Science.gov

Sample records for rockwell hardness testing

  1. Self-Similarity Simplification Approaches for the Modeling and Analysis of Rockwell Hardness Indentation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Zhou, Jack; Lau, Alan; Low, Samuel; deWit, Roland

    2002-01-01

    The indentation process of pressing a Rockwell diamond indenter into inelastic material has been studied to provide a means for the analysis, simulation and prediction of Rockwell hardness tests. The geometrical characteristics of the spheroconical-shaped Rockwell indenter are discussed and fit to a general function in a self-similar way. The complicated moving boundary problem in Rockwell hardness tests is simplified to an intermediate stationary one for a flat die indenter using principle of similarity and cumulative superposition approach. This method is applied to both strain hardening and strain rate dependent materials. The effects of different material properties and indenter geometries on the indentation depth are discussed. PMID:27446740

  2. Annealing of Co-Cr dental alloy: effects on nanostructure and Rockwell hardness

    PubMed Central

    Soylu, Elif Hilal; İde, Semra; Kılıç, Selim; Sipahi, Cumhur; Pişkin, Bulent; Gökçe, Hasan Suat

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of annealing on the nanostructure and hardness of Co-Cr metal ceramic samples that were fabricated with a direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS Five groups of Co-Cr dental alloy samples were manufactured in a rectangular form measuring 4 × 2 × 2 mm. Samples fabricated by a conventional casting technique (Group I) and prefabricated milling blanks (Group II) were examined as conventional technique groups. The DMLS samples were randomly divided into three groups as not annealed (Group III), annealed in argon atmosphere (Group IV), or annealed in oxygen atmosphere (Group V). The nanostructure was examined with the small-angle X-ray scattering method. The Rockwell hardness test was used to measure the hardness changes in each group, and the means and standard deviations were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA for comparison of continuous variables and Tukey's HSD test was used for post hoc analysis. P values of <.05 were accepted as statistically significant. RESULTS The general nanostructures of the samples were composed of small spherical entities stacked atop one another in dendritic form. All groups also displayed different hardness values depending on the manufacturing technique. The annealing procedure and environment directly affected both the nanostructure and hardness of the Co-Cr alloy. Group III exhibited a non-homogeneous structure and increased hardness (48.16 ± 3.02 HRC) because the annealing process was incomplete and the inner stress was not relieved. Annealing in argon atmosphere of Group IV not only relieved the inner stresses but also decreased the hardness (27.40 ± 3.98 HRC). The results of fitting function presented that Group IV was the most homogeneous product as the minimum bilayer thickness was measured (7.11 Å). CONCLUSION After the manufacturing with DMLS technique, annealing in argon atmosphere is an essential process for Co-Cr metal ceramic

  3. Tests of the Rockwell Si:As Back-Illuminated Blocked-Impurity Band (BIBIB) detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, J.; Groezinger, U.; Burgdorf, M.; Salama, A.

    1989-01-01

    Two arrays of Rockwell's Si:As back-illuminated blocked-impurity-band detectors were tested at the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA) at low background and low temperature for possible use in the astronomical space experiment ISOPHOT. For these measurements special test equipment was put together. A cryostat was mechanically modified to accommodate the arrays and special peripheral electronics was added to a microprocessor system to drive the cold multiplexer and to acquire the output data. The first device, a 16x50 element array on a fan-out board was used to test individual pixels with a trans-impedance-amplifier at a photon background of 10(exp 8) Ph s(-1)cm(-2) and at temperatures of 2.7 to 4.4 K. The noise-equivalent-power NEP is in the range 5 - 7 x 10(exp -18) WHz(exp -1/2), the responsivity is less than or equal to 100 AW(exp -1)(f = 10 Hz). The second device was a 10x50 array including a cold readout electronics of switched FETs (SWIFET). Measurements of this array were done in a background range of 5 x 10(exp 5) to 5 x 10(exp 11) Ph s(exp-1)cm(exp-2) and at operating temperatures between 3.0 and 4.8 K. The NEP ranges from less than 10(exp -18) at the lowest background to 2 x 10(exp -16) WHz(exp -1/2) at the highest flux.

  4. Flight tests of a rotating cylinder flap on a North American Rockwell YOV-10 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cichy, D. R.; Harris, J. W.; Mackay, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted of a twin engine airplane modified to a STOL configuration with rotating cylinder flaps and interconnected propellers. The flight tests included verification of the functional operation of the rotating cylinder flap system and the determination of the low speed flying qualities and performance characteristics with emphasis on approach and landing.

  5. Heat-transfer tests on the Rockwell International space shuttle orbiter with and without simulated protuberances. [wind tunnel tests of scale models at hypersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, L. D.; Kaul, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Aerothermodynamic tests on the forward half of the Rockwell International Space Shuttle Orbiter Configuration 140C were conducted at Mach number 8. The phase-change paint and thin-skin thermocouple techniques were used to determine the aerodynamic heating rates on the Orbiter models during simulated atmospheric reentry. Smooth 0.04-scale models and models with scaled protuberances and indentations which simulated the windshields, cargo bay door hinges, vents, and thruster nozzles were tested over an angle-of-attack range from 20 to 45 deg at yaw angles from -5 to 5 deg and at Reynolds numbers, based on the total Orbiter scaled length, from 2.15 to 15.9 million. Comparisons of the model heat-transfer rates obtained with a smooth surface and with scaled protuberances are presented.

  6. Heat transfer phase change paint test (OH-42) of a Rockwell International SSV orbiter in the NASA/LRC Mach 8 variable density wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R.; Creel, T. R., Jr.; Lawing, P.; Quan, M.; Dye, W.; Cummings, J.; Gorowitz, H.; Craig, C.; Rich, G.

    1973-01-01

    Phase change paint tests of a Rockwell International .00593-scale space shuttle orbiter were conducted in the Langley Research Center's Variable Density Wind Tunnel. The test objectives were to determine the effects of various wing/underbody configurations on the aerodynamic heating rates and boundary layer transition during simulated entry conditions. Several models were constructed. Each varied from the other in either wing cuff radius, airfoil thickness, or wing-fuselage underbody blending. Two ventral fins were glued to the fuselage underside of one model to test the interference heating effects. Simulated Mach 8 entry data were obtained for each configuration at angles of attack ranging from 25 to 40 deg, and a Reynolds number variation of one million to eight million. Elevon, bodyflap, and rudder flare deflections were tested. Oil flow visualization and Schlieren photographs were obtained to aid in reducing the phase change paint data as well as to observe the flow patterns peculiar to each configuration.

  7. Results of tests of a Rockwell International space shuttle orbiter (-139 configuration) 0.0175-scale model (no. 29-0) in AEDC tunnel F to determine hypersonic heating effects (OH11)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quan, M.

    1975-01-01

    Results from wind tunnel tests to determine hypersonic aerodynamic heating rates on a NASA/Rockwell Space Shuttle Orbiter are reported. The tests were to determine Mach number effects, if any, and to obtain overall heating rate data at high Mach numbers from 10.5 to 16. The model used was a 0.0175-scale model built to Rockwell Orbiter lines VL70-000139. The model identity number is 29-0. These tests, designated OH11, were conducted in the AEDC Tunnel F.

  8. Results of tests in the MSFC 14 x 14 inch trisonic wind tunnel on a .004 scale model of the Rockwell International Space Shuttle Vehicle 3, (integrated configuration)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, E. C.; Hamiliton, T.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted during mid-July, 1973 on a .004 scale model of the Rockwell International integrated configuration Space Shuttle Vehicle 3. The purpose of the tests was three fold: (1) to determine the static stability characteristics of the integrated vehicle, utilizing the Vehicle 3 orbiter configuration; (2) to determine the effect of interstage structure and tank external fuel lines on the integrated vehicle aerodynamic characteristics; (3) to determine the effects of the aft interstage structure on orbiter aerodynamic loads. Data were recorded on the integrated vehicle (test no. 579) at angles of attack and sideslip ranging from -10 deg to 10 deg over a Mach number schedule from 0.6 to 4.96. Data were obtained on the orbiter alone in the presence of the external tank with SRB attached (test no. 580) at angles of attack from -10 deg to 10 deg over a Mach number range from .6 to 1.96. Plotted data are presented in the body axis system.

  9. Data report for tests on the heat transfer effects of the 0.0175-scale Rockwell International Space Shuttle Vehicle model 22-OT in the AEDC 50-inch B wind tunnel (OH4B), volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, T. F.; Grifall, W. J.; Martindale, W.

    1975-01-01

    Results of wind tunnel heat transfer tests of 0.0175-scale Rockwell International Space Shuttle Vehicle configurations for orbiter alone, tank alone, and orbiter plus external tank are presented. Body flap shielding of SSME's during simulated entry was also investigated. The tests were conducted at Mach 8 for thirteen Reynolds number per foot values ranging from 0.5 million to 3.72 million.

  10. Phase change paint tests on Rockwell orbiter/tank and orbiter alone configurations (OH3A/OH3B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quan, M.; Craig, C.

    1974-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted on scale models of the space shuttle orbiter and external tank. The tests were designed to determine the basic heating rate and interference effects on the orbiter-tank configuration and to analyze the effectiveness of the thermal protective system on the reentry vehicle. The phase change paint techniques were used to determine areodynamic heating rates. Oil flow and schlieren photographs were used for flow visualization.

  11. 46 CFR 160.043-5 - Inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... place of manufacture. (b) Hardness test. Hardness of the blade, can opener, and spring metal shall be determined in accordance with the Rockwell method as described in Federal Specification QQ-M-151....

  12. 46 CFR 160.043-5 - Inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... place of manufacture. (b) Hardness test. Hardness of the blade, can opener, and spring metal shall be determined in accordance with the Rockwell method as described in Federal Specification QQ-M-151....

  13. 46 CFR 160.043-5 - Inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... place of manufacture. (b) Hardness test. Hardness of the blade, can opener, and spring metal shall be determined in accordance with the Rockwell method as described in Federal Specification QQ-M-151....

  14. 46 CFR 160.043-5 - Inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... place of manufacture. (b) Hardness test. Hardness of the blade, can opener, and spring metal shall be determined in accordance with the Rockwell method as described in Federal Specification QQ-M-151....

  15. 46 CFR 160.043-5 - Inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... place of manufacture. (b) Hardness test. Hardness of the blade, can opener, and spring metal shall be determined in accordance with the Rockwell method as described in Federal Specification QQ-M-151....

  16. Technology application at Rockwell International

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meechan, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    Technology diffusion at Rockwell International has progressed from the application of special skills to solve specific problems to the transfer of the required people and skills to allow the commercial divisions to solve their own problems and develop or improve their own products. Our prime effort is concentrated on commercial industrial applications. Rockwell's major emphasis on advanced technology utilization is directed through three operational modes, namely, transfer from technologically developed to underdeveloped organizations within the company; transfer between technologically developed organizations to form new operations within the company; and formation of high technology spin-off organizations beyond the corporate entity.

  17. Rockwell Fails in Response to Shuttle Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the contingent media relations policy employed by Rockwell International, the prime contractor for the United States space shuttle program, following the January 28, 1986, destruction of the Challenger. Analyzes Rockwell's response through a theoretical model of crisis perception and Rockwell's policy in relation to the mass media. (MS)

  18. Erosion testing of hard materials and coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-04-29

    Erosion is the process by which unconstrained particles, usually hard, impact a surface, creating damage that leads to material removal and component failure. These particles are usually very small and entrained in fluid of some type, typically air. The damage that occurs as a result of erosion depends on the size of the particles, their physical characteristics, the velocity of the particle/fluid stream, and their angle of impact on the surface of interest. This talk will discuss the basics of jet erosion testing of hard materials, composites and coatings. The standard test methods will be discussed as well as alternative approaches to determining the erosion rate of materials. The damage that occurs will be characterized in genera1 terms, and examples will be presented for the erosion behavior of hard materials and coatings (both thick and thin).

  19. A bibliography of micro-hardness testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, I. C.

    1981-09-01

    Arranged chronologically by year of publicaton, this bibliography cites about 900 articles and books which appeared between 1937 and 1980. In addition to hardness measurement and test procedures, ductility, machineability, wear resistance, and tensile strength are considered. An author index is provided.

  20. Hot hardness characteristics of ausformed AISI M-50, Matrix 2, WD-65, modified AISI 440-C, and Super Nitralloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    Short-term hot hardness studies were performed with ausformed AISI M-50, Matrix 2, WD-65, modified AISI 440-C (14-4-1) and case hardened Super Nitralloy. Hardness levels of each material were measured at elevated temperatures in an electric furnace with a low oxygen environment. Test temperatures ranged from 294 to 877 K. The hot hardness characteristics of the ausformed AISI-M-50, Matrix 2 WD-65, and modified AISI 440-C were the same as those determined for high-speed tool steels. Hot hardness for these steels can be predicted within one point Rockwell C. The hot hardness characteristics of both the case and core of Super Nitralloy were superior to AISI 52100 but inferior to the high-speed tool steels. The short-term Rockwell C hardness at temperature for the Super Nitralloy material between 294 and 769 K can be predicted within one point Rockwell C hardness.

  1. Phase change paint tests to investigate effects of TPS tiles on heating rates of the Rockwell space shuttle orbiter (test OH4C, model 21-0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quan, M.

    1975-01-01

    Information and data from wind tunnel tests conducted on 0.0175-scale models of the space shuttle orbiter are presented. The primary objective of the tests was to evaluate aerodynamic heating effects of the tiles in the thermal protection system (TPS). Tile gap depth and flow orientation effects on the TPS were investigated. Tile patterns were cut into the undersides of the orbiter models to simulate the gaps. One model was left smooth for comparison.

  2. X-33 Proposal by Rockwell - Computer Graphic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This artist's rendering depicts the Rockwell International X-33 proposal for technology demonstrator of a Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). NASA considered design submissions from Rockwell, Lockheed Martin, and McDonnell Douglas. NASA selected Lockheed Martin's design on 2 July 1996. NASA's Dryden Flight research Center, Edwards, California, was to have had a key role in the development and flight testing of the X-33. The RLV technology program was a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that was to have improved U.S. economic competitiveness. The X-33 design selected for development was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) by Lockheed Martin. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to have provided the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increased reliability and lowered the costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have created new opportunities for space access and significantly improve U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The Lockheed Martin X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape

  3. Acid Test For Annealing Of Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deese, Gary E.; Ellgass, Joseph P.

    1989-01-01

    Solution changes color if heat-treated condition lost. Simple test indicates whether welded joint retained its postweld heat-treated condition after reworking including rewelding and grinding. Test used instead of Rockwell or Brinell hardness tests when reworked surface inaccessible to hardness-testing apparatus or when small surface imperfections created by apparatus unacceptable.

  4. Hardness methods for testing maize kernels.

    PubMed

    Fox, Glen; Manley, Marena

    2009-07-01

    Maize is a highly important crop to many countries around the world, through the sale of the maize crop to domestic processors and subsequent production of maize products and also provides a staple food to subsistance farms in undeveloped countries. In many countries, there have been long-term research efforts to develop a suitable hardness method that could assist the maize industry in improving efficiency in processing as well as possibly providing a quality specification for maize growers, which could attract a premium. This paper focuses specifically on hardness and reviews a number of methodologies as well as important biochemical aspects of maize that contribute to maize hardness used internationally. Numerous foods are produced from maize, and hardness has been described as having an impact on food quality. However, the basis of hardness and measurement of hardness are very general and would apply to any use of maize from any country. From the published literature, it would appear that one of the simpler methods used to measure hardness is a grinding step followed by a sieving step, using multiple sieve sizes. This would allow the range in hardness within a sample as well as average particle size and/or coarse/fine ratio to be calculated. Any of these parameters could easily be used as reference values for the development of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy calibrations. The development of precise NIR calibrations will provide an excellent tool for breeders, handlers, and processors to deliver specific cultivars in the case of growers and bulk loads in the case of handlers, thereby ensuring the most efficient use of maize by domestic and international processors. This paper also considers previous research describing the biochemical aspects of maize that have been related to maize hardness. Both starch and protein affect hardness, with most research focusing on the storage proteins (zeins). Both the content and composition of the zein fractions affect

  5. A Novel Approach to Hardness Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, F. Xavier; West, Harvey A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a description of the application of a simple rebound time measuring device and relates the determination of relative hardness of a variety of common engineering metals. A relation between rebound time and hardness will be sought. The effect of geometry and surface condition will also be discussed in order to acquaint the student with the problems associated with this type of method.

  6. American Chronicles: The Art of Norman Rockwell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    Norman Rockwell was the quintessential painter of American life. His images reflect the history of America as told through the eyes of this idealistic and patriotic artist who sought to show America at its best, and to present the lives, hopes and dreams of the average American in the middle-20th century. Few artists have produced so many images…

  7. Results of convective heating tests of a longitudinal gap on the Rockwell flat plate model (15-0, insert 7) in the NASA/Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quan, M.; Lockman, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented which were obtained from tests in a hypersonic wind tunnel to determine aerodynamic heating rates in a gap running parallel or slightly askew to the flow direction. The model used was a flat plate instrumented in thin-skin sections with chromelconstantan thermocouples. Heating rate profiles lengthwise along and down into the gap were obtained, and additional data were obtained from a total temperature probe and rake fabricated during the test to investigate an apparent aerodynamic cooling trend in the gap. Model variables were width, depth, length, and orientation of the gap relative to the flow direction. The tests were conducted at Mach 5.1 and Reynolds numbers per foot of 500,000, 1,000,000, and 2,000,000.

  8. Long life technology work at Rockwell International Space Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huzel, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents highlights of long-life technology oriented work performed at the Space Division of Rockwell International Corporation under contract to NASA. This effort included evaluation of Saturn V launch vehicle mechanical and electromechanical components for potential extended life capabilities, endurance tests, and accelerated aging experiments. A major aspect was evaluation of the components at the subassembly level (i.e., at the interface between moving surfaces) through in-depth wear analyses and assessments. Although some of this work is still in progress, preliminary conclusions are drawn and presented, together with the rationale for each. The paper concludes with a summary of the effort still remaining.

  9. Informativeness Improvement of Hardness Test Methods for Metal Product Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, S.; Podshivalov, I.; Osipov, O.; Zhantybaev, A.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a combination of theoretical suggestions, results, and observations allowing to improve the informativeness of hardness testing process in solving problems of metal product assessment while in operation. The hardness value of metal surface obtained by a single measurement is considered to be random. Various measures of location and scattering of the random variable were experimentally estimated for a number of test samples using the correlation analysis, and their close interaction was studied. It was stated that in metal assessment, the main informative characteristics of hardness testing process are its average value and mean-square deviation for measures of location and scattering, respectively.

  10. Identification of Aircraft Tubing by Rockwell Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knerr, Horace C.

    1930-01-01

    Seamless steel tubing is today the principal material of construction for aircraft. The commercial grade of tubing containing about 0.10 to 0.20% carbon at first used is being superseded by two grades which are approved by the army and navy, and which are also becoming standard for commercial airplanes.

  11. Nebraska Swims Hard against Testing's Tides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2007-01-01

    Sometimes assessments that work in theory fall apart in reality. This article discusses the unique learning-measurement system in Nebraska. Instead of relying on statewide standardized tests to comply with the accountability requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Act--as is the case in the other 49 states--districts in Nebraska use their…

  12. Piezoelectric Actuator/Sensor Technology at Rockwell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neurgaonkar, Ratnakar R.

    1996-01-01

    We describe the state-of-the art of piezoelectric materials based on perovskite and tungsten bronze families for sensor, actuator and smart structure applications. The microstructural defects in these materials have been eliminated to a large extent and the resulting materials exhibit exceedingly high performance for various applications. The performance of Rockwell actuators/sensors is at least 3 times better than commercially available products. These high performance actuators are being incorporated into various applications including, DOD, NASA and commercial. The multilayer actuator stacks fabricated from our piezoceramics are advantageous for sensing and high capacitance applications. In this presentation, we will describe the use of our high performance piezo-ceramics for actuators and sensors, including multilayer stacks and composite structures.

  13. Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.

    1981-02-03

    Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value.

  14. Heat transfer phase change paint tests of 0.0175-scale models (nos. 21-0 and 46-0) of the Rockwell International space shuttle orbiter in the AEDC tunnel B hypersonic wind tunnel (test OH25A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, W. H.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted in a hypersonic wind tunnel using various truncated space shuttle orbiter configurations in an attempt to establish the optimum model size for other tests examining body shock-wing leading edge interference effects. The tests were conducted at Mach number 8 using the phase change paint technique. A test description, tabulated data, and tracings of isotherms made from photographs taken during the test are presented.

  15. Results of phase change paint heat transfer test utilizing 0.040-scale 50% forebody models (no. 82-0) of the Rockwell International Space Shuttle Orbiter in AEDC VKF hypersonic tunnel B (test OH54B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    Aerodynamic heating phase change paint tests for the space shuttle orbiter are reported. The model was a 0.040 scale representation of the forward 50% of the orbiter. Surface roughness effects on boundary layer transition were investigated. The roughness was simulated by steel balls 0.020 and 0.025 inch in diameter and a 0.25 in. diameter hole simulating the forward ET attach socket. A nominal Mach number of was tested with unit Reynolds number varying from 0.75 x 1 million ft through 3.5x 1 million ft. Angle of attack was varied from 20 degrees to 40 degrees.

  16. Results of phase change paint heat transfer tests utilizing 0.040 scale 50% forebody models (No. 82-0) of the Rockwell International space shuttle orbiter in AEDC VKF hypersonic tunnel B (test OH54A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    Results of aerodynamic heating tests conducted in October 1974 on a space shuttle orbiter model using the phase change paint technique are presented. The model was a 0.040 scale representation of the forward 50 percent of the orbiter. Surface roughness effects on boundary layer transition were investigated. Roughness was simulated by using steel balls varying in diameter from 0 (no balls) to 0.039 inch with 0.040 inch wide by 0.080 inch deep gaps. A nominal Mach number of 8 was tested with Reynolds number varying from 0.75 through 3.5 million per foot. Angle of attack was varied from 20 deg to 40 deg.

  17. Norman Rockwell's "Man's First Step On The Moon"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Timothy

    2011-05-01

    Rockwell's painting, which appeared in the January 10, 1967 issue of Look magazine, is perhaps the most famous ever done of an astronaut's first step on the Moon. But it has a number of astronomical misconceptions, many of which are apparent to sharp-eyed introductory astronomy students: the size of the Earth in the lunar sky is too large compared to the Big Dipper, the orbiting Command Service Module is illuminated from a different direction than the Earth is, and the lighting on the lunar surface is also inconsistent, among other errors. This raises the question: How could Rockwell, a notoriously meticulous illustrator, have apparently been so careless? It turns out that Rockwell was anything but careless, but rather was typically obsessive about every detail in the painting. He was in constant communication with experts, even traveling to Huston to meet with NASA officials. He went so far as to enlist the help of space artist Pierre Mion, who ended up doing part of the painting, one of only two known collaborations between Rockwell and another artist. When the Look article was published, readers responded with praise but also criticism about the technical errors that still slipped through, to Rockwell's great frustration. The most important part of the painting, however, is accurate and compelling: the astronaut is shown stepping off the LM exactly as Neil Armstrong would do over two years later. The astronaut's boot covers part of the shadow that it casts. Does the shadow run all the way to the heel, or is the boot poised just above the lunar surface? Has the artist captured the instant after, or, perhaps, the instant before, humanity's first contact with another world? I am grateful to the curators at the Norman Rockwell Museum Archives for their assistance.

  18. Endeavour, OV-105, forward flight deck controls during Rockwell manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, forward flight deck controls are documented during manufacture, assembly, and checkout at North American Rockwell facilities Building 150, Palmdale, California. Overall view looks from aft flight deck forward showing displays and controls with panel F7 CRT screens lit and window shades in place on W2, W3, W4, W5. OV-105 is undergoing final touches prior to rollout and a scheduled flight for STS-49. View was included as part of Rockwell International (RI) Submittal No. 40 (STS 87-0342-40) with alternate number A901207 R-16/NAS9-17800.

  19. Advantages of impact testing over hardness testing in determining physical integrity of tablets.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K E; Potter, A

    1998-11-01

    An investigation of four different tablet strength tests was carried out on four different placebo formulations (differing in Avicel: Pharmatose ratios). The results analysis compared fatigue failure, work of failure, and impact failure to diametrical compression measurements (hardness). The impact results clearly show how different formulations can have the same hardness, yet their impact resistance can vary by as much as 200%. The impact test used in this work and other tests described are useful in tablet development to understand, compare, and mitigate tablet breakage during subsequent unit operations. PMID:9876556

  20. Traceability in hardness measurements: from the definition to industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germak, Alessandro; Herrmann, Konrad; Low, Samuel

    2010-04-01

    The measurement of hardness has been and continues to be of significant importance to many of the world's manufacturing industries. Conventional hardness testing is the most commonly used method for acceptance testing and production quality control of metals and metallic products. Instrumented indentation is one of the few techniques available for obtaining various property values for coatings and electronic products in the micrometre and nanometre dimensional scales. For these industries to be successful, it is critical that measurements made by suppliers and customers agree within some practical limits. To help assure this measurement agreement, a traceability chain for hardness measurement traceability from the hardness definition to industry has developed and evolved over the past 100 years, but its development has been complicated. A hardness measurement value not only requires traceability of force, length and time measurements but also requires traceability of the hardness values measured by the hardness machine. These multiple traceability paths are needed because a hardness measurement is affected by other influence parameters that are often difficult to identify, quantify and correct. This paper describes the current situation of hardness measurement traceability that exists for the conventional hardness methods (i.e. Rockwell, Brinell, Vickers and Knoop hardness) and for special-application hardness and indentation methods (i.e. elastomer, dynamic, portables and instrumented indentation).

  1. Strategies for Radiation Hardness Testing of Power Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, James V. (Technical Monitor); Patton, Martin O.; Harris, Richard D.; Rohal, Robert G.; Blue, Thomas E.; Kauffman, Andrew C.; Frasca, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    Plans on the drawing board for future space missions call for much larger power systems than have been flown in the past. These systems would employ much higher voltages and currents to enable more powerful electric propulsion engines and other improvements on what will also be much larger spacecraft. Long term human outposts on the moon and planets would also require high voltage, high current and long life power sources. Only hundreds of watts are produced and controlled on a typical robotic exploration spacecraft today. Megawatt systems are required for tomorrow. Semiconductor devices used to control and convert electrical energy in large space power systems will be exposed to electromagnetic and particle radiation of many types, depending on the trajectory and duration of the mission and on the power source. It is necessary to understand the often very different effects of the radiations on the control and conversion systems. Power semiconductor test strategies that we have developed and employed will be presented, along with selected results. The early results that we have obtained in testing large power semiconductor devices give a good indication of the degradation in electrical performance that can be expected in response to a given dose. We are also able to highlight differences in radiation hardness that may be device or material specific.

  2. Application of hardness testing in foundry processing operations: A university and industry partnership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Donald H.; Lash, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are the following: (1) to plan a tour of local manufacturing facility to observe hardness testing methods used and how they support the manufacturing process today; (2) to learn the operation of Brinell Hardness Testing and equipment set up with samples of accessory equipment for testing of various materials; (3) to use a Brinell scope (hand magnifier) to measure the diameter of the test indentation (in millimeters); (4) to use the hardness equation to determine the spherical area of the indentation and the calculation of the Brinell Hardness Number; (5) to use standard charts for ASTM standard size indenters to find the hardness number; and (6) to learn a method of conversion of the Brinell number to other hardness scales, their common usage, and also to convert the hardness number to the approximate tensile strength.

  3. High-Speed Recording of Test Data on Hard Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagarde, Paul M., Jr.; Newnan, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Disk Recording System (DRS) is a systems-integration computer program for a direct-to-disk (DTD) high-speed data acquisition system (HDAS) that records rocket-engine test data. The HDAS consists partly of equipment originally designed for recording the data on tapes. The tape recorders were replaced with hard-disk drives, necessitating the development of DRS to provide an operating environment that ties two computers, a set of five DTD recorders, and signal-processing circuits from the original tape-recording version of the HDAS into one working system. DRS includes three subsystems: (1) one that generates a graphical user interface (GUI), on one of the computers, that serves as a main control panel; (2) one that generates a GUI, on the other computer, that serves as a remote control panel; and (3) a data-processing subsystem that performs tasks on the DTD recorders according to instructions sent from the main control panel. The software affords capabilities for dynamic configuration to record single or multiple channels from a remote source, remote starting and stopping of the recorders, indexing to prevent overwriting of data, and production of filtered frequency data from an original time-series data file.

  4. USE OF FUME SUPPRESSANTS IN HARD CHROMIUM BATHS - EMISSION TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Common Sense Initiative (CSI) is a cooperative effort of government, industry, environmental, and other stakeholder groups to find "cleaner, cheaper, smarter" approaches to environmental management in industrial sectors. The purpose of the project is to assist hard chrome...

  5. USE OF FUME SUPPRESSANTS IN HARD CHROMIUM BATHS - QUALITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Common Sense Initiative (CSI) is a cooperative effort of government, industry, environmental and other stakeholder groups to find "cleaner, cheaper, smarter" approaches to environmental management in industrial sectors. The purpose of the project is to help hard chromium ...

  6. Hydraulic model analysis of water distribution system, Rockwell International, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Perstein, J.; Castellano, J.A.

    1989-01-20

    Rockwell International requested an analysis of the existing plant site water supply distribution system at Rocky Flats, Colorado, to determine its adequacy. On September 26--29, 1988, Hughes Associates, Inc., Fire Protection Engineers, accompanied by Rocky Flats Fire Department engineers and suppression personnel, conducted water flow tests at the Rocky Flats plant site. Thirty-seven flows from various points throughout the plant site were taken on the existing domestic supply/fire main installation to assure comprehensive and thorough representation of the Rocky Flats water distribution system capability. The analysis was completed in four phases which are described, together with a summary of general conclusions and recommendations.

  7. Effects of hardness and alkalinity in culture and test waters on reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.; Hardin, I.R.

    2006-01-01

    Ceriodaphnia dubia were cultured in four reconstituted water formulations with hardness and alkalinity concentrations ranging from soft to the moderately hard water that is required by whole-effluent toxicity (WET) testing methods for culturing test organisms. The effects of these culture formulations alone and in combination with two levels of Cl-, SO42, and HCO3- on reproduction of C. dubia were evaluated with the standard three-brood test. Reproduction was significantly reduced when test waters had lower hardness than culture waters. However, reproduction was not significantly different when animals cultured in low-hardness waters were exposed to moderately hard waters. The hardness of the culture water did not significantly affect the sensitivity of C. dubia to the three anions. Conversely, increased hardness in test waters significantly reduced the toxicities of Cl- and SO42-, with HCO3- toxicity following the same pattern. Alkalinity exhibited no consistent effect on Cl- and SO42- toxicity. The physiological stress of placing animals cultured in moderately hard water into softer test waters might contribute to marginal failures of otherwise nontoxic effluents. The standard WET protocol should be revised to allow the culture of C. dubia under lower hardness conditions to better represent local surface water chemistries.

  8. Objective and subjective hardness of a test item used for evaluating food mixing ability.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Fueki, K; Garrett, N R; Ohyama, T

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare objective and subjective hardness of selected common foods with a wax cube used as a test item in a mixing ability test. Objective hardness was determined for 11 foods (cream cheese, boiled fish paste, boiled beef, apple, raw carrot, peanut, soft/hard rice cracker, jelly, plain chocolate and chewing gum) and the wax cube. Peak force (N) to compress each item was obtained from force-time curves generated with the Tensipresser. Perceived hardness ratings of each item were made by 30 dentate subjects (mean age 26.9 years) using a visual analogue scale (100 mm). These subjective assessments were given twice with a 1 week interval. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability were seen for all foods (ICC > 0.68; P < 0.001). One-way anova found a significant effect of food type on both the objective hardness score and the subjective hardness rating (P < 0.001). The wax cube showed significant lower objective hardness score (32.6 N) and subjective hardness rating (47.7) than peanut (45.3 N, 63.5) and raw carrot (82.5 N, 78.4) [P < 0.05; Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch (REGW)-F]. A significant semilogarithmic relationship was found between the logarithm of objective hardness scores and subjective hardness ratings across twelve test items (r = 0.90; P < 0.001). These results suggest the wax cube has a softer texture compared with test foods traditionally used for masticatory performance test, such as peanut and raw carrot. The hardness of the wax cube could be modified to simulate a range of test foods by changing mixture ratio of soft and hard paraffin wax. PMID:17302945

  9. Results of tests in the AEDC VKF Tunnel B using the phase change paint technique on 0.04 scale 50 percent forebody models (82-0) of the Rockwell space shuttle orbiter (OH50A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quan, M.

    1976-01-01

    Model information and data from wind tunnel tests conducted on 0.04 scale 50 percent forebody models of the Space Shuttle Orbiter were presented. These tests were conducted using the phase change paint technique to determine aerodynamic heating rates due to various proturberances and recessions. Angles of attack from 20 deg through 45 deg were investigated at Mach 8.

  10. Heat transfer tests on a 0.01-scale Rockwell configuration 3 space shuttle orbiter and tank (37-OT) in the Calspan 48-inch hypersonic shock tunnel (OH12/IH21), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotch, M.

    1975-01-01

    Model information and data are presented from wind tunnel tests conducted on 0.01-scale models of the space shuttle orbiter and external tank. These tests were conducted in a hypersonic shock tunnel to determine heating rates on ascent and reentry configurations at various Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers, and angles of attack.

  11. The effect of heat treatment on the hardness and impact properties of medium carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazni Ismail, Noor; Khatif, Nurul Aida Amir; Aliff Kamil Awang Kecik, Mohamad; Hanafiah Shaharudin, Mohd Ali

    2016-02-01

    This paper covers the effect of heat treatment on the mechanical properties of medium carbon steel. The main objective of this project is to investigate the hardness and impact properties of medium carbon steel treated at different heat treatment processes. Three types of heat treatment were performed in this project which are annealing, quenching and tempering. During annealing process, the specimens were heated at 900°C and soaked for 1 hour in the furnace. The specimens were then quenched in a medium of water and open air, respectively. The treatment was followed by tempering processes which were done at 300°C, 450°C, and 600°C with a soaking time of 2 hours for each temperature. After the heat treatment process completed, Rockwell hardness test and Charpy impact test were performed. The results collected from the Rockwell hardness test and Charpy impact test on the samples after quenching and tempering were compared and analysed. The fractured surfaces of the samples were also been examined by using Scanning Electron Microscope. It was observed that different heat treatment processes gave different hardness value and impact property to the steel. The specimen with the highest hardness was found in samples quenched in water. Besides, the microstructure obtained after tempering provided a good combination of mechanical properties due to the process reduce brittleness by increasing ductility and toughness.

  12. Results from a convective heat transfer rate distribution test on a 0.0175 scale model (22-0) of the Rockwell International vehicle 4 space shuttle configuration in the AEDC-VKF tunnel B (OH49B), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    The tests were conducted in a hypersonic wind tunnel at Mach number 8 to investigate reentry mode convective heat--transfer rates to the vehicle 4 shuttle orbiter. The thin skin thermocouple technique was used to obtain the heat transfer rate measurements. A complete set of tabulated data is presented.

  13. Results of a landing gear loads test using a 0.0405-scale model (16-0) of the space shuttle orbiter in the Rockwell International NAAL wind tunnel (OA163), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a sting mounted scale representation of the 140C outer mold line space shuttle orbiter configuration in the low speed wind tunnel. The primary test objectives were to define the orbiter landing gear system pressure loading and to record landing gear door and strut hingemoment levels. Secondary objectives included recording the aerodynamic influence of various landing gear configurations on orbiter force data as well as investigating 40 x 80 ft. Ames Wind Tunnel strut simulation effects on both orbiter landing gear loads and aerodynamic characteristics. Testing was conducted at a Mach number of 0.17, free stream dynamic pressure of 42.5 PSF, and Reynolds number per unit length of 1.2 million per foot. Angle of attack variation was 0 to 20 while yaw angles ranged from -10 to 10 deg.

  14. Results of tests on a Rockwell International space shuttle orbiter (-139 configuration) 0.0175-scale model (no. 29-0) in AEDC tunnel B to determine boundary layer characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quan, M.

    1975-01-01

    Results of wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine boundary layer characteristics on the lower surface of a space shuttle orbiter. Total pressure and temperature profile data at various model stations were obtained using a movable, four-degree-of-freedom probe mechanism and static pressure taps on the model surface. During a typical run, the probe was located over a preselected model location, then driven down through the bondary layer until contact was made with the model surface.

  15. Aerodynamic results of an abort separation effects test (IA8) conducted in the NASA/ARC 14-foot transonic wind tunnel on a model (6-OTS) of the Rockwell International launch configuration integrated vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a 6-OTS 0.015-scale model. The Ames dual sting support separation rig was used to obtain grid-type data for tank-booster abort from orbiter (SSV). Freestream data were obtained for the orbiter to provide a baseline for evaluation of proximity effects. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.32 to 1.1, and Reynolds number per foot varying from 2.1 million to 3.9 million. Data are not presented. Because of balance failure, a very substantial portion of the test was run with a dummy balance in the tank boosters configuration.

  16. Results of a landing gear loads test using a 0.0405-scale model (16-0) of the space shuttle orbiter in the Rockwell International NAAL wind tunnel (OA163B), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Aerodynamic loads on a sting mounted 0.045-scale representation of the 140C outer mold line space shuttle orbiter configuration were measured to verify orbiter landing gear system pressure loading and hinge moment levels. Pressure, force, and hinge moment data, recorded over smaller increments of the landing gear deployment schedule to insure data accuracy and to investigate the effects of asymmetric gear deployment on all parameters, are presented. Tests were conducted at a Mach number of 0.17, and freestream dynamic pressure of 42.5 psf, and a Reynolds number per unit length of 1.2 million foot. Angle of attack variation was -2 to 10 degrees while angles of sideslip varied from -5 to 5 degrees.

  17. Design and evaluation of Cities Service/Rockwell hydrogasification commercial plant

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, P.D.; Butt, N.M.; Sarma, K.R.

    1980-08-01

    This report covers a preliminary conceptual design and economic evaluation of a commercial scale plant capable of converting high-sulfur bituminous caking coal to a high-Btu pipeline quality SNG. The plant, which has a rated capacity of 250 Billion Btu per day SNG, is based on Cities Service/Rockwell hydrogasification technology. Two cases of plant design were examined to produce cost estimates accurate to +-25% in 1979 dollars. The base case, designed for moderate production of liquids (5.8% conversion of carbon to liquid product), has a cost of SNG of $4.43/MMBtu using the utility financing method (UFM) and $6.42/MMBtu using the discounted cash flow method (DCFM) of financing. The alternate case, zero liquids production, has gas costs of $5.00 (UFM) and $6.96 (DCFM). Further tests by Rockwell have indicated that 11.4% carbon conversion to liquid products (99% benzene) is possible. If the plant is scaled up to produce the same amoung of SNG with this increased yield of liquid, and if the value of the benzene produced is estimated to be $0.90 per gallon, the costs of gas for this case are $4.38/MMBtu (UFM) and $6,48/MMBtu (DCFM). If the value of benzene is taken as $2.00 per gallon, these costs become $3.14/MMBtu (UFM) and $5.23/MMBtu (DCFM). The economic assumptions involved in these calculations are detailed.

  18. Results of radiation hardness tests and performance tests of the HS9008RH flash ADC

    SciTech Connect

    Nutter, S.; Tarle, G. . Physics Dept.); Crawley, H.B.; McKay, R.; Meyer, W.T.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Thomas, W.D. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Ames Lab., IA )

    1994-08-01

    Results from tests characterizing the performance and radiation hardness of the HS9008RH flash analog to digital converter (FADC) are presented. These tests were performed primarily to evaluate the suitability of this device for use in the GEM Central Tracker at the SSC experiment. Basic performance characteristics and susceptibility of these characteristics to radiation were examined. Performance test results indicate that the device integral nonlinearity is sampling rate dependent and worsens rapidly above rate of 15 megasamples per second (MSPS). No degradation in performance of the device was observed after its exposure of up to 81 Mrad of 1.25 MeV [gamma] radiation from a [sup 60]Co source. Exposure of the device to a reactor fast neutron fluence (E > 100keV) of 5 [times] 10[sup 14]/cm[sup 2] resulted in no significant observed performance degradation as well.

  19. A Method for Measuring the Hardness of the Surface Layer on Hot Forging Dies Using a Nanoindenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, P.; van Tyne, C. J.; Levy, B. S.

    2009-11-01

    The properties and characteristics of the surface layer of forging dies are critical for understanding and controlling wear. However, the surface layer is very thin, and appropriate property measurements are difficult to obtain. The objective of the present study is to determine if nanoindenter testing provides a reliable method, which could be used to measure the surface hardness in forging die steels. To test the reliability of nanoindenter testing, nanoindenter values for two quenched and tempered steels (FX and H13) are compared to microhardness and macrohardness values. These steels were heat treated for various times to produce specimens with different values of hardness. The heat-treated specimens were tested using three different instruments—a Rockwell hardness tester for macrohardness, a Vickers hardness tester for microhardness, and a nanoindenter tester for fine scale evaluation of hardness. The results of this study indicate that nanoindenter values obtained using a Nanoindenter XP Machine with a Berkovich indenter reliably correlate with Rockwell C macrohardness values, and with Vickers HV microhardness values. Consequently, nanoindenter testing can provide reliable results for analyzing the surface layer of hot forging dies.

  20. Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    1983-08-23

    Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value. Photomicrographs show that the shapes of the grains of the alloy mixture with which the minor amount of carbide (or carbide-formers) is mixed are radically altered from large, rounded to small, very angular by the addition of the carbide. Superiority of one of these hard compositions of matter over cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide for ultra-high pressure anvil applications was demonstrated.

  1. Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-08-23

    Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value. Photomicrographs show that the shapes of the grains of the alloy mixture with which the minor amount of carbide (or carbide-formers) is mixed are radically altered from large, rounded to small, very angular by the addition of the carbide. Superiority of one of these hard compositions of matter over cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide for ultra-high pressure anvil applications was demonstrated. 3 figs.

  2. Test of radiation hardness of CMOS transistors under neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Rowe, W.A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Hoffman, C.M.; Holtkamp, D.; Kinnison, W.W.; Sommer, W.F. Jr.; Ziock, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    We have tested 2 micron CMOS test structures from various foundries in the LAMPF Beam stop for radiation damage under prolongued neutron irradiation. The fluxes employed covered the region expected to be encountered at the SSC and led to fluences of up to 10/sup 14/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/ in about 500 hrs of running. We show that test structures which have been measured to survive ionizing radiation of the order MRad also survive these high neutron fluences. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Radiation hardness and annealing tests of a custom VLSI device

    SciTech Connect

    Breakstone, A.; Parker, S.; Adolphsen, C.; Litke, A.; Schwarz, A.; Turala, M.; Lueth, V.; California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA . Inst. for Particle Physics; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA )

    1986-10-01

    Several NMOS custom VLSI ( Microplex'') circuits have been irradiated with a 500 rad/hr {sup 60}Co source. With power off three of four chips tested have survived doses exceeding 1 Mrad. With power on at a 25% duty cycle, all chips tested failed at doses ranging from 10 to 130 krad. Annealing at 200{degree}C was only partially successful in restoring the chips to useful operating conditions. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Eddy Current, Magnetic Particle and Hardness Testing, Aviation Quality Control (Advanced): 9227.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This unit of instruction includes the principles of eddy current, magnetic particle and hardness testing; standards used for analyzing test results; techniques of operating equipment; interpretation of indications; advantages and limitations of these methods of testing; care and calibration of equipment; and safety and work precautions. Motion…

  5. Rockwell experience applications to Ames space station mockup habitability/productivity studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebuck, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The use of Rockwell experiences to assist NASA/Ames with planning for space station mockup studies is outlined. Mockup lessons from Rockwell spacecraft studies are reviewed. Typical and unique mockup technology applications are illustrated. Potential uses for space station mockups are given along with the areas of concern. Workstation design requirements are given.

  6. A 4-node Bilinear Isoparametric Element in Rockwell NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, C.; Allison, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The development and evaluation of the Rockwell NASTRAN four node quadrilateral (QUAD4) element is presented. The element derivation utilizes bilinear isoparametric techniques both for membrane and bending characteristics. The QUAD4 element coordinate system, membrane properties, lumped mass matrix, and treatment of warping are based upon the COSMIC/NASTRAN QDMEMI element while the bending characteristics are based on a paper by T. J. R. Hughes. The effects of warping on the bending stiffness, consistent mass, and geometric stiffness are based upon a paper by R. H. MacNeal. Numerical integration is accomplished by Gaussian quadrature on a 2 x 2 grid. Practical user support features include variable element thickness, thermal analysis and layered composite material definitions.

  7. Effects of Hardness on Pintle Rod Performance in the Universal and Retained Gas Samplers

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-11-18

    Interaction between hardness of the pintle rods and the retainer rings used in the core samplers is investigated. It is found that ordinary Rockwell C measurements are not sufficient and superficial hardness instruments are recommended to verify hardness since in-production hardness of pintle rods is found to vary widely and probably leads to some premature release of pistons in samplers.

  8. Assuring the quality of results of test hardness IRHD: IPT's case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yojo, T.; Miranda, M. J. A. C.; Oliveira, C. B.; Matteucci, C.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the experience of the Laboratory Trees, Woods and Furniture - LAMM in calibrating the durometer IRHD and assuring the quality of its test results, since there are no Certified Reference Material and laboratory in the Brazilian Calibration Network that can calibrate the equipment. To solve this problem, the IRHD hardness (N method) was quantified in three ways: a) by measuring the modulus of elasticity of the material, b) by measuring the depth the sphere entered the material and c) the durometer's direct reading. With the IRHD hardness measured by accepted international standards techniques, it was possible to evaluate the accuracy of the test results that assured the calibration of the equipment.

  9. PDC Bit Testing at Sandia Reveals Influence of Chatter in Hard-Rock Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    RAYMOND,DAVID W.

    1999-10-14

    Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits have yet to be routinely applied to drilling the hard-rock formations characteristic of geothermal reservoirs. Most geothermal production wells are currently drilled with tungsten-carbide-insert roller-cone bits. PDC bits have significantly improved penetration rates and bit life beyond roller-cone bits in the oil and gas industry where soft to medium-hard rock types are encountered. If PDC bits could be used to double current penetration rates in hard rock geothermal well-drilling costs could be reduced by 15 percent or more. PDC bits exhibit reasonable life in hard-rock wear testing using the relatively rigid setups typical of laboratory testing. Unfortunately, field experience indicates otherwise. The prevailing mode of failure encountered by PDC bits returning from hard-rock formations in the field is catastrophic, presumably due to impact loading. These failures usually occur in advance of any appreciable wear that might dictate cutter replacement. Self-induced bit vibration, or ''chatter'', is one of the mechanisms that may be responsible for impact damage to PDC cutters in hard-rock drilling. Chatter is more severe in hard-rock formations since they induce significant dynamic loading on the cutter elements. Chatter is a phenomenon whereby the drillstring becomes dynamically unstable and excessive sustained vibrations occur. Unlike forced vibration, the force (i.e., weight on bit) that drives self-induced vibration is coupled with the response it produces. Many of the chatter principles derived in the machine tool industry are applicable to drilling. It is a simple matter to make changes to a machine tool to study the chatter phenomenon. This is not the case with drilling. Chatter occurs in field drilling due to the flexibility of the drillstring. Hence, laboratory setups must be made compliant to observe chatter.

  10. Hard metal composition

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    1986-01-01

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  11. Hard metal composition

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-07-26

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  12. Performance Assessment of Hard Rock TBM and Rock Boreability Using Punch Penetration Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ho-Young; Cho, Jung-Woo; Jeon, Seokwon; Rostami, Jamal

    2016-04-01

    Rock indentation tests are often called punch penetration tests and are known to be related to penetration rates of drilling equipment and hard rock tunnel boring machines (TBMs). Various indices determined from analysis of the force-penetration plot generated from indentation tests have been used to represent the drillability, boreability, and brittleness of rocks. However, no standard for the punch penetration test procedure or method for calculating the related indices has been suggested or adopted in the rock mechanics community. This paper introduces new indices based on the punch test to predict the performance of hard rock TBMs. A series of punch tests was performed on rock specimens representing six rock formations in Korea with different dimensions, i.e., the core specimens had different lengths and diameters. Of the indices obtained from the punch tests, the peak load index and mean load index showed good correlations with the cutting forces measured in full-scale linear cutting machine tests on the same rock types. The indices also showed good linear correlations with the ratio of uniaxial strength to Brazilian tensile strength, which indicates the brittleness of rock. The scale effect of using core specimens was investigated, and a preferred dimension for the punch test specimens is proposed. This paper also discusses the results of the punch test and full-scale rock cutting tests using LCM. The results of this study confirm that the proposed indices from the punch tests can be used to provide a reliable prediction of the cutting forces that act on a disc cutter. The estimated cutting forces can then be used for optimization of cutter-head design and performance prediction of hard rock TBMs.

  13. Rockwell Automation PLC-5 Lands Stennis Space Center with a Reliable, Flexible Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epperson, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Ever since the first rocket was launched, people have been infatuated with the vast and unchartered frontier of space. Whether it's visiting a space center or watching a shuttle launch, people are waiting to see what will be discovered next. And even though orbiting the Earth or taking soil samples form the Moon now seems effortless, decades worth of behind-the-scenes work have helped the U.S. space program get to this point. Even today, NASA must take every precaution to ensure equipment is up to the endeavor of setting foot on the moon. As part of the initial push to put the first man on the moon, NASA established the John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi in 1961 for space engine propulsion system development. Today, Stennis has three major test complexes where engine and component testing is carried out and integrated into full motion systems for space shuttles and vehicles as well as secondary testing facilities. With different products being tested throughout the facilities, Stennis was in need of an automation system that could link the operations. By integrating a control system based on a Rockwell Automation's flexible and reliable PLC-5 controller, Stennis was able to implement projects more efficiently and focus its efforts on getting the next generation of products ready for space.

  14. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  15. Thermal protection system gap heating rates of the Rockwell International flat plate heat transfer model (OH2A/OH2B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, T. F.; Lockman, W. K.; Grifall, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Heat transfer data for the Rockwell International Flat Plate Thermocouple Model are presented. The model simulated the Space Shuttle Vehicle Thermal Protection System. Data were recorded for locations in and around various size gaps for various gap orientation configurations. The test was conducted at Mach 5.1 for free-stream Reynolds number per foot values from 500,000 to 1,500,000.

  16. Measuring Academic Competencies of Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: What Parents Need to Know about Test Equity in Schools. Test Equity Considerations: Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-West, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Many children find school tests difficult, but children who are deaf or hard of hearing may find them especially so. Reports from the 2008 Test Equity Summit indicate that disproportionate numbers of students who are deaf or hard of hearing at all grade levels are failing critically important tests even though their classroom work may show that…

  17. Testing of a diesel-powered impact cutting head for hard-rock mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on the performance of a novel prototype kerf-cutting impact mining machine that was evaluated under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Bureau of Mines and RAMEX Systems, Bellevue, WA, while operating under conditions typical of normal tunnel entry development. Selected operating parameters were monitored concurrently to determine baseline operating conditions and to study relationships between operating parameters. Using the data obtained, the specific energy requirements of the impact mining machine were calculated and compared to specific energy requirements of tunnel boring machines cutting in rock having similar hardness. Tests results indicate that the kerf-cutting impact mining machine can provide a mechanical means for mining very hard rock that cannot be effectively mined using commercially available mechanical excavators.

  18. Design and Tests of the Hard X-Ray Polarimeter X-Calibur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beilicke, M.; Binns, W. R.; Buckley, J.; Cowsik, R.; Dowkontt, P.; Garson, A.; Guo, Q.; Israel, M. H.; Lee, K.; Krawczynski, H.; Baring, M. G.; Barthelmy, S.; Okajima, T.; Schnittman, J.; Tueller, J.; Haba, Y.; Kunieda, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyazawa, T.; Tamura, K.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray polarimetry promises to give new information about high-energy astrophysical sources, such as binary black hole systems, micro-quasars, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts. We designed, built and tested a hard X-ray polarimeter X-Calibur to be used in the focal plane of the InFOC(mu)S grazing incidence hard X-ray telescope. X-Calibur combines a low-Z Compton scatterer with a CZT detector assembly to measure the polarization of 10-80 keV X-rays making use of the fact that polarized photons Compton scatter preferentially perpendicular to the electric field orientation. X-Calibur achieves a high detection efficiency of order unity.

  19. Can joint sound assess soft and hard endpoints of the Lachman test?: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Koji; Ogawa, Munehiro; Tanaka, Kazunori; Matsuya, Ayako; Uematsu, Kota; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-05-12

    The Lachman test is considered to be a reliable physical examination for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Patients with a damaged ACL demonstrate a soft endpoint feeling. However, examiners judge the soft and hard endpoints subjectively. The purpose of our study was to confirm objective performance of the Lachman test using joint auscultation. Human and porcine knee joints were examined. Knee joint sound during the Lachman test (Lachman sound) was analyzed by fast Fourier transformation. As quantitative indices of Lachman sound, the peak sound as the maximum relative amplitude (acoustic pressure) and its frequency were used. The mean Lachman peak sound for healthy volunteer knees was 86.9 ± 12.9 Hz in frequency and -40 ± 2.5 dB in acoustic pressure. The mean Lachman peak sound for intact porcine knees was 84.1 ± 9.4 Hz and -40.5 ± 1.7 dB. Porcine knees with ACL deficiency had a soft endpoint feeling during the Lachman test. The Lachman peak sounds of porcine knees with ACL deficiency were dispersed into four distinct groups, with center frequencies of around 40, 160, 450, and 1600. The Lachman peak sound was capable of assessing soft and hard endpoints of the Lachman test objectively. PMID:27175472

  20. A study on hardness behavior of geopolymer paste in different condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainal, Farah Farhana; Hussin, Kamarudin; Rahmat, Azmi; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam

    2016-07-01

    This study has been conducted to understand the hardness behavior of geopolymer paste in different conditions; with and without being immersed in water. Geopolymer paste has been used nowadays as an alternative way to reduce global warming pollution by carbon dioxide (CO2) released to the air caused from the production of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Geopolymer has many advantages such as high compressive strength, lower water absorption and lower porosity. Geopolymer paste in this study was made from a mixture of fly ash and alkaline activators. The alkaline activators that have been used were sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) solution. Then the mixture was allowed to harden for 24hrs at ambient temperature and then placed in the oven for 24hrs with 60°C for the curing process. The hardness testing was conducted after a few months when the samples already achieved the optimum design. The samples were divided to two conditions; without immersion which was placed at ambient temperature (S1) and immersed in water for one week (S2). The samples then are divided into two at the center and testing was conducted into 4 parts which are part 1, part 2, part 3 and part 4. Various methods of non-destructively testing concrete and mortar have been in use for many years such as Vickers hardness test, Rockwell hardness test, Brinell hardness test and many more. The Rockwell hardness test method as defined in ASTM E-18 is the most commonly used hardness test method which is also used in this study. From the results, S1 has higher hardness value than S2 for all parts with the maximum value of S1 is 118.6 and the minimum value is 71.8. The maximum value of S2 is 114.4 and the minimum value is 0. The central part of the geopolymer paste also showed greater hardness values than the edge area of the samples.

  1. Testing adhesion of direct restoratives to dental hard tissue - a review.

    PubMed

    Salz, Ulrich; Bock, Thorsten

    2010-10-01

    This articles concerns itself with the testing of adhesion between direct restoratives and dental hard tissue, ie, enamel and dentin. The aim is to survey available methods for adhesion testing and influential parameters affecting experimental outcome. The testing of adhesion to indirect restorative materials, eg, ceramics and metals, is beyond the scope of this article and shall be discussed elsewhere. The longevity and success of modern dental restorations very often relies on potent dental adhesives to provide durable bonds between the dental hard substance and the restorative composite. To predict the clinical outcome of such restorative treatment, a large variety of in vitro laboratory tests and clinical in vivo experiments have been devised, analyzed, and published. The purpose of this review is to provide a current overview of bond strength testing methods and their applicability to the characterization of dental adhesives. Regardless of the method employed, subtle variations in sample preparation may already severely impact test results, usually necessitating at least co-testing of a well-known internal reference to allow conclusive interpretation. This article attempts to list and discuss the most influential parameters, such as substrate nature, age, health status, storage, clinically relevant pre-treatment, and sample preparation. Special attention is devoted to the last aspect, as numerous publications have stressed the tremendous influence of preparatory parameters on the validity and scope of obtained data. Added to the large variety of such factors, an equally large diversity of load-applying procedures exists to actually quantify adhesion between composites and dental hard substance. This article summarizes the basics of macro and micro approaches to shear and tensile bond strength testing, as well as push- and pull-out tests. The strengths and weaknesses inherent to each method and influential test parameters are reviewed and methods for

  2. Test Equity for Individuals Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. PEPNet Test Equity Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-West, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights of the 2008 Test Equity Summit held in Bloomfield, Colorado last August 6-8, 2008. The 2008 Test Equity Summit convened by the Postsecondary Education Programs Network (PEPNet) identified and examined problems, challenges, and issues that academic and psychoeducational tests pose for individuals who are deaf or…

  3. Indentation Load Effect on Young's Modulus and Hardness of Porous Sialon Ceramic by Depth Sensing Indentation Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Sahin

    2007-11-01

    Depth sensing indentation (DSI) tests at the range of 200-1800 mN are performed on porous sialon ceramic to determine the indentation load on Young's modulus and hardness values. The Young modulus and hardness (Dynamic and Martens) values are deduced by analysing the unloading segments of the DSI test load-displacement curves using the Oliver-Pharr method. It is found that Young's modulus Er, the dynamic hardness HD and the Martens hardness HM exhibit significant indentation load dependences. The values of Young's modulus and hardness decrease with the increasing indentation load, as a result of indentation load effect. The experimental hf/hm ratios lower than the critical value 0.7, with hm being the maximum penetration depth during loading and hf the final unloading depth, indicate that our sample shows the work hardening behaviour.

  4. Monitoring system for testing the radiation hardness of a KINTEX-7 FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocariu, L. N.; Placinta, V. M.; Dumitru, L.

    2016-03-01

    A much more efficient Ring Imaging Cherenkov sub-detector system will be rebuilt in the second long shutdown of Large Hadron Collider for the LHCb experiment. Radiation-hard electronic components together with Commercial Off-The-Shelf ones will be used in the new Cherenkov photon detection system architecture. An irradiation program was foreseen to determine the radiation tolerance for the new electronic devices, including a Field Programmable Gate Array from KINTEX-7 family of XILINX. An automated test bench for online monitoring of the XC7K70T KINTEX-7 device operation in radiation conditions was designed and implemented by the LHCb Romanian group.

  5. Radiation hardness tests of GaAs amplifiers operated in liquid argon in the ATLAS calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, J.; Brettel, H.; Cheplakov, A.; Cwienk, W.; Fent, J.; Golikov, V.; Golubyh, S.; Jakobs, K.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulagin, E.; Kurchaninov, L.; Ladygin, E.; Luschikov, V.; Oberlack, H.; Obudovsky, V.; Schacht, P.; Shalyugin, A.; Stiegler, U.; Zweimüller, T.

    2008-09-01

    Highly integrated Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) chips of preamplifiers and summing amplifiers have been exposed to high fluence of fast neutrons and γ-dose at the IBR-2 reactor in Dubna. A stable performance of the electronics has been demonstrated up to a fluence of 5×1014 n cm-2 and a γ-dose of 55 kGy. The radiation hardness tests confirm the applicability of the preamplifiers for more than 10 years operation in the ATLAS hadronic end-cap calorimeter at LHC.

  6. Norman Rockwell's "The Problem We All Live With:" Teaching "Bush v. Orleans Parish School Board"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    "The Problem We All Live With" is one of Norman Rockwell's most famous, and provocative, images. First printed in the January 14, 1964, issue of "Look" magazine, the image features an approximately six-year-old African American girl walking. She is wearing a white dress, white socks and white shoes. Her hair is parted in neat braids and she is…

  7. Background information and technological tests of hard X-ray detectors .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natalucci, L.; Caroli, E.; Quadrini, E.; Del Sordo, S.; Ubertini, P.

    Hard X-ray detectors for astronomical observations are currently being designed with advanced background rejection capabilities, based on high level of pixelisation and on fast signal processing. The development of such devices, based on room temperature semiconductor such as CdTe or CdZnTe comes through extensive testing programs normally based on ground campaigns, using radioactive sources, X-ray tubes and particle beam accelerators. These methods show their limits, however, especially for the measurements of the response to the different types of hadrons. Firtsly, we briefly review the knowledge of the primary sources of background and of the different radiation environments both for space and balloon altitudes, for which typical fluxes/rates are given. Then, we discuss how flying prototypes on high altitude balloons can greatly help to test the detector performance in an environment almost as severe as the conditions found in orbit, with detectors responding at very similar rates.

  8. Development of silicon microforce sensors integrated with double meander springs for standard hardness test instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Doering, Lutz; Daus, Alwin; Brand, Uwe; Frank, Thomas; Peiner, Erwin

    2015-05-01

    Silicon microforce sensors, to be used as a transferable standard for micro force and depth scale calibrations of hardness testing instruments, are developed using silicon bulk micromachining technologies. Instead of wet chemical etching, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) is employed in the sensor fabrication process leading to more precise control of 300 μm deep structures with smooth sidewall profiles. Double meander springs are designed flanking to the boss replacing the conventional rectangular springs and thereby improving the system linearity. Two full p-SOI piezoresistive Wheatstone bridges are added on both clamped ends of the active sensors. To realize passive force sensors two spring-mass elements are stacked using glue and photoresist as joining materials. Correspondingly, although plastic deformation seems to occur when the second spring is contacted, the kink effect (i.e., abrupt increase of stiffness) is obviously observed from the first test of the passive stack sensor.

  9. Crash Testing and Simulation of a Cessna 172 Aircraft: Hard Landing Onto Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2016-01-01

    A full-scale crash test of a Cessna 172 aircraft was conducted at the Landing and Impact Research Facility at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2015. The purpose of the test was to evaluate the performance of Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) that were mounted at various locations in the aircraft and to generate impact test data for model validation. A finite element model of the aircraft was developed for execution in LSDYNA to simulate the test. Measured impact conditions were 722.4-in/s forward velocity and 276-in/s vertical velocity with a 1.5deg pitch (nose up) attitude. These conditions were intended to represent a survivable hard landing. The impact surface was concrete. During the test, the nose gear tire impacted the concrete, followed closely by impact of the main gear tires. The main landing gear spread outward, as the nose gear stroked vertically. The only fuselage contact with the impact surface was a slight impact of the rearmost portion of the lower tail. Thus, capturing the behavior of the nose and main landing gear was essential to accurately predict the response. This paper describes the model development and presents test-analysis comparisons in three categories: inertial properties, time sequence of events, and acceleration and velocity time-histories.

  10. Towards Reconfigurable, Separable and Hard Real-Time Hybrid Simulation and Test Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartier, F.; Delatte, B.; Joubert, M.

    2009-05-01

    Formation flight needs several new technologies, new disciplines, new approaches and above all, more concurrent engineering by more players. One of the problems to be addressed are more complex simulation and test systems that are easy to re-configure to include parts of the target hardware and that can provide sufficient power to handle simulation cores that are requiring one to two orders of magnitude more processing power than the current technology provides. Critical technologies that are already addressed by CNES and Spacebel are study model reuse and simulator reconfigurability (Basiles), model portability (SMP2) and the federation of several simulators using HLA. Two more critical issues are addressed in ongoing R&D work by CNES and Spacebel and are covered by this paper and concern the time engineering and management. The first issue concerns separability (characterisation, identification and handling of separable subsystems) and the consequences on practical systems. Experiments on the Pleiades operational simulator have shown that adding precise simulation of instruments such as Doris and the Star Tracker can be added without significantly impacting overall performance. Improved time analysis leads to better system understanding and testability. The second issue concerns architectures for distributed hybrid simulators systems that provide hard real-time capabilities and can react with a relative time precision and jitter that is in the 10 to 50 µsecond range using mainstream PC's and mainstream Operating Systems. This opens a way to make smaller economic hardware test systems that can be reconfigured to make large hardware test systems without restarting development. Although such systems were considered next to impossible till now, distributed hard real-time systems are getting in reach when modern but mainstream electronics are used and when processor cores can be isolated and reserved for real-time cores. This requires a complete rethinking of the

  11. Evaluation of the Rockwell International flash-hydroliquefaction process. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Sirohi, V.P.

    1980-09-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, UOP/SDC has evaluated the Rockwell Hydroliquefaction Process to determine the adequacy of the existing PDU data base and to assess the practicability and operability of the process. UOP/SDC conducted nine studies. Their findings follow: (1) A complete designed set of experiments must be run on the present PDU to make possible satisfactory analysis of the effects of variables especially the effect of diluents in the H/sub 2/ feed and the possibility of carbon deposition problems. (2) Basic improvements in the equipment and operation of the PDU should first be made (Ten specific recommendations are made). (3) A reactor design concept must be developed that looks feasible for design, fabrication, and operation. (4) A conceptual commercial design and economics should be prepared based on a realistic set of design bases and criteria. (5) If the above are accomplished successfully with attractive results, then and only then: (a) A study should be made of the refining requirements of the product, which are expected to be expensive based on the H/C ratio. (b) The PDU should be modified for continuous runs of up to one month to: Confirm the data correlations, estimate the reliability of the reactor and process, adhere to the requirements stated above, test cryogenic gas separation, study fouling and erosion, study lockhopper feeding, establish initial reliability of the coal injector and precombustion assembly head, collect scale-up and design data, and conduct a materials study and confirm materials choices. (c) Determine particle size of the char and of the solids in the oil product, the degree to which they may be separated, and how the ash should be removed from the product oil.

  12. Radiation Hardness Tests of SiPMs for the JLab Hall D Barrel Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Qiang, Carl Zorn, Fernando Barbosa, Elton Smith

    2013-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the neutron radiation hardness of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) manufactured by Hamamatsu Corporation in Japan and SensL in Ireland. Samples from both companies were irradiated by neutrons created by a 1 GeV electron beam hitting a thin lead target at Jefferson Lab Hall A. More tests regarding the temperature dependence of the neutron radiation damage and self-annealing were performed on Hamamatsu SiPMs using a calibrated Am–Be neutron source from the Jefferson Lab Radiation Control group. As the result of irradiation both dark current and dark rate increase linearly as a function of the 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence and a temperature dependent self-annealing effect is observed

  13. Tests of Radiation-Hard Silicon Microstrip Sensors for CMS in S-LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Luukka, Panja; Maenpaa, Teppo; Tuovinen, Esa; Spiegel, Lenny; Flight, Robert; /Rochester U.

    2011-02-21

    The tests are to study the performance of various silicon microstrip sensors that are sufficiently radiation-hard to be considered as candidates for the CMS outer (R > 25cm) tracker in the second phase of the currently envisioned S-LHC upgrade. The main goal of the beam test is to test Float Zone (FZ) and Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) silicon sensors that have been procured from Hamamatsu by the CMS collaboration as possible replacements for the CMS outer tracker for phase 2 operations. The detectors under test (DUT) will be isntalled in a cold box that contains 10 slots for modules based on CMS Tracker hybrids. Slots 1-4 and 7-10 are occupied by reference planes and slots 5 and 6 are reserved for DUTs. The box is cooled by Peltier elements in thermal contact with the top and bottom aluminum baseplates and is typically operated at around -25 C. A PCI based version of the CMS DAQ is used to read out the 10 slots based on triggers provided by beam scintillation counters. Given the low rate of beam particles the hybrid APVs will be operated in Peak mode, which maximizes the signal-to-noise performance of the readout chips. The internal clock operates at the LHC frequency of 40 MHz.

  14. Formal analysis, hardness, and algorithms for extracting internal structure of test-based problems.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Wojciech; Krawiec, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Problems in which some elementary entities interact with each other are common in computational intelligence. This scenario, typical for coevolving artificial life agents, learning strategies for games, and machine learning from examples, can be formalized as a test-based problem and conveniently embedded in the common conceptual framework of coevolution. In test-based problems, candidate solutions are evaluated on a number of test cases (agents, opponents, examples). It has been recently shown that every test of such problem can be regarded as a separate objective, and the whole problem as multi-objective optimization. Research on reducing the number of such objectives while preserving the relations between candidate solutions and tests led to the notions of underlying objectives and internal problem structure, which can be formalized as a coordinate system that spatially arranges candidate solutions and tests. The coordinate system that spans the minimal number of axes determines the so-called dimension of a problem and, being an inherent property of every problem, is of particular interest. In this study, we investigate in-depth the formalism of a coordinate system and its properties, relate them to properties of partially ordered sets, and design an exact algorithm for finding a minimal coordinate system. We also prove that this problem is NP-hard and come up with a heuristic which is superior to the best algorithm proposed so far. Finally, we apply the algorithms to three abstract problems and demonstrate that the dimension of the problem is typically much lower than the number of tests, and for some problems converges to the intrinsic parameter of the problem--its a priori dimension. PMID:21815770

  15. Short-term hot-hardness characteristics of five case hardened steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, N. E.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1975-01-01

    Short-term hot-hardness studies were performed with carburized and hardened AISI 8620, CBS 1000, CBS 1000M, CBS 600, and Vasco X-2 steels. Case and core hardness measurements were made at temperatures from 294 to 811 K (70 to 1000 F). The data were compared with data for high-speed tool steels and AISI 52100. The materials tested can be ranked as follows in order of decreasing hot-hardness retention: (1) Vasco X-2; equivalent to through-hardened tool steels up to 644 K (700 F) above which Vasco X-2 is inferior; (2) CBS 1000, (3) CBS 1000M; (4) CBS 6000; better hardness retention at elevated temperatures than through-hardened AISI 52100; and (5) AISI 8620. For the carburized steels, the change in hardness with temperature of the case and core are similar for a given material. The short-term hot hardness of these materials can be predicted with + or - 1 point Rockwell C.

  16. 78 FR 69318 - Airworthiness Directives; Rockwell Collins, Inc. Transponders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...-) equipped airplanes. This proposed AD would require testing and calibration of the alignment of the... procedures for testing the transponders for proper alignment. FAA's Determination We are proposing this...

  17. Test Equity for People Who Are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing: Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification Steps for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saladin, Shawn P.; Reid, Christine; Shiels, John

    2011-01-01

    The Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification (CRCC) has taken a proactive stance on perceived test inequities of the Certified Rehabilitation Counselor (CRC) exam as it relates to people who are prelingually deaf and hard of hearing. This article describes the process developed and implemented by the CRCC to help maximize test equity…

  18. Large-Scale Academic Achievement Testing of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Sen; Mitchell, Ross E.

    2012-01-01

    The first large-scale, nationwide academic achievement testing program using Stanford Achievement Test (Stanford) for deaf and hard-of-hearing children in the United States started in 1969. Over the past three decades, the Stanford has served as a benchmark in the field of deaf education for assessing student academic achievement. However, the…

  19. Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-06

    OAK A271 Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996. The Rockwell International Hot Laboratory (RIHL) is one of a number of former nuclear facilities undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The RIHL facility is in the later stages of dismantlement, with the final objective of returning the site location to its original natural state. This report documents the decontamination and dismantlement activities performed at the facility over the time period 1988 through 1996. At this time, the support buildings, all equipment associated with the facility, and the entire above-ground structure of the primary facility building (Building 020) have been removed. The basement portion of this building and the outside yard areas (primarily asphalt and soil) are scheduled for D&D activities beginning in 1997.

  20. Genome sequence of the methanotrophic Alphaproteobacterium, Methylocystis sp. Rockwell (ATCC 49242)

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Lisa Y.; Bringel, Francoise O.; DiSpiritto, Alan A.; Han, Sukkyun; Jetten, MSM; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Kits, K. Dimitri; Klotz, Martin G; Op den Camp, HJM; Semrau, Jeremy D.; Vuilleumier, Stephane; Bruce, David; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Copeland, A; Davenport, Karen W.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Lajus, Aurelie; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Medigue, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    Methylocystis sp. strain Rockwell (ATCC 49242) is an aerobic methane-oxidizing Alphaproteobacterium isolated from an aquifer in southern California. Unlike most methanotrophs in the Methylocystaceae family, this strain has a single pmo operon encoding particulate methane monooxygenase and no evidence of the genes encoding soluble methane monooxygenase. This is the first reported genome sequence of a member of the Methylocystis species of the Methylocystaceae family in the order Rhizobiales.

  1. Short-term hot hardness characteristics of rolling-element steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Short-term hot hardness studies were performed with five vacuum-melted steels at temperatures from 294 to 887 K (70 to 1140 F). Based upon a minimum Rockwell C hardness of 58, the temperature limitation on all materials studied was dependent on the initial room temperature hardness and the tempering temperature of each material. For the same room temperature hardness, the short-term hot hardness characteristics were identical and independent of material composition. An equation was developed to predict the short-term hardness at temperature as a function of initial room temperature hardness for AISI 52100, as well as the high-speed tool steels.

  2. Rheological Model and Mechanical Properties of Hard Nanocoatings in Numerical Nanoindentation Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopernik, M.; Pietrzyk, M.

    2007-04-01

    The objective of the work is development of the method, which is based on inverse analysis principles, and which allows determination of material model for lower material layer in the hard nanocoatings system. Hardness of such a system is additionally calculated in the paper. Design of block diagram of inverse analysis for the identification of mechanical properties of hard nanocoating is the main part of the solution. The method for the identification of mechanical properties of the layers is described in detail. Results of calculations are presented and discussed.

  3. Development and Testing of an Antitobacco School-Based Curriculum for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Barbara A.; Guthmann, Debra S.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Liu, Weiqing

    2011-01-01

    A tobacco use prevention curriculum tailored for deaf/hard of hearing youth was tested using a quasi-experimental design. Two schools for the deaf received the curriculum; two served as noncurriculum controls. Surveys assessed changes in tobacco use, tobacco education exposure, and tobacco-related attitudes and knowledge among students in grades…

  4. STS-65 Payload Specialist Mukai in LES with Rockwell's Scott Gill at WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, outfitted in a launch and entry suit (LES) and clamshell helmet, is assisted by Rockwell's Charles S. Gill prior to a launch emergency egress training (bailout) exercise at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Mukai was joined by six NASA astronauts for the training session. Mukai, representing Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA), along with the STS-65 crew will spend approximately two weeks aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, later this year in support of the second International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission.

  5. Results of a jet plume effects test on Rockwell International integrated space shuttle vehicle using a vehicle 5 configuration 0.02-scale model (88-OTS) in the 11 by 11 foot leg of the NASA/Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel (IA19), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of jet plume effects test IA19 using a vehicle 5 configuration integrated space shuttle vehicle 0.02-scale model in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11 x 11-foot leg of the unitary plan wind tunnel. The jet plume power effects on the integrated vehicle static pressure distribution were determined along with elevon, main propulsion system nozzle, and solid rocket booster nozzle effectiveness and elevon hinge moments.

  6. Systematic and Performance Tests of the Hard X-ray Polarimeter X-Calibur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endsley, Ryan; Beilicke, Matthias; Kislat, Fabian; Krawczynski, Henric; X-Calibur/InFOCuS

    2015-01-01

    X-ray polarimetry has great potential to reveal new astrophysical information about the emission processes of high energy sources such as black hole environments, X-ray binary systems, and active galactic nuclei. Here we present the results and conclusions of systematic and performance measurements of the hard X-ray polarimeter, X-Calibur. Designed to be flown on a balloon-borne X-ray telescope, X-Calibur will achieve unprecedented sensitivity and makes use of the fact that polarized X-rays preferentially Compton-scatter perpendicular to their E-field vector. Extensive laboratory measurements taken at Washington University and the Cornell High-Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) indicate that X-Calibur combines a detection efficiency on the order of unity with a high modulation factor of µ ≈ 0.5 averaged over the whole detector assembly, and with values up to µ ≈ 0.7 for select subsections of the polarimeter. Additionally, we are able to suppress background flux by more than two orders of magnitude by utilizing an active shield and scintillator coincidence. Comparing laboratory data with Monte Carlo simulations of both polarized and unpolarized hard X-ray beams illustrate that we have an exceptional understanding of the detector response.

  7. Pulling Up the Drawbridge: A Case Study of Rockwell International's Public Response Policy Following the Destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, John A.

    This paper describes the contingent media relations policy employed by Rockwell International, the prime contractor of the United States space shuttle program, following the 1986 destruction of the Challenger, and evaluates that policy in terms of its utility to Rockwell and its impact on public dissemination of information about the shuttle…

  8. An investigation in the NASA MSFC 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel to determine the pressure distribution over the components of a 0.004 scale version of the Rockwell MCR 0074 baseline shuttle ascent configuration (IA32F), volume 1. [space shuttles - wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, P. E.

    1975-01-01

    Data were obtained for Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.48, angles of attack from -10 to 10 degrees, and angles of sideslip from -10 to 10 degrees at zero angle of attack. Also, -4 and 4 degrees sideslip were run for an angle of attack of -5 and 5 degrees. Aerodynamic configurations of the solid rocket motors, external tank, and orbiter are shown. Graphs of plotted pressure data (pressure coefficients) for the external tank and solid rocket motors are given. A description of the test facility is included.

  9. 1985 NASA-Rockwell Space Station Crew Safety Study: results from Mir.

    PubMed

    Dudley-Rowley, M; Cohen, M M; Flores, P

    2004-01-01

    In 1985, Rockwell International (now Boeing--North American) completed the Space Station Crew Safety Alternatives Study for NASA. This five-volume study identified a wide range of potential safety threats and hazards that the crew might encounter on the future International Space Station. These threats included fire, explosion, collision, decompression, contamination, and radiation, among many others. One volume focused on the human factors aspects of safety, featuring the Crew Safety-Human Factors Interaction Model. In this model, a stressor (such as one of the threats) can lead to degraded performance, which can contribute to human error, unless appropriate and effective countermeasures are available to the crew. In 1986, the Soviet Union launched the Mir Space Station, the "second generation" that followed the Salyut series of space stations. The Mir was designed for a five-year life on orbit. It remained in use for fourteen years. During the first ten years, it performed well, with few safety issues. However, during the last four years, the aging station--operating at more than two times beyond its design lifetime--encountered a variety of safety hazards and human factors issues. Despite these often serious problems, the Mir crews always found a way to save the station, and no crew member was seriously injured or killed. This paper evaluates the safety record on Mir, and compares it to the NASA-Rockwell study, that was contemporaneous with the construction and launch of Mir. This comparison and analysis can provide a foundation for future space crew safety and related human factors support. PMID:15108594

  10. Effects of water hardness, water temperature, and size of the test organism on the susceptibility of the freshwater shrimp, Gammarus pulex (L. ), to toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, R.R.

    1983-10-01

    In this study the authors examined the effects of water hardness, water temperature, size of test organism and duration of exposure on the acute toxicity of four substances to Gammarus pulex (L.), the freshwater shrimp.

  11. Crystal nucleation in the hard-sphere system revisited: a critical test of theoretical approaches.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Gyula I; Gránásy, László

    2009-04-16

    The hard-sphere system is the best known fluid that crystallizes: the solid-liquid interfacial free energy, the equations of state, and the height of the nucleation barrier are known accurately, offering a unique possibility for a quantitative validation of nucleation theories. A recent significant downward revision of the interfacial free energy from approximately 0.61kT/sigma(2) to (0.56 +/- 0.02)kT/sigma(2) [Davidchack, R.; Morris, J. R.; Laird, B. B. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 125, 094710] necessitates a re-evaluation of theoretical approaches to crystal nucleation. This has been carried out for the droplet model of the classical nucleation theory (CNT), the self-consistent classical theory (SCCT), a phenomenological diffuse interface theory (DIT), and single- and two-field variants of the phase field theory that rely on either the usual double-well and interpolation functions (PFT/S1 and PFT/S2, respectively) or on a Ginzburg-Landau expanded free energy that reflects the crystal symmetries (PFT/GL1 and PFT/GL2). We find that the PFT/GL1, PFT/GL2, and DIT models predict fairly accurately the height of the nucleation barrier known from Monte Carlo simulations in the volume fraction range of 0.52 < varphi < 0.54, whereas the CNT, SCCT, PFT/S1, and PFT/S2 models underestimate it significantly. PMID:19320450

  12. Grammar Error Strike Hard: Language Proficiency Testing of Hong Kong Teachers and the Four "Noes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwright, Phil

    2005-01-01

    This article first reviews important issues of language, power, and testing. It then examines in critical fashion a particular instance of the use of language testing by the Hong Kong government, namely, the Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers (LPAT). Treating the LPAT developments as a form of narrative rather than debate, it presents…

  13. Beta Backscatter Measures the Hardness of Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, E. T.; Roje, F. N.

    1986-01-01

    Nondestructive testing method determines hardness, on Shore scale, of room-temperature-vulcanizing silicone rubber. Measures backscattered beta particles; backscattered radiation count directly proportional to Shore hardness. Test set calibrated with specimen, Shore hardness known from mechanical durometer test. Specimen of unknown hardness tested, and radiation count recorded. Count compared with known sample to find Shore hardness of unknown.

  14. The hard start phenomena in hypergolic engines. Volume 5: RCS engine deformation and destruct tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miron, Y.; Perlee, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the causes of Apollo Reaction Control (RCS) engine failures. Stainless steel engines constructed for use in the destructive tests are described. The tests conducted during the three phase investigation are discussed. It was determined that the explosive reaction that destroys the RCS engines occurs at the time of engine ignition and is apparently due to either the detonation of the heterogeneous constituents of the rocket engine, consisting primarily of unreacted propellant droplets and vapors, and/or the detonation of explosive materials accumulated on the engine walls from previous pulses. Photographs of the effects of explosions on the simulated RCS engines are provided.

  15. A Rickettsiella Bacterium from the Hard Tick, Ixodes woodi: Molecular Taxonomy Combining Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) with Significance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Leclerque, Andreas; Kleespies, Regina G.

    2012-01-01

    Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are known to harbour intracellular bacteria from several phylogenetic groups that can develop both mutualistic and pathogenic relationships to the host. This is of particular importance for public health as tick derived bacteria can potentially be transmitted to mammals, including humans, where e.g. Rickettsia or Coxiella act as severe pathogens. Exact molecular taxonomic identification of tick associated prokaryotes is a necessary prerequisite of the investigation of their relationship to both the tick and possible vertebrate hosts. Previously, an intracellular bacterium had been isolated from a monosexual, parthenogenetically reproducing laboratory colony of females of the hard tick, Ixodes woodi Bishopp, and had preliminarily been characterized as a “Rickettsiella-related bacterium”. In the present molecular taxonomic study that is based on phylogenetic reconstruction from both 16 S ribosomal RNA and protein-encoding marker sequences complemented with likelihood-based significance testing, the bacterium from I. woodi has been identified as a strain of the taxonomic species Rickettsiella grylli. It is the first time that a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach based on a four genes comprising MLST scheme has been implemented in order to classify a Rickettsiella-like bacterium to this species. The study demonstrated that MLST holds potential for a better resolution of phylogenetic relationships within the genus Rickettsiella, but requires sequence determination from further Rickettsiella-like bacteria in order to complete the current still fragmentary picture of Rickettsiella systematics. PMID:22675436

  16. Determination of adhesion between thermoplastic and liquid silicone rubbers in hard-soft-combinations via mechanical peeling test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühr, C.; Spörrer, A.; Altstädt, V.

    2014-05-01

    The production of hard-soft-combinations via multi injection molding gained more and more importance in the last years. This is attributed to different factors. One principle reason is that the use of two-component injection molding technique has many advantages such as cancelling subsequent and complex steps and shortening the process chain. Furthermore this technique allows the combination of the properties of the single components like the high stiffness of the hard component and the elastic properties of the soft component. Because of the incompatibility of some polymers the adhesion on the interface has to be determined. Thereby adhesion is not only influenced by the applied polymers, but also by the injection molding parameters and the characteristics of the mold. Besides already known combinations of thermoplastics with thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), there consists the possibility to apply liquid silicone rubber (LSR) as soft component. A thermoplastic/LSR combination gains in importance due to the specific advantages of LSR to TPE. The faintly adhesion between LSR and thermoplastics is currently one of the key challenges when dealing with those combinations. So it is coercively necessary to improve adhesion between the two components by adding an adhesion promoter. To determine the promoters influence, it is necessary to develop a suitable testing method to investigate e.g. the peel resistance. The current German standard "VDI Richtlinie 2019', which is actually only employed for thermoplastic/TPE combinations, can serve as a model to determine the adhesion of thermoplastic/LSR combinations.

  17. Ultrashort pulsed laser tools for testing of semiconductor elements hardness to single event effects, caused by cosmic heavy charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordienko, Alexandra V.; Mavritskii, Oleg B.; Egorov, Andrey N.; Pechenkin, Alexander A.; Savchenkov, Dmitriy V.

    2015-03-01

    The installations for laser testing of microelectronic elements (first of all - integrated circuits) of devices for space applications for hardness to local radiation effects from heavy charged particles are presented. The possibility of a focused pulsed laser radiation application to the study of local radiation effects, caused by single heavy charged particles, is explained. The fundamentals of an approach to the construction of test sets, based on the picosecond and femtosecond lasers and systems for focusing their radiation, are considered. The main technical requirements for the basic modules of sets for laser testing (laser wavelength and pulse duration and repetition rate, spatial beam parameters and minimal spot size, speed of object movement and so on) are substantiated. All worked out sets have a full-featured software for the operational management of all modules of the laser test facility, including the positioning of the object, to provide feedback from the measurement results of the reaction of the object on the laser excitation. The parameters of developed laser hardware and software systems and their foreign counterparts are compared. Further improvement directions for laser testing tools are briefly outlined. The discussion is also presented of described hardware technical and operational characteristics, allowing to use it for a variety of scientific research studies, requiring selective (with submicron spatial resolution) object excitation by ultrashort laser pulses and recording responses to this effect with the exact timing of the moment of excitation, as well as to perform a variety of high precision technological operations.

  18. The scratch test - Different critical load determination techniques. [adhesive strength of thin hard coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekler, J.; Hintermann, H. E.; Steinmann, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Different critical load determination techniques such as microscopy, acoustic emission, normal, tangential, and lateral forces used for scratch test evaluation of complex or multilayer coatings are investigated. The applicability of the scratch test to newly developed coating techniques, systems, and applications is discussed. Among the methods based on the use of a physical measurement, acoustic emission detection is the most effective. The dynamics ratio between the signals below and above the critical load for the acoustic emission (much greater than 100) is well above that obtained with the normal, tangential, and lateral forces. The present commercial instruments are limited in load application performance. A scratch tester able to apply accurate loads as low as 0.01 N would probably overcome most of the actual limitations and would be expected to extend the scratch testing technique to different application fields such as optics and microelectronics.

  19. Metallurgy, Visual Inspection, Hardness and Liquid Penetrant Testing, Aviation Quality Control 2: 9227.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course consists of the basic and simpler methods of inspecting and nondestructive testing of parts and materials to insure the quality and reliability of the finished product. The outline consists of six blocks totaling 135 hours: (1) defects in the metal ingot, (2) defects resulting from processing metals, (3) defects in metals in service,…

  20. An easy test but a hard decision: ethical issues concerning non-invasive prenatal testing for autosomal recessive disorders.

    PubMed

    Skirton, Heather; Goldsmith, Lesley; Chitty, Lyn S

    2015-08-01

    Prenatal testing based on cell-free fetal DNA in maternal serum is now possible for specific monogenic conditions, and studies have shown that the use of non-invasive testing is supported by prospective parents and health professionals. However, some ethical issues have been raised concerning informed consent and paternal rights. The objective of this study was to explore ethical aspects of the use of non-invasive prenatal diagnostic testing for autosomal recessive disorders. We used a qualitative cross-sectional design, based on Thematic Analysis, and recruited 27 individuals of reproductive age who were carriers of one of four conditions: thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis or spinal muscular atrophy. Data were collected via focus groups or interviews. Participants were aware of the potential for such tests to be viewed as routine and suggested that obtaining written consent and allowing time for consideration is needed to facilitate autonomous choice and informed consent. All participants felt that mothers should be able to request such tests, but fathers who declined carrier testing should be made aware that fetal test results may reveal their status. We suggest that a written record of consent for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis should be used as a standard to help reinforce the serious nature of the test results. Where the father's carrier status could be revealed through fetal testing, he should be made aware of this before the results are available. Health professionals should discuss with the pregnant woman the best way to manage unsought information about the father's carrier status to minimise family disruption. PMID:25351779

  1. Radiation hardness test of the Philips Digital Photon Counter with proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnyakov, M. Yu.; Frach, T.; Kononov, S. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Prisekin, V. G.

    2016-07-01

    The Philips Digital Photon Counter (DPC) is a silicon photomultiplier combining Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD) and dedicated readout electronics in the same chip. The DPC is a promising photon sensor for future RICH detectors. A known issue of G-APD is its sensitivity to radiation damage. Two DPC sensors were tested using 800 MeV/c protons. An increase of dark counting rate with proton fluence up to 4 ·1011cm-2 has been measured.

  2. Tests pits for calibrating well logging equipment in fractured hard-rock environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, M.A.; Scott, J.H.; LaDelfe, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The calibration facility consists of three pits containing fine-grained granite, coarse-grained granite, and medium-grained metamorphosed granodiorite. Each pit contains large quarried blocks of rock that are 8 ft octagons and form a 20 ft stack. The blocks are saturated with water and sealed in watertight fiberglass containers that are recessed so that the top of the upper block is approximately level with the ground. The blocks contain simulated fractures that are formed by the joints between the blocks and by saw cuts at several locations. Cored boreholes through the blocks are 7 7/8 in. in diameter, with a fiberglass-cased ''rat hole'' extending 30 ft below the bottom block. Laboratory and well logging studies (United States Geological Society, Schlumberger, and Dresser Atlas logs) have been made to determine the physical properties of rocks in the three pits, and preliminary results are reported. Porosities of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 1 ft intervals in the three pits range from 0.00 to 0.90%, densities from 2.64 to 2.79 g/cm/sup 3/, and sonic velocities from 18,700 to 22,500 ft/sec. Radio-element of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 5 ft intervals from these test pits range from 0.62 to 4.08% K (potassium) content, from 0.34 to 5.01 ppM RaeU (uranium) content and from 0.46 to 19.6 ppM Th (thorium) content. Access to the pits for calibrating well logging equipment can be arranged by contacting the United States Geological Survey (phone number 303-236-5913) in Denver, Colorado. 4 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Wear of hard materials by hard particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2003-10-01

    Hard materials, such as WC-Co, boron carbide, titanium diboride and composite carbide made up of Mo2C and WC, have been tested in abrasion and erosion conditions. These hard materials showed negligible wear in abrasion against SiC particles and erosion using Al2O3 particles. The WC-Co materials have the highest wear rate of these hard materials and a very different material removal mechanism. Wear mechanisms for these materials were different for each material with the overall wear rate controlled by binder composition and content and material grain size.

  4. Indentation hardness: A simple test that correlates with the dissipated-energy predictor for fatigue-life in bovine pericardium membranes for bioprosthetic heart valves.

    PubMed

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Rojo, Francisco Javier; García Paez, José María; Bourges, Jean Yves; Herrero, Eduardo Jorge; Millán, Isabel; Alvarez, Lourdes; Cordon, Ángeles; Guinea, Gustavo V

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation of hardness with fatigue in calf pericardium, a biomaterial commonly used in bioprosthetic heart valves, and its relationship with the energy dissipated during the first fatigue cycle that has been shown to be a predictor of fatigue-life (García Páez et al., 2006, 2007; Rojo et al., 2010). Fatigue tests were performed in vitro on 24 pericardium specimens cut in a root-to-apex direction. The specimens were subjected to a maximum stress of 1MPa in blocks of 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 cycles. By means of a modified Shore A hardness test procedure, the hardness of the specimen was measured before and after fatigue tests. Results showed a significant correlation of such hardness with fatigue performance and with the energy dissipated in the first cycle of fatigue, a predictor of pericardium durability. The study showed indentation hardness as a simple and reliable indicator of mechanical performance, one which could be easily implemented in improving tissue selection. PMID:26849027

  5. Hardness Tester for Polyur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, D. L.; Buras, D. F.; Corbin, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Rubber-hardness tester modified for use on rigid polyurethane foam. Provides objective basis for evaluation of improvements in foam manufacturing and inspection. Typical acceptance criterion requires minimum hardness reading of 80 on modified tester. With adequate correlation tests, modified tester used to measure indirectly tensile and compressive strengths of foam.

  6. The van Hove distribution function for Brownian hard spheres: Dynamical test particle theory and computer simulations for bulk dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Paul; Fortini, Andrea; Archer, Andrew J.; Schmidt, Matthias

    2010-12-01

    We describe a test particle approach based on dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) for studying the correlated time evolution of the particles that constitute a fluid. Our theory provides a means of calculating the van Hove distribution function by treating its self and distinct parts as the two components of a binary fluid mixture, with the "self " component having only one particle, the "distinct" component consisting of all the other particles, and using DDFT to calculate the time evolution of the density profiles for the two components. We apply this approach to a bulk fluid of Brownian hard spheres and compare to results for the van Hove function and the intermediate scattering function from Brownian dynamics computer simulations. We find good agreement at low and intermediate densities using the very simple Ramakrishnan-Yussouff [Phys. Rev. B 19, 2775 (1979)] approximation for the excess free energy functional. Since the DDFT is based on the equilibrium Helmholtz free energy functional, we can probe a free energy landscape that underlies the dynamics. Within the mean-field approximation we find that as the particle density increases, this landscape develops a minimum, while an exact treatment of a model confined situation shows that for an ergodic fluid this landscape should be monotonic. We discuss possible implications for slow, glassy, and arrested dynamics at high densities.

  7. The van Hove distribution function for brownian hard spheres: dynamical test particle theory and computer simulations for bulk dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Paul; Fortini, Andrea; Archer, Andrew J; Schmidt, Matthias

    2010-12-14

    We describe a test particle approach based on dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) for studying the correlated time evolution of the particles that constitute a fluid. Our theory provides a means of calculating the van Hove distribution function by treating its self and distinct parts as the two components of a binary fluid mixture, with the "self " component having only one particle, the "distinct" component consisting of all the other particles, and using DDFT to calculate the time evolution of the density profiles for the two components. We apply this approach to a bulk fluid of Brownian hard spheres and compare to results for the van Hove function and the intermediate scattering function from Brownian dynamics computer simulations. We find good agreement at low and intermediate densities using the very simple Ramakrishnan-Yussouff [Phys. Rev. B 19, 2775 (1979)] approximation for the excess free energy functional. Since the DDFT is based on the equilibrium Helmholtz free energy functional, we can probe a free energy landscape that underlies the dynamics. Within the mean-field approximation we find that as the particle density increases, this landscape develops a minimum, while an exact treatment of a model confined situation shows that for an ergodic fluid this landscape should be monotonic. We discuss possible implications for slow, glassy, and arrested dynamics at high densities. PMID:21171689

  8. Comprehension of Written Grammar Test: Reliability and Known-Groups Validity Study with Hearing and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Joanna E.; Hubley, Anita M.; Millhoff, Courtney; Mazlouman, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to gather validation evidence for the "Comprehension of Written Grammar" (CWG; Easterbrooks, 2010) receptive test of 26 grammatical structures of English print for use with children who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHH). Reliability and validity data were collected for 98 participants (49 DHH and 49…

  9. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    1992-01-01

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  10. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  11. Crew Escape Certification Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This video tape shows the Shuttle hatch jettison test at Rockwell facilities. The video also shows a Shuttle escape pole deployment test from a NASA aircraft, and an emergency egress test performed by a volunteer Navy parachutist using the pole and a parachute escape system.

  12. Investigation on hardness and impact resistance of automotive brake pad composed with rice husk dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahari, Shahril Anuar; Isa, Khairul Hafizee; Kassim, Masitah Abu; Mohamed, Zulkifli; Othman, Eliasidi Abu

    2012-06-01

    In this study, hardness and impact resistance properties of automotive brake pad composed with rice husk dust (RHD) were documented. RHD was mixed with other metallic and synthetic ingredients of automotive brake pad. To obtain RHD, rice husk was ground and dried to 1 - 3% moisture content. The RHD was screened to obtain different dust sizes (80 and 100-mesh) before it was mixed with other materials at different percentages of composition (10 and 30%). The mixture was then pressed to produce brake pad. Rockwell hardness testing machine was used in hardness determination, while Izod impact testing machine was used in impact resistance determination. Hardness resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 10% composition and 80-mesh size of RHD was significantly higher than 100-mesh. Hardness resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 30% composition and 100-mesh size of RHD was slightly higher than 80 mesh. However, based on analysis, the difference was not significant. According to the result, hardness resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 30% composition of RHD was higher than 10%. RHD has filled up the space and enhanced the micro structural behaviour of automotive brake pad. Impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 10% composition and 80-mesh size of RHD was insignificantly higher than 100-mesh. Impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 30% composition and 80-mesh size of RHD was significantly higher than 100 mesh. Large RHD size has increased the capability to resist high-rated impact loading. The impact energy was distributed over wider area for larger particle size. This factor has increased the impact resistance of automotive brake pad from large dust size. Impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 80-mesh size and 30% composition of RHD was higher than 10%. In contrast, impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 100-mesh size and 10% composition of RHD was higher than 30%. However, the difference was not

  13. Analytical and Empirical Modeling of Wear and Forces of CBN Tool in Hard Turning - A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Vallabh Dahyabhai; Gandhi, Anishkumar Hasmukhlal

    2016-06-01

    Machining of steel material having hardness above 45 HRC (Hardness-Rockwell C) is referred as a hard turning. There are numerous models which should be scrutinized and implemented to gain optimum performance of hard turning. Various models in hard turning by cubic boron nitride tool have been reviewed, in attempt to utilize appropriate empirical and analytical models. Validation of steady state flank and crater wear model, Usui's wear model, forces due to oblique cutting theory, extended Lee and Shaffer's force model, chip formation and progressive flank wear have been depicted in this review paper. Effort has been made to understand the relationship between tool wear and tool force based on the different cutting conditions and tool geometries so that appropriate model can be used according to user requirement in hard turning.

  14. Solving large-scale dynamic systems using band Lanczos method in Rockwell NASTRAN on CRAY X-MP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, V. K.; Zillmer, S. D.; Allison, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    The improved cost effectiveness using better models, more accurate and faster algorithms and large scale computing offers more representative dynamic analyses. The band Lanczos eigen-solution method was implemented in Rockwell's version of 1984 COSMIC-released NASTRAN finite element structural analysis computer program to effectively solve for structural vibration modes including those of large complex systems exceeding 10,000 degrees of freedom. The Lanczos vectors were re-orthogonalized locally using the Lanczos Method and globally using the modified Gram-Schmidt method for sweeping rigid-body modes and previously generated modes and Lanczos vectors. The truncated band matrix was solved for vibration frequencies and mode shapes using Givens rotations. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the cost effectiveness and accuracy of the method as implemented in ROCKWELL NASTRAN. The CRAY version is based on RPK's COSMIC/NASTRAN. The band Lanczos method was more reliable and accurate and converged faster than the single vector Lanczos Method. The band Lanczos method was comparable to the subspace iteration method which was a block version of the inverse power method. However, the subspace matrix tended to be fully populated in the case of subspace iteration and not as sparse as a band matrix.

  15. A New Way of Doing Business: Reusable Launch Vehicle Advanced Thermal Protection Systems Technology Development: NASA Ames and Rockwell International Partnership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Carol W.; Fleming, Mary; Hogenson, Pete; Green, Michael J.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and Rockwell International are partners in a Cooperative Agreement (CA) for the development of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Program. This Cooperative Agreement is a 30 month effort focused on transferring NASA innovations to Rockwell and working as partners to advance the state-of-the-art in several TPS areas. The use of a Cooperative Agreement is a new way of doing business for NASA and Industry which eliminates the traditional customer/contractor relationship and replaces it with a NASA/Industry partnership.

  16. Measurement and theory of the dependence of hardness on residual stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, A.; Frankel, J.; Scholz, W.

    1993-05-01

    The Rockwell C hardness (Rc) was measured as a function of position on the three steel rings cut from tubes with different amounts of autofrettage. These rings had different residual stress profiles through the wall that were measured using an ultrasonic technique. An experimental correlation between residual stress and Rc was obtained. In order to model the effects of residual stress on the measured hardness, the Tresca (linear) and the von Mises-Hencky (power) yield criteria were utilized within a model given by Shaw, Hoshi, and Henry that depicts the stress state within a spherical indenter. The von Mises-Hencky method was more successful in matching the data.

  17. Islands stretch test for measuring the interfacial fracture energy between a hard film and a soft substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jeong-Yun; Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138; Department of Material Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 ; Lu, Nanshu; Oh, Kyu-Hwan; Suo, Zhigang; Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 ; Vlassak, Joost J.

    2013-06-14

    We present a technique for measuring the interfacial fracture energy, {Gamma}{sub i}, between a hard thin film and a soft substrate. A periodic array of hard thin islands is fabricated on a soft substrate, which is then subjected to uniaxial tension under an optical microscope. When the applied strain reaches a critical value, delamination between the islands and the substrate starts from the edge of the islands. As the strain is increased, the interfacial cracks grow in a stable fashion. At a given applied strain, the width of the delaminated region is a unique function of the interfacial fracture energy. We have calculated the energy release rate driving the delamination as a function of delamination width, island size, island thickness, and applied strain. For a given materials system, this relationship allows determination of the interfacial fracture energy from a measurement of the delamination width. The technique is demonstrated by measuring the interfacial fracture energy of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiN{sub x} islands on a polyimide substrate. We anticipate that this technique will find application in the flexible electronics industry where hard islands on soft substrates are a common architecture to protect active devices from fracture.

  18. Effect of homogenization process on the hardness of Zn-Al-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas-Cardenas, Jose D.; Saucedo-Muñoz, Maribel L.; Lopez-Hirata, Victor M.; De Ita-De la Torre, Antonio; Avila-Davila, Erika O.; Gonzalez-Velazquez, Jorge Luis

    2015-10-01

    The effect of a homogenizing treatment on the hardness of as-cast Zn-Al-Cu alloys was investigated. Eight alloy compositions were prepared and homogenized at 350 °C for 180 h, and their Rockwell "B" hardness was subsequently measured. All the specimens were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and metallographically prepared for observation by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results of the present work indicated that the hardness of both alloys (as-cast and homogenized) increased with increasing Al and Cu contents; this increased hardness is likely related to the presence of the θ and τ' phases. A regression equation was obtained to determine the hardness of the homogenized alloys as a function of their chemical composition and processing parameters, such as homogenization time and temperature, used in their preparation.

  19. 75 FR 26643 - Special Conditions: Rockwell Collins, Inc., Boeing Model 737-700/-700C/-800/-900 and -900ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... readily able to see around and through small, individual, stroke-written symbols on the HUD, the pilot may... referenced to the pitch scale, outside view and image, must be scaled and aligned (i.e., conformal) to the... Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Rockwell Collins, Inc., Boeing Model 737-700/...

  20. Space shuttle vehicle ferry configuration afterbody fairing effects on 140A/B orbiter aerodynamic characteristics using an .0405 scale model orbiter (43-0) in the Rockwell International 7.75 x 11 ft low speed wind tunnel (OA123)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The primary test objectives were to define ferry configuration afterbody fairing effects on orbiter stability and control characteristics and to substantiate wind tunnel results. Parametric variations consisted entirely of testing different afterbody fairing contours in an effort to improve both the orbiter drag levels and lateral-directional control characteristics. The three afterbody contours that were tested consisted of the Boeing TC3 beavertail, the new Rockwell-Boeing TC4 fairing, and a modification of an existing short bumblebee fairing redesignated TC6.

  1. Investigation of space shuttle vehicle 140C configuration orbiter (model 16-0) wheel well pressure loads in the Rockwell International 7.75 x 11 foot wind tunnel (OA143)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a sting mounted .0405-scale representation of the 140C outer mold line space shuttle orbiter configuration in the Rockwell International 7.75 x 11.00 foot low speed wind tunnel. The primary test objectives were to define the orbiter wheel well pressure loading and its effects on landing gear thermal insulation and to investigate the pressure environment experienced by both the horizontal flight nose probe and air vent door probes. Steady state and dynamic pressure values were recorded in the orbiter nose gear well, left main landing gear well, horizontal flight nose probe, and both left and right air vent door probe. All steady state pressure levels were measured by Statham differential pressure transducers while dynamic pressure levels were recorded by Kulite high frequency response pressure sensors.

  2. Secondary hardening steel having improved combination of hardness and toughness

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Earl R.; Zackay, Victor F.; Bhat, Manjeshwar S.; Garrison, Jr., Warren M.

    1979-01-01

    A secondary hardening alloy steel composition consisting essentially of about 0.25-0.5% carbon, about 0.5-1.0% manganese, about 1.5-3.0% nickel, about 0-1.0% chromium, about 1.75-2.5% molybdenum, about 0-0.4% vanadium, and an additive selected from about 1-3% aluminum and a combination of at least about 1% aluminum and at least about 1% silicon for a combined Al+Si content of about 2-4%, the balance being iron and impurity elements. The present steel composition has the following characteristics: it exhibits a flat tempering response, it is hardenable upon tempering to a Rockwell C hardness of at least 50, and it has an improved combination of hardness vs. toughness properties after tempering in the secondary hardening range. A method of preparation is also described.

  3. HARD X-RAY LAGS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: TESTING THE DISTANT REVERBERATION HYPOTHESIS WITH NGC 6814

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Zoghbi, A.; Reynolds, C. S.; Cackett, E. M.; Uttley, P.; Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.

    2013-11-10

    We present an X-ray spectral and temporal analysis of the variable active galaxy NGC 6814, observed with Suzaku during 2011 November. Remarkably, the X-ray spectrum shows no evidence for the soft excess commonly observed amongst other active galaxies, despite its relatively low level of obscuration, and is dominated across the whole Suzaku bandpass by the intrinsic powerlaw-like continuum. Despite this, we clearly detect the presence of a low-frequency hard lag of ∼1600 s between the 0.5-2.0 and 2.0-5.0 keV energy bands at greater than 6σ significance, similar to those reported in the literature for a variety of other active galactic nuclei (AGNs). At these energies, any additional emission from, e.g., a very weak, undetected soft excess, or from distant reflection must contribute less than 3% of the observed countrates (at 90% confidence). Given the lack of any significant continuum emission component other than the powerlaw, we can rule out models that invoke distant reprocessing for the observed lag behavior, which must instead be associated with this continuum emission. These results are fully consistent with a propagating fluctuation origin for the low-frequency hard lags, and with the interpretation of the high-frequency soft lags—a common feature seen in the highest quality AGN data with strong soft excesses—as reverberation from the inner accretion disk.

  4. Must "Hard Problems" Be Hard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1985-01-01

    To determine how hard it is for computers to solve problems, researchers have classified groups of problems (polynomial hierarchy) according to how much time they seem to require for their solutions. A difficult and complex proof is offered which shows that a combinatorial approach (using Boolean circuits) may resolve the problem. (JN)

  5. Effects of Thermal Exposure and Test Temperature on Structure Evolution and Hardness/Viscosity of an Iron-Based Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamimi Nouri, A.; Liu, Y.; Lewandowski, J. J.

    2009-06-01

    High-temperature microhardness testing on drop-cast ingots of fully amorphous Fe48Mo14Cr15Y2C15B6 was performed in order to determine the behavior and structure evolution of this Fe-bulk metallic glass under a variety of different test conditions. The effects of changes in test temperature on the microhardness/strength were determined over the temperature range from room temperature to 620 °C. Although high ( e.g., >12 GPa) microhardness was exhibited at room temperature, significant hardness reductions were exhibited near T g . In addition, the effect of exposure time (up to 300 minutes) at elevated temperature on the evolution of microhardness/strength was also evaluated for selected temperatures between 25 °C and 620 °C. The microhardness results were complemented with X-ray diffraction (XRD), conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and an in- situ heating TEM study in order to evaluate any structural evolution that could explain the large differences in hardness evolution under different test conditions.

  6. Tests of the radiation hardness of VLSI Integrated Circuits and Silicon Strip Detectors for the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) under neutron, proton, and gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, H.J.; Milner, C.; Sommer, W.F. ); Carteglia, N.; DeWitt, J.; Dorfan, D.; Hubbard, B.; Leslie, J.; O'Shaughnessy, K.F.; Pitzl, D.; Rowe, W.A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E. . Inst. for Particle Physics); Ellison, J.A. ); Ferguson, P. ); Giubellino

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to develop a silicon strip central tracking detector system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) we are studying the effects of radiation damage in silicon detectors and their associated front-end readout electronics. We report on the results of neutron and proton irradiations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and {gamma}-ray irradiations at UC Santa Cruz (UCSC). Individual components on single-sided AC-coupled silicon strip detectors and on test structures were tested. Circuits fabricated in a radiation hard CMOS process and individual transistors fabricated using dielectric isolation bipolar technology were also studied. Results indicate that a silicon strip tracking detector system should have a lifetime of at least one decade at the SSC. 17 refs., 17 figs.

  7. Tests of the radiation hardness of VLSI integrated circuits and silicon strip detectors for the SSC under neutron, proton, and gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, H.J.; Milner, C.; Sommer, W.F. ); Cartiglia, N.; DeWitt, J.; Dorfan, D.; Hubbard, B.; Leslie, J.; O'Shaughnesy, K.F.; Pitzl, D.; Rowe, W.A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Tennenbaum, P. . Inst. for Particle Physics); Ellison, J.; Jerger, S.; Lietzke, C.; Wimpenny, S.J. ); Ferguson, P. ); Giubellino, P. )

    1991-04-01

    As part of a program to develop a silicon strip central tracking detector system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) we are studying the effects of radiation damage in silicon detectors and their associated front-end readout electronics. In this paper, the authors report on the results of neutron and proton irradiations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and {gamma}-ray irradiations at U.C. Santa Cruz (UCSC). Individual components on single-sided AC-coupled silicon strip detectors and on test structures were tested. Circuits fabricated in a radiation hard CMOS process and individual transistors fabricated using dielectric isolation bipolar technology were also studied. Results indicate that a silicon strip tracking detector system should have a lifetime of at least one decade at the SSC.

  8. A Novel Mogi Type True Triaxial Testing Apparatus and Its Use to Obtain Complete Stress-Strain Curves of Hard Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Zhang, Xiwei; Kong, R.; Wang, G.

    2016-05-01

    A true triaxial apparatus (TTA) was designed and fabricated at Northeastern University, Shenyang, China, by modifying the original Mogi type testing apparatus to emulate three-dimensional stress paths in deep mining and tunneling excavations. Such an apparatus can be used to investigate deformation and brittle failure behaviors of hard rocks as well as the cause of rockbursts. The novel TTA can capture the post-peak behavior of a 50 × 50 × 100 mm3 specimen. Technical improvements such as a considerable increase of the stiffness of the loading frames were implemented to deal with difficulties in TTA testing. The accuracy of the volume change measurement was improved and a combined pneumatic and hydraulic technique was applied to create a "floating" vertical loading frame. The end friction effect and the loading gap effect were evaluated using a series of tests. Repeatability tests, brittle failure tests in a loading stress path and an unloading stress path (unloading of σ 3) were carried out on granite specimens to verify the performance of the TTA. The test results show that the apparatus achieves its original design goal.

  9. Comprehension of Written Grammar Test: Reliability and Known-Groups Validity Study With Hearing and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Joanna E; Hubley, Anita M; Millhoff, Courtney; Mazlouman, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to gather validation evidence for the Comprehension of Written Grammar (CWG; Easterbrooks, 2010) receptive test of 26 grammatical structures of English print for use with children who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHH). Reliability and validity data were collected for 98 participants (49 DHH and 49 hearing) in Grades 2-6. The objectives were to: (a) examine 4-week test-retest reliability data; and (b) provide evidence of known-groups validity by examining expected differences between the groups on the CWG vocabulary pretest and main test, as well as selected structures. Results indicated excellent test-retest reliability estimates for CWG test scores. DHH participants performed statistically significantly lower on the CWG vocabulary pretest and main test than the hearing participants. Significantly lower performance by DHH participants on most expected grammatical structures (e.g., basic sentence patterns, auxiliary "be" singular/plural forms, tense, comparatives, and complementation) also provided known groups evidence. Overall, the findings of this study showed strong evidence of the reliability of scores and known group-based validity of inferences made from the CWG. PMID:26447059

  10. EVALUATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION IN A LIME KILN: ROCKWELL LIME COMPANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-week test burn, hazardous waste was used as supplemental fuel and co-fired with petroleum coke in a lime kiln in eastern Wisconsin. Detailed sampling and analysis was conducted on the stack gas for principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs), particulates, parti...

  11. A thermal stress test of the depth-graded Pt/C reflectors used in the ASTRO-H Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ichihara, Kou; Shionome, Yu; Sato, Takuro; Hayashi, Takayuki; Ishida, Manabu; Kan, Hiroaki; Namba, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Hideaki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Sakai, Michito; Sugita, Satoshi; Haba, Yoshito; Matsumoto, Hironori; Mori, Hideyuki

    2012-09-01

    The ASTRO-H Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) to cover hard X-rays up to 80 keV is thin-foil, multi-nested conical optics with depth-graded Pt/C multilayer. The reflectors are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 200 μm of the alloy 5052, followed by epoxy replication on Pt/C-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 20 μm depth. In this paper, we report a thermal stress test of the reflectors of the HXT. The reflectors can experience in various temperature environment either in ground or in space. The temperature range can be as wide as several tens degrees in space dependently on the thermal design of the telescope system. We kept the reflectors in the three different temperatures at -5, 50 and 60 degrees, respectively, for a week. It is found that the surface of the reflectors at 60 degrees or higher temperature were significantly changed. The change appears as wrinkles with a typical scale length of a few tens micron meters. It is noticed that the scale length is equivalent to the depth of the epoxy layer, suggesting the existence of the epoxy layer causes the change in the scale length. No changes on the surface were observed from the -5 and 50 degree samples. No change on X-ray reflectivity was also detected from them.

  12. Evaluating the sensitivity, reproducibility and flexibility of a method to test hard shell capsules intended for use in dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Chong, Rosalind H E; Jones, Brian E; Díez, Fernando; Birchall, James C; Coulman, Sion A

    2016-03-16

    Pharmaceutical tests for hard shell capsules are designed for orally administered capsules. The use of capsules in dry powder inhalers is widespread and increasing and therefore more appropriate tests are required to ensure quality and determine if these capsules are fit for purpose. This study aims to determine the flexibility, reproducibility and sensitivity of a quantitative method that is designed to evaluate the puncture characteristics of different capsule shell formulations under different climatic conditions. A puncture testing method was used to generate force displacement curves for five capsule formulations that were stored and tested at two different temperatures (5°C and 19°C). Force-displacement puncture profiles were reproducible for individual capsule shell formulations. The methodology was able to discriminate between capsules produced using different primary materials i.e. gelatin versus hypromellose, as well as more minor changes to capsule formulation i.e. different material grades and excipients. Reduced temperature increased the forces required for capsule puncture however further work is required to confirm its significance. Results indicate the method provides a reproducible and sensitive means of evaluating capsule puncture. Future studies should validate the methodology at different test sites, using different operators and with different capsule shell formulations. PMID:26806464

  13. Design, realization and test of a rad-hard 2D-compressor and packing chip for high energy physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antinori, Samuele; Falchieri, Davide; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gandolfi, Enzo

    2004-09-01

    CARLOSv3 is a third version of a chip that plays a significant role in the data acquisition chain of the A Large Ion Collider Experiment Inner Tracking System experiment. It has been designed and realized with a 0.25 μm CMOS 3-metal rad-hard digital library. The chip elaborates and compresses, by means of a bi-dimensional compressor, data belonging to a so-called event. The compressor looks for cross-shaped clusters within the whole data set coming from the silicon detector. To test the chip a specific PCB has been designed; it contains the connectors for probing the ASIC with a pattern generator and a logic state analyzer. The chip is inserted on the PCB using a ZIF socket. This allows to test the 35 packaged samples out of the total amount of bare chips we have from the foundry. The test phase has shown that 32 out of 35 chips under test work well. It is planned to redesign a new version of the chip by adding extra features and to submit the final version of CARLOS upon the final DAQ chain will be totally tested both in Bologna and at CERN.

  14. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of the North American Rockwell ATP shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, G. M.; Pencer, B., Jr.; Founier, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    A wind tunnel study to determine the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a 0.01925-scale model of the space shuttle orbiter configuration is reported. The model consisted of a low-finess-ratio body with a blended 50 swept delta wing forming an ogee planform and a center-line-mounted vertical tail. Tests were made at Mach numbers from 1.90 to 4.63, at angles of attack from -6 to 30, at angles of sideslip of 0 and 3, and at a Reynolds number, based on body length, of 5.3x 1 million.

  15. Bread-Board Testing of the Radiation Hard Electron Monitor (RADEM) being developed for the ESA JUICE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Hajdas, Wojtek; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Xiao, Hualin; Goncalves, Patricia; Pinto, Marco; Pinto, Costa; Marques, Arlindo; Meier, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The RADEM instrument will serve as the radiation monitor for the JUICE spacecraft. It will characterize the highly dynamic radiation environment of the Jovian system by measuring the energy spectra of energetic electrons and protons up to 40 MeV and 250 MeV, respectively. It will also determine the directionality of 0.3-10 MeV electrons. Further goals include the detection of heavy ions, and the determination of the corresponding LET spectra and dose rates. Here, the tests of the Electron and Proton Telescopes, and the Directionality Detector of the RADEM Bread-Board model are described. The objective of these tests is to validate RADEM design and physical concept applied therein. The tests were performed at various irradiation facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) where energy ranges relevant for space applications can be covered (electrons: ≤100 MeV and protons: ≤230 MeV). The measured values are also compared with GEANT4 Monte-Carlo Simulation results.

  16. Hot hardness of nickel-rich nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1976-01-01

    Rockwell A hardness of cast nickel-chromium-aluminum (NiCrAl) alloys was examined from ambient to 1150 K and compared to cast NiAl and IN-100. Alloy constitution was either gamma, gamma prime + gamma or gamma + beta + alpha + gamma prime. Below 1000 K beta containing NiCrAl alloys have hardnesses comparable to IN-100; above 1000 K they soften faster than IN-100. At 1150 K the hardness of beta-containing NiCrAl alloys decreases with increasing beta-content. The beta-containing NiCrAl alloys were harder than beta-NiAl. The ultimate tensile strengths of the NiCrAl alloys were estimated. The effects of NiCrAl coatings on strength and fatigue life of cooled turbine components were deduced.

  17. Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors to focus hard X-rays in two dimensions as fabricated, tested and installed at the Advanced Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Kujala, Naresh; Marathe, Shashidhara; Shu, Deming; Shi, Bing; Qian, Jun; Maxey, Evan; Finney, Lydia; Macrander, Albert; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2014-07-01

    The micro-focusing performance for hard X-rays of a fixed-geometry elliptical Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) mirrors assembly fabricated, tested and finally implemented at the micro-probe beamline 8-BM of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. Testing of the K-B mirror system was performed at the optics and detector test beamline 1-BM. K-B mirrors of length 80 mm and 60 mm were fabricated by profile coating with Pt metal to produce focal lengths of 250 mm and 155 mm for 3 mrad incident angle. For the critical angle of Pt, a broad bandwidth of energies up to 20 keV applies. The classical K-B sequential mirror geometry was used, and mirrors were mounted on micro-translation stages. The beam intensity profiles were measured by differentiating the curves of intensity data measured using a wire-scanning method. A beam size of 1.3 µm (V) and 1.2 µm (H) was measured with monochromatic X-rays of 18 keV at 1-BM. After installation at 8-BM the measured focus met the design requirements. In this paper the fabrication and metrology of the K-B mirrors are reported, as well as the focusing performances of the full mirrors-plus-mount set-up at both beamlines. PMID:24971959

  18. Cyclic strength of hard metals

    SciTech Connect

    Sereda, N.N.; Gerikhanov, A.K.; Koval'chenko, M.S.; Pedanov, L.G.; Tsyban', V.A.

    1986-02-01

    The authors study the strength of hard-metal specimens and structural elements under conditions of cyclic loading since many elements of processing plants, equipment, and machines are made of hard metals. Fatigue tests were conducted on KTS-1N, KTSL-1, and KTNKh-70 materials, which are titanium carbide hard metals cemented with nickel-molybdenum, nickelcobalt-chromium, and nickel-chromium alloys, respectively. As a basis of comparison, the standard VK-15 (WC+15% Co) alloy was used. Some key physicomechanical characteristics of the materials investigated are presented. On time bases not exceeding 10/sup 6/ cycles, titanium carbide hard metals are comparable in fatigue resistance to the standard tungstencontaining hard metals.

  19. SUPER HARD SURFACED POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mansur, Louis K; Bhattacharya, R; Blau, Peter Julian; Clemons, Art; Eberle, Cliff; Evans, H B; Janke, Christopher James; Jolly, Brian C; Lee, E H; Leonard, Keith J; Trejo, Rosa M; Rivard, John D

    2010-01-01

    High energy ion beam surface treatments were applied to a selected group of polymers. Of the six materials in the present study, four were thermoplastics (polycarbonate, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene) and two were thermosets (epoxy and polyimide). The particular epoxy evaluated in this work is one of the resins used in formulating fiber reinforced composites for military helicopter blades. Measures of mechanical properties of the near surface regions were obtained by nanoindentation hardness and pin on disk wear. Attempts were also made to measure erosion resistance by particle impact. All materials were hardness tested. Pristine materials were very soft, having values in the range of approximately 0.1 to 0.5 GPa. Ion beam treatment increased hardness by up to 50 times compared to untreated materials. For reference, all materials were hardened to values higher than those typical of stainless steels. Wear tests were carried out on three of the materials, PET, PI and epoxy. On the ion beam treated epoxy no wear could be detected, whereas the untreated material showed significant wear.

  20. Results of investigations of an 0.010-scale 140A/B configuration (model 72-OTS) of the Rockwell International space shuttle orbiter in the NASA/Langley Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrozzi, M. T.; Milam, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in the NASA/Langley unitary plan wind tunnel on a sting mounted 0.010-scale outer mold line model of the 140A/B configuration of the Rockwell International Space Shuttle Vehicle. The primary test objectives were to obtain: (1) six component force and moment data for the mated vehicle at subsonic and transonic conditions, (2) effects of configuration build-up, (3) effects of protuberances, ET/orbiter fairings and attach structures, and (4) elevon deflection effects on wing bending moment. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data and base and balance cavity pressures were recorded over Mach numbers of 1.6, 2.0, 2.5, 2.86, 3.9, and 4.63 at a nominal Reynolds number of 20 to the 6th power per foot. Selected configurations were tested at angles of attack and sideslip from -10 deg to +10 deg. For all configurations involving the orbiter, wing bending, and torsion coefficients were measured on the right wing.

  1. In situ tracer tests to determine retention properties of a block scale fracture network in granitic rock at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Peter; Byegård, Johan; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Doe, Thomas; Hermanson, Jan; Winberg, Anders

    2004-06-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in order to improve the understanding of radionuclide retention properties of fractured crystalline bedrock in the 10-100 m scale (TRUE Block Scale Project, jointly funded by ANDRA, ENRESA, Nirex, JNC, Posiva and SKB). A series of tracer experiments were performed using sorbing tracers in three different flow paths. The different flow paths had Euclidian lengths of 14, 17 and 33 m, respectively, and one to three water conducting structures. Four tests were performed using different cocktails made up of radioactive sorbing tracers ( 22,24Na +, 42K +, 47Ca 2+, 85Sr 2+, 83,86Rb +, 131,133Ba 2+ and 134,137Cs +). For each tracer injection, the breakthrough of sorbing tracers was compared to the breakthrough of a conservative tracer, 82Br -, 131I -, HTO and 186ReO 4-, respectively. In the two longer flow paths, no breakthrough of 83Rb + and 137Cs + was observed after 8 months of pumping. Selected tracer tests were subject to basic modelling in which a one-dimensional (1D) advection-dispersion model, including surface sorption, and an unlimited matrix diffusion were used for the interpretation of the results. The results of the modelling indicated that there is a slightly higher mass transfer into a highly porous material in the block-scale experiment compared with in situ experiments performed over shorter distances and significantly higher than what would have been expected from laboratory data obtained from studies of the interactions in nonaltered intact rock.

  2. Assessment Accommodations on Tests of Academic Achievement for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: A Qualitative Meta-Analysis of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthon, Stephanie; Leppo, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a qualitative meta-analysis of the research on assessment accommodations for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. There were 16 identified studies that analyzed the impact of factors related to student performance on academic assessments across different educational settings, content areas, and types of assessment…

  3. Testing reflection features in 4U 1705-44 with XMM-Newton, BeppoSAX, and RXTE in the hard and soft states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egron, E.; Di Salvo, T.; Motta, S.; Burderi, L.; Papitto, A.; Duro, R.; D'Aì, A.; Riggio, A.; Belloni, T.; Iaria, R.; Robba, N. R.; Piraino, S.; Santangelo, A.

    2013-02-01

    We use data from the bright atoll source 4U 1705-44 taken with XMM-Newton, BeppoSAX, and RXTE both in the hard and in the soft state to perform a self-consistent study of the reflection component in this source. Although the data from these X-ray observatories are not simultaneous, the spectral decomposition is shown to be consistent among the different observations, when the source flux is similar. We have therefore selected observations performed at similar flux levels in the hard and soft states to study the spectral shape in these two states in a broad-band (0.1-200 keV) energy range, with good energy resolution, and using self-consistent reflection models. These reflection models provide a good fit for the X-ray spectrum both in the hard and in the soft state in the whole spectral range. We discuss the differences in the main spectral parameters we find in both states, providing evidence that the inner radius of the optically thick disk slightly recedes in the hard state.

  4. Effect of a 5-Year Multi-Crop Rotation on Mineral N and Hard Red Spring Wheat Yield, Protein, Test Weight and Economics in Western North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this non-irrigated cropping study was to employ the principles of soil health and determine the effect of rotation on seasonal mineral N, HRSW production, protein, test weight, and economics. Prior to the initiation of this research, the cropping study area had been previously seeded to hard red spring wheat (HRSW). The cropping systems consisted of a continuous HRSW control (C) compared to HRSW grown in a multi-crop 5-year rotation (R). The 5-yr rotation consisted of HRSW, cover crop (dual crop winter triticale-hairy vetch harvested for hay in June and immediately reseeded to a 7-species cover crop mix grazed by cows after weaning from mid-November to mid-December), forage corn, field pea-forage barley, and sunflower. The cereal grains, cover crops, and pea-barley intercrop were seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill, 19 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 2.54 cm Cereal grain plant population was 3,088,750 plants/ha. The row crops were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter, 76.2 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 5.08 cm. Plant population for the row crops was 46,947 plants/ha. Weeds were controlled using a pre-plant burn down and post-emergence control except for cover crops and pea-barley where a pre-plant burn down was the only chemical applied. Fertilizer application was based on soil test results and recommendations from the North Dakota State University Soil Testing Laboratory. During the 1st three years of the study 31.8 kg of N was applied to the C HRSW and then none the last two years of the 5-year period. The R HRSW was fertilized with 13.6 kg of N the 1st two years of the study and none the remaining three years of the 5-year period. However, chloride was low; therefore, 40.7-56.1 kg/ha were applied each year to both the C and R treatments. Based on 2014 and 2015 seasonal mineral N values, the data suggests that N levels were adequate to meet the 2690 kg/ha yield goal. In 2015, however, the R yield goal was exceeded by 673 kg/ha whereas

  5. Ordering of hard particles between hard walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowska, A.; Teixeira, P. I. C.; Ehrentraut, H.; Cleaver, D. J.

    2001-05-01

    The structure of a fluid of hard Gaussian overlap particles of elongation κ = 5, confined between two hard walls, has been calculated from density-functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations. By using the exact expression for the excluded volume kernel (Velasco E and Mederos L 1998 J. Chem. Phys. 109 2361) and solving the appropriate Euler-Lagrange equation entirely numerically, we have been able to extend our theoretical predictions into the nematic phase, which had up till now remained relatively unexplored due to the high computational cost. Simulation reveals a rich adsorption behaviour with increasing bulk density, which is described semi-quantitatively by the theory without any adjustable parameters.

  6. Automated radiation hard ASIC design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mike; Bartholet, Bill; Baze, Mark

    1993-01-01

    A commercial based, foundry independent, compiler design tool (ChipCrafter) with custom radiation hardened library cells is described. A unique analysis approach allows low hardness risk for Application Specific IC's (ASIC's). Accomplishments, radiation test results, and applications are described.

  7. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  8. The hard metal diseases.

    PubMed

    Cugell, D W

    1992-06-01

    Hard metal is a mixture of tungsten carbide and cobalt, to which small amounts of other metals may be added. It is widely used for industrial purposes whenever extreme hardness and high temperature resistance are needed, such as for cutting tools, oil well drilling bits, and jet engine exhaust ports. Cobalt is the component of hard metal that can be a health hazard. Respiratory diseases occur in workers exposed to cobalt--either in the production of hard metal, from machining hard metal parts, or from other sources. Adverse pulmonary reactions include asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis. A peculiar, almost unique form of lung fibrosis, giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is closely linked with cobalt exposure. PMID:1511554

  9. Study of the provenance and technology of Asian kris daggers by application of X-ray analytical techniques and hardness testing.

    PubMed

    Necemer, Marijan; Lazar, Tomaz; Smit, Ziga; Kump, Peter; Zuzek, Borut

    2013-01-01

    Museum objects, such as the daggers presented in this study, contain a wealth of information regarding their role in certain historic periods, their potential users, the art of manufacture, the type of material used etc. Utilization of various modern instrumental techniques facilitates compositional information about the unknown artifact under investigation. In this study, a set of traditional Asian daggers called kris or keris, with scarce information about their entry into museum collections, their origin, the type of material used, the date of production, etc., were analysed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and hardness measurements. In this way, the traditional procedure of historian inspection was supplemented by the scientific approach to obtain information about the artifacts. PMID:23878939

  10. Triplet correlations in the hard rod fluid: A test for topological reduction of graph-theoretic corrections to the superposition approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haymet, A. D. J.

    1984-04-01

    Two series expansions for the triplet correlation function, which have been used previously to study three-dimensional liquids, are evaluated in a case where the exact triple correlation function is known, namely, hard rods in one dimension. These series are studied in the context of the Yvon-Born-Green (YBG) integral equation. The coefficients in the f-bond series are evaluated analytically, but the resultant corrections to the superposition approximation are minor. In contrast, the coefficients of the h-bond series, which are calculated numerically, provide an accurate approximation to the triplet correlation function for densities of interest below two-thirds of the close-packed density. The validity of the ``scaling'' approximation of the h-bond series, which has been used in theories of quantum liquids, is also examined, and these calculations are shown to be relevant to earlier studies of three-dimensional liquids.

  11. MISTIC: Radiation hard ECRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrecque, F.; Lecesne, N.; Bricault, P.

    2008-10-01

    The ISAC RIB facility at TRIUMF utilizes up to 100 μA from the 500 MeV H- cyclotron to produce RIB using the isotopic separation on line (ISOL) method. In the moment, we are mainly using a hot surface ion source and a laser ion source to produce our RIB. A FEBIAD ion source has been recently tested at ISAC, but these ion sources are not suitable for gaseous elements like N, O, F, Ne, … , A new type of ion source is then necessary. By combining a high frequency electromagnetic wave and a magnetic confinement, the ECRIS [R. Geller, Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source and ECR Plasmas, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, 1996], [1] (electron cyclotron resonance ion source) can produce high energy electrons essential for efficient ionization of those elements. To this end, a prototype ECRIS called MISTIC (monocharged ion source for TRIUMF and ISAC complex) has been built at TRIUMF using a design similar to the one developed at GANIL [GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds), www.ganil.fr], [2] The high level radiation caused by the proximity to the target prevented us to use a conventional ECRIS. To achieve a radiation hard ion source, we used coils instead of permanent magnets to produce the magnetic confinement. Each coil is supplied by 1000 A-15 V power supply. The RF generator cover a frequency range from 2 to 8 GHz giving us all the versatility we need to characterize the ionization of the following elements: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, C, O, N, F. Isotopes of these elements are involved in star thermonuclear cycles and, consequently, very important for researches in nuclear astrophysics. Measures of efficiency, emittance and ionization time will be performed for each of those elements. Preliminary tests show that MISTIC is very stable over a large range of frequency, magnetic field and pressure.

  12. Organizing Your Hard Disk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, H. Robert; Hilton, Thomas S. E.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests strategies that make hard disk organization easy and efficient, such as making, changing, and removing directories; grouping files by subject; naming files effectively; backing up efficiently; and using PATH. (JOW)

  13. A modified ASTM G-75 abrasion test helps select candidate alloys for service in a corrosive and abrasive slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, R.A.; Morrison, W.S.; Jenkins, C.F.; Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC )

    1989-01-01

    The design of a hazardous waste immobilization facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) set material requirements for both abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance in process equipment. Standard ASTM slurry wear test G75 was modified to permit evaluation and comparison of abrasive resistance of candidate materials of construction in the laboratory. However, corrosion was found to contribute significantly to overall metal loss during the testing. Consequently, the abrasive slurry used for the testing was modified by adjusting its chemistry to include appropriate corrosive species. The Miller numbers obtained in the modified G75 Miller abrasion test are described. Pilot plant observations for Type 304L austenitic stainless steel were available. These data were used to generate a Morrison-Miller Ratio'' in order to determine anticipated field abrasion properties for other alloys. Hardness for many of the alloys fell in a narrow range about Rockwell B90, but performance varied significantly in response to slurry chemistry. This effect if synergistic may often be overlooked in the selection process, and it needs to be addressed. Some pilot plant testing of other alloys is essential to confirm the calculated abrasion rates and the approach of using the Morrison-Miller ratio. 6 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. How 'hard' are hard-rock deformations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, A. J.

    2003-04-01

    The study of soft-rock deformations has received increasing attention during the past two decades, and much progress has been made in the understanding of their genesis. It is also recognized now that soft-rock deformations—which show a wide variety in size and shape—occur frequently in sediments deposited in almost all types of environments. In spite of this, deformations occurring in lithified rocks are still relatively rarely attributed to sedimentary or early-diagenetic processes. Particularly faults in hard rocks are still commonly ascribed to tectonics, commonly without a discussion about a possible non-tectonic origin at a stage that the sediments were still unlithified. Misinterpretations of both the sedimentary and the structural history of hard-rock successions may result from the negligence of a possible soft-sediment origin of specific deformations. It is therefore suggested that a re-evaluation of these histories, keeping the present-day knowledge about soft-sediment deformations in mind, may give new insights into the geological history of numerous sedimentary successions in which the deformations have not been studied from both a sedimentological and a structural point of view.

  15. A Test of Thick-Target Nonuniform Ionization as an Explanation for Breaks in Solar Flare Hard X-Ray Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, gordon; Dennis Brian R.; Tolbert, Anne K.; Schwartz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Solar nonthermal hard X-ray (HXR) flare spectra often cannot be fitted by a single power law, but rather require a downward break in the photon spectrum. A possible explanation for this spectral break is nonuniform ionization in the emission region. We have developed a computer code to calculate the photon spectrum from electrons with a power-law distribution injected into a thick-target in which the ionization decreases linearly from 100% to zero. We use the bremsstrahlung cross-section from Haug (1997), which closely approximates the full relativistic Bethe-Heitler cross-section, and compare photon spectra computed from this model with those obtained by Kontar, Brown and McArthur (2002), who used a step-function ionization model and the Kramers approximation to the cross-section. We find that for HXR spectra from a target with nonuniform ionization, the difference (Delta-gamma) between the power-law indexes above and below the break has an upper limit between approx.0.2 and 0.7 that depends on the power-law index delta of the injected electron distribution. A broken power-law spectrum with a. higher value of Delta-gamma cannot result from nonuniform ionization alone. The model is applied to spectra obtained around the peak times of 20 flares observed by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI from 2002 to 2004 to determine whether thick-target nonuniform ionization can explain the measured spectral breaks. A Monte Carlo method is used to determine the uncertainties of the best-fit parameters, especially on Delta-gamma. We find that 15 of the 20 flare spectra require a downward spectral break and that at least 6 of these could not be explained by nonuniform ionization alone because they had values of Delta-gamma with less than a 2.5% probability of being consistent with the computed upper limits from the model. The remaining 9 flare spectra, based on this criterion, are consistent with the nonuniform ionization model.

  16. Haise Commands First Enterprise Test Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The first crew members for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) are photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter Assembly Facility at Palmdale, California. The Shuttle Enterprise is Commanded by former Apollo 13 Lunar Module pilot, Fred Haise (left) with C. Gordon Fullerton as pilot. The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise was named after the fictional Starship Enterprise from the popular 1960's television series, Star Trek.

  17. Hard tissue laser procedures.

    PubMed

    Gimbel, C B

    2000-10-01

    A more conservative, less invasive treatment of the carious lesion has intrigued researchers and clinicians for decades. With over 170 million restorations placed worldwide each year, many of which could be treated using a laser, there exists an increasing need for understanding hard tissue laser procedures. An historical review of past scientific and clinical hard research, biophysics, and histology are discussed. A complete review of present applications and procedures along with their capabilities and limitations will give the clinician a better understanding. Clinical case studies, along with guidelines for tooth preparation and hard tissue laser applications and technological advances for diagnosis and treatment will give the clinician a look into the future. PMID:11048281

  18. Astronaut Gordon Fullerton first pilot for Shuttle Approach and Landing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Astronaut C. Gordon Fullerton, pilot of the first crew for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT), is photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter assembly facility at Palmdale, California on the day of the rollout of the Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' spacecraft. The DC-9 size airplane-like Orbiter 101 is in the background.

  19. Astronaut Richard Truly, second pilot for Shuttle Approach and Landing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Astronaut Richard H. Truly, pilot of the second crew for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT), is photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter assembly facility at Palmdale, California on the day of the rollout of the Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' spacecraft. The DC-9 size airplane-like Orbiter 101 is in the background.

  20. Microstructures and Hardness/Wear Performance of High-Carbon Stellite Alloys Containing Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Yao, J. H.; Zhang, Q. L.; Yao, M. X.; Collier, Rachel

    2015-12-01

    Conventional high-carbon Stellite alloys contain a certain amount of tungsten which mainly serves to provide strengthening to the solid solution matrix. These alloys are designed for combating severe wear. High-carbon molybdenum-containing Stellite alloys are newly developed 700 series of Stellite family, with molybdenum replacing tungsten, which are particularly employed in severe wear condition with corrosion also involved. Three high-carbon Stellite alloys, designated as Stellite 706, Stellite 712, and Stellite 720, with different carbon and molybdenum contents, are studied experimentally in this research, focusing on microstructure and phases, hardness, and wear resistance, using SEM/EDX/XRD techniques, a Rockwell hardness tester, and a pin-on-disk tribometer. It is found that both carbon and molybdenum contents influence the microstructures of these alloys significantly. The former determines the volume fraction of carbides in the alloys, and the latter governs the amount of molybdenum-rich carbides precipitated in the alloys. The hardness and wear resistance of these alloys are increased with the carbide volume fraction. However, with the same or similar carbon content, high-carbon CoCrMo Stellite alloys exhibit worse wear resistance than high-carbon CoCrW Stellite alloys.

  1. Improved adhesion of ultra-hard carbon films on cobalt–chromium orthopaedic implant alloy

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Rishi; Diggins, Patrick; Weimer, Jeffrey J.; Koopman, M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2010-01-01

    While interfacial graphite formation and subsequent poor film adhesion is commonly reported for chemical vapor deposited hard carbon films on cobalt-based materials, we find the presence of O2 in the feedgas mixture to be useful in achieving adhesion on a CoCrMo alloy. Nucleation studies of surface structure before formation of fully coalesced hard carbon films reveal that O2 feedgas helps mask the catalytic effect of cobalt with carbon through early formation of chromium oxides and carbides. The chromium oxides, in particular, act as a diffusion barrier to cobalt, minimizing its migration to the surface where it would otherwise interact deleteriously with carbon to form graphite. When O2 is not used, graphitic soot forms and films delaminate readily upon cooling to room temperature. Continuous 1 μm-thick nanostructured carbon films grown with O2 remain adhered with measured hardness of 60 GPa and show stable, non-catastrophic circumferential micro-cracks near the edges of indent craters made using Rockwell indentation. PMID:21221739

  2. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) Guideline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) consists of all activities undertaken to ensure that the electronics and materials of a space system perform to their design specifications after exposure to the mission space environment. The subset of interests for NEPP and the REAG, are EEE parts. It is important to register that all of these undertakings are in a feedback loop and require constant iteration and updating throughout the mission life. More detail can be found in the reference materials on applicable test data for usage on parts.

  3. Effects of Hard Water on Hair

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Gautham; Srinivas, Chakravarthi Rangachari; Mathew, Anil C; Duraiswami, Divakar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hardness of water is determined by the amount of salts (calcium carbonate [CaCO3] and magnesium sulphate [MgSO4]) present in water. The hardness of the water used for washing hair may cause fragility of hair. Objective: The objective of the following study is to compare the tensile strength and elasticity of hair treated in hard water and hair treated in distilled water. Materials and Methods: 10-15 strands of hair of length 15-20 cm, lost during combing were obtained from 15 volunteers. Each sample was cut in the middle to obtain 2 sets of hair per volunteer. One set of 15 samples was immersed in hard water and the other set in distilled water for 10 min on alternate days. Procedure was repeated for 30 days. The tensile strength and elasticity of the hair treated in hard water and distilled water was determined using INSTRON universal strength tester. Results: The CaCO3 and MgSO4 content of hard water and distilled water were determined as 212.5 ppm of CaCO3 and 10 ppm of CaCO3 respectively. The tensile strength and elasticity in each sample was determined and the mean values were compared using t-test. The mean (SD) of tensile strength of hair treated in hard water was 105.28 (27.59) and in distilled water was 103.66 (20.92). No statistical significance was observed in the tensile strength, t = 0.181, P = 0.858. The mean (SD) of elasticity of hair treated in hard water was 37.06 (2.24) and in distilled water was 36.84 (4.8). No statistical significance was observed in the elasticity, t = 0.161, P = 0.874. Conclusion: The hardness of water does not interfere with the tensile strength and elasticity of hair. PMID:24574692

  4. Macroindentation hardness measurement-Modernization and applications.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sarsvat; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we first developed a modernized indentation technique for measuring tablet hardness. This technique is featured by rapid digital image capture, using a calibrated light microscope, and precise area-determination. We then systematically studied effects of key experimental parameters, including indentation force, speed, and holding time, on measured hardness of a very soft material, hydroxypropyl cellulose, and a very hard material, dibasic calcium phosphate, to cover a wide range of material properties. Based on the results, a holding period of 3min at the peak indentation load is recommended to minimize the effect of testing speed on H. Using this method, we show that an exponential decay function well describes the relationship between tablet hardness and porosity for seven commonly used pharmaceutical powders investigated in this work. We propose that H and H at zero porosity may be used to quantify the tablet deformability and powder plasticity, respectively. PMID:27130365

  5. Running in Hard Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2009-01-01

    Roberta Stevens and Kent Oliver are campaigning hard for the presidency of the American Library Association (ALA). Stevens is outreach projects and partnerships officer at the Library of Congress. Oliver is executive director of the Stark County District Library in Canton, Ohio. They have debated, discussed, and posted web sites, Facebook pages,…

  6. CSI: Hard Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Acting on information from students who reported seeing a classmate looking at inappropriate material on a school computer, school officials used forensics software to plunge the depths of the PC's hard drive, searching for evidence of improper activity. Images were found in a deleted Internet Explorer cache as well as deleted file space.…

  7. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  8. Diffractive hard scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-03-01

    I discuss events in high energy hadron collisions that contain a hard scattering, in the sense that very heavy quarks or high P/sub T/ jets are produced, yet are diffractive, in the sense that one of the incident hadrons is scattered with only a small energy loss. 8 refs.

  9. Technology transfer and Rockwell International

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernand, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Two technology partnership models are presented for consideration. The first model posits a government buyer of technology, and the second model posits that the customer is the consumer of the technology. These two models are concerned with methods of and impediments to technology transfer and information dissemination in government/contractor relationships.

  10. [Standardized testing of bone implant surfaces with an osteoblast cell culture cyste. III. PVD hard coatings and Ti6Al4V].

    PubMed

    Steinert, A; Hendrich, C; Merklein, F; Rader, C P; Schütze, N; Thull, R; Eulert, J

    2000-12-01

    The effect of titanium-based PVD coatings and a titanium alloy on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts was investigated using a standardised cell culture system. Human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19) were cultured on titanium-niobium-nitride ([Ti,Nb]N), titanium-niobium-oxy-nitride coatings ([Ti,Nb]ON) and titanium-aluminium-vanadium alloy (Ti6Al4V) for 17 days. Cell culture polystyrene (PS) was used as reference. For the assessment of proliferation, the numbers and viability of the cells were determined, while alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen I and osteocalcin synthesis served as differentiation parameters. On the basis of the cell culture experiments, a cytotoxic effect of the materials can be excluded. In comparison with the other test surfaces, [Ti,Nb]N showed greater cell proliferation. The [Ti,Nb]N coating was associated with the highest level of osteocalcin production, while all other differentiation parameters were identical on all three surfaces. The test system described reveals the influence of PVD coatings on the osteoblast differentiation cycle. The higher oxygen content of the [Ti,Nb]ON surface does not appear to have any positive impact on cell proliferation. The excellent biocompatibility of the PVD coatings is confirmed by in vivo findings. The possible use of these materials in the fields of osteosynthesis and articular surfaces is still under discussion. PMID:11194641

  11. Radiation hardness tests and characterization of the CLARO-CMOS, a low power and fast single-photon counting ASIC in 0.35 micron CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, M.; Andreotti, M.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Luppi, E.; Maino, M.; Malaguti, R.; Pessina, G.; Tomassetti, L.

    2014-12-01

    The CLARO-CMOS is a prototype ASIC that allows fast photon counting with 5 ns peaking time, a recovery time to baseline smaller than 25 ns, and a power consumption of less than 1 mW per channel. This chip is capable of single-photon counting with multi-anode photomultipliers and finds applications also in the read-out of silicon photomultipliers and microchannel plates. The prototype is realized in AMS 0.35 micron CMOS technology. In the LHCb RICH environment, assuming 10 years of operation at the nominal luminosity expected after the upgrade in Long Shutdown 2 (LS2), the ASIC must withstand a total fluence of about 6×1012 1 MeV neq /cm2 and a total ionizing dose of 400 krad. A systematic evaluation of the radiation effects on the CLARO-CMOS performance is therefore crucial to ensure long term stability of the electronics front-end. The results of multi-step irradiation tests with neutrons and X-rays up to the fluence of 1014 cm-2 and a dose of 4 Mrad, respectively, are presented, including measurement of single event effects during irradiation and chip performance evaluation before and after each irradiation step.

  12. Work Hard. Be Nice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Jay

    2009-01-01

    In 1994, fresh from a two-year stint with Teach for America, Mike Feinberg and Dave Levin inaugurated the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) in Houston with an enrollment of 49 5th graders. By this Fall, 75 KIPP schools will be up and running, setting children from poor and minority families on a path to college through a combination of hard work,…

  13. Hard Times Hit Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Hard-to-grasp dollar amounts are forcing real cuts in K-12 education at a time when the cost of fueling buses and providing school lunches is increasing and the demands of the federal No Child Left Behind Act still loom larger over states and districts. "One of the real challenges is to continue progress in light of the economy," said Gale Gaines,…

  14. Ultrasonic characterization of materials hardness

    PubMed

    Badidi Bouda A; Benchaala; Alem

    2000-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental technique has been developed to measure velocities and attenuation of ultrasonic waves through a steel with a variable hardness. A correlation between ultrasonic measurements and steel hardness was investigated. PMID:10829663

  15. Report on Testing to Expand the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Operating Envelope

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-12-13

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Characterization Equipment Group requested that the Numatec Hanford Corporation--Engineering Testing Laboratory (ETL) perform Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Operating Envelope (OE) testing. This testing was based upon Witwer 1998a and was performed at different time periods between May and September 1998. The purpose of this testing was to raise the maximum down force limit for rotary mode core sampling as outlined in the current OE. If testing could show that a higher down force could be used while drilling into a concrete/pumice block simulant while still remaining below the 60 C limitation, then the current OE could be revised to include the new, higher, down force limit. Although the Test Plan discussed varying the purge flow rate and rotation rate to find ''optimal'' drilling conditions, the number of drill bits that could be destructively tested was limited. Testing was subsequently limited in scope such that only the down force would be varied while the purge flow rate and rotation rate were kept constant at 30 scfm and 55 rpm respectively. A second objective, which was not part of the original test plan, was added prior to testing. The Bit Improvement testing, mentioned previously, revealed that the drill bits tested in the OE testing were made of a slightly different metal matrix than the ones currently used. The older bits, a Longyear part number 100IVD/5 (/5 bit), had tungsten carbide mixed into the metal matrix that forms the cutting teeth. The currently used bits, Longyear part number 100IVD/8 (/8 bit), instead have tungsten metal in the matrix and no tungsten carbide. Rockwell C hardness testing showed that the /5 bit was significantly harder than the /8 bit, with values of /8 vs. 8, respectively. The change from the /5 bit to the /8 bit was made immediately after the previous OE testing in 1996 because of sparking concerns with the tungsten carbide in the /5 bit. This difference in hardness between the two

  16. Hard and Soft Safety Verifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Anderson, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between and the effects of hard and soft safety verifications. Initially, the terminology should be defined and clarified. A hard safety verification is datum which demonstrates how a safety control is enacted. An example of this is relief valve testing. A soft safety verification is something which is usually described as nice to have but it is not necessary to prove safe operation. An example of a soft verification is the loss of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) casings from Shuttle flight, STS-4. When the main parachutes failed, the casings impacted the water and sank. In the nose cap of the SRBs, video cameras recorded the release of the parachutes to determine safe operation and to provide information for potential anomaly resolution. Generally, examination of the casings and nozzles contributed to understanding of the newly developed boosters and their operation. Safety verification of SRB operation was demonstrated by examination for erosion or wear of the casings and nozzle. Loss of the SRBs and associated data did not delay the launch of the next Shuttle flight.

  17. Hard-pan soils - Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard pans, hard layers, or compacted horizons, either surface or subsurface, are universal problems that limit crop production. Hard layers can be caused by traffic or soil genetic properties that result in horizons with high density or cemented soil particles; these horizons have elevated penetrati...

  18. Radiation Hard AlGaN Detectors and Imager

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    Radiation hardness of AlGaN photodiodes was tested using a 65 MeV proton beam with a total proton fluence of 3x10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2}. AlGaN Deep UV Photodiode have extremely high radiation hardness. These new devices have mission critical applications in high energy density physics (HEDP) and space explorations. These new devices satisfy radiation hardness requirements by NIF. NSTec is developing next generation AlGaN optoelectronics and imagers.

  19. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...

  20. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...

  1. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...

  2. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...

  3. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...

  4. Development of radiation hard scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, F.; Woods, D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G. ); Blackburn, R. )

    1992-05-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators. Cylinders of scintillating materials 2.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick have been exposed to 10 Mrads of gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h in a nitrogen atmosphere. One of the formulations tested showed an immediate decrease in pulse height of only 4% and has remained stable for 12 days while annealing in air. By comparison a commercial PVT scintillator showed an immediate decrease of 58% and after 43 days of annealing in air it improved to a 14% loss. The formulated sample consisted of 70 parts by weight of Dow polystyrene, 30 pbw of pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (Dow Corning DC 705 oil), 2 pbw of p-terphenyl, 0.2 pbw of tetraphenylbutadiene, and 0.5 pbw of UVASIL299LM from Ferro.

  5. Hard Metal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bech, A. O.; Kipling, M. D.; Heather, J. C.

    1962-01-01

    In Great Britain there have been no published reports of respiratory disease occurring amongst workers in the hard metal (tungsten carbide) industry. In this paper the clinical and radiological findings in six cases and the pathological findings in one are described. In two cases physiological studies indicated mild alveolar diffusion defects. Histological examination in a fatal case revealed diffuse pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with marked peribronchial and perivascular fibrosis and bronchial epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia. Radiological surveys revealed the sporadic occurrence and low incidence of the disease. The alterations in respiratory mechanics which occurred in two workers following a day's exposure to dust are described. Airborne dust concentrations are given. The industrial process is outlined and the literature is reviewed. The toxicity of the metals is discussed, and our findings are compared with those reported from Europe and the United States. We are of the opinion that the changes which we would describe as hard metal disease are caused by the inhalation of dust at work and that the component responsible may be cobalt. Images PMID:13970036

  6. Spins, phonons, and hardness

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    In crystals (and/or glasses) with localized sp{sup 3} or spd-bonding orbitals, dislocations have very low mobilities, making the crystals very hard. Classical Peierls-Nabarro theory does not account for the low mobility. The breaking of spin-pair bonds which creates internal free-radicals must be considered. Therefore, a theory based on quantum mechanics has been proposed (Science, 261, 1436 (1993)). It has been applied successfully to diamond, Si, Ge, SiC, and with a modification to TiC and WC. It has recently been extended to account for the temperature independence of the hardness of silicon at low temperatures together with strong softening at temperatures above the Debye temperature. It is quantitatively consistent with the behaviors of the Group 4 elements (C, Si, Ge, Sn) when their Debye temperatures are used as normalizing factors; and appears to be consistent with data for TiC if an Einstein temperature for carbon is used. Since the Debye temperature marks the approximate point at which phonons of atomic wavelengths become excited (as contrasted with collective acoustic waves), this confirms the idea that the process which limits dislocation mobility is localized to atomic dimensions (sharp kinks).

  7. Hardness and microstructural response to thermal annealing of irradiated ASTM A533B class 1 plate steel

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, D.E.; Kumar, A.S.; Gelles, D.S.; Hamilton, M.L.; Rosinski, S.T.

    1999-10-01

    Hardness measurements were used to determine the post-irradiation annealing response of A533B class 1 plate steel irradiated to a fluence of 1 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) at 150 C. Rockwell hardness measurements indicated that the material had hardened by 6.6 points on the B scale after irradiation. The irradiation induced hardness increase was associated with a decrease in upper shelf energy from 63.4 J to 5-1.8 J and a temperature shift in the Charpy curve at the 41 J level from 115 C to 215 C. Specimens were annealed after irradiation at temperatures of 343 C (650 F), 399 C (750 F), and 454 C (850 F) for durations of up to one week (168 h). Hardness measurements were made to chart recovery of hardness as a function of time and temperature. Specimens annealed at the highest temperature 454 C recovered the fastest, fully recovering within 144 h. Specimens annealed at 399 C recovered completely within 168 h. Specimens annealed at the lowest temperature, 343 C recovered only {approximately}70% after 168 h of annealing. After neutron irradiation, a new feature of black spot damage was found to be superimposed on the unirradiated microstructure. The density of black spots was found to vary from 2.3 {times} 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 3} with an average diameter of 2.85 nm. Following annealing at 454 C for 24 h the black spot damage was completely annealed out. It was concluded that the black spot damage was responsible for 70% of the irradiation-induced hardness.

  8. The Effect of Total Ionizing Dose Degradation of Laptop Hard Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, D. N.; Guertin, S. M.; Patterson, J. D.

    2005-01-01

    A series of total ionizing dose (TID) measurements were performed on commercial hard drives to explore the possible uses of the devices for the high radiation mission, and to help the understanding of the reliability of current hard drive technology. Three different models from three major manufacturers were tested with the aid of a commercial hard drive test system.

  9. Effect of annealing temperature on microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of TiSi xN y superhard coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y. H.; Wang, J. P.; Tao, S. L.; Zhou, Z. F.

    2011-05-01

    A series of TiSi xN y superhard coatings with different Si contents were prepared on M42 steel substrates using two Ti and two Si targets by reactive magnetron sputtering at 500 °C. These samples were subsequently vacuum-annealed at 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), microindenter, Rockwell hardness tester and scratch tester were applied to investigate the microstructure, phase configuration, hardness and adhesion properties of as-deposited and annealed samples. The results indicated that there were two bonds, TiN and Si 3N 4, in all presently deposited TiSi xN y thin films, that structure was nanocomposite of nanocrystalline (nc-) TiN embedded into amorphous Si 3N 4 matrices. Annealing treatment below 900 °C played a little role in microstructure and hardness of the coatings although it greatly affected those of steel substrates. The film-substrate adhesion strength was slightly increased, followed by an abrupt decrease with increasing annealing temperature. Its value got to the maximum at 600 °C. Annealing had little effect on the friction coefficient with its value varying in the range of 0.39-0.40.

  10. Propulsion Test Section personnel test clamshell device for OV-103 repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    JSC Propulsion Test Section personnel working in conjunction with Rockwell International (RI) personnel test option for on-the-pad repair of a tiny reaction control system (RCS) oxidizer leak in Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, left orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod. Wearing protective gear (masks, gloves) and standing in front of a vent hood, Propulsion Test Section Head Brian G. Morris handles test article (specimen) as another technician looks on. The leading contender for the OV-103 leak repair is a clamshell device that will be fitted over the leaking dynatube, be clamped together, and be filled with sealant.

  11. Evidence of feasible hardness test on Mars using ratio of ionic/neutral emission intensities measured with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in low pressure CO2 ambient gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Pardede, Marincan; Suyanto, Hery; Ramli, Muliadi; Lahna, Kurnia; Marpaung, Alion Mangasi; Hedwig, Rinda; Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Davy Putra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Lie, Tjung Jie; Idris, Nasrullah; Tjia, May On; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2016-04-01

    An experimental study is conducted on the possibility and viability of performing hardness measurement of the various stone and chert samples in low pressure (600 Pa) CO2 ambient gas, a condition that is encountered in the Mars atmosphere. For this study, a nanosecond Nd-YAG laser is employed to generate plasma emission from the samples with different degrees of hardness. This technique is developed in light of the role of the shock wave in the generation of a laser-induced plasma. It was previously shown that the speed of the shock front depends on the hardness of the sample, and a positive relationship was found between the speed of the shock front and the ionization rate of the ablated atoms. Hence, the ratio of the intensity between the Mg II 279.5 nm and Mg I 285.2 nm emission lines detected from the laser-induced plasma can be used to estimate the hardness of a material. In fact, it is shown that the ratio changes linearly with respect to changes of sample hardness. The result has thus demonstrated the feasibility and viability of using LIBS for non contact hardness measurement on Mars.

  12. Low hardness organisms: Culture methods, sensitivities, and practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    DaCruz, A.; DaCruz, N.; Bird, M.

    1995-12-31

    EPA Regulations require biomonitoring of permitted effluent and stormwater runoff. Several permit locations were studied, in Virginia, that have supply water and or stormwater runoff which ranges in hardness from 5--30 mg/L. Ceriodaphnia dubia (dubia) and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) were tested in reconstituted water with hardnesses from 5--30 mg/L. Results indicated osmotic stresses present in the acute tests with the fathead minnow as well as chronic tests for the dubia and the fathead minnow. Culture methods were developed for both organism types in soft (30 mg) reconstituted freshwater. Reproductivity and development for each organisms type meets or exceeds EPA testing requirements for moderately hard organisms. Sensitivities were measured over an 18 month interval using cadmium chloride as a reference toxicant. Additionally, sensitivities were charted in contrast with those of organisms cultured in moderately hard water. The comparison proved that the sensitivities of both the dubia and the fathead minnow cultured in 30 mg water increased, but were within two standard deviations of the organism sensitivities of those cultured in moderately hard water. Latitude for use of organisms cultured in 30 mg was documented for waters ranging in hardness from 10--100 mg/L with no acclimation period required. The stability of the organism sensitivity was also validated. The application was most helpful in stormwater runoff and in effluents where the hardness was 30 mg/L or less.

  13. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  14. Solar site test module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissel, R. R.; Scott, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    A solar site test module using the Rockwell AIM 65microcomputer is described. The module is designed to work at any site where an IBM site data acquisition system (SDAS) is installed and is intended primarily as a troubleshooting tool. It collects sensor information (temperatures, flow rates, etc.) and displays or prints it immediately in calibrated engineering units. It will read one sensor on demand, periodically read up to 10sensors or periodically read all sensors. Performance calculations can also be included with sensor data. Unattended operation is possible to, e.g., monitor a group of sensors once per hour. Work is underway to add a data acquisition system to the test module so that it can be used at sites which have no SDAS.

  15. Inverse hardness distribution and its influence on mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Liscic, B.; Grubisic, V.; Totton, G.E.

    1996-12-31

    Studying the pattern of hardness distribution on round bars cross-section after quenching, Shimizu and Tamura have introduced the expression of {open_quotes}inverse hardening{close_quotes}. Opposite to normal hardness distribution it shows lower hardness at the surface and higher hardness in the core. This phenomenon takes place dependent on: hardenability of the steel, cross-section size of the workpiece and on quenching condition. It is related to the delayed quenching with discontinuous change of cooling rate, and to the incubation period consumed before changing the cooling rate. Their experiments using cylindrical specimens of 50 mm Dia, made of the same heat of AISI-4140 steel have shown that polymer solutions (PAG) of high concentration may reproducibly cause delayed quenching and yield inverse hardness distribution. This Controllable Delayed Quenching (CDQ) technology, influencing intentionally the dynamics of heat extraction, has a great potential lo increase the depth of hardening, compared to conventional quenching practice. After tempering a workpiece having inverse hardness distribution to suitable tempering temperature, uniform microstructure of tempered martensite, giving the best impact toughness, can be obtained through the whole cross-section. Bending fatigue tests with adequate specimens have shown a significant increase of the fatigue life for tempered specimens with inverse hardness distribution after quenching, in comparison with specimens having normal hardness distribution.

  16. Hardness variability in commercial and hardened technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-03-01

    Over the past 10 years, there have been a number of advances in methods to assess and assure the radiation hardness of microelectronics in military and space applications. At the forefront of these is the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology, in which the hardness of product is ``built-in`` through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to varying radiation scenarios. At the same time, there has been renewed interest in the use of commercial technology -- with its enhanced performance, reduced cost, and higher reliability -- in military and space systems. In this paper, we initially demonstrate the application of QML techniques to assure and control the radiation response of hardened technologies. Through several examples, we demonstrate intra-die, wafer-to-wafer, and lot-to-lot variations in a hardened technology. We observe 10 to 30% variations in key technology parameters that result from variability in geometry, process, and design layout. Radiation-induced degradation is seen to mirror preirradiation characteristics. We then evaluate commercial technologies and report considerably higher variability in radiation hardness, i.e., variations by a factor of two to five. This variability is shown to arise from a lack of control of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, which a commercial manufacturer has no interest in controlling in a normal process flow.

  17. Hardness variability in commercial and hardened technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Winokur, P. S.; Meisenheimer, T. L.; Sexton, F. W.; Roeske, S. B.; Knoll, M. G.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, there have been a number of advances in methods to assess and assure the radiation hardness of microelectronics in military and space applications. At the forefront of these is the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology, in which the hardness of product is 'built-in' through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to varying radiation scenarios. At the same time, there has been renewed interest in the use of commercial technology -- with its enhanced performance, reduced cost, and higher reliability -- in military and space systems. In this paper, we initially demonstrate the application of QML techniques to assure and control the radiation response of hardened technologies. Through several examples, we demonstrate intra-die, wafer-to-wafer, and lot-to-lot variations in a hardened technology. We observe 10 to 30% variations in key technology parameters that result from variability in geometry, process, and design layout. Radiation-induced degradation is seen to mirror preirradiation characteristics. We then evaluate commercial technologies and report considerably higher variability in radiation hardness, i.e., variations by a factor of two to five. This variability is shown to arise from a lack of control of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, which a commercial manufacturer has no interest in controlling in a normal process flow.

  18. Combining destination diversion decisions and critical in-flight event diagnosis in computer aided testing of pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, T. H.; Giffin, W. C.; Romer, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell and Giffin (1982) and Giffin and Rockwell (1983) have discussed the use of computer aided testing (CAT) in the study of pilot response to critical in-flight events. The present investigation represents an extension of these earlier studies. In testing pilot responses to critical in-flight events, use is made of a Plato-touch CRT system operating on a menu based format. In connection with the typical diagnostic problem, the pilot was presented with symptoms within a flight scenario. In one problem, the pilot has four minutes for obtaining the information which is needed to make a diagnosis of the problem. In the reported research, the attempt has been made to combine both diagnosis and diversion scenario into a single computer aided test. Tests with nine subjects were conducted. The obtained results and their significance are discussed.

  19. Radiation Hardness Assurance for Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poivey, Christian; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The space radiation environment can lead to extremely harsh operating conditions for on-board electronic box and systems. The characteristics of the radiation environment are highly dependent on the type of mission (date, duration and orbit). Radiation accelerates the aging of the electronic parts and material and can lead to a degradation of electrical performance; it can also create transient phenomena on parts. Such damage at the part level can induce damage or functional failure at electronic box, subsystem, and system levels. A rigorous methodology is needed to ensure that the radiation environment does not compromise the functionality and performance of the electronics during the system life. This methodology is called hardness assurance. It consists of those activities undertaken to ensure that the electronic piece parts placed in the space system perform to their design specifications after exposure to the space environment. It deals with system requirements, environmental definitions, part selection, part testing, shielding and radiation tolerant design. All these elements should play together in order to produce a system tolerant to.the radiation environment. An overview of the different steps of a space system hardness assurance program is given in section 2. In order to define the mission radiation specifications and compare these requirements to radiation test data, a detailed knowledge of the space environment and the corresponding electronic device failure mechanisms is required. The presentation by J. Mazur deals with the Earth space radiation environment as well as the internal environment of a spacecraft. The presentation by J. Schwank deals with ionization effects, and the presentation by T. Weatherford deals with Single particle Event Phenomena (SEP) in semiconductor devices and microcircuits. These three presentations provide more detailed background to complement the sections 3 and 4. Part selection and categorization are discussed in section

  20. Hard-phase engineering in hard/soft nanocomposite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudyal, Narayan; Rong, Chuanbing; Vuong Nguyen, Van; Liu, J. Ping

    2014-03-01

    Bulk SmCo/Fe(Co) based hard/soft nanocomposite magnets with different hard phases (1:5, 2:17, 2:7 and 1:3 types) were fabricated by high-energy ball-milling followed by a warm compaction process. Microstructural studies revealed a homogeneous distribution of bcc-Fe(Co) phase in the matrix of hard magnetic Sm-Co phase with grain size ⩽20 nm after severe plastic deformation and compaction. The small grain size leads to effective inter-phase exchange coupling as shown by the single-phase-like demagnetization behavior with enhanced remanence and energy product. Among the different hard phases investigated, it was found that the Sm2Co7-based nanocomposites can incorporate a higher soft phase content, and thus a larger reduction in rare-earth content compared with the 2:17, 1:5 and 1:3 phase-based nanocomposite with similar properties. (BH)max up to 17.6 MGOe was obtained for isotropic Sm2Co7/FeCo nanocomposite magnets with 40 wt% of the soft phase which is about 300% higher than the single-phase counterpart prepared under the same conditions. The results show that hard-phase engineering in nanocomposite magnets is an alternative approach to fabrication of high-strength nanocomposite magnets with reduced rare-earth content.

  1. Virial coefficients and equation of state of hard chain molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boublík, Tomáš

    2003-10-01

    The second, third, and fourth virial coefficients of hard chain molecules with number of segments up to 10 (up to 7 in the case of the fourth one) and the reduced distances L*=1 and 0.5 were determined numerically. For fused hard sphere (FHS) molecules the enlarged fused hard sphere model is introduced which forms a connection to the hard convex geometry and makes it possible to determine the virial coefficients of FHS molecules from the expressions derived for hard convex bodies. Our numerical values of the virial coefficients together with data from literature are used to test the proposed method and to compare its results with values from Wertheim's theory, from its modified version and from the generalized Flory dimer approach. It is found that prediction of the second virial coefficient is very accurate (for L=0.5 the maximum deviation amounts 0.2 percent) and that our values of the third virial coefficient for higher members of the FHS family are superior to those from other considered methods. The model is successfully used to predict geometric characteristics of the hard models of n-butane conformers and to estimate their second virial coefficients. The equation of state of hard prolate spherocylinders in which the nonsphericity parameters of the enlarged FHS model are considered is used to predict the P-V-T behavior of hard dumbbells, hard triatomics, mixture of hard dumbells of different site-site distances, and n-butane taken as a mixture of conformers. In all the cases prediction within error bars is obtained.

  2. Two members of the first crew of the Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The two members of the first crew for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) are photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter assembly facility at Palmdale, California on the day of the rollout of the Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' spacecraft. They are Astronauts Fred W. Haise Jr. (left), commander; and C. Gordon Fullerton, pilot. The DC-9 size airplane-like Orbiter 101 is in the background.

  3. The Effects of Varying Target Hardness on Ricochet Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, M. S. Abdul; Birch, R. S.; Jais, M. I.

    2007-05-01

    This project is a study on ricochet characteristics off wooden targets when fired upon by 22 calibre bolt action rifle. A series of experimental testing has been carried out on three different woods chosen to give range of hardness, ranked from the hardest to the softest. Each wood was fired upon at varying angles of incidence until ricochet was observed. In general, the ricochet angle was found to decrease with an increase in target hardness.

  4. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  5. Hard Coat Layers by PE-CVD Process for the Top Surface of Touch Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okunishi, T.; Sato, N.; Yazawa, K.

    2013-06-01

    In order to protect surface from damages, the high pencil hardness and the high abrasion resistance are required for the hard coat layers on polyethylene telephthalate (PET) films for the application of touch panel surface. We have already found that the UV-curing-hard-coat-polymer (UHP) coated PET films show the poor abrasion resistance, while they have the high pencil hardness. It reveals that the abrasion resistance of hard coat layers of the UHP is not simply dependent on the pencil hardness. In this work, we have studied to improve the abrasion resistance of SiOC films as hard coat layers, which were formed by PE-CVD process on UHP coated PET. The abrasion resistance was evaluated by Taber abrasion test. PE-CVD hard coat layers which formed on UHP coater PET films have showed the better abrasion resistance and have the possibility of substitution to the thin glass sheets for touch panel application.

  6. Computational Modeling Develops Ultra-Hard Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Glenn Research Center's Mechanical Components Branch developed a spiral bevel or face gear test rig for testing thermal behavior, surface fatigue, strain, vibration, and noise; a full-scale, 500-horsepower helicopter main-rotor transmission testing stand; a gear rig that allows fundamental studies of the dynamic behavior of gear systems and gear noise; and a high-speed helical gear test for analyzing thermal behavior for rotorcraft. The test rig provides accelerated fatigue life testing for standard spur gears at speeds of up to 10,000 rotations per minute. The test rig enables engineers to investigate the effects of materials, heat treat, shot peen, lubricants, and other factors on the gear's performance. QuesTek Innovations LLC, based in Evanston, Illinois, recently developed a carburized, martensitic gear steel with an ultra-hard case using its computational design methodology, but needed to verify surface fatigue, lifecycle performance, and overall reliability. The Battelle Memorial Institute introduced the company to researchers at Glenn's Mechanical Components Branch and facilitated a partnership allowing researchers at the NASA Center to conduct spur gear fatigue testing for the company. Testing revealed that QuesTek's gear steel outperforms the current state-of-the-art alloys used for aviation gears in contact fatigue by almost 300 percent. With the confidence and credibility provided by the NASA testing, QuesTek is commercializing two new steel alloys. Uses for this new class of steel are limitless in areas that demand exceptional strength for high throughput applications.

  7. Soft systems, hard lessons.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, B

    2000-12-01

    , such as integration of HF into the design process, and selection of test-case projects. PMID:11132050

  8. Hard Work and Hard Data: Getting Our Message Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glau, Gregory R.

    Unless questions about student performance and student retention can be answered and unless educators are proactive in finding and publicizing such information, basic writing programs cannot determine if what they are doing is working. Hard data, especially from underrepresented groups, is needed to support these programs. At Arizona State…

  9. The phase behavior of linear and partially flexible hard-sphere chain fluids and the solubility of hard spheres in hard-sphere chain fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarzún, Bernardo; van Westen, Thijs; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.

    2013-05-01

    The liquid crystal phase behavior of linear and partially flexible hard-sphere chain fluids and the solubility of hard spheres in hard-sphere chain fluids are studied by constant pressure Monte Carlo simulations. An extensive study on the phase behavior of linear fluids with a length of 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 20 beads is carried out. The phase behavior of partially flexible fluids with a total length of 8, 10, 14, and 15 beads and with different lengths for the linear part is also determined. A precise description of the reduced pressure and of the packing fraction change at the isotropic-nematic coexistence was achieved by performing long simulation runs. For linear fluids, a maximum in the isotropic to nematic packing fraction change is observed for a chain length of 15 beads. The infinite dilution solubility of hard spheres in linear and partially flexible hard-sphere chain fluids is calculated by the Widom test-particle insertion method. To identify the effect of chain connectivity and molecular anisotropy on free volume, solubility is expressed relative to that of hard spheres in a hard sphere fluid at same packing fraction as relative Henry's law constants. A linear relationship between relative Henry's law constants and packing fraction is observed for all linear fluids. Furthermore, this linearity is independent of liquid crystal ordering and seems to be independent of chain length for linear chains of 10 beads and longer. The same linear relationship was observed for the solubility of hard spheres in nematic forming partially flexible fluids for packing fractions up to a value slightly higher than the nematic packing fraction at the isotropic-nematic coexistence. At higher packing fractions, the small flexibility of these fluids seems to improve solubility in comparison with the linear fluids.

  10. Future hard disk drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Roger

    2009-03-01

    This paper briefly reviews the evolution of today's hard disk drive with the additional intention of orienting the reader to the overall mechanical and electrical architecture. The modern hard disk drive is a miracle of storage capacity and function together with remarkable economy of design. This paper presents a personal view of future customer requirements and the anticipated design evolution of the components. There are critical decisions and great challenges ahead for the key technologies of heads, media, head-disk interface, mechanics, and electronics.

  11. Magnetic levitation for hard superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kordyuk, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    An approach for calculating the interaction between a hard superconductor and a permanent magnet in the field-cooled case is proposed. The exact solutions were obtained for the point magnetic dipole over a flat ideally hard superconductor. We have shown that such an approach is adaptable to a wide practical range of melt-textured high-temperature superconductors{close_quote} systems with magnetic levitation. In this case, the energy losses can be calculated from the alternating magnetic field distribution on the superconducting sample surface. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Hard diffraction in Pythia 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overgaard Rasmussen, Christine

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of the options for diffraction implemented in the general-purpose event generator Pythia 8 [1]. We review the existing model for soft diffraction and present a new model for hard diffraction. Both models use the Pomeron approach pioneered by Ingelman and Schlein, factorising the diffractive cross section into a Pomeron flux and a Pomeron PDF, with several choices for both implemented in Pythia 8. The model of hard diffraction is implemented as a part of the multiparton interactions (MPI) framework, thus introducing a dynamical gap survival probability that explicitly breaks factorisation.

  13. Nonvolatile Rad-Hard Holographic Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Han-Ying; Reyes, George; Dragoi, Danut; Hanna, Jay

    2001-01-01

    We are investigating a nonvolatile radiation-hardened (rad-hard) holographic memory technology. Recently, a compact holographic data storage (CHDS) breadboard utilizing an innovative electro-optic scanner has been built and demonstrated for high-speed holographic data storage and retrieval. The successful integration of this holographic memory breadboard has paved the way for follow-on radiation resistance test of the photorefractive (PR) crystal, Fe:LiNbO3. We have also started the investigation of using two-photon PR crystals that are doubly doped with atoms of iron group (Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu) and of rare-earth group (Nd, Tb) for nonvolatile holographic recordings.

  14. HARD CHROME POLLUTION PREVENTION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the project, five chromium emission prevention/control devices were tested tha cover the spectrum of prevention/control techniques currently in use in small- and large-size hard chromium electroplating job shops. The Project results show that some of the tested devices had ch...

  15. A finger-like hardness tester based on the contact electromechanical impedance of a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ji; Li, Faxin

    2015-10-01

    We proposed a finger-like hardness tester based on the electromechanical impedance of a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever. A Vickers indenter was fabricated to the free end of the bimorph to contact the sample. The contact force was monitored by a strain gauge and the contact area was obtained by tracking the bimorph's resonance frequency. The bimorph-sample contact system was modeled by the electromechanical equivalent circuit method. Verification experiments on standard hardness samples were conducted and the measured hardness values agreed well with those given by a conventional Vickers hardness tester. Further hardness measurement on a gear wheel showed that the proposed hardness tester is very adaptive and can be used for inner surface testing or in situ testing, where other hardness testers may not be applicable. The proposed hardness tester can be regarded as an improved ultrasonic hardness tester. PMID:26520966

  16. A finger-like hardness tester based on the contact electromechanical impedance of a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ji; Li, Faxin

    2015-10-01

    We proposed a finger-like hardness tester based on the electromechanical impedance of a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever. A Vickers indenter was fabricated to the free end of the bimorph to contact the sample. The contact force was monitored by a strain gauge and the contact area was obtained by tracking the bimorph's resonance frequency. The bimorph-sample contact system was modeled by the electromechanical equivalent circuit method. Verification experiments on standard hardness samples were conducted and the measured hardness values agreed well with those given by a conventional Vickers hardness tester. Further hardness measurement on a gear wheel showed that the proposed hardness tester is very adaptive and can be used for inner surface testing or in situ testing, where other hardness testers may not be applicable. The proposed hardness tester can be regarded as an improved ultrasonic hardness tester.

  17. Evaluation of hardness and wear resistance of interim restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Savabi, Omid; Nejatidanesh, Farahnaz; Fathi, Mohamad Hossein; Navabi, Amir Arsalan; Savabi, Ghazal

    2013-01-01

    Background: The interim restorative materials should have certain mechanical properties to withstand in oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hardness and wear resistance of interim restorative materials. Materials and Methods: Fifteen identical rectangular shape specimens with dimensions of 2 mm × 10 mm × 30 mm were made from 7 interim materials (TempSpan, Protemp 3 Garant, Revotek, Unifast LC, Tempron, Duralay, and Acropars). The Vickers hardness and abrasive wear of specimens were tested in dry conditions and after 1 week storage in artificial saliva. The depth of wear was measured using surface roughness inspection device. Data were subjected to Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between hardness and wear (α =0.05). Results: TempSpan had the highest hardness. The wear resistance of TempSpan (in dry condition) and Revotek (after conditioning in artificial saliva) was significantly higher (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant correlation between degree of wear and hardness of the materials (P = 0.281, r = −0.31). Conclusion: Hardness and wear resistance of interim resins are material related rather than category specified. PMID:23946734

  18. Hard sphere packings within cylinders.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lin; Steinhardt, William; Zhao, Hao; Socolar, Joshua E S; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2016-02-23

    Arrangements of identical hard spheres confined to a cylinder with hard walls have been used to model experimental systems, such as fullerenes in nanotubes and colloidal wire assembly. Finding the densest configurations, called close packings, of hard spheres of diameter σ in a cylinder of diameter D is a purely geometric problem that grows increasingly complex as D/σ increases, and little is thus known about the regime for D > 2.873σ. In this work, we extend the identification of close packings up to D = 4.00σ by adapting Torquato-Jiao's adaptive-shrinking-cell formulation and sequential-linear-programming (SLP) technique. We identify 17 new structures, almost all of them chiral. Beyond D ≈ 2.85σ, most of the structures consist of an outer shell and an inner core that compete for being close packed. In some cases, the shell adopts its own maximum density configuration, and the stacking of core spheres within it is quasiperiodic. In other cases, an interplay between the two components is observed, which may result in simple periodic structures. In yet other cases, the very distinction between the core and shell vanishes, resulting in more exotic packing geometries, including some that are three-dimensional extensions of structures obtained from packing hard disks in a circle. PMID:26843132

  19. Metrics for Hard Goods Merchandising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in hard goods merchandising, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  20. FATIGUE OF BIOMATERIALS: HARD TISSUES

    PubMed Central

    Arola, D.; Bajaj, D.; Ivancik, J.; Majd, H.; Zhang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The fatigue and fracture behavior of hard tissues are topics of considerable interest today. This special group of organic materials comprises the highly mineralized and load-bearing tissues of the human body, and includes bone, cementum, dentin and enamel. An understanding of their fatigue behavior and the influence of loading conditions and physiological factors (e.g. aging and disease) on the mechanisms of degradation are essential for achieving lifelong health. But there is much more to this topic than the immediate medical issues. There are many challenges to characterizing the fatigue behavior of hard tissues, much of which is attributed to size constraints and the complexity of their microstructure. The relative importance of the constituents on the type and distribution of defects, rate of coalescence, and their contributions to the initiation and growth of cracks, are formidable topics that have not reached maturity. Hard tissues also provide a medium for learning and a source of inspiration in the design of new microstructures for engineering materials. This article briefly reviews fatigue of hard tissues with shared emphasis on current understanding, the challenges and the unanswered questions. PMID:20563239

  1. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, George B.; DeRoos, Larry F.; Stinnette, Samuel E.

    1993-01-01

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for 238PuO2 fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors.

  2. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.; DeRoos, L.F.; Stinnette, S.E.

    1992-05-15

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for {sup 238}PuO{sup 2} fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors.

  3. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.; DeRoos, L.F.; Stinnette, S.E.

    1992-05-15

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for {sup 238}PuO{sup 2} fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors.

  4. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.; DeRoos, L.F.; Stinnette, S.E. )

    1993-01-15

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors.

  5. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Satz, H. |; Wang, X.N.

    1995-07-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks` duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley.

  6. Space shuttle launch vehicle (13 P-OTS) strut support interference effects study in the Rockwell International 7- by 7-foot trisonic wind tunnel (IA68)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogge, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Strut support interference investigations were conducted on an 0.004-(-) scale representation of the space shuttle launch vehicle in order to determine transonic and supersonic model support interference effects for use in a future exhaust plume effects study. Strut configurations were also tested. Orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket booster pressures were recorded at Mach numbers 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, and 2.0. Angle of attack and angle of sideslip were varied between plus or minus 4 degrees in 2 degree increments. Parametric variations consisted only of the strut configurations.

  7. Investigation of space shuttle orbiter subsonic stability and control characteristics and determination of control surface hinge moments in the Rockwell International low speed wind tunnel (OA37)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a string-mounted 0.030 scale representation of the 140A/B space shuttle orbiter in the 7.75- by 11-foot low speed wind tunnel. The primary test objectives were to establish basic longitudinal and lateral directional stability and control characteristics for the basic configuration plus control surface hinge moments. Aerodynamic force and moment data were measured in the body axis system by an internally mounted, six-component strain gage balance. Additional configurations investigated were sealed rudder hingeline gaps, sealed elevon gaps and compartmentized speedbrakes.

  8. Results of flutter test OS7 obtained using the 0.14-scale space shuttle orbiter fin/rudder model number 55-0 in the NASA LaRC 16-foot transonic dynamics wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    A 0.14-scale dynamically scaled model of the space shuttle orbiter vertical tail was tested in a 16-foot transonic dynamic wind tunnel to determine flutter, buffet, and rudder buzz boundaries. Mach numbers between .5 and 1.11 were investigated. Rockwell shuttle model 55-0 was used for this investigation. A description of the test procedure, hardware, and results of this test is presented.

  9. Results of flutter test OS6 obtained using the 0.14-scale wing/elevon model (54-0) in the NASA LaRC 16-foot transonic dynamics wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    A 0.14-scale dynamically scaled model of the space shuttle orbiter wing was tested in the Langley Research Center 16-Foot Transonic Dynamics Wind Tunnel to determine flutter, buffet, and elevon buzz boundaries. Mach numbers between 0.3 and 1.1 were investigated. Rockwell shuttle model 54-0 was utilized for this investigation. A description of the test procedure, hardware, and results of this test is presented.

  10. Kaman 40-kW wind system. Phase II. Fabrication and tests. Volume II. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, H; Perley, R

    1981-01-01

    A program is underway to design, fabricate and test a horizontal axis Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) capable of producing 40 kW electrical output power in a 20 mph wind. Results are presented of the program effort covering fabrication and testing of the Wing Turbine Generator designed earlier. A minimum of difficulties were experienced during fabrication and, after successful completion of Contractor tests through 20 mph winds, the WTG was shipped to Rocky Flats, assembled and operated there. The 40 kW WTG is presently undergoing extended tests at Rockwell's Rocky Flats test facility.