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Sample records for rocksalt copper monoxide

  1. A DFT study of rocksalt proxy copper monochalcogenide structures - Implications for possible high-Tc superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, P. M.; Hammond, R. H.; W2AGZ Technologies/GLAM, Stanford University Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    We report findings derived from a series of DFT calculations on the structural stability and paramagnetic ground states of four idealized copper monochalcogenide (CuO, CuS, CuSe, CuTe) rocksalt structures. Note that none of these target compounds occur naturally, but can possibly be fabricated using ``forced epitaxy'' MBE methods, as has been done to grow CuO tetragonal rocksalt films 5-6 monolayers thick.[1,2] Therefore, we treat all examples we report herein as proxies intended to explore candidate implications for possible future high-TC materials. In particular, we find, as might be expected from the long accepted Van Vleck-Anderson-Hubbard formalism describing antiferromagnetic insulators, the Neel temperature scales upward roughly as the width of the spin-carrying bands near or adjacent to the Fermi level or energy gap. We conclude such trend might result in higher superconducting transition temperatures should this be mediated by carrier-spin excitation/fluctuation driven pairing scaled by TN. Finally, we briefly discuss synthetic paths to realizing actual embodiments of our proxy exercises.

  2. Magnetism driven by non-metal interstitials from first-principles prediction: The case of hydrogen- and fluorine-doped calcium monoxide with rock-salt structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shengjie; Zhao, Hui

    2014-12-01

    Our first-principles calculations based on density functional theory confirmed the formation of sp-ferromagnetic states of calcium monoxide with interstitial nonmagnetic F or H atoms. The hydrogen and fluorine interstitials in the oxides were found to be spin polarized and are more stable in the antiferromagnetic state and the ferromagnetic state, respectively. For H-doped CaO, no considerable charge transfer takes place and the spin remains localized on the impurity. For F-doped oxide, the observation may be attributed to the p-p interaction and the charge transfer between the interstitial atom and the neighboring O atoms. We demonstrate that H-doped compound is a potential n-type antiferromagnet, while F-doped material is a potential p-type ferromagnet. The different dopants would induce different magnetic couplings, thus show different ground-state magnetic configurations. The mechanism for the magnetism should be useful for understanding d0 magnetic semiconductors or insulators. The present potential d0 diluted magnetic materials, at least some of them, may be useful in spintronics.

  3. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the binary metal oxides within the nanoporous silica was achieved by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The binary metal oxide-loaded nanoporous silica showed high room temperature catalytic efficiency with over 98 % elimination of carbon monoxide at higher concentration ratio of [Mn]/[Cu].

  4. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-12-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the binary metal oxides within the nanoporous silica was achieved by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The binary metal oxide-loaded nanoporous silica showed high room temperature catalytic efficiency with over 98 % elimination of carbon monoxide at higher concentration ratio of [Mn]/[Cu]. PMID:26744146

  5. Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, G G

    1994-10-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu{sub 2}O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu{sub 2}O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu{sub 2}O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu{sub 2}O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

  6. Reductive coupling of nitrogen monoxide (*NO) facilitated by heme/copper complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Schopfer, Mark P; Puiu, Simona C; Sarjeant, Amy A N; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2010-02-15

    The interactions of nitrogen monoxide (*NO; nitric oxide) with transition metal centers continue to be of great interest, in part due to their importance in biochemical processes. Here, we describe *NO((g)) reductive coupling chemistry of possible relevance to that process (i.e., nitric oxide reductase (NOR) biochemistry), which occurs at the heme/Cu active site of cytochrome c oxidases (CcOs). In this report, heme/Cu/*NO((g)) activity is studied using 1:1 ratios of heme and copper complex components, (F(8))Fe (F(8) = tetrakis(2,6-difluorophenyl)porphyrinate(2-)) and [(tmpa)Cu(I)(MeCN)](+) (TMPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine). The starting point for heme chemistry is the mononitrosyl complex (F(8))Fe(NO) (lambda(max) = 399 (Soret), 541 nm in acetone). Variable-temperature (1)H and (2)H NMR spectra reveal a broad peak at delta = 6.05 ppm (pyrrole) at room temperature (RT), which gives rise to asymmetrically split pyrrole peaks at 9.12 and 8.54 ppm at -80 degrees C. A new heme dinitrosyl species, (F(8))Fe(NO)(2), obtained by bubbling (F(8))Fe(NO) with *NO((g)) at -80 degrees C, could be reversibly formed, as monitored by UV-vis (lambda(max) = 426 (Soret), 538 nm in acetone), EPR (silent), and NMR spectroscopies; that is, the mono-NO complex was regenerated upon warming to RT. (F(8))Fe(NO)(2) reacts with [(tmpa)Cu(I)(MeCN)](+) and 2 equiv of acid to give [(F(8))Fe(III)](+), [(tmpa)Cu(II)(solvent)](2+), and N(2)O((g)), fitting the stoichiometric *NO((g)) reductive coupling reaction: 2*NO((g)) + Fe(II) + Cu(I) + 2H(+) --> N(2)O((g)) + Fe(III) + Cu(II) + H(2)O, equivalent to one enzyme turnover. Control reaction chemistry shows that both iron and copper centers are required for the NOR-type chemistry observed and that, if acid is not present, half the *NO is trapped as a (F(8))Fe(NO) complex, while the remaining nitrogen monoxide undergoes copper complex promoted disproportionation chemistry. As part of this study, [(F(8))Fe(III)]SbF(6) was synthesized and characterized

  7. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Christina W.; Ciston, Jim; Kanan, Matthew W.

    2014-04-01

    The electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into liquid fuel is ideal for high-density renewable energy storage and could provide an incentive for CO2 capture. However, efficient electrocatalysts for reducing CO2 and its derivatives into a desirable fuel are not available at present. Although many catalysts can reduce CO2 to carbon monoxide (CO), liquid fuel synthesis requires that CO is reduced further, using H2O as a H+ source. Copper (Cu) is the only known material with an appreciable CO electroreduction activity, but in bulk form its efficiency and selectivity for liquid fuel are far too low for practical use. In particular, H2O reduction to H2 outcompetes CO reduction on Cu electrodes unless extreme overpotentials are applied, at which point gaseous hydrocarbons are the major CO reduction products. Here we show that nanocrystalline Cu prepared from Cu2O (`oxide-derived Cu') produces multi-carbon oxygenates (ethanol, acetate and n-propanol) with up to 57% Faraday efficiency at modest potentials (-0.25 volts to -0.5 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode) in CO-saturated alkaline H2O. By comparison, when prepared by traditional vapour condensation, Cu nanoparticles with an average crystallite size similar to that of oxide-derived copper produce nearly exclusive H2 (96% Faraday efficiency) under identical conditions. Our results demonstrate the ability to change the intrinsic catalytic properties of Cu for this notoriously difficult reaction by growing interconnected nanocrystallites from the constrained environment of an oxide lattice. The selectivity for oxygenates, with ethanol as the major product, demonstrates the feasibility of a two-step conversion of CO2 to liquid fuel that could be powered by renewable electricity.

  8. Reductive Coupling of Nitrogen Monoxide (•NO) Facilitated by Heme/Copper Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Schopfer, Mark P.; Puiu, Simona C.; Sarjeant, Amy A. N.; Karlin, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    The interactions of nitrogen monoxide (•NO; nitric oxide) with transition metal centers continue to be of great interest, in part due to their importance in biochemical processes. Here, we describe •NO(g) reductive coupling chemistry of possible relevance to that process (i.e., nitric oxide reductase (NOR) biochemistry) which occurs at the heme/Cu active site of cytochrome c oxidases (CcOs). In this report, heme/Cu/•NO(g) activity is studied using 1:1 ratios of heme and copper complex components, (F8)Fe (F8 = tetrakis(2,6-difluorophenyl)porphyrinate(2-)) and [(tmpa)CuI(MeCN)]+ (TMPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine). The starting point for heme chemistry is the mononitrosyl complex (F8)Fe(NO) (λmax = 399 (Soret), 541 nm in acetone). Variable temperature 1H- and 2H-NMR spectra reveal a broad peak at δ = 6.05 ppm (pyrrole) at RT, which gives rise to asymmetrically split pyrrole peaks at 9.12 and 8.54 ppm at −80°C. A new heme dinitrosyl species, (F8)Fe(NO)2, obtained by bubbling (F8)Fe(NO) with •NO(g) at −80 °C, could be reversibly formed, as monitored by UV-vis (λmax = 426 (Soret), 538 nm in acetone), EPR (silent), and NMR spectroscopies, i.e. the mono-NO complex was regenerated upon warming to RT. (F8)Fe(NO)2 reacts with [(tmpa)CuI(MeCN)]+ and two equiv of acid to give [(F8)FeIII]+, [(tmpa)CuII(solvent)]2+ and N2O(g), fitting the stoichiometric •NO(g) reductive coupling reaction: 2 •NO(g) + FeII + CuI + 2 H+ → N2O(g) + FeIII + CuII + H2O, equivalent to one enzyme turnover. Control reaction chemistry shows that both iron and copper centers are required for the NOR type chemistry observed, and that if acid is not present, half the •NO is trapped as a (F8)Fe(NO) complex, while the remaining nitrogen monoxide undergoes copper complex promoted disproportionation chemistry. As part of this study, [(F8)FeIII]SbF6 was synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, along with EPR (77 K: g = 5.84 and 6.12 in CH2Cl2 and THF, respectively) and

  9. Interfacial Cu+ promoted surface reactivity: Carbon monoxide oxidation reaction over polycrystalline copper-titania catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Pappoe, Naa Adokaley; Nguyen-Phan, Thuy-Duong; Luo, Si; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Liu, Zongyuan; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Johnston-Peck, Aaron C.; Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Heckler, Ilana; Stacchiola, Dario; Rodriguez, José A.

    2016-10-01

    We have studied the catalytic carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation (CO + 0.5O2 → CO2) reaction using a powder catalyst composed of both copper (5 wt.% loading) and titania (CuOx-TiO2). Our study was focused on revealing the role of Cu, and the interaction between Cu and TiO2, by systematic comparison between two nanocatalysts, CuOx-TiO2 and pure CuOx. We interrogated these catalysts under in situ conditions using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to probe the structure and electronic properties of the catalyst at all stages of the reaction and simultaneously probe the surface states or intermediates of this reaction. With the aid of several ex situ characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the local catalyst morphology and structure were also studied. Our results show that a CuOx-TiO2 system is more active than bulk CuOx for the CO oxidation reaction due to its lower onset temperature and better stability at higher temperatures. Our results also suggest that surface Cu+ species observed in the CuOx-TiO2 interface are likely to be a key player in the CO oxidation mechanism, while implicating that the stabilization of this species is probably associated with the oxide-oxide interface. Both in situ DRIFTS and XAFS measurements reveal that there is likely to be a Cu(Ti)-O mixed oxide at this interface. We discuss the nature of this Cu(Ti)-O interface and interpret its role on the CO oxidation reaction.

  10. The Hydrogenase Activity of the Molybdenum/Copper-containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase of Oligotropha carboxidovorans*

    PubMed Central

    Wilcoxen, Jarett; Hille, Russ

    2013-01-01

    The reaction of the air-tolerant CO dehydrogenase from Oligotropha carboxidovorans with H2 has been examined. Like the Ni-Fe CO dehydrogenase, the enzyme can be reduced by H2 with a limiting rate constant of 5.3 s−1 and a dissociation constant Kd of 525 μm; both kred and kred/Kd, reflecting the breakdown of the Michaelis complex and the reaction of free enzyme with free substrate in the low [S] regime, respectively, are largely pH-independent. During the reaction with H2, a new EPR signal arising from the Mo/Cu-containing active site of the enzyme is observed which is distinct from the signal seen when the enzyme is reduced by CO, with greater g anisotropy and larger hyperfine coupling to the active site 63,65Cu. The signal also exhibits hyperfine coupling to at least two solvent-exchangeable protons of bound substrate that are rapidly exchanged with solvent. Proton coupling is also evident in the EPR signal seen with the dithionite-reduced native enzyme, and this coupling is lost in the presence of bicarbonate. We attribute the coupled protons in the dithionite-reduced enzyme to coordinated water at the copper site in the native enzyme and conclude that bicarbonate is able to displace this water from the copper coordination sphere. On the basis of our results, a mechanism for H2 oxidation is proposed which involves initial binding of H2 to the copper of the binuclear center, displacing the bound water, followed by sequential deprotonation through a copper-hydride intermediate to reduce the binuclear center. PMID:24165123

  11. Zinc-oxide nanorod/copper-oxide thin-film heterojunction for a nitrogen-monoxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hwansu; Kim, Hyojin; Kim, Dojin

    2014-11-01

    A novel p- n oxide heterojunction structure was fabricated by employing n-type zinc-oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown on an indium-tin-oxide-coated glass substrate by using the hydrothermal method and a p-type copper-oxide (CuO) thin film deposited onto the ZnO nanorod array by using the sputtering method. The crystallinities and microstructures of the heterojunction materials were examined by using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The observed current-voltage characteristics of the p - n oxide heterojunction showed a nonlinear diode-like rectifying behavior. The effects of an oxidizing or electron acceptor gas, such as nitrogen monoxide (NO), on the ZnO nanorod/CuO thin-film heterojunction were investigated to determine the potential applications of the fabricated material for use in gas sensors. The forward current of the p - n heterojunction was remarkably reduced when NO gas was introduced into dry air at temperatures from 100 to 250 °C. The NO gas response of the oxide heterojunction reached a maximum value at an operating temperature of 180 °C and linearly increased as the NO gas concentration was increased from 5 to 30 ppm. The sensitivity value was observed to be as high as 170% at 180 °C when biased at 2 V in the presence of 20-ppm NO. The ZnO nanorod/CuO thin-film heterojunction also exhibited a stable and repeatable response to NO gas. The experimental results suggest that the ZnO nanorod/CuO thin-film heterojunction structure may be a novel candidate for gas sensors.

  12. The Reaction of the Molybdenum- and Copper-Containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase from Oligotropha carboxydovorans with Quinones†

    PubMed Central

    Wilcoxen, Jarett; Zhang, Bo; Hille, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from Oligotropha carboxydovorans catalyzes the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, providing the organism both a carbon source and energy for growth. In the oxidative half of the catalytic cycle, electrons gained from CO are ultimately passed to the electron transport chain of the Gram-negative organism, but the proximal acceptor of reducing equivalents from the enzyme has not been established. Here we investigate the reaction of reduced enzyme with various quinones, and find them to be catalytically competent. Benzoquinone has a kox of 125.1 s-1 and Kd of 48 μM; ubiquinone-1 has a kox/Kd value of 2.88 × 105 M-1s-1; 1,4-napthoquinone has a kox of 38 s-1 and Kd of 140 μM; and 1,2-napthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid a kox/Kd of 1.31 × 105 M-1s-1. An extensive effort to identify a cytochrome that was reducible by CO/CODH was unsuccessful. Steady-state studies with benzoquinone indicate that the rate-limiting step is in the reductive half of the reaction (that is, the reaction of oxidized enzyme with CO). On the basis of the inhibition of CODH by diphenyliodonium chloride we conclude that quinone substrates interact with CODH at the enzyme’s flavin site. Our results strongly suggest that CODH donates reducing equivalents directly to the quinone pool without using a cytochrome as an intermediary. PMID:21275368

  13. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide over a copper nanocube catalyst: Surface structure and pH dependence on selectivity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Roberts, F. Sloan; Kuhl, Kendra P.; Nilsson, Anders

    2016-02-16

    The activity and selectivity for CO2/CO reduction over copper electrodes is strongly dependent on the local surface structure of the catalyst and the pH of the electrolyte. Here we investigate a unique, copper nanocube surface (CuCube) as a CO reduction electrode under neutral and basic pH, using online electrochemical mass spectroscopy (OLEMS) to determine the onset potentials and relative intensities of methane and ethylene production. To relate the unique selectivity to the surface structure, the CuCube surface reactivity is compared to polycrystalline copper and three single crystals under the same reaction conditions. Here, we find that the high selectivity formore » ethylene over the CuCube surface is most comparable to the Cu(100) surface, which has the cubic unit cell. However, the suppression of methane production over CuCube is unique to that particular surface. Basic pH is also shown to enhance ethylene selectivity on all surfaces, again with the CuCube surface being unique.« less

  14. Stability of a new cubic monoxide of Thorium under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weiwei; Luo, Wei; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory has been applied to elucidate the stability of thorium monoxide (ThO). It is found out that the pressure can stabilize the rocksalt phase of ThO, and the transition pressure is estimated between 14 and 22 GPa. The stability of ThO can be attributed due to the gradually filling 5f orbitals at the expense of 7s and 6d electrons in Th metal. For ThO, the pressure induces stronger Th-O bond reflected by the newly established 6d-2p hybridization which is the dominant cause of its stability. The phonon dispersion curves of the rocksalt phase show the positive frequencies which indicates its dynamical stability. Our successful prediction of the stabilization of the metallic ThO has proposed a route to synthesize novel actinide monoxides. PMID:26337015

  15. Theoretical study of the bonding of ammonia, carbon monoxide, and ethylene, to copper atom, dimer, and trimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, René

    1995-04-01

    Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) calculations were performed for the association complexes Cun-L, with n=1, 2, 3 and L=NH3, CO, and C2H4. Two geometries for Cu2-L are considered; with the ligand bonded to a single copper atom (``atop,'' or A), and with the ligand bonded to both atoms (``bridge,'' or B). In addition to A and B, a third geometry was considered for Cu3-L, with the ligand bonded to all three copper atoms; in each case, no minimum was found for that third geometry. I report fully optimized equilibrium geometries and harmonic frequencies calculated within the local spin density (LSD) approximation for all the bound complexes and estimates of their binding energies obtained with a gradient-corrected exchange-correlation functional. Structure A is the most stable in all cases but, for Cu3CO and Cu3C2H4, structure B is only a few kcal/mol higher in energy. The energetic contribution from the geometrical relaxation of Cu3 ranges from essentially zero (Cu3NH3 B) to 3.4 kcal/mol (Cu3CO B). In agreement with previous calculations on Cun-C2H2 and with experiments, the calculated Cun-L binding energy is found to increase with n for all ligands. Although the bonding mechanism differs among the three ligands, repulsion of a filled ligand orbital with the half-filled 4s orbital of copper (or 4s-derived molecular orbitals of Cu2 and Cu3) always plays an important role and is responsible for the smaller binding energies in the CuL complexes. This repulsion decreases from Cu to Cu2 because of charge accumulation in Cu-Cu midbond region and of the greater polarizability of Cu2. The Cu3L binding energies are larger than those of Cu2L mostly because of the greater involvement of copper 4p orbitals in bonding to the ligand. The ligand vibrational frequency shifts relative to the free molecules are compared to experiment and discussed in relation to the nature of the metal-ligand interaction. In particular, an interesting correlation, between the frequency of

  16. Magnetic coupling at perovskite and rock-salt structured interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Matvejeff, M.; Ahvenniemi, E.; Takahashi, R.; Lippmaa, M.

    2015-10-05

    We study magnetic coupling between hole-doped manganite layers separated by either a perovskite or a rock-salt barrier of variable thickness. Both the type and the quality of the interface have a strong impact on the minimum critical barrier thickness where the manganite layers become magnetically decoupled. A rock-salt barrier layer only 1 unit cell (0.5 nm) thick remains insulating and is able to magnetically de-couple the electrode layers. The technique can therefore be used for developing high-performance planar oxide electronic devices such as magnetic tunnel junctions and quantum well structures that depend on magnetically and electronically sharp heterointerfaces.

  17. Acetaldehyde as an Intermediate in the Electroreduction of Carbon Monoxide to Ethanol on Oxide‐Derived Copper

    PubMed Central

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer‐Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide; Montoya, Joseph H.; Trimarco, Daniel B.; Roy, Claudie; Meier, Sebastian; Wendland, Jürgen; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oxide‐derived copper (OD‐Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at −0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace‐gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a minor product and key intermediate in the electroreduction of CO to ethanol on OD‐Cu electrodes. Acetaldehyde is produced with a Faradaic efficiency of ≈5 % at −0.33 V (vs. RHE). We show that acetaldehyde forms at low steady‐state concentrations, and that free acetaldehyde is difficult to detect in alkaline solutions using NMR spectroscopy, requiring alternative methods for detection and quantification. Our results represent an important step towards understanding the CO reduction mechanism on OD‐Cu electrodes. PMID:26692282

  18. Acetaldehyde as an intermediate in the electroreduction of carbon monoxide to ethanol on oxide-derived copper

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer-Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide; Montoya, Joseph H.; Trimarco, Daniel B.; Roy, Claudie; Meier, Sebastian; Wendland, Jürgen; Nørskov, Jens K.; Stephens, Ifan E. L.; et al

    2015-12-21

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at -0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a minor product and key intermediate in the electroreduction of CO to ethanol on OD-Cu electrodes. Acetaldehyde is produced with a Faradaic efficiency of ≈5 % at -0.33 V (vs. RHE). We show that acetaldehyde forms at low steady-state concentrations, and that free acetaldehyde is difficult to detect in alkaline solutions using NMR spectroscopy, requiring alternative methods for detection and quantification.more » Our results indicate an important step towards understanding the CO reduction mechanism on OD-Cu electrodes.« less

  19. Acetaldehyde as an intermediate in the electroreduction of carbon monoxide to ethanol on oxide-derived copper

    SciTech Connect

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer-Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide; Montoya, Joseph H.; Trimarco, Daniel B.; Roy, Claudie; Meier, Sebastian; Wendland, Jürgen; Nørskov, Jens K.; Stephens, Ifan E. L.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-12-21

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at -0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a minor product and key intermediate in the electroreduction of CO to ethanol on OD-Cu electrodes. Acetaldehyde is produced with a Faradaic efficiency of ≈5 % at -0.33 V (vs. RHE). We show that acetaldehyde forms at low steady-state concentrations, and that free acetaldehyde is difficult to detect in alkaline solutions using NMR spectroscopy, requiring alternative methods for detection and quantification. Our results indicate an important step towards understanding the CO reduction mechanism on OD-Cu electrodes.

  20. COPPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a review of current knowledge of the distribution of copper in the environment and living things. Metabolism and the effects of copper in the biosphere are also considered. Copper compounds are common and widely distributed in nature. They are also extensively mined...

  1. New insights on the rheological properties of a rocksalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranza, G.; Vinciguerra, S.; Di Genova, D.; Romano, C.; Vona, A.; Mollo, S.; Iarocci, A.

    2013-12-01

    The importance and economic interest on rocksalt deposits and salt bodies are well known and extensively studied. The physical and mechanical properties of salt have a profound influence on the tectonics as well as they are considered to be vital for applicative purposes such as mining, petroleum and nuclear waste storage. However, previous scientific works have mainly focused on synthetic rocksalt or commercial salt, whereas natural salt facies have been scarcely investigated. In this view, we present new data on the role of natural heterogeneities (i.e., relative abundance of primary salt crystals and impurities) on the rheological parameters of a rocksalt. This rock belongs to the Saline di Volterra formation (Volterra basin, Tuscany, central Italy) that was deposited during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The 49-metre-thick salt sequence (intersected by the S1113 borehole of the Solvay company) is characterized by a high salt facies variability. In particular, three end-members have been recognized: the first contains abundant primary salt crystals, with minor or no recrystallizazion; the second member is extensively recrystallized, with scarce primary crystal remnants; the third shows a great abundance of clay impurities. Rheological parameters, such as static and dynamic Young's Modulus and coefficient of linear expansion, were measured for the three rocksalt end-members throughout P and S seismic velocities, uniaxial compressive strength and thermal expansion measurements. Seismic velocity has been measured on cubic samples with a side ranging from 4 to 7 cm. A clear effect of the salt facies was found: the average velocity is faster in mostly recrystallized salt samples (4500 m/s), slower in primary salt-rich samples (4300 m/s), and intermediate (4350 m/s) in presence of clay impurities. Dynamic Young's Modulus calculated on velocities (average value ≈ 38 GPa) mirrors this behavior, with lowest values related to primary salt. The anisotropic effect induced

  2. Copper

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper ; CASRN 7440 - 50 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  3. Thermal expansion of rock-salt cubic AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosik, M.; Todt, M.; Holec, D.; Todt, J.; Zhou, L.; Riedl, H.; Böhm, H. J.; Rammerstorfer, F. G.; Mayrhofer, P. H.

    2015-08-01

    We combine continuum mechanics modeling and wafer curvature experiments to characterize the thermal expansion coefficient of AlN in its metastable cubic rock-salt (B1) structure. The latter was stabilized as nm thin layers by coherency strains in CrN/AlN epitaxial multilayers deposited on Si (100) substrates using reactive magnetron sputtering. The extraction of the B1-AlN thermal expansion coefficient, from experimentally recorded temperature dependent wafer curvature data, is formulated as an inverse problem using continuum mechanics modeling. The results are cross-validated by density functional theory calculations.

  4. Shock wave synthesis of aluminium nitride with rocksalt structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, K.; Schlothauer, T.; Schwarz, M.; Heide, G.; Kroke, E.

    2012-03-01

    The high pressure phase of aluminium nitride with rocksalt structure (rs) is a ceramic with high potential and a challenging material to investigate. The rs-AlN was synthesised and recovered by shock wave experiments using the flyer-plate method with multiple reflections at peak pressures between 15 and 43 GPa. Successful syntheses were carried out using AlN nanopowder with ambient pressure wurtzite structure (w-AlN) as starting material. The high pressure modification could, however, not be obtained when starting from submicron w-AlN. The recovery of rs-AlN is sensitive to the synthesis conditions as these influence the reconversion of rs-AlN to w-AlN.

  5. First-principles prediction of the equation of state for TcC with rocksalt structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Wei; Chu, Yan-Dong; Liu, Zi-Jiang; Song, Ting; Tian, Jun-Hong; Wei, Xiao-Ping

    2014-10-01

    The equation of state of TcC with rocksalt structure is investigated by means of first-principles density functional theory calculations combined with the quasi-harmonic Debye model in which the phononic effects are considered. Particular attention is paid to the predictions of the compressibility, the isothermal bulk modulus and its first pressure derivative which play a central role in the formulation of approximate equations of state for the first time. The properties of TcC with rocksalt structure are summarized in the pressure range of 0-80 GPa and the temperature up to 2500 K.

  6. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Dutta, Prabir K.; Swartz, Scott L.; Holt, Christopher T.; Revur, Ramachandra Rao

    2006-01-10

    A sensor and method of use for detection of low levels of carbon monoxide in gas mixtures. The approach is based on the change in an electrical property (for example: resistance) that occurs when carbon monoxide is selectively absorbed by a film of copper chloride (or other metal halides). The electrical property change occurs rapidly with both increasing and decreasing CO contents, varies with the amount of CO from the gas stream, and is insensitive to the presence of hydrogen. To make a sensor using this approach, the metal halide film will deposited onto an alumina substrate with electrodes. The sensor may be maintained at the optimum temperature with a thick film platinum heater deposited onto the opposite face of the substrate. When the sensor is operating at an appropriate (and constant) temperature, the magnitude of the electrical property measured between the interdigital electrodes will provide a measure of the carbon monoxide content of the gas.

  7. Vacancy Structures and Melting Behavior in Rock-Salt GeSbTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xue-Peng; Shen, Zhen-Ju; Li, Xian-Bin; Wang, Chuan-Shou; Chen, Yong-Jin; Li, Ji-Xue; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Sheng-Bai; Han, Xiao-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Ge-Sb-Te alloys have been widely used in optical/electrical memory storage. Because of the extremely fast crystalline-amorphous transition, they are also expected to play a vital role in next generation nonvolatile microelectronic memory devices. However, the distribution and structural properties of vacancies have been one of the key issues in determining the speed of melting (or amorphization), phase-stability, and heat-dissipation of rock-salt GeSbTe, which is crucial for its technological breakthrough in memory devices. Using spherical aberration-aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic scale energy-dispersive X-ray mapping, we observe a new rock-salt structure with high-degree vacancy ordering (or layered-like ordering) at an elevated temperature, which is a result of phase transition from the rock-salt phase with randomly distributed vacancies. First-principles calculations reveal that the phase transition is an energetically favored process. Moreover, molecular dynamics studies suggest that the melting of the cubic rock-salt phases is initiated at the vacancies, which propagate to nearby regions. The observation of multi-rock-salt phases suggests another route for multi-level data storage using GeSbTe.

  8. Vacancy structures and melting behavior in rock-salt GeSbTe

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xue -Peng; Shen, Zhen -Ju; Li, Xian -Bin; Wang, Chuan -Shou; Chen, Yong -Jin; Li, Ji -Xue; Zhang, Jin -Xing; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Sheng -Bai; et al

    2016-05-03

    Ge-Sb-Te alloys have been widely used in optical/electrical memory storage. Because of the extremely fast crystalline-amorphous transition, they are also expected to play a vital role in next generation nonvolatile microelectronic memory devices. However, the distribution and structural properties of vacancies have been one of the key issues in determining the speed of melting (or amorphization), phase-stability, and heat-dissipation of rock-salt GeSbTe, which is crucial for its technological breakthrough in memory devices. Using spherical aberration-aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic scale energy-dispersive X-ray mapping, we observe a new rock-salt structure with high-degree vacancy ordering (or layered-like ordering) atmore » an elevated temperature, which is a result of phase transition from the rock-salt phase with randomly distributed vacancies. First-principles calculations reveal that the phase transition is an energetically favored process. Furthermore, molecular dynamics studies suggest that the melting of the cubic rock-salt phases is initiated at the vacancies, which propagate to nearby regions. The observation of multi-rock-salt phases suggests another route for multi-level data storage using GeSbTe.« less

  9. Vacancy Structures and Melting Behavior in Rock-Salt GeSbTe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xue-Peng; Shen, Zhen-Ju; Li, Xian-Bin; Wang, Chuan-Shou; Chen, Yong-Jin; Li, Ji-Xue; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Sheng-Bai; Han, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Ge-Sb-Te alloys have been widely used in optical/electrical memory storage. Because of the extremely fast crystalline-amorphous transition, they are also expected to play a vital role in next generation nonvolatile microelectronic memory devices. However, the distribution and structural properties of vacancies have been one of the key issues in determining the speed of melting (or amorphization), phase-stability, and heat-dissipation of rock-salt GeSbTe, which is crucial for its technological breakthrough in memory devices. Using spherical aberration-aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic scale energy-dispersive X-ray mapping, we observe a new rock-salt structure with high-degree vacancy ordering (or layered-like ordering) at an elevated temperature, which is a result of phase transition from the rock-salt phase with randomly distributed vacancies. First-principles calculations reveal that the phase transition is an energetically favored process. Moreover, molecular dynamics studies suggest that the melting of the cubic rock-salt phases is initiated at the vacancies, which propagate to nearby regions. The observation of multi-rock-salt phases suggests another route for multi-level data storage using GeSbTe. PMID:27140674

  10. Vacancy Structures and Melting Behavior in Rock-Salt GeSbTe

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xue-Peng; Shen, Zhen-Ju; Li, Xian-Bin; Wang, Chuan-Shou; Chen, Yong-Jin; Li, Ji-Xue; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Sheng-Bai; Han, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Ge-Sb-Te alloys have been widely used in optical/electrical memory storage. Because of the extremely fast crystalline-amorphous transition, they are also expected to play a vital role in next generation nonvolatile microelectronic memory devices. However, the distribution and structural properties of vacancies have been one of the key issues in determining the speed of melting (or amorphization), phase-stability, and heat-dissipation of rock-salt GeSbTe, which is crucial for its technological breakthrough in memory devices. Using spherical aberration-aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic scale energy-dispersive X-ray mapping, we observe a new rock-salt structure with high-degree vacancy ordering (or layered-like ordering) at an elevated temperature, which is a result of phase transition from the rock-salt phase with randomly distributed vacancies. First-principles calculations reveal that the phase transition is an energetically favored process. Moreover, molecular dynamics studies suggest that the melting of the cubic rock-salt phases is initiated at the vacancies, which propagate to nearby regions. The observation of multi-rock-salt phases suggests another route for multi-level data storage using GeSbTe. PMID:27140674

  11. Novel superstructure of the rocksalt type and element distribution in germanium tin antimony tellurides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Tobias; Welzmiller, Simon; Neudert, Lukas; Urban, Philipp; Fitch, Andy; Oeckler, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    A superstructure of the rocksalt-type observed in quenched CVT-grown single crystals of Ge3.25(7)Sn1.10(3)Sb1.10(3)Te6 was elucidated by X-ray diffraction using fourfold twinned crystals (space group P3barm1, a=4.280(1) Å, c=20.966(3) Å). The structure is built up of distorted rocksalt-type building blocks typical for long-range ordered GST materials and substitution variants thereof. In contrast to those phases, an exclusive ABC-type cubic stacking sequence of the Te-atom layers is present. High-resolution electron microscopy reveals spheroidal domains with this structure (average diameter 25 nm) whose stacking direction is perpendicular to the <1 1 1> directions of the basic rocksalt-type structure. Additional slab-like domains with a lateral extension up to 1 μm occasionally result in a hierarchical structure motif. Due to the similar electron counts of the elements involved, resonant diffraction was used in order to elucidate the element distribution in rocksalt-type building blocks of the stable layered compound 39R-Ge3SnSb2Te7 (R3barm, a=4.24990(4) Å, c=73.4677(9) Å). Sb tends to occupy the atom site close to the van der Waals gaps while Ge concentrates in the center of the building blocks.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning depends upon precise history taking, careful physical examination, and a high index of suspicion. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:21221282

  13. Novel superstructure of the rocksalt type and element distribution in germanium tin antimony tellurides

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Tobias; Welzmiller, Simon; Neudert, Lukas; Urban, Philipp; Fitch, Andy; Oeckler, Oliver

    2014-11-15

    A superstructure of the rocksalt-type observed in quenched CVT-grown single crystals of Ge{sub 3.25(7)}Sn{sub 1.10(3)}Sb{sub 1.10(3)}Te{sub 6} was elucidated by X-ray diffraction using fourfold twinned crystals (space group P3{sup ¯}m1, a=4.280(1) Å, c=20.966(3) Å). The structure is built up of distorted rocksalt-type building blocks typical for long-range ordered GST materials and substitution variants thereof. In contrast to those phases, an exclusive ABC-type cubic stacking sequence of the Te-atom layers is present. High-resolution electron microscopy reveals spheroidal domains with this structure (average diameter 25 nm) whose stacking direction is perpendicular to the 〈1 1 1〉 directions of the basic rocksalt-type structure. Additional slab-like domains with a lateral extension up to 1 µm occasionally result in a hierarchical structure motif. Due to the similar electron counts of the elements involved, resonant diffraction was used in order to elucidate the element distribution in rocksalt-type building blocks of the stable layered compound 39R-Ge{sub 3}SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 7} (R3{sup ¯}m, a=4.24990(4) Å, c=73.4677(9) Å). Sb tends to occupy the atom site close to the van der Waals gaps while Ge concentrates in the center of the building blocks. - Graphical abstract: High-resolution transmission electron micrograph, SAED pattern and reciprocal lattice section of X-ray single crystal data of Ge{sub 3.25}Sn{sub 1.1}Sb{sub 1.1}Te{sub 6} with an 11P-type superstructure of the rocksalt type. - Highlights: • A novel superstructure of the rocksalt-type in the system Ge–Sn–Sb–Te is elucidated. • It combines the cubic stacking of the HT phase with building blocks of the RT phase. • It indicates the ordering mechanism during the phase transition of GST materials. • A hierarchical structure motif is promising with respect to the reduction of κ{sub L}. • Resonant diffraction reveals the element distribution in 39R-Ge{sub 3}SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 7}.

  14. Pressure dependence of the refractive index in wurtzite and rocksalt indium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Oliva, R.; Yamaguchi, T.; Nanishi, Y.

    2014-12-08

    We have performed high-pressure Fourier transform infrared reflectance measurements on a freestanding InN thin film to determine the refractive index of wurtzite InN and its high-pressure rocksalt phase as a function of hydrostatic pressure. From a fit to the experimental refractive-index curves including the effect of the high-energy optical gaps, phonons, free carriers, and the direct (fundamental) band-gap in the case of wurtzite InN, we obtain pressure coefficients for the low-frequency (electronic) dielectric constant ε{sub ∞}. Negative pressure coefficients of −8.8 × 10{sup −2 }GPa{sup −1} and −14.8 × 10{sup −2 }GPa{sup −1} are obtained for the wurtzite and rocksalt phases, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of the electronic band structure and the compressibility of both phases.

  15. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful in determining therapy. Treatment includes the monitoring and management of cardiac arrhythmias and oxygenation. Hyperbaric oxygenation is beneficial, but there are currently no definite criteria for its use. PMID:4027805

  16. Electronic, transport, optical, and structural properties of rocksalt CdO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekuma, Chinedu E.; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2013-10-01

    We report electronic, optical, and structural properties of rocksalt CdO as obtained from first-principle calculations with both the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential using linearized augmented planewave method in WIEN2k and local density approximation (LDA) potential using the LDA Bagayoko-Zhao-Williams-Ekuma-Franklin (BZW-EF) method in implementing the linear combination of Gaussian orbitals. The results are discussed in relation to existing experimental data, particularly to the Burstein-Moss effect.

  17. Compared study of radiolysis-induced gas liberation in rocksalt from various origins

    SciTech Connect

    Akram, N.; Gaudez, M.T.; Toulhoat, P.

    1993-12-31

    The evolution of impure rocksalt samples under irradiation has been investigated and compared to the evolution of pure halite, concerning the radiolytic release of gases. Four different types of rocksalt (pure halite, anhydrite-bearing, sylvinite-bearing, and marneous) have been irradiated with spent fuel at doses ranging from 10{sup 4}Gy to 10{sup 7}Gy, under synthetic air or helium at 50{degrees}C, 150{degrees}C, and 200{degrees}C. Marneous and anhydrite-bearing salt produced higher amounts of gas than the two other types, especially for H{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4}. Radiolytic gas production essentially originates from the decomposition of traces of different kind of impurities: fluid inclusions,w which can be composed of brine and/or organic fluids and gases; minerals such as carbonates, sulfates, or hydrated minerals; organic matter, in general (kerogen). Pure halite decomposes only at very high doses (more than 10{sup 7}Gy) giving off some Cl{sub 2} and other corrosive gases. The overall effect of {gamma}-irradiation on impure rocksalt can be described as follows: destruction of organic matter that produces chemically reduced gases (H{sub 2}, CO, hydrocarbons), after an initial stage of oxygen consumption, which is reached more or less quickly, depending on the availability and quantity of organic matter. The present study will be followed by a modelling of the in-situ radiolytic gas production, taking into account: (1) the dose distribution with time, (2) the temperature distribution with time, and (3) the geometry of the repository, and will allow us to estimate the potential safety impact of radiolytic gas production in the case of a repository emplaced in impure rocksalt.

  18. Disordered lithium niobate rock-salt materials prepared by hydrothermal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Modeshia, Deena R; Walton, Richard I; Mitchell, Martin R; Ashbrook, Sharon E

    2010-07-14

    An investigation of the one-step hydrothermal crystallisation of lithium niobates reveals that reaction between Nb(2)O(5) and aqueous LiOH at 240 degrees C yields materials with a disordered rock-salt structure where the metals are statistically distributed over the cation sites. This contrasts with the well-studied reaction between Nb(2)O(5) and NaOH or KOH that produces ANbO(3) (A = Na, K) perovskites. Powder neutron diffraction shows that materials prepared at short reaction times and lower LiOH concentration (2.5 M) are lithium deficient and have a slight excess of niobium, but that at longer periods of reaction in 5 M LiOH, close to the ideal, stoichiometric Li(0.75)Nb(0.25)O composition is produced. Upon annealing this phase cleanly transforms into the known ordered rock-salt material Li(3)NbO(4), a process we have followed using thermodiffractometry, which indicates that transformation begins at approximately 700 degrees C. Solid-state (93)Nb and (7)Li NMR of the disordered and ordered rock-salt phases shows that both contain single metal sites but there is clear evidence for local disorder in the disordered samples. For the ordered material, NMR parameters derived from experiment are also compared to those calculated using density functional theory and are shown to be in good agreement. PMID:20442945

  19. Estimating carbon monoxide exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerley, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Method predicts effects of carbon monoxide on astronauts confined in spacecraft cabin atmospheres. Information on need for low toxicity level also applies to confined spaces. Benefits are applicable to industry and public health.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible Killer" because it's ... used or incorrectly-vented fuel-burning appliances such as furnaces, stoves, water heaters and fireplaces. Watch This ...

  1. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... any major gas-burning appliances (such as a furnace or water heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters are being used ...

  2. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Kales, S.N. )

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  3. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... colorless gas created when fuels (such as gasoline, wood, coal, natural gas, propane, oil, and methane) burn incompletely. ** Carbon Monoxide can have different effects on people based on its concentration in the ...

  4. High temperature thermoelectric properties of rock-salt structure PbS

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Parker, David S.; Singh, David J.

    2013-12-18

    We present an analysis of the high temperature transport properties of rock-salt structure PbS, a sister compound to the better studied lead chalcogenides PbSe and PbTe. In this study, we find thermopower magnitudes exceeding 200 V/K in a wide doping range for temperatures of 800 K and above. Based on these calculations, and an analysis of recent experimental work we find that this material has a potential for high thermoelectric performance. Also, we find favorable mechanical properties, based on an analysis of published data.

  5. Structural Evidence for a Fast-Ion Transition in the High-Pressure Rocksalt Phase of Silver Iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, D. A.; Hull, S.; Hayes, W.; Gardner, N. J. G.

    1996-12-01

    This Letter describes neutron diffraction measurements of the rocksalt structured phase of AgI at high pressure and temperature and the structural disorder which accompanies its high conductivity. In contrast to the first-order structural phase transition which results in fast-ionic α-AgI at ambient pressure, the fast-ionic behavior in rocksalt structured AgI occurs above a diffuse transition with a small anomaly in lattice parameter and a continuous increase in occupation of interstitial tetrahedral sites with increasing temperature. There are approximately 10 times more defects in the fast-ionic phase of rocksalt AgI than in isostructural AgBr at ambient pressure, 1 K below melting.

  6. Thermoelastic properties of rock-salt NaCl at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M. L. M.; Shukla, G.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Rock-salt NaCl is an important mineral in our daily lives, in high pressure science/technology, and in the oil/gas industry. The latter has come to prominence since the discovery of deep water pre-salt structures containing great hydrocarbon reserves out of the SE coast of Brazil. The unique aspects of these regions, such as deep water (greater than 2 km below sea level) and deep hydrocarbon reserves (more than 5 km deep) are challenging for oil/gas explorations. Oil/gas field imaging algorithms require good velocity models for seismic wave-propagation within the salt layer. Despite its importance, there is still insufficient information on the elasticity of and sound velocities in NaCl at relevant P,T conditions. Here we report such properties in rock-salt NaCl at relevant P,T conditions as obtained by first principles (DFT) quasiharmonic calculations. We compare intermediate and final results with available experimental data on thermodynamics and thermoelastic properties and combine them for optimum accuracy. These results should be useful for and facilitate imaging pre-salt hydrocarbon reserves. Research supported by CAPES from Brazil, NSF/DMR, and NSF/EAR.

  7. Optical properties, structural parameters, and bonding of highly textured rocksalt tantalum nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matenoglou, G. M.; Koutsokeras, L. E.; Lekka, Ch. E.; Abadias, G.; Camelio, S.; Evangelakis, G. A.; Kosmidis, C.; Patsalas, P.

    2008-12-01

    Tantalum nitride is an interesting solid with exceptional properties and it might be considered as a representative model system of the d3s2 transition metal nitrides. In this work highly textured, stoichiometric, rocksalt TaN(111) films have been grown on Si(100) by pulsed laser deposition. The films were under a triaxial stress, which has been determined by the sin2 ψ method. The stress-free lattice parameter was found to be 0.433±0.001 nm, a value which has been also determined by ab initio calculations within the local spin density approximation. The optical properties of TaN have been studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry and detailed band structure calculations. The electron conductivity of TaN is due to the Ta 5dt2g band that intercepts the Fermi level and is the source of intraband absorption. The plasma energies of fully dense rocksalt TaN were found to be 9.45 and 9.7 eV based on the experimental results and ab initio calculations, respectively. Additional optical absorption bands were also observed around 1.9 and 7.3 eV and attributed to be due to crystal field splitting of the Ta 5d band (t2g→eg transition) and the N p→Ta d interband transition, respectively.

  8. Solid State Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Wood, George M. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A means for detecting carbon monoxide which utilizes an un-heated catalytic material to oxidize carbon monoxide at ambient temperatures. Because this reaction is exothermic, a thermistor in contact with the catalytic material is used as a sensing element to detect the heat evolved as carbon monoxide is oxidized to carbon dioxide at the catalyst surface, without any heaters or external heating elements for the ambient air or catalytic element material. Upon comparison to a reference thermistor, relative increases in the temperature of the sensing thermistor correspond positively with an increased concentration of carbon monoxide in the ambient medium and are thus used as an indicator of the presence of carbon monoxide.

  9. Controlling spin-dependent tunneling by bandgap tuning in epitaxial rocksalt MgZnO films

    PubMed Central

    Li, D. L.; Ma, Q. L.; Wang, S. G.; Ward, R. C. C.; Hesjedal, T.; Zhang, X.-G.; Kohn, A.; Amsellem, E.; Yang, G.; Liu, J. L.; Jiang, J.; Wei, H. X.; Han, X. F.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread application of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for information storage has so far been limited by the complicated interplay between tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio and the product of resistance and junction area (RA). An intricate connection exists between TMR ratio, RA value and the bandgap and crystal structure of the barrier, a connection that must be unravelled to optimise device performance and enable further applications to be developed. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to tailor the bandgap of an ultrathin, epitaxial Zn-doped MgO tunnel barrier with rocksalt structure. This structure is attractive due to its good Δ1 spin filtering effect, and we show that MTJs based on tunable MgZnO barriers allow effective balancing of TMR ratio and RA value. In this way spin-dependent transport properties can be controlled, a key challenge for the development of spintronic devices. PMID:25451163

  10. Controlling spin-dependent tunneling by bandgap tuning in epitaxial rocksalt MgZnO films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, D. L.; Ma, Q. L.; Wang, S. G.; Ward, R. C. C.; Hesjedal, T.; Zhang, X. -G.; Kohn, A.; Amsellem, E.; Yang, G.; Liu, J. L.; et al

    2014-12-02

    Widespread application of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for information storage has so far been limited by the complicated interplay between tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio and the product of resistance and junction area (RA). An intricate connection exists between TMR ratio, RA value and the bandgap and crystal structure of the barrier, a connection that must be unravelled to optimise device performance and enable further applications to be developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel method to tailor the bandgap of an ultrathin, epitaxial Zn-doped MgO tunnel barrier with rocksalt structure. This structure is attractive due to its good Δ1more » spin filtering effect, and we show that MTJs based on tunable MgZnO barriers allow effective balancing of TMR ratio and RA value. Finally, in this way spin-dependent transport properties can be controlled, a key challenge for the development of spintronic devices.« less

  11. Controlling spin-dependent tunneling by bandgap tuning in epitaxial rocksalt MgZnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D. L.; Ma, Q. L.; Wang, S. G.; Ward, R. C. C.; Hesjedal, T.; Zhang, X. -G.; Kohn, A.; Amsellem, E.; Yang, G.; Liu, J. L.; Jiang, J.; Wei, H. X.; Han, X. F.

    2014-12-02

    Widespread application of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for information storage has so far been limited by the complicated interplay between tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio and the product of resistance and junction area (RA). An intricate connection exists between TMR ratio, RA value and the bandgap and crystal structure of the barrier, a connection that must be unravelled to optimise device performance and enable further applications to be developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel method to tailor the bandgap of an ultrathin, epitaxial Zn-doped MgO tunnel barrier with rocksalt structure. This structure is attractive due to its good Δ1 spin filtering effect, and we show that MTJs based on tunable MgZnO barriers allow effective balancing of TMR ratio and RA value. Finally, in this way spin-dependent transport properties can be controlled, a key challenge for the development of spintronic devices.

  12. Relating natural heterogeneities and rheological properties of rocksalt: New insights from microstructural observations and petrophyisical parameters on Messinian halites from the Italian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranza, Giulio; Vona, Alessandro; Vinciguerra, Sergio; Romano, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The importance and economic interest of rocksalt as well as its influence on tectonics and applicative purposes such as mining, hydrocarbons extraction, and nuclear waste storage are well known. Careful characterization of physical and chemical properties of rocksalt is fundamental as the rocksalt behavior may influence its potential use for applicative purposes. Mechanical and rheological properties of rocksalt have been extensively studied in the past. However, the role of natural heterogeneities within rocksalt and their effect on salt rheology have not been investigated quantitatively. Here we present a comprehensive salt facies study on Messinian rocksalt from several Italian sites (Volterra Basin, Tuscany, Caltanissetta Basin, Sicily and Crotone Basin, Calabria). Four salt facies end members have been identified and analyzed by optical analyses. The main facies-defining characteristics resulted to be the primary salt crystal abundance, crystal size, roundness and orientation, as well as the clay inclusion contents. Three out of four facies were placed on an evolutionary path from an "immature," with respect to the deformation history, to a "mature," rocksalt. So we observed, with increasing rocksalt maturity, a progressive disappearing of primary crystal remnants, increasing crystals elongation and iso-orientation and decreasing in crystal size. This trend has been confirmed by differential stress calculation from subgrain size. Through seismic waves velocity measurements and uniaxial compressive runs, specific salt facies were tested. Results of the investigations demonstrate that the facies parameters have a distinct influence on the rocksalt petrophysical parameters like P- and S-waves velocity, dynamic and static Young Modulus, elastic limit, and strain at peak. Finally, this study allowed to suggest the subdivision of Volterra's salt sequence in three different units that have been subjected to variable deformation degree in response to the different

  13. Effect the conditions of the acid-thermal modification of clinoptilolite have on the catalytic properties of palladium-copper complexes anchored on it in the reaction of carbon monoxide oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakitskaya, T. L.; Kiose, T. A.; Ennan, A. A.; Golubchik, K. O.; Oleksenko, L. P.; Gerasiova, V. G.

    2016-06-01

    The dependence of the physicochemical and structural-adsorption properties of natural and acid-thermal modified clinoptilolite, and of Pd(II)-Cu(II) catalysts based on them, on the duration of acid-thermal modification is investigated. The samples under study are described via XRD and thermal gravimetric (DTG and DTA) analysis, IR, DR UV-Vis, EPR spectroscopy, and water vapor adsorption. Values of both the specific surface area ( S sp) and pH of aqueous suspensions are determined. The resulting catalysts are tested in the reaction of low-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation with air oxygen. A conclusion is drawn about the nature of surface bimetallic Pd(II)-Cu(II) complexes. The greatest catalytic activity is shown by complexes based on clinoptilolite and modified with 3 M HNO3 for 0.5 and 1 h.

  14. Ambient Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents trends in ambient carbon monoxide concentrations across the U.S. from 1980 to 2009. By tracking ambient carbon monoxide (CO) – a criteria pollutant with the potential to cause cardiovascular and neurological damage – this dataset shows how a...

  15. Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The fuel cell is a system which employs an electrochemical process to convert gases- J such as hydrogen and oxygen directly into electricity. Under NASA sponsorship, GE's Aircraft Equipment Division developed fuel cells to supply electrical power for the Gemini and Biosatellite spacecraft of the sixties and is currently working on advanced fuel cell development. This long-term effort has resulted in a series of spinoff applications using the same general technology for a variety of purposes, among them the recently marketed Dosimeter. The Dosimeter is designed to help users meet safety requirements for industrial atmospheres, as specified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and other regulatory agencies. The compact, pocket-sized sensor measures personnel exposure to carbon monoxide and provides both a visual and an audible alarm if the concentration of the gas exceeds present levels. The Dosimeter offers substantial improvement in measuring accuracy over earlier warning indicators.

  16. The effect of contained fluids during rocksalt heating: insights from thermal expansion experiments on halite single crystals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranza, Giulio; Vona, Alessandro; Di Genova, Danilo; Romano, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Rocksalt overall characteristics and peculiarity are well known and have made rocksalt bodies one of the most favorable choice for nuclear waste storage purposes. Low to medium temperature effects related to nuclear waste heat generation have been studied by several authors. However, high temperature related salt behavior has been poorly investigated as well as studies focused on the effect of temperature increase on fluids contained in halite. Here we present the results of thermal expansion experiments in the range 50 - 700°C made on halite single crystals with different fluid contents. Our results show that thermally unaltered halite is subjected, upon heating, to thermal instability around 300 - 450°C, with sudden increase in expansivity, sample cracking and fluids emission. Moreover, thermal expansion results higher for fluid-rich salts. In contrast, thermally altered halite, lacks the instability occurrence, showing a constant linear thermal expansion regardless its fluid contents. Rocksalt thermal instability, that is likely to be due to fluids overpressure development upon heating, lead also to a bulk density reduction. Thus, unaltered salt heated to temperature around 300°C or more could cause damage, fluids emission and density drop, increasing the salt mobility. For this reason, a detailed and quantitative study of fluid type, abundance and arrangement within crystals, as well as their response to stress and thermal changes is fundamental for both scientific and applicative purposes regarding halite.

  17. Thermoelectric properties of rocksalt ZnO from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, Andrew; Attapattu, Jeevake; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) undergoes a pressure-induced structural transition from its normal ambient-pressure wurtzite (WZ) phase to a rocksalt (RS) phase around 10 GPa. A recent experiment shows that the high-pressure RS ZnO phase can be recovered and stabilized at ambient conditions, which raises exciting prospects of expanding the range of properties of ZnO. For a fundamental understanding of the RS ZnO phase, we have performed first-principles calculations to determine its electronic, phonon, and thermodynamic properties at high (20 GPa) and ambient (0 GPa) pressure. Furthermore, we have calculated its electrical and thermal transport properties, which allow an evaluation of its thermoelectric figure of merit ZT at different temperature and doping levels. Our calculations show that the ambient-pressure RS ZnO phase can reach ZT values of 0.25 to 0.3 under both n-type and p-type doping in a large temperature range of 400 K to 800 K, which is considerably lower than the temperature range of 1400 K to 1600 K where WZ ZnO reaches similar ZT values. These results establish RS ZnO as a promising material for thermoelectric devices designed to operate at temperatures desirable for many heat recovery applications.

  18. Effects of anhydrite and pressure on the mechanical behavior of synthetic rocksalt

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.H.

    1982-09-01

    Bimineralic, polycrystalline rocksalt specimens ranging in composition from pure halite to pure anhydrite have been fabricated in hydrostatic compression at 150 MPa and 100/sup 0/C for 15 minutes. Resulting porosities of the compacted samples increased with increasing anhydrite content, ranging from .02 for pure halite to .14 for pure anhydrite. Twenty-three compacted samples were then deformed in triaxial compression experiments at confining pressures of 10, 100, and 200 MPa, a nominal strain rate of 10/sup -4/ sec/sup -1/ and a temperature of 200/sup 0/C. Sample strength at 10 percent axial strain was directly related to both anhydrite content and pressure. Relatively small strength increases were observed for increases in anhydrite content up to 75 percent, by weight, and for all pressure increases. Much larger increases in strength were observed when the anhydrite content was increased from 75 to 100 percent. Ductilites of less than 10 percent were seen in only two sets of data, the 100 and 75 percent anhydrite samples run at 10 MPa confining pressure, and these data indicated a trend of increasing ductility with increasing halite content and/or confining pressure. All samples exhibited strain hardening except for the 75 percent halite samples at all three pressures and the 50 percent sample of 10 MPa, which exhibited slight strain softening.

  19. Thermoelectric properties of rocksalt ZnO from first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, Andrew; Attapattu, Jeevake; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-10-28

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) undergoes a pressure-induced structural transition from its normal ambient-pressure wurtzite (WZ) phase to a rocksalt (RS) phase around 10 GPa. A recent experiment shows that the high-pressure RS ZnO phase can be recovered and stabilized at ambient conditions, which raises exciting prospects of expanding the range of properties of ZnO. For a fundamental understanding of the RS ZnO phase, we have performed first-principles calculations to determine its electronic, phonon, and thermodynamic properties at high (20 GPa) and ambient (0 GPa) pressure. Furthermore, we have calculated its electrical and thermal transport properties, which allow an evaluation of its thermoelectric figure of merit ZT at different temperature and doping levels. Our calculations show that the ambient-pressure RS ZnO phase can reach ZT values of 0.25 to 0.3 under both n-type and p-type doping in a large temperature range of 400 K to 800 K, which is considerably lower than the temperature range of 1400 K to 1600 K where WZ ZnO reaches similar ZT values. These results establish RS ZnO as a promising material for thermoelectric devices designed to operate at temperatures desirable for many heat recovery applications.

  20. Structure and evolution of a rocksalt-mudrock-tectonite: The haselgebirge in the Northern Calcareous Alps

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Christoph; Neubauer, Franz; Urai, János L.; Schoenherr, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The Northern Calcareous Alps are part of the Eastern Alps in Austria and Germany. The Mesozoic units of this fold-and-thrust belt were detached, thrusted and stacked along the evaporitic Haselgebirge Formation. Exposed in salt mines, rocksalt and mudrock form a two component tectonite: The rock type “haselgebirge” consists of 10–70 wt % halite with silt- to gravel- or block-sized components within a halite matrix, and the “kerngebirge” with >70 wt % halite. All rock types studied are fault rocks. By use of a temperature-independent subgrain size piezometer, the paleo-differential stress of halite was calculated at ca. 2.5 MPa in Altaussee and ca. 4.5 MPa in Berchtesgaden. Including data from a grain-size piezometer, temperatures were estimated at ca. 150 ± 20 °C and 110 ± 10 °C. This implies very high strain rates, which are about 10−10–10−9 s−1. During the tectonic movement, the halite deformed, recrystallized, and crystallized as veins in mudrock fractures. We interpret high overpressure of the pore fluid to have significantly contributed to fracturing of the mudrock. PMID:26523077

  1. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  2. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  3. Formation of titanium monoxide (001) single-crystalline thin film induced by ion bombardment of titanium dioxide (110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabón, B. M.; Beltrán, J. I.; Sánchez-Santolino, G.; Palacio, I.; López-Sánchez, J.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Rojo, J. M.; Ferrer, P.; Mascaraque, A.; Muñoz, M. C.; Varela, M.; Castro, G. R.; de La Fuente, O. Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    A plethora of technological applications justify why titanium dioxide is probably the most studied oxide, and an optimal exploitation of its properties quite frequently requires a controlled modification of the surface. Low-energy ion bombardment is one of the most extended techniques for this purpose and has been recently used in titanium oxides, among other applications, to favour resistive switching mechanisms or to form transparent conductive layers. Surfaces modified in this way are frequently described as reduced and defective, with a high density of oxygen vacancies. Here we show, at variance with this view, that high ion doses on rutile titanium dioxide (110) induce its transformation into a nanometric and single-crystalline titanium monoxide (001) thin film with rocksalt structure. The discovery of this ability may pave the way to new technical applications of ion bombardment not previously reported, which can be used to fabricate heterostructures and interfaces.

  4. Emergent nanoscale fluctuations in high rock-salt PbTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinge, Simon

    2013-03-01

    Lead Telluride is one of the most promising thermoelectric materials in the temperature range just above room temperature. It is a narrow band gap semiconductor with a high Seebeck coefficient and a low thermal conductivity. It is structurally much simpler than many other leading candidates for high performance thermoelectrics being a binary rock-salt, isostructural to NaCl. The thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, can be markedly improved by alloying with various other elements by forming quenched nanostructures. The undoped endmember, PbTe, does not have any such quenched nanostructure, yet has a rather low intrinsic thermal conductivity. There are also a number of interesting and non-canonical behaviors that it exhibits, such as an increasing measured band-gap with increasing temperature, exactly opposite to what is normally seen due to Fermi smearing of the band edge, and an unexpected non-monotonicity of the band gap in the series PbTe - PbSe - PbS. The material is on the surface simple, but hides some interesting complexity. We have investigated in detail the PbTe endmember using x-ray and neutron diffraction and neutron inelastic scattering. To our surprise, using the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron powder diffraction data we found that an interesting and non-trivial local structure that appears on warming. with the Pb atoms moving off the high-symmetry rock-salt positions towards neighboring Te ions. No evidence for the off-centering of the Pb atoms is seen at low temperature. The crossover from the locally undistorted to the locally distorted state occurs on warming between 100 K and 250 K. This unexpected emergence of local symmetry broken distortions from an undistorted ground-state we have called emphanisis, from the Greek for appearing from nothing. We have also investigated the lattice dynamics of the system to search for a dynamical signature of this behavior and extended the studies to doped systems and I will also

  5. Electronic structure and Fermi surfaces of transition metal carbides with rocksalt structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paduani, C.

    2008-06-01

    First-principles calculations were carried out to investigate the structural and electronic properties of the metal carbides FeC, CoC, NiC, and PtC in the rocksalt structure. The full-potential linearized augmented-plane wave (FP-LAPW) method was used in the framework of the density-functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation potential. Ground state properties are determined and compared with available experimental data. The energy band structures, densities of states, and Fermi surface structures are obtained, which show that these compounds are metallic like the conventional transition metal carbides. There is an extensive hybridization between the metal-d and C-2p states for all the studied carbides, which can form bonding and antibonding states. From FeC to PtC a band narrowing for the hybridized metal-d and C-2p states near to the Fermi level takes place, which is expected to lead to smaller interactions between adjacent atoms. The largest bulk modulus of FeC is expected to be associated with the behavior of valence electrons near the Fermi level, i.e. a higher degree of hybridization between p-d states that are responsible for the chemical bonding results in strengthened interactions. The decrease in the number of bonding orbitals or decrease in metallic valence with the increase in number of 3d electrons from FeC to PtC provides a mechanism for weaker interactions due to the filling of antibonding bands.

  6. Overcoming the polarization catastrophe in the rocksalt oxides MgO and CaO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddy, Benjamin E.; Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Maria, Jon-Paul; Irving, Douglas L.

    2014-09-01

    Interfaces between dissimilar polar materials may provide a pathway to new device functionality, including high carrier mobility layers at the interface. The development of these materials has proven challenging, in part because of the high energy cost of forming polar surfaces. Our density functional theory calculations explore the mechanisms by which a real material satisfies the electrostatic criteria for stability imposed by a polar surface. The consequences of polarity are studied by comparing the formation energies, charge distribution, and electronic structure of a number of low-index surfaces of rocksalt MgO and CaO. These surfaces are explored both in their bare, undecorated form as well as with surface reconstructions and adsorbed foreign species. Our ground-state surface energies are extended to relevant environmental conditions by use of ab initio thermodynamics. We find that the high energy of bare polar surfaces is the result of the significant charge redistribution that arises to compensate the polarity and pushes electronic states into the forbidden band gap. Other mechanisms of polarity compensation (reconstruction or foreign species adsorption) are therefore seen more frequently. We explain the experimental observations of surface roughness during growth in the [111] direction. In typical epitaxial growth conditions, there is preferential formation of an octopolar reconstruction of the {111} surface, which exposes {001}-type nanofacets. The low energy of the {001} surface likely causes these facets to grow, leading to a rough surface morphology. Our results indicate that when water vapor is present during growth, a smooth, polar surface can be stabilized by the formation of a hydroxyl layer.

  7. Structural Phase Transitions in High-Pressure Wurtzite to Rocksalt Phase in GaN and SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, H. Y.; Gao, Fei; Wang, Lumin M.; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2008-06-16

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are employed to study the atomistic mechanisms and pathways of high-pressure phase transformation in GaN and SiC. Our simulations bring a fundamental level of understanding of the wurtzite to rocksalt phase transformation that undergoes inhomogeneous displacements via a tetragonal atomic configuration, and suggest that the transition path may be independent of the presence of d electrons on the cation in GaN. The discrepancies between experimental and theoretical studies of transition paths are discussed.

  8. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of pressure-induced zinc blende to rocksalt phase transition in SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan J.; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Weber, William J.

    2009-06-17

    The high-pressure induced phase transformation from the zinc blende to rocksalt structure in SiC has been studied by ab initio molecular dynamics. The simulations show that SiC passes through tetragonal and then monoclinic intermediate states before finally forming the rock salt structure at 160 GPa. The mechanism for this phase transformation agrees well with recent ab initio MD simulations, in which the applied pressure was as high as ~600 GPa, but in the present study the transformation occurs at much lower pressure. It is found that the phase transition has to overcome an energy barrier of 0.44 eV/pair.

  9. Carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Bleecker, Margit L

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, nonirritant gas that accounts for numerous cases of CO poisoning every year from a variety of sources of incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. These include poorly functioning heating systems, indoor propane-powered forklifts, indoor burning of charcoal burning briquettes, riding in the back of pick-up trucks, ice skating rinks using propane-powered resurfacing machines, and gasoline-powered generators that are not in correct locations. Once CO is inhaled it binds with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) with an affinity 200 times greater than oxygen that leads to decreased oxygen-carrying capacity and decreased release of oxygen to tissues leading to tissue hypoxia. Ischemia occurs with CO poisoning when there is loss of consciousness that is accompanied by hypotension and ischemia in the arterial border zones of the brain. Besides binding to many heme-containing proteins, CO disrupts oxidative metabolism leading to the formation of free radicals. Once hypotension and unconsciousness occur with CO poisoning, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis follow. Because COHb has a short half-life, examination of other biomarkers of CO neurotoxicity that reflect inflammation or neuronal damage has not demonstrated consistent results. The initial symptoms with CO exposure when COHb is 15-30% are nonspecific, namely, headache, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, and impaired manual dexterity. However individuals with ischemic heart disease may experience chest pain and decreased exercise duration at COHb levels between 1% and 9%. COHb levels between 30% and 70% lead to loss of consciousness and eventually death. Following resolution of acute symptoms there may be a lucid interval of 2-40 days before the development of delayed neurologic sequelae (DNS), with diffuse demyelination in the brain accompanied by lethargy, behavior changes, forgetfulness, memory loss, and parkinsonian features. Seventy-five percent of patients with DNS

  10. Ab initio study of AlN: Anisotropic thermal expansion, phase diagram, and high-temperature rocksalt to wurtzite phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerler, Steve; Kortus, Jens

    2014-02-01

    We calculate the anisotropic thermal expansion of wurtzite AlN within the quasiharmonic approximation by sampling the volume as a function of two unit cell axes. From the derived Gibbs energy for the low pressure wurtzite phase and the high pressure rocksalt phase, we calculate the phase diagram. By applying ab initio molecular dynamics, we can confirm recent experimental findings regarding a temperature-driven rocksalt to wurtzite backward phase transition. We propose a detailed mechanism for the transition and predict the existence of a β-BeO type high-temperature modification of AlN. Furthermore, we find the h-MgO type intermediate structure previously reported for AlN and other compounds which show the wurtzite to rocksalt forward pressure-induced phase transition.

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning from Sterno.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    A high school student became ill and later unconscious while working over a heating table set over three cans of burning Sterno. Measurements of 1000 to 3000 parts per million of carbon monoxide were obtained around and above the apparatus. Although the room was well ventilated there was incomplete combustion of the canned heating fuel because the apparatus was surrounded by aluminum foil, which resulted in poor oxygenation of the flame area. This case demonstrates the hazards of carbon monoxide poisoning from incompletely burned Sterno. PMID:638911

  12. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  13. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  14. MOPITT Carbon Monoxide Over India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MOPITT observed high levels of carbon monoxide (red and yellow pixels) over the Indian sub-continent during March. These values are associated with industrial activity in the region just south of the Himalayan Mountains. Notice that to the north, the Himalayas are characterized by low values (blue pixels).

  15. Open air carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jumbelic, M I

    1998-01-01

    An unusual manner of carbon monoxide poisoning claimed the lives of two adults in two separate incidents. In the first case, a young man was four wheeling in a swampy area when his jeep became stuck in the mud as he continued to floor the accelerator. Carbon monoxide fumes entered the vehicle through the rusted floorboards, killing the driver. In the second case, two teens were skinny dipping behind a motor boat when they became affected by the boat exhaust. One of the youths was overcome and submerged into the lake. Both incidents were initially attributed to incorrect causes--a car accident and a drowning--because of the false notion that carbon monoxide is not a hazard in a ventilated area. The carboxyhemoglobin levels in these victims were 78 and 62% respectively. It was only through laboratory testing that carbon monoxide poisoning was identified as the cause of their demise. Physicians as well as the public need to be aware of the potential for this life threatening hazard to occur so that there can be proper emergency treatment and the prevention of fatalities. PMID:9456553

  16. Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.; Stramba-Badiale, M.; De Ferrari, G.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in a previously described chronically maintained animal model of sudden cardiac death. In 60 percent of dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction, the combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation. The events in this model are highly reproducible, thus allowing study by internal control analysis. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation during the test of exercise and acute myocardial ischemia are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as 'susceptible'; dogs that survive the test without a fatal arrhythmia are considered at low risk for sudden death and are defined as 'resistant.' In the current study, the effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates was observed at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. This trend was observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, this reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. This effect may depend on the increased hypoxic challenge caused by carbon monoxide, and thus on an augmentation of the neural reflex activation or a sensitization of the sinus node to acetylcholine induced by hypoxia. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. This worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. (Abstract Truncated)

  17. Carbon Monoxide from Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of images shows levels of carbon monoxide at the atmospheric pressure level of 700 millibars (roughly 12,000 feet in altitude) over the continent of South America, as observed by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data for producing the image on the left were acquired on March 3, 2000, and for the image on the right on September 7, 2000. Blue pixels show low values, yellows show intermediate values, and the red to pink and then white pixels are progressively higher values. In the lefthand image (March 3), notice the fairly low levels of carbon monoxide over the entire continent. The slightly higher equatorial values are the result of burning emissions in sub-Saharan Africa that are convected at the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and spread by the trade winds. Also, notice the effect of the elevated surface topography across the Andes Mountains running north to south along the western coastline. (In this region, white pixels show no data.) In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning across Amazonia and lofted into the atmosphere by strong cloud convection. The generally higher carbon monoxide levels as compared to March are both the result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass burning over Southern Africa. These images were produced using MOPITT data, which are currently being validated. These data were assimilated into an atmospheric chemical transport model using wind vectors provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Although there is good confidence in the relative seasonal values and geographic variation measured by MOPITT, that team anticipates their level of confidence will improve further with ongoing intensive validation campaigns and comparisons with in situ and ground

  18. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  19. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site.

    PubMed

    Buss, Joshua A; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  20. Optical and electron transport properties of rock-salt Sc1-xAlxN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Ruopeng; Zheng, P. Y.; Gall, D.

    2015-07-01

    Epitaxial single-crystal Sc1-xAlxN ternary alloy layers deposited by magnetron co-sputtering on MgO(001) substrates at 950 °C exhibit a solid solution rock-salt phase for x = 0-0.2 without decomposition. Optical absorption indicates a linear increase in the optical gap from 2.51 eV for ScN to 3.05 eV for Sc0.8Al0.2N and, after correction due to the Moss-Burstein shift, a direct X point interband transition energy Eg(X) = 2.15 + 2.75 x (eV). Correspondingly, the direct transition at the zone center increases with Al concentration according to Eg(Γ) = 3.80 + 1.45 x (eV), as determined from a feature in the reflection spectra. All layers are degenerate n-type semiconductors with a room temperature mobility that decreases from 22 to 6.7 to 0.83 cm2/V s as x increases from 0 to 0.11 to 0.20. The corresponding carrier densities are 9.2 × 1020, 7.9 × 1020, and 0.95 × 1020 cm-3 as determined from Hall measurements and consistent with optical free carrier absorption below photon energies of 1 eV. Temperature dependent transport measurements indicate metallic conduction for ScN, but weak localization that leads to a resistivity minimum at 85 and 210 K for x = 0.051 and 0.15, respectively, and a negative temperature coefficient over the entire measured 4-300 K range for Sc0.8Al0.2N. The decreasing mobility is attributed to alloy scattering at randomly distributed Al atoms on cation sites, which also cause the weak localization. The carrier density is primarily due to unintentional F doping from the Sc target and decreases strongly for x > 0.15, which is attributed to trapping in defect states due to the deterioration of the crystalline quality, as evidenced by the x-ray diffraction peak width that exhibits a minimum of 0.14° for x = 0.11 but increases to 0.49° for x = 0.20. This is consistent with asymmetric x-ray diffraction analyses, indicating a relaxed lattice constant that decreases from 4.511 ± 0.005 to 4.411 ± 0.004 Å for x = 0-0.2, and a biaxial in

  1. Copper transport.

    PubMed

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats. PMID:9587137

  2. First-principle study of half-metallic ferromagnetism in rocksalt XO (X=Li, K, Rb, Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Gang; Liu, Xiao-Xiong; Xie, Huan-Huan; Li, Lei; Gao, Qiang; Deng, Jian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    By using first-principles calculation, we have studied the structure, electronic and magnetic properties of XO (X=Li, K, Rb, Cs) at equilibrium lattice constant in the rocksalt structure. The calculations reveal that the ferromagnetic phase of these compounds is more stable than the nonferromagnetic phase ones and they can be synthetized. All the compounds show half-metallic behaviors at equilibrium lattice constant with an integer magnetic moment of 1μB per formula unit. The half-metallic band gap of these compounds is very large and all the compounds keep their half-metallic characteristic in a wide range of lattice constants. Therefore, we expect that they can be useful in spintronic applications.

  3. Zinc-blende to rock-salt structural phase transition of BP and BAs under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwan, Madhu; Bhardwaj, Purvee; Singh, Sadhna

    2013-11-01

    In the present paper, we have investigated the pressure induced phase transition and thermophysical properties of BP and BAs by means of modified interaction potential model (MIPM). The MIPM consists of Coulomb interaction, three-body interaction (TBI) modified by taking covalency effect, van-der Waal interaction (vdW), short range overlap repulsive interaction and zero point energy effect. These compounds crystallize in zinc-blende (ZB) structure at ambient condition and transform to rock-salt (RS) structure at pressures 111 and 93 GPa and their equation of state show volume collapse of 14% and 4% respectively for BP and BAs. The second order elastic constants have also been computed at zero and high pressures. Our results are in good agreement with the experimental results. The mechanical and thermophysical properties in ZB structure are also predicted.

  4. Energy-polarization behaviors of AA'BB'O6 perovskites with double rock-salt order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anindya; Vanderbilt, David

    2010-03-01

    Using first-principles methods, we study the energy-polarization relation of double perovskites AA'BB'O6 where atoms in both A and B sites are arranged in rock-salt order. The high-symmetry structure in this case is the tetrahedral F43m space group. If a ferroelectric instability occurs, the energy-vs.-polarization landscape E(P) will tend to have minima for P along tetrahedral directions leading to a rhombohedral space group R3m, with two different values of spontaneous polarization and associated energy along opposite body-diagonal directions; or along Cartesian directions, leading to orthorhombic space group Imm2. We search for polar soft modes at the γ point of the high-symmetry F43m structure and analyze its eigenvectors to identify ferroelectric instabilities, which we find in CaBaTiZrO6, KCaZrNbO6 and PbSnTiZrO6. The results of the first-principle calculations are modeled with a Landau-Devonshire expansion that is truncated at either 4th or 5th order in P, and its predictions are found to agree favorably with our calculation. The 5th-order calculation improves the agreement further except in PSTZ. Recently, synthesis of SrCaTiMnO6 in rock-salt order has been reported.footnotetextJ.L Blok, G. Rijnders and D.H.A. Blank, private communication. Unfortunately, preliminary results do not seem to indicate any polarized structure.

  5. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Karnik, A.S.; Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  6. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  8. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  16. Coupling of Carbon Monoxide with Nitrogen Monoxide at a Frustrated Lewis Pair Template.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ke-Yin; Kehr, Gerald; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Liu, Lei; Grimme, Stefan; Erker, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Coupling of carbon monoxide with nitrogen monoxide was achieved at a frustrated Lewis pair template. This unique reaction uses hydride as an auxiliary, which reductively activates carbon monoxide at the frustrated Lewis pair. The CO/NO coupling reaction then takes place through a pathway involving a radical reaction in which the hydrogen atom auxiliary is eventually removed again. PMID:27328914

  17. Development of Cu xFe/Al 2O 3 catalysts for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide guided by magnetic methods, Mössbauer and infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boellaard, E.; van Bruggen, J. M.; Geus, J. W.; van der Kraan, A. M.

    1993-04-01

    A copper-iron catalyst for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide has been prepared using a supported stoichiometric cyanide complex. Conversion of the cyanide precursor to a metallic catalyst appeared to be a precious process. Copper and iron in the bimetallic particles easily separate by thermal treatment and upon exposure to carbon monoxide, as revealed from Mössbauer and infrared spectroscopy. During Fischer-Tropsch reaction the catalyst exhibits a rapid decline of activity. Magnetisation measurements on spent catalysts indicate that the deactivation is caused by a fast conversion of metallic iron to initially unstable carbides which transform ultimately to more stable carbides.

  18. Mars - Microwave detection of carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakar, R. K.; Walters, J. W.; Wilson, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The 115-gigahertz microwave line of carbon monoxide has been detected in the spectrum of Mars. The measurement is sensitive to carbon monoxide between the surface and an altitude of approximately 50 kilometers in the Martian atmosphere. This extends the altitude region to well above that previously sensed.

  19. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  20. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  5. Method of removing carbon monoxide from gases

    DOEpatents

    Gerstein, Bernard C.; Macaulay, David B.

    1976-06-01

    A process and catalyst are disclosed for purifying an atmosphere containing carbon monoxide by passing the atmosphere through a bed of a catalyst of TbO.sub.x, where x = 1.8 to 1.5, which oxidizes the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide.

  6. Impurities in rock-salt: consequences for the temperature increases at the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. [Kainite, Kieserite

    SciTech Connect

    van den Broek, W.M.G.T.

    1982-06-01

    In part A the thermal properties of halite and the other materials occurring in rock-salt (the 'impurities') are collected. Except for sylvite (the specific heat of this salt is about 70% of the value for halite) all specific heats are larger than the specific heat of halite. The consequences for the temperature increases at the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in rock-salt are discussed for impurity concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 15%. If the presence and distribution of the impurities are not taken into account, then - under the most unfavorable conditions - extra temperature increases of about 3% per cent impurity may occur. If, however, the geological composition and its geometry for the disposal region are known, the temperature increases can be calculated more accurately: they may or may not differ from those for pure halite. In part B the measurement of the thermal conductivity for four salts (kainite, kieserite, carnallite, and polyhalite) is described.

  7. Ignition limits of mixtures containing carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    El'natanov, A.I.; Andreeva, N.V.; Strizhevskii, I.I.

    1983-05-01

    Much attention is being given to methods of production of carbon monoxide because of the need for savings of hydrocarbon feedstocks for industrial synthesis. Besides the traditional method of production of carbon monoxide (coal gasification), it can also be extracted from industrial discharges, which contain oxygen and other gases. For safe technological recovery processes it is necessary to know the ignition limits of mixtures which contain carbon monoxide, oxygen and an inert gas. The available data are quite limited: the ignition limits of mixtures of carbon monoxide with air or oxygen and also with air in which part of the nitrogen has been replaced by carbon dioxide. For this reason, a study was undertaken of the ignition limits of mixtures of carbon monoxide and air with carbon dioxide and argon - as substances having quite varied heat value - over a broad range.

  8. The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

  9. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1990-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  10. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1989-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  11. First-principles study of rock-salt AgCl xBr 1-x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrani, B.; El Haj Hassan, F.; Zoaeter, M.

    2007-06-01

    We present first-principles calculations of the structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of rock-salt AgCl xBr 1-x alloys by application of the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. We use both Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof and Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximations of the exchange-correlation energy that are based on the optimization of total energy and corresponding potential, respectively. The effect of composition on lattice constants, bulk modulus, cohesive energy, bond ionicity, band gap and effective mass was investigated. These parameters were found to depend nonlinearly on alloy composition x, except the lattice parameter, which follows Vegard's law. The microscopic origins of the gap bowing were explained by using the approach of Zunger and co-workers; we have concluded that the band gap energy bowing was mainly caused by the chemical charge-transfer effect, while the volume deformation and the structural relaxation contribute to the gap bowing parameter at smaller magnitude. On the other hand, the thermodynamic stability of AgCl xBr 1-x was investigated by calculating the excess enthalpy of mixing Δ Hm as well as the phase diagram.

  12. Element-resolved atomic structure imaging of rocksalt Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenju; Chen, Yongjin; Li, Jixue; Zhang, Shengbai; Zhang, Ze; Wuttig, Matthias; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Ma, Evan; Han, Xiaodong

    2016-05-01

    Disorder-induced electron localization and metal-insulator transitions (MITs) have been a very active research field starting from the seminal paper by Anderson half a century ago. However, pure Anderson insulators are very difficult to identify due to ubiquitous electron-correlation effects. Recently, an MIT has been observed in electrical transport measurements on the crystalline state of phase-change GeSbTe compounds, which appears to be exclusively disorder driven. Subsequent density functional theory simulations have identified vacancy disorder to localize electrons at the Fermi level. Here, we report a direct atomic scale chemical identification experiment on the rocksalt structure obtained upon crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5. Our results confirm the two-sublattice structure resolving the distribution of chemical species and demonstrate the existence of atomic disorder on the Ge/Sb/vacancy sublattice. Moreover, we identify a gradual vacancy ordering process upon further annealing. These findings not only provide a structural underpinning of the observed Anderson localization but also have implications for the development of novel multi-level data storage within the crystalline phases.

  13. Thermal conductivity of rocksalt and other geologic materials from the site of the proposed waste isolation pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, J.N.; McCreight, J.E.

    1980-03-19

    The measurements first reported by Acton on the thermal conductivity of samples taken from a borehole at the site of the proposed nuclear waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM, have been extended to include additional samples and higher temperature measurements. Samples for measurements were taken from several depths of three wells, including the well AEC 8 from which Acton obtained his samples. These samples ranged from relatively pure rocksalt (NaCl) with small amounts of interstitial anhydrite to essentially nonsalt samples composed of gypsum or clay. The measurements in this latest series were conducted at Sandia, the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), and at Dynatech Corp. In general, the data from the three laboratories agreed reasonably well for similar coarse grained translucent rock salt samples, with the LASL and Sandia results typically being about 20% higher than those of Dynatceh. On the basis of these experiments, it is concluded that the thermal conductivity of materials found at the site can be predicted to an accuracy +-30% from knowledge of the composition and grain size of these materials.

  14. Copper Metallochaperones

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Nigel J.; Winge, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    The current state of knowledge on how copper metallochaperones support the maturation of cuproproteins is reviewed. Copper is needed within mitochondria to supply the CuA and intramembrane CuB sites of cytochrome oxidase, within the trans-Golgi network to supply secreted cuproproteins and within the cytosol to supply superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1). Subpopulations of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase also localize to mitochondria, the secretory system, the nucleus and, in plants, the chloroplast, which also requires copper for plastocyanin. Prokaryotic cuproproteins are found in the cell membrane and in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria. Cu(I) and Cu(II) form tight complexes with organic molecules and drive redox chemistry, which unrestrained would be destructive. Copper metallochaperones assist copper in reaching vital destinations without inflicting damage or becoming trapped in adventitious binding sites. Copper ions are specifically released from copper metallochaperones upon contact with their cognate cuproproteins and metal transfer is thought to proceed by ligand substitution. PMID:20205585

  15. Engineering evidence for carbon monoxide toxicity cases.

    PubMed

    Galatsis, Kosmas

    2016-07-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings and fatalities lead to many toxicity cases. Given the unusual physical properties of carbon monoxide-in that the gas is odorless and invisible-unorganized and erroneous methods in obtaining engineering evidence as required during the discovery process often occurs. Such evidence gathering spans domains that include building construction, appliance installation, industrial hygiene, mechanical engineering, combustion and physics. In this paper, we attempt to place a systematic framework that is relevant to key aspects in engineering evidence gathering for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning cases. Such a framework aims to increase awareness of this process and relevant issues to help guide legal counsel and expert witnesses. PMID:26137848

  16. Carbon monoxide and the burning earth

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R.E.; Reichle, H.G. Jr.; Seiler, W.

    1989-10-01

    Carbon monoxide is one of many gases whose presence in the atmosphere is blamed largely on industrial activity in the Northern Hemisphere. Data collected by the authors show that the gas is also abundant in the Southern Hemisphere, where it comes mainly from the burning of tropical rain forests and savannas. The high levels of carbon monoxide confirm other evidence that the rain forests are being diminished rapidly, which may affect the climates of these regions as well as globally. Increases in carbon monoxide could also encourage the accumulation of pollutant gases such as ozone and methane. The first is highly toxic to plants and the second would add to the greenhouse effect.

  17. Tests confirm gas heat as monoxide source

    SciTech Connect

    Besch, E.

    1984-03-01

    Six tests were conducted to demonstrate the potential for natural gas or oil-fired forced warm air heating equipment to produce carbon monoxide emission when the combustion process is impeded by typical causes found in households. In the case of the gas-fired units, impeded combustion produced a smell of aldehyde and various levels of carbon monoxide emission; all within the level dangerous to health. It was concluded that oil-fired warm air systems do not pose a carbon monoxide danger but that natural gas warm air systems do pose a real danger and should be so identified.

  18. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  19. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Provisions § 91.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer... service and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor...

  20. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Provisions § 91.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer... service and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  4. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Provisions § 91.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer... service and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  13. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  15. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Provisions § 91.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer... service and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  17. Interaction of carbon monoxide with Cu nanoclusters grown on alumina surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peressi, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The present work addresses the interaction of carbon monoxide with copper nanoclusters supported on an ultrathin alumina film grown on the Ni3Al(111) termination, acting as a template for a highly ordered nucleation. Through accurate quantum-mechanical calculations combined with experimental data, it has been found that the dissociation of carbon monoxide occurs at the copper nanoclusters, at variance with extended surfaces. The detailed mechanism is explained at the atomic level, unveiling the effects of cluster finite size, reconstruction, support, and carbon monoxide coverage. The small size of the nanoclusters allows to achieve an exceptionally high local concentration of molecules at the cluster surface, considerably higher than the saturation limit for the single crystal surfaces. The high coverage facilitates the dissociation of the molecules, accompanied by carbon incorporation into the particles. We discuss the possibility of using other transition metals for an optimal seeding of the supported nanoparticles. In agreement with empirical findings, Pd is confirmed to be the best choice for a highly ordered nucleation.

  18. Polymer-Based Carbon Monoxide Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, M. L.; Shevade, A. V.; Zhou, H.; Kisor, A. K.; Lara, L. M.; Yen, S.-P. S.; Ryan, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer-based sensors have been used primarily to detect volatile organics and inorganics; they are not usually used for smaller, gas phase molecules. We report the development and use of two types of polymer-based sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide. Further understanding of the experimental results is also obtained by performing molecular modeling studies to investigate the polymer-carbon monoxide interactions. The first type is a carbon-black-polymer composite that is comprised of a non-conducting polymer base that has been impregnated with carbon black to make it conducting. These chemiresistor sensors show good response to carbon monoxide but do not have a long lifetime. The second type of sensor has a non-conducting polymer base but includes both a porphyrin-functionalized polypyrrole and carbon black. These sensors show good, repeatable and reversible response to carbon monoxide at room temperature.

  19. Protecting Children from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... monoxide poisoning increases after disasters when gasoline- or diesel-powered generators may be more frequently used to ... can mimic symptoms of sea sickness. Schedule regular engine and exhaust system maintenance. Consider installing a carbon ...

  20. A Fluorescent Source NDIR Carbon Monoxide Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, W. T.; McClatchie, E. A.; Watson, D. A.; Compher, A. B.

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for measuring trace quantities of carbon monoxide by the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) methods. The technique uses the property of infrared fluorescence in a gas to generate a specific source of radiation which is an exact match of the absorption spectrum of the fundamental band of carbon monoxide. This results in an instrument with high sensitivity and specificity for CO. A novel method of referencing using an isotopic species of CO confers great stability on the instrument.

  1. An unusual case of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Auger, P L; Levesque, B; Martel, R; Prud'homme, H; Bellemare, D; Barbeau, C; Lachance, P; Rhainds, M

    1999-01-01

    Carbon monoxide, a gas originating from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, is an important cause of human deaths. In this paper, we describe an unusual carbon monoxide poisoning in a dwelling without obvious sources of combustion gases, for which two adults had to be treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Carbon monoxide readings were taken in the house and in the neighboring homes. Methane gas and nitrogen oxide levels were also monitored in the house air. Soil samples were collected around the house and tested for hydrocarbon residues. The investigation revealed the presence of a pocket of carbon monoxide under the foundation of the house. The first readings revealed carbon monoxide levels of 500 ppm in the basement. The contamination lasted for a week. The investigation indicated that the probable source of contamination was the use of explosives at a nearby rain sewer construction site. The use of explosives in a residential area can constitute a major source of carbon monoxide for the neighboring populations. This must be investigated, and public health authorities, primary-care physicians, governmental authorities, and users and manufacturers of explosives must be made aware of this problem. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10379009

  2. Device for staged carbon monoxide oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Nguyen, Trung V.; Guante, Jr., Joseph

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively oxidizing carbon monoxide in a hydrogen rich feed stream. The method comprises mixing a feed stream consisting essentially of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water and carbon monoxide with a first predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The temperature of the mixed feed/oxygen stream is adjusted in a first the heat exchanger assembly (20) to a first temperature. The mixed feed/oxygen stream is sent to reaction chambers (30,32) having an oxidation catalyst contained therein. The carbon monoxide of the feed stream preferentially absorbs on the catalyst at the first temperature to react with the oxygen in the chambers (30,32) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen to form an intermediate hydrogen rich process stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the feed stream. The elevated outlet temperature of the process stream is carefully controlled in a second heat exchanger assembly (42) to a second temperature above the first temperature. The process stream is then mixed with a second predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The carbon monoxide of the process stream preferentially reacts with the second quantity of oxygen in a second stage reaction chamber (56) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen in the process stream. The reaction produces a hydrogen rich product stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the process stream. The product stream is then cooled in a third heat exchanger assembly (72) to a third predetermined temperature. Three or more stages may be desirable, each with metered oxygen injection.

  3. Therapeutic Applications of Carbon Monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Knauert, Melissa; Vangala, Sandeep; Haslip, Maria; Lee, Patty J.

    2013-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a regulated enzyme induced in multiple stress states. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of HO catalysis of heme. In many circumstances, CO appears to functionally replace HO-1, and CO is known to have endogenous anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antiproliferative effects. CO is well studied in anoxia-reoxygenation and ischemia-reperfusion models and has advanced to phase II trials for treatment of several clinical entities. In alternative injury models, laboratories have used sepsis, acute lung injury, and systemic inflammatory challenges to assess the ability of CO to rescue cells, organs, and organisms. Hopefully, the research supporting the protective effects of CO in animal models will translate into therapeutic benefits for patients. Preclinical studies of CO are now moving towards more complex damage models that reflect polymicrobial sepsis or two-step injuries, such as sepsis complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, co-treatment and post-treatment with CO are being explored in which the insult occurs before there is an opportunity to intervene therapeutically. The aim of this review is to discuss the potential therapeutic implications of CO with a focus on lung injury and sepsis-related models. PMID:24648866

  4. Study of structural and electronic properties of ScN and ScAs in rocksalt and zincblende structure: A DFT approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Vikas Verma, U. P.

    2015-08-28

    In this paper, we have studied the structural and electronic properties of ScN and ScAs in zincblende (ZB) and rocksalt (RS) phases. We have employed the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-APW) method within the density functional theory (DFT). Generalized gradient approximation (GGA), due to Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) has been used to estimate the exchange-correlation functional. Our band structure results for ScN shows the metallic nature, whereas ScAs shows the semiconducting behavior. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with earlier reported data.

  5. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

  6. [Carbon monoxide contamination: an environmental health problem].

    PubMed

    Téllez, Jairo; Rodríguez, Alba; Fajardo, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is considered to be a major factor contaminating earth's atmosphere. The main sources producing this contamination are cars using gasoline or diesel fuel and industrial processes using carbon compounds; these two are responsible for 80% of carbon monoxide being emitted to the atmosphere. This substance has a well-known toxic effect on human beings and its acute poisonous effects (including death) have been widely studied; however, its long-term chronic effects are still not known. During the last few years, experimental research on animals and studies of human epidemiology have established the relationship between chronic exposure to low and middle levels of carbon monoxide in breathable air and adverse effects on human health, especially on organs consuming large amounts of oxygen such as the heart and brain. Harmful cardiovascular and neuropsychological effects have been documented in carbon monoxide concentration in air of less than 25 ppm and in carboxyhaemoglobin levels in blood of less than 10%. The main cardiac damage described to date has been high blood pressure, cardiac arrhythm and electrocardiograph signs of ischemia. Lack of memory, attention, concentration and Parkinson-type altered movement are the neuropsychological changes most frequently associated with chronic exposure to low levels of carbon monoxide and carboxyhaemoglobin. PMID:16703967

  7. Anisotropic thermal conductivity of semiconducting graphene monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, H. H.; Rhim, S. H.; Hirschmugl, C. J.; Gajdardziska-Josifovska, M.; Weinert, M.; Chen, J. H.

    2013-06-01

    The intrinsic thermal conductivity of monolayer graphene monoxide is determined via first-principles calculations. The phonon transport in graphene monoxide is anisotropic, with the lattice thermal conductivity along the armchair direction (…C-2O-C…) about five times higher than that along the zigzag (…C-C…) direction. The predicted thermal conductivity (>3000 Wm-1K-1 at 300 K) of graphene monoxide is 80% of that of graphene along the armchair direction for large sample lateral sizes (>5 μm). In addition, heat is predominantly carried by longitudinal acoustic phonons along the armchair direction, while the contribution from the transverse acoustic phonon mode is prevalent along the zigzag direction.

  8. Direct structural and spectroscopic investigation of ultrathin films of tetragonal CuO: Six-fold coordinated copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, D.; Tan, Haiyan; Takamura, Y.; Siemons, W.; Verbeeck, Jo; Van Tendeloo, G.; Arenholz, E.; Jenkins, C. A.; Rijnders, G.; Koster, Gertjan

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other 3d transition metal monoxides (MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO), CuO is found in a low-symmetry distorted monoclinic structure rather than the rocksalt structure. We report here of the growth of ultrathin CuO films on SrTiO3 substrates; scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to show the stabilization of a tetragonal rocksalt structure with an elongated c-axis such that c/a{\\sim}1.34 and the Cu-O-Cu bond angle {\\sim}180^{\\circ} , pointing to metastable six-fold coordinated Cu. X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrates that the hole at the Cu site for the CuO is localized in 3d_{x^{2}-y^{2}} orbital unlike the well-studied monoclinic CuO phase. The experimental confirmation of the tetragonal structure of CuO opens up new avenues to explore electronic and magnetic properties of six-fold coordinated Cu.

  9. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  10. CPSC Warns of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning with Camping Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Warns of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Hazard with Camping Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) warns ... about the carbon monoxide (CO) hazard with camping equipment. CO can kill you! From 2002–2006, CPSC ...

  11. Copper cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper cyanide ; CASRN 544 - 92 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  12. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  13. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference. Prior...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  18. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations: (a) Initial...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  2. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations: (a) Initial...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  7. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference. Prior...

  8. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1)...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  11. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1)...

  12. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations: (a) Initial...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  14. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations: (a) Initial...

  15. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations: (a) Initial...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  17. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  18. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1)...

  19. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  2. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference. Prior...

  3. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference. Prior...

  4. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1)...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  8. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1)...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning associated with narghile use.

    PubMed

    Cavus, Umut Yucel; Rehber, Zehra Hamiyet; Ozeke, Ozcan; Ilkay, Erdogan

    2010-05-01

    The case history is presented of a healthy 25-year-old man who was admitted to hospital after two syncopal episodes caused by carbon monoxide poisoning after smoking narghile. Clinicians should be aware of this association when they evaluate syncope in the emergency department, especially in narghile users. PMID:20442182

  12. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

  13. Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Anna Grossman

    Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

  14. Selective Oxidizer For Removal Of Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trocciola, John C.; Schroll, Craig R.; Lesieur, Roger R.

    1996-01-01

    Catalytic apparatus selectively oxidizes most of carbon monoxide (without oxidizing hydrogen) in stream of reformed fuel gas fed to low-temperature fuel cell. Multiple catalytic stages at progressively lower temperatures operate without becoming poisoned. Catalysts used to oxidize CO selectively include platinum on alumina and commercial catalyst known as "Selectoxo."

  15. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Some Surprising Aspects of the Equilibrium between Hemoglobin, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senozan, N. M.; Devore, J. A.

    1996-08-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning and some aspects of the equilibrium between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and hemoglobin are discussed within the framework of Haldane's laws. The effect of CO on respiration is analyzed quantitatively using oxygen dissociation curves of hemoglobin in presence of carboxyhemoglobin. The analysis shows that the adverse cardiovascular consequences of chronic CO exposure are unlikely to be due to reduced O2 transport capability of hemoglobin.

  16. Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Borup, Rodney L.; Skala, Glenn W.; Brundage, Mark A.; LaBarge, William J.

    2000-01-01

    There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

  17. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  18. COPPER AND BRAIN FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence shows that brain development and function are impaired when the brain is deprived of copper either through dietary copper deficiency or through genetic defects in copper transport. A number of copper-dependent enzymes whose activities are lowered by copper deprivation form the ba...

  19. Enhanced hardness in epitaxial TiAlScN alloy thin films and rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Bivas; Lawrence, Samantha K.; Bahr, David F.; Schroeder, Jeremy L.; Birch, Jens; Sands, Timothy D.

    2014-10-13

    High hardness TiAlN alloys for wear-resistant coatings exhibit limited lifetimes at elevated temperatures due to a cubic-AlN to hexagonal-AlN phase transformation that leads to decreasing hardness. We enhance the hardness (up to 46 GPa) and maximum operating temperature (up to 1050 °C) of TiAlN-based coatings by alloying with scandium nitride to form both an epitaxial TiAlScN alloy film and epitaxial rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices on MgO substrates. The superlattice hardness increases with decreasing period thickness, which is understood by the Orowan bowing mechanism of the confined layer slip model. These results make them worthy of additional research for industrial coating applications.

  20. Rock-salt structure lithium deuteride formation in liquid lithium with high-concentrations of deuterium: a first-principles molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mohan; Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Carter, Emily A.

    2016-01-01

    Because of lithium’s possible use as a first wall material in a fusion reactor, a fundamental understanding of the interactions between liquid lithium (Li) and deuterium (D) is important. We predict structural and dynamical properties of liquid Li samples with high concentrations of D, as derived from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. Liquid Li samples with four concentrations of inserted D atoms (LiDβ , β =0.25 , 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00) are studied at temperatures ranging from 470 to 1143 K. Densities, diffusivities, pair distribution functions, bond angle distribution functions, geometries, and charge transfer between Li and D atoms are calculated and analyzed. The analysis suggests liquid-solid phase transitions can occur at some concentrations and temperatures, forming rock-salt LiD within liquid Li. We also observe formation of some D2 molecules at high D concentrations.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of novel rocksalt-type oxynitrides, LiTi nO xN y ( n=1, 2, 3, 4 and 8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, Tetsuhiro; Takaki, Seiko; Inaguma, Yoshiyuki; Shan, Yue Jin

    2004-12-01

    Novel oxynitrides, LiTi nO xN y ( n=1, 2, 3, 4 and 8) were synthesized by sintering under NH 3 gas atmosphere. These compounds have rocksalt-type structure and the existence of cation vacancies is suggested. While the lattice parameters of these compound slightly vary, obvious tendency for the Li or nitride content is not found. For these compounds, the temperature dependence of the electronic conductivity shows the semiconducting behavior. However, the measurement of magnetic susceptibility and the Seebeck coefficient suggest that the transport in these compound is metallic. The electric conductivity seems to be dominated by the resistance of the grain boundary and the transport property of these compounds is metallic.

  2. Enhanced carbon monoxide utilization in methanation process

    DOEpatents

    Elek, Louis F.; Frost, Albert C.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon monoxide - containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is subsequently reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Surprisingly, hydrogen and water vapor present in the feed gas do not adversely affect CO utilization significantly, and such hydrogen actually results in a significant increase in CO utilization.

  3. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

  4. Carbon monoxide adsorption on beryllium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, A.

    2013-02-01

    Density functional calculations are here carried out to study the carbon monoxide molecule adsorption on pristine, hydrogenated and hydroxylated beryllium Be (0001) surfaces. The adsorption energies and structures, the activation barriers to molecular adsorption and dissociation are calculated. These reactions are described in terms of potential energy surfaces and electronic density of states. The quantum results are discussed along two directions: the beryllium surface reactivity in the domain of nuclear fusion devices and the possible usage of beryllium as a catalyst of Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis.

  5. Carbon copy deaths: carbon monoxide gas chamber.

    PubMed

    Patel, F

    2008-08-01

    The news media can exert a powerful influence over suicidal behaviour. It has been observed that like-minded individuals are able to preplan a group suicide method using modern communication technology in the form of websites and online chatrooms and mobile phone texting. A case of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is presented to illustrate the recent phenomenon of cyber suicides by suffocation from a burning barbecue (charcoal burner) in 'gas chamber' conversions. Although barbecues (BBQ) are very popular in Britain and widely available, there have been relatively few reported cases of copycat deaths from CO gas suffocation. PMID:18586213

  6. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  7. Cortical blindness in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Katafuchi, Y; Nishimi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Matsuishi, T; Kimura, Y; Otaki, E; Yamashita, Y

    1985-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy had persistent cortical blindness following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. He was believed to have suffered anoxic brain damage due to incomplete combustion of the briquette-type solid fuel. Computed tomographic (CT) scan of the brain and visual evoked potentials (VEP) in the early stage were normal. However, on the 20th hospital day CT scan showed leukomalacia and VEP showed an absence of N1-, and P1-waves which was well correlated with the clinical feature at that time. PMID:4083389

  8. [Copper transport and metabolism].

    PubMed

    Kurasaki, Masaaki; Saito, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    In this review, copper metabolism and transport in mammalian tissues are introduced and discussed. Firstly, the copper required amounts and LD50 levels are shown to explain the difficult balances of copper in the cells between necessity and toxicity. Furthermore, on the basis of literatures published, relationship between copper-binding metallothioneins and mechanisms for the absorption and excretion of copper or hereditary copper metabolic disorders metabolism abnormality symptom are explained. Finally it has been indicated that apoptosis induced by heavy metals, especially copper was initiated by production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the cells. To understand precise mechanism for copper homeostasis in mammalian cells, further investigation will be needed to clarify the copper behaviors in normal and abnormal situations. PMID:27455798

  9. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    PubMed

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms. PMID:27120897

  10. Volcanic iodine monoxide observed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Halogen species are injected into the atmosphere by volcanic eruptions. Previous studies have reported observations of chlorine and bromine oxides in volcanic plumes. These emissions have a significant impact on the chemistry within the plume as well as on upper troposphere and lower stratosphere composition, e.g. through ozone depletion. Volcanic halogen oxides have been observed from different platforms, from ground, aircraft and from satellite. The present study reports on satellite observations of iodine monoxide, IO, following the eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in August 2008. Satellite measurements from the SCIAMACHY sensor onboard ENVISAT are used. In addition, the volcanic IO plume is also retrieved from GOME-2 / MetOP-A measurements. Largest IO column amounts reach up to more than 4×1013 molec/cm2, the results from both instruments being consistent. The IO plume has a very similar shape as the BrO plume and is observed for several days following the eruption. The present observations are the first evidence that besides chlorine and bromine oxides also iodine oxides can be emitted by volcanic eruptions. This has important implications for atmospheric composition and background iodine levels. Together with the simultaneous observations of BrO and SO2, iodine monoxide columns can possibly provide insights into the composition of the magma.

  11. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented. PMID:23307861

  12. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103 Section 60.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking...

  13. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103 Section 60.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking...

  14. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103 Section 60.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking...

  15. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103 Section 60.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking...

  16. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103 Section 60.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking...

  17. Carbon monoxide oxidation rates computed for automobile thermal reactor conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Bittker, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation rates in thermal reactors for exhaust manifolds are computed by integrating differential equations for system of twenty-nine reversible chemical reactions. Reactors are noncatalytic replacements for conventional exhaust manifolds and are a system for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in automobile exhausts.

  18. 40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart D may be used in lieu of the procedures specified in this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon...

  19. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  4. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR...

  5. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  6. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  7. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  8. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  10. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  11. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR...

  12. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1522 Section 86.1522 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Initial check. (1) Follow...

  14. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  15. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart D may be used in lieu of the procedures specified in this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1522 Section 86.1522 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Initial check. (1) Follow...

  18. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  19. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1522 Section 86.1522 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Initial check. (1) Follow good...

  6. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  7. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  9. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart D may be used in lieu of the procedures specified in this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon...