequent moment estimation under noisy conditions. We propose the simulated annealing algorithm for basis function scale parameter estimation. Finally, analytic expressions are derived and presented for the action of the operators on the radial SPF basis (obviating the need for numerical integration, thus avoiding a spectrum of possible sources of error).

  3. EFFECT OF PORE SIZE ON TRAPPING ZINC VAPORS

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2010-12-17

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of pore size on pumping efficiency and zinc vapor trapping efficiency. A simple pumping efficiency test was conducted for all five pore diameters where it was observed that evacuation times were adversely affected by reducing the pore size below 5 {micro}m. Common test conditions for the zinc trapping efficiency experiments were used. These conditions resulted in some variability, to ascribe different efficiencies to the filter media. However, the data suggest that there is no significant difference in trapping efficiency for filter media with pores from 0.2 to 20 {micro}m with a thickness of 0.065-inch. Consequently, the 20 {micro}m pore filter media that is currently used at SRS is a suitable filter material for to utilize for future extractions. There is evidence that smaller pore filter will adversely affect the pumping times for the TEF and little evidence to suggest that a smaller pore diameters have significant impact on the trapping efficiency.

  4. Pore size and the lab-field reaction rate riddle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanuel, S.; Ague, J. J.; Walderhaug, O.

    2009-12-01

    Pore size is usually thought to influence the rate of crystal growth during diagenesis and metamorphism by controlling the ratio of surface area to fluid volume. However, theory suggests that in micron-scale to nanometer-scale pores, interfacial energy effects can also become important. We used mercury porosimetry to investigate the pore-size distributions in naturally cemented sandstone adjacent to stylolites and found that quartz precipitation was inhibited in pores smaller than 10 microns in diameter. We demonstrate that standard kinetic models cannot reproduce the observed pore-size patterns in mineralized samples; by contrast, excellent fits with the data are obtained when interfacial energy effects are taken into account. Moreover, as such micron-scale pores comprise the overwhelming majority of surface area in the sandstone, average reaction rates for the rock are significantly reduced. Reaction rates in geological media determined in field studies can be orders of magnitude lower than those measured in laboratory experiments, and we propose that reduced reaction rates in rocks with micron-scale porosity could account for the apparent paradox.

  5. Neutrons measure phase behavior in pores at Angstrom size

    SciTech Connect

    Bardoel, Agatha A; Melnichenko, Yuri B

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have measured the phase behavior of green house gases in pores at the Angstrom-level, using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor. Yuri Melnichenko, an instrument scientist on the General Purpose Small Angle Neutron Scattering (GP SANS) Diffractometer at ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor, his postdoctoral associate Lilin He and collaborators Nidia Gallego and Cristian Contescu from the Material Sciences Division (ORNL) were engaged in the work. They were studying nanoporous carbons to assess their attractiveness as storage media for hydrogen, with a view to potential use for on-board hydrogen storage for transportation applications. Nanoporous carbons can also serve as electrode material for supercapacitors and batteries. The researchers successfully determined that the most efficiently condensing pore size in a carbon nanoporous material for hydrogen storage is less than one nanometer. In a paper recently published by the Journal of the American Chemical Society, the collaborators used small angle neutron scattering to study how hydrogen condenses in small pores at ambient temperature. They discovered that the surface-molecule interactions create internal pressures in pores that may exceed the external gas pressure by a factor of up to 50. 'This is an exciting result,' Melnichenko said, 'as you achieve extreme densification in pores 'for free', i.e. without spending any energy. These results can be used to guide the development of new carbon adsorbents tailored to maximize hydrogen storage capacities.' Another important factor that defines the adsorption capacity of sub-nanometer pores is their shape. In order to get accurate structural information and maximize sorption capacity, it is important that pores are small and of approximately uniform size. In collaboration with Drexel University's Yury Gogotsi who supplied the samples, Melnichenko and his collaborators used the GP SANS

  6. Pore-size distributions of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Walther, D.H.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M. |

    1993-11-01

    Pore-size distributions have been measured for N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) hydrogels at 25 and 32{degrees}C with swelling capacities 11.3 and 6.0 g swollen gel per g dry gel. The mixed-solute-exclusion method (introduced by Kuga) was used to obtain the experimental solute-exclusion curve which represents the amount of imbibed liquid inside the gel inaccessible for a solute of radius r. The pore-size distributions were obtained by using Casassa`s Brownian-motion model and numerically solving the Fredholm integral equation. The pore-size distributions of temperature-sensitive NIPA hydrogels are strongly dependent on temperature which determines swelling capacity. With increasing swelling capacity (from 6.0 to 11.3), the pore-size distribution shifts to higher mode values (27.3 to 50.6 {angstrom}) and to higher variance (1.07{center_dot}10{sup 3} to 3.58{center_dot}10{sup 3} {angstrom}{sup 2}).

  7. Nanoporous carbide-derived carbons with tunable pore size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, John; Zhou, Wei; Gogotsi, Yury; Nikitin, Alexei; Ye, Haihui; Barsoum, Michel; Yi, Bo; Foley, Henry

    2004-03-01

    Major efforts in porous materials have been directed toward control of pore size, shape and uniformity. Here we demonstrate that porosity of carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) can be tuned with sub-Å accuracy in a wide range by controlling the chlorination temperature. CDCs have narrow pore size distributions, comparable to zeolites and much narrower than single-wall carbon nanotubes or activated carbons. Furthermore, mean pore diameters in the range 0.5 - 0.8 nm are obtained by dechlorination of Ti3SiC2 at temperatures from 300-1200 °C [1], suggesting possible application as a novel H2 storage material. Pore size distributions measured by Ar adsorption, Ch3Cl adsorption and small-angle x-ray scattering are in good agreement [1]. We introduce neutron prompt gamma activation analysis as a hydrogen-specific probe of storage capacity which can also be applied to in situ measurements of adsorption and desorption energies and kinetics. [1]. Y. Gogotsi, A. Nikitin, H. Ye, W. Zhou, J. E. Fischer, B. Ye, H. Foley and M. Barsoum, Nature Materials 2, 591(2003).

  8. Simple thermal treatment for the size control of pore arrays in a polystyrene colloidal crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamiolkowski, Ryan M.; Fiorenza, Shane A.; Chen, Kevin; Tate, Alyssa M.; Pfeil, Shawn H.; Goldman, Yale E.

    Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) offers an attractive route to fabricating periodic structures with nanoscale features, without e-beam or deep UV lithography. In particular, it is uniquely suited to the low cost fabrication of large repeated arrays pores or pillars created by taking advantage of the interstitial spaces in close-packed monolayers of nano to micro-scale beads. However pore size, shape, and spacing cannot be controlled independently. We present both a robust method for producing large, approximately 1 cm2, hexagonally close packed monolayer films of 1 micron diameter polystyrene beads on glass substrates, and thermal treatment of these films near the glass temperature, Tg, of polystyrene to modify the pore size. This builds on earlier work showing that pore size can be modified for colloidal crystals formed at a liquid gas interface [2]. These processes promise a simple, reproducible, and low cost route to periodic pore arrays for nano-photonic applications such as zero mode waveguides (ZMWs) Funding: F30 AI114187 (RMJ), R01-GM080376 (YEG).

  9. Robust depth filter sizing for centrate clarification.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Herb; Chefer, Kate; Felo, Michael; Cacace, Benjamin; Hove, Sarah; Wang, Bin; Blanchard, Mark; Oulundsen, George; Piper, Rob; Zhao, Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Cellulosic depth filters embedded with diatomaceous earth are widely used to remove colloidal cell debris from centrate as a secondary clarification step during the harvest of mammalian cell culture fluid. The high cost associated with process failure in a GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) environment highlights the need for a robust process scale depth filter sizing that allows for (1) stochastic batch-to-batch variations from filter media, bioreactor feed and operation, and (2) systematic scaling differences in average performance between filter sizes and formats. Matched-lot depth filter media tested at the same conditions with consecutive batches of the same molecule were used to assess the sources and magnitudes of process variability. Depth filter sizing safety factors of 1.2-1.6 allow a filtration process to compensate for random batch-to-batch process variations. Matched-lot depth filter media in four different devices tested simultaneously at the same conditions was used with a common feed to assess scaling effects. All filter devices showed <11% capacity difference and the Pod format devices showed no statistically different capacity differences. PMID:26518411

  10. Scaffold pore size modulates in vitro osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Huri, Pinar Yilgor; Ozilgen, B Arda; Hutton, Daphne L; Grayson, Warren L

    2014-08-01

    Trabecular bone has an interconnected porous structure, which influences cellular responses, biochemical transport and mechanical strength. Appropriately mimicking this structural organization in biomaterial scaffolds can facilitate more robust bone tissue regeneration and integration by providing a native microenvironment to the cells. This study examined the effect of pore size on human adipose-derived stem/stromal cell (ASC) osteogenesis within poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds. Scaffold pore size was controlled by porogen leaching of custom-made paraffin particles with three different size ranges: P200 (< 500 µm), P500 (500-1000 µm), and P1000 (1000-1500 µm). Scaffolds produced by leaching these particles exhibited highly interconnected pores and rough surface structures that were favorable for cell attachment and ingrowth. The osteogenic response of ASCs was evaluated following 3 weeks of in vitro culture using biochemical (ALP, Ca(2+)/DNA content), mechanical (compression test) and histological (H&E and von Kossa staining) analyses. It was observed that while the total number of cells was similar for all scaffolds, the cell distributions and osteogenic properties were affected by the scaffold pore size. ASCs were able to bridge smaller pores and grow uniformly within these scaffolds (P200) while they grew as a layer along the periphery of the largest pores (P1000). The cell-biomaterial interactions specific to the latter case led to enhanced osteogenic responses. The ALP activity and Ca(2+) deposition were doubled in P1000 scaffolds as compared to P200 scaffolds. A significant difference was observed between the compressive strength of unseeded and seeded P1000 scaffolds. Therefore, we demonstrated that the use of scaffolds with pores that are in the range of 1 mm enhances in vitro ASC osteogenesis, which may improve their performance in engineered bone substitutes. PMID:24945873

  11. Bovine Serum Albumin Adsorption in Mesoporous Titanium Dioxide: Pore Size and Pore Chemistry Effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Guo, Yanhua; Hong, Qiliang; Rao, Chao; Zhang, Haijuan; Dong, Yihui; Huang, Liangliang; Lu, Xiaohua; Bao, Ningzhong

    2016-04-26

    Understanding the mechanism of protein adsorption and designing materials with high sensitivity, high specificity and fast response are critical to develop the next-generation biosensing and diagnostic platforms. Mesoporous materials with high surface area, tunable pores, and good thermal/hydrostatic stabilities are promising candidates in this field. Because of the excellent biocompatibility, titanium dioxide has received an increasing interest in the past decade for biomedical applications. In this work, we synthesized mesoporous titanium dioxide with controlled pore sizes (7.2-28.0 nm) and explored their application for bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption experiments were performed to characterize the mesoporous TiO2 samples before and after BSA adsorption. Isothermal microcalorimetry was applied to measure both the adsorption heat and conformation rearrangement heat of BSA in those mesopores. We also carried out thermogravimetry measurements to qualitatively estimate the concentration of hydroxyl groups, which plays an important role in stabilizing BSA in-pore adsorption. The adsorption stability was also examined by leaching experiments. The results showed that TiO2 mesopores can host BSA adsorption when their diameters are larger than the hydrodynamic size of BSA (∼9.5 nm). In larger mesopores studied, two BSA molecules were adsorbed in the same pores. In contrast to the general understanding that large mesopores demonstrate poor stabilities for protein adsorptions, the synthesized mesoporous TiO2 samples demonstrated good leaching stabilities for BSA adsorption. This is probably due to the combination of the mesoporous confinement and the in-pore hydroxyl groups. PMID:27048991

  12. Optical transmission spectra of porous aluminamembranes with different pore size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyushkin, L. B.; Muratova, E. N.; Spivak, J. M.; Shimanova, V. V.; Korlyakova, S. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2014-12-01

    Membranes of nanoporous aluminum oxide (alumina) have been obtained using the electrochemical etching technique by varying technological regimes. The surface morphology and cleavages of obtained experimental samples are studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical transmission measurements were performed on a spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 190-1000 nm. It is possible to determine the average size and the dispersion of the pore diameter by UV- visible transmittance spectrum measuring.

  13. Fabrication of Cell-Laden Macroporous Biodegradable Hydrogels with Tunable Porosities and Pore Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Lu, Steven; Lam, Johnny; Kasper, F. Kurtis

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigated a cytocompatible particulate leaching method for the fabrication of cell-laden macroporous hydrogels. We used dehydrated and uncrosslinked gelatin microspheres as leachable porogens to create macroporous oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) hydrogels. Varying gelatin content and size resulted in a wide range of porosities and pore sizes, respectively. Encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited high viability immediately following the fabrication process, and culture of cell-laden hydrogels revealed improved cell viability with increasing porosity. Additionally, the osteogenic potential of the encapsulated MSCs was evaluated over 16 days. Overall, this study presents a robust method for the preparation of cell-laden macroporous hydrogels with desired porosity and pore size for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25156274

  14. Pore size analysis of activated carbons from argon and nitrogen porosimetry using density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dombrowski, R.J.; Hyduke, D.R.; Lastoskie, C.M.

    2000-05-30

    The authors present isotherms calculated from density functional theory for the adsorption of argon in model slit-shaped carbon pores at 77 K. The model isotherms are used to interpret experimental argon uptake measurements and to obtain the pore size distributions of several porous carbons. A similar set of density measurements and to obtain the pore size distributions of several porous carbons. A similar set of density functional theory isotherms, previously reported for nitrogen adsorption on carbon slit pores at 77 K, are used to determine pore size distributions for the same set of carbons. The pore size distribution maxima, mean pore widths, and specific pore volumes measured using the two different probe gases are all found to agree to within approximately 8% on average. Some of the differences in the pore size distributions obtained from argon and nitrogen porosimetry may be attributable to quadrupolar interactions of the nitrogen molecules with functional groups on the carbon surface.

  15. Evolution of pore size distribution during sintering of oxide nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, V. G.; Devyatko, Y. N.; Tenishev, A. V.; Mikhalchik, V. V.; Khomyakov, O. V.

    2016-04-01

    Uranium dioxide pellets were sintered at various temperature routes and atmospheres with different oxygen content. Statistically calculated pore size distribution of the sintered pellets and distribution function was obtained. It is shown that the average pore size is almost unchanged at intermediate stage of sintering while the total number of pores reduced.

  16. Robustness of size measurement in soft corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellström, M.; Benzie, J. A. H.

    2011-09-01

    Accurate colony size measurement in soft-bodied sessile aquatic invertebrates is more difficult than in hard corals because of the variable state of the hydroskeleton in the former. The present study examined variation in colony height, oral disc diameter and basal circumference in three species of soft coral of different morphological types ( Sarcophyton elegans, Sinularia flexibilis and Dendronephthya sp.) over a 24-h period. Individual colonies changed considerably in size over this period. Coefficients of variation for height measurements and oral disc were 0.09-0.36 and 0.08-0.28, respectively, but were only 0.02-0.09 for basal circumference, in all three species. Measurements of basal circumference in the field showed the highest correlation with colony biomass (volume after water displacement in formalin) confirming basal circumference to be a sound measure of colony size in repeated measurement studies.

  17. Meristem size contributes to the robustness of phyllotaxis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Landrein, Benoit; Refahi, Yassin; Besnard, Fabrice; Hervieux, Nathan; Mirabet, Vincent; Boudaoud, Arezki; Vernoux, Teva; Hamant, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Using the plant model Arabidopsis, the relationship between day length, the size of the shoot apical meristem, and the robustness of phyllotactic patterns were analysed. First, it was found that reducing day length leads to an increased meristem size and an increased number of alterations in the final positions of organs along the stem. Most of the phyllotactic defects could be related to an altered tempo of organ emergence, while not affecting the spatial positions of organ initiations at the meristem. A correlation was also found between meristem size and the robustness of phyllotaxis in two accessions (Col-0 and WS-4) and a mutant (clasp-1), independent of growth conditions. A reduced meristem size in clasp-1 was even associated with an increased robustness of the phyllotactic pattern, beyond what is observed in the wild type. Interestingly it was also possible to modulate the robustness of phyllotaxis in these different genotypes by changing day length. To conclude, it is shown first that robustness of the phyllotactic pattern is not maximal in the wild type, suggesting that, beyond its apparent stereotypical order, the robustness of phyllotaxis is regulated. Secondly, a role for day length in the robustness of the phyllotaxis was also identified, thus providing a new example of a link between patterning and environment in plants. Thirdly, the experimental results validate previous model predictions suggesting a contribution of meristem size in the robustness of phyllotaxis via the coupling between the temporal sequence and spatial pattern of organ initiations. PMID:25504644

  18. Pore size and pore throat types in a heterogeneous dolostone reservoir, Devonian Grosmont formation, western Canada sedimentary basin

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, P.; Machel, H. G.

    1995-11-01

    The Devonian Grosmont Formation in northeastern Alberta, Canada, is a giant heavy-oil reservoir. The main reservoir rocks are dolomitized and karstified platform and ramp carbonates, and the best reservoir facies occur in the upper Grosmont (UGM) units 3 and 2. In these units, reservoir properties are highly heterogeneous. Hand specimen, thin section, UV, and SEM petrography, as well as grading scales, mercury capillary pressure curve analysis, and statistics, have been used to characterize reservoir heterogeneity. Our investigation led to a new pore size classification for carbonate reservoirs; this new classification has four pore sizes: microporosity (pore diameters <1 {mu}m), mesoporosity (pore diameters 1-1000 {mu}m), macroporosity (pore diameters 1-256 mm), and megaporosity (pore diameters >256 mm). A combination of microscopic observations and capillary pressure curve characteristics led to the recognition of four pore throat texture types on the microporosity scale, and to five types on the mesoporosity scale. Microporosity pore types include (1) intracrystal dissolution porosity, (2) pervasive intercrystal and intracrystal dissolution porosity, (3) intergranular and/or intercrystal porosity in grainstones, and (4) primary or solution microporosity in mud matrix (only in limestones). Mesoporosity pore types include (1) intercrystal porosity, (2) solution-enhanced intercrystal porosity, (3) oversized porosity, (4) intragranular solution porosity, and (5) intergranular solution porosity. Some of these types are homogeneous (e.g., non-fabric selective dissolution porosity and intercrystal primary porosity), whereas others are heterogeneous. Generally, hydrocarbon recovery efficiency is good in the homogeneous pore throat types, but poor in the heterogeneous types.

  19. Idealized Shale Sorption Isotherm Measurements to Determine Pore Volume, Pore Size Distribution, and Surface Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R.; Wang, B.; Aljama, H.; Rupp, E.; Wilcox, J.

    2014-12-01

    One method for mitigating the impacts of anthropogenic CO2-related climate change is the sequestration of CO2 in depleted gas and oil reservoirs, including shale. The accurate characterization of the heterogeneous material properties of shale, including pore volume, surface area, pore size distributions (PSDs) and composition is needed to understand the interaction of CO2 with shale. Idealized powdered shale sorption isotherms were created by varying incremental amounts of four essential components by weight. The first two components, organic carbon and clay, have been shown to be the most important components for CO2 uptake in shales. Organic carbon was represented by kerogen isolated from a Silurian shale, and clay groups were represented by illite from the Green River shale formation. The rest of the idealized shale was composed of equal parts by weight of SiO2 to represent quartz and CaCO3 to represent carbonate components. Baltic, Eagle Ford, and Barnett shale sorption measurements were used to validate the idealized samples. The idealized and validation shale sorption isotherms were measured volumetrically using low pressure N2 (77K) and CO2 (273K) adsorbates on a Quantachrome Autosorb IQ2. Gravimetric isotherms were also produced for a subset of these samples using CO2 and CH4adsorbates under subsurface temperature and pressure conditions using a Rubotherm magnetic suspension balance. Preliminary analyses were inconclusive in validating the idealized samples. This could be a result of conflicting reports of total organic carbon (TOC) content in each sample, a problem stemming from the heterogeneity of the samples and different techniques used for measuring TOC content. The TOC content of the validation samples (Eagle Ford and Barnett) was measured by Rock-Eval pyrolysis at Weatherford Laboratories, while the TOC content in the Baltic validation samples was determined by LECO TOC. Development of a uniform process for measuring TOC in the validation samples is

  20. Unified method for the total pore volume and pore size distribution of hierarchical zeolites from argon adsorption and mercury intrusion.

    PubMed

    Kenvin, Jeffrey; Jagiello, Jacek; Mitchell, Sharon; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2015-02-01

    A generalized approach to determine the complete distribution of macropores, mesopores, and micropores from argon adsorption and mercury porosimetry is developed and validated for advanced zeolite catalysts with hierarchically structured pore systems in powder and shaped forms. Rather than using a fragmented approach of simple overlays from individual techniques, a unified approach that utilizes a kernel constructed from model isotherms and model intrusion curves is used to calculate the complete pore size distribution and the total pore volume of the material. An added benefit of a single full-range pore size distribution is that the cumulative pore area and the area distribution are also obtained without the need for additional modeling. The resulting complete pore size distribution and the kernel accurately model both the adsorption isotherm and the mercury porosimetry. By bridging the data analysis of two primary characterization tools, this methodology fills an existing gap in the library of familiar methods for porosity assessment in the design of materials with multilevel porosity for novel technological applications. PMID:25603366

  1. Prediction of Hydraulic Conductivity as Related to Pore Size Distribution in Unsaturated Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil pore volume as well as pore size, shape, type (i.e. biopore versus crack), continuity, and distribution in soil affect soil water and gas exchange. Vertical and lateral drainage of water by gravitational forces occurs through large, non-capillary soil pores, but redistribution and upward moveme...

  2. Pore size distribution of shaley rock by small angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, P. L.; Mildner, D. F. R.; Borst, R. L.

    1983-08-01

    Information concerning pore microstructure of shaly rocks is of considerable relevance to petroleum exploration and production. Pore sizes and distributions within shaly samples have been determined by small angle neutron scattering. The data are indicative of a considerable spread of pore dimension, showing inhomogeneities with a range from 20 Å and greater. The cumulative pore volumes are compared with those derived from mercury intrusion porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms.

  3. Pore size distribution of shaly rock by small angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, P.L.; Mildner, D.F.R.; Borst, R.L.

    1983-08-01

    Information concerning pore microstructure of shaly rocks is of considerable relevance to petroleum exploration and production. Pore sizes and distributions within shaly samples have been determined by small angle neutron scattering. The data are indicative of a considerable spread of pore dimension, showing inhomogeneities with a range from 20 A and greater. The cumulative pore volumes are compared with those derived from mercury intrusion porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms.

  4. Modelling mass transport through a porous partition: Effect of pore size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayet, Mohamed; Velázquez, Armando; Mengual, Juan I.

    2004-09-01

    Direct contact membrane distillation process has been studied using microporous polytetrafluoroethylene and polyvinylidene fluoride membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of their non-wettability, pore size distribution and porosity. The mean pore sizes and pore size distributions were obtained by means of wet/dry flow method. The mean pore size and the effective porosity of the membranes were also determined from the gas permeation test. A theoretical model that considers the pore size distribution together with the gas transport mechanisms through the membrane pores was developed for this process. The contribution of each mass transport mechanism was analyzed. It was found that both membranes have pore size distributions in the Knudsen region and in the transition between Knudsen and ordinary diffusion region. The transition region was the major contribution to mass transport. The predicted water vapor permeability of the membranes were compared with the experimental ones. The effect of considering pore size distribution instead of mean pore size to predict the water vapor permeability of the membranes was investigated.

  5. Two micron pore size MCP-based image intensifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesener, John; Estrera, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Image intensifiers (I2) have many advantages as detectors. They offer single photon sensitivity in an imaging format, they're light in weight and analog I2 systems can operate for hours on a single AA battery. Their light output is such as to exploit the peak in color sensitivity of the human eye. Until recent developments in CMOS sensors, they also were one of the highest resolution sensors available. The closest all solid state solution, the Texas Instruments Impactron chip, comes in a 1 megapixel format. Depending on the level of integration, an Impactron based system can consume 20 to 40 watts in a system configuration. In further investing in I2 technology, L-3 EOS determined that increasing I2 resolution merited a high priority. Increased I2 resolution offers the system user two desirable options: 1) increased detection and identification ranges while maintaining field-of-view (FOV) or 2) increasing FOV while maintaining the original system resolution. One of the areas where an investment in resolution is being made is in the microchannel plate (MCP). Incorporation of a 2 micron MCP into an image tube has the potential of increasing the system resolution of currently fielded systems. Both inverting and non-inverting configurations are being evaluated. Inverting tubes are being characterized in night vision goggle (NVG) and sights. The non-inverting 2 micron tube is being characterized for high resolution I2CMOS camera applications. Preliminary measurements show an increase in the MTF over a standard 5 micron pore size, 6 micron pitch plate. Current results will be presented.

  6. Nano-pore size and porosity study by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Positronium Annihilation Lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesta, M. A.; Ramia, M. E.; Jeandrevin, S.; Martín, C. A.

    2009-11-01

    The present work involves a comprehensive experimental determination of porosity and pore size distribution in rocks from oil fields formations by deuterium (2H) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Positronium Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). Both techniques yield complementary results; PALS measures the average pore size providing bulk information from which the most abundant pore size can be obtained, and NMR allows for the determination of the relative pore size distribution accurately. Both techniques give complementary information to obtain an absolute pore size distribution.

  7. A general diagram for estimating pore size of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarbolouki, M. N.

    1982-01-01

    A slit sieve model has been used to develop a general correlation between the average pore size of the upstream surface of a membrane and the molecular weight of the solute which it retains by better than 80%. The pore size is determined by means of the correlation using the high retention data from an ultrafiltration (UF) or a reverse osmosis (RO) experiment. The pore population density can also be calculated from the flux data via appropriate equations.

  8. A framework for quantifying size dependent deformation of nano-scale pores in mudrocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanuel, Simon; Day-Stirrat, Ruarri J.

    2012-11-01

    The evolution of pore size distributions during sediment consolidation controls critical parameters such as porosity and permeability. Two phenomenological models are developed that describe the evolution of pore size distributions during stress induced consolidation. The first model predicts the evolution of pores subjected to an applied stress for systems in which all pores deform equally irrespective of size; in the second model, the rate of pore deformation decreases with size (i.e., smaller pores deform less readily than larger ones). To determine which model best describes the behavior of clay-rich rocks during consolidation, cumulative void volume curves from consolidation experiments carried out on Boston Blue Clay are compared with results from numerical simulations. While the uniform deformation model is able produce a good fit during the initial stage of the consolidation (0.1-1 MPa), it is unable to capture system behavior at elevated stresses (1-10 MPa). By contrast, the size dependent deformation model produces excellent fits with the data at both initial and later stages of consolidation. Furthermore, the model shows that size dependent behavior is restricted to pores with radii of < 100 nm; significantly, small pores may be up to 47% less compressible than large pores. Crucially, by comparing sediments from different burial depths but possessing similar mineralogical compositions, the framework can be used to assess the behavior of natural sediments under geological conditions.

  9. The Effect of Mineralization on Pore-size Distribution Patterns in Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanuel, S.; Ague, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    In geological media, pore-size distributions can strongly influence important physical parameters such as permeability and specific surface area. Mineralization in rock and soil often reduces the overall porosity and can also induce changes in the distribution of pore sizes. However, the way in which mineralization affects pore size is poorly understood, with relatively little data available from field-based studies. Here, we present a high-resolution profile of pore-size distributions from a variably mineralized sandstone section. The samples were obtained from a Barents Sea core in which quartz cement had preferentially precipitated around stylolite (pressure solution) interfaces; pore-size distributions were measured in 15 samples using mercury injection porosimetry. The results demonstrate that mineralization led to a reduction in porosity of around 40% in samples closest to the stylolite. However, this reduction was not uniform over the range of pore-sizes: the greatest level of porosity reduction occurred in the 10-5-10-4 m size range, while there was no discernible change in the porosity associated with smaller pores. A reactive transport model - simulating the dissolution of quartz at the stylolite interface and subsequent reprecipitation in the rock matrix - was used to predict the evolution of the porosity associated with multiple pore-sizes; the model was successfully able to reproduce the observed porosity patterns, indicating that such an approach could be integrated into efforts to model the evolution of porosity in geological formations, including during CO2 sequestration.

  10. Anomalous cyclic voltammetric response from pores smaller than ion size by voltage-induced force.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheol-Min; Jung, Hwan Jung; Kim, Yong Jung

    2015-05-15

    Nanoporous carbons, with different micropore size distributions, were prepared based on waste coffee grounds by a chemical activation process in order to elucidate the correlation between desolvated ions and pores smaller than the sizes of ions using an organic electrolyte. The pore structure of the coffee-based nanoporous carbon was strongly dependent on the heat-treatment temperature prior to the activation process. Cyclic voltammograms of the nanoporous carbons mainly dominated by the smaller pore relative to that of the bare ion size clearly showed deviation from an ideal feature of the current response. It was clearly envisaged that even a bare ion of a size larger than the pore size can penetrate into the pore by voltage-induced force. PMID:25668782

  11. Microporous polyphenylenes with tunable pore size for hydrogen storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, S.; Dorney, B.; White, D.; Kirklin, S.; Zapol, P.; Yu, L.; Liu, D. J.; Univ. of Chicago

    2010-01-01

    A series of highly porous polymers with similar BET surface areas of higher than 1000 m2 g-1 but tunable pore ranging from 0.7 nm to 0.9 nm were synthesized through facile ethynyl trimerization reaction to demonstrate the surface property-hydrogen adsorption relationship.

  12. Structure-Assisted Functional Anchor Implantation in Robust Metal-Organic Frameworks with Ultra large Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Feng, DW; Zhou, HC

    2015-02-04

    A facile functionalization assisted by the structural attributes of PCN-333 has been studied while maintaining the integrity of the parent MOF including ultralarge pores, chemical robustness, and crystallinity. Herein we thoroughly analyzed ligand exchange phenomena in PCN-333 and demonstrate that the extent of exchange can be tailored by varying the exchange conditions as potential applications may require. Through this method a variety of functional groups are incorporated into PCN-333. To further show the capabilities of this system introduction of a BODIPY fluorophore as a secondary functionality was performed to the functionalized framework via a click reaction. We anticipate the PCN-333 with functional anchor can serve as a stable platform for further chemistry to be explored in future applications

  13. Structure-Assisted Functional Anchor Implantation in Robust Metal–Organic Frameworks with Ultralarge Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jihye; Feng, Dawei; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2015-02-04

    A facile functionalization assisted by the structural attributes of PCN-333 has been studied while maintaining the integrity of the parent MOF including ultralarge pores, chemical robustness, and crystallinity. Herein we thoroughly analyzed ligand exchange phenomena in PCN-333 and demonstrate that the extent of exchange can be tailored by varying the exchange conditions as potential applications may require. Through this method a variety of functional groups are incorporated into PCN-333. To further show the capabilities of this system introduction of a BODIPY fluorophore as a secondary functionality was performed to the functionalized framework via a click reaction. We anticipate the PCN-333 with functional anchor can serve as a stable platform for further chemistry to be explored in future applications.

  14. Adjustable virtual pore-size filter for automated sample preparation using acoustic radiation force

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, B; Fisher, K; Ness, K; Rose, K; Mariella, R

    2008-05-22

    We present a rapid and robust size-based separation method for high throughput microfluidic devices using acoustic radiation force. We developed a finite element modeling tool to predict the two-dimensional acoustic radiation force field perpendicular to the flow direction in microfluidic devices. Here we compare the results from this model with experimental parametric studies including variations of the PZT driving frequencies and voltages as well as various particle sizes and compressidensities. These experimental parametric studies also provide insight into the development of an adjustable 'virtual' pore-size filter as well as optimal operating conditions for various microparticle sizes. We demonstrated the separation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and MS2 bacteriophage using acoustic focusing. The acoustic radiation force did not affect the MS2 viruses, and their concentration profile remained unchanged. With optimized design of our microfluidic flow system we were able to achieve yields of > 90% for the MS2 with > 80% of the S. cerevisiae being removed in this continuous-flow sample preparation device.

  15. Effect on the Pore-Size Dependence of an Organic Electrolyte Supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Deen; Jin, Zhehui; Henderson, Douglous; Wu, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    Organic electrolytes such as tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate dissolved in acetonitrile (TEA-BF{sub 4}/ACN) are widely used in commercial supercapacitors and academic research, but conflicting experimental results have been reported regarding the dependence of surface-area-normalized capacitance on the pore size. Here we show from a classical density functional theory the dependence of capacitance on the pore size from 0.5 to 3.0 nm for a model TEA-BF{sub 4}/ACN electrolyte. We find that the capacitance-pore size curve becomes roughly flat after the first peak around the ion diameter, and the peak capacitance is not significantly higher than the large-pore average. We attribute the invariance of capacitance with the pore size to the formation of an electric double-layer structure that consists of counterions and highly organized solvent molecules. This work highlights the role of the solvent molecules in modulating the capacitance and reconciles apparently conflicting experimental reports.

  16. Pore size distribution, strength, and microstructure of portland cement paste containing metal hydroxide waste

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, Z.A.; Mahmud, H.; Shaaban, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification of hazardous wastes is used to convert hazardous metal hydroxide waste sludge into a solid mass with better handling properties. This study investigated the pore size development of ordinary portland cement pastes containing metal hydroxide waste sludge and rice husk ash using mercury intrusion porosimetry. The effects of acre and the addition of rice husk ash on pore size development and strength were studied. It was found that the pore structures of mixes changed significantly with curing acre. The pore size shifted from 1,204 to 324 {angstrom} for 3-day old cement paste, and from 956 to 263 {angstrom} for a 7-day old sample. A reduction in pore size distribution for different curing ages was also observed in the other mixtures. From this limited study, no conclusion could be made as to any correlation between strength development and porosity. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of methods for determining the pore size distribution and pore-network connectivity of porous carbons.

    PubMed

    Cai, Q; Buts, A; Biggs, M J; Seaton, N A

    2007-07-31

    The pore size distribution (PSD) and the pore-network connectivity of a porous material determine its properties in applications such as gas storage, adsorptive separations, and catalysis. Methods for the characterization of the pore structure of porous carbons are widely used, but the relationship between the structural parameters measured and the real structure of the material is not yet clear. We have evaluated two widely used and powerful characterization methods based on adsorption measurements by applying the methods to a model carbon which captures the essential characteristics of real carbons but (unlike a real material) has a structure that is completely known. We used three species (CH4, CF4, and SF6) as adsorptives and analyzed the results using an intersecting capillaries model (ICM) which was modeled using a combination of Monte Carlo simulation and percolation theory to obtain the PSD and the pore-network connectivity. There was broad agreement between the PSDs measured using the ICM and the geometric PSD of the model carbon, as well as some systematic differences which are interpreted in terms of the pore structure of the carbon. The measured PSD and connectivity are shown to be able to predict adsorption in the model carbon, supporting the use of the ICM to characterize real porous carbons. PMID:17602506

  18. Construction of Nuclear Envelope Shape by a High-Genus Vesicle with Pore-Size Constraint.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-23

    Nuclear pores have an approximately uniform distribution in the nuclear envelope of most living cells. Hence, the morphology of the nuclear envelope is a spherical stomatocyte with a high genus. We have investigated the morphology of high-genus vesicles under pore-size constraint using dynamically triangulated membrane simulations. Bending-energy minimization without volume or other constraints produces a circular-cage stomatocyte, where the pores are aligned in a circular line on an oblate bud. As the pore radius is reduced, the circular-pore alignment is more stabilized than a random pore distribution on a spherical bud. However, we have clarified the conditions for the formation of a spherical stomatocyte: a small perinuclear volume, osmotic pressure within nucleoplasm, and repulsion between the pores. When area-difference elasticity is taken into account, the formation of cylindrical or budded tubules from the stomatocyte and discoidal stomatocyte is found. PMID:27558725

  19. Micron-pore-sized metallic filter tube membranes for filtration of particulates and water purification

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, Tommy Joe; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Fagan, Lisa Anne; Bischoff, Brian L; Miller, Curtis Jack; Drake, Meghan M; Judkins, Roddie Reagan

    2008-01-01

    Robust filtering techniques capable of efficiently removing particulates and biological agents from water or air suffer from plugging, poor rejuvenation, low permeance, and high backpressure. Operational characteristics of pressure-driven separations are in part controlled by the membrane pore size, charge of particulates, transmembrane pressure and the requirement for sufficient water flux to overcome fouling. With long term use filters decline in permeance due to filter-cake plugging of pores, fouling, or filter deterioration. Though metallic filter tube development at ORNL has focused almost exclusively on gas separations, a small study examined the applicability of these membranes for tangential filtering of aqueous suspensions of bacterial-sized particles. A mixture of fluorescent polystyrene microspheres ranging in size from 0.5 to 6 {micro}m in diameter simulated microorganisms in filtration studies. Compared to a commercial filter, the ORNL 0.6 {micro}m filter averaged approximately 10-fold greater filtration efficiency of the small particles, several-fold greater permeance after considerable use and it returned to approximately 85% of the initial flow upon backflushing versus 30% for the commercial filter. After filtering several liters of the particle-containing suspension, the ORNL composite filter still exhibited greater than 50% of its initial permeance while the commercial filter had decreased to less than 20%. When considering a greater filtration efficiency, greater permeance per unit mass, greater percentage of rejuvenation upon backflushing (up to 3-fold), and likely greater performance with extended use, the ORNL 0.6 {micro}m filters can potentially outperform the commercial filter by factors of 100-1000 fold.

  20. Determination of the pore size distribution and hydraulic properties from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance relaxometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stingaciu, Laura R.; Weihermüller, Lutz; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabina; Stapf, Siegfried; Vereecken, Harry; Pohlmeier, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Known pore size distributions can be directly linked to the water retention characteristic which is essential for the prognosis of water and solute movement through the material. In our study, we evaluated the feasibility to use Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry measurements for the characterization of pore size distribution in four porous samples with different texture and composition. Therefore, NMR T2 and T1 relaxation measurements at 6.47 MHz were carried out for three model samples (medium sand; fine sand; and a homogenous sand / kaolin clay mixture) and a natural soil. To quantify the goodness of the approach, the NMR measurements were compared in terms of cumulated pore size distribution functions and mean pore diameter with the two classical techniques based on water retention and mercury porosimetry measurements. The results showed that T1 and T2 derived mean pore size diameters are in good agreement with each other but deviate from retention curve derived ones. This is especially the case for well sorted sands with n values > 2.7. For finer materials differences are less pronounced. A short study was performed to evaluate the influence of the variations observed in the pore diameter distributions on the hydraulic properties of the samples: θS, α, and n. In conclusion, NMR T1 and T2 relaxation measurements can be used to estimate pore size distribution, mean pore diameter, as well as the retention function and corresponding hydraulic properties.

  1. Hydrogen Storage Properties of Rigid Three-Dimensional Hofmann Clathrate Derivatives: The Effects of Pore Size

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, J.T.; Natesakhawat, Sittichai; Smith, M.R.; Bittner, E.; Matranga, C.S.; Bockrath, B.

    2008-05-01

    The effects of pore size on the hydrogen storage properties of a series of pillared layered solids based on the M(L)[M'(CN)4] structural motif, where M ) Co or Ni, L ) pyrazine (pyz), 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy), or 4,4'-dipyridylacetylene (dpac), and M' ) Ni, Pd, or Pt, has been investigated. The compounds all possess slitlike pores with constant in-plane dimensions and similar organic functionality. The pore heights vary as a function of L and provide a means for a systematic investigation of the effects of pore dimension on hydrogen storage properties in porous materials. Hydrogen isotherms were measured at 77 and 87 K up to a pressure of 1 atm. The pyz pillared materials with the smallest pore dimensions store hydrogen at a pore density similar to that of liquid hydrogen. The adsorbed hydrogen density drops by a factor of 2 as the relative pore size is tripled in the dpac material. The decreased storage efficiency diminishes the expected gravimetric gain in capacity for the larger pore materials. The heats of adsorption were found to range from 6 to 8 kJ/mol in the series and weakly correlate with pore size.

  2. Optimal flexible sample size design with robust power.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanju; Cui, Lu; Yang, Bo

    2016-08-30

    It is well recognized that sample size determination is challenging because of the uncertainty on the treatment effect size. Several remedies are available in the literature. Group sequential designs start with a sample size based on a conservative (smaller) effect size and allow early stop at interim looks. Sample size re-estimation designs start with a sample size based on an optimistic (larger) effect size and allow sample size increase if the observed effect size is smaller than planned. Different opinions favoring one type over the other exist. We propose an optimal approach using an appropriate optimality criterion to select the best design among all the candidate designs. Our results show that (1) for the same type of designs, for example, group sequential designs, there is room for significant improvement through our optimization approach; (2) optimal promising zone designs appear to have no advantages over optimal group sequential designs; and (3) optimal designs with sample size re-estimation deliver the best adaptive performance. We conclude that to deal with the challenge of sample size determination due to effect size uncertainty, an optimal approach can help to select the best design that provides most robust power across the effect size range of interest. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26999385

  3. Controlling internal pore sizes in bicontinuous polymeric nanospheres.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Beulah E; Friedrich, Heiner; Wirix, Maarten J M; de Visser, Joël F; Monaghan, Olivia R; Bomans, Paul H H; Nudelman, Fabio; Holder, Simon J; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M

    2015-02-16

    Complex polymeric nanospheres were formed in water from comb-like amphiphilic block copolymers. Their internal morphology was determined by three-dimensional cryo-electron tomographic analysis. Varying the polymer molecular weight (MW) and the hydrophilic block weight content allowed for fine control over the internal structure. Construction of a partial phase diagram allowed us to determine the criteria for the formation of bicontinuous polymer nanosphere (BPN), namely for copolymers with MW of up to 17 kDa and hydrophilic weight fractions of ≤0.25; and varying the organic solvent to water ratio used in their preparation allowed for control over nanosphere diameters from 70 to 460 nm. Significantly, altering the block copolymer hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance enabled control of the internal pore diameter of the BPNs from 10 to 19 nm. PMID:25640026

  4. Controlling Internal Pore Sizes in Bicontinuous Polymeric Nanospheres**

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Beulah E; Friedrich, Heiner; Wirix, Maarten J M; de Visser, Joël F; Monaghan, Olivia R; Bomans, Paul H H; Nudelman, Fabio; Holder, Simon J; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M

    2015-01-01

    Complex polymeric nanospheres were formed in water from comb-like amphiphilic block copolymers. Their internal morphology was determined by three-dimensional cryo-electron tomographic analysis. Varying the polymer molecular weight (MW) and the hydrophilic block weight content allowed for fine control over the internal structure. Construction of a partial phase diagram allowed us to determine the criteria for the formation of bicontinuous polymer nanosphere (BPN), namely for copolymers with MW of up to 17 kDa and hydrophilic weight fractions of ≤0.25; and varying the organic solvent to water ratio used in their preparation allowed for control over nanosphere diameters from 70 to 460 nm. Significantly, altering the block copolymer hydrophilic–hydrophobic balance enabled control of the internal pore diameter of the BPNs from 10 to 19 nm. PMID:25640026

  5. Detection, 3-D positioning, and sizing of small pore defects using digital radiography and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Erik

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an algorithm that handles the detection, positioning, and sizing of submillimeter-sized pores in welds using radiographic inspection and tracking. The possibility to detect, position, and size pores which have a low contrast-to-noise ratio increases the value of the nondestructive evaluation of welds by facilitating fatigue life predictions with lower uncertainty. In this article, a multiple hypothesis tracker with an extended Kalman filter is used to track an unknown number of pore indications in a sequence of radiographs as an object is rotated. Each pore is not required to be detected in all radiographs. In addition, in the tracking step, three-dimensional (3-D) positions of pore defects are calculated. To optimize, set up, and pre-evaluate the algorithm, the article explores a design of experimental approach in combination with synthetic radiographs of titanium laser welds containing pore defects. The pre-evaluation on synthetic radiographs at industrially reasonable contrast-to-noise ratios indicate less than 1% false detection rates at high detection rates and less than 0.1 mm of positioning errors for more than 90% of the pores. A comparison between experimental results of the presented algorithm and a computerized tomography reference measurement shows qualitatively good agreement in the 3-D positions of approximately 0.1-mm diameter pores in 5-mm-thick Ti-6242.

  6. Laser damage dependence on the size and concentration of precursor defects in KDP crystals: view through differently sized filter pores.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yueliang; Zhao, Yuanan; Xie, Xiaoyi; Hu, Guohang; Yang, Liujiang; Xu, Ziyuan; Shao, Jianda

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the laser-induced damage performance at 1064 nm of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals grown using filters of different pore sizes. The aim is to explore a novel method for understanding laser-matter interactions with regard to physical parameters affecting the ability of damage precursors to initiate damage. By reducing the pore size of filters in continuous filtration growth, we can improve laser damage resistance. Furthermore, we develop a model based on a Gaussian distribution of precursor thresholds and heat transfer to obtain a size distribution of the precursor defects. Smaller size and/or lower concentration of precursor defects could lead to better damage resistance. PMID:27192280

  7. Method of making metal oxide ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1992-01-01

    A method for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes is composed of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  8. New general pore size distribution model by classical thermodynamics application: Activated carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lordgooei, M.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2001-01-01

    A model is developed using classical thermodynamics to characterize pore size distributions (PSDs) of materials containing micropores and mesopores. The thermal equation of equilibrium adsorption (TEEA) is used to provide thermodynamic properties and relate the relative pore filling pressure of vapors to the characteristic pore energies of the adsorbent/adsorbate system for micropore sizes. Pore characteristic energies are calculated by averaging of interaction energies between adsorbate molecules and adsorbent pore walls as well as considering adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. A modified Kelvin equation is used to characterize mesopore sizes by considering variation of the adsorbate surface tension and by excluding the adsorbed film layer for the pore size. The modified-Kelvin equation provides similar pore filling pressures as predicted by density functional theory. Combination of these models provides a complete PSD of the adsorbent for the micropores and mesopores. The resulting PSD is compared with the PSDs from Jaroniec and Choma and Horvath and Kawazoe models as well as a first-order approximation model using Polanyi theory. The major importance of this model is its basis on classical thermodynamic properties, less simplifying assumptions in its derivation compared to other methods, and ease of use.

  9. A thermal porosimetry method to estimate pore size distribution in highly porous insulating materials.

    PubMed

    Félix, V; Jannot, Y; Degiovanni, A

    2012-05-01

    Standard pore size determination methods such as mercury porosimetry, nitrogen sorption, microscopy, or x-ray tomography are not always applicable to highly porous, low density, and thus very fragile materials. For this kind of materials, a method based on thermal characterization is proposed. Indeed, the thermal conductivity of a highly porous and insulating medium is significantly dependent on the thermal conductivity of the interstitial gas that depends on both gas pressure and size of the considered pore (Knudsen effect). It is also possible to link the pore size with the thermal conductivity of the medium. Thermal conductivity measurements are realized on specimens placed in an enclosure where the air pressure is successively set to different values varying from 10(-1) to 10(5) Pa. Knowing the global porosity ratio, an effective thermal conductivity model for a two-phase air-solid material based on a combined serial-parallel model is established. Pore size distribution can be identified by minimizing the sum of the quadratic differences between measured values and modeled ones. The results of the estimation process are the volume fractions of the chosen ranges of pore size. In order to validate the method, measurements done on insulating materials are presented. The results are discussed and show that pore size distribution estimated by the proposed method is coherent. PMID:22667640

  10. A thermal porosimetry method to estimate pore size distribution in highly porous insulating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Félix, V.; Jannot, Y.; Degiovanni, A.

    2012-05-01

    Standard pore size determination methods such as mercury porosimetry, nitrogen sorption, microscopy, or x-ray tomography are not always applicable to highly porous, low density, and thus very fragile materials. For this kind of materials, a method based on thermal characterization is proposed. Indeed, the thermal conductivity of a highly porous and insulating medium is significantly dependent on the thermal conductivity of the interstitial gas that depends on both gas pressure and size of the considered pore (Knudsen effect). It is also possible to link the pore size with the thermal conductivity of the medium. Thermal conductivity measurements are realized on specimens placed in an enclosure where the air pressure is successively set to different values varying from 10-1 to 105 Pa. Knowing the global porosity ratio, an effective thermal conductivity model for a two-phase air-solid material based on a combined serial-parallel model is established. Pore size distribution can be identified by minimizing the sum of the quadratic differences between measured values and modeled ones. The results of the estimation process are the volume fractions of the chosen ranges of pore size. In order to validate the method, measurements done on insulating materials are presented. The results are discussed and show that pore size distribution estimated by the proposed method is coherent.

  11. A thermal porosimetry method to estimate pore size distribution in highly porous insulating materials

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, V.; Jannot, Y.; Degiovanni, A.

    2012-05-15

    Standard pore size determination methods such as mercury porosimetry, nitrogen sorption, microscopy, or x-ray tomography are not always applicable to highly porous, low density, and thus very fragile materials. For this kind of materials, a method based on thermal characterization is proposed. Indeed, the thermal conductivity of a highly porous and insulating medium is significantly dependent on the thermal conductivity of the interstitial gas that depends on both gas pressure and size of the considered pore (Knudsen effect). It is also possible to link the pore size with the thermal conductivity of the medium. Thermal conductivity measurements are realized on specimens placed in an enclosure where the air pressure is successively set to different values varying from 10{sup -1} to 10{sup 5} Pa. Knowing the global porosity ratio, an effective thermal conductivity model for a two-phase air-solid material based on a combined serial-parallel model is established. Pore size distribution can be identified by minimizing the sum of the quadratic differences between measured values and modeled ones. The results of the estimation process are the volume fractions of the chosen ranges of pore size. In order to validate the method, measurements done on insulating materials are presented. The results are discussed and show that pore size distribution estimated by the proposed method is coherent.

  12. Direct measurement of the critical pore size in a polymer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilton, Mark; Dimaria, Christian; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    The formation of pores is an important process in cellular membranes. Here we use freestanding polymer films as model membranes to study the stability of nucleated pores. Polymer membranes with pores of varying size are patterned using a lithographic technique. The membranes are heated above their glass transition temperature to allow viscous flow to occur. Pores with a radius larger than a critical value grow, while pores smaller than the critical radius are observed to shrink and eventually close. Remarkably, holes that are close enough to the critical radius neither grow nor shrink, even though the film is in the melt state. A simple model which takes into account the energy cost of having additional surface area at the edge of a pore describes the experiments with no free parameters. Biological membranes have an additional energetic cost of forming a pore, which we mimic using a lamellar-forming diblock copolymer. Indeed, we find that the critical pore radius is increased when pore formation is frustrated by molecular architecture.

  13. Relation between pore size and the compressibility of a confined fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gor, Gennady Y.; Siderius, Daniel W.; Rasmussen, Christopher J.; Krekelberg, William P.; Shen, Vincent K.; Bernstein, Noam

    2015-11-01

    When a fluid is confined to a nanopore, its thermodynamic properties differ from the properties of a bulk fluid, so measuring such properties of the confined fluid can provide information about the pore sizes. Here, we report a simple relation between the pore size and isothermal compressibility of argon confined in such pores. Compressibility is calculated from the fluctuations of the number of particles in the grand canonical ensemble using two different simulation techniques: conventional grand-canonical Monte Carlo and grand-canonical ensemble transition-matrix Monte Carlo. Our results provide a theoretical framework for extracting the information on the pore sizes of fluid-saturated samples by measuring the compressibility from ultrasonic experiments.

  14. Relation between pore size and the compressibility of a confined fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Gor, Gennady Y.; Siderius, Daniel W.; Krekelberg, William P.; Shen, Vincent K.; Rasmussen, Christopher J.; Bernstein, Noam

    2015-11-21

    When a fluid is confined to a nanopore, its thermodynamic properties differ from the properties of a bulk fluid, so measuring such properties of the confined fluid can provide information about the pore sizes. Here, we report a simple relation between the pore size and isothermal compressibility of argon confined in such pores. Compressibility is calculated from the fluctuations of the number of particles in the grand canonical ensemble using two different simulation techniques: conventional grand-canonical Monte Carlo and grand-canonical ensemble transition-matrix Monte Carlo. Our results provide a theoretical framework for extracting the information on the pore sizes of fluid-saturated samples by measuring the compressibility from ultrasonic experiments.

  15. Pores Formed by Baxα5 Relax to a Smaller Size and Keep at Equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Fuertes, Gustavo; García-Sáez, Ana J.; Esteban-Martín, Santi; Giménez, Diana; Sánchez-Muñoz, Orlando L.; Schwille, Petra; Salgado, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Pores made by amphipathic cationic peptides (e.g., antimicrobials and fragments of pore-forming proteins) are typically studied by examining the kinetics of vesicle leakage after peptide addition or obtaining structural measurements in reconstituted peptide-lipid systems. In the first case, the pores have been considered transient phenomena that allow the relaxation of the peptide-membrane system. In the second, they correspond to equilibrium structures at minimum free energy. Here we reconcile both approaches by investigating the pore activity of the α5 fragment from the proapoptotic protein Bax (Baxα5) before and after equilibrium of peptide/vesicle complexes. Quenching assays on suspensions of large unilamellar vesicles suggest that in the presence of Baxα5, the vesicles maintain a leaky state for hours under equilibrium conditions. We proved and analyzed stable pores on single giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) in detail by monitoring the entrance of dyes added at different times after incubation with the peptide. When the GUVs came in contact with Baxα5, leakage started stochastically, was delayed for various periods of time, and in the majority of cases proceeded rapidly to completion. After hours in the presence of the peptide, the same individual GUVs that refilled completely at first instance maintained a porated state, which could be observed in subsequent leak-in events for serially added dyes. However, these long-term pores were smaller in size than the initial equilibration pores. Stable pores were also detected in GUVs made in the presence of Baxα5. The latter pores can be considered equilibrium states and may correspond to structures measured previously in bilayer stacks. Although pore formation may occur as a kinetic process, equilibrium pores may also be functionally relevant structures, especially in highly regulated systems such as the apoptotic mitochondrial pores induced by Bax. PMID:21044589

  16. Effect of large pore size of multifunctional mesoporous microsphere on removal of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing; Li, Nan; Chi, Yue; Geng, Wangchang; Yan, Wenfu; Zhao, Ying; Li, Xiaotian; Dong, Bin

    2013-06-15

    Pore size of mesoporous materials is crucial for their surface grafting. This article develops a novel multifunctional microsphere with a large pore size mesoporous silica shell (ca. 10.3 nm) and a magnetic core (Fe₃O₄), which is fabricated using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as pore-forming agents, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon source through a sol-gel process. Compared with small pore size mesoporous silica magnetic microspheres (ca. 2-4 nm), the large pore size one can graft 447 mg/g amino groups in order to adsorb more heavy metal ions (Pb(2+): 880.6 mg/g, Cu(2+): 628.3mg/g, Cd(2+): 492.4 mg/g). The metal-loaded multifunctional microspheres could be easily removed from aqueous solution by magnetic separation and regenerated easily by acid treatment. The results suggest that the large pore size multifunctional microspheres are potentially useful materials for high effectively adsorbing and removing different heavy metal ions in aqueous solution. PMID:23618656

  17. Direct correlation of internal gradients and pore size distributions with low field NMR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Blümich, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Internal magnetic field gradients Gint, which arise from the magnetic susceptibility difference Δχ between solid matrix and fluid in porous media relate to the pore geometry. However, this relationship is complex and not well understood. Here we correlate internal-gradient distributions to pore-size distributions directly to examine internal gradients in detail at low field NMR. The pore-size distributions were obtained by the method of Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), and the internal-gradient distributions were measured with the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method. The internal-gradient-pore-size distributions correlation maps were obtained for water in packs of glass beads with different diameter and in a sandstone sample. The relationship between internal gradients and pore structure is analyzed in detail by considering the restricted diffusion of fluids in porous samples. For each case diffusion regimes are assigned by plotting normalized CPMG data and comparing the diffusion lengths, the dephasing lengths and pore diameters. In the free-diffusion limit, the correlation maps reveal the true relationship between pore structure and internal gradients so that Δχ can be approximated from the correlation maps. This limit is met most easily at low field. It provides information about porous media, which is expected to benefit the oil industry, in particular NMR well logging. PMID:27111138

  18. Direct correlation of internal gradients and pore size distributions with low field NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Blümich, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Internal magnetic field gradients Gint, which arise from the magnetic susceptibility difference Δχ between solid matrix and fluid in porous media relate to the pore geometry. However, this relationship is complex and not well understood. Here we correlate internal-gradient distributions to pore-size distributions directly to examine internal gradients in detail at low field NMR. The pore-size distributions were obtained by the method of Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), and the internal-gradient distributions were measured with the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method. The internal-gradient-pore-size distributions correlation maps were obtained for water in packs of glass beads with different diameter and in a sandstone sample. The relationship between internal gradients and pore structure is analyzed in detail by considering the restricted diffusion of fluids in porous samples. For each case diffusion regimes are assigned by plotting normalized CPMG data and comparing the diffusion lengths, the dephasing lengths and pore diameters. In the free-diffusion limit, the correlation maps reveal the true relationship between pore structure and internal gradients so that Δχ can be approximated from the correlation maps. This limit is met most easily at low field. It provides information about porous media, which is expected to benefit the oil industry, in particular NMR well logging.

  19. Anomalous or regular capacitance? The influence of pore size dispersity on double-layer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäckel, N.; Rodner, M.; Schreiber, A.; Jeongwook, J.; Zeiger, M.; Aslan, M.; Weingarth, D.; Presser, V.

    2016-09-01

    The energy storage mechanism of electric double-layer capacitors is governed by ion electrosorption at the electrode surface. This process requires high surface area electrodes, typically highly porous carbons. In common organic electrolytes, bare ion sizes are below one nanometer but they are larger when we consider their solvation shell. In contrast, ionic liquid electrolytes are free of solvent molecules, but cation-anion coordination requires special consideration. By matching pore size and ion size, two seemingly conflicting views have emerged: either an increase in specific capacitance with smaller pore size or a constant capacitance contribution of all micro- and mesopores. In our work, we revisit this issue by using a comprehensive set of electrochemical data and a pore size incremental analysis to identify the influence of certain ranges in the pore size distribution to the ion electrosorption capacity. We see a difference in solvation of ions in organic electrolytes depending on the applied voltage and a cation-anion interaction of ionic liquids in nanometer sized pores.

  20. Pore size distribution in porous glass: fractal dimension obtained by calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neffati, R.; Rault, J.

    2001-05-01

    By differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), at low heating rate and using a technique of fractionation, we have measured the equilibrium DSC signal (heat flow) J q 0 of two families of porous glass saturated with water. The shape of the DSC peak obtained by these techniques is dependent on the sizes distribution of the pores. For porous glass with large pore size distribution, obtained by sol-gel technology, we show that in the domain of ice melting, the heat flow Jq is related to the melting temperature depression of the solvent, Δ T m , by the scaling law: J q 0˜Δ T m - (1 + D). We suggest that the exponent D is of the order of the fractal dimension of the backbone of the pore network and we discuss the influence of the variation of the melting enthalpy with the temperature on the value of this exponent. Similar D values were obtained from small angle neutron scattering and electronic energy transfer measurements on similar porous glass. The proposed scaling law is explained if one assumes that the pore size distribution is self similar. In porous glass obtained from mesomorphic copolymers, the pore size distribution is very sharp and therefore this law is not observed. One concludes that DSC, at low heating rate ( q? 2°C/min) is the most rapid and less expensive method for determining the pore distribution and the fractal exponent of a porous material.

  1. Synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanoparticles with large and tunable pore sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Yu, Meihua; Li, Yang; Li, Jiansheng; Wang, Jing; Yu, Chengzhong; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-07-01

    Mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs) with large and adjustable pores have been synthesized by using poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) as a template and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) as a carbon precursor. The resulting MCNs possess small diameters (100-126 nm) and high BET surface areas (up to 646 m2 g-1). By using home-designed block copolymers, the pore size of MCNs can be tuned in the range of 13-32 nm. Importantly, the pore size of 32 nm is the largest among the MCNs prepared by the soft-templating route. The formation mechanism and structure evolution of MCNs were studied by TEM and DLS measurements, based on which a soft-templating/sphere packing mechanism was proposed. Because of the large pores and small particle sizes, the resulting MCNs were excellent nano-carriers to deliver biomolecules into cancer cells. MCNs were further demonstrated with negligible toxicity. It is anticipated that this carbon material with large pores and small particle sizes may have excellent potential in drug/gene delivery.Mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs) with large and adjustable pores have been synthesized by using poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) as a template and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) as a carbon precursor. The resulting MCNs possess small diameters (100-126 nm) and high BET surface areas (up to 646 m2 g-1). By using home-designed block copolymers, the pore size of MCNs can be tuned in the range of 13-32 nm. Importantly, the pore size of 32 nm is the largest among the MCNs prepared by the soft-templating route. The formation mechanism and structure evolution of MCNs were studied by TEM and DLS measurements, based on which a soft-templating/sphere packing mechanism was proposed. Because of the large pores and small particle sizes, the resulting MCNs were excellent nano-carriers to deliver biomolecules into cancer cells. MCNs were further demonstrated with negligible toxicity. It is anticipated that this carbon material with large pores and

  2. Passive permeability and effective pore size of HeLa cell nuclear membranes.

    PubMed

    Samudram, Arunkarthick; Mangalassery, Bijeesh M; Kowshik, Meenal; Patincharath, Nandakumar; Varier, Geetha K

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear pore complexes in the nuclear membrane act as the sole gateway of transport of molecules from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and vice versa. Studies on biomolecular transport through nuclear membranes provide vital data on the nuclear pore complexes. In this work, we use fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran molecules as a model system and study the passive nuclear import of biomolecules through nuclear pore complexes in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells. Experiments are carried out under transient conditions in the time lapse imaging scheme using an in-house constructed confocal laser scanning microscope. Transport rates of dextran molecules having molecular weights of 4-70 kDa corresponding to Stokes radius of 1.4-6 nm are determined. Analyzing the permeability of the nuclear membrane for different sizes the effective pore radius of HeLa cell nuclear membrane is determined to be 5.3 nm, much larger than the value reported earlier using proteins as probe molecules. The range of values reported for the nuclear pore radius suggest that they may not be rigid structures and it is quite probable that the effective pore size of nuclear pore complexes is critically dependent on the probe molecules and on the environmental factors. PMID:27338984

  3. Effects of pore size in 3-D fibrous matrix on human trophoblast tissue development.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Li, Y; Yang, S T; Kniss, D A

    2000-12-20

    The effects of pore size in a 3-D polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven fibrous matrix on long-term tissue development of human trophoblast ED27 cells were studied. Thermal compression was used to modify the porosity and pore size of the PET matrix. The pore size distributions in PET matrices were quantified using a liquid extrusion method. Cell metabolic activities, estradiol production, and cell proliferation and differentiation were studied for ED27 cells cultured in the thermally compressed PET matrices with known pore structure characteristics. In general, metabolic activities and proliferation rate were higher initially for cultures grown in the low-porosity (LP) PET matrix (porosity of 0.849, average pore size of 30 microm in diameter) than those in the high-porosity (HP) matrix (porosity of 0.896, average pore size of 39 microm in diameter). However, 17beta-estradiol production and cell differentiation activity in the HP matrix surpassed those in the LP matrix after 12 days. The expression levels of cyclin B1 and p27kip1 in cells revealed progressively decreasing proliferation and increasing differentiation activities for cells grown in PET matrices. Also, difference in pore size controlled the cell spatial organization in the PET matrices and contributed to the tissue development in varying degrees of proliferation and differentiation. It was also found that cells grown on the 2-D surface behaved differently in cell cycle progression and did not show increased differentiation activities after growth had stopped and proliferation activities had lowered to a minimal level. The results from this study suggest that the 3-D cell organization guided by the tissue scaffold is important to tissue formation in vitro. PMID:11064329

  4. Influence of pore size distribution on the adsorption of phenol on PET-based activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Lorenc-Grabowska, Ewa; Diez, María A; Gryglewicz, Grazyna

    2016-05-01

    The role of pore size distribution in the adsorption of phenol in aqueous solutions on polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-based activated carbons (ACs) has been analyzed. The ACs were prepared from PET and mixtures of PET with coal-tar pitch (CTP) by means of carbonization and subsequent steam and carbon dioxide activation at 850 and 950 °C, respectively. The resultant ACs were characterized on the basis of similarities in their surface chemical features and differences in their micropore size distributions. The adsorption of phenol was carried out in static conditions at ambient temperature. The pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir model were found to fit the experimental data very well. The different adsorption capacities of the ACs towards phenol were attributed to differences in their micropore size distributions. Adsorption capacity was favoured by the volume of pores with a size smaller than 1.4 nm; but restricted by pores smaller than 0.8 nm. PMID:26890386

  5. Microfluidic production of porous carbon spheres with tunable size and pores.

    PubMed

    Ge, Han; Xu, Hongbao; Lu, Tianyi; Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng; Wan, Jiandi

    2016-01-01

    Porous carbon particles have been widely used in many areas including energy storage. Production of carbon microspheres in an efficient, controlled, and low-cost manner, however, is challenging. Here, we demonstrate a microfluidic approach to generate porous carbon particles using inexpensive precursors and show that the size of the particle and pores can be tuned by adjusting the deionized (DI) water content in droplets and preheating temperature. The developed strategy offers an effective approach to control the production of porous carbon spheres with a well-defined diameter, narrow size distribution and pore size. PMID:26397924

  6. Oxidation of activated carbon fibers: Effect on pore size, surface chemistry, and adsorption properties

    SciTech Connect

    Mangun, C.L.; Benak, K.R.; Daley, M.A.; Economy, J.

    1999-12-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were oxidized using both aqueous and nonaqueous treatments. As much as 29 wt% oxygen can be incorporated onto the pore surface in the form of phenolic hydroxyl, quinine, and carboxylic acid groups. The effect of oxidation on the pore size, pore volume, and the pore surface chemistry was thoroughly examined. The average micropore size is typically affected very little by aqueous oxidation while the micropore volume and surface area decreases with such a treatment. In contrast, the micropore size and micropore volume both increase with oxidation in air. Oxidation of the fibers produces surface chemistries in the pore that provide for enhanced adsorption of basic (ammonia) and polar (acetone) molecules at ambient and nonambient temperatures. The adsorption capacity of the oxidized fibers for acetone is modestly better than the untreated ACFs while the adsorption capacity for ammonia can increase up to 30 times compared to untreated ACFs. The pore surface chemical makeup was analyzed using elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  7. Pore size assessment during corneal endothelial cells permeabilization by femtosecond laser activated carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumelle, C.; Mauclair, C.; Houzet, J.; Bernard, A.; He, Z.; Piselli, S.; Perrache, C.; Egaud, G.; Baubeau, E.; Gain, P.; Thuret, G.

    2015-07-01

    Corneal therapeutic molecules delivery represents a promising solution to maintain human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) viability, but the difficulty is transport across cell membrane. A new delivery method published recently consists in ephemerally permeabilizing cell membranes using a photo-acoustic reaction produced by carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) and femtosecond laser (FsL). The aim of this work is to investigate the size of pores formed at cell membrane by this technique. To induce cell permeabilization, HCECs were put in contact with CNPs and irradiated with a 500 μm diameter Ti:Sa FsL focalized spot. Four sizes of marker molecules were delivered into HCECs to investigate pore sizes: calcein (1.2 nm), FITC-Dextran 4kDa (2.8 nm) and FITC-Dextran 70kDa (12 nm) and FITC-Dextran 2MDa (50 nm). Delivery of each molecule was assessed by flow cytometry, a technique able to measure their presence into cells. We showed that the delivery rate was dependent of their size. Calcein was delivered in 56.1±8.2% of HCECs, FITC-Dextran 4kDa in 42.2±3.5%, FITC-Dextran 70 kDa in 21.5±2.7% and finally FITC-Dextran 2MDa in 12.9±2.0%. It means that a large number of pores in the size ranging from 1.2 to 2.8 nm were formed. However, 12 nm and larger pores were almost half more infrequent. Pore sizes formed at cell membrane by the technique of cell permeabilization by FsL activated CNPs was investigated. The results indicated that the pore sizes are large enough for the efficient delivery of small, medium and big therapeutics molecules on HCECs by this technique.

  8. Tricontinuous Cubic Nanostructure and Pore Size Patterning in Mesostructured Silica Films Templated with Glycerol Monooleate

    PubMed Central

    Dunphy, Darren R.; Garcia, Fred L.; Kaehr, Bryan; Khripin, Constantine Y.; Collord, Andrew D.; Baca, Helen K.; Tate, Michael P.; Hillhouse, Hugh W.; Strzalka, Joseph W.; Jiang, Zhang; Wang, Jin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication of nanostructured films possessing tricontinuous minimal surface mesophases with well-defined framework and pore connectivity remains a difficult task. As a new route to these structures, we introduce glycerol monooleate (GMO) as a template for evaporation-induced self-assembly. As deposited, a nanostructured double gyroid phase is formed, as indicated by analysis of grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering data. Removal of GMO by UV/O3 treatment or acid extraction induces a phase change to a nanoporous body-centered structure which we tentatively identify as based on the IW-P surface. To improve film quality, we add a co-surfactant to the GMO in a mass ratio of 1:10; when this co-surfactant is cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, we find an unusually large pore size (8-12 nm) in acid extracted films, while UV/O3 treated films yield pores of only ca. 4 nm. Using this pore size dependence on film processing procedure, we create a simple method for patterning pore size in nanoporous films, demonstrating spatially-defined size-selective molecular adsorption. PMID:21572556

  9. Direct correlation of diffusion and pore size distributions with low field NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2016-08-01

    The time-dependent diffusion coefficient (D) is a powerful tool to probe microstructure in porous media, and can be obtained by the NMR method. In a real porous sample, molecular diffusion is very complex. Here we present a new method which directly measures the relationship between effective diffusion coefficients and pore size distributions without knowing surface relaxivity. This method is used to extract structural information and explore the relationship between D and a in porous media having broad pore size distributions. The diffusion information is encoded by the Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) method and the pore size distributions are acquired by the Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF) method. Two model samples were measured to verify this method. Restricted diffusion was analyzed, and shows that most fluid molecules experience pore wall. The D(a) curves obtained from correlation maps were fitted to the Padé approximant equation and a good agreement was found between the fitting lines and the measured data. Then a sandstone sample with unknown structure was measured. The state of confined fluids was analyzed and structural information, such as pore size distributions, were extracted. The D - T1 correlation maps were also obtained using the same method, which yielded surface relaxivities for different samples. All the experiments were conducted on 2 MHz NMR equipment to obtain accurate diffusion information, where internal gradients can be neglected. This method is expected to have useful applications in the oil industry, particularly for NMR logging in the future.

  10. Direct correlation of diffusion and pore size distributions with low field NMR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2016-08-01

    The time-dependent diffusion coefficient (D) is a powerful tool to probe microstructure in porous media, and can be obtained by the NMR method. In a real porous sample, molecular diffusion is very complex. Here we present a new method which directly measures the relationship between effective diffusion coefficients and pore size distributions without knowing surface relaxivity. This method is used to extract structural information and explore the relationship between D and a in porous media having broad pore size distributions. The diffusion information is encoded by the Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) method and the pore size distributions are acquired by the Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF) method. Two model samples were measured to verify this method. Restricted diffusion was analyzed, and shows that most fluid molecules experience pore wall. The D(a) curves obtained from correlation maps were fitted to the Padé approximant equation and a good agreement was found between the fitting lines and the measured data. Then a sandstone sample with unknown structure was measured. The state of confined fluids was analyzed and structural information, such as pore size distributions, were extracted. The D - T1 correlation maps were also obtained using the same method, which yielded surface relaxivities for different samples. All the experiments were conducted on 2MHz NMR equipment to obtain accurate diffusion information, where internal gradients can be neglected. This method is expected to have useful applications in the oil industry, particularly for NMR logging in the future. PMID:27371788

  11. Hemoglobin precipitation by polyethylene glycols leads to underestimation of membrane pore sizes.

    PubMed

    Quijano, Jairo C; Lemeshko, Victor V

    2008-12-01

    The size of pores formed in the plasma membrane by various substances is frequently determined using polyethylene glycols as osmotic protectants. In this work, we have found that the size of pores formed by saponin in the red blood cell membrane determined by hemolysis versus molecular weight of polyethylene glycol was different to that estimated by light dispersion of cell suspensions. After complete swelling of cells induced by saponin in semiisotonic salt media containing 150 mOsm PEG-4000 or PEG-3000, a significant increase in the light absorbance at 640 nm was developed resulting from the formation of hemoglobin precipitates. Easily sedimenting aggregates were also formed when the supernatant of lysed cells was added to the equiosmotic solutions of polyethylene glycols with molecular weight higher than 1000. We suggest that the real size of large pores could be underestimated due to the phenomenon of hemoglobin precipitation by polyethylene glycols. PMID:18692020

  12. Strategies for Tailoring the Pore-Size Distribution of Virus Retention Filter Papers.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Simon; Mihranyan, Albert

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this work is to demonstrate how the pore-size distribution of the nanocellulose-based virus-retentive filter can be tailored. The filter paper was produced using cellulose nanofibers derived from Cladophora sp. green algae using the hot-press drying at varying drying temperatures. The produced filters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and N2 gas sorption analysis. Further, hydraulic permeability and retention efficiency toward surrogate 20 nm model particles (fluorescent carboxylate-modified polystyrene spheres) were assessed. It was shown that by controlling the rate of water evaporation during hot-press drying the pore-size distribution can be precisely tailored in the region between 10 and 25 nm. The mechanism of pore formation and critical parameters are discussed in detail. The results are highly valuable for development of advanced separation media, especially for virus-retentive size-exclusion filtration. PMID:27144657

  13. Pore size distribution and supercritical hydrogen adsorption in activated carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purewal, J. J.; Kabbour, H.; Vajo, J. J.; Ahn, C. C.; Fultz, B.

    2009-05-01

    Pore size distributions (PSD) and supercritical H2 isotherms have been measured for two activated carbon fiber (ACF) samples. The surface area and the PSD both depend on the degree of activation to which the ACF has been exposed. The low-surface-area ACF has a narrow PSD centered at 0.5 nm, while the high-surface-area ACF has a broad distribution of pore widths between 0.5 and 2 nm. The H2 adsorption enthalpy in the zero-coverage limit depends on the relative abundance of the smallest pores relative to the larger pores. Measurements of the H2 isosteric adsorption enthalpy indicate the presence of energy heterogeneity in both ACF samples. Additional measurements on a microporous, coconut-derived activated carbon are presented for reference.

  14. Pore size distribution and supercritical hydrogen adsorption in activated carbon fibers.

    PubMed

    Purewal, J J; Kabbour, H; Vajo, J J; Ahn, C C; Fultz, B

    2009-05-20

    Pore size distributions (PSD) and supercritical H2 isotherms have been measured for two activated carbon fiber (ACF) samples. The surface area and the PSD both depend on the degree of activation to which the ACF has been exposed. The low-surface-area ACF has a narrow PSD centered at 0.5 nm, while the high-surface-area ACF has a broad distribution of pore widths between 0.5 and 2 nm. The H2 adsorption enthalpy in the zero-coverage limit depends on the relative abundance of the smallest pores relative to the larger pores. Measurements of the H2 isosteric adsorption enthalpy indicate the presence of energy heterogeneity in both ACF samples. Additional measurements on a microporous, coconut-derived activated carbon are presented for reference. PMID:19420660

  15. Characterizing pore sizes and water structure in stimuli-responsive hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, A.S.; Antonsen, K.P.; Ashida, T.; Bohnert, J.L.; Dong, L.C.; Nabeshima, Y.; Nagamatsu, S.; Park, T.G.; Sheu, M.S.; Wu, X.S.; Yan, Q.

    1993-12-31

    Hydrogels have been extensively investigated as potential matrices for drug delivery. In particular, hydrogels responsive to pH and temperature changes have been of greatest interest most recently. Proteins and peptide drugs are especially relevant for delivery from such hydrogel matrices due to the relatively {open_quotes}passive{close_quotes} and biocompatible microenvironment which should exist within the hydrogel aqueous pores. The large molecular size of many proteins requires an interconnected large pore structure. Furthermore, the gel pore {open_quotes}walls{close_quotes} should not provide hydrophobic sites for strong interactions with proteins. In the special case of ion exchange release the protein would be attracted by opposite charges on the polymer backbones. Therefore, it is important both to control and to characterize the pore structure and the water character within a hydrogel to be used or protein or peptide drug delivery. This talk will critically review techniques for estimating these two key parameters in hydrogels.

  16. Pore Size Control of Ultra-thin Silicon Membranes by Rapid Thermal Carbonization

    PubMed Central

    Fang, David Z.; Striemer, Christopher C.; Gaborski, Thomas R.; McGrath, James L.; Fauchet, Philippe M.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid thermal carbonization in a dilute acetylene (C2H2) atmosphere has been used to chemically modify and precisely tune the pore size of ultrathin porous nanocrystalline silicon (pnc-Si). The magnitude of size reduction was controlled by varying the process temperature and time. Under certain conditions, the carbon coating displayed atomic ordering indicative of graphene layer formation conformal to the pore walls. Initial experiments show that carbonized membranes follow theoretical predictions for hydraulic permeability and retain the precise separation capabilities of untreated membranes. PMID:20839831

  17. Pore-size dependence and characteristics of water diffusion in slitlike micropores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, S. O.

    2015-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the dynamics of water inside microporous activated carbon fibers (ACF) is investigated by means of incoherent elastic and quasielastic neutron-scattering techniques. The aim is to evaluate the effect of increasing pore size on the water dynamics in these primarily hydrophobic slit-shaped channels. Using two different micropore sizes (˜12 and 18 Å, denoted, respectively, ACF-10 and ACF-20), a clear suppression of the mobility of the water molecules is observed as the pore gap or temperature decreases. This suppression is accompanied by a systematic dependence of the average translational diffusion coefficient Dr and relaxation time <τ0> of the restricted water on pore size and temperature. The observed Dr values are tested against a proposed scaling law, in which the translational diffusion coefficient Dr of water within a porous matrix was found to depend solely on two single parameters, a temperature-independent translational diffusion coefficient Dc associated with the water bound to the pore walls and the ratio θ of this strictly confined water to the total water inside the pore, yielding unique characteristic parameters for water transport in these carbon channels across the investigated temperature range.

  18. Pore size distribution calculation from 1H NMR signal and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Jamal

    2012-09-01

    The pore size distribution (PSD) of nano-material MCM-41 is determined using two different approaches: N2 adsorption-desorption and 1H NMR signal of water confined in silica nano-pores of MCM-41. The first approach is based on the recently modified Kelvin equation [J.V. Rocha, D. Barrera, K. Sapag, Top. Catal. 54(2011) 121-134] which deals with the known underestimation in pore size distribution for the mesoporous materials such as MCM-41 by introducing a correction factor to the classical Kelvin equation. The second method employs the Gibbs-Thompson equation, using NMR, for melting point depression of liquid in confined geometries. The result shows that both approaches give similar pore size distribution to some extent, and also the NMR technique can be considered as an alternative direct method to obtain quantitative results especially for mesoporous materials. The pore diameter estimated for the nano-material used in this study was about 35 and 38 Å for the modified Kelvin and NMR methods respectively. A comparison between these methods and the classical Kelvin equation is also presented.

  19. Pore-size dependence and characteristics of water diffusion in slitlike micropores

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, S. O.

    2015-07-16

    The temperature dependence of the dynamics of water inside microporous activated carbon fibers (ACF) is investigated by means of incoherent elastic and quasielastic neutron-scattering techniques. The aim is to evaluate the effect of increasing pore size on the water dynamics in these primarily hydrophobic slit-shaped channels. Using two different micropore sizes (similar to 12 and 18 angstrom, denoted, respectively, ACF-10 and ACF-20), a clear suppression of the mobility of the water molecules is observed as the pore gap or temperature decreases. Suppression, we found, is accompanied by a systematic dependence of the average translational diffusion coefficient D-r and relaxation time [tau(0)] of the restricted water on pore size and temperature. We observed D-r values and tested against a proposed scaling law, in which the translational diffusion coefficient D-r of water within a porous matrix was found to depend solely on two single parameters, a temperature-independent translational diffusion coefficient D-c associated with the water bound to the pore walls and the ratio theta of this strictly confined water to the total water inside the pore, yielding unique characteristic parameters for water transport in these carbon channels across the investigated temperature range.

  20. Pore-size dependence and characteristics of water diffusion in slitlike micropores

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Diallo, S. O.

    2015-07-16

    The temperature dependence of the dynamics of water inside microporous activated carbon fibers (ACF) is investigated by means of incoherent elastic and quasielastic neutron-scattering techniques. The aim is to evaluate the effect of increasing pore size on the water dynamics in these primarily hydrophobic slit-shaped channels. Using two different micropore sizes (similar to 12 and 18 angstrom, denoted, respectively, ACF-10 and ACF-20), a clear suppression of the mobility of the water molecules is observed as the pore gap or temperature decreases. Suppression, we found, is accompanied by a systematic dependence of the average translational diffusion coefficient D-r and relaxation timemore » [tau(0)] of the restricted water on pore size and temperature. We observed D-r values and tested against a proposed scaling law, in which the translational diffusion coefficient D-r of water within a porous matrix was found to depend solely on two single parameters, a temperature-independent translational diffusion coefficient D-c associated with the water bound to the pore walls and the ratio theta of this strictly confined water to the total water inside the pore, yielding unique characteristic parameters for water transport in these carbon channels across the investigated temperature range.« less

  1. Self-supporting nanopore membranes with controlled pore size and shape.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe-Xue; Namboodiri, Arya; Collinson, Maryanne M

    2008-05-01

    Self-supporting membranes containing either isolated or organized arrays of nanosized pores have been prepared using a nonlithographic approach by coupling sol-gel processing, thin film preparation, and templating. Specifically, polystyrene latex spheres were doped into a hybrid sol prepared from tetraethoxysilane and dimethyldiethoxysilane and the resultant sol spin cast on a sacrificial support. Upon removal of the template and the sacrificial support, the self-supporting nanopore membranes were transferred to glass for characterization by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Through variations in the thickness of the membranes and the size of the polystyrene latex spheres, the geometry (cylinder-like to asymmetric-like) and the dimensions of the nanopores were altered. Pores with diameters that range from 35 to 2100 nm, aspect ratios (defined as the top pore diameter divided by the bottom pore diameter) from 1-4, and depths (effective film thickness) from 50 to 1500 nms have been prepared using templates that range in diameter from 100 to 3100 nm. The method described employs "wet-chemistry", is highly versatile, and is easily amenable to modification by utilizing templates of different sizes and geometries to create stable membranes with different pore geometries and sizes that can be used as platforms for nanofiltration and/or chemical sensors. PMID:19206497

  2. Nondestructive technique for the characterization of the pore size distribution of soft porous constructs for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Safinia, Laleh; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Bismarck, Alexander

    2006-03-28

    Polymer scaffolds tailored for tissue engineering applications possessing the desired pore structure require reproducible fabrication techniques. Nondestructive, quantitative methods for pore characterization are required to determine the pore size and its distribution. In this study, a promising alternative to traditional pore size characterization techniques is presented. We introduce a quantitative, nondestructive and inexpensive method to determine the pore size distribution of large soft porous solids based on the on the displacement of a liquid, that spreads without limits though a porous medium, by nitrogen. The capillary pressure is measured and related to the pore sizes as well as the pore size distribution of the narrowest bottlenecks of the largest interconnected pores in a porous medium. The measured pore diameters correspond to the narrowest bottleneck of the largest pores connecting the bottom with the top surface of a given porous solid. The applicability and reproducibility of the breakthrough technique is demonstrated on two polyurethane foams, manufactured using the thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) process, with almost identical overall porosity (60-70%) but very different pore morphology. By selecting different quenching temperatures to induce polymer phase separation, the pore structure could be regulated while maintaining the overall porosity. Depending on the quenching temperature, the foams exhibited either longitudinally oriented tubular macropores interconnected with micropores or independent macropores connected to adjacent pores via openings in the pore walls. The pore size and its distribution obtained by the breakthrough test were in excellent agreement to conventional characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy combined with image analysis, BET technique, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. This technique is suitable for the characterization of the micro- and macropore structure of soft porous solids

  3. The effect of magnetic particles on pore size distribution in soft polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schümann, M.; Günther, S.; Odenbach, S.

    2014-07-01

    The combination of elastomeric matrices with magnetic particles to obtain magnetically controllable hybrid materials is an actual field of intense research. An important aspect in this context is the stiffness of the matrix, which determines the effectiveness of the magnetically driven changes in the material properties. In this paper an approach has been undertaken to use soft polyurethane foams as matrix material. By means of x-ray computed microtomography and digital image processing the pore size distribution has been determined to get information on how this distribution is affected by the introduction of magnetic microparticles. To do so, 20 000 to 40 000 pores per foam sample were evaluated. As a result, it could be proven that the pore sizes of the analysed foams clearly obey the Weibull distribution. Increasing the carbonyl iron particle concentrations leads to a decrement of the shape parameter of the distribution. Based on known particle stabilization mechanisms, an approach to explain the experimental results is proposed.

  4. An intelligent, robust approach to volumetric aircraft sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, Eric

    Advances in computational power have produced great strides in the later design and production portions of an aircraft's life cycle, and these advances have included the internal layout component of the design and manufacturing process. However, conceptual and preliminary design tools for internal layout remain primarily based on historical regressions and estimations---a situation that becomes untenable when considering revolutionary designs or component technologies. Bringing internal layout information forward in the design process can encourage the same level of benefits enjoyed by other disciplines as advances in aerodynamics, structures and other fields propagate forward in the design of complex systems. Accurate prediction of the volume required to contain all of an aircraft's internal components results in a more accurate prediction of aircraft specifications, mission effectiveness, and costs, helping determine if an aircraft is the best choice for continued development. This is not a computationally simple problem, however, and great care must be taken to ensure the efficiency of any proposed solution. Any solution must also address the uncertainty inherent in describing internal components early in the design process. Implementing a methodology that applies notions of an intelligent search for a solution, as well as deals robustly with component sizing, produces a high chance of success. Development of a robust, rapid method for assessing the volumetric characteristics of an aircraft in the context of the conceptual and preliminary design processes can offer many of the benefits of a complete internal layout without the immense assignment of resources typical in the detail phase of the design process. A simplified methodology for volumetrically sizing an aircraft is presented here as well as an assessment of the state-of-the-art techniques for volumetric considerations used in current aircraft design literature. A prototype tool using a combination of

  5. The portion size effect on food intake is robust to contextual size information.

    PubMed

    Reily, Natalie M; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2016-10-01

    Larger portion sizes have consistently been shown to lead to greater food intake. However, studies of the portion size effect typically provided participants with a single portion of food at a time without any objective information about the size of the portion, and hence failed to consider the potential significance of contextual size information. In order to investigate whether contextual size information moderates the portion size effect, participants were served small or large portions of pasta for lunch in the presence or absence of contextual size information. Study 1 found that the portion size effect on food intake was robust to contextual size information. Study 2 replicated this finding in an online paradigm, showing that contextual size information also had no influence on prospective intake, even when participants chose the portion size they preferred. Both studies also showed that participants' perceptions of how much was appropriate to eat mediated the effect of portion size on intake. A practical implication of our findings is that modifying consumption norms may be an effective way to promote healthier consumer food decisions. PMID:27311378

  6. Facile fabrication of BiVO4 nanofilms with controlled pore size and their photoelectrochemical performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chenchen; Jiao, Zhengbo; Li, Shaopeng; Zhang, Yan; Bi, Yingpu

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a facile method for the rational fabrication of pore-size controlled nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes, and confirmed that the optimum pore-size distributions could effectively absorb visible light through light diffraction and confinement functions. Furthermore, in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals more efficient photoexcited electron-hole separation than conventional particle films, induced by light confinement and rapid charge transfer in the inter-crossed worm-like structures.We demonstrate a facile method for the rational fabrication of pore-size controlled nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes, and confirmed that the optimum pore-size distributions could effectively absorb visible light through light diffraction and confinement functions. Furthermore, in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals more efficient photoexcited electron-hole separation than conventional particle films, induced by light confinement and rapid charge transfer in the inter-crossed worm-like structures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06584d

  7. Exploring the impact of pore size distribution on the performance of carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization.

    PubMed

    Han, Linchen; Karthikeyan, K G; Anderson, Marc A; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2014-09-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) removes charged ions from aqueous solutions through entrapment in the electric double layer (EDL) when the porous electrodes are polarized. In this study, three types of activated carbon cloth (ACC) with different pore-size distributions were used to study the effect of pore characteristics on electrosorption during CDI. Removal of seven different monovalent ions was examined for each ACC in batch reactors under 5 different combinations of applied potential and ionic strength. Results show underlying sorption mechanisms in the meso- and micro-pores were different. Electrosorption in the mesopores is influenced by partially-distorted EDL caused by EDL overlapping. Sorption capacity increased with increasing applied potential or ionic strength as overlapping effects were reduced. In contrast, EDL in the microporous regions could be highly distorted resulting in enhanced sorption capacity, which cannot be adequately described using the classic EDL theories. Electrosorption density (i.e., sorption capacity normalized by pore volume) decreased as the mesoporosity-to-microporosity ratio increased. These results are in agreement with those obtained using mathematical modeling by other recent CDI studies. Charge efficiency values were between 20% and 40% and appear to be substantially influenced by Faradaic reactions and ion desorption from the electrode surfaces. These findings suggest that pore-size distribution of electrode materials, especially the meso/microporosity ratio, should be optimized for the removal of targeted ions by CDI and well characterized to conduct more precise CDI modeling. PMID:24998059

  8. Size Control of Porous Silicon-Based Nanoparticles via Pore-Wall Thinning.

    PubMed

    Secret, Emilie; Leonard, Camille; Kelly, Stefan J; Uhl, Amanda; Cozzan, Clayton; Andrew, Jennifer S

    2016-02-01

    Photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals are very attractive for biomedical and electronic applications. Here a new process is presented to synthesize photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals with diameters smaller than 6 nm from a porous silicon template. These nanoparticles are formed using a pore-wall thinning approach, where the as-etched porous silicon layer is partially oxidized to silica, which is dissolved by a hydrofluoric acid solution, decreasing the pore-wall thickness. This decrease in pore-wall thickness leads to a corresponding decrease in the size of the nanocrystals that make up the pore walls, resulting in the formation of smaller nanoparticles during sonication of the porous silicon. Particle diameters were measured using dynamic light scattering, and these values were compared with the nanocrystallite size within the pore wall as determined from X-ray diffraction. Additionally, an increase in the quantum confinement effect is observed for these particles through an increase in the photoluminescence intensity of the nanoparticles compared with the as-etched nanoparticles, without the need for a further activation step by oxidation after synthesis. PMID:26796986

  9. A Model for Hydraulic Properties Based on Angular Pores with Lognormal Size Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durner, W.; Diamantopoulos, E.

    2014-12-01

    Soil water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curves are mandatory for modeling water flow in soils. It is a common approach to measure few points of the water retention curve and to calculate the hydraulic conductivity curve by assuming that the soil can be represented as a bundle of capillary tubes. Both curves are then used to predict water flow at larger spatial scales. However, the predictive power of these curves is often very limited. This can be very easily illustrated if we measure the soil hydraulic properties (SHPs) for a drainage experiment and then use these properties to predict the water flow in the case of imbibition. Further complications arise from the incomplete wetting of water at the solid matrix which results in finite values of the contact angles between the solid-water-air interfaces. To address these problems we present a physically-based model for hysteretic SHPs. This model is based on bundles of angular pores. Hysteresis for individual pores is caused by (i) different snap-off pressures during filling and emptying of single angular pores and (ii) by different advancing and receding contact angles for fluids that are not perfectly wettable. We derive a model of hydraulic conductivity as a function of contact angle by assuming flow perpendicular to pore cross sections and present closed-form expressions for both the sample scale water retention and hydraulic conductivity function by assuming a log-normal statistical distribution of pore size. We tested the new model against drainage and imbibition experiments for various sandy materials which were conducted with various liquids of differing wettability. The model described both imbibition and drainage experiments very well by assuming a unique pore size distribution of the sample and a zero contact angle for the perfectly wetting liquid. Eventually, we see the possibility to relate the particle size distribution with a model which describes the SHPs.

  10. Density-Biased Sampling: A Robust Computational Method for Studying Pore Formation in Membranes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A new reaction coordinate to bias molecular dynamics simulation is described that allows enhanced sampling of density-driven processes, such as mixing and demixing two different molecular species. The methodology is validated by comparing the theoretical entropy of demixing two ideal gas species and then applied to induce deformation and pore formation in phospholipid membranes within an umbrella sampling framework. Comparison with previous biased simulations of membrane pore formation suggests overall quantitative agreement, but the density-based biasing potential results in a different, more realistic transition pathway than that in previous studies. PMID:25620896

  11. Investigation of pore size and energy distributions by statistical physics formalism applied to agriculture products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouaini, Fatma; Knani, Salah; Yahia, Manel Ben; Bahloul, Neila; Ben Lamine, Abdelmottaleb; Kechaou, Nabil

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new investigation that allows determining the pore size distribution (PSD) in a porous medium. This PSD is achieved by using the desorption isotherms of four varieties of olive leaves. This is by the means of statistical physics formalism and Kelvin's law. The results are compared with those obtained with scanning electron microscopy. The effect of temperature on the distribution function of pores has been studied. The influence of each parameter on the PSD is interpreted. A similar function of adsorption energy distribution, AED, is deduced from the PSD.

  12. A solid with a hierarchical tetramodal micro-meso-macro pore size distribution

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yu; Ma, Zhen; Morris, Russell E.; Liu, Zheng; Jiao, Feng; Dai, Sheng; Bruce, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Porous solids have an important role in addressing some of the major energy-related problems facing society. Here we describe a porous solid, α-MnO2, with a hierarchical tetramodal pore size distribution spanning the micro-, meso- and macro pore range, centred at 0.48, 4.0, 18 and 70 nm. The hierarchical tetramodal structure is generated by the presence of potassium ions in the precursor solution within the channels of the porous silica template; the size of the potassium ion templates the microporosity of α-MnO2, whereas their reactivity with silica leads to larger mesopores and macroporosity, without destroying the mesostructure of the template. The hierarchical tetramodal pore size distribution influences the properties of α-MnO2 as a cathode in lithium batteries and as a catalyst, changing the behaviour, compared with its counterparts with only micropores or bimodal micro/mesopores. The approach has been extended to the preparation of LiMn2O4 with a hierarchical pore structure. PMID:23764887

  13. Three-Dimensional Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications: Role of Porosity and Pore Size

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Qiu Li

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering applications commonly encompass the use of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds to provide a suitable microenvironment for the incorporation of cells or growth factors to regenerate damaged tissues or organs. These scaffolds serve to mimic the actual in vivo microenvironment where cells interact and behave according to the mechanical cues obtained from the surrounding 3D environment. Hence, the material properties of the scaffolds are vital in determining cellular response and fate. These 3D scaffolds are generally highly porous with interconnected pore networks to facilitate nutrient and oxygen diffusion and waste removal. This review focuses on the various fabrication techniques (e.g., conventional and rapid prototyping methods) that have been employed to fabricate 3D scaffolds of different pore sizes and porosity. The different pore size and porosity measurement methods will also be discussed. Scaffolds with graded porosity have also been studied for their ability to better represent the actual in vivo situation where cells are exposed to layers of different tissues with varying properties. In addition, the ability of pore size and porosity of scaffolds to direct cellular responses and alter the mechanical properties of scaffolds will be reviewed, followed by a look at nature's own scaffold, the extracellular matrix. Overall, the limitations of current scaffold fabrication approaches for tissue engineering applications and some novel and promising alternatives will be highlighted. PMID:23672709

  14. Pore Size Effect on Methane Adsorption in Mesoporous Silica Materials Studied by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wei-Shan; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero; Chen, Jin-Hong; Liu, Yun

    2016-09-01

    Methane adsorption in model mesoporous silica materials with the size range characteristic of shale is studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Size effect on the temperature-dependent gas adsorption at methane pressure about 100 kPa is investigated by SANS using MCM-41 and SBA-15 as adsorbents. Above the gas-liquid condensation temperature, the thickness of the adsorption layer is found to be roughly constant as a function of the temperature. Moreover, the gas adsorption properties, such as the adsorbed layer thickness and the specific amount of adsorbed gas, have little dependence on the pore size being studied, i.e., pore radius of 16.5 and 34.1 Å, but are mainly affected by the roughness of the pore surfaces. Hence, the surface properties of the pore wall are more dominant than the pore size in determining the methane gas adsorption of pores at the nanometer size range. Not surprisingly, the gas-liquid condensation temperature is observed to be sensitive to pore size and shifts to higher temperature when the pore size is smaller. Below the gas-liquid condensation temperature, even though the majority of gas adsorption experiments/simulations have assumed the density of confined liquid to be the same as the bulk density, the measured methane mass density in our samples is found to be appreciably smaller than the bulk methane density regardless of the pore sizes studied here. The mass density of liquid/solid methane in pores with different sizes shows different temperature dependence below the condensation temperature. With decreasing temperature, the methane density in larger pores (SBA-15) abruptly increases at approximately 65 K and then plateaus. In contrast, the density in smaller pores (MCM-41) monotonically increases with decreasing temperature before reaching a plateau at approximately 30 K. PMID:27512895

  15. Improving prediction of hydraulic conductivity by constraining capillary bundle models to a maximum pore size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iden, Sascha C.; Peters, Andre; Durner, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    The prediction of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity from the soil water retention curve by pore-bundle models is a cost-effective and widely applied technique. One problem for conductivity predictions from retention functions with continuous derivatives, i.e. continuous water capacity functions, is that the hydraulic conductivity curve exhibits a sharp drop close to water saturation if the pore-size distribution is wide. So far this artifact has been ignored or removed by introducing an explicit air-entry value into the capillary saturation function. However, this correction leads to a retention function which is not continuously differentiable. We present a new parameterization of the hydraulic properties which uses the original saturation function (e.g. of van Genuchten) and introduces a maximum pore radius only in the pore-bundle model. In contrast to models using an explicit air entry, the resulting conductivity function is smooth and increases monotonically close to saturation. The model concept can easily be applied to any combination of retention curve and pore-bundle model. We derive closed-form expressions for the unimodal and multimodal van Genuchten-Mualem models and apply the model concept to curve fitting and inverse modeling of a transient outflow experiment. Since the new model retains the smoothness and continuous differentiability of the retention model and eliminates the sharp drop in conductivity close to saturation, the resulting hydraulic functions are physically more reasonable and ideal for numerical simulations with the Richards equation or multiphase flow models.

  16. Pore Size Distribution Estimates Compared: Available software applied to soil CT and synthetic images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, Alasdair N.; Falconer, Ruth E.; Otten, Wilfred; Hapca, Simona M.

    2015-04-01

    The Pore Size Distribution (PSD) has been widely used as a means of characterising porous media and, in conjunction with knowledge of pore space connectivity, has been used to infer hydrological properties. There exist various strategies to estimate PSD from a segmented image and each strategy typically involves a sequence of algorithms that transform image information. Some of these algorithms may be explicitly parameterised, requiring decisions by a knowledgeable operator. As a result PSD estimates may be quite variable between software applications and operators. In order to better understand these differences, a constrained boolean model was used to construct synthetic images whose pore structure is without ambiguity and whose properties can be analytically determined. Applying to such images a selection of analysis procedures in the form of readily available software applications, reveals differences between PSD estimates and analytic information. In some cases it is possible to attribute these differences to artifacts visible within map images generated by the analysis procedures, permitting correction procedures to be devised. In the case of soil CT images which exhibit complex interconnected pore structure, differences in the PSD estimate between analysis procedures are very great in some cases. Inspection of map images can again help in identifying the cause of such problems, but this may result from a fundamental property of the procedure with respect to complex pore structure. Based on the evidence presented, we conclude that some readily available software will produce PSD estimates that can usefully characterise geomaterials.

  17. Tuning Pore Size in Square-Lattice Coordination Networks for Size-Selective Sieving of CO2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai-Jie; Madden, David G; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A; Kumar, Amrit; Yang, Qing-Yuan; Xue, Wei; Space, Brian; Perry, John J; Zhang, Jie-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zaworotko, Michael J

    2016-08-22

    Porous materials capable of selectively capturing CO2 from flue-gases or natural gas are of interest in terms of rising atmospheric CO2 levels and methane purification. Size-exclusive sieving of CO2 over CH4 and N2 has rarely been achieved. Herein we show that a crystal engineering approach to tuning of pore-size in a coordination network, [Cu(quinoline-5-carboxyate)2 ]n (Qc-5-Cu) ena+bles ultra-high selectivity for CO2 over N2 (SCN ≈40 000) and CH4 (SCM ≈3300). Qc-5-Cu-sql-β, a narrow pore polymorph of the square lattice (sql) coordination network Qc-5-Cu-sql-α, adsorbs CO2 while excluding both CH4 and N2 . Experimental measurements and molecular modeling validate and explain the performance. Qc-5-Cu-sql-β is stable to moisture and its separation performance is unaffected by humidity. PMID:27439315

  18. Pore size distributions in microporous membranes. 1: Surface study of track-etched filters by image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, J.I.; Hernandez, A.; Caruana, G.; Martinez, L.

    1995-10-01

    The surface morphology of several Cyclopore filters, consisting of thin track-etched sheets of polycarbonate, is analyzed here. Scanning electron microscopy and computerized image analysis have been applied. The surface porosity and the pore density or number of pores per surface unit are directly obtained for each filter, while the statistical distribution of the pore areas, pore perimeters, equivalent pore diameters, and pore shape factors are studied as well. These pore size distributions have been studied for six types of filters (C01, C02, C04, C06, C08, and C10) and the existence of a relevant portion of double and other multiple pores has been revealed. The fraction of these multiple pores are correlated with the nominal pore radii. The results on pore size have been used to predict the volume flows of the membranes studied. This can be done only by assuming that the surface characteristics remain unchanged in the internal volume of the filters, which leads to hydrodynamic radii well in accordance with the experimental ones, within the error range. Nevertheless, it seems that some of the pores should have internal widenings with inner radii close to 120% of the external ones.

  19. Control of both particle and pore size in nanoporous palladium alloy powders

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Christopher G.; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Stavila, Vitalie; Robinson, David B.

    2014-07-15

    Energy storage materials often involve chemical reactions with bulk solids. Porosity within the solids can enhance reaction rates. The porosity can be either within or between individual particles of the material. Greater control of the size and uniformity of both types of pore should lead to enhancements of charging and discharging rates in energy storage systems. Furthermore, to control both particle and pore size in nanoporous palladium (Pd)-based hydrogen storage materials, first we created uniformly sized copper particles of about 1 μm diameter by the reduction of copper sulfate with ascorbic acid. In turn, these were used as reducing agents for tetrachloropalladate in the presence of a block copolymer surfactant. The copper reductant particles are geometrically self-limiting, so the resulting Pd particles are of similar size. The surfactant induces formation of 10 nm-scale pores within the particles. Some residual copper is alloyed with the Pd, reducing hydrogen storage capacity; use of a more reactive Pd salt can mitigate this. The reaction is conveniently performed in gram-scale batches.

  20. Control of both particle and pore size in nanoporous palladium alloy powders

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jones, Christopher G.; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Stavila, Vitalie; Robinson, David B.

    2014-07-15

    Energy storage materials often involve chemical reactions with bulk solids. Porosity within the solids can enhance reaction rates. The porosity can be either within or between individual particles of the material. Greater control of the size and uniformity of both types of pore should lead to enhancements of charging and discharging rates in energy storage systems. Furthermore, to control both particle and pore size in nanoporous palladium (Pd)-based hydrogen storage materials, first we created uniformly sized copper particles of about 1 μm diameter by the reduction of copper sulfate with ascorbic acid. In turn, these were used as reducing agentsmore » for tetrachloropalladate in the presence of a block copolymer surfactant. The copper reductant particles are geometrically self-limiting, so the resulting Pd particles are of similar size. The surfactant induces formation of 10 nm-scale pores within the particles. Some residual copper is alloyed with the Pd, reducing hydrogen storage capacity; use of a more reactive Pd salt can mitigate this. The reaction is conveniently performed in gram-scale batches.« less

  1. Scaffolds and cells for tissue regeneration: different scaffold pore sizes-different cell effects.

    PubMed

    Bružauskaitė, Ieva; Bironaitė, Daiva; Bagdonas, Edvardas; Bernotienė, Eiva

    2016-05-01

    During the last decade biomaterial sciences and tissue engineering have become new scientific fields supplying rising demand of regenerative therapy. Tissue engineering requires consolidation of a broad knowledge of cell biology and modern biotechnology investigating biocompatibility of materials and their application for the reconstruction of damaged organs and tissues. Stem cell-based tissue regeneration started from the direct cell transplantation into damaged tissues or blood vessels. However, it is difficult to track transplanted cells and keep them in one particular place of diseased organ. Recently, new technologies such as cultivation of stem cell on the scaffolds and subsequently their implantation into injured tissue have been extensively developed. Successful tissue regeneration requires scaffolds with particular mechanical stability or biodegradability, appropriate size, surface roughness and porosity to provide a suitable microenvironment for the sufficient cell-cell interaction, cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. Further functioning of implanted cells highly depends on the scaffold pore sizes that play an essential role in nutrient and oxygen diffusion and waste removal. In addition, pore sizes strongly influence cell adhesion, cell-cell interaction and cell transmigration across the membrane depending on the various purposes of tissue regeneration. Therefore, this review will highlight contemporary tendencies in application of non-degradable scaffolds and stem cells in regenerative medicine with a particular focus on the pore sizes significantly affecting final recover of diseased organs. PMID:26091616

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance pore size determination for unconsolidated sediments with strong internal gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duschl, M.; Pohlmeier, A. J.; Galvosas, P.; Vereecken, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water distribution and flow within porous media are mainly controlled by the pore space structure. Well established methods for the determination of pore sizes like multistep outflow and gas adsorption isotherms (BET) are often time consuming, expensive, or produce toxic waste. As an alternative fast and non-destructive technique, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used because it probes hydrogen and therefore the dynamics and interactions of water. Pore space is most easily characterized by NMR relaxometry where the total relaxation rate is controlled by the surface relaxivity ρ of the porous medium in combination with the surface-to-volume ratio (S/V) [1]. Furthermore, there are contributions of molecular diffusion through local magnetic field gradients which are created by susceptibility differences between solid and liquid phases [2] as well as by paramagnetic impurities [3]. Hence, surface to volume ratios and surface relaxivities of porous media cannot be measured individually with NMR relaxometry. Therefore, NMR diffusion measurements are applied to probe the S/V of pores without other contributions. In this study, we demonstrate that NMR diffusion measurements are feasible to determine the S/V ratio of the pore space of quartz sand coated with goethite (α-FeOOH) as paramagnetic impurity. Our findings were compared to BET measurements and we found no dependence of the S/V on the coating density with NMR diffusion and a clear dependence between coating density and S/V with krypton BET measurements. Possible explanations are the different characteristic length scales on which the pore space is probed, and the intrinsic fractal nature of porous media [4] together with the roughness of the pore surface on a nm-scale due to the coating process. After isolating the additional contribution of the paramagnetic impurities to the NMR relaxation and the calibration of the NMR relaxation signal for each coating density it was possible to use fast relaxometry

  3. Permeability-Selectivity Analysis of Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes: Effect of Pore Size and Shape Distribution and Membrane Stretching.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Usama; Arif, Abul Fazal Muhammad; Bashmal, Salem

    2016-01-01

    We present a modeling approach to determine the permeability-selectivity tradeoff for microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes with a distribution of pore sizes and pore shapes. Using the formulated permeability-selectivity model, the effect of pore aspect ratio and pore size distribution on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of the membrane is analyzed. A finite element model is developed to study the effect of membrane stretching on the distribution of pore sizes and shapes in the stretched membrane. The effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of membranes is also analyzed. The results show that increasing pore aspect ratio improves membrane performance while increasing the width of pore size distribution deteriorates the performance. It was also found that the effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff is greatly affected by the uniformity of pore distribution in the membrane. Stretching showed a positive shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve of membranes with well-dispersed pores while in the case of pore clustering, a negative shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve was observed. PMID:27509528

  4. Pore-size dependent THz absorption of nano-confined water.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chi-Kuang; You, Borwen; Huang, Yu-Ru; Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Sato, Shusaku; Irisawa, Akiyoshi; Imamura, Motoki; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2015-06-15

    We performed a THz absorption spectroscopy study on liquid water confined in mesoporous silica materials, MCM-41-S-18 and MCM-41-S-21, of two different pore sizes at room temperatures. We found that stronger confinement with a smaller pore size causes reduced THz absorption, indicating reduced water mobility due to confinement. Combined with recent theoretical studies showing that the microscopic structure of water inside the nanopores can be separated into a core water region and an interfacial water region, our spectroscopy analysis further reveals a bulk-water-like THz absorption behavior in the core water region and a solid-like THz absorption behavior in the interfacial water region. PMID:26076248

  5. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen; Yu, Conrad M.; Raley, Norman F.

    1999-01-01

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

  6. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  7. Water Desalination Using Nanoporous Single-Layer Graphene with Tunable Pore Size

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Surwade, Sumedh P.; Smirnov, Sergei N.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Dai, Sheng; Mahurin, Shannon Mark

    2015-03-23

    Graphene has great potential to serve as a separation membrane due to its unique properties such as chemical and mechanical stability, flexibility and most importantly its one-atom thickness. In this study, we demonstrate first experimental evidence of the use of single-layer porous graphene as a desalination membrane. Nanometer-sized pores are introduced into single layer graphene using a convenient oxygen plasma etching process that permits tuning of the pore size. The resulting porous graphene membrane exhibited high rejection of salt ions and rapid water transport, thus functioning as an efficient water desalination membrane. Salt rejection selectivity of nearly 100% and exceptionallymore » high water fluxes exceeding 105 g m-2 s-1 at 40 C were measured using saturated water vapor as a driving force.« less

  8. Pore size engineering applied to the design of separators for nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, K. M.; Britton, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Pore size engineering in starved alkaline multiplate cells involves adopting techniques to widen the volume tolerance of individual cells. Separators with appropriate pore size distributions and wettability characteristics (capillary pressure considerations) to have wider volume tolerances and an ability to resist dimensional changes in the electrodes were designed. The separators studied for potential use in nickel-hydrogen cells consist of polymeric membranes as well as inorganic microporous mats. In addition to standard measurements, the resistance and distribution of electrolyte as a function of total cell electrolyte content were determined. New composite separators consisting of fibers, particles and/or binders deposited on Zircar cloth were developed in order to engineer the proper capillary pressure characteristics in the separator. These asymmetric separators were prepared from a variety of fibers, particles and binders. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24571

  9. Improvement of electrospun polymer fiber meshes pore size by femtosecond laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollar, Esther; Cordero, Diego; Martins, Albino; Chiussi, Stefano; Reis, Rui L.; Neves, Nuno M.; León, Betty

    2011-02-01

    Polymer meshes have recently attracted great attention due to their great variety of applications in fields such as tissue engineering and drug delivery. Poly(ɛ-caprolactone) nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning giving rise to porous meshes. However, for some applications in tissue engineering where, for instance, cell migration into the inner regions of the mesh is aimed, the pore size obtained by conventional techniques is too narrow. To improve the pore size, laser irradiation with femtosecond pulses (i.e., negligible heat diffusion into the polymer material and confined excitation energy) is performed. A detailed study of the influence of the pulse energy, pulse length, and number of pulses on the topography of electrospun fiber meshes has been carried out, and the irradiated areas have been studied by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements and spectroscopic techniques. The results show that using the optimal laser parameters, micropores are formed and the nature of the fibers is preserved.

  10. Water Desalination Using Nanoporous Single-Layer Graphene with Tunable Pore Size

    SciTech Connect

    Surwade, Sumedh P.; Smirnov, Sergei N.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Dai, Sheng; Mahurin, Shannon Mark

    2015-03-23

    Graphene has great potential to serve as a separation membrane due to its unique properties such as chemical and mechanical stability, flexibility and most importantly its one-atom thickness. In this study, we demonstrate first experimental evidence of the use of single-layer porous graphene as a desalination membrane. Nanometer-sized pores are introduced into single layer graphene using a convenient oxygen plasma etching process that permits tuning of the pore size. The resulting porous graphene membrane exhibited high rejection of salt ions and rapid water transport, thus functioning as an efficient water desalination membrane. Salt rejection selectivity of nearly 100% and exceptionally high water fluxes exceeding 105 g m-2 s-1 at 40 C were measured using saturated water vapor as a driving force.

  11. In-situ method for determining pore size distribution, capillary pressure and permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1987-02-17

    A method is described for determining the pore sizes entered by the oil phase in an oil-bearing formation, comprising: logging the formation of interest with an induced polarization logging tool having at least one source electrode; computing from the induced polarization measurements obtained by the logging tool a normalized induced polarization response function; obtaining core material from the formation of interest; extracting the water and hydrocarbons from the core material; resaturating the core material with formation brine; measuring the normalized induced polarization response function for the core material; and determining the pore sizes containing oil in the formation by comparing the normalized induced polarization response function from the formation with the normalized induced polarization response function of the core.

  12. Pore size engineering applied to the design of separators for nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, K. M.; Britton, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Pore size engineering in starved alkaline multiplate cells involves adopting techniques to widen the volume tolerance of individual cells. Separators with appropriate pore size distributions and wettability characteristics (capillary pressure considerations) to have wider volume tolerances and an ability to resist dimensional changes in the electrodes were designed. The separators studied for potential use in nickel-hydrogen cells consist of polymeric membranes as well as inorganic microporous mats. In addition to standard measurements, the resistance and distribution of electrolyte as a function of total cell electrolyte content were determined. New composite separators consisting of fibers, particles and/or binders deposited on Zircar cloth were developed in order to engineer the proper capillary pressure characteristics in the separator. These asymmetric separators were prepared from a variety of fibers, particles and binders.

  13. Microfluidic Directed Synthesis of Alginate Nanogels with Tunable Pore Size for Efficient Protein Delivery.

    PubMed

    Bazban-Shotorbani, Salime; Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Karkhaneh, Akbar; Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi; Jacob, Karl I

    2016-05-17

    Alginate is a biopolymer with favorable pH-sensitive properties for oral delivery of peptides and proteins. However, conventional alginate nanogels have limitations such as low encapsulation efficiency because of drug leaching during bead preparation and burst release in high pH values. These shortcomings originate from large pore size of the nanogels. In this work, we proposed an on-chip hydrodynamic flow focusing approach for synthesis of alginate nanogels with adjustable pore size to achieve fine-tunable release profile of the encapsulated bioactive agents. It is demonstrated that the microstructure of nanogels can be controlled through adjusting flow ratio and mixing time directed on microfluidic platforms consisting of cross-junction microchannels. In this study, the average pore size of alginate nanogels (i.e., average molecular weight between cross-links, Mc) was related to synthesis parameters. Mc was calculated from equations based on equilibrium swelling theory and proposed methods to modify the theory for pH-sensitive nanogels. In the equations we derived, size and compactness of nanogels are key factors, which can be adjusted by controlling the flow ratio. It was found that increase in flow ratio increases the size of nanogels and decreases their compactness. The size of on-chip generated nanogels for flow ratio of 0.02-0.2 was measured to be in the range of 68-138 nm. Moreover, a method based on the Mie theory was implemented to estimate the aggregation number (Nagg) of polymer chains inside the nanogels as an indicator of compactness. According to the size and compactness results along with equations of modified swelling theory, Mc obtained to be in the range of 0.5-0.8 kDa. The proposed method could be considered as a promising approach for efficient polypeptides encapsulation and their sustained release. PMID:26938744

  14. Controlling drug delivery kinetics from mesoporous titania thin films by pore size and surface energy

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Johan; Atefyekta, Saba; Andersson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The osseointegration capacity of bone-anchoring implants can be improved by the use of drugs that are administrated by an inbuilt drug delivery system. However, to attain superior control of drug delivery and to have the ability to administer drugs of varying size, including proteins, further material development of drug carriers is needed. Mesoporous materials have shown great potential in drug delivery applications to provide and maintain a drug concentration within the therapeutic window for the desired period of time. Moreover, drug delivery from coatings consisting of mesoporous titania has shown to be promising to improve healing of bone-anchoring implants. Here we report on how the delivery of an osteoporosis drug, alendronate, can be controlled by altering pore size and surface energy of mesoporous titania thin films. The pore size was varied from 3.4 nm to 7.2 nm by the use of different structure-directing templates and addition of a swelling agent. The surface energy was also altered by grafting dimethylsilane to the pore walls. The drug uptake and release profiles were monitored in situ using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and it was shown that both pore size and surface energy had a profound effect on both the adsorption and release kinetics of alendronate. The QCM-D data provided evidence that the drug delivery from mesoporous titania films is controlled by a binding–diffusion mechanism. The yielded knowledge of release kinetics is crucial in order to improve the in vivo tissue response associated to therapeutic treatments. PMID:26185444

  15. Fusion Pore Size Limits 5-HT Release From Single Enterochromaffin Cell Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Raghupathi, Ravinarayan; Jessup, Claire F; Lumsden, Amanda L; Keating, Damien J

    2016-07-01

    Enterochromaffin cells are the major site of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis and secretion providing ∼95% of the body's total 5-HT. 5-HT can act as a neurotransmitter or hormone and has several important endocrine and paracrine roles. We have previously demonstrated that EC cells release small amounts of 5-HT per exocytosis event compared to other endocrine cells. We utilized a recently developed method to purify EC cells to demonstrate the mechanisms underlying 5-HT packaging and release. Using the fluorescent probe FFN511, we demonstrate that EC cells express VMAT and that VMAT plays a functional role in 5-HT loading into vesicles. Carbon fiber amperometry studies illustrate that the amount of 5-HT released per exocytosis event from EC cells is dependent on both VMAT and the H(+)-ATPase pump, as demonstrated with reserpine or bafilomycin, respectively. We also demonstrate that increasing the amount of 5-HT loaded into EC cell vesicles does not result in an increase in quantal release. As this indicates that fusion pore size may be a limiting factor involved, we compared pore diameter in EC and chromaffin cells by assessing the vesicle capture of different-sized fluorescent probes to measure the extent of fusion pore dilation. This identified that EC cells have a reduced fusion pore expansion that does not exceed 9 nm in diameter. These results demonstrate that the small amounts of 5-HT released per fusion event in EC cells can be explained by a smaller fusion pore that limits 5-HT release capacity from individual vesicles. PMID:26574734

  16. Numerical simulation of pore size dependent anhydrite precipitation in geothermal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mürmann, Mario; Kühn, Michael; Pape, Hansgeorg; Clauser, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Porosity and permeability of reservoirs are key parameters for an economical use of hot water from geothermal installations and can be significantly reduced by precipitation of minerals, such as anhydrite. The borehole Allermöhe 1 near Hamburg (Germany) represents a failed attempt of geothermal heat mining due to anhydrite precipitation (Baermann et al. 2000). For a risk assessment of future boreholes it is essential to understand how and when anhydrite cementation occurred under reservoir conditions. From core samples of the Allermöhe borehole it was determined that anhydrite precipitation took place in regions of relatively high porosity while regions of low porosity remained uncemented (Wagner et al. 2005). These findings correspond to the fact that e.g. halite precipitation in porous media is found only in relatively large pores (Putnis and Mauthe 2001). This study and others underline that pore size controls crystallization and that it is therefore necessary to establish a relation between pore size and nucleation. The work presented here is based on investigations of Emmanuel and Berkowitz (2007) who present such a relation by applying a thermodynamic approach. However this approach cannot explain the heterogeneous precipitation observed in the Allermöhe core samples. We chose an advanced approach by considering electric system properties resulting in another relation between pore size and crystallization. It is well known that a high fluid supersaturation can be maintained in porous rocks (Putnis and Mauthe 2001). This clearly indicates that a supersaturation threshold exists exceeding thermodynamic equilibrium considerably. In order to quantify spatially heterogeneous anhydrite cementation a theoretical approach was chosen which considered the electric interaction between surface charges of the matrix and calcium and sulphate ions in the fluid. This approach was implemented into the numerical code SHEMAT (Clauser 2003) and used to simulate anhydrite

  17. Control of Porosity and Pore Size of Metal Reinforced Carbon Nanotube Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Dumee, Ludovic; Velleman, Leonora; Sears, Kallista; Hill, Matthew; Schutz, Jurg; Finn, Niall; Duke, Mikel; Gray, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Membranes are crucial in modern industry and both new technologies and materials need to be designed to achieve higher selectivity and performance. Exotic materials such as nanoparticles offer promising perspectives, and combining both their very high specific surface area and the possibility to incorporate them into macrostructures have already shown to substantially increase the membrane performance. In this paper we report on the fabrication and engineering of metal-reinforced carbon nanotube (CNT) Bucky-Paper (BP) composites with tuneable porosity and surface pore size. A BP is an entangled mesh non-woven like structure of nanotubes. Pure CNT BPs present both very high porosity (>90%) and specific surface area (>400 m2/g). Furthermore, their pore size is generally between 20–50 nm making them promising candidates for various membrane and separation applications. Both electro-plating and electroless plating techniques were used to plate different series of BPs and offered various degrees of success. Here we will report mainly on electroless plated gold/CNT composites. The benefit of this method resides in the versatility of the plating and the opportunity to tune both average pore size and porosity of the structure with a high degree of reproducibility. The CNT BPs were first oxidized by short UV/O3 treatment, followed by successive immersion in different plating solutions. The morphology and properties of these samples has been investigated and their performance in air permeation and gas adsorption will be reported. PMID:24957493

  18. Determining the dynamic range of MCPs based on pore size and strip current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, C.; Adrian, M. L.; Herrero, F.; James, P.; Jones, H. H.; Rodriguez, M.; Roman, P.; Shappirio, M.

    2010-12-01

    Micro-Channel Plates (MCPs) are used as detectors for almost all detectors measuring particles (both ions, electrons and neutrals) below 30 keV. Recent advances in the manufacturing technology of the MCPs have increased the number of options one has when selecting plates for an instrument. But it is not clear how many of these options affect the performance of the MCPs. In particular the dynamic range is not a clear cut calculation to make from the strip current. There is also some evidence that pore size and coating play a role. We measured the dynamic range and pulse height distribution of MCPs detector chevron stacks with a wide variety of strip currents from the low “normal” range in the EDR range. We also looked at the effects of varying the pore size from 25 microns to 10 microns, partial plating of the MCP surface and coating one surface on each MCP with gold rather than the standard zinc chromium. We will show how the dynamic range and pulse height distributions vary vs. strip current, pore size, and surface plating configurations.

  19. Impact of pore size on the sorption of uranyl under seawater conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mayes, Richard T.; Gorka, Joanna; Dai, Sheng

    2016-04-05

    The extraction of uranium from seawater has received significant interest recently, because of the possibility of a near-limitless supply of uranium to fuel the nuclear power industry. While sorbent development has focused primarily on polymeric sorbents, nanomaterials represent a new area that has the potential to surpass the current polymeric sorbents, because of the high surface areas that are possible. Mesoporous carbon materials are a stable, high-surface-area material capable of extracting various chemical species from a variety of environments. Herein, we report the use of a dual templating process to understand the effect of pore size on the adsorption ofmore » uranyl ions from a uranyl brine consisting of seawater-relevant sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate ions. It was found that pore size played a more significant role in the effective use of the grafted polymer, leading to higher uranium capacities than the surface area. Furthermore, the pore size must be tailored to meet the demands of the extraction medium and analyte metal to achieve efficacy as an adsorbent.« less

  20. Multiscale characterization of pore size distributions using mercury porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Tarquis, A. M.; Miranda, J. G. V.; Vidal Vázquez, E.

    2009-04-01

    The soil pore space is a continuum extremely variable in size, including structures smaller than nanometres and as large as macropores or cracks with millimetres or even centimetres size. Pore size distributions (PSDs) affects important soil functions, such as those related with transmission and storage of water, and root growth. Direct and indirect measurements of PSDs are becoming increasingly used to characterize soil structure. Mercury injection porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption isotherms are techniques commonly employed for assessing equivalent pore size diameters in the range from about 50 nm to 100 m and 2 to 500 nm, respectively. The multifractal formalism was used to describe Hg injection curves and N2 adsorption isotherms from two series of a Mollisol cultivated under no tillage and minimum tillage. Soil samples were taken from 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm depths in two experimental fields located in the north of Buenos Aires and South of Santa Fe provinces, Argentina. All the data sets analyzed from the two studied soil attributes showed remarkably good scaling trends as assessed by singularity spectrum and generalized dimension spectrum. Both, experimental Hg injection curves and N2 adsorption isotherms could be fitted reasonably well with multifractal models. A wide variety of singularity and generalized dimension spectra was found for the variables. The capacity dimensions, D0, for both Hg injection and N2 adsorption data were not significantly different from the Euclidean dimension. However, the entropy dimension, D1, and correlation dimension, D2, obtained from mercury injection and nitrogen adsorption data showed significant differences. So, D1 values were on average 0.868 and varied from 0.787 to 0.925 for Hg intrusion curves. Entropy dimension, D1, values for N2 adsorption isotherms were on average 0.582 significantly lower than those obtained when using the former technique. Twenty-three out of twenty-four N2 isotherms had D1 values in a

  1. Importance of Pore Size Distribution of Fine-grained Sediments on Gas Hydrate Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, T. H.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, G. C.; Park, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Gas hydrates have been considered as a new source of natural gases. For the gas hydrate production, the gas hydrate reservoir should be depressurized below the equilibrium pressure of gas hydrates. Therefore, it is important to predict the equilibrium of gas hydrates in the reservoir conditions because it can be affected by the pore size of the host sediments due to the capillary effect. In this study, gas hydrates were synthesized in fine-grained sediment samples including a pure silt sample and a natural clayey silt sample cored from a hydrate occurrence region in Ulleung Basin, East Sea, offshore Korea. Pore size distributions of the samples were obtained by the nitrogen adsorption and desorption test and the mercury intrusion porosimetry. The equilibrium curve of gas hydrates in the fine-grained sediments were found to be significantly influenced by the clay fraction and the corresponding small pores (>50 nm in diameter). For the clayey silt sample, the equilibrium pressure was higher by ~1.4 MPa than the bulk equilibrium pressure. In most cases of oceanic gas hydrate reservoirs, sandy layers are found interbedded with fine-grained sediment layers while gas hydrates are intensively accumulated in the sandy layers. Our experiment results reveal the inhibition effect of fine-grained sediments against gas hydrate formation, in which greater driving forces (e.g., higher pressure or lower temperature) are required during natural gas migration. Therefore, gas hydrate distribution in interbedded layers of sandy and fine-grained sediments can be explained by such capillary effect induced by the pore size distribution of host sediments.

  2. Systematic Design of Pore Size and Functionality in Isoreticular MOFs and Their Application in Methane Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Kim, Jaheon; Rosi, Nathaniel; Vodak, David; Wachter, Joseph; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2002-01-01

    A strategy based on reticulating metal ions and organic carboxylate links into extended networks has been advanced to a point that allowed the design of porous structures in which pore size and functionality could be varied systematically. Metal-organic framework (MOF-5), a prototype of a new class of porous materials and one that is constructed from octahedral Zn-O-C clusters and benzene links, was used to demonstrate that its three-dimensional porous system can be functionalized with the organic groups -Br, -NH2, -OC3H7, -OC5H11, -C2H4, and -C4H4 and that its pore size can be expanded with the long molecular struts biphenyl, tetrahydropyrene, pyrene, and terphenyl. We synthesized an isoreticular series (one that has the same framework topology) of 16 highly crystalline materials whose open space represented up to 91.1% of the crystal volume, as well as homogeneous periodic pores that can be incrementally varied from 3.8 to 28.8 angstroms. One member of this series exhibited a high capacity for methane storage (240 cubic centimeters at standard temperature and pressure per gram at 36 atmospheres and ambient temperature), and others the lowest densities (0.41 to 0.21 gram per cubic centimeter) for a crystalline material at room temperature.

  3. Systematic design of pore size and functionality in isoreticular MOFs and their application in methane storage.

    PubMed

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Kim, Jaheon; Rosi, Nathaniel; Vodak, David; Wachter, Joseph; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M

    2002-01-18

    A strategy based on reticulating metal ions and organic carboxylate links into extended networks has been advanced to a point that allowed the design of porous structures in which pore size and functionality could be varied systematically. Metal-organic framework (MOF-5), a prototype of a new class of porous materials and one that is constructed from octahedral Zn-O-C clusters and benzene links, was used to demonstrate that its three-dimensional porous system can be functionalized with the organic groups -Br, -NH2, -OC3H7, -OC5H11, -C2H4, and -C4H4 and that its pore size can be expanded with the long molecular struts biphenyl, tetrahydropyrene, pyrene, and terphenyl. We synthesized an isoreticular series (one that has the same framework topology) of 16 highly crystalline materials whose open space represented up to 91.1% of the crystal volume, as well as homogeneous periodic pores that can be incrementally varied from 3.8 to 28.8 angstroms. One member of this series exhibited a high capacity for methane storage (240 cubic centimeters at standard temperature and pressure per gram at 36 atmospheres and ambient temperature), and others the lowest densities (0.41 to 0.21 gram per cubic centimeter) for a crystalline material at room temperature. PMID:11799235

  4. Size-dependent leak of soluble and membrane proteins through the yeast nuclear pore complex

    PubMed Central

    Popken, Petra; Ghavami, Ali; Onck, Patrick R.; Poolman, Bert; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) allow selective import and export while forming a barrier for untargeted proteins. Using fluorescence microscopy, we measured in vivo the permeability of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae NPC for multidomain proteins of different sizes and found that soluble proteins of 150 kDa and membrane proteins with an extralumenal domain of 90 kDa were still partly localized in the nucleus on a time scale of hours. The NPCs thus form only a weak barrier for the majority of yeast proteins, given their monomeric size. Using FGΔ-mutant strains, we showed that specific combinations of Nups, especially with Nup100, but not the total mass of FG-nups per pore, were important for forming the barrier. Models of the disordered phase of wild-type and mutant NPCs were generated using a one bead per amino acid molecular dynamics model. The permeability measurements correlated with the density predictions from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations in the center of the NPC. The combined in vivo and computational approach provides a framework for elucidating the structural and functional properties of the permeability barrier of nuclear pore complexes. PMID:25631821

  5. Influence of the pore size in multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the hydrogen storage behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Park, Soo-Jin

    2012-10-15

    Activated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (A-MWCNTs) were prepared using a chemical activation method to obtain well-developed pore structures for use as hydrogen storage materials. The microstructure and crystallinity of the A-MWCNTs were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. The textural properties of the A-MWCNTs were investigated by nitrogen gas sorption analysis at 77 K. The hydrogen storage capacity of the A-MWCNTs was evaluated at 77 K and 1 bar. The results showed that the specific surface area of the MWCNTs increased from 327 to 495 m{sup 2}/g as the activation temperature was increased. The highest hydrogen storage capacity was observed in the A-MWCNTs sample activated at 900 Degree-Sign C (0.54 wt%). This was attributed to it having the narrowest microporosity, which is a factor closely related to the hydrogen storage capacity. This shows that the hydrogen storage behaviors depend on the pore volume. Although a high pore volume is desirable for hydrogen storage, it is also severely affected if the pore size in the A-MWCNTs for the hydrogen molecules is suitable for creating the activation process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AT-800 and AT-900 samples were prepared by a chemical activation method at activation temperature of 800 and 900 Degree-Sign C, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AT-900 sample has the narrowest peak in comparison with the AT-800 sample, resulting from the overlap of the two peaks (Peak I and Peak II). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This overlapping effect is due to the newly created micropores or shrinkages of pores in Peak II. So, these determining characteristics are essential for designing materials that are suitable for molecular hydrogen storage.

  6. Porosity, Pore Size, and Permeability of Sediments from Site C0002, IODP Expedition 338

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, B.; Huepers, A.; Song, I.; Kitajima, H.; Esteban, L.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) measurements were made on cuttings and core samples from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site C0002 to evaluate porosity, pore throat size, and permeability of mud(stone) at the centerpiece drill site of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE). Core samples from 221-464 meters below sea floor (mbsf) in the Kumano forearc basin have MICP-determined porosities from 40-56%, median pore radii from 0.077-0.205 microns, and permeability from 3.3x10-10 - 2.0x10-9 m2. The porosity of these core samples is similar to shipboard porosity determined from moisture and density (MAD) analyses. During IODP Expedition 338 cuttings samples were recovered from ~865-2005 mbsf during riser drilling at Site C0002F. MICP analyses of cuttings samples, greater than 4 mm size fraction, from 928-1980 mbsf in the inner wedge of the accretionary prism constrain porosities from 21-44%, median pore radii from 0.021-0.032 microns, and permeability from 1.2x10-11 - 1.6x10-10 m2. The porosity of these cuttings samples is consistently lower than the MAD-determined porosity on cuttings from the >4mm size fraction, however the values are consistent with core-based, MAD-derived porosity from Hole C0002B above 1057 mbsf and with cuttings-based, MAD-derived porosity on select samples from 1700-2000 mbsf that were determined to be intact formation and not influenced by drilling disturbance. These results suggest that select formation cuttings or MICP-analyses can help define in situ porosity. Additional post-expedition research will be used to better understand the ability of MICP data to define mudstone permeability and to constrain permeability-porosity and permeability-grain size-pore throat relations for sediments at Site C0002. A detailed model of permeability and porosity behavior will inform modeling studies of pore pressure generation and fluid and heat transport.

  7. Evaluation of immunoglobulin adsorption on the hydrophobic charge-induction resins with different ligand densities and pore sizes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui-Li; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Gao, Dong; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2013-02-22

    Hydrophobic charge-induction chromatography (HCIC) is a novel technology for antibody purification. The ligand densities and pore properties of HCIC resins have significant effects on the separation behavior of protein, however, the understandings are quite limited. In the present work, new HCIC ligand, 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI) was coupled to three agarose matrices with different pore sizes. A series of MMI resins with different ligand density and pore size was prepared by the control of ligand coupling. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics on the series of MMI resins were investigated with bovine serum immunoglobulin as the model IgG, and the effects of salt addition were studied. The Langmuir equation and pore diffusion model were used to fit the experimental data, and the influences of ligand density, pore size and salt addition on the saturated adsorption capacity, the dissociation constant and the effective diffusivity were discussed. It was found that the adsorption capacities and the effective pore diffusion coefficient increased with the increase of ligand density and pore size. The effects of salt addition on the adsorption behaviors were dependent on the ligand density. For low ligand density the IgG adsorption was salt-promoted, while the resins with high ligand density showed a salt-independent property. The results indicated that for a given protein the ligand density and pore size of HCIC resins should be optimized for improving the protein adsorption. PMID:23336945

  8. Reversible control of pore size and surface chemistry of mesoporous silica through dynamic covalent chemistry: philicity mediated catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Pavan Kumar, B. V. V. S.; Eswaramoorthy, M.

    2015-08-01

    Here, we report the synthesis of adaptive hybrid mesoporous silica having the ability to reconfigure its pore properties such as pore size and philicity in response to the external environment. Decyl chains were reversibly appended to the pore walls of silica through imine motifs as dynamic covalent modules to switch the pore size and philicity in response to pH. This switching of pore properties was used to gate the access of reactants to the gold nanoparticles immobilized inside the nanopores, thus enabling us to turn-on/turn-off the catalytic reaction. The use of such dynamic covalent modules to govern pore properties would enable the realization of intelligent hybrids capable of controlling many such chemical processes in response to stimuli.Here, we report the synthesis of adaptive hybrid mesoporous silica having the ability to reconfigure its pore properties such as pore size and philicity in response to the external environment. Decyl chains were reversibly appended to the pore walls of silica through imine motifs as dynamic covalent modules to switch the pore size and philicity in response to pH. This switching of pore properties was used to gate the access of reactants to the gold nanoparticles immobilized inside the nanopores, thus enabling us to turn-on/turn-off the catalytic reaction. The use of such dynamic covalent modules to govern pore properties would enable the realization of intelligent hybrids capable of controlling many such chemical processes in response to stimuli. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02959g

  9. IMPACT OF COMPOSITION AND HEAT TREATMENT ON PORE SIZE IN POROUS WALLED HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Raszewski, F; Erich Hansen, E; Ray Schumacher, R; David Peeler, D

    2007-12-04

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a new geometric form: hollow glass microspheres (HGMs), with unique porous walls. The new geometric form combines the existing technology of HGMs with basic glass science knowledge in the realm of glass-in-glass phase separation. Conceptually, the development of a HGM with porous walls (referred to as a PWHGM) provides a unique system in which various media or filling agents can be incorporated into the PWHGM (via transport through the porous walls) and ultimately has the capacity to serve as a functional delivery system in various industrial applications. Applications of these types of systems could range from hydrogen storage, molecular sieves, drug and bioactive delivery systems, to environmental, chemical and biological indicators, relevant to Energy, Environmental Processing and Homeland Security fields. As a specific example, previous studies at SRNL have introduced materials capable of hydrogen storage (as well as other materials) into the interior of the PWHGMs. The goal of this project was to determine if the microstructure (i.e., pore size and pore size distribution) of a PWHGM could be altered or tailored by varying composition and/or heat treatment (time and/or temperature) conditions. The ability to tailor the microstructure through composition or heat treatments could provide the opportunity to design the PWHGM system to accommodate different additives or fill agents. To meet this objective, HGMs of various alkali borosilicate compositions were fabricated using a flame forming apparatus installed at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory (ACTL). HGMs were treated under various heat treatment conditions to induce and/or enhance glass in glass phase separation. Heat treatment temperatures ranged from 580 C to 620 C, while heat treatment times were either 8 or 24 hours. Of the two primary variables assessed in this study, heat treatment temperature was determined to be most effective in changing the

  10. Jointly deriving NMR surface relaxivity and pore size distributions by NMR relaxation experiments on partially desaturated rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohnke, O.; Hughes, B.

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry is a geophysical method widely used in borehole and laboratory applications to nondestructively infer transport and storage properties of rocks and soils as it is directly sensitive to the water/oil content and pore sizes. However, for inferring pore sizes, NMR relaxometry data need to be calibrated with respect to a surface interaction parameter, surface relaxivity, which depends on the type and mineral constituents of the investigated rock. This study introduces an inexpensive and quick alternative to the classical calibration methods, e.g., mercury injection, pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR, or grain size analysis, which allows for jointly estimating NMR surface relaxivity and pore size distributions using NMR relaxometry data from partially desaturated rocks. Hereby, NMR relaxation experiments are performed on the fully saturated sample and on a sample partially drained at a known differential pressure. Based on these data, the (capillary) pore radius distribution and surface relaxivity are derived by joint optimization of the Brownstein-Tarr and the Young-Laplace equation assuming parallel capillaries. Moreover, the resulting pore size distributions can be used to predict water retention curves. This inverse modeling approach—tested and validated using NMR relaxometry data measured on synthetic porous borosilicate samples with known petrophysical properties (i.e., permeability, porosity, inner surfaces, pore size distributions)—yields consistent and reproducible estimates of surface relaxivity and pore radii distributions. Also, subsequently calculated water retention curves generally correlate well with measured water retention curves.

  11. Choice of pore size can introduce artefacts when filtering picoeukaryotes for molecular biodiversity studies.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Nikolaj; Daugbjerg, Niels; Richardson, Katherine

    2013-05-01

    Published results of studies based on samples size fractionated by sequential filtration (e.g. 0.2-3 μm) indicate that many ciliate, dinoflagellate and rhizarian phylotypes are found among marine picoeukaryotes. This is somewhat surprising as these protists are typically known as being large organisms (often >10 μm) and no picoplanktonic species have so far been identified. Here, the abundances of ciliate and dinoflagellate phylotypes in published molecular studies of picoeukaryotes are shown to correlate negatively with the pore size chosen for the end filter in the sequential filtrations (i.e. the filter used to collect the microbial biomass). This suggests that extracellular DNA adhering to small particles may be the source of ciliate and dinoflagellate phylotypes in picoplanktonic size fractions. This hypothesis was confirmed using real-time qPCR, which revealed significantly less dinoflagellate 18S rDNA in a 0.8-3-μm size fraction compared to 0.2-3 μm. On average, the abundance of putative extracellular phylotypes decreased by 84-89 % when a 0.8- μm end filter was used rather than a 0.2-μm end filter. A 0.8-μm filter is, however, not sufficient to retain all picoeukaryotic cells. Thus, selection of filter pore size involves a trade-off between avoiding artefacts generated by extracellular DNA and sampling the entire picoeukaryotic community. In contrast to ciliate and dinoflagellate phylotypes, rhizarian phylotypes in the picoplankton size range do not display a pattern consistent with an extracellular origin. This is likely due to the documented existence of picoplanktonic swarmer cells within this group. PMID:23325466

  12. Pore Size Distribution and Methane Equilibrium Conditions at Walker Ridge Block 313, Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihani, A. D.; Daigle, H.; Cook, A.; Glosser, D.; Shushtarian, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coexistence of three methane phases (liquid (L), gas (G), hydrate (H)) in marine gas hydrate systems may occur according to in-situ pressure, temperature, salinity and pore size. In sediments with salinity close to seawater, a discrete zone of three-phase (3P) equilibrium may occur near the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) due to capillary effects. The existence of a 3P zone influences the location of the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) and has implications for methane fluxes at the base of the RHSZ. We studied hydrate stability conditions in two wells, WR313-G and WR313-H, at Walker Ridge Block 313 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We determined pore size distributions (PSD) by constructing a synthetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time distribution. Correlations were obtained by non-linear regression on NMR, gamma ray, and bulk density logs from well KC-151 at Keathley Canyon. The correlations enabled construction of relaxation time distributions for WR313-G and WR313-H, which were used to predict PSD through comparison with mercury injection capillary pressure measurements. With the computed PSD, L+H and L+G methane solubility was determined from in-situ pressure and temperature. The intersection of the L+G and L+H curves for various pore sizes allowed calculation of the depth range of the 3P equilibrium zone. As in previous studies at Blake Ridge and Hydrate Ridge, the top of the 3P zone moves upwards with increasing water depth and overlies the bulk 3P equilibrium depth. In clays at Walker Ridge, the predicted thickness of the 3P zone is approximately 35 m, but in coarse sands it is only a few meters due to the difference in absolute pore sizes and the width of the PSD. The thick 3P zone in the clays may explain in part why the BSR is only observed in the sand layers at Walker Ridge, although other factors may influence the presence or absence of a BSR.

  13. Pore size distribution and methane equilibrium conditions at Walker Ridge Block 313, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bihani, Abhishek; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann; Glosser, Deborah; Shushtarian, Arash

    2015-12-15

    Coexistence of three methane phases (liquid (L), gas (G), hydrate (H)) in marine gas hydrate systems may occur according to in-situ pressure, temperature, salinity and pore size. In sediments with salinity close to seawater, a discrete zone of three-phase (3P) equilibrium may occur near the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) due to capillary effects. The existence of a 3P zone influences the location of the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) and has implications for methane fluxes at the base of the RHSZ. We studied hydrate stability conditions in two wells, WR313-G and WR313-H, at Walker Ridge Block 313 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We determined pore size distributions (PSD) by constructing a synthetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time distribution. Correlations were obtained by non-linear regression on NMR, gamma ray, and bulk density logs from well KC-151 at Keathley Canyon. The correlations enabled construction of relaxation time distributions for WR313-G and WR313-H, which were used to predict PSD through comparison with mercury injection capillary pressure measurements. With the computed PSD, L+H and L+G methane solubility was determined from in-situ pressure and temperature. The intersection of the L+G and L+H curves for various pore sizes allowed calculation of the depth range of the 3P equilibrium zone. As in previous studies at Blake Ridge and Hydrate Ridge, the top of the 3P zone moves upwards with increasing water depth and overlies the bulk 3P equilibrium depth. In clays at Walker Ridge, the predicted thickness of the 3P zone is approximately 35 m, but in coarse sands it is only a few meters due to the difference in absolute pore sizes and the width of the PSD. The thick 3P zone in the clays may explain in part why the BSR is only observed in the sand layers at Walker Ridge, although other factors may influence the presence or absence of a BSR.

  14. Effect of collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold pore size on matrix mineralization and cellular behavior in different cell types.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Ciara M; Duffy, Garry P; Schindeler, Aaron; O'brien, Fergal J

    2016-01-01

    We have previously examined osteoblast behavior on porous collagen-glycosaminoglycan (CG) scaffolds with a range of mean pore sizes demonstrating superior cell attachment and migration in scaffolds with the largest pores (325 μm). Scaffolds provide a framework for construct development; therefore, it is crucial to identify the optimal pore size for augmented tissue formation. Utilizing the same range of scaffolds (85 μm - 325 μm), this study aimed to examine the effects of mean pore size on subsequent osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization, and to understand the mechanism by which pore size influences behavior of different cell types. Consequently, primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were assessed and their behavior compared to osteoblasts. Results demonstrated that scaffolds with the largest pore size (325 μm) facilitated improved osteoblast infiltration, earlier expression of mature bone markers osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN), and increased mineralization. MSCs responded similarly to osteoblasts whereby cell attachment and scaffold infiltration improved with increasing pore size. However, MSCs showed reduced cell motility, proliferation, and scaffold infiltration compared to osteoblasts. This was associated with differences in the profile of integrin subunits (α2) and collagen receptors (CD44), indicating that osteoblasts have a stronger affinity for CG scaffolds compared to MSCs. In summary, these results reveal how larger pores promote improved cell infiltration, essential for construct development, however the optimal scaffold pore size can be cell type specific. As such, this study highlights a necessity to tailor both scaffold micro-architecture and cell-type when designing constructs for successful bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:26386362

  15. Micro and nano-size pores of clay minerals in shale reservoirs: Implication for the accumulation of shale gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shangbin; Han, Yufu; Fu, Changqin; Zhang, han; Zhu, Yanming; Zuo, Zhaoxi

    2016-08-01

    A pore is an essential component of shale gas reservoirs. Clay minerals are the adsorption carrier second only to organic matter. This paper uses the organic maturity test, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to study the structure and effect of clay minerals on storing gas in shales. Results show the depositional environment and organic maturity influence the content and types of clay minerals as well as their structure in the three types of sedimentary facies in China. Clay minerals develop multi-size pores which shrink to micro- and nano-size by close compaction during diagenesis. Micro- and nano-pores can be divided into six types: 1) interlayer, 2) intergranular, 3) pore and fracture in contact with organic matter, 4) pore and fracture in contact with other types of minerals, 5) dissolved and, 6) micro-cracks. The contribution of clay minerals to the presence of pores in shale is evident and the clay plane porosity can even reach 16%, close to the contribution of organic matter. The amount of clay minerals and pores displays a positive correlation. Clay minerals possess a strong adsorption which is affected by moisture and reservoir maturity. Different pore levels of clay minerals are mutually arranged, thus essentially producing distinct reservoir adsorption effects. Understanding the structural characteristics of micro- and nano-pores in clay minerals can provide a tool for the exploration and development of shale gas reservoirs.

  16. Effective pore size and radius of capture for K(+) ions in K-channels.

    PubMed

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; González-Nilo, Fernando; Naranjo, David

    2016-01-01

    Reconciling protein functional data with crystal structure is arduous because rare conformations or crystallization artifacts occur. Here we present a tool to validate the dimensions of open pore structures of potassium-selective ion channels. We used freely available algorithms to calculate the molecular contour of the pore to determine the effective internal pore radius (r(E)) in several K-channel crystal structures. r(E) was operationally defined as the radius of the biggest sphere able to enter the pore from the cytosolic side. We obtained consistent r(E) estimates for MthK and Kv1.2/2.1 structures, with r(E) = 5.3-5.9 Å and r(E) = 4.5-5.2 Å, respectively. We compared these structural estimates with functional assessments of the internal mouth radii of capture (r(C)) for two electrophysiological counterparts, the large conductance calcium activated K-channel (r(C) = 2.2 Å) and the Shaker Kv-channel (r(C) = 0.8 Å), for MthK and Kv1.2/2.1 structures, respectively. Calculating the difference between r(E) and r(C), produced consistent size radii of 3.1-3.7 Å and 3.6-4.4 Å for hydrated K(+) ions. These hydrated K(+) estimates harmonize with others obtained with diverse experimental and theoretical methods. Thus, these findings validate MthK and the Kv1.2/2.1 structures as templates for open BK and Kv-channels, respectively. PMID:26831782

  17. Effective pore size and radius of capture for K+ ions in K-channels

    PubMed Central

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; González-Nilo, Fernando; Naranjo, David

    2016-01-01

    Reconciling protein functional data with crystal structure is arduous because rare conformations or crystallization artifacts occur. Here we present a tool to validate the dimensions of open pore structures of potassium-selective ion channels. We used freely available algorithms to calculate the molecular contour of the pore to determine the effective internal pore radius (rE) in several K-channel crystal structures. rE was operationally defined as the radius of the biggest sphere able to enter the pore from the cytosolic side. We obtained consistent rE estimates for MthK and Kv1.2/2.1 structures, with rE = 5.3–5.9 Å and rE = 4.5–5.2 Å, respectively. We compared these structural estimates with functional assessments of the internal mouth radii of capture (rC) for two electrophysiological counterparts, the large conductance calcium activated K-channel (rC = 2.2 Å) and the Shaker Kv-channel (rC = 0.8 Å), for MthK and Kv1.2/2.1 structures, respectively. Calculating the difference between rE and rC, produced consistent size radii of 3.1–3.7 Å and 3.6–4.4 Å for hydrated K+ ions. These hydrated K+ estimates harmonize with others obtained with diverse experimental and theoretical methods. Thus, these findings validate MthK and the Kv1.2/2.1 structures as templates for open BK and Kv-channels, respectively. PMID:26831782

  18. INITIAL SIZE AND DYNAMICS OF VIRAL FUSION PORES ARE A FUNCTION OF THE FUSION PROTEIN MEDIATING MEMBRANE FUSION

    PubMed Central

    Plonsky, I.; Kingsley, D. H.; Rashtian, A.; Blank, P.S.; Zimmerberg, J.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the role of the fusogenic protein in the initial size and dynamics of the pore that widens to finalize membrane fusion, two different fusion proteins expressed in the same cell line were investigated: the major glycoprotein of baculovirus Autographa californica (GP64) and the hemaggluttinin of influenza X31 (HA). The host Sf9 cells expressing these viral proteins, irrespective of protein species, fused to human red blood cells (RBC) upon acidification of the medium. High time resolution electrophysiological study of fusion pore conductance revealed fundamental differences in a) the initial pore conductance (pores created by HA were smaller than those created by GP64), b) the ability of pores to flicker (only HA-mediated pores flickered), and c) the time required for pore formation (HA-mediated pores took much longer to form following acidification). Thus 1) HA and GP64 have divergent electrophysiological phenotypes even when they fuse identical membranes, and 2) fusion proteins play a crucial role in determining initial fusion pore characteristics. The structure of the initial fusion pore detected by electrical conductance measurements is sensitive to the nature of the fusion protein. PMID:18208404

  19. Groove Sizing Using a Robust Neural Network Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Brusquet, L.; Davoust, M.-E.; Fleury, G.

    2003-03-01

    The remote field eddy current technique is used to inspect conductive pipes from the inside. The problem is to calculate an estimation of groove dimensions from observed data. A first approach was previously developed using a two-step parametric inversion. Results from this first approach are produced using a new model. A second approach using a neural network is presented. This technique is known for the lack of robustness which may occur when precautions are not sufficient. This paper presents these precautions and the results of both approaches.

  20. Pore-throat size distributions in Permo-Triassic sandstones from the United Kingdom and some implications for contaminant hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, J. P.; Gooddy, D. C.; Bright, M. I.; Williams, P. J.

    2001-06-01

    Pore-throat size distributions (PSDs) from mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) tests have been used to characterise 153 samples of Permo-Triassic sandstones from the United Kingdom. The PSDs have been parameterised using the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten functions. Pore-throat sizes are in the range 0.01-427 µm, and dominant pore-throat sizes range from about 0.1-90 µm. Values of λ, the Brooks-Corey pore-size distribution index, range from 0.002-2.27, and values of m, the van Genuchten pore-size distribution index, range from 0.03-0.92. A number of classes of sandstone can be recognised on the basis of trends in the fitted parameters. The van Genuchten function provides the most effective method for classifying different sandstones. Additionally, a cross-plot of gas permeability against displacement pressure (derived from the van Genuchten function) shows that the data fall into two distinct sub-populations. The frequency distribution of a larger population of sandstone permeabilities can be modelled using the mean and standard deviation of the two sub-populations identified in the MICP study, assuming that the sub-populations are approximated by log-normal distributions. The distribution of sandstones with small pore-throat sizes is critical to the fate of pathogens and immiscible phase contaminants in the aquifer.

  1. Anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control for selective and effective particulate matter filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su; Wang, Yang; Tan, Yingling; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is widely considered as one of the most pressing environmental health issues. Particularly, atmospheric particulate matters (PM), a complex mixture of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere, are a harmful form of air pollution due to its ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams, causing permanent damages such as DNA mutations and premature death. Therefore, porous materials which can effectively filter out particulate matters are highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control fabricated through a scalable process can serve as effective and selective filtering materials for different types of particulate matters (such as PM2.5, PM10). Combining selective and dramatic filtering effect, fine pore size control and a scalable process, this type of anodic aluminum oxide templates can potentially serve as a novel selective filter for different kinds of particulate matters, and a promising and complementary solution to tackle this serious environmental issue.

  2. Protein attachment to nanoporous anodic alumina for biotechnological applications: influence of pore size, protein size and functionalization path.

    PubMed

    Baranowska, Malgorzata; Slota, Agata J; Eravuchira, Pinkie J; Macias, Gerard; Xifré-Pérez, Elisabet; Pallares, Josep; Ferré-Borrull, Josep; Marsal, Lluís F

    2014-10-01

    Nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) is a material with great interest in nanotechnology and with promising applications to biotechnology. Obtaining specific and regularly functionalized NAA surfaces is essential to obtain meaningful results and applications. Silane-PEG-NHS (triethoxysilane-polyethylene-glycol-N-hydroxysuccinimide) is a covalent linker commonly used for single-molecule studies. We investigate the functionalization of NAA with silane-PEG-NHS and compared with two common, but not single-molecule, grafting agents, APTMS (3-aminopropylotrimethoxysilane) as an electrostatic linker, and APTMS-GTA (3-aminopropylotrimethoxysilane-glutaraldehyde) as covalent. Another outcome of this study is to show how two proteins (collagen and bovine serum albumin, BSA) with different properties differentially arrange for different functionalizations and NAA pore sizes. FTIR is used to demonstrate the surface modification steps and fluorescence confocal microscopy reveals that silane-PEG-NHS results in a more homogeneous protein distribution in comparison to the other linkers. Reflection interference Fourier transform spectroscopy confirms the confocal fluorescence microscopy results and permits to estimate the amounts of linker and linked proteins within the pores. These results permit to obtain uniformly chemical modified NAA supports with a great value in biosensing, drug delivery and cell biology. PMID:25086305

  3. Pore size controls on the base of the methane hydrate stability zone in the Kumano Basin, offshore Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Hugh; Dugan, Brandon

    2014-11-01

    The base of the methane hydrate stability zone (MHSZ) in the Kumano Basin, offshore Japan, is marked by a bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) on seismic data. At Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site C0002, which penetrates this BSR, the in situ temperature profile combined with bulk seawater methane equilibrium conditions suggest that the base of the MHSZ is 428 m below seafloor (bsf), which is 28 m deeper than the observed BSR (400 m bsf). We found that submicron pore sizes determined by mercury injection capillary pressure are sufficiently small to cause 64% of the observed uplift of the base of the MHSZ by the Gibbs-Thomson effect. This is the most thorough characterization of pore sizes within the MHSZ performed to date and illustrates the extent to which pore size can influence MHSZ thickness. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering lithology and pore structure when assessing methane hydrate stability conditions in marine sediments.

  4. Pore size distribution of a deeply excavated Oxisol after 19 years reclamation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Batista Bonini, Carolina; de Cássia Marchini, Débora; Alves, Marlene Cristina; García de Arruda, Otton; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Digging of the local soil and using it as a raw material for construction purposes has been identified as a non-negligible source of land degradation. Techniques aimed at soil profile reconstruction and ecological restoration of soils truncated by mechanical excavation using heavy machinery have been investigated Both, total soil porosity and pore size distribution are important properties for soil management as well as for assessing the recovery of soil function after land degradation. In this way, macropores are responsible for aeration, whereas water storage depends on soil meso- and micropores in the soil and the optimal pore-size distribution is also an indicator of soil quality. We investigated the changes in the pore size distribution of a soil that was beheaded to extract raw materials after a 19 year period of reclamation, which involved the use of green manures, gypsum and pasture for the purpose of profile recovery. The studied area is located in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brzil. A field trial was performed following a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and four replications. Starting 1992, the initial treatments were: 1) control (tilled bare soil), 2)Stizolobium aterrium, 3)Cajanus cajan, 4)lime+S. aterrimum, 5) lime+C. cajan, 6) lime + gypsum + S. aterrimum, 7) lime + gypsum+C. cajan. In 1994, all treatments with C. cajan were replaced by Canavalia ensiformis and in 1999, Brachiaria decumbens was implanted in all the experimental plots. Data from vegetated treatments were compared with bare soil (control) and native vegetation (Savannah). Soil samples were collected in 2011 at the 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.40 m depths. Treatment differences were assessed by analysis of variance, following the Scott-Knott test (5%) of probability to compare averages. Macroporosity of the 0.00-0.10 m top layer was above the 0.10 m3m-3 threshold considered as critical for plant growth. On the 0.10-0.20 m layer only treatments with C

  5. Single molecule FRET reveals pore size and opening mechanism of a mechano-sensitive ion channel

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Yanxin; DeBerg, Hannah A; Nomura, Takeshi; Hoffman, Melinda Tonks; Rohde, Paul R; Schulten, Klaus; Martinac, Boris; Selvin, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    The mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, which serves as a model system for mechanosensitive channels, has previously been crystallized in the closed form, but not in the open form. Ensemble measurements and electrophysiological sieving experiments show that the open-diameter of the channel pore is >25 Å, but the exact size and whether the conformational change follows a helix-tilt or barrel-stave model are unclear. Here we report measurements of the distance changes on liposome-reconstituted MscL transmembrane α-helices, using a ‘virtual sorting’ single-molecule fluorescence energy transfer. We observed directly that the channel opens via the helix-tilt model and the open pore reaches 2.8 nm in diameter. In addition, based on the measurements, we developed a molecular dynamics model of the channel structure in the open state which confirms our direct observations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01834.001 PMID:24550255

  6. Evaluation of borate bioactive glass scaffolds with different pore sizes in a rat subcutaneous implantation model.

    PubMed

    Deliormanli, Aylin M; Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2014-01-01

    Borate bioactive glass has been shown to convert faster and more completely to hydroxyapatite and enhance new bone formation in vivo when compared to silicate bioactive glass (such as 45S5 and 13-93 bioactive glass). In this work, the effects of the borate glass microstructure on its conversion to hydroxyapatite (HA) in vitro and its ability to support tissue ingrowth in a rat subcutaneous implantation model were investigated. Bioactive borate glass scaffolds, designated 13-93B3, with a grid-like microstructure and pore widths of 300, 600, and 900 µm were prepared by a robocasting technique. The scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously for 4 weeks in Sprague Dawley rats. Silicate 13-93 glass scaffolds with the same microstructure were used as the control. The conversion of the scaffolds to HA was studied as a function of immersion time in a simulated body fluid. Histology and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate conversion of the bioactive glass implants to hydroxyapatite, as well as tissue ingrowth and blood vessel formation in the implants. The pore size of the scaffolds was found to have little effect on tissue infiltration and angiogenesis after the 4-week implantation. PMID:23241965

  7. Pore size distribution analysis of activated carbons prepared from coconut shell using methane adsorption data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadpour, A.; Okhovat, A.; Darabi Mahboub, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    The application of Stoeckli theory to determine pore size distribution (PSD) of activated carbons using high pressure methane adsorption data is explored. Coconut shell was used as a raw material for the preparation of 16 different activated carbon samples. Four samples with higher methane adsorption were selected and nitrogen adsorption on these adsorbents was also investigated. Some differences are found between the PSD obtained from the analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms and their PSD resulting from the same analysis using methane adsorption data. It is suggested that these differences may arise from the specific interactions between nitrogen molecules and activated carbon surfaces; therefore caution is required in the interpretation of PSD obtained from the nitrogen isotherm data.

  8. Pore chemistry and size control in hybrid porous materials for acetylene capture from ethylene.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xili; Chen, Kaijie; Xing, Huabin; Yang, Qiwei; Krishna, Rajamani; Bao, Zongbi; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Wei; Dong, Xinglong; Han, Yu; Li, Bin; Ren, Qilong; Zaworotko, Michael J; Chen, Banglin

    2016-07-01

    The trade-off between physical adsorption capacity and selectivity of porous materials is a major barrier for efficient gas separation and purification through physisorption. We report control over pore chemistry and size in metal coordination networks with hexafluorosilicate and organic linkers for the purpose of preferential binding and orderly assembly of acetylene molecules through cooperative host-guest and/or guest-guest interactions. The specific binding sites for acetylene are validated by modeling and neutron powder diffraction studies. The energies associated with these binding interactions afford high adsorption capacity (2.1 millimoles per gram at 0.025 bar) and selectivity (39.7 to 44.8) for acetylene at ambient conditions. Their efficiency for the separation of acetylene/ethylene mixtures is demonstrated by experimental breakthrough curves (0.73 millimoles per gram from a 1/99 mixture). PMID:27198674

  9. Modeling the controllable pH-responsive swelling and pore size of networked alginate based biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ariel W; Neufeld, Ronald J

    2009-10-01

    Semisynthetic network alginate polymer (SNAP), synthesized by acetalization of linear alginate with di-aldehyde, is a pH-responsive tetrafunctionally linked 3D gel network, and has potential application in oral delivery of protein therapeutics and active biologicals, and as tissue bioscaffold for regenerative medicine. A constitutive polyelectrolyte gel model based on non-Gaussian polymer elasticity, Flory-Huggins liquid lattice theory, and non-ideal Donnan membrane equilibria was derived, to describe SNAP gel swelling in dilute and ionic solutions containing uni-univalent, uni-bivalent, bi-univalent or bi-bi-valent electrolyte solutions. Flory-Huggins interaction parameters as a function of ionic strength and characteristic ratio of alginates of various molecular weights were determined experimentally to numerically predict SNAP hydrogel swelling. SNAP hydrogel swells pronouncedly to 1000 times in dilute solution, compared to its compact polymer volume, while behaving as a neutral polymer with limited swelling in high ionic strength or low pH solutions. The derived model accurately describes the pH-responsive swelling of SNAP hydrogel in acid and alkaline solutions of wide range of ionic strength. The pore sizes of the synthesized SNAP hydrogels of various crosslink densities were estimated from the derived model to be in the range of 30-450 nm which were comparable to that measured by thermoporometry, and diffusion of bovine serum albumin. The derived equilibrium swelling model can characterize hydrogel structure such as molecular weight between crosslinks and crosslinking density, or can be used as predictive model for swelling, pore size and mechanical properties if gel structural information is known, and can potentially be applied to other point-link network polyelectrolytes such as hyaluronic acid gel. PMID:19660810

  10. A titanosilicate molecular sieve with adjustable pores for size-selective adsorption of molecules.

    PubMed

    Kuznicki, S M; Bell, V A; Nair, S; Hillhouse, H W; Jacubinas, R M; Braunbarth, C M; Toby, B H; Tsapatsis, M

    2001-08-16

    Zeolites and related crystalline microporous oxides-tetrahedrally coordinated atoms covalently linked into a porous framework-are of interest for applications ranging from catalysis to adsorption and ion-exchange. In some of these materials (such as zeolite rho) adsorbates, ion-exchange, and dehydration and cation relocation can induce strong framework deformations. Similar framework flexibility has to date not been seen in mixed octahedral/tetrahedral microporous framework materials, a newer and rapidly expanding class of molecular sieves. Here we show that the framework of the titanium silicate ETS-4, the first member of this class of materials, can be systematically contracted through dehydration at elevated temperatures to 'tune' the effective size of the pores giving access to the interior of the crystal. We show that this so-called 'molecular gate' effect can be used to tailor the adsorption properties of the materials to give size-selective adsorbents suitable for commercially important separations of gas mixtures of molecules with similar size in the 4.0 to 3.0 A range, such as that of N2/CH4, Ar/O2 and N2/O2. PMID:11507636

  11. Pore size distribution of soil near saturation as affected by soil type, land use, and soil amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage and flow of water in soil voids, which are related to the size and geometry of the voids and flow rate are usually controlled by the void of the smallest size. Another reason for the complexity of water flow in soils is the intricate nature and change of the soil pores due to the modificatio...

  12. A variable-step-size robust delta modulator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, C. L.; Garodnick, J.; Schilling, D. L.

    1971-01-01

    Description of an analytically obtained optimum adaptive delta modulator-demodulator configuration. The device utilizes two past samples to obtain a step size which minimizes the mean square error for a Markov-Gaussian source. The optimum system is compared, using computer simulations, with a linear delta modulator and an enhanced Abate delta modulator. In addition, the performance is compared to the rate distortion bound for a Markov source. It is shown that the optimum delta modulator is neither quantization nor slope-overload limited. The highly nonlinear equations obtained for the optimum transmitter and receiver are approximated by piecewise-linear equations in order to obtain system equations which can be transformed into hardware. The derivation of the experimental system is presented.

  13. Atomic layer deposition of SIO2 on porous alumina membranes: controlling the pore size and transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velleman, Leonora; Traini, Gerry; Evans, Peter J.; Atanacio, Armand; Shapter, Joe G.; Losic, Dusan

    2008-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of SiO2 onto nanoporous alumina (PA) membranes was investigated with the aim of adjusting the pore size and transport properties. PA membranes from commercial sources with a range of pore diameters (20 nm, 100 nm and 200 nm) were used and modified by atomic layer deposition using tris(tert-butoxy)silanol and water as the precursor couple. By adjusting the number of deposition cycles, the thickness of the conformal silica coating was controlled, reducing the effective pore diameter, and subsequently changing the transport properties of the PA membrane. Silica coated PA membranes with desired pore diameters from <5 nm to 100 nm were fabricated. In addition to the pore size, the transport properties and selectivity of fabricated silica coated PA membranes were controlled by chemical functionalisation using a silane with hydrophobic properties. Structural and chemical properties of modified membranes were studied by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (DSIMS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spectrophotometric methods were used to evaluate the transport properties and selectivity of silica coated membranes by permeation studies of hydrophobic and hydrophilic organic molecules. The resultant silica/PA membranes with specific surface chemistry and controlled pore size are applicable for molecular separation, cell culture, bioreactors, biosensing and drug delivery.

  14. Application of SAXS and SANS in evaluation of porosity, pore size distribution and surface area of coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radlinski, A.P.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hinde, A.L.; Hainbuchner, M.; Rauch, H.; Baron, M.; Lin, J.S.; Fan, L.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques for determining the porosity, pore size distribution and internal specific surface area in coals. The method is noninvasive, fast, inexpensive and does not require complex sample preparation. It uses coal grains of about 0.8 mm size mounted in standard pellets as used for petrographic studies. Assuming spherical pore geometry, the scattering data are converted into the pore size distribution in the size range 1 nm (10 A??) to 20 ??m (200,000 A??) in diameter, accounting for both open and closed pores. FTIR as well as SAXS and SANS data for seven samples of oriented whole coals and corresponding pellets with vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values in the range 0.55% to 5.15% are presented and analyzed. Our results demonstrate that pellets adequately represent the average microstructure of coal samples. The scattering data have been used to calculate the maximum surface area available for methane adsorption. Total porosity as percentage of sample volume is calculated and compared with worldwide trends. By demonstrating the applicability of SAXS and SANS techniques to determine the porosity, pore size distribution and surface area in coals, we provide a new and efficient tool, which can be used for any type of coal sample, from a thin slice to a representative sample of a thick seam. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of mica content on pore-size distribution and porosity of sandy sediment using proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, S.

    2015-12-01

    As a part of a Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI), we performed a study on effect of mica content on pore size distribution and porosity of sandy sediment. This study used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to measure the pore-size distribution and porosity of specimen to investigate mica content effect in sandy sediment. A mixture of silica sand No. 7 and mica (mica of 0 wt. %, 5 wt. % and 20 wt. %) was used in this study. The median D50 by laser diffraction method was obtained as 215.7 μm of silica sand No. 7 and 278.9 μm of mica. Pore-size distributions of specimens by the distribution of transverse magnetic relaxation time (T2) measurement by NMR were performed for the water-saturated sample under effective confining pressure of 1.0 MPa. The peaks of pore-size distribution curves decreased and showed finer shifts with increasing of mica content. The porosity of silica sand No. 7 specimen was 46.3%, and that of mica 5% and 20 % were 45.9% and 42.2%m, respectively. A change in pore-size distribution and porosity were observed with an increasing ratio of mica.

  16. Quantitative Control of Pore Size of Mesoporous Carbon Nanospheres through the Self-Assembly of Diblock Copolymer Micelles in Solution.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hao; Lin, Zhixing; Xu, Fugui; Zheng, Jingxu; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports facile synthesis of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNSs) with average diameters of around 300 nm and well-controlled pore sizes ranging from 8 to 38 nm, by employing polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblocks with different PS block lengths as the soft templates and dopamine as the carbon-rich precursor. For the first time, a linear equation is achieved for the quantitative control of the average pore size of MCNSs by simply adjusting a block length of diblock copolymer. The resultant MCNSs possess high surface areas of up to 450 m(2) g(-1) and nitrogen doping contents of up to ≈3 wt%. As electrode materials of supercapacitors, the MCNSs exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with high specific capacitances of up to 350 F g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1) , superior rate capability, and cycling stability. Interestingly, the specific capacitance of the MCNSs reduces linearly with increasing pore size, whereas the normalized capacitance by specific surface area remains invariable. This represents a new spectrum of the relationship between electrochemical capacitance and pore size (>5 nm) for porous carbons, which makes a complement to the existing spectra focusing on pore diameters of <5 nm. PMID:27120340

  17. Effect of membrane polymeric materials on relationship between surface pore size and membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Taro; Yuasa, Kotaku; Ishigami, Toru; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Kamio, Eiji; Ohmukai, Yoshikage; Saeki, Daisuke; Ni, Jinren; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effect of different membrane polymeric materials on the relationship between membrane pore size and development of membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Membranes with different pore sizes were prepared using three different polymeric materials, cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), polyvinyl butyral (PVB), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and the development of membrane fouling in each membrane was evaluated by batch filtration tests using a mixed liquor suspension obtained from a laboratory-scale MBR. The results revealed that the optimal membrane pore size to mitigate membrane fouling differed depending on membrane polymeric material. For PVDF membranes, the degree of membrane fouling decreased as membrane pore size increased. In contrast, CAB membranes with smaller pores had less fouling propensity than those with larger ones. Such difference can be attributed to the difference in major membrane foulants in each membrane; in PVDF, they were small colloids or dissolved organics in which proteins are abundant, and in CAB, microbial flocs. The results obtained in this study strongly suggested that optimum operating conditions of MBRs differ depending on the characteristics of the used membrane.

  18. A macromolecular crowding study of RNA folding and activity: polymer pore size matters! (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börner, Richard; Fiorini, Erica; Paudel, Bishnu; Rueda, David; Sigel, Roland K. O.

    2016-03-01

    Catalytic RNAs, like the group IIB intron ribozyme of S. cerevesiae, require a high magnesium(II) concentration to show folding and function in vitro [1]. In contrast, in vivo conditions are characterized by a highly crowded cellular environment and much lower ion concentration. Molecular crowding agents are a widespread tool to mimic cellular crowding [2]. However, particular physical/chemical properties explaining the crowders influence are mostly not understood. In this study, we gain new insights on how polymer properties like viscosity, pore size etc. influence the activity and folding of a large RNA. We combined bulk activity assays and single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer experiments, screening the PEG volume fraction (%) and molecular weight (MW). Our results revealed that upon the influence of crowding agents, a compaction of the underlying structure depends on the PEG % and the presence of different PEG MW and % unveiled an optimal pore size in terms of catalytic activity. In summary, an increasing density of the crowding environment shifts the RNA towards the most compact state, but the ribozyme is only active if the crowders network matches its size [4]. We interpret the most compact state as necessary, but not sufficient, to keep the ribozyme active. Financial support from the European Research Council (MIRNA N° 259092, to RKOS), the Swiss National Fund (SNF), and the Forschungskredit Grant of the University of Zürich (FK-14-096 and 15-092 to RB) are gratefully acknowledged. [1] Swisher J.F., Su L.J., Brenowitz M., Anderson V.E., Pyle A.M., J. Mol. Bio., 315, 297-310 (2002). [2] Kilburn D., Roh J.H., Guo L., Briber R.M., Woodson S.A., JACS, 132, 8690-6 (2010). [3] Steiner M., Karunatilaka K.S., Sigel R.K.O., Rueda D., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.,105, 13853-8 (2008). [4] aBörner R, Fiorini E, Sigel R.K.O., Chimia, 69, 207-212 (2015).; bFiorini E., Paudel B., Börner R., Rueda D., Sigel R.K.O., submitted. [5] König S.L.B., Hadzic M

  19. Simulations of Pore Formation in Lipid Membranes: Reaction Coordinates, Convergence, Hysteresis, and Finite-Size Effects.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Neha; Hub, Jochen S

    2016-07-12

    Transmembrane pores play an important role in various biophysical processes such as membrane permeation, membrane fusion, and antimicrobial peptide activity. In principal, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide an accurate model of pore formation in lipid membranes. However, the free energy landscape of transmembrane pore formation remains poorly understood, partly because potential of mean force (PMF) calculations of pore formation strongly depend on the choice of the reaction coordinate. In this study, we used umbrella sampling to compute PMFs for pore formation using three different reaction coordinates, namely, (i) a coordinate that steers the lipids in the lateral direction away from the pore center, (ii) the distance of a single lipid phosphate group from the membrane center, and (iii) the average water density inside a membrane-spanning cylinder. Our results show that while the three reaction coordinates efficiently form pores in membranes, they suffer from strong hysteresis between pore-opening and pore-closing simulations, suggesting that they do not restrain the systems close to the transition state for pore formation. The two reaction coordinates that act via restraining the lipids lead to more pronounced hysteresis compared with the coordinate acting on the water molecules. By comparing PMFs computed from membranes with different numbers of lipids, we observed significant artifacts from the periodic boundary conditions in small simulation systems. Further analysis suggests that the formation and disruption of a continuous hydrogen-bonding network across the membrane corresponds to the transition state for pore formation. Our study provides molecular insights into the critical steps of transmembrane pore formation, and it may guide the development of efficient reaction coordinates for pore formation. PMID:27254744

  20. Robustness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R.

    1993-01-01

    Robustness is a buzz word common to all newly proposed space systems design as well as many new commercial products. The image that one conjures up when the word appears is a 'Paul Bunyon' (lumberjack design), strong and hearty; healthy with margins in all aspects of the design. In actuality, robustness is much broader in scope than margins, including such factors as simplicity, redundancy, desensitization to parameter variations, control of parameter variations (environments flucation), and operational approaches. These must be traded with concepts, materials, and fabrication approaches against the criteria of performance, cost, and reliability. This includes manufacturing, assembly, processing, checkout, and operations. The design engineer or project chief is faced with finding ways and means to inculcate robustness into an operational design. First, however, be sure he understands the definition and goals of robustness. This paper will deal with these issues as well as the need for the requirement for robustness.

  1. Determination of pore size distributions in capillary-channeled polymer fiber stationary phases by inverse size-exclusion chromatography and implications for fast protein separations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengxin; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2014-07-18

    Capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers have been utilized as liquid chromatography stationary phases, primarily for biomacromolecule separations on the analytical and preparative scales. The collinear packing of the eight-channeled C-CP fibers provides for very efficient flow, allowing operation at high linear velocity (u>100mm s(-1)) and low backpressure (<2000psi) in analytical-scale separations. To take advantage of these fluid transport properties, there must not be mass transfer limitations as would be imposed by having an appreciably porous phase, wherein solute diffusion limits the overall mass transport rates. To better understand the physical nano-/micro- structure of C-CP fibers, inverse size exclusion chromatography (iSEC) has been employed to determine the pore size distribution (PSD) within C-CP fibers. A diversity of test species (from metal ions to large proteins) was used as probes under non-retaining conditions to obtain a response curve reflecting the apparent partition coefficient (Kd) versus hydrodynamic radii (rm). A mean pore radius (rp) of 4.2nm with standard deviation (sp) of ±1.1nm was calculated by fitting the Kd versus rm data to model equations with a Gaussian pore size distribution, and a pore radius of 4.0±0.1nm was calculated based on a log-normal distribution. The derived mean pore radius is much smaller than traditional support materials, with the standard deviation showing a relatively uniform pore distribution. van Deemter plots were analyzed to provide practical confirmation of the structural implications. Large molecules (e.g., proteins) that are fully excluded from pores have no significant C-terms in the van Deemter plots whereas small molecules that can access the pore volumes display appreciable C-terms, as expected. Fitting of retention data to the Knox equation suggests that the columns operate with a characteristic particle diameter (dp) of ∼53μm. PMID:24877979

  2. Furthering Chemical and Geophysical Computations: Analysis of SACROC SEM and CT images to obtain pore percentage, size, and connectivity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mur, A. J.; Purcell, C. C.; Harbert, W. P.; Soong, Y.; Kutchko, B. G.; Kennedy, S.; McIntryre, D.

    2009-12-01

    methods to calculate porosity giving us a large range (13% - 45%). The high average can be attributed to a percentage of small lighter colored calcite crystals and polygons that share sides yet are connected pores. This increases the average pore perimeter. The lower estimate was formulated by using the maximum pore perimeter as the average pore size. By using the 13% porosity model and assuming spherical pores, we calculated that a 1cm3 sample of SACROC limestone would have a surface area of 6.7838 cm2. Along with the permeability measurements found through CT imagery, this new method of SEM analysis with ArcMap will be helpful in formulating a rate of reaction estimate for a planned experiment that will emulate underground time exposure of CO2 to limestone. As more images are analyzed and compared to lab measurements of porosity, this method could potentially be used as a faster, cheaper way to obtain pore information from SEM images.

  3. Pore-size dependent effects on structure and vibrations of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate in nanoporous carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thürmer, Stephan; Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Ohba, Tomonori; Kanoh, Hirofumi

    2015-09-01

    We report XRD and IR measurements of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMI-BF4) adsorbed in activated carbons, molecular sieving carbon, and single wall carbon nanohorn, where we specifically chose a wide range of pore sizes from 0.5 nm to 2.5 nm. Electron radial distribution function analysis reveals denser packing upon adsorption in two steps, for pore widths larger and comparable to the ion size. Average ion-distance was decreased by 0.05 nm in the latter case. With support of DFT calculations we identify a suppression of specific vibrational modes, which are interpreted as constrainment by the pore walls. Possible consequences for supercapacitor application are discussed.

  4. Facile synthesis of diverse graphene nanomeshes based on simultaneous regulation of pore size and surface structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Song, Huaibing; Zeng, Dawen; Wang, Hao; Qin, Ziyu; Xu, Keng; Pang, Aimin; Xie, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene nanomesh (GNM) has attracted great attentions due to its unique porous structure, abundant active sites, finite band gap and possesses potential applications in the fields of electronics, gas sensor/storage, catalysis, etc. Therefore, diverse GNMs with different physical and chemical properties are required urgently to meet different applications. Herein we demonstrate a facile synthetic method based on the famous Fenton reaction to prepare GNM, by using economically fabricated graphene oxide (GO) as a starting material. By precisely controlling the reaction time, simultaneous regulation of pore size from 2.9 to 11.1 nm and surface structure can be realized. Ultimately, diverse GNMs with tunable band gap and work function can be obtained. Specially, the band gap decreases from 4.5–2.3 eV for GO, which is an insulator, to 3.9–1.24 eV for GNM-5 h, which approaches to a semiconductor. The dual nature of electrophilic addition and oxidizability of HO• is responsible for this controllable synthesis. This efficient, low-cost, inherently scalable synthetic method is suitable for provide diverse and optional GNMs, and may be generalized to a universal technique. PMID:27561350

  5. Statistical physics studies of multilayer adsorption isotherm in food materials and pore size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouaini, F.; Knani, S.; Ben Yahia, M.; Ben Lamine, A.

    2015-08-01

    Water sorption isotherms of foodstuffs are very important in different areas of food science engineering such as for design, modeling and optimization of many processes. The equilibrium moisture content is an important parameter in models used to predict changes in the moisture content of a product during storage. A formulation of multilayer model with two energy levels was based on statistical physics and theoretical considerations. Thanks to the grand canonical ensemble in statistical physics. Some physicochemical parameters related to the adsorption process were introduced in the analytical model expression. The data tabulated in literature of water adsorption at different temperatures on: chickpea seeds, lentil seeds, potato and on green peppers were described applying the most popular models applied in food science. We also extend the study to the newest proposed model. It is concluded that among studied models the proposed model seems to be the best for description of data in the whole range of relative humidity. By using our model, we were able to determine the thermodynamic functions. The measurement of desorption isotherms, in particular a gas over a solid porous, allows access to the distribution of pore size PSD.

  6. Surfactant-Free Assembly of Mesoporous Carbon Hollow Spheres with Large Tunable Pore Sizes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongwei; Noonan, Owen; Huang, Xiaodan; Yang, Yannan; Xu, Chun; Zhou, Liang; Yu, Chengzhong

    2016-04-26

    Mesoporous carbon hollow spheres (MCHS) have wide applications, including catalysis, absorption, and energy storage/conversion. Herein, we report a one-pot, surfactant-free synthesis of MCHS using three molecules: resorcinol, formaldehyde, and tetrapropyl orthosilicate. The co-condensation process between the in situ generated silica primary particles and the polymer oligomers is regulated, leading to monodispersed MCHS with adjustable pore sizes from micropores to 13.9 nm. The resultant MCHS shows excellent performance for electrochemical double-layer capacitors with high capacitance (310 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1)), excellent rate capability (157 F g(-1) at 50 A g(-1)), and outstanding cycling stability (98.6% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles at 10 A g(-1)). Our one-pot synthesis strategy is versatile and can be extended to fabricate metal oxide@mesoporous carbon yolk-shell structures in the absence of surfactant, paving the way toward designed synthesis of nanostructured mesoporous carbon composites for various applications. PMID:27050771

  7. Facile synthesis of diverse graphene nanomeshes based on simultaneous regulation of pore size and surface structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Song, Huaibing; Zeng, Dawen; Wang, Hao; Qin, Ziyu; Xu, Keng; Pang, Aimin; Xie, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene nanomesh (GNM) has attracted great attentions due to its unique porous structure, abundant active sites, finite band gap and possesses potential applications in the fields of electronics, gas sensor/storage, catalysis, etc. Therefore, diverse GNMs with different physical and chemical properties are required urgently to meet different applications. Herein we demonstrate a facile synthetic method based on the famous Fenton reaction to prepare GNM, by using economically fabricated graphene oxide (GO) as a starting material. By precisely controlling the reaction time, simultaneous regulation of pore size from 2.9 to 11.1 nm and surface structure can be realized. Ultimately, diverse GNMs with tunable band gap and work function can be obtained. Specially, the band gap decreases from 4.5-2.3 eV for GO, which is an insulator, to 3.9-1.24 eV for GNM-5 h, which approaches to a semiconductor. The dual nature of electrophilic addition and oxidizability of HO(•) is responsible for this controllable synthesis. This efficient, low-cost, inherently scalable synthetic method is suitable for provide diverse and optional GNMs, and may be generalized to a universal technique. PMID:27561350

  8. Pore size dynamics in interpenetrated metal organic frameworks for selective sensing of aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Myers, Matthew; Podolska, Anna; Heath, Charles; Baker, Murray V; Pejcic, Bobby

    2014-03-28

    The two-fold interpenetrated metal-organic framework, [Zn2(bdc)2(dpNDI)]n (bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate, dpNDI=N'N'-di(4-pyridyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenediimide) can undergo structural re-arrangement upon adsorption of chemical species changing its pore structure. For a competitive binding process with multiple analytes of different sizes and geometries, the interpenetrated framework will adopt a conformation to maximize the overall binding interactions. In this study, we show for binary mixtures that there is a high selectivity for the larger methylated aromatic compounds, toluene and p-xylene, over the small non-methylated benzene. The dpNDI moiety within [Zn2(bdc)2(dpNDI)]n forms an exciplex with these aromatic compounds. The emission wavelength is dependent on the strength of the host-guest CT interaction allowing these compounds to be distinguished. We show that the sorption selectivity characteristics can have a significant impact on the fluorescence sensor response of [Zn2(bdc)2(dpNDI)]n towards environmentally important hydrocarbons based contaminants (i.e., BTEX, PAH). PMID:24636414

  9. Phase behavior and molecular mobility of n-octylcyanobiphenyl confined to molecular sieves: dependence on the pore size.

    PubMed

    Frunza, Ligia; Frunza, Stefan; Kosslick, Hendrik; Schönhals, Andreas

    2008-11-01

    The molecular dynamics of 4-n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) confined inside the pores of a series of AlMCM-41 samples with the same structure, constant composition (SiAl=14.7) but different pore sizes (diameter between 2.3 and 4.6 nm) was investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (10(-2)-10(9) Hz) in a large temperature interval. Two relaxation processes are observed: one has a bulklike behavior and is assigned to the 8CB in the pore center. The relaxation time of the second relaxation process is essentially slower than that of the former one and this process is related to the dynamics of molecules in a surface layer with a paranematic order. Both relaxation processes are specifically influenced by the interaction of the molecules with the surface and by the confinement. Above the clearing temperature the temperature dependence of the relaxation rate of the bulklike process obeys the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) law. The Vogel temperature increases with decreasing pore size. This is explained by increasing influence of paranematic potential of the surface layer with decreasing pore size. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate of the surface layer follows also the VFT formula and the Vogel temperature decreases with decreasing pore size. This temperature dependence is controlled by both the interaction of the 8CB molecules with the surface via hydrogen bonding and by spatial confinement effects. To discriminate between both effects the data for the surface layer of 8CB confined to the molecular sieves are compared with results concerning 8CB adsorbed as a quasimonolayer on the surface of silica spheres of aerosil. On this basis a confinement parameter is defined and discussed. PMID:19113137

  10. Impact of Matric Potential and Pore Size Distribution on Growth Dynamics of Filamentous and Non-Filamentous Soil Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Alexandra B.; Vos, Michiel; de Boer, Wietse; Kowalchuk, George A.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to what extent, filamentous bacteria may also display similar advantages over non-filamentous bacteria in soils with low hydraulic connectivity. In addition to allowing for microbial interactions and competition across connected micro-sites, water films also facilitate the motility of non-filamentous bacteria. To examine these issues, we constructed and characterized a series of quartz sand microcosms differing in matric potential and pore size distribution and, consequently, in connection of micro-habitats via water films. Our sand microcosms were used to examine the individual and competitive responses of a filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces atratus) and a motile rod-shaped bacterium (Bacillus weihenstephanensis) to differences in pore sizes and matric potential. The Bacillus strain had an initial advantage in all sand microcosms, which could be attributed to its faster growth rate. At later stages of the incubation, Streptomyces became dominant in microcosms with low connectivity (coarse pores and dry conditions). These data, combined with information on bacterial motility (expansion potential) across a range of pore-size and moisture conditions, suggest that, like their much larger fungal counterparts, filamentous bacteria also use this growth form to facilitate growth and expansion under conditions of low hydraulic conductivity. The sand microcosm system developed and used in this study allowed for precise manipulation of hydraulic properties and pore size distribution, thereby providing a useful approach for future examinations of how these properties influence the composition, diversity and function of soil-borne microbial communities. PMID:24391805

  11. Impact of matric potential and pore size distribution on growth dynamics of filamentous and non-filamentous soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Alexandra B; Vos, Michiel; de Boer, Wietse; Kowalchuk, George A

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to what extent, filamentous bacteria may also display similar advantages over non-filamentous bacteria in soils with low hydraulic connectivity. In addition to allowing for microbial interactions and competition across connected micro-sites, water films also facilitate the motility of non-filamentous bacteria. To examine these issues, we constructed and characterized a series of quartz sand microcosms differing in matric potential and pore size distribution and, consequently, in connection of micro-habitats via water films. Our sand microcosms were used to examine the individual and competitive responses of a filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces atratus) and a motile rod-shaped bacterium (Bacillus weihenstephanensis) to differences in pore sizes and matric potential. The Bacillus strain had an initial advantage in all sand microcosms, which could be attributed to its faster growth rate. At later stages of the incubation, Streptomyces became dominant in microcosms with low connectivity (coarse pores and dry conditions). These data, combined with information on bacterial motility (expansion potential) across a range of pore-size and moisture conditions, suggest that, like their much larger fungal counterparts, filamentous bacteria also use this growth form to facilitate growth and expansion under conditions of low hydraulic conductivity. The sand microcosm system developed and used in this study allowed for precise manipulation of hydraulic properties and pore size distribution, thereby providing a useful approach for future examinations of how these properties influence the composition, diversity and function of soil-borne microbial communities. PMID:24391805

  12. Effect of pore size on bone ingrowth into porous titanium implants fabricated by additive manufacturing: An in vivo experiment.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Naoya; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Otsuki, Bungo; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-02-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique with the ability to produce metallic scaffolds with accurately controlled pore size, porosity, and interconnectivity for orthopedic applications. However, the optimal pore structure of porous titanium manufactured by SLM remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pore size with constant porosity on in vivo bone ingrowth in rabbits into porous titanium implants manufactured by SLM. Three porous titanium implants (with an intended porosity of 65% and pore sizes of 300, 600, and 900μm, designated the P300, P600, and P900 implants, respectively) were manufactured by SLM. A diamond lattice was adapted as the basic structure. Their porous structures were evaluated and verified using microfocus X-ray computed tomography. Their bone-implant fixation ability was evaluated by their implantation as porous-surfaced titanium plates into the cortical bone of the rabbit tibia. Bone ingrowth was evaluated by their implantation as cylindrical porous titanium implants into the cancellous bone of the rabbit femur for 2, 4, and 8weeks. The average pore sizes of the P300, P600, and P900 implants were 309, 632, and 956μm, respectively. The P600 implant demonstrated a significantly higher fixation ability at 2weeks than the other implants. After 4weeks, all models had sufficiently high fixation ability in a detaching test. Bone ingrowth into the P300 implant was lower than into the other implants at 4weeks. Because of its appropriate mechanical strength, high fixation ability, and rapid bone ingrowth, our results indicate that the pore structure of the P600 implant is a suitable porous structure for orthopedic implants manufactured by SLM. PMID:26652423

  13. Phase behavior and molecular mobility of n -octylcyanobiphenyl confined to molecular sieves: Dependence on the pore size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frunza, Ligia; Frunza, Stefan; Kosslick, Hendrik; Schönhals, Andreas

    2008-11-01

    The molecular dynamics of 4- n -octyl- 4' -cyanobiphenyl (8CB) confined inside the pores of a series of AlMCM-41 samples with the same structure, constant composition (Si/Al=14.7) but different pore sizes (diameter between 2.3 and 4.6nm ) was investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (10-2-109Hz) in a large temperature interval. Two relaxation processes are observed: one has a bulklike behavior and is assigned to the 8CB in the pore center. The relaxation time of the second relaxation process is essentially slower than that of the former one and this process is related to the dynamics of molecules in a surface layer with a paranematic order. Both relaxation processes are specifically influenced by the interaction of the molecules with the surface and by the confinement. Above the clearing temperature the temperature dependence of the relaxation rate of the bulklike process obeys the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) law. The Vogel temperature increases with decreasing pore size. This is explained by increasing influence of paranematic potential of the surface layer with decreasing pore size. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate of the surface layer follows also the VFT formula and the Vogel temperature decreases with decreasing pore size. This temperature dependence is controlled by both the interaction of the 8CB molecules with the surface via hydrogen bonding and by spatial confinement effects. To discriminate between both effects the data for the surface layer of 8CB confined to the molecular sieves are compared with results concerning 8CB adsorbed as a quasimonolayer on the surface of silica spheres of aerosil. On this basis a confinement parameter is defined and discussed.

  14. Tailoring Pore Size of Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for Confi ning Sulfur in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Weidong; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Quiglin; Abruna, Hector D.; He, Yang; Wang, Jiangwei; Mao, Scott X.; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-08-19

    Three types of nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres with different pore sized porous shells are prepared to investigate the performance of sulfur confinement. The reason that why no sulfur is observed in previous research is determined and it is successfully demonstrated that the sulfur/polysulfide will overflow the porous carbon during the lithiation process.

  15. Effect of pore sizes on catalytic activities of arenetricarbonyl metal complexes constructed within Zr-based MOFs.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masakazu; Toyao, Takashi; Ueda, Kozo; Kamegawa, Takashi; Horiuchi, Yu; Matsuoka, Masaya

    2013-07-14

    Arenetricarbonyl metal complexes ([-phM(CO)3-] and [-biphM(CO)3-]; ph = phenylene, biph = biphenylene, M = Mo, Cr) constructed within Zr-based MOFs act as highly active and selective catalysts for epoxidation of cyclooctene. Catalytic activities of these complexes are enhanced with increasing the pore sizes of Zr-based MOFs. PMID:23694976

  16. Measuring location, size, distribution, and loading of NiO crystallites in individual SBA-15 pores by electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Heiner; Sietsma, Jelle R A; de Jongh, Petra E; Verkleij, Arie J; de Jong, Krijn P

    2007-08-22

    By the combination of electron tomography with image segmentation, the properties of 299 NiO crystallites contained in 6 SBA-15 pores were studied. A statistical analysis of the particle size showed that crystallites between 2 and 6 nm were present with a distribution maximum at 3 and 4 nm, for the number-weighted and volume-weighted curves, respectively. Interparticle distances between nearest neighbors were 1-3 nm with very few isolated crystallites. In the examined pores, a local loading twice the applied average of 24 wt % NiO was found. This suggests that a very high local loading combined with a high dispersion is achievable. PMID:17655305

  17. Effect of TiO2 microbead pore size on the performance of DSSCs with a cobalt based electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Huang, Fuzhi; Xiang, Wanchun; Chen, Dehong; Cao, Lu; Spiccia, Leone; Caruso, Rachel A.; Cheng, Yi-Bing

    2014-10-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 microbeads with well-defined intra-bead pore sizes (14 nm, 23 nm or 33 nm) were employed to investigate the effect of pore size on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells constructed with an organic dye (MK2) and a [Co(bpy)3]2+/3+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine)-based electrolyte. The TiCl4 post treatment and film thickness were optimized for the TiO2 electrodes made from beads with 33 nm intra-bead pores, and an overall energy conversion efficiency of 8.5% was achieved for a device with a 6.5 μm thick TiO2 film treated with a 20 mM TiCl4 solution. Although beads with larger pores had a smaller specific surface area, devices derived from these beads produced better photovoltaic performance. This is attributed to the improved diffusion of cobalt species inside the working electrode, as evidenced by a higher electron lifetime and dye regeneration rate recorded on these solar cells.Mesoporous TiO2 microbeads with well-defined intra-bead pore sizes (14 nm, 23 nm or 33 nm) were employed to investigate the effect of pore size on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells constructed with an organic dye (MK2) and a [Co(bpy)3]2+/3+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine)-based electrolyte. The TiCl4 post treatment and film thickness were optimized for the TiO2 electrodes made from beads with 33 nm intra-bead pores, and an overall energy conversion efficiency of 8.5% was achieved for a device with a 6.5 μm thick TiO2 film treated with a 20 mM TiCl4 solution. Although beads with larger pores had a smaller specific surface area, devices derived from these beads produced better photovoltaic performance. This is attributed to the improved diffusion of cobalt species inside the working electrode, as evidenced by a higher electron lifetime and dye regeneration rate recorded on these solar cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Photocurrent transient plots of the devices treated with different concentrations of TiCl4 and UV-vis spectra of dye desorption

  18. Transport and Aggregation of Nanoparticles in Packed Beds: Effects of Pore Velocity and Initially-Fed Particle Size on Transient Particle Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Ngoc; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    Aggregation of colloidal particles in flow through porous media has received careful consideration, as it reduces particle breakthrough due to pore clogging and sedimentation. Additionally, in unstable colloidal systems, deposition of colloidal aggregates on the pore surfaces can create sub-surfaces for further colloidal attachment. This phenomenon is known as ripening effect. In this study, transient particle size distributions of nano-particle systems, propagating in a bed packed with spheres are numerically investigated. In our simulation, only pair interactions are considered, and the aggregation rate is varied with the relative position of two particles in a pair. The packed bed consists of spheres of known size, randomly packed in a simulation box. To generate the velocity field of water inside the porous medium, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used. In conjunction with that, the trajectories of thousands of massless particles moving with the flow under convection and diffusion are recorded employing a Lagrangian framework. While pore clogging is neglected, we draw attention to the change of the distribution of particle size under different pore velocities and different initially-fed particle sizes.

  19. Interconnected Porous Polymers with Tunable Pore Throat Size Prepared via Pickering High Internal Phase Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongyun; Zheng, Xianhua; Huang, Yifei; Wang, Haitao; Du, Qiangguo

    2016-01-12

    Interconnected macroporous polymers were prepared by copolymerizing methyl acrylate (MA) via Pickering high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templates with modified silica particles. The pore structure of the obtained polymer foams was observed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Gas permeability was characterized to evaluate the interconnectivity of macroporous polymers. The polymerization shrinkage of continuous phase tends to form open pores while the solid particles surrounding the droplets act as barriers to produce closed pores. These two conflicting factors are crucial in determining the interconnectivity of macroporous polymers. Thus, poly-Pickering HIPEs with high permeability and well-defined pore structure can be achieved by tuning the MA content, the internal phase fraction, and the content of modified silica particles. PMID:26673546

  20. The Nature of Tensile Ductility as Controlled by Extreme-Sized Pores in Powder Metallurgy Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Ravi Chandran, K. S.; Cao, F.; Koopman, M.; Fang, Z. Zak

    2016-05-01

    Tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy, sintered by a new process (sintering, phase transformation, and dehydrogenation of titanium hydride compacts, termed HSPT process), were investigated to determine how the sintering pores influence the tensile strength and ductility. It was found that the ductility in the sintered alloy is severely affected by the size of the largest pore, referred here as extreme-sized pore, even when the average volume fraction of porosity is nearly constant between a large number of samples. It is shown that the rapid decrease in ductility, with an increase in the extreme pore size, is caused by strain localization around the extreme-sized pore and early crack initiation. This crack initiation leads to fracture of the plane containing the pore thereby limiting the extent of uniform plastic strain that can be attained before fracture. Interestingly, the strength properties are, however, found to be independent of the size of the extreme-sized pore. The results are explained on the basis of stress concentration and strain localization around the extreme-sized pores. The work also reveals that if the extreme-sized pores are eliminated, PM Ti-6Al-4V alloy with high strength (~1100 MPa) and good ductility (~12 pct), which is easily comparable to a wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloy, can be achieved even at oxygen levels up to 0.4 wt pct.

  1. Vesicular release of neurotransmitters: converting amperometric measurements into size, dynamics and energetics of initial fusion pores.

    PubMed

    Oleinick, Alexander; Lemaître, Frédéric; Collignon, Manon Guille; Svir, Irina; Amatore, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Amperometric currents displaying a pre-spike feature (PSF) may be treated so as to lead to precise information about initial fusion pores, viz., about the crucial event initiating neurotransmitter vesicular release in neurons and medullary glands. However, amperometric data alone are not self-sufficient, so their full exploitation requires external calibration to solve the inverse problem. For this purpose we resorted to patch-clamp measurements published in the literature on chromaffin cells. Reported pore radii were thus used to evaluate the diffusion rate of neurotransmitter cations in the partially altered matrix located near the fusion pore entrance. This allowed an independent determination of each initial fusion pore radius giving rise to a single PSF event. The statistical distribution of the radii thus obtained provided for the first time an experimental access to the potential energy well governing the thermodynamics of such systems. The shape of the corresponding potential energy well strongly suggested that, after their creation, initial fusion pores are essentially controlled by the usual physicochemical laws describing pores formed in bilayer lipidic biological membranes, i.e., they have an essentially lipidic nature. PMID:24466657

  2. Spindle Size Scaling Contributes to Robust Silencing of Mitotic Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Liu, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Chromosome segregation during mitosis hinges on proper assembly of the microtubule spindle that establishes bipolar attachment to each chromosome. Experiments demonstrate allometry of mitotic spindles and a universal scaling relationship between spindle size and cell size across metazoans, which indicates a conserved principle of spindle assembly at play during evolution. However, the nature of this principle is currently unknown. Researchers have focused on deriving the mechanistic underpinning of the size scaling from the mechanical aspects of the spindle assembly process. In this work we take a different standpoint and ask: What is the size scaling for? We address this question from the functional perspectives of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). SAC is the critical surveillance mechanism that prevents premature chromosome segregation in the presence of unattached or misattached chromosomes. The SAC signal gets silenced after and only after the last chromosome-spindle attachment in mitosis. We previously established a model that explains the robustness of SAC silencing based on spindle-mediated spatiotemporal regulation of SAC proteins. Here, we refine the previous model, and find that robust and timely SAC silencing entails proper size scaling of mitotic spindle. This finding provides, to our knowledge, a novel, function-oriented angle toward understanding the observed spindle allometry, and the universal scaling relationship between spindle size and cell size in metazoans. In a broad sense, the functional requirement of robust SAC silencing could have helped shape the spindle assembly mechanism in evolution. PMID:27602734

  3. Pore size distributions in uranium dioxide and uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide fuel kernel produced by sol-gel technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gündüz, Güngör; Önal, Işik; Durmazuçar, Hasan H.

    1991-02-01

    Small kernels of UO 2-Gd 2O 3 were produced from their nitrate solutions by the application of sol-gel process in place of the more conventional process of mixing powders. The sol-gel method consisted of the following steps: sol preparation, sol drop dispersion, gellation, washing of gelled microspheres, aging, drying, calcination, reduction, and sintering. The effect of reduction temperature (873, 1073 and 1773 K) under a reducing gas mixture of 50% H2 + 50% N2 on pore volume and pore size distribution, was studied both for UO 2 and UO 2-Gd 2O 3 containing microspheres. The results indicated decreasing pore volume with increasing temperature as expected. However, the incorporation of Gd 2O 3 into UO 2 in the sol had a retardation effect in sintering which resulted in higher pore volume than that of UO 2-only microspheres. Mean pore diameter also remained small (about 950 nm) for UO 2-Gd 2O 3 samples after reduction (sintering at 1773 K) when compared to 1400 nm for UO 2-only samples. X-ray diffraction studies showed uniform distribution of Gd 2O 3 with no phase separation as well as a decrease in lattice parameter of UO 2 indicating incorporation of Gd 2O 3 into UO 2 lattice structure.

  4. Control of pore size in L-lactide/epsilon-caprolactone copolymer foams for tissue regeneration by the freeze-drying method.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Hiroyuki; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Tsutsumi, Sadami; Matsumoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Junzo

    2003-09-01

    In the regeneration and repair of missing tissues, synthetic polymer scaffolds need many pores to involve cells and to supply cells with nutrients. The control of the pore size of biodegradable L-lactide/epsilon-caprolactone copolymer foams was studied by changing the polymer concentration and the cooling temperature in the freeze-drying method. The mixtures of polymer and 1, 4-dioxane solution were poured into an 18-8 stainless steel Petri dish and frozen. The pore size of a polymer foam tends to increase from the bottom towards the top of a Petri dish. The pore size decreased to one-half with increasing polymer concentration (1 to 10 wt%). The mean pore size in foams of 8% polymer concentration decreased from 100 microm to 20 microm as cooling temperature was lowered. This suggests that the higher cooling rate due to lower cooling temperature can produce smaller ice-crystals and result in smaller pores. PMID:14620993

  5. Isolating the effect of pore size distribution on electrochemical double-layer capacitance using activated fluid coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuliani, Jocelyn E.; Tong, Shitang; Kirk, Donald W.; Jia, Charles Q.

    2015-12-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) use physical ion adsorption in the capacitive electrical double layer of high specific surface area (SSA) materials to store electrical energy. Previous work shows that the SSA-normalized capacitance increases when pore diameters are less than 1 nm. However, there still remains uncertainty about the charge storage mechanism since the enhanced SSA-normalized capacitance is not observed in all microporous materials. In previous studies, the total specific surface area and the chemical composition of the electrode materials were not controlled. The current work is the first reported study that systematically compares the performance of activated carbon prepared from the same raw material, with similar chemical composition and specific surface area, but different pore size distributions. Preparing samples with similar SSAs, but different pores sizes is not straightforward since increasing pore diameters results in decreasing the SSA. This study observes that the microporous activated carbon has a higher SSA-normalized capacitance, 14.1 μF cm-2, compared to the mesoporous material, 12.4 μF cm-2. However, this enhanced SSA-normalized capacitance is only observed above a threshold operating voltage. Therefore, it can be concluded that a minimum applied voltage is required to induce ion adsorption in these sub-nanometer micropores, which increases the capacitance.

  6. Effect of TiO₂ microbead pore size on the performance of DSSCs with a cobalt based electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Huang, Fuzhi; Xiang, Wanchun; Chen, Dehong; Cao, Lu; Spiccia, Leone; Caruso, Rachel A; Cheng, Yi-Bing

    2014-11-21

    Mesoporous TiO2 microbeads with well-defined intra-bead pore sizes (14 nm, 23 nm or 33 nm) were employed to investigate the effect of pore size on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells constructed with an organic dye (MK2) and a [Co(bpy)3](2+/3+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine)-based electrolyte. The TiCl4 post treatment and film thickness were optimized for the TiO2 electrodes made from beads with 33 nm intra-bead pores, and an overall energy conversion efficiency of 8.5% was achieved for a device with a 6.5 μm thick TiO2 film treated with a 20 mM TiCl4 solution. Although beads with larger pores had a smaller specific surface area, devices derived from these beads produced better photovoltaic performance. This is attributed to the improved diffusion of cobalt species inside the working electrode, as evidenced by a higher electron lifetime and dye regeneration rate recorded on these solar cells. PMID:25287230

  7. Extending Zelterman's approach for robust estimation of population size to zero-truncated clustered Data.

    PubMed

    Navaratna, W C W; Del Rio Vilas, Victor J; Böhning, Dankmar

    2008-08-01

    Estimation of population size with missing zero-class is an important problem that is encountered in epidemiological assessment studies. Fitting a Poisson model to the observed data by the method of maximum likelihood and estimation of the population size based on this fit is an approach that has been widely used for this purpose. In practice, however, the Poisson assumption is seldom satisfied. Zelterman (1988) has proposed a robust estimator for unclustered data that works well in a wide class of distributions applicable for count data. In the work presented here, we extend this estimator to clustered data. The estimator requires fitting a zero-truncated homogeneous Poisson model by maximum likelihood and thereby using a Horvitz-Thompson estimator of population size. This was found to work well, when the data follow the hypothesized homogeneous Poisson model. However, when the true distribution deviates from the hypothesized model, the population size was found to be underestimated. In the search of a more robust estimator, we focused on three models that use all clusters with exactly one case, those clusters with exactly two cases and those with exactly three cases to estimate the probability of the zero-class and thereby use data collected on all the clusters in the Horvitz-Thompson estimator of population size. Loss in efficiency associated with gain in robustness was examined based on a simulation study. As a trade-off between gain in robustness and loss in efficiency, the model that uses data collected on clusters with at most three cases to estimate the probability of the zero-class was found to be preferred in general. In applications, we recommend obtaining estimates from all three models and making a choice considering the estimates from the three models, robustness and the loss in efficiency. PMID:18663764

  8. How robust are the size measurements of high-redshift compact galaxies?

    SciTech Connect

    Davari, Roozbeh; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Huang, Song

    2014-05-20

    Massive quiescent galaxies at z ≈ 2 are apparently much more compact than galaxies of comparable mass today. How robust are these size measurements? We perform comprehensive simulations to determine possible biases and uncertainties in fitting single-component light distributions to real galaxies. In particular, we examine the robustness of the measurements of the luminosity, size, and other structural parameters. We devise simulations with increasing realism to systematically disentangle effects due to the technique (specifically using GALFIT) and the intrinsic structures of the galaxies. By accurately capturing the detailed substructures of nearby elliptical galaxies and then rescaling their sizes and signal-to-noise to mimic galaxies at different redshifts, we confirm that the massive quiescent galaxies at z ≈ 2 are significantly more compact intrinsically than their local counterparts. Their observed compactness is not a result of missing faint outer light due to systematic errors in modeling. In fact, we find that fitting multi-component galaxies with a single Sérsic profile, the procedure most commonly adopted in the literature, biases the inferred sizes higher by up to 10%-20%, which accentuates the amount of size evolution required. If the sky estimation has been done robustly and the model for the point-spread function is fairly accurate, GALFIT can retrieve the properties of single-component galaxies over a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios without introducing any systematic errors.

  9. Influence of pore size on the Knight shift in liquid tin and mercury in a confined geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, Cheng; Charnaya, E. V.; Lee, M. K.; Kumzerov, Yu A.

    2007-03-01

    119Sn and 199Hg NMR studies were carried out for metallic tin and mercury embedded in synthetic opals and porous glasses. The Knight shift for confined liquid tin and mercury was found to decrease monotonically with decreasing pore size, evidence for the reduction of electron susceptibility. Size-induced alterations in the Knight shift were more pronounced for confined mercury than for tin. The influence of pore filling on the NMR line shape and Knight shift was observed for tin within opal. The reasons for the decreasing Knight shift for liquid metals in a confined geometry are discussed. Correlations between the alteration in the Knight shift and atomic number are shown, the changes in fractional values of the Knight shift remaining almost identical.

  10. Development of gelatin-chitosan-hydroxyapatite based bioactive bone scaffold with controlled pore size and mechanical strength.

    PubMed

    Maji, Kanchan; Dasgupta, Sudip; Kundu, Biswanath; Bissoyi, Akalabya

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite-chitosan/gelatin (HA:Chi:Gel) nanocomposite scaffold has potential to serve as a template matrix to regenerate extra cellular matrix of human bone. Scaffolds with varying composition of hydroxyapatite, chitosan, and gelatin were prepared using lyophilization technique where glutaraldehyde (GTA) acted as a cross-linking agent for biopolymers. First, phase pure hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocrystals were in situ synthesized by coprecipitation method using a solution of 2% acetic acid dissolved chitosan and aqueous solution of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate [Ca(NO3)2,4H2O] and diammonium hydrogen phosphate [(NH4)2H PO4]. Keeping solid loading constant at 30 wt% and changing the composition of the original slurry of gelatin, HA-chitosan allowed control of the pore size, its distribution, and mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Microstructural investigation by scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a well interconnected porous scaffold with a pore size in the range of 35-150 μm. The HA granules were uniformly dispersed in the gelatin-chitosan network. An optimal composition in terms of pore size and mechanical properties was obtained from the scaffold with an HA:Chi:Gel ratio of 21:49:30. The composite scaffold having 70% porosity with pore size distribution of 35-150 μm exhibited a compressive strength of 3.3-3.5 MPa, which is within the range of that exhibited by cancellous bone. The bioactivity of the scaffold was evaluated after conducting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) - materials interaction and MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay using MSCs. The scaffold found to be conducive to MSC's adhesion as evident from lamellipodia, filopodia extensions from cell cytoskeleton, proliferation, and differentiation up to 14 days of cell culture. PMID:26335156

  11. Pore size regulates operating stomatal conductance, while stomatal densities drive the partitioning of conductance between leaf sides

    PubMed Central

    Fanourakis, Dimitrios; Giday, Habtamu; Milla, Rubén; Pieruschka, Roland; Kjaer, Katrine H.; Bolger, Marie; Vasilevski, Aleksandar; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fiorani, Fabio; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf gas exchange is influenced by stomatal size, density, distribution between the leaf adaxial and abaxial sides, as well as by pore dimensions. This study aims to quantify which of these traits mainly underlie genetic differences in operating stomatal conductance (gs) and addresses possible links between anatomical traits and regulation of pore width. Methods Stomatal responsiveness to desiccation, gs-related anatomical traits of each leaf side and estimated gs (based on these traits) were determined for 54 introgression lines (ILs) generated by introgressing segments of Solanum pennelli into the S. lycopersicum ‘M82’. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for stomatal traits was also performed. Key Results A wide genetic variation in stomatal responsiveness to desiccation was observed, a large part of which was explained by stomatal length. Operating gs ranged over a factor of five between ILs. The pore area per stomatal area varied 8-fold among ILs (2–16 %), and was the main determinant of differences in operating gs between ILs. Operating gs was primarily positioned on the abaxial surface (60–83 %), due to higher abaxial stomatal density and, secondarily, to larger abaxial pore area. An analysis revealed 64 QTLs for stomatal traits in the ILs, most of which were in the direction of S. pennellii. Conclusions The data indicate that operating and maximum gs of non-stressed leaves maintained under stable conditions deviate considerably (by 45–91 %), because stomatal size inadequately reflects operating pore area (R2 = 0·46). Furthermore, it was found that variation between ILs in both stomatal sensitivity to desiccation and operating gs is associated with features of individual stoma. In contrast, genotypic variation in gs partitioning depends on the distribution of stomata between the leaf adaxial and abaxial epidermis. PMID:25538116

  12. Molecularly imprinted macroporous monoliths for solid-phase extraction: Effect of pore size and column length on recognition properties.

    PubMed

    Vlakh, E G; Stepanova, M A; Korneeva, Yu M; Tennikova, T B

    2016-09-01

    The series of macroporous monolithic molecularly imprinted monoliths differed by pore size, column length (volume) and amount of template used for imprinting was synthesized using methacrylic acid and glycerol dimethacrylate as co-monomers and antibiotic ciprofloxacin as a template. The prepared monoliths were characterized regarding to their permeability, pore size, porosity, and resistance to the flow of a mobile phase. The surface morphology was also analyzed. The slight dependence of imprinting factor on flow rate, as well as its independence on pore size of macroporous molecularly imprinted monolithic media was observed. The column obtained at different conditions exhibited different affinity of ciprofloxacin to the imprinted sites that was characterized with Kdiss values in the range of 10(-5)-10(-4)M. The solid-phase extraction of ciprofloxacin from such biological liquids as human blood serum, human urine and cow milk serum was performed using the developed monolithic columns. In all cases, the extraction was found to be 95.0-98.6%. Additionally, the comparison of extraction of three fluoroqinolone analogues, e.g. ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, from human blood plasma was carried out. Contrary to ciprofloxacin extracted with more than 95%, this parameter did not exceed 40% for its analogues. PMID:27433985

  13. Effect of Pore Size and Porosity on the Biomechanical Properties and Cytocompatibility of Porous NiTi Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Yu-Tao; Yang, Yue; Tian, Tian; Stanford, Clark; Zhang, Xin-Ping; Zhao, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Five types of porous Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) alloy samples of different porosities and pore sizes were fabricated. According to compressive and fracture strengths, three groups of porous NiTi alloy samples underwent further cytocompatibility experiments. Porous NiTi alloys exhibited a lower Young’s modulus (2.0 GPa ~ 0.8 GPa). Both compressive strength (108.8 MPa ~ 56.2 MPa) and fracture strength (64.6 MPa ~ 41.6 MPa) decreased gradually with increasing mean pore size (MPS). Cells grew and spread well on all porous NiTi alloy samples. Cells attached more strongly on control group and blank group than on all porous NiTi alloy samples (p < 0.05). Cell adhesion on porous NiTi alloys was correlated negatively to MPS (277.2 μm ~ 566.5 μm; p < 0.05). More cells proliferated on control group and blank group than on all porous NiTi alloy samples (p < 0.05). Cellular ALP activity on all porous NiTi alloy samples was higher than on control group and blank group (p < 0.05). The porous NiTi alloys with optimized pore size could be a potential orthopedic material. PMID:26047515

  14. The role of beaded activated carbon's pore size distribution on heel formation during cyclic adsorption/desorption of organic vapors.

    PubMed

    Jahandar Lashaki, Masoud; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher; Phillips, John H; Anderson, James E; Nichols, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The effect of activated carbon's pore size distribution (PSD) on heel formation during adsorption of organic vapors was investigated. Five commercially available beaded activated carbons (BAC) with varying PSDs (30-88% microporous) were investigated. Virgin samples had similar elemental compositions but different PSDs, which allowed for isolating the contribution of carbon's microporosity to heel formation. Heel formation was linearly correlated (R(2)=0.91) with BAC micropore volume; heel for the BAC with the lowest micropore volume was 20% lower than the BAC with the highest micropore volume. Meanwhile, first cycle adsorption capacities and breakthrough times correlated linearly (R(2)=0.87 and 0.93, respectively) with BAC total pore volume. Micropore volume reduction for all BACs confirmed that heel accumulation takes place in the highest energy pores. Overall, these results show that a greater portion of adsorbed species are converted into heel on highly microporous adsorbents due to higher share of high energy adsorption sites in their structure. This differs from mesoporous adsorbents (low microporosity) in which large pores contribute to adsorption but not to heel formation, resulting in longer adsorbent lifetime. Thus, activated carbon with high adsorption capacity and high mesopore fraction is particularly desirable for organic vapor application involving extended adsorption/regeneration cycling. PMID:27173087

  15. Influence of pore size distributions on decomposition of maize leaf residue: evidence from X-ray computed micro-tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negassa, Wakene; Guber, Andrey; Kravchenko, Alexandra; Rivers, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Soil's potential to sequester carbon (C) depends not only on quality and quantity of organic inputs to soil but also on the residence time of the applied organic inputs within the soil. Soil pore structure is one of the main factors that influence residence time of soil organic matter by controlling gas exchange, soil moisture and microbial activities, thereby soil C sequestration capacity. Previous attempts to investigate the fate of organic inputs added to soil did not allow examining their decomposition in situ; the drawback that can now be remediated by application of X-ray computed micro-tomography (µ-CT). The non-destructive and non-invasive nature of µ-CT gives an opportunity to investigate the effect of soil pore size distributions on decomposition of plant residues at a new quantitative level. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of pore size distributions on the decomposition of plant residue added to soil. Samples with contrasting pore size distributions were created using aggregate fractions of five different sizes (<0.05, 0.05-0.1, 0.10-05, 0.5-1.0 and 1.0-2.0 mm). Weighted average pore diameters ranged from 10 µm (<0.05 mm fraction) to 104 µm (1-2 mm fraction), while maximum pore diameter were in a range from 29 µm (<0.05 mm fraction) to 568 µm (1-2 mm fraction) in the created soil samples. Dried pieces of maize leaves 2.5 mg in size (equivalent to 1.71 mg C g-1 soil) were added to half of the studied samples. Samples with and without maize leaves were incubated for 120 days. CO2 emission from the samples was measured at regular time intervals. In order to ensure that the observed differences are due to differences in pore structure and not due to differences in inherent properties of the studied aggregate fractions, we repeated the whole experiment using soil from the same aggregate size fractions but ground to <0.05 mm size. Five to six replicated samples were used for intact and ground samples of all sizes with and without

  16. Size Dependence in Hexagonal Mesoporous Germanium: Pore Wall Thickness versus Energy Gap and Photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Armatas, G. S.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2010-08-10

    A series of hexagonal mesoporous germanium semiconductors with tunable wall thickness is reported. These nanostructures possess uniform pores of 3.1-3.2 nm, wall thicknesses from 1.3 to 2.2 nm, and large internal BET surface area in the range of 404-451 m2/g. The porous Ge framework of these materials is assembled from the templated oxidative self-polymerization of (Ge9)4- Zintl clusters. Total X-ray scattering analysis supports a model of interconnected deltahedral (Ge9)-cluster forming the framework and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates nearly zero-valence Ge atoms. We show the controllable tuning of the pore wall thickness and its impact on the energy band gap which increases systematically with diminishing wall thickness. Furthermore, there is room temperature photoluminescence emission which shifts correspondingly from 672 to 640 nm. The emission signal can be quenched via energy transfer with organic molecules such as pyridine diffusing into the pores.

  17. Strain-based in-situ study of anion and cation insertion into porous carbon electrodes with different pore sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Jennifer M; Feng, Guang; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Hillesheim, Patrick C; Dai, Sheng; Gogotsi, Yury G.; Cummings, Peter T; Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of porous carbon electrodes in a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is studied using in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of carbon surface area and pore size/pore size distribution on the observed strain profile and ion kinetics is examined. Also, the influence of potential scan rate on the strain response is investigated. By analyzing the strain data at various potential scan rates information on ion kinetics in the different carbon materials is obtained. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to compare with and provide molecular insights into experimental results, which is the first MD work investigating the pressure exerted on porous electrodes under applied potential in a RTIL electrolyte. Using MD, the pressure exerted on the pore wall is calculated as a function of potential/charge for both a micropore (1.2 nm) and a mesopore (7.0 nm). The shape of the calculated pressure profile matches closely with the strain profiles observed experimentally.

  18. Influence of poly-L-lactic acid scaffold's pore size on the proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Conde, Cristian Muniz; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Casagrande, Luciano; Alcazar, José Carlos; Nör, Jacques Eduardo; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA)-based scaffold's pore size on the proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). The scaffolds were prepared in pulp chambers of 1-mm-thick tooth slices from third molars using salt crystals (150-250 µm or 251-450 µm) as porogen. DPSC (1x105 cells) were seeded in the scaffolds with different pore sizes, and cultured in 24-well plates. The cell proliferation was evaluated using the WST-1 assay after 3-21 days. Furthermore, RT-PCR was used to assess the differentiation of the DPSCs into odontoblasts, using markers of odontoblastic differentiation (DSPP, DSP-1 and MEPE). RNA from human odontoblasts was used as control. Cell proliferation rate was similar in both scaffolds except at the 14th day period, in which the cells seeded in the scaffolds with larger pores showed higher proliferation (p<0.05). After 21 days DPSCs seeded in both evaluated scaffolds were able of expressing odontoblastic markers DMP-1, DSPP and MEPE. In summary, both scaffolds tested in this study allowed the proliferation and differentiation of DPSCs into odontoblast-like cells. PMID:25831096

  19. Effective porosity and pore-throat sizes of Conasauga Group mudrock: Application, test and evaluation of petrophysical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsch, J.; Katsube, T.J.; Sanford, W.E. |; Dugan, B.E.; Tourkow, L.M.

    1996-04-01

    Effective porosity (specifically referring to the interconnected pore space) was recently recognized as being essential in determining the effectiveness and extent of matrix diffusion as a transport mechanism within fractured low-permeability rock formations. The research presented in this report was performed to test the applicability of several petrophysical techniques for the determination of effective porosity of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. In addition, the aim was to gather quantitative data on the effective porosity of Conasauga Group mudrock from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The quantitative data reported here include not only effective porosities based on diverse measurement techniques, but also data on the sizes of pore throats and their distribution, and specimen bulk and grain densities. The petrophysical techniques employed include the immersion-saturation method, mercury and helium porosimetry, and the radial diffusion-cell method.

  20. A novel synthesis and characterization of ordered meso/macroporous alumina with hierarchical and adjustable pore size.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiuhong; Duan, Linhai; Qin, Huibo; Xie, Xiaohua; Umar, Ahmad; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Qiang

    2014-09-01

    The sub-micron polystyrene (PS) microspheres with adjustable size were firstly synthesized using emulsion polymerization method by adding only a small amount of emulsifier. Then, three dimensionally ordered macroporous alumina with mesoporous walls and adjustable macropore size was facilely prepared by the colloidal template method. The alumina and PS spheres were characterized by nanoparticle size analyzer, SEM, XRD and N2 adsorption. The results show that the polystyrene microsphere has adjustable single-sized pore with diameter in the range of 100-350 nm and the yield is higher than that prepared by soap free emulsion polymerization. The alumina materials as prepared using the PS colloidal crystals as the template, had ordered meso-macroporous structures and adjustable apertures. The mesopores (about 3.6 nm) in γ-alumina were formed by controlling the heat treatment of alumina precursor. BET surface area and pore volume of the hierarchical alumina as obtained can reach to 241.3 m2/g and 0.33 cm3/g, respectively. PMID:25924412

  1. Solute Diffusivity of Repacked Volcanic Ash Soil: Effect of Changes in Pore Size Distribution due to Soil Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, M. S.; Resurreccion, A. C.; Kawamoto, K.; Komatsu, T.; Moldrup, P.

    2007-12-01

    Diffusion is the dominant spreading mechanism of contaminants dissolved in soil-water in the absence of soil- water flow. Solute diffusion coefficient, Ds, is a key parameter in investigating the fate and transport of contaminants from a polluted soil site. However, only a few studies on quantifying Ds as a function of soil- water content were done, especially for aggregated soils with a dual pore system such as volcanic ash soils (Andisols). In this study, we investigated the effect of bulk density on pore size distribution, and, consequently, on solute diffusivity (Ds/Do, where Do is the solute diffusion coefficient in pure water) in repacked volcanic ash soil taken at 5-10 cm depth at a pasture site in Nishi-Tokyo, Japan. Measurements of Ds were done on sieved and repacked soil at three bulk densities (0.62 g cm-3 , 0.7 g cm-3, and 0.8 g cm-3 ) and at three soil moisture conditions at pF (= log (-ψ; soil-water matric potential in cm H2O)) 1.8, 2, and 3 for each bulk density. Half-cell method was used to measure Ds where the source and sink half cells (each cell of 10-cm length and 4.9 cm in diameter) were joined together and the concentration profile was analyzed after a substantial time to determine Ds. Results showed that at a particular bulk density, Ds decreased with decreasing degree of saturation. This is expected since as the soil becomes drier, water films become disconnected resulting in a decrease in Ds. On the other hand, at a particular degree of saturation, the magnitude of Ds considerably decreases with increasing dry bulk density. As soil is compacted (and thus the increase in bulk density), the observed pore size distribution obtained from soil-water retention curve changes where the mainly inter-aggregate large pores become smaller and soil particles become closer to each other. This reduction in inter-aggregate pore size likely increases the liquid-phase tortuosity resulting in the decrease in Ds/Do at soil-water content at pF < 3. The soil

  2. Adaptive step-size strategy for noise-robust Fourier ptychographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Chao; Sun, Jiasong; Chen, Qian

    2016-09-01

    The incremental gradient approaches, such as PIE and ePIE, are widely used in the field of ptychographic imaging due to their great flexibility and computational efficiency. Nevertheless, their stability and reconstruction quality may be significantly degraded when non-negligible noise is present in the image. Though this problem is often attributed to the non-convex nature of phase retrieval, we found the reason for this is more closely related to the choice of the step-size, which needs to be gradually diminishing for convergence even in the convex case. To this end, we introduce an adaptive step-size strategy that decreases the step-size whenever sufficient progress is not made. The synthetic and real experiments on Fourier ptychographic microscopy show that the adaptive step-size strategy significantly improves the stability and robustness of the reconstruction towards noise yet retains the fast initial convergence speed of PIE and ePIE. More importantly, the proposed approach is simple, nonparametric, and does not require any preknowledge about the noise statistics. The great performance and limited computational complexity make it a very attractive and promising technique for robust Fourier ptychographic microscopy under noisy conditions. PMID:27607676

  3. Antimicrobial performance of mesoporous titania thin films: role of pore size, hydrophobicity, and antibiotic release

    PubMed Central

    Atefyekta, Saba; Ercan, Batur; Karlsson, Johan; Taylor, Erik; Chung, Stanley; Webster, Thomas J; Andersson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Implant-associated infections are undesirable complications that might arise after implant surgery. If the infection is not prevented, it can lead to tremendous cost, trauma, and even life threatening conditions for the patient. Development of an implant coating loaded with antimicrobial substances would be an effective way to improve the success rate of implants. In this study, the in vitro efficacy of mesoporous titania thin films used as a novel antimicrobial release coating was evaluated. Mesoporous titania thin films with pore diameters of 4, 6, and 7 nm were synthesized using the evaporation-induced self-assembly method. The films were characterized and loaded with antimicrobial agents, including vancomycin, gentamicin, and daptomycin. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used to evaluate their effectiveness toward inhibiting bacterial colonization. Drug loading and delivery were studied using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, which showed successful loading and release of the antibiotics from the surfaces. Results from counting bacterial colony-forming units showed reduced bacterial adhesion on the drug-loaded films. Interestingly, the presence of the pores alone had a desired effect on bacterial colonization, which can be attributed to the documented nanotopographical effect. In summary, this study provides significant promise for the use of mesoporous titania thin films for reducing implant infections. PMID:27022263

  4. Thermal Investigations of Periodically Nanoporous Si Films -- The Impact of Structure Sizes and Pore-Edge Amorphization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongchao; Zhao, Hongbo; Hao, Qing

    In recent years, nanoporous Si films have been intensively studied as promising thermoelectric materials, which mainly benefits from their dramatically reduced lattice thermal conductivity kL and bulk-like electrical properties.1,2 Despite many encouraging results, challenges still exist in the theoretical explanation of the observed low kL.3 Existing studies mainly attribute the low kL to 1) phonon bandstructure modification by coherent phonon processes in a periodic structure (phononic effects), and/or 2) pore-edge defects. In this work, temperature-dependent kL is measured for nanoporous Si films with different pore sizes and spacing to compare with model predictions. For systematic studies, two fabrication techniques are used to drill the nanopores: 1) reactive ion etching, and 2) a focus ion beam to introduce more pore-edge defects. The results from this work will provide guidance for phonon engineering in general materials with periodic interfaces or boundaries. References: 1. Tang et al., Nano Letters 10, 4279-4283 (2010). 2. Yu et al., Nature Nanotechnology 5, 718-721 (2010). 3. Cahill et al., Applied Physics Reviews 1, 011305/1-45 (2014) Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003-2012.

  5. Gradients in pore size enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells in three-dimensional scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Di Luca, Andrea; Ostrowska, Barbara; Lorenzo-Moldero, Ivan; Lepedda, Antonio; Swieszkowski, Wojcech; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Small fractures in bone tissue can heal by themselves, but in case of larger defects current therapies are not completely successful due to several drawbacks. A possible strategy relies on the combination of additive manufactured polymeric scaffolds and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). The architecture of bone tissue is characterized by a structural gradient. Long bones display a structural gradient in the radial direction, while flat bones in the axial direction. Such gradient presents a variation in bone density from the cancellous bone to the cortical bone. Therefore, scaffolds presenting a gradient in porosity could be ideal candidates to improve bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we present a construct with a discrete gradient in pore size and characterize its ability to further support the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Furthermore, we studied the behaviour of hMSCs within the different compartments of the gradient scaffolds, showing a correlation between osteogenic differentiation and ECM mineralization, and pore dimensions. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content increased with increasing pore dimensions. Our results indicate that designing structural porosity gradients may be an appealing strategy to support gradual osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells. PMID:26961859

  6. Gradients in pore size enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells in three-dimensional scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Luca, Andrea; Ostrowska, Barbara; Lorenzo-Moldero, Ivan; Lepedda, Antonio; Swieszkowski, Wojcech; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-03-01

    Small fractures in bone tissue can heal by themselves, but in case of larger defects current therapies are not completely successful due to several drawbacks. A possible strategy relies on the combination of additive manufactured polymeric scaffolds and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). The architecture of bone tissue is characterized by a structural gradient. Long bones display a structural gradient in the radial direction, while flat bones in the axial direction. Such gradient presents a variation in bone density from the cancellous bone to the cortical bone. Therefore, scaffolds presenting a gradient in porosity could be ideal candidates to improve bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we present a construct with a discrete gradient in pore size and characterize its ability to further support the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Furthermore, we studied the behaviour of hMSCs within the different compartments of the gradient scaffolds, showing a correlation between osteogenic differentiation and ECM mineralization, and pore dimensions. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content increased with increasing pore dimensions. Our results indicate that designing structural porosity gradients may be an appealing strategy to support gradual osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells.

  7. Gradients in pore size enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells in three-dimensional scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, Andrea; Ostrowska, Barbara; Lorenzo-Moldero, Ivan; Lepedda, Antonio; Swieszkowski, Wojcech; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Small fractures in bone tissue can heal by themselves, but in case of larger defects current therapies are not completely successful due to several drawbacks. A possible strategy relies on the combination of additive manufactured polymeric scaffolds and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). The architecture of bone tissue is characterized by a structural gradient. Long bones display a structural gradient in the radial direction, while flat bones in the axial direction. Such gradient presents a variation in bone density from the cancellous bone to the cortical bone. Therefore, scaffolds presenting a gradient in porosity could be ideal candidates to improve bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we present a construct with a discrete gradient in pore size and characterize its ability to further support the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Furthermore, we studied the behaviour of hMSCs within the different compartments of the gradient scaffolds, showing a correlation between osteogenic differentiation and ECM mineralization, and pore dimensions. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content increased with increasing pore dimensions. Our results indicate that designing structural porosity gradients may be an appealing strategy to support gradual osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells. PMID:26961859

  8. Robust grain size end-members inferred from Quaternary lacustrine sediments across the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Elisabeth; Diekmann, Bernhard; Henkel, Karoline; Herb, Christian; Kasper, Thomas; Opitz, Stephan; Zhang, Weilin; Haberzettl, Torsten

    2013-04-01

    The detrital grain size composition of sediments can be explained by different transport processes, each of them sorting sediments in a characteristic way. Transport processes are typically linked to distinct environmental, mainly hydrological variations. However, also tectonic and anthropogenic influence can significantly alter them. Lake basins act as final sediment sinks, where sediments that were sorted by different processes get mixed. This results in multi-modal grain-size distributions of lake sediments. To interpret these distributions descriptive grain size analysis (e.g., the method of moments) may lead to misinterpretations. End-member modelling analysis (EMMA) allows a mathematical unmixing of grain size compositions to geoscientifically-interpretable end-members and quantifying these end-members in space and time. Lakes of different sizes and catchment configurations from the northern, north-eastern, and southern Tibetan Plateau are studied here, including Late Quaternary sediments from Lakes Donggi Cona, Nam Co, Tangra Yum Co and up to 2.7 Ma old lake sediments from the Qaidam basin. Grain size distributions from lake sediments are analysed using EMMA. The most robust grain-size end-members are determined by a variety of similarly-likely model runs. Their relation provides valuable and quantitative information on the most prominent past sediment transport processes and, hence, on past hydrological variations for different times throughout the Quaternary independent of time scale and resolution of the respective lake sediment archive.

  9. Optimization of protein fractionation by skim milk microfiltration: Choice of ceramic membrane pore size and filtration temperature.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Camilla Elise; Abrahamsen, Roger K; Rukke, Elling-Olav; Johansen, Anne-Grethe; Schüller, Reidar B; Skeie, Siv B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how ceramic membrane pore size and filtration temperature influence the protein fractionation of skim milk by cross flow microfiltration (MF). Microfiltration was performed at a uniform transmembrane pressure with constant permeate flux to a volume concentration factor of 2.5. Three different membrane pore sizes, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20µm, were used at a filtration temperature of 50°C. Furthermore, at pore size 0.10µm, 2 different filtration temperatures were investigated: 50 and 60°C. The transmission of proteins increased with increasing pore size, giving the permeate from MF with the 0.20-µm membrane a significantly higher concentration of native whey proteins compared with the permeates from the 0.05- and 0.10-µm membranes (0.50, 0.24, and 0.39%, respectively). Significant amounts of caseins permeated the 0.20-µm membrane (1.4%), giving a permeate with a whitish appearance and a casein distribution (αS2-CN: αS1-CN: κ-CN: β-CN) similar to that of skim milk. The 0.05- and 0.10-µm membranes were able to retain all caseins (only negligible amounts were detected). A permeate free from casein is beneficial in the production of native whey protein concentrates and in applications where transparency is an important functional characteristic. Microfiltration of skim milk at 50°C with the 0.10-µm membrane resulted in a permeate containing significantly more native whey proteins than the permeate from MF at 60°C. The more rapid increase in transmembrane pressure and the significantly lower concentration of caseins in the retentate at 60°C indicated that a higher concentration of caseins deposited on the membrane, and consequently reduced the native whey protein transmission. Optimal protein fractionation of skim milk into a casein-rich retentate and a permeate with native whey proteins were obtained by 0.10-µm MF at 50°C. PMID:27265169

  10. Nanometer scale pores similar in size to the entrance of the ribosomal exit cavity are a common feature of large RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Mario; Tran, Quyen; Fox, George E.

    2013-01-01

    The highly conserved peptidyl transferase center (PTC) of the ribosome contains an RNA pore that serves as the entrance to the exit tunnel. Analysis of available ribosome crystal structures has revealed the presence of multiple additional well-defined pores of comparable size in the ribosomal (rRNA) RNAs. These typically have dimensions of 1–2 nm, with a total area of ∼100 Å2 or more, and most are associated with one or more ribosomal proteins. The PTC example and the other rRNA pores result from the packing of helices. However, in the non-PTC cases the nitrogenous bases do not protrude into the pore, thereby limiting the potential for hydrogen bonding within the pore. Instead, it is the RNA backbone that largely defines the pore likely resulting in a negatively charged environment. In many but not all cases, ribosomal proteins are associated with the pores to a greater or lesser extent. With the exception of the PTC case, the large subunit pores are not found in what are thought to be the evolutionarily oldest regions of the 23S rRNA. The unusual nature of the PTC pore may reflect a history of being created by hybridization between two or more RNAs early in evolution rather than simple folding of a single RNA. An initial survey of nonribosomal RNA crystal structures revealed additional pores, thereby showing that they are likely a general feature of RNA tertiary structure. PMID:23940386

  11. An Interface Coassembly in Biliquid Phase: Toward Core-Shell Magnetic Mesoporous Silica Microspheres with Tunable Pore Size.

    PubMed

    Yue, Qin; Li, Jialuo; Luo, Wei; Zhang, Yu; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Wang, Xiqing; Wang, Chun; Li, Wei; Cheng, Xiaowei; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Abdullah, Aboubakr M; Deng, Yonghui; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2015-10-21

    Core-shell magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres (Magn-MSMs) with tunable large mesopores in the shell are highly desired in biocatalysis, magnetic bioseparation, and enrichment. In this study, a shearing assisted interface coassembly in n-hexane/water biliquid systems is developed to synthesize uniform Magn-MSMs with magnetic core and mesoporous silica shell for an efficient size-selective biocatalysis. The synthesis features the rational control over the electrostatic interaction among cationic surfactant molecules, silicate oligomers, and Fe3O4@RF microspheres (RF: resorcinol formaldehyde) in the presence of shearing-regulated solubilization of n-hexane in surfactant micelles. Through this multicomponent interface coassembly, surfactant-silica mesostructured composite has been uniformly deposited on the Fe3O4@RF microspheres, and core-shell Magn-MSMs are obtained after removing the surfactant and n-hexane. The obtained Magn-MSMs possess excellent water dispersibility, uniform diameter (600 nm), large and tunable perpendicular mesopores (5.0-9.0 nm), high surface area (498-623 m(2)/g), large pore volume (0.91-0.98 cm(3)/g), and high magnetization (34.5-37.1 emu/g). By utilization of their large and open mesopores, Magn-MSMs with a pore size of about 9.0 nm have been demonstrated to be able to immobilize a large bioenzyme (trypsin with size of 4.0 nm) with a high loading capacity of ∼97 μg/mg via chemically binding. Magn-MSMs with immobilized trypsin exhibit an excellent convenient and size selective enzymolysis of low molecular proteins in the mixture of proteins of different sizes and a good recycling performance by using the magnetic separability of the microspheres. PMID:26186087

  12. Vascular tissue construction on poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds by dynamic endothelial cell seeding: effect of pore size.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Asha; Colombus, Soumya; Krishnan, V Kalliyana; Krishnan, Lissy K

    2012-06-01

    In vitro tissue engineering for fabrication of small diameter vascular grafts probably undergoes a sequence of events similar to the in vivo angiogenesis process. In both cases endothelial cells (ECs) play the crucial role in generating a non-thrombogenic vessel lumen and stabilization of ECs in the lumen of new vessels requires the deposition of collagen IV and elastin. Shear stress is an important in vivo signal for inducing synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, collagen IV and elastin, which form the basement membrane in the case of new blood vessels. Stimulation of ECs may therefore produce collagen and elastin in the lumen of a polymeric scaffold during the vascular tissue-engineering process if appropriate biochemical and mechanical signals are presented. However, the morphology and physicochemical characteristics of polymer scaffolds may also be crucial for EC monolayer formation and ECM deposition. In this study, tubular scaffolds made of biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with biomimetic fibrin-based coating were evaluated to compare the effects of pore sizes on surface coverage of ECs and synthesis of ECM under dynamic culture conditions. Actin was stained for identification of cells, while specific antibodies were used for locating collagen IV and elastin deposition on the scaffolds. It was found that dynamic seeding of ECs in the lumen stabilized the cells and aligned them along the direction of flow, with better deposition of insoluble elastin and collagen IV when ∼75% of pores were < 24 µm in diameter. In addition, monolayer on the ε-PCL scaffolds with lower pore sizes was found to produce nitric oxide (NO), indicating a non-thrombogenic EC layer in the lumen. PMID:21800434

  13. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin

    PubMed Central

    LEE, BO MI; AN, SUNGKWAN; KIM, SOO-YEON; HAN, HYUN JOO; JEONG, YU-JIN; LEE, KYOUNG-ROK; ROH, NAM KYUNG; AHN, KYU JOONG; AN, IN-SOOK; CHA, HWA JUN

    2015-01-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20–50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm3 (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin. PMID:26137233

  14. Multi-scale analysis in carbonates by X-ray microtomography: Characterization of the porosity and pore size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Jaquiel S.; Nagata, Rodrigo; Moreira, Anderson C.; Fernandes, Celso P.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2013-05-01

    The porous systems of reservoir rocks present a complex geometry, involving aspects of shape of pores (morphology) and connectivity between the pores (topology). The macroscopic physical properties of these materials are strongly dependent of their microstructures. Based on these aspects, the present study has as main objective the characterization of the porous system geometry and computational determination of petrophysics properties of carbonate reservoir rocks through the X-ray microtomography methodology. Samples were microtomographed with the microtomographs Skyscan model 1172, installed at the PETROBRAS Research and Development Center (CENPES), Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil and model 1173, installed at Sedimentary Geology Laboratory (LAGESD) in the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Two samples of carbonates were measured, Travertine and Dolomite, with spatial resolutions of 7 μm and 9.8 μm and 1.3 μm, 7 μm and 17 μm, respectively for the travertine and dolomite. With the data collected in the acquisitions, 900 transversal sections were reconstructed for each one of the referred resolutions. For the sample of dolomite, the average porosity found was 21.64%, 20.92% and 15.97% for resolutions of 1.3 μm, 7 μm and 17 μm, respectively. For the sample of travertine, the average porosity was 7.80 % and 7.52 % for resolutions of 7 μm and 9.8 μm, respectively. For the sample of dolomite, the pore size distribution showed that 50 % of the porous phase has pores with radius up to 37.6 μm, 84.6 μm and 84.4 μm, for the spatial resolutions of 1.3 μm, 7 μm and 17 μm, respectively. For the sample of travertine, 50 % of the pores have radius up to 148.1 μm and 158.1 μm, for the spatial resolutions of 7 μm and 9.8 μm.

  15. Finite-size effects in the microscopic structure of a hard-sphere fluid in a narrow cylindrical pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, F. L.; White, J. A.; González, A.; Velasco, S.

    2006-04-01

    We examine the microscopic structure of a hard-sphere fluid confined to a small cylindrical pore by means of Monte Carlo simulation. In order to analyze finite-size effects, the simulations are carried out in the framework of different statistical mechanics ensembles. We find that the size effects are specially relevant in the canonical ensemble where noticeable differences are found with the results in the grand canonical ensemble (GCE) and the isothermal isobaric ensemble (IIE) which, in most situations, remain very close to the infinite system results. A customary series expansion in terms of fluctuations of either the number of particles (GCE) or the inverse volume (IIE) allows us to connect with the results of the canonical ensemble.

  16. The effect of pore throat size and injection flowrate on the determination and sensitivity of different capillary number values at high-capillary-number flow in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadali Jamaloei, Benyamin; Ahmadloo, Farid; Kharrat, Riyaz

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the effect of pore throat size and injection flowrate on the values of the pore-scale capillary number, the Newtonian-fluid capillary number and the apparent capillary number (Nc1, Nc2 and Nc3, respectively) and their sensitivity to change in high-capillary-number flow through porous media, which occurs in polymer-assisted dilute surfactant flooding (PADSF). Additionally, the influence of pore throat size and injection flowrate on oil recovery at breakthrough and at the end of displacement (ultimate) and the relationship between the effective shear rate γeff and the porous medium-dependent shift factor α are discussed. The results indicated that Nc2 was the smallest and Nc3 was the largest value. The difference between Nc2 and Nc3 is due to the increase in apparent viscosity of the polymer-contained surfactant solution during the flow through porous media and the change in Nc3 should be utilized to characterize the macroscopic behavior of the PADSF. Generally, the decrease in pore throat size and the increase in injection flowrate caused an increase in the ultimate oil recovery and Nc3. Moreover, the oil recovery at breakthrough decreased with an increase in pore throat size and injection flowrate. Finally, the rate of change of γeff, with change in α, increased almost uniformly with a decrease in pore throat size and an increase in injection flowrate.

  17. Slip-weakening zone sizes at nucleation of catastrophic subaerial and submarine landslides by gradually increasing pore pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viesca, R. C.; Rice, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    We address the nucleation of dynamic landslide rupture in response to gradual pore pressure increases. Nucleation marks the onset of acceleration of the overlying slope mass due to the suddenly rapid enlargement of a sub-surface zone of shear failure, previously deforming quasi-statically. We model that zone as a planar surface undergoing initially linear slip-weakening frictional failure within a bordering linear-elastic medium. The results are also relevant to earthquake nucleation. The sub-surface rupture zone considered runs parallel to the free surface of a uniform slope, under a 2D plane-strain deformation state. We show results for ruptures with friction coefficients following linear slip weakening (i.e., the residual friction is not yet reached). For spatially broad increases in pore pressure, the nucleation length depends on a ratio of depth to a cohesive zone length scale. In the very broad-increase limit, a direct numerical solution for nucleation lengths compares well with solutions to a corresponding eigenvalue problem (similar to Uenishi and Rice [JGR '03]), in which spatial variations in normal stress are neglected. We estimate nucleation lengths for subaerial and submarine conditions using data [e.g., Bishop et al., Géotech. '71; Stark et al., JGGE '05] from ring-shear tests on sediments (peak friction fp = 0.5, frictional slip-weakening rate within the range w = -df/d(slip) = 0.1/cm-1/cm). We assume that only pre-stresses, and not material properties, vary with depth. With such fp and w, we find for a range of subsurface depths and shear moduli μ that nucleation lengths are typically several hundred meters long for shallow undersea slopes, and up to an order of magnitude less for steeper slopes on the Earth's surface. In the submarine case, this puts nucleation lengths in a size range comparable to observed pore-pressure-generated seafloor disturbances as pockmarks [e.g., Gay et al., MG '06].

  18. Characterization and structural investigation of fractal porous-silica over an extremely wide scale range of pore size.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yusuke; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Furó, István; Sagidullin, Alexander I; Matsushima, Keiichiro; Ura, Haruo; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Tsujii, Kaoru

    2009-08-01

    We have succeeded in creating Menger sponge-like fractal body, i.e., porous-silica samples with Menger sponge-like fractal geometries, by a novel template method utilizing template particles of alkylketene dimer (AKD) and a sol-gel synthesis of tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS). We report here the first experimental results on characterization and structural investigations of the fractal porous-silica samples prepared with various conditions such as calcination temperature and packing condition of the template particles. In order to characterize the fractal porous-silica samples, pore volume distribution, porosity and specific surface area were measured over an extremely wide scale from 1 nm to 100 microm by means of mercury porosimetry, (1)H NMR cryoporometry, nitrogen gas adsorption experiments together with direct evaluations of cross-sectional fractal dimension D(cs), and size limits of D(cs). We have found that the pore volume distribution and specific surface area of the fractal porous-silica samples can be discussed in terms of different fractal porous structures at different scale regions. PMID:19406424

  19. A general model for nonwetting phase relative permeability of disturbed porous media with lognormal pore size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Mohanty, B.

    2013-12-01

    Describing convective nonwetting phase flow in unsaturated porous media requires knowledge of relative nonwetting pahse permeability. This study was mainly conducted to formulate a general nonwetting pahse relative permeability model for porous media with lognormal pore size distribution based on Kosugi (1999) work for unsaturated relative hydraulic conductivity. The model-data comparison showed that the existing commonly used Burdine and Mualem permeability model could overestimate experimental relative nonwetting phase permeability data. The sensitivity analysis of the permeability model emphasized the importance of different pore tortuosity-connectivity value for gas and water phase. Subsequently, the suggested modified Burdine and Mualem permeability model for (alpha,beta,eta) in the general nonwetting phase permeability model should be (2.5, 2, 1) and (2, 1, 2) respectively. These two suggested models have the lowest mean root mean square error (RMSE) among the investigated permeability models. This finding could present more accurate permeability model parameterization in the multiphase subsurface flow modeling under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

  20. Modulation of pore sizes of titanium dioxide photocatalysts by a facile template free hydrothermal synthesis method: implications for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Rasalingam, Shivatharsiny; Wu, Chia-Ming; Koodali, Ranjit T

    2015-02-25

    Mesoporous TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared in ethanol media by using relatively green, template free sol-gel technique. A mild hydrothermal treatment procedure was employed to tune the pore sizes of the materials. Comprehensive techniques that include powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, specific surface area analysis, electron microscopy, FT-IR, TGA, and ζ-potential measurements were used to characterize the titania materials. Porosity (pore size and pore volume) of the materials were found to be key factors for the variation in the rate of photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B; in addition to specific surface area, and surface hydroxyl groups. An increase in porosity permits effective transport of the dye molecules resulting in an increase in the rate of the degradation in materials having larger pores. A detailed electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) study was carried out for selected materials to identify photodegraded intermediates and products formed during the degradation of rhodamine B. In addition, experiments were also carried out to understand the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In summary, this work provides a simple way to tune pore sizes without the use of any template and an insight into the influence of pore size for the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B. PMID:25633643

  1. Synthesis of microtubes with a surface of "house of cards" structure via needlelike particles and control of their pore size.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Kohei; Tagami, Naoki; Tanabe, Katsuyuki; Ohkubo, Takahiro; Sakai, Hideki; Koishi, Masumi; Abe, Masahiko

    2005-04-12

    The conditions for synthesizing microtubes with a surface of "house of cards" structure via needlelike particles were examined in detail. Magnesium carbonate trihydrate was formed as a metastable phase in the reaction process using magnesium hydroxide and carbon dioxide as starting materials. Subsequently, in the formation of basic magnesium carbonate from magnesium carbonate trihydrate, microtubes with a surface of house of cards structure were obtained via needlelike particles of magnesium carbonate trihydrate under certain conditions where the temperature and added amount of sodium hydroxide were properly controlled. The pore size of the microtubes could be controlled within a range of 0.5-6 microm by adjusting the condition of needlelike particle formation. In addition, the sustainability of naphthalene release from the microtube was found to be about 6 times higher than that from naphthalene crystal. PMID:15807617

  2. Fabrication of porous polymer microparticles with tunable pore size and density through the combination of phase separation and emulsion-solvent evaporation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shanqin; Cai, Mingle; Deng, Renhua; Wang, Jianying; Liang, Ruijing; Zhu, Jintao

    2014-02-01

    A facile and versatile route to prepare porous polymer microparticles with tunable pore size and density through the combination of phase separation and emulsion-solvent evaporation method is demonstrated. When volatile organic solvent ( e.g., chloroform) diffuses through the aqueous phase containing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and evaporates, n-hexadecane (HD) and polystyrene (PS) in oil-in-water emulsion droplets occur to phase separate due to the incompatibility between PS and HD, ultimately yielding microparticles with porous structures. Interestingly, density of the pores (pore number) on the shell of microparticles can be tailored from one to hundreds by simply varying the HD concentration and/ or the rate of solvent evaporation. Moreover, this versatile approach for preparing porous microparticles with tunable pore size and density can be applied to other types of hydrophobic polymers, organic solvents, and alkanes, which will find potential applications in the fields of pharmaceutical, catalyst carrier, separation, and diagnostics.

  3. Development of optimized filter for TARC and developer with the goal of having small pore size and minimizing microbubble reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Toru; Tsuzuki, Shuichi; Boucher, Mikal; Dinh, Hung; Ma, L. C.; Boten, Russell

    2006-03-01

    Microbubble in filtering Tetra Methyl Ammonium Hydroxide (TMAH) were counted to find the filter which generates the lowest microbubble in resist development process. Hydrophilic Highly Asymmetric Poly Aryl Sulfone (HAPAS) filter was developed and tested. The result showed that generation of microbubbles was as low as that of the Nylon 6,6 filter which had the best performance to date. Microbubbles in TARC are counted using the same method as the developer testing described above except for mainstream flow rate and the counter model. The results show that counts in the small channel could be reduced by smaller pore size filter such as conventional 0.02um rated filter. However, counts in the larger channel could be reduced by larger pore size filter such as 0.1um rated filter. Based on the above results, 0.02um rated asymmetric nylon 6,6 filter was developed. As a result, 0.02um rated asymmetric Nylon 6,6 filter achieved relatively lower count at any channel as compared to the standard 0.04um rated Nylon 6,6 filter. Nylon 6,6 filters were installed in resist as an improvement for preventive maintenance (PM) at Wafertech, L.L.C. instead of the currently used filter which has more hydrophobic membrane material. Using the Nylon 6,6 membrane, the number of defects immediately after filter change greatly decreased from 493 pcs of the more hydrophobic filter to 6 pcs/wafer, then after purging with about 250ml, the number of defects reduced within the process specification while the more hydrophobic filter had required 2L purging and 12-36 hours of PM time.

  4. Non-linear behaviour of electrical parameters in porous, water-saturated rocks: a model to predict pore size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallbauer-Zadorozhnaya, Valeriya; Santarato, Giovanni; Abu Zeid, Nasser

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, two separate but related goals are tackled. The first one is to demonstrate that in some saturated rock textures the non-linear behaviour of induced polarization (IP) and the violation of Ohm's law not only are real phenomena, but they can also be satisfactorily predicted by a suitable physical-mathematical model, which is our second goal. This model is based on Fick's second law. As the model links the specific dependence of resistivity and chargeability of a laboratory sample to the injected current and this in turn to its pore size distribution, it is able to predict pore size distribution from laboratory measurements, in good agreement with mercury injection capillary pressure test results. This fact opens up the possibility for hydrogeophysical applications on a macro scale. Mathematical modelling shows that the chargeability acquired in the field under normal conditions, that is at low current, will always be very small and approximately proportional to the applied current. A suitable field test site for demonstrating the possible reliance of both resistivity and chargeability on current was selected and a specific measuring strategy was established. Two data sets were acquired using different injected current strengths, while keeping the charging time constant. Observed variations of resistivity and chargeability are in agreement with those predicted by the mathematical model. These field test data should however be considered preliminary. If confirmed by further evidence, these facts may lead to changing the procedure of acquiring field measurements in future, and perhaps may encourage the design and building of a new specific geo-resistivity meter. This paper also shows that the well-known Marshall and Madden's equations based on Fick's law cannot be solved without specific boundary conditions.

  5. Transform Domain Robust Variable Step Size Griffiths' Adaptive Algorithm for Noise Cancellation in ECG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Veena; Deekshit, Ravishankar; Satyanarayana, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is widely used for diagnosis of heart diseases. Good quality of ECG is utilized by physicians for interpretation and identification of physiological and pathological phenomena. However, in real situations, ECG recordings are often corrupted by artifacts or noise. Noise severely limits the utility of the recorded ECG and thus needs to be removed, for better clinical evaluation. In the present paper a new noise cancellation technique is proposed for removal of random noise like muscle artifact from ECG signal. A transform domain robust variable step size Griffiths' LMS algorithm (TVGLMS) is proposed for noise cancellation. For the TVGLMS, the robust variable step size has been achieved by using the Griffiths' gradient which uses cross-correlation between the desired signal contaminated with observation or random noise and the input. The algorithm is discrete cosine transform (DCT) based and uses symmetric property of the signal to represent the signal in frequency domain with lesser number of frequency coefficients when compared to that of discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The algorithm is implemented for adaptive line enhancer (ALE) filter which extracts the ECG signal in a noisy environment using LMS filter adaptation. The proposed algorithm is found to have better convergence error/misadjustment when compared to that of ordinary transform domain LMS (TLMS) algorithm, both in the presence of white/colored observation noise. The reduction in convergence error achieved by the new algorithm with desired signal decomposition is found to be lower than that obtained without decomposition. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is better than traditional adaptive filter using LMS algorithm in the aspects of retaining geometrical characteristics of ECG signal.

  6. A multifunctional role of trialkylbenzenes for the preparation of aqueous colloidal mesostructured/mesoporous silica nanoparticles with controlled pore size, particle diameter, and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hironori; Ujiie, Hiroto; Urata, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Eisuke; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2015-11-01

    Both the pore size and particle diameter of aqueous colloidal mesostructured/mesoporous silica nanoparticles (CMSS/CMPS) derived from tetrapropoxysilane were effectively and easily controlled by the addition of trialkylbenzenes (TAB). Aqueous highly dispersed CMPS with large pores were successfully obtained through removal of surfactants and TAB by a dialysis process. The pore size (from 4 nm to 8 nm) and particle diameter (from 50 nm to 380 nm) were more effectively enlarged by the addition of 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TIPB) than 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), and the enlargement did not cause the variation of the mesostructure and particle morphology. The larger molecular size and higher hydrophobicity of TIPB than TMB induce the incorporation of TIPB into micelles without the structural change. When TMB was used as TAB, the pore size of CMSS was also enlarged while the mesostructure and particle morphology were varied. Interestingly, when tetramethoxysilane and TIPB were used, CMSS with a very small particle diameter (20 nm) with concave surfaces and large mesopores were obtained, which may strongly be related to the initial nucleation of CMSS. A judicious choice of TAB and Si sources is quite important to control the mesostructure, size of mesopores, particle diameter, and morphology.Both the pore size and particle diameter of aqueous colloidal mesostructured/mesoporous silica nanoparticles (CMSS/CMPS) derived from tetrapropoxysilane were effectively and easily controlled by the addition of trialkylbenzenes (TAB). Aqueous highly dispersed CMPS with large pores were successfully obtained through removal of surfactants and TAB by a dialysis process. The pore size (from 4 nm to 8 nm) and particle diameter (from 50 nm to 380 nm) were more effectively enlarged by the addition of 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TIPB) than 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), and the enlargement did not cause the variation of the mesostructure and particle morphology. The larger molecular size

  7. Mesoporous Silica Gel-Based Mixed Matrix Membranes for Improving Mass Transfer in Forward Osmosis: Effect of Pore Size of Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jian-Yuan; Wang, Yining; Tang, Chuyang Y.; Huo, Fengwei

    2015-11-01

    The efficiency of forward osmosis (FO) process is generally limited by the internal concentration polarization (ICP) of solutes inside its porous substrate. In this study, mesoporous silica gel (SG) with nominal pore size ranging from 4-30 nm was used as fillers to prepare SG-based mixed matrix substrates. The resulting mixed matrix membranes had significantly reduced structural parameter and enhanced membrane water permeability as a result of the improved surface porosity of the substrates. An optimal filler pore size of ~9 nm was observed. This is in direct contrast to the case of thin film nanocomposite membranes, where microporous nanoparticle fillers are loaded to the membrane rejection layer and are designed in such a way that these fillers are able to retain solutes while allowing water to permeate through them. In the current study, the mesoporous fillers are designed as channels to both water and solute molecules. FO performance was enhanced at increasing filler pore size up to 9 nm due to the lower hydraulic resistance of the fillers. Nevertheless, further increasing filler pore size to 30 nm was accompanied with reduced FO efficiency, which can be attributed to the intrusion of polymer dope into the filler pores.

  8. Mesoporous Silica Gel-Based Mixed Matrix Membranes for Improving Mass Transfer in Forward Osmosis: Effect of Pore Size of Filler.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jian-Yuan; Wang, Yining; Tang, Chuyang Y; Huo, Fengwei

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of forward osmosis (FO) process is generally limited by the internal concentration polarization (ICP) of solutes inside its porous substrate. In this study, mesoporous silica gel (SG) with nominal pore size ranging from 4-30 nm was used as fillers to prepare SG-based mixed matrix substrates. The resulting mixed matrix membranes had significantly reduced structural parameter and enhanced membrane water permeability as a result of the improved surface porosity of the substrates. An optimal filler pore size of ~9 nm was observed. This is in direct contrast to the case of thin film nanocomposite membranes, where microporous nanoparticle fillers are loaded to the membrane rejection layer and are designed in such a way that these fillers are able to retain solutes while allowing water to permeate through them. In the current study, the mesoporous fillers are designed as channels to both water and solute molecules. FO performance was enhanced at increasing filler pore size up to 9 nm due to the lower hydraulic resistance of the fillers. Nevertheless, further increasing filler pore size to 30 nm was accompanied with reduced FO efficiency, which can be attributed to the intrusion of polymer dope into the filler pores. PMID:26592565

  9. Mesoporous Silica Gel–Based Mixed Matrix Membranes for Improving Mass Transfer in Forward Osmosis: Effect of Pore Size of Filler

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jian-Yuan; Wang, Yining; Tang, Chuyang Y.; Huo, Fengwei

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of forward osmosis (FO) process is generally limited by the internal concentration polarization (ICP) of solutes inside its porous substrate. In this study, mesoporous silica gel (SG) with nominal pore size ranging from 4–30 nm was used as fillers to prepare SG-based mixed matrix substrates. The resulting mixed matrix membranes had significantly reduced structural parameter and enhanced membrane water permeability as a result of the improved surface porosity of the substrates. An optimal filler pore size of ~9 nm was observed. This is in direct contrast to the case of thin film nanocomposite membranes, where microporous nanoparticle fillers are loaded to the membrane rejection layer and are designed in such a way that these fillers are able to retain solutes while allowing water to permeate through them. In the current study, the mesoporous fillers are designed as channels to both water and solute molecules. FO performance was enhanced at increasing filler pore size up to 9 nm due to the lower hydraulic resistance of the fillers. Nevertheless, further increasing filler pore size to 30 nm was accompanied with reduced FO efficiency, which can be attributed to the intrusion of polymer dope into the filler pores. PMID:26592565

  10. Two-dimensional lattice-Boltzmann simulation of size exclusion effects during colloidal transport in pore-scale flow channels

    SciTech Connect

    H. Basagaoglu; Meakin, P.; S. Succi; Redden, George D; T.R. Ginn

    2008-05-01

    Experimental investigations indicate that colloidal particles are transported more rapidly than soluble tracers through porous and fractured media. The prevailing in- terpretation is that colloids are confined to larger pores, larger channels or regions within channels where flow is more rapid. A lattice-Boltzmann modeling approach was used to analyze how size-dependent exclusion from low velocity fields in chan- nels can lead to accelerated transport of an inert non-Brownian colloidal particle in low-Reynolds number flows in two-dimensional smooth-walled and rough-walled channels. The simulations were based on pore-scale particle-fluid hydrodynamics without direct interactions between the particle surface and the channel surface. For the smooth-walled channel, the particle consistently drifted towards the center- line and traveled faster than the average fluid velocity. In rough-walled channels, differences between the velocity of the particle and the average velocity of the fluid displayed stronger variations than in the smooth-walled channel. Surface roughness increased the residence time of the particle in the flow channel and modified its trajectories differently in each flow regime. The final position (at the channel exit) and the average velocity of the particle in the rough-walled flow channel were sen- sitive to the release location of the particle, the flow strength, and the magnitude of the surface roughness in the channel. Under all flow conditions investigated, a large particle had a longer residence time in rough-walled flow channels, but drifted Preprint submitted to Elsevier Science 19 September 2006 toward the centerline more strongly than a smaller particle as it approached the channel walls.