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Noise in animal housing facilities is an environmental variable that can affect hearing, behavior and physiology in mice. The authors measured sound levels in two rodenthousingrooms (room 1 and room 2) during several periods of 24 h. Room 1, which was subject to heavy personnel traffic, contained ventilated racks and static cages that housed large numbers of mice. Room 2 was accessed by only a few staff members and contained only static cages that housed fewer mice. In both rooms, background sound levels were about 80 dB, and transient noises caused sound levels to temporarily rise 30–40 dB above the baseline level; such peaks occurred frequently during work hours (8:30 AM to 4:30 PM) and infrequently during non-work hours. Noise peaks during work hours in room 1 occurred about two times as often as in room 2 (P = 0.01). Use of changing stations located in the rooms caused background noise to increase by about 10 dB. Loud noise and noise variability were attributed mainly to personnel activity. Attempts to reduce noise should concentrate on controlling sounds produced by in-room activities and experimenter traffic; this may reduce the variability of research outcomes and improve animal welfare.
Lauer, Amanda M.; May, Bradford J.; Hao, Ziwei Judy; Watson, Julie
This paper offers background data on the number of hotels and roominghouses in the country and the people who live in them. Overall, one - tenth of a percent of all Americans live in hotels or roominghouses. Another tenth of a percent live as lodgers wi...
BACKGROUND Laboratory rodents have been used in the United States as research animals since the late 1800s. In the past, housing of rodents used for research was designed primarily to prevent escape, to provide easy access to the animals by researchers, to allow the animals ready access to food and water, and to allow efficient dirty bedding removal and cage
TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, LIVING ROOM, NORTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING NORTH FROM CENTER OF ROOM - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA
TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, LIVING ROOM, SOUTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM CENTER OF ROOM - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA
TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, DOOR DETAIL, FRONT ENTRANCE INTO LIVING ROOM, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA
6. View along E wall of Engine Room, Boiler House and Pattern Room. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Engine Boiler & Pattern Building, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA
2. S. elevation of Engine Room, Boiler House and Pattern Room. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Engine Boiler & Pattern Building, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA
5. N elevation of Engine Room, Boiler House and Pattern Room. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Engine Boiler & Pattern Building, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA
An experimental assessment of methods to reduce rodent infestations in rural housing was conducted in Yosemite National Park, California, Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. During pretreatment surveys, nearly all (63 of 68) selected units had past or ongoing rodent activity inside. Active infestations were found in 58.8% of the units. Peromyscus spp. represented 91.2% of all animals caught inside housing units. Despite little harborage, rodent activity was common near housing (290 animals/2,254 trap nights). The most common species present was Peromyscus maniculatus (43-50% of all captures). This species was especially frequent (49-87% of Peromyscus captures) around the foundations of housing units. Habitat had little effect on captures. There were 1.8 Peromyscus caught per unit along the foundations of housing in modified rural settings with grass lawns compared with 1.2 Peromyscus caught per unit in sites located in mature woodlands. During autumn of 1994, randomly selected housing units were rodent proofed by sealing openings associated with chases, roof eaves, and attics with insulation and wire mesh. Housing was examined and the fauna was resampled in the spring-summer of 1995. Rodent-proofed houses were infested significantly less often (3 of 28) than control houses (13 of 36) (P = 0.02) and the intensity of infestation was lower in experimental houses (6 versus 23 mice/treatment). More than 25% of the mice trapped inside the houses had been marked outside the houses during the three-day surveys, demonstrating movement of mice adjacent to the buildings into not rodent-proofed housing. As in the previous autumn, most of the animals captured in (98.9%) and along the foundations of the houses (77.5%) were Peromyscus spp. These results demonstrate that Peromyscus frequently invade rural housing but rodent-proofing effectively eliminates or substantially reduces rodent activity. PMID:9158040
Glass, G E; Johnson, J S; Hodenbach, G A; Disalvo, C L; Peters, C J; Childs, J E; Mills, J N
36. VIEW OF PASSENGER WAITING ROOM, FERRY HOUSE, NORTH CENTRAL BUILDING, SECOND LEVEL, LOOKING EAST - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ
Health burdens associated with poor housing and indoor pest infestations are likely to affect young children in particular, who spend most of their time indoors at home. We completed environmental assessments in 644 homes of pregnant Latina women and their children living in the Salinas Valley, California. High residential densities were common, with 39% of homes housing > 1.5 persons per room. Housing disrepair was also common: 58% of homes had peeling paint, 43% had mold, 25% had water damage, and 11% had rotting wood. Evidence of cockroaches and rodents was present in 60% and 32% of homes, respectively. Compared with representative national survey data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, homes in our sample were more likely to have rodents, peeling paint, leaks under sinks, and much higher residential densities. The odds of rodent infestations in homes increased in the presence of peeling paint [odds ratio (OR) 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5–3.1], water damage (OR 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2–2.7), and mold (OR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0–2.1). The odds of cockroach infestation increased in the presence of peeling paint (OR 3.8; 95% CI, 2.7–5.6), water damage (OR 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2–2.9), or high residential density (OR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2–3.8). Homes that were less clean than average were more prone to both types of infestations. Pesticides were stored or used in 51% of households, partly to control roach and rodent infestations. These data indicate that adverse housing conditions are common in this community and increase the likelihood of pest infestations and home pesticide use. Interventions to improve housing and promote children’s health and safety in this population are needed.
Bradman, Asa; Chevrier, Jonathan; Tager, Ira; Lipsett, Michael; Sedgwick, Jaqueline; Macher, Janet; Vargas, Ana B.; Cabrera, Elvia B.; Camacho, Jose M.; Weldon, Rosana; Kogut, Katherine; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Eskenazi, Brenda
Go to the southwest gate of the White House complex, present the guard with identification, and state your business. If you are on the appointment list, an escort will be called. Walk up West Executive Avenue and turn tight into the West Basement entrance...
Corynebacterium bovis is a common pathogen in athymic nude mouse colonies. Control and eradication of the organism are challenging because depopulation and restricted colony access are often not options within vivaria. We evaluated potential sources and dissemination routes of C. bovis in an enzootically infected colony. Immunocompetent mice and personnel were evaluated for their potential to carry C. bovis, and husbandry and sanitation methods were evaluated for their efficacy in preventing cross-contamination. C. bovis was detected in furred immunocompetent mice previously exposed to infected athymic nude mice and in the nasopharynx of humans. Microisolation cages were not effective in maintaining athymic nude mice C. bovis-free when they were housed in a room known to contain immunodeficient mice with C. bovis infections. A tunnel washer that provided a ?180 °F final rinse provided effective elimination of C. bovis from cage components. Passive and active air sampling techniques showed airborne dispersal of C. bovis despite the use of individually ventilated caging systems and stringent operational standards. Bacterial growth was not observed in settle plates placed inside autoclaved individually ventilated microisolation cages on various ventilated racks for 24-h periods. C. bovis aerosolization was shown to be a means of spread of the bacterium during cage-change procedures inside a class II type A2 biosafety cabinet. Our findings indicate that C. bovis can be a pervasive environmental contaminant in infected rodent holding rooms and successful eradication strategies must include environmental decontamination and attention to air quality. PMID:22776119
Corynebacterium bovis is a common pathogen in athymic nude mouse colonies. Control and eradication of the organism are challenging because depopulation and restricted colony access are often not options within vivaria. We evaluated potential sources and dissemination routes of C. bovis in an enzootically infected colony. Immunocompetent mice and personnel were evaluated for their potential to carry C. bovis, and husbandry and sanitation methods were evaluated for their efficacy in preventing cross-contamination. C. bovis was detected in furred immunocompetent mice previously exposed to infected athymic nude mice and in the nasopharynx of humans. Microisolation cages were not effective in maintaining athymic nude mice C. bovis-free when they were housed in a room known to contain immunodeficient mice with C. bovis infections. A tunnel washer that provided a ?180 °F final rinse provided effective elimination of C. bovis from cage components. Passive and active air sampling techniques showed airborne dispersal of C. bovis despite the use of individually ventilated caging systems and stringent operational standards. Bacterial growth was not observed in settle plates placed inside autoclaved individually ventilated microisolation cages on various ventilated racks for 24-h periods. C. bovis aerosolization was shown to be a means of spread of the bacterium during cage-change procedures inside a class II type A2 biosafety cabinet. Our findings indicate that C. bovis can be a pervasive environmental contaminant in infected rodent holding rooms and successful eradication strategies must include environmental decontamination and attention to air quality.
11. PUMP HOUSE AND WEIGHING ROOM Fish were pumped from floating hoppers, to the pump house (on the far right). From there they were either lifted by conveyor belt to the weighing room (top center) and thence to the holding tanks, or were washed through sealers, weighed and then sluiced to holding tanks. The process used depended upon the type and size of fish. The square cement vat (center) was to be a settling tank from which fish oil, reclaimed from the reduction process, was to be pumped into the round metal tank (above the vat). This process however, was never fully utilized before the sardines ran out. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA
8. Cloth Room Building/Bleach House of the Monadnock Mills complex. The Cloth Room structure dates from 1895; the Bleach House, in the background, from 1902. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH
89. Photocopied August 1978. POWER HOUSE, GENERATOR ROOM, VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM ABOUT THE CENTER, FEBRUARY 26, 1918, AFTER MICHIGAN NORTHERN HAD BROUGHT THE GENERATOR INSTALLATION UP TO FULL CAPACITY. THE NARROW PANEL WESTINGHOUSE SWITCHBOARD INSTALLED IN 1916-17 IS AT THE UPPER RIGHT. THE NEW GENERAL ELECTRIC GENERATORS ARE BELOW THE GALLERY. NOTE THE D.C. EXCITER UNIT ON EXTENDED SHAFT ON THE UNIT IN THE FOREGROUND. A SIMILAR TYPE OF INSTALLATION WAS FOUND AT PENSTOCKS 45 THROUGH 48 AND 62 THROUGH 73. WHAT SEEM TO BE EXTENDED SHAFT UNITS IN THE BACKGROUND ARE MERELY THE OLD STANLEY ALTERNATORS BEFORE THEY HAD BEEN REMOVED FROM THE GENERATOR ROOM. (878) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) has received a petition for rulemaking (PRM) dated September 15, 2011, from George Hamawy (the petitioner). The petitioner requests that the NRC require installation of radiation alarms in roomshousing neutron...
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is denying a petition for rulemaking (PRM), PRM-73-15, dated September 15, 2011, which was filed with the NRC by George Hamawy (the petitioner). The petitioner requested that the NRC amend its regulations to require the installation of radiation alarms for roomshousing neutron...
Investigators of our research facility generally accept the concept of asepsis as an important component of adequate surgical care for animals. However, they experience difficulties putting it into practice, especially in the case of rodents. The reasons for this are inconvenience, cost, and lack of training. To better assist investigators in the implementation of aseptic surgical techniques in their laboratories, we have created an Operating Room (OR) Committee modeled after OR committees found in human hospitals. A reconstructive surgeon, a veterinarian, a research scientist, a nurse involved in the training of OR personnel, interns, graduate students, and an animal health technician were chosen as committee members in light of their OR and animal care expertise. The first task of the OR Committee was to establish institutional guidelines for aseptic surgery, taking into account the costs imposed on research budgets by these procedures. The OR Committee also supports a complete training program in aseptic surgery techniques, which consists of lectures, a training manual, videos, and a practical course. Furthermore, when experimental procedures require specialized equipment, the OR Committee collaborates with researchers to develop strategies to achieve asepsis. This OR Committee and the training program proved to be important tools to promote and improve the quality of animal care during surgery. PMID:17089994
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section...Workers Housing Standards Â§ 654.415 Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other...
Objective To examine mortality in a representative nationwide sample of homeless and marginally housed people living in shelters, roominghouses, and hotels. Design Follow-up study. Setting Canada 1991-2001. Participants 15?100 homeless and marginally housed people enumerated in 1991 census. Main outcome measures Age specific and age standardised mortality rates, remaining life expectancies at age 25, and probabilities of survival from age 25 to 75. Data were compared with data from the poorest and richest income fifths as well as with data for the entire cohort Results Of the homeless and marginally housed people, 3280 died. Mortality rates among these people were substantially higher than rates in the poorest income fifth, with the highest rate ratios seen at younger ages. Among those who were homeless or marginally housed, the probability of survival to age 75 was 32% (95% confidence interval 30% to 34%) in men and 60% (56% to 63%) in women. Remaining life expectancy at age 25 was 42 years (42 to 43) and 52 years (50 to 53), respectively. Compared with the entire cohort, mortality rate ratios for men and women, respectively, were 11.5 (8.8 to 15.0) and 9.2 (5.5 to 15.2) for drug related deaths, 6.4 (5.3 to 7.7) and 8.2 (5.0 to 13.4) for alcohol related deaths, 4.8 (3.9 to 5.9) and 3.8 (2.7 to 5.4) for mental disorders, and 2.3 (1.8 to 3.1) and 5.6 (3.2 to 9.6) for suicide. For both sexes, the largest differences in mortality rates were for smoking related diseases, ischaemic heart disease, and respiratory diseases. Conclusions Living in shelters, roominghouses, and hotels is associated with much higher mortality than expected on the basis of low income alone. Reducing the excessively high rates of premature mortality in this population would require interventions to address deaths related to smoking, alcohol, and drugs, and mental disorders and suicide, among other causes.
... Homeless Assistance programs. For more information on housing programs, see HUDâ€™s Online Library . Taking Care Of Yourself Doctor, Clinic, & Dental Visits Treatment Adherence Mental Health Substance Abuse Issues Sexual Health Nutrition & Food Safety Exercise Immunizations Aging With HIV ...
We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (>˜?100 years). Data consisting of incidences of skeletal variants, cranial, and external measurements are from house mice (Mus musculus) on one Welsh and one Scottish island, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos islands, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel islands. We report
\\u000a We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution ( 100 years).\\u000a Data consisting of incidences of skeletal variants, cranial, and external measurements are from house mice (Mus musculus) on one Welsh and one Scottish island, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos islands, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel islands. We
Standard practice typically requires the marking of laboratory mice so that they can be individually identified. However, many of the common methods compromise the welfare of the individuals being marked (as well as requiring time, effort, and/or resources on the part of researchers and technicians). Mixing strains of different colour within a cage would allow them to be readily visually identifiable, negating the need for more invasive marking techniques. Here we assess the impact that mixed strain housing has on the phenotypes of female C57BL/6 (black) and DBA/2 (brown) mice, and on the variability in the data obtained from them. Mice were housed in either mixed strain or single strain pairs for 19 weeks, and their phenotypes then assessed using 23 different behavioural, morphological, haematological and physiological measures widely used in research and/or important for assessing mouse welfare. No negative effects of mixed strain housing could be found on the phenotypes of either strain, including variables relevant to welfare. Differences and similarities between the two strains were almost all as expected from previously published studies, and none were affected by whether mice were housed in mixed- or single-strain pairs. Only one significant main effect of housing type was detected: mixed strain pairs had smaller red blood cell distribution widths, a measure suggesting better health (findings that now need replicating in case they were Type 1 errors resulting from our multiplicity of tests). Furthermore, mixed strain housing did not increase the variation in data obtained from the mice: the standard errors for all variables were essentially identical between the two housing conditions. Mixed strain housing also made animals very easy to distinguish while in the home cage. Female DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mice can thus be housed in mixed strain pairs for identification purposes, with no apparent negative effects on their welfare or the data they generate. This suggests that there is much value in exploring other combinations of strains.
Invasive mammals are the greatest threat to island biodiversity and invasive rodents are likely responsible for the greatest number of extinctions and ecosystem changes. Techniques for eradicating rodents from islands were developed over 2 decades ago. Since that time there has been a significant development and application of this conservation tool. We reviewed the literature on invasive rodent eradications to assess its current state and identify actions to make it more effective. Worldwide, 332 successful rodent eradications have been undertaken; we identified 35 failed eradications and 20 campaigns of unknown result. Invasive rodents have been eradicated from 284 islands (47,628 ha). With the exception of two small islands, rodenticides were used in all eradication campaigns. Brodifacoum was used in 71% of campaigns and 91% of the total area treated. The most frequent rodenticide distribution methods (from most to least) are bait stations, hand broadcasting, and aerial broadcasting. Nevertheless, campaigns using aerial broadcast made up 76% of the total area treated. Mortality of native vertebrates due to nontarget poisoning has been documented, but affected species quickly recover to pre-eradication population levels or higher. A variety of methods have been developed to mitigate nontarget impacts, and applied research can further aid in minimizing impacts. Land managers should routinely remove invasive rodents from islands <100 ha that lack vertebrates susceptible to nontarget poisoning. For larger islands and those that require nontarget mitigation, expert consultation and greater planning effort are needed. With the exception of house mice (Mus musculus), island size may no longer be the limiting factor for rodent eradications; rather, social acceptance and funding may be the main challenges. To be successful, large-scale rodent campaigns should be integrated with programs to improve the livelihoods of residents, island biosecurity, and reinvasion response programs. PMID:17883491
Howald, Gregg; Donlan, C Josh; Galván, Juan Pablo; Russell, James C; Parkes, John; Samaniego, Araceli; Wang, Yiwei; Veitch, Dick; Genovesi, Piero; Pascal, Michel; Saunders, Alan; Tershy, Bernie
A large number of laboratory and field based studies are being carried out on mole-rats, both in our research group and others. Several studies have highlighted the development of adverse behaviours in laboratory animals and have emphasised the importance of enrichment for captive animals. Hence we were interested in evaluating how laboratory housing would affect behavioural performance in mole-rats. We investigated exploratory behaviour, the ability to discriminate between novel and familiar environments and reference memory in the solitary Cape mole-rat (Georychuscapensis). Our data showed that both wild and captive animals readily explore open spaces and tunnels. Wild animals were however more active than their captive counterparts. In the Y maze two trial discrimination task, wild animals failed to discriminate between novel and familiar environments, while laboratory housed mole-rats showed preferential spatial discrimination in terms of the length of time spent in the novel arm. The performance of the laboratory and wild animals were similar when tested for reference memory in the Y maze, both groups showed a significant improvement compared to the first day, from the 3rd day onwards. Wild animals made more mistakes whereas laboratory animals were slower in completing the task. The difference in performance between wild and laboratory animals in the Y-maze may be as a result of the lower activity of the laboratory animals. Laboratory maintained Cape mole-rats show classic behaviours resulting from a lack of stimulation such as reduced activity and increased aggression. However, they do display an improved novelty discrimination compared to the wild animals. Slower locomotion rate of the laboratory animals may increase the integration time of stimuli, hence result in a more thorough inspection of the surroundings. Unlike the captive animals, wild animals show flexibility in their responses to unpredictable events, which is an important requirement under natural living conditions.
Oosthuizen, Maria Kathleen; Scheibler, Anne-Gita; Charles Bennett, Nigel; Amrein, Irmgard
In the course of studies involving more than 2,500 chemical repellents, it has been found that certain groups of- compounds containing nitrogen or sulfur are repellent to rats under the , test conditions and it appears probable that some of these compounds might be used for the protection of packaged goods against rodent attacks. Additional tests to determine optimum methods of application will be necessary before final evaluation of these compounds will be possible and extensive field trials will be required to establish the degree of protection which may be afforded by the use of these materials. Pending such final evaluation, it may be assumed that the results,to date offer a means of selecting the most promising types of'materials for further trial....On the basis of the test data, it appears that some amine derivative, such as a salt of some organic, acid, or a complex with trinitrobenzene or with a metallic salt of a dialkyl dithiocarbamic acid might offer promise of protection of packaging materials against rodent attacks....Protection might be obtained through the use of certain 'physical deterrents' such as plastics, waxes or drying oils.
107. FIRST FLOOR, ROOM 103, SOUTH PARLOR (EAST ROOM), DETAIL OF FIGURE ON RIGHT SIDE OF THE FIREPLACE SURROUND. - Octagon House, 1799 (1741) New York Avenue, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
The Blair House has been the next-door neighbor of the White House in Washington, DC since 1824 and it is the President's official guest house. The house is named after Francis Preston Blair, who served in President Andrew Jackson's "Kitchen Cabinet" and he was the consummate political insider during the administrations of Martin Van Buren and Abraham Lincoln. Today, the house also serves as a home for the president-elect in the days before the inauguration. This marvelous website from CSPAN provides visitors with video clips of the house, and it's quite a tour. There are ten short profiles that include views of the principal suite, the drawing room, and the Lincoln Room. The site also has interviews with people who have spent time getting to know the Blair House, including Ambassador Nancy Brinker and Deputy Chief of Protocol Raymond P. Martinez.
We investigated infection of rodents and shrews by Leptospira spp. in two localities of Cambodia (Veal Renh, Kaev Seima) and in four types of habitat (forests, non-flooded lands, lowland rain-fed paddy fields, houses) during the wet and the dry seasons. Habitat preference was common, and rodent and shrew species were found only in houses or in rain-fed paddy fields or in forests. Among 649 small mammals trapped belonging to 12 rodent species and 1 shrew species, 71 of 642 animals tested were carriers of Leptospira according to the 16S ribosomal RNA marker used. Rodent infection was higher in low-slope locations, corresponding to rain-fed paddy fields, especially in the rainy season and in Kaev Seima. Rodents (Rattus exulans) and shrews (Suncus murinus) inhabiting households showed significantly low levels of infections, whereas rodents living in and near to forests (shrubby wasteland, orchards) showed high levels of infection.
We investigated infection of rodents and shrews by Leptospira spp. in two localities of Cambodia (Veal Renh, Kaev Seima) and in four types of habitat (forests, non-flooded lands, lowland rain-fed paddy fields, houses) during the wet and the dry seasons. Habitat preference was common, and rodent and shrew species were found only in houses or in rain-fed paddy fields or in forests. Among 649 small mammals trapped belonging to 12 rodent species and 1 shrew species, 71 of 642 animals tested were carriers of Leptospira according to the 16S ribosomal RNA marker used. Rodent infection was higher in low-slope locations, corresponding to rain-fed paddy fields, especially in the rainy season and in Kaev Seima. Rodents (Rattus exulans) and shrews (Suncus murinus) inhabiting households showed significantly low levels of infections, whereas rodents living in and near to forests (shrubby wasteland, orchards) showed high levels of infection. PMID:22665613
This issue focuses on one-room school houses in Iowa. At one time, almost 14,000 one-room schools dotted Iowa's rural landscape. Articles explore Native American schools of the past and present, segregation of black students, and Amish schools. An article remembering one-room schools describes the early schools from 1830 to 1858, township schools…
Ranches are being converted to exurban housing developments in the southwestern United States, with potentially significant but little-studied impacts on biological diversity. We captured rodents on 48 traplines in grasslands, mesquite savannas, and oak savannas in southeastern Arizona that were grazed by livestock, embedded in exurban housing developments, grazed and embedded in development, or neither grazed nor embedded in development. Independent of habitat or development, rodent species richness, mean rank abundance, and capture rates of all rodents combined were negatively related to presence of livestock grazing or to its effects on vegetative ground cover Exurban development had no obvious effects on rodent variety or abundance. Results suggest southwester.n exurban developments can sustain a rich assemblage of grassland and savanna rodents if housing densities are low and houses are embedded in a matrix of natural vegetation with little grazing. PMID:16922240
2. ENGINE ROOM AND CHIPPY ENGINE ROOM OF THE DIAMOND MINE, LOOKING NORTH. THE MAIN HOIST USED A FLAT CABLE, WHICH WAS SCRAPPED IN THE 1950s. THE ORIGINAL DIXON CABLE STILL EXISTS IN THE CHIPPY HOIST HOUSE. - Butte Mineyards, Diamond Mine, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT
31. ROOM A (WEST ROOM), SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING EAST. The two benches in the foreground were constructed with rose head hand wrought nails and are therefore likely to have come from the 1755 Greater Meeting House, which stood at Second and Market Streets until 1812. Similar benches are to be found at the Arch Street Meeting House. The light buff brick fireplace at left was added in 1892 along with the overdoor paneling - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
The German Act on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases in Man (Infektionsschutzgesetz, IfSG) provides a legal framework for activities and responsibilities concerning communal rodent control. However, actual governance of communal rodent control is relatively heterogeneous, as federal states (Bundesländer) have different or even no regulations for prevention and management of commensal rodent infestations (e.g. brown rats, roof rats and house mice). Control targets and control requirements are rarely precisely defined and often do not go beyond general measures and objectives. Although relevant regulations provide information about agreed preventive measures against rodents, the concept of sustainability is not expressed as such. A centrally managed database-supported municipal rodent control is a key factor for sustainability because it allows a systematic and analytical approach to identify and reduce rodent populations. The definition of control objectives and their establishment in legal decrees is mandatory for the implementation of a sustainable management strategy of rodent populations at a local level. Systematic recording of rodent infestations through municipal-operated monitoring provides the essential data foundation for a targeted rodent management which is already implemented in some German and European cities and nationwide in Denmark. A sustainable rodent management includes a more targeted rodenticide application which in the long-term will lead to an overall reduction of rodenticide use. Thus, the benefits of sustainable rodent management will be a reduction of rodenticide exposure to the environment, prevention of resistance and long-term economical savings. PMID:24781906
Although fungal disease is uncommon in rodents, dermatophytosis is the most common mycosis seen in clinical practice. T. mentagrophytes is the most common etiologic agent, and the guinea pig is the most common species affected, although there are reports in all pet and laboratory rodent species except the gerbil. Despite the low incidence of clinical disease, rodents are common asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and ringworm is the most common zoonotic disease transmitted from rodents to people. PMID:12827729
Many rodent diets contain components such as soy isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) known to have estrogenic properties. The dietary background of phytoestrogens may modulate some responses to environmental estrogens when these compounds are tested in rodent bioassays. Thus, and since only few data were available on the phytoestrogen content of rodent diets commonly used in European laboratories, it was of
Gisela H. Degen; Petra Janning; Patrick Diel; Hermann M. Bolt
In this activity, students will learn the definition of an ellipse and how to produce a graph of an ellipse, find the equation of an ellipse using the endpoints of the major and minor axes, and find the coordinates of the foci and the eccentricity of an ellipse.
INTERIOR, NORTH ROOM WITH CENTRAL DOOR TO EXTERIOR; VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Fort Bragg, Noncommissioned Officers' Service Club, Guest House Building, South of Butner Road, Fayetteville, Cumberland County, NC
INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING THE THREE OPENINGS BETWEEN THE FAMILY ROOM AND THE LANAI. NOTE THE ORIGINAL VENTED EAVES AT THE FAMILY ROOM. VIEW FACING WEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type F, 602 Beard Avenue , Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI
INTERIOR VIEW OF ARCHWAY BETWEEN THE LIVING ROOM AND DINING ROOM TAKEN FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Hampton Wedge Historic District, 237 South McAllister Avenue (House), 237 South McAllister Avenue, Springfield, Greene County, MO
The design of a shielded enclosure (or screen room) to house data acquisition equipment in an area in which substantial, time varying magnetic fields are present and capable of producing significant interference is described.
Microdialysis is an in vivo sampling technique that permits the quantification of various substances (e.g., neurotransmitters, peptides, electrolytes) in blood and tissue. It is also used to infuse substances into the brain and spinal cord. This unit describes methods for the construction and stereotaxic implantation of microdialysis probes into discrete brain regions of the rat and mouse. Procedures for the conduct of conventional and quantitative microdialysis experiments in the awake and anesthetized rodent are also provided.
Zapata, Agustin; Chefer, Vladimir I.; Shippenberg, Toni S.
Reviews some of the efforts of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) to preserve, conserve, and interpret historic houses to the public. Examines the history and some of the specific preservation problems concerning the Beauport Cottage, the Sayward-Wheeler House, and the Gropius House. (MJP)
In addition to behavioral evidence for the detection of earth-strength magnetic fields (MF) by rodents, recent investigations have revealed that electrophysiological and biochemical responses to MF occur in the pineal organ and retina of rodents. In addition, ferrimagnetic deposits have been identified in the ethmoidal regions of the rodent skull. These findings point to a new sensory phenomenon, which interfaces with many fields of biology, including neuroscience, psychophysics, behavioral ecology, chronobiology and sensory physiology.
TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, KITCHEN, SOUTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM CENTER OF ROOM - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA
TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, KITCHEN, NORTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM CENTER OF ROOM - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA
Sleep-wake circadian rhythms are well documented for nocturnal rodents, but little is known about sleep regulation in diurnal or crepuscular rodent species. This study examined the circadian sleep-wake rhythms in Octodon degus by means of electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. Recordings were made from animals housed with or without running wheels in the cages. In a 24-h light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12),
Food habits of four common species of African rodents: the giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus), the black house rat (Rattus rattus), the multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) and the pygmy mouse (Mus minutoides) were studied on the basis of stomach content analysis, habitat sampling and experimental trials with caged animals. Vegetable items (especially grass, grains and tubers) formed the bulk of the food of all the species. Oil-palm nuts and kernels were also common in the guts of C. gambianus and M. natalensis. Animal food components of all the rodent species comprised mainly insects (especially ants, crickets etc.). Vertebrate flesh and scales were also well represented in the guts of C. gambianus. Domestic and miscellaneous food items were recorded from R. rattus, most of which were trapped in human and animal shelters. Inorganic gut contents, primarily sand grains, were found in sizeable quantities in more than 70% of the rodents examined. Results of experimental feeding trials with caged rodents showed close correlation with those recorded from field samples, especially in terms of food choices and the relative quantities consumed. The ecological and practical implications of these observations are discussed in the light of the importance of the rodents as agricultural and domestic pests. PMID:7323341
Rodents can cause major problems through spreading various diseases to animals and humans. The two main species of rodents most commonly found on farms around the world are the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Both species are omnivorous and can breed year-round under favourable conditions. This review describes the occurrence of pathogens in rodents on specialist pig and chicken farms, which are usually closed units with a high level of bio-security. However, wild rodents may be difficult to exclude completely, even from these sites, and can pose a risk of introducing and spreading pathogens. This article reviews current knowledge regarding rodents as a hazard for spreading disease on farms. Most literature available regards zoonotic pathogens, while the literature regarding pathogens that cause disease in farm animals is more limited.
Presents K-12 and college multipurpose rooms considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm,…
20. WINE CELLAR This is the lowest room in the house, under the service entrance from S Street. Note reinforced concrete floor slab above (reinforced concrete floor slabs were used throughout the house). - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
The goal of this activity is to design, build and test a house or toy for an animal. Learners will research a particular animal and design a house or toy that will encourage that animal's specific behaviors. Each house or toy must fit into the animal's cage, support the animal's size and weight, and be constructed of non-toxic materials. Safety note: adult supervision recommended for cutting cardboard boxes.
Weekly average concentrations of ammonia were measured in winter 1991-1992 in different rooms in houses and in a range of public buildings using passive diffusion tubes. Concentrations of NH 3 ranging from 6 to 53 ppb were found in different rooms within a house. Concentrations in living rooms of 5 houses ranged from 7 to 63 ppb, with the largest values in rooms used by smokers. Concentrations of NH 3 in public buildings were similar to those in houses, with concentrations in areas used for social activity greater than in work areas. These preliminary data suggest that the factors controlling the sources and sinks of NH 3 indoors should be studied in greater detail, including the role of tobacco smoke.
In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.
Invasive rodent species have established on 80% of the world's islands causing significant damage to island environments. Insular ecosystems support proportionally more biodiversity than comparative mainland areas, highlighting them as critical for global biodiversity conservation. Few techniques currently exist to adequately detect, with high confidence, species that are trap-adverse such as the black rat, Rattus rattus, in high conservation priority areas where multiple non-target species persist. This study investigates the effectiveness of camera trapping for monitoring invasive rodents in high conservation areas, and the influence of habitat features and density of colonial-nesting seabirds on rodent relative activity levels to provide insights into their potential impacts. A total of 276 camera sites were established and left in situ for 8 days. Identified species were recorded in discrete 15 min intervals, referred to as 'events'. In total, 19 804 events were recorded. From these, 31 species were identified comprising 25 native species and six introduced. Two introduced rodent species were detected: the black rat (90% of sites), and house mouse Mus musculus (56% of sites). Rodent activity of both black rats and house mice were positively associated with the structural density of habitats. Density of seabird burrows was not strongly associated with relative activity levels of rodents, yet rodents were still present in these areas. Camera trapping enabled a large number of rodents to be detected with confidence in site-specific absences and high resolution to quantify relative activity levels. This method enables detection of multiple species simultaneously with low impact (for both target and non-target individuals); an ideal strategy for monitoring trap-adverse invasive rodents in high conservation areas. PMID:24599307
Rendall, Anthony R; Sutherland, Duncan R; Cooke, Raylene; White, John
The report is one of four which, together, constitute the second year work program of the Cuyahoga County Housing Study. It presents and analyzes data on sales prices of one-family houses in the county, both in aggregate and by small area, in terms of loc...
Parasitic cysts of Besnoitia jellisoni (coccidia) were found in rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus and Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) trapped in Eastern Colorado. The parasite was associated with a granulomatous inflammatory reaction in the lungs of each rod...
43. TRACES OF ORIGINAL PARTITIONS AT JUNCTURE OF FRONT ROOM, REAR ROOM AND HALL, SECOND FLOOR. ALSO SHOWS ORIGINAL STUCCO CORNICE OF FRONT AND REAR ROOMS (LEFT) AND HALL (RIGHT) - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
10. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, GENERAL VIEW FROM WEST ROOM TO EAST ROOM. NORTH SIDE OF ROOM SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST SHOWS FIREPLACE, DOUBLE DOORS (SLIDING) AND WINDOW TO PORCH. - P. A. Bowen House, 15701 Dr. Bowen Road, Aquasco, Prince George's County, MD
Build a house you can fit inside, using cardboard tubes. Variations of this activity include building for a toy (easier) or building a house the right size for a stuffed animal or a garage for a toy car. Also included is an option to build houses inspired by those around the world (harder). This activity focuses on the understanding of sizes and shapes: Can I fit in this if I stand up? if I sit? Do we have enough cardboard tubes to make a triangular roof? This activity is available as a webpage and a downloadable pdf. Students should have the ability to use scissors and tape well.
From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis.
Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C
In this physical sciences activity, learners explore how passive solar design increases energy efficiency. Learners test paperboard models of different building designs to discover how the design affects the amount of heat that enters the house.
The vomeronasal organ in rodents is an important social and sexual signaling pathway. We have investigated whether the housing of intact immature females in close proximity to mature males would interfere with the sensitivity of the immature rodent uterotrophic bioassay as the result of vomeronasal signals transmitted by male urinary proteins. The hypothesis was that the proximity of males might induce early puberty, thereby increasing mean uterine weight and reducing the responsiveness of the assay. The hypothesis was tested in both rats and mice by housing mature males above immature females, separated only by a wire screen, for 3 days and determining possible changes in uterine weight. The results were negative. Neither the mean uterine weight nor the group mean standard deviation of the uterine weights were changed in the uterotrophic bioassay. Given that the timing of sexual maturation may vary with the strain of mouse used, we also evaluated the sensitivity of the immature mouse uterotrophic assay to diethylstilbestrol (DES) using four strains of mice. Similar sensitivity was observed for the CD-1, C57Bl6, and Alpk strains, but B6CBF(1) mice were marginally less sensitive to DES than were the other strains. These findings add to earlier data indicating the robustness of the rodent uterotrophic assay protocol.
Ashby, John; Owens, William; Odum, Jenny; Tinwell, Helen
?Pest? control of both native (e.g., gophers) and exotic (e.g., black rats, house mice) species may impact populations of non-target species inadvertently. We evaluated relationships among animal movement, rodent control, and landscape features in two urban locations in Californ...
Residential ?pest? control of both native (e.g., gophers, rabbits) and exotic (e.g., black and Norway rats, house mice) species may impact populations of non-target species inadvertently. We evaluated relationships among animal movement, rodent control, and landscape features in...
1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BOILER HOUSE FROM SOUTHWEST. THE BOILER HOUSE WAS USED FOR HEATING THE MILL; HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER FOR PRODUCTION WAS PURCHASED FROM THE COLUMBUS LIGHT & POWER COMPANY. NORTH END OF 1924 MILL TO RIGHT, c. 1970 WINDOWLESS WEAVE ROOM ADDITION TO LEFT. - Stark Mill, Boiler House, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA
The study of perceptual decision-making offers insight into how the brain uses complex, sometimes ambiguous information to guide actions. Understanding the underlying processes and their neural bases requires that one pair recordings and manipulations of neural activity with rigorous psychophysics. Though this research has been traditionally performed in primates, it seems increasingly promising to pursue it at least partly in mice and rats. However, rigorous psychophysical methods are not yet as developed for these rodents as they are for primates. Here we give a brief overview of the sensory capabilities of rodents and of their cortical areas devoted to sensation and decision. We then review methods of psychophysics, focusing on the technical issues that arise in their implementation in rodents. These methods represent a rich set of challenges and opportunities.
Our dental knowledge of rodents is still patchy but their increasing popularity and advances in technology allow us to make good strides toward better understanding. Cutting incisors with nail clippers and treating incisor problems without examining cheek teeth is no longer acceptable. Good practice dictates that a thorough examination is performed, a diagnosis is made, and treatment is planned and executed appropriately. Dentistry is expanding at a tremendous rate; the next few years should provide plenty of opportunities to solve most of the remaining problems with dental disease in rodents. PMID:14534975
10. LIVING ROOM INTERIOR SHOWING 1 OVER 1 LIGHT, DOUBLEHUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS FLANKING FRONT ENTRANCE DOOR AND SOUTH END DOOR TO ENCLOSED SLEEPING PORCH/STAIR ACCESS TO ATTIC. CEILING AND WALLS IN THIS ROOM AND THROUGHOUT THE HOUSE ARE COVERED WITH ORIGINAL FIBERBOARD. THE FLOOR IN THIS ROOM AND ALL OTHERS EXCEPT THE BATHROOM, KITCHEN AND DINING ROOM ARE HARDWOOD. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA
A federal judge last month ruled that animal-rights activists have the legal right to challenge U.S. Department of Agriculture rules that exempt the vast majority of research animals from federal regulation. Observers say that the ruling almost guarantees that the agency will extend regulations governing animal handling and housing to thousands of academic and industry laboratories that work with rodents and birds. Those new rules, say animal-care experts, could impose costly new requirements on labs that don't meet standards set by the private Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care. PMID:10939943
Background The quality of housing provided to migrant farmworkers is often criticized, but few studies have investigated these housing conditions. This analysis examines housing regulation violations experienced by migrant farmworkers in North Carolina, and the associations of camp characteristics with the presence of housing violations. Methods Data were collected in183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Housing regulation violations for the domains of camp, sleeping room, bathroom, kitchen, laundry room, and general housing, as well as total violations were assessed using North Carolina Department of Labor standards. Results Violations of housing regulations were common, ranging from 4 to 22 per camp. Housing regulation violations were common in all domains; the mean number of camp violations was 1.6, of sleeping room violations was 3.8, of bathroom violations was 4.5, of kitchen violations was 2.3, of laundry room violations was 1.2, and of general housing violations was 3.1. The mean number of total housing violations was 11.4. Several camp characteristics were consistently associated with the number of violations; camps with workers having H-2A visas, with North Carolina Department of Labor Certificates of Inspection posted, and assessed early in the season had fewer violations. Conclusions These results argue for regulatory changes to improve the quality of housing provided to migrant farmworkers, including stronger regulations and the more vigorous enforcement of existing regulations.
Arcury, Thomas A.; Weir, Maria; Chen, Haiying; Summers, Phillip; Pelletier, Lori E.; Galvan, Leonardo; Bischoff, Werner E.; Mirabelli, Maria C.; Quandt, Sara A.
OBVERSE VIEW OF TN-249-11, LOOKING BACK FROM THE NORTHEAST ROOM TO THE STAIR HALL. THE DOOR TO THE NORTH (DINING) ROOM LIES AS LEFT - Hilderbrand House, 4571 Airways Boulevard, Memphis, Shelby County, TN
74. BUILDING NO. 555, AIR DRY HOUSE FOR DOUBLE BASE RIFLE AND CANNON POWDERS, DETAIL OF WOODEN DRYING ROOM DOORS WITH WOODEN HINGES AND BOLTS FOR SPARK PREVENTION. RINGS BY DOORS TURN ON HOT AIR FLOW TO DRYING ROOMS. NOTE GROUNDING WIRE FROM RING BRACKETS. RECORDING MACHINES BY DOORS RECORD HUMIDITY IN DRYING ROOMS. DRYING ROOMS ILLUMINATED ONLY BY EXPLOSION-PROOF LIGHTING LOCATED OUTSIDE OF ROOMS. NOTE WOODEN RAILROAD RAILS IN BACKGROUND FOR 3 FT. GUAGE CARS. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ
Building specifications for birdhouses (nesting boxes) are given for 11 species (chickadee, titmouse, nuthatch, Carolina wren, house wren, downy woodpecker, hairy woodpecker, flicker, bluebird, screech owl, and wood duck) including length, width, depth, entrance diameter, and height above the ground. Pointers for construction, materials, and…
4. LARGE MEETING ROOM, SOUTH WALL, FIREPLACE AND PAINTING - Penn School Historic District, Frissell Community House, SC Route 37, 1 mile South of Frogmore, St. Helena Island, Frogmore, Beaufort County, SC
3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT SOUTHWEST CORNER ROOM WITH STAIRWAY TO SECOND FLOOR - Penn School Historic District, Benezet House, 1 mile South of Frogmore, Route 37, St Helena Island, Frogmore, Beaufort County, SC
3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT ROOM (WHERE MARTIN LUTHER KING MADE PLANS FOR HIS MOVEMENT) - Penn School Historic District, Arnett House, SC Route 37, 1 mile South of Frogmore, St. Helena Island, Frogmore, Beaufort County, SC
VIEW ON FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING TYPICAL ROOM WITH CLOSET AND DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW LOOKING ONTO THE INTERIOR COURT, FACING EAST - Schwartz Bath House, 2201-2207 East First Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA
13. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES USED FOR RENDERING LARD (LEFT) AND MAKING APPLE BUTTER (RIGHT) WITH SCALE - Open Gate Farm, House, Ridge Road, 1 mile East of Elephant Road, Perkasie, Bucks County, PA
12. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES USED FOR RENDERING LARD (LEFT) AND MAKING APPLE BUTTER (RIGHT) - Open Gate Farm, House, Ridge Road, 1 mile East of Elephant Road, Perkasie, Bucks County, PA
32. INTERIOR VIEW, MUSIC ROOM LOCATED AT THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF THE HOUSE ON THE FIRST FLOOR, LOOKING TO THE FIREPLACE IN THE EAST WALL - Arlington Place, 331 Cotton Avenue, Southwest, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL
32. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: DETAIL CONTROL ROOM: DIFFERENTIAL OVERCURRENTS AND TRIPPING RELAYS FOR HOUSE UNITS, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA
35. SECOND FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, NORTH WALL: BLACK MARBLE MANTLE. Grape clusters above columns repeat in upper part of cornice and probably in destroyed ceiling centerpiece - Governor Thomas Bennett House, 1 Lucas Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC
16. SECOND FLOOR, EAST ROOM, SHOWING DOORWAYS TO BOXED WINDER STAIRWAYS-- UP AND DOWN-- AND WALL CABINET WITH DOORS OPEN TO SHOW STAIRWAY - High Farm, House, Creek Road, 1 mile West of Easton Road, Pipersville, Bucks County, PA
21. POWER ROOM INTERIOR, DETAIL OF CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO GENERAL ELECTRIC 15 KW DC GENERATOR (ON LEFT), 110 VOLTS, 136 AMPS, 1200 RPM. INSTALLED 1942. - Death Valley Ranch, Power House, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA
37. SECOND FLOOR FRONT ROOM, WINDOWS FACING ON WALNUT STREET (SOUTH), ORIGINAL PANELED FOLDING SHUTTERS AND HARDWARE. For a view of closed shutters see PA-1436 A-16 - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
6. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-13 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
13. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-6 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Interior view, detail view in first floor drawing room to show whale oil chandelier and ceiling medallion (duplicate of HABS No. MS-61-A-32) - Melrose, Main House, 1 Melrose-Montebello Parkway, Natchez, Adams County, MS
41. 451 MADISON AVENUE, DINING ROOM, NORTH WALL, DETAIL OF LEATHER DOOR PANEL WITH DECORATIVE NAILHEAD PATTERN - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York, New York County, NY
70. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAHOGANY GUEST ROOM, EAST WALL, DETAIL OF SPEAKING TUBE MOUTHPIECE (TUBE TO KITCHEN) - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT
28. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING STORAGE CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER LEFT AND HOT WATER HEATER CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER RIGHT. VIEW TO EAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA
6. NORTHWEST INTERIOR VIEW IN SOUTHEAST ROOM WITH SINK AND WORK STATION - Juniata Mill Complex, Camp Bunk House, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV
5. EAST SECTION OF BUILDING, FIRST FLOOR, WEST ROOM. NOTE OVEN AT LEFT. All construction original except wood flooring, plumbing and electricity. - Ralph Izard House, Kitchen Building, 110 Broad Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC
22. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, EAST SECTION, NORTHEAST ROOM, NORTHWEST CORNER (NOTE EXPOSED BRICK NOGGING) - Peter Burr House, Vicinity of State Route 9 & Ridge Road, Shenandoah Junction, Jefferson County, WV
VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT BUILDING 121. THE BUILDING HOUSES OFFICES, THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT CENTRAL ALARM STATION, ALARM CONSOLES, THE ARMORY, THE LOCK AND KEY SECTION, A COMPUTER ROOM, A UTILITY ROOM, AND LOCKER ROOMS WITH SHOWERS. (1/98) - Rocky Flats Plant, Security & Armory, West of Third Street, south of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO
GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.
30. SECOND FLOOR, NORTHEAST ROOM, SOUTH WALL. Bolection mold fireplace surround probably original with house and only remaining one thus. Note bolection panel molds on raised-panel door, also probably original with house. - Mulberry, Cooper River, West Branch, Moncks Corner, Berkeley County, SC
44. MAIN MEETING ROOM, SOUTH SIDE GALLERY. Under the flooring were sleepers used to elevate the 1812 raised floor sections. These sleepers were fashioned from the 1755 Greater Meeting House salvaged gallery railing. Note the initials and date: 'EB 1788'. Other graffiti has dates as early as the 1760s. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Traditional dormitories are out of step with the concepts of higher education that make the 4 years of college a cultural and social experience as well as a period for gathering information on academic topics. These experiences are not served well in twin-bed rooms lined along both sides of corridors that lead only to stairwells or gang bathrooms.…
We describe the genetic analysis of samples from hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) patients from southern and southeastern states of Brazil and rodents captured at the presumed site of infection of these patients. A total of 65 samples that were antibody-positive for Sin Nombre or Laguna Negra virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were processed by nested reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by using several primer combinations in the M and S genome segments. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from samples from 11 HPS patient and 7 rodent samples. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence differences showed the cocirculation of Araraquara and Juquitiba-like viruses, previously characterized from humans. Our genetic data indicate that Araraquara virus is associated with Bolomys lasiurus (hairy-tailed Bolo mouse) and the Juquitiba-like virus is associated with Oligoryzomys nigripes (black-footed pigmy rice rat).
The hormonal factors and neural circuitry that control copulation are similar across rodent species, although there are differences in specific behavior patterns. Both estradiol (E) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) contribute to the activation of mating, although E is more important for copulation and DHT, for genital reflexes. Hormonal activation of the medial preoptic area (MPOA) is most effective, although implants in the medial amygdala (MeA) can also stimulate mounting in castrates. Chemosensory inputs from the main and accessory olfactory systems are the most important stimuli for mating in rodents, especially in hamsters, although genitosensory input also contributes. Dopamine agonists facilitate sexual behavior, and serotonin (5-HT) is generally inhibitory, though certain 5-HT receptor subtypes facilitate erection or ejaculation. Norepinephrine agonists and opiates have dose-dependent effects, with low doses facilitating and high doses inhibiting behavior.
The ability to measure intraocular pressure in rodents is very important for the advancement of glaucoma research. This review article describes various currently used methods, such as, microcannulation, servo-null micropipette, Tonopen tonometer, rebound tonometer, Goldmann applanation tonometer, Schiötz indentation tonometer, pneumatonometer, and optic interferometry tonometer. Their principles of operation, advantages and limitations, as well as a calibration method are also discussed. PMID:18953904
Pang, Iok-hou; Wang, Wan-heng; Millar, J Cameron; Clark, Abbot F
33. INTERIOR VIEW, DINING ROOM LOCATED AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE HOUSE ON THE FIRST FLOOR, LOOKING TO THE FIREPLACE IN THE EAST WALL (NOTE DOORWAY TO THE MUSIC ROOM ON THE LEFT (NORTH) SIDE OF THE PHOTOGRAPH) - Arlington Place, 331 Cotton Avenue, Southwest, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL
Interior view of west main room in original two-room portion. Note muslin ceiling temporarily tacked up by the HABS team to afford clearer view. Camera facing west. - Warner Ranch, Ranch House, San Felipe Road (State Highway S2), Warner Springs, San Diego County, CA
LIVING ROOM WITH HALL TO BEDROOMS AT FAR WALL. NOTE FLOOR TO CEILING WINDOWS ON RIGHT AND SLIDING DOORS TO DINING ROOM ON LEFT. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
Poets House is an organization that focuses on modern poetry and is a "national poetry library and literary center that invites poets and the public to step into the living tradition of poetry." The website of this New York-based treasure is now in Battery Park City, and houses a 50,000 volume poetry collection of varied media, including journals, audio, video, and digital media. The "News" tab offers a slideshow of "Poetry Hard-Hat Tours" that has almost two dozen photos of the progress of the building of the new Battery Park City location. The "Programs" tab on the left hand menu leads the visitors to a "Calendar of Events", as well as descriptions of the events on the calendar, such as "Seminars and Workshops", "Showcase Events" and "Conversations on Poetics". The "Directory" tab on the left hand menu offers a free 20,000 title online database of poetry titles published between 1990 and 2008, and is searchable by numerous criteria, as well as sortable by author, title, or publisher.
We investigated factors associated with persistence of different Salmonella serovars in buildings housing laying hens in Great Britain using survival analysis. A total of 264 incidents of Salmonella detection occurring between July 1998 and August 2007 in 152 houses were recorded. For incidents involving Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), both the rodent score of the house and the type of house were positively associated with persistence. For non-SE serovars, only the type of house was associated with persistence. Persistence of SE in the houses was longest (>15 months) in step-cage and cage-scraper houses when high levels of rodents were present, and lowest in non-cage and cage-belt houses. We estimated that 42% (95% CI 23.3-63.1) of SE incidents may be cleared during the lay period, and this was related to elimination of rodents from the houses. From January 2009, EU legislation will ban the sale of fresh eggs from SE-positive and S. Typhimurium-positive flocks over their remaining lifespan. If infection is eliminated from such flocks, they would cease to represent a public health risk. PMID:19017427
Carrique-Mas, J J; Breslin, M; Snow, L; McLaren, I; Sayers, A R; Davies, R H
Examines the trends in college and university sports and recreation center locker rooms as envisioned by a specialist. Features of the modern locker room and the different levels of locker room design are explained. Final comments discuss whether college and university facility managers are inclined to move to high-end locker rooms. (GR)
Pathogens and predatory animals are the main agents used for the biological control of rodents. The pathogens that have been used are of the genus Salmonella; none is rodent-specific and all can cause severe infection in man and domestic animals. Furthermore, rodents frequently develop immunity to, and become carriers of, these organisms, and there is little to commend their use, except in lightly populated areas where control is infrequently applied. The relationships of five predator species with their rodent prey have been examined. The monitor lizard, mongoose, and ferret were for different reasons found to be unsatisfactory, and there is not yet sufficient evidence to warrant further releases of the Japanese weasel. Domestic and feral cats control rodents well in some situations but only after some other agent has removed a large part of the rodent population.
17. View of truss in Armory Pump House, old engine room. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT
28. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY HOUSE, MIDDLE BUILDING, FIRST LEVEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST, ROOM USED FOR RAILWAY MAIL SERVICE - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ
4. INTERIOR VIEW OF CLUB HOUSE REFRIGERATION UNIT, SHOWING COOLING COILS AND CORK-LINED ROOM. CAMERA IS BETWEEN SEVEN AND EIGHT FEET ABOVE FLOOR LEVEL, FACING SOUTHEAST. - Swan Falls Village, Clubhouse 011, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID
1. VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 502 ASKEW AVE. HOUSE IS 1 1/2 STORY, 3 BAY SIDE GABLE WITH REAR KITCHEN ELL AND PORCH EXTENDING FROM FRONT. LOCKWOOD GREENE ENGINEERS BUILT THIS AND 128 OTHER NEW HOUSES FOR NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILLS IN 1923-1924. THE PREEXISTING MILL VILLAGE NEEDED TO BE EXPANDED TO ACCOMODATE WORKERS FOR THEIR NEW STARK MILL IN HOGANSVILLE. THIS HOUSE WAS BUILT WITH INDOOR PLUMBING, AND ELECTRICITY AT A COST OF APPROXIMATELY $430 PER ROOM. - 502 Askew Avenue (House), 502 Askew Avenue, Hogansville, Troup County, GA
This document contains teacher's materials for a six-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on housing, design, and furnishings. The units cover: (1) the societal aspects of housing (including the relationship between housing and the economy, population trends, and culture-related housing characteristics); (2) family housing…
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.
Efforts to refine the care and use of animals in research have been ongoing for many years and have led to general standardization of rodent models, particularly with regard to animal housing, genetics, and health status. Concurrently, numerous informal practices and recommendations have been promulgated with the laudable intent of promoting general animal wellbeing through so-called enrichment of the cage environment. However, the variety of housing conditions fostered by efforts at environmental enrichment (EE) complicates the goal of establishing standardized or even defined environments for laboratory rodents. Many studies over the years have sought to determine whether or how various enrichment strategies affect the behavior and physiology of laboratory rodents. The findings, conclusions, and interpretations of these studies are mixed, particularly with regard to their application across rodent species, strains, genders, and ages; whether or how they affect the animals and the science; and, in some cases, whether the effects are positive, negative, or neutral in terms of animal wellbeing. Crucial issues related to the application of EE in research settings include its poorly defined effect on the animals, the potential for increased variability in the data, poor definition across labs and in publications, and potential for animal or scientific harm. The complexities, uncertainties, interpretational conundrums, varying conclusions, and lack of consensus in the EE literature warrant careful assessment of the benefits and liabilities associated with implementing such interventions. Reliance on evidence, professional judgment, and performance standards are crucial in the development of EE strategies.
Toth, Linda A; Kregel, Kevin; Leon, Lisa; Musch, Timothy I
Gene manipulation is an invaluable tool to investigate and understand the biology of an organism. Although this technology has been applied to both the human and rodent malarial parasites (RMP), Plasmodium berghei in particular offers a more robust system due to a higher and more efficient transformation rate. Here, we describe a comprehensive transfection and selection protocol using P. berghei including a variant negative selection protocol administering 5-fluorocytosine to the animals in drinking water. Additionally, we discuss and assess the latest advances in gene manipulation technologies developed in RMP to gain a better understanding of Plasmodium biology. PMID:22990773
73. BUILDING NO. 555, AIR DRY HOUSE FOR DOUBLE BASE RIFLE AND CANNON POWDERS, NORTHEAST ELEVATION, EACH COOPER ELBOW VENT ON THE ROOF COMES FROM A DRYING ROOM. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ
62. 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH THROUH TO 1902 STEAM TURBINE ROOM COLUMNS SUPPORT TRUE EXTERIOR WEST WALL OF THE BUILDING. PORTION TO RIGHT OF COLUMNS IS A LOWER CONNECTOR BETWEEN THE ENGINE HOUSE AND THE 1873 WING. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA
During the Miocene period a group of shallow lakes was created in depressions at the territory of present-day Serbia. This caused the present wide distribution of lacustrine sediments, which occasionally alternate with the alluvial and marsh sediments. The remains of large mammals are relatively common, while the remains of small mammals used to be known only from two localities - Mala Miliva and Sibnica. The method of sediment sieving, used during the last decade, led to discovery of 6 new localities with remains of fossil vertebrates - Sibnica 1, Vra?evi?i, village Lazarevac, Bele Vode, Brajkovac and Tavnik. Most of the fossil material is represented by osteological and odontological remains of small mammals. The best represented group of small mammals at each of the localities was the rodents. According to the odontological material presence was proven for 35 rodent species from 6 families. MN zonation was determined according to structure of associations. The geological age of fossil-bearing sediments was determined by using the method of correlation with the sites in Europe and Turkey.
Pheromones--chemical signals that can elicit responses in a conspecific--are important in intraspecies communication. Information conveyed by pheromones includes the location of an animal, the presence of food or a threat, sexual attraction, courtship, and dam-pup interactions. These chemical messages remain intact and volatile even when animals, such as rodents, are housed in laboratories rather than their natural environment. Laboratory protocols, such as the cage cleaning and sanitation processes, as well as general housing conditions can alter a rodent's normal production of pheromones in both amount and type and thus may affect behavior. In addition, some procedures induce the release of alarm pheromones that subsequently alter the behavior of other rodents. To prevent pheromonal interference and stress-induced pheromonal release in their research subjects, experimenters should assess current laboratory protocols regarding cage cleaning processes, housing designs, and behavioral assays. Here we discuss how the most commonly used laboratory procedures can alter pheromonal signaling and cause confounding effects. PMID:23562094
Bind, Rebecca H; Minney, Sarah M; Rosenfeld, SaraJane; Hallock, Robert M
1. SOUTH ELEVATION, THE FAN HOUSE WAS CONSTRUCTED BY THE MARYLAND NEW RIVER COAL COMPANY IN LATE 1940S OR EARLY 1950S TO VENTILATE MINE WORKINGS, ENTRANCE TO MINE (LEFT) AND MOTOR ROOM (RIGHT), WHICH HOUSED THE ELECTRIC MOTOR AND VENTILATING FAN - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Fan House, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV
The numbers looked strange. In early March, the University of Missouri had received many more campus-housing contracts than it expected. Each year many upperclassmen cancel their agreements after finding an off-campus rental, leaving enough spaces for incoming students. But on March 17, the first day freshmen could select their rooms online, there…
Rodent baits containing systemic insecticides are potential tools to interrupt the cycle of transmission of Leishmania parasites by killing sand flies that take bloodmeals from rodents as adults. Bio-indicators that can be used in conjunction with rodent-...
J. D. Bast J. W. Clark R. W. Stout S. W. Gordon T. M. Mascari
A survey for leptospirosis in man and wild rodents in Taiwan, by serologic and cultural techniques, is presented. Of 586 rodents studied, (6.48%) were positive by the macroscopic slide-agglutination test, and 20 were positive by culture. (Author)
Neural precursor cells were isolated from various regions of the developing rat and human brain and grown in culture as aggregates termed neurospheres. We asked whether cells within human and rodent neurospheres are identical, or whether they have species specific characteristics or differences based on their region of origin. Under our culture conditions, rodent neurospheres isolated from the cortex (ctxNS)
T Ostenfeld; Etienne Joly; Yu-Tzu Tai; Anna Peters; Maeve Caldwell; Eric Jauniaux; C. N Svendsen
Plant communities of southeastern Montana were surveyed for rodents over a two year period. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were the most abundant rodent species found on the study area. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), meadow voles (M. pennsylvanicus), sagebrush voles (Lagurus curtatus), Wyoming pocket mice (Perognathus fasciatus), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), least chipmunks (Eutamias minimus), and eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus
Learning plays a central role in animal life, and it has received special attention in the context of foraging. In this study,\\u000a we have tested whether learning operates in seed choices by rodents using the Algerian mouse (Mus spretus) and Holm oak (Quercus ilex) acorns as a model. At the laboratory, those rodents captured in the field during the acorn
EOMYIDAE is an extinct family of rodents with a wide distribution in North America, Europe and Asia1-3. Of the modern rodent groups, eomyids are most closely related to New World pocket mice (heteromyids) and pocket gophers (geomyids)4. Eomyids occurred from the late Eocene through the Pliocene, spanning a time period of about 40 million years. From Europe alone, 11 genera
Rodents are widely used to mimic human diseases to improve understanding of the causes and progression of disease symptoms and to test potential therapeutic interventions. Chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension, together known as the metabolic syndrome, are causing increasing morbidity and mortality. To control these diseases, research in rodent models that closely mimic the changes in humans is essential. This review will examine the adequacy of the many rodent models of metabolic syndrome to mimic the causes and progression of the disease in humans. The primary criterion will be whether a rodent model initiates all of the signs, especially obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dysfunction of the heart, blood vessels, liver and kidney, primarily by diet since these are the diet-induced signs in humans with metabolic syndrome. We conclude that the model that comes closest to fulfilling this criterion is the high carbohydrate, high fat-fed male rodent.
Examines how today's college and university athletic locker rooms have become sophisticated recruiting tools that rival many professional facilities. Locker room design and location and their level of furniture, finishes, and equipment are discussed as is the trend for more environmentally friendly locker rooms. (GR)
Anticoagulant compounds, i.e., derivatives of either 4-hydroxycoumarin (e.g., warfarin, bromadiolone) or indane-1,3-dione (e.g., diphacinone, chlorophacinone), have been in worldwide use as rodenticides for >50 years. These compounds inhibit blood coagulation by repression of the vitamin K reductase reaction (VKOR). Anticoagulant-resistant rodent populations have been reported from many countries and pose a considerable problem for pest control. Resistance is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait although, until recently, the basic genetic mutation was unknown. Here, we report on the identification of eight different mutations in the VKORC1 gene in resistant laboratory strains of brown rats and house mice and in wild-caught brown rats from various locations in Europe with five of these mutations affecting only two amino acids (Tyr139Cys, Tyr139Ser, Tyr139Phe and Leu128Gln, Leu128Ser). By recombinant expression of VKORC1 constructs in HEK293 cells we demonstrate that mutations at Tyr139 confer resistance to warfarin at variable degrees while the other mutations, in addition, dramatically reduce VKOR activity. Our data strongly argue for at least seven independent mutation events in brown rats and two in mice. They suggest that mutations in VKORC1 are the genetic basis of anticoagulant resistance in wild populations of rodents, although the mutations alone do not explain all aspects of resistance that have been reported. We hypothesize that these mutations, apart from generating structural changes in the VKORC1 protein, may induce compensatory mechanisms to maintain blood clotting. Our findings provide the basis for a DNA-based field monitoring of anticoagulant resistance in rodents.
Pelz, Hans-Joachim; Rost, Simone; Hunerberg, Mirja; Fregin, Andreas; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Baert, Kristof; MacNicoll, Alan D.; Prescott, Colin V.; Walker, Anne-Sophie; Oldenburg, Johannes; Muller, Clemens R.
Ljungan virus is a recently identified member of the family Picornaviridae that was isolated from bank voles in Sweden. LjV has been associated with [corrected] type 1 diabetes-like symptoms and myocarditis in bank voles (Myodes glareolus), and it has been suggested that it has zoonotic potential. Here, we show for the first time that Ljungan virus is prevalent (20-27 % positive by PCR) in four species of UK rodent (Myodes glareolus [bank vole], Apodemus sylvaticus [wood mouse], Microtus agrestis [field vole] and Mus musculus [house mouse]). Sequence analysis showed that Ljungan virus of genotypes 1 and 2 were present, although genotype 1 was more prevalent and more frequently associated with brain tissue. This study highlights the prevalence of Ljungan virus in the UK and the need for assessment [corrected] of its zoonotic potential. PMID:23665770
Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Begon, Michael; Dove, Winifred; Niklasson, Bo; Stewart, James P
Anelloviruses are a family of small circular ssDNA viruses with a vast genetic diversity. Human infections with the prototype anellovirus, torque teno virus (TTV), are ubiquitous and related viruses have been described in a number of other mammalian hosts. Despite over 15 years of investigation, there is still little known about the pathogenesis and possible disease associations of anellovirus infections, arising in part due to the lack of a robust cell culture system for viral replication or tractable small-animal model. We report the identification of diverse anelloviruses in several species of wild rodents. The viruses are highly prevalent in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) and field voles (Microtus agrestis), detectable at a low frequency in bank voles (Myodes glareolus), but absent from house mice (Mus musculus). The viruses identified have a genomic organization consistent with other anelloviruses, but form two clear phylogenetic groups that are as distinct from each other as from defined genera.
Nishiyama, Shoko; Dutia, Bernadette M.; Stewart, James P.; Meredith, Anna L.; Shaw, Darren J.; Simmonds, Peter
To assess the role of synanthropic rodents in the epidemiology of urban toxoplasmosis, Toxoplasma gondii infection was examined in 144 rats (Rattus norvegicus) and 12 mice (Mus musculus) captured using live animal traps in three locations in Belgrade city characterized by poor housing and degraded environment. In rats, specific IgG antibodies were detected by modified agglutination test in 22 (27.5%) of the 80 blood samples available. Toxoplasma brain cysts were microscopically detected in 11 (7.6%), and Toxoplasma DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction was demonstrated in 15 (10.4%) animals. Of these, both cysts and Toxoplasma DNA were detected in five (3.5%) rats. In mice, cysts were observed in 3 (25%), but Toxoplasma DNA was detected in even 10 (83.3%) animals, including all 3 with morphologically recognized cysts. Being a link in the chain of Toxoplasma infection, the existence of urban rodent reservoirs of infection represents a public health risk. PMID:21028963
The paper discusses a study of particulate and organic emissions from unvented kerosene heaters in a test house. Results from the test house are compared with those from large (room size) chambers, using EPA's indoor air quality (IAQ) model. In the test house, unvented kerosene h...
22. MAIN MEETING ROOM LOOKING WEST. The balcony girders on all three sides were salvaged from the Greater Meeting House of 1755. They have number marks and surviving wrought nails at the 1755 arrangement of six columns. In 1812 the columns were relocated to avoid aisles and side doorways. A 1755 salvaged door post was reused in the framing of the 1812 balcony. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
1. VIEW OF SUPERINTENDENT'S HOUSE ON ROUTE 29, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THIS TWO-STORY, HIPPED-ROOF STRUCTURE WITH A CENTRAL HALL AND CHIMNEY WAS CONSTRUCTED FOR THE SUPERINTENDENT OF STARK MILL, NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILLS IN 1923-24. THE MILL ENGINEERS, LOCKWOOD GREENE COMPANY, ALSO DESIGNED AND BUILT THE NEW MILL HOUSING. THIS HOUSE HAS SEVEN ROOMS, BATH, SCREENED OUTSIDE PORCH AND SLEEPING PORCH, AND GARAGE. IT COST APPROXIMATELY $9,000. - Superintendent's House, Southwest corner of Routes 29 & 100, Hogansville, Troup County, GA
Roughly the size of a buffalo, a giant rodent that roamed the banks of an ancient Venezuelan river some 8 million years ago, dining on sea grass and dodging crocodiles, was an evolutionary sibling to modern-day guinea pigs.
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)
Background Comparative analysis, which aims at investigating ecological and evolutionary patterns among species, may help at targeting reservoirs of zoonotic diseases particularly in countries presenting high biodiversity. Here, we developed a simple method to target rodent reservoirs using published studies screening microparasite infections. Methods We compiled surveys of microparasites investigated in rodents trapped in Thailand. The data comprise a total of 17,358 rodents from 18 species that have been investigated for a total of 10 microparasites (viruses, bacteria and protozoans). We used residual variation of microparasite richness controlled for both rodent sample size and pathogens’ screening effort to identify major rodent reservoirs and potential risky habitats. Results Microparasite species richness was positively related to rodent sample size and pathogens’ screening effort. The investigation of the residual variations of microparasite species richness showed that several rodent species harboured more pathogens than expected by the regression model. Similarly, higher pathogen richness than expected was observed in rodents living in non-flooded lands, forests and paddy fields. Conclusion Our results suggest to target some rodent species that are not commonly investigated for pathogen screening or surveillance such as R. adamanensis or B. savilei, and that non-flooded lands and forests should be more taken into caution, whereas much surveys focused on paddy rice fields and households.
Rodents and their ectoparasites were studied inside and outside houses in the newly settled areas, east of lakes, Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. Forty traps per month in each of the two sides were used for collecting rodent during 2009. From 221 rodent were collected from inside houses; Mus musculus N=115 (52.04%), Rattus rattus. frugivorous N=54 (24.43%), R. r. alexandrinus N=40 (18.10%) and R. norvegicus N=12 (5.43%). From 177 rodent were collected from outside houses; M musculus N=4 (2.3%), R. r. frugivorous N=29 (16.43%), R. r. alexandrinus N=37 (20.9%), R. norvegicus N=36 (20.3%), Gerbillus pyramidum N= 67 (37.9%) and Jaculus jaculus N=4 (2.3%). Total ectoparasites per rat inside houses were 765 (3.46 E/Rat) which were classified as fleas, N=464 (2.11 F/R); lice N=150 (0.68 L/R) and mites N=151 (0 68 M/R). From outside house, total ectoparasites per rat were 984 (5.5 E/R) which were classified as fleas, N=410(2.31 F/R); lice N=100 (0.56 L/R), mites N=400 (2.23 M/R) and ticks, N=74 (0.42 T/R). From indoors two fleas species were recorded (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenopsyllus segnis); one species of lice (Polyplax spinulosa) and four species of mites (Laelaps nuttall, Ornithonyssus bacoti, Dermanyssus gallinae and Eulaelaps stabularis). The outdoors ectoparasites were; six fleas species (X. cheopis, X. ramesis, Pulex irritans, C. segnis, Stenoponia tripectinata and Nosopsylla sinaiensis); one lice species (P. spinulosa); Six mites species (L. nuttalli, O. bacoti, D. gallinae, E. stabularis, Haemogamnasus pontiger and Hirstionyssus isabellinus) and immature stages of two ticks species (Rhipicephalus sp. and Hyalomma sp.). Most of these ectoparasites were recorded infesting G. pyramidum. PMID:24260816
Doubtless everyone is tired of the subject of censorship; but I do have to give vent to my feelings when they are as intense as they are over the selection of a book as full of profanity as a Newbery honor book ( The Upstairs Room''). (Author/SM)
35. SECOND FLOOR WEST ROOM LOOKING NORTH. The two trusses above this room date from 1812. They differ from the 1755 salvaged trusses in that they are made of pine rather than poplar, their numbering system differs, and they do not have pockets for joists. These two trusses were added to extend the plan of the building when it was re-erected in 1812. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Many pathogens that can cause major public health, economic, and social damage are relatively easily accessible and could be used as biological weapons. Wildlife is a natural reservoir for many potential bioterrorism agents, and, as history has shown, eliminating a pathogen that has dispersed among wild fauna can be extremely challenging. Since a number of wild rodent species live close to humans, rodents constitute a vector for pathogens to circulate among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. This article reviews the possible consequences of a deliberate spread of rodentborne pathogens. It is relatively easy to infect wild rodents with certain pathogens or to release infected rodents, and the action would be difficult to trace. Rodents can also function as reservoirs for diseases that have been spread during a bioterrorism attack and cause recurring disease outbreaks. As rats and mice are common in both urban and rural settlements, deliberately released rodentborne infections have the capacity to spread very rapidly. The majority of pathogens that are listed as potential agents of bioterrorism by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases exploit rodents as vectors or reservoirs. In addition to zoonotic diseases, deliberately released rodentborne epizootics can have serious economic consequences for society, for example, in the area of international trade restrictions. The ability to rapidly detect introduced diseases and effectively communicate with the public in crisis situations enables a quick response and is essential for successful and cost-effective disease control. PMID:23971813
Lõhmus, Mare; Janse, Ingmar; van de Goot, Frank; van Rotterdam, Bart J
This report is concerned with the potential interaction between Direct Cash Assistance for Housing (DCA) and the State and local regulation of the supply of housing services. It considers how the design of DCA might take existing State and local regulatio...
The rodent Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), developed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to separately houserodents in a Spacelab, was verified as a barrier to environmental contaminants during a 12-day biocompatibility test. Environmental contaminants considered were solid particulates, microorganisms, ammonia, and typical animal odors. The 12-day test conducted in August 1988 was designed to verify that the rodent RAHF system would adequately support and maintain animal specimens during normal system operations. Additional objectives of this test were to demonstrate that: (1) the system would capture typical particulate debris produced by the animal; (2) microorganisms would be contained; and (3) the passage of animal odors was adequately controlled. In addition, the amount of carbon dioxide exhausted by the RAHF system was to be quantified. Of primary importance during the test was the demonstration that the RAHF would contain particles greater than 150 micrometers. This was verified after analyzing collection plates placed under exhaust air ducts and and rodent cages during cage maintenance operations, e.g., waste tray and feeder changeouts. Microbiological testing identified no additional organisms in the test environment that could be traced to the RAHF. Odor containment was demonstrated to be less than barely detectable. Ammonia could not be detected in the exhaust air from the RAHF system. Carbon dioxide levels were verified to be less than 0.35 percent.
Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.
The rodent Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), developed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to separately houserodents in a Spacelab, was verified as a barrier to environmental contaminants during a 12-day biocompatibility test. Environmental contaminants considered were solid particulates, microorganisms, ammonia, and typical animal odors. The 12-day test conducted in August 1988 was designed to verify that the rodent RAHF system would adequately support and maintain animal specimens during normal system operations. Additional objectives of this test were to demonstrate that: (1) the system would capture typical particulate debris produced by the animal; (2) microorganisms would be contained; and (3) the passage of animal odors was adequately controlled. In addition, the amount of carbon dioxide exhausted by the RAHF system was to be quantified. Of primary importance during the test was the demonstration that the RAHF would contain particles greater than 150 micrometers. This was verified after analyzing collection plates placed under exhaust air ducts and rodent cages during cage maintenance operations, e.g., waste tray and feeder changeouts. Microbiological testing identified no additional organisms in the test environment that could be traced to the RAHF. Odor containment was demonstrated to be less than barely detectable. Ammonia could not be detected in the exhaust air from the RAHF system. Carbon dioxide levels were verified to be less than 0.35 percent.
Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.
A molecular screening of wild-caught rodents was conducted in French Guiana, South America to identify hosts of the hantavirus Maripa described in 2008 in a hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) case. Over a 9-year period, 418 echimyids and murids were captured. Viral RNA was detected in two sigmodontine rodents, Oligoryzomys fulvescens and Zygodontomys brevicauda, trapped close to the house of a second HPS case that occurred in 2009 and an O. fulvescens close to the fourth HPS case identified in 2013. Sequences from the rodents had 96% and 97% nucleotide identity (fragment of S and M segments, respectively) with the sequence of the first human HPS case. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the complete sequence of the S segment show that Maripa virus is closely related to Rio Mamore hantavirus. Using environmental descriptors of trapping sites, including vegetation, landscape units, rain, and human disturbance, a maximal entropy-based species distribution model allowed for identification of areas of higher predicted occurrence of the two rodents, where emergence risks of Maripa virus are expected to be higher. PMID:24752689
This activity generates learner excitement about light through the creation of a room-sized rainbow. Learners also make their own "rainbow" drawings that incorporate the sequence of colors they observe. For a dramatic effect, set up rainbow projection while learners are out of the room. This activity guide includes background information and variation ideas.
Moreno, Nancy P.; Barbara Z. Tharp, M. S.; Judith Dresden, M. S.
Workshop articles address the importance of room arrangement in early childhood settings: "Creating Environments that Intrigue and Delight Children and Adults" (Wendy Shepherd and Jennifer Eaton); "3 Keys to Flexible Room Arrangement" (Elizabeth Prescott); "Mood: The Spirit of Place" (Anita Rui Olds); and "Meeting Adult Needs within the Classroom"…
Discusses locker-room design standards and common challenges when complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act. Accessibility and safety considerations for shower, toilet, and locker areas are addressed, as are entrance vestibules, drying and grooming areas, and private dressing rooms. (GR)
LEARNING OUTCOME: The hospital-based professional will be able to replace a large number of potentially wasted Universal Trays with a Room Service Program for more individualized service.As part of the Quality Improvement program, the Nutrition Services Department (operated by Morrison Health Care, Inc.) of the University of Virginia Health Sciences Center initiated a Room Service program to address the problem
The report is part of the Public Housing Management Improvement Program. This part of the program is centered around two news publications aimed at public relations: one for general distribution among housing residents each month, the other a quarterly ne...
The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member.
This article develops a model of asset allocation relevant for the representative consumer. Consumption is composed of two items: housing, and other goods and services. The representative household's balance sheet consists largely of a house and a mortgage. Its income statement is dominated by labor earnings, constraining cash expenditures. Housing-market behavior thus underlies intertemporal wealth and consumption allocation. With a
Presented by the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) are background information and policy statements on community housing, use of rehabilitation centers, housing for children, and housing for aged persons who are visually handicapped. Because of society's adherence to the concept of the single family home it is maintained that institutional…
I study the consumption responses of heterogeneous households following changes in both house prices and interest rates. I show the common assumption that household period utility is separable in housing and consumption can be consistent with the observed co-movement between these two series only in the absence of housing transaction costs. When these costs are introduced into dynamic stochastic general
This overview of developments in housing opportunities for minorities and women includes an historical review of housing discrimination, its nature, and its effects. Federal legislation and Federal actions which were taken to assure equal housing opportunities for women and minorities are described. Other topic areas addressed include minority…
The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design a...
This lesson plan introduces K-grade three students to Mexican Indian architecture. Students will become familiar with the cultural context of the Indian treasure house; discuss the use of wood as the sole building material; compare the treasure house with present day structures; and create miniature treasure houses using wood materials. (GEA)
4. FIRST-FLOOR SHOWER/LOCKER ROOM. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Administration-Laboratory- Change House-Bomb Rail, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 530 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO
The genus Orthopoxvirus includes variola (smallpox) virus and zoonotic cowpox virus (CPXV). All orthopoxviruses (OPV) are serologically cross-reactive and cross-protective, and after the cessation of smallpox vaccination, CPXV and other OPV infections represent an emerging threat to human health. In this respect CPXV, with its reservoir in asymptomatically infected wild rodents, is of special importance. In Europe, clinical cowpox has been diagnosed in both humans and animals. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of OPV infections in wild rodents in different parts of Eurasia and to compare the performance of three real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in detecting OPV DNA in wildlife samples. We investigated 962 wild rodents from Northern Europe (Finland), Central Europe (Germany), and Northern Asia (Siberia, Russia) for the presence of OPV antibodies. According to a CPXV antigen-based immunofluorescence assay, animals from 13 of the 17 locations (76%) showed antibodies. Mean seroprevalence was 33% in Finland (variation between locations 0%-69%), 32% in Germany (0%-43%), and 3.2% (0%-15%) in Siberia. We further screened tissue samples from 513 of the rodents for OPV DNA using up to three real-time PCRs. Three rodents from two German and one Finnish location were OPV DNA positive. The amplicons were 96% to 100% identical to available CPXV sequences. Further, we demonstrated OPV infections as far east as the Baikal region and occurring in hamster and two other rodent species, ones previously unnoticed as possible reservoir hosts. Based on serological and PCR findings, Eurasian wild rodents are frequently but nonpersistently infected with OPVs. Results from three real-time PCR methods were highly concordant. This study extends the geographic range and wildlife species diversity in which OPV (or CPXV) viruses are naturally circulating. PMID:21453121
Kinnunen, Paula M; Henttonen, Heikki; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kallio, Eva R; Korthase, Christian; Laakkonen, Juha; Niemimaa, Jukka; Palva, Airi; Schlegel, Mathias; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Suominen, Paula; Ulrich, Rainer G; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli
The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat) collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in mammals.
Phan, Tung G.; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunlin; Rose, Robert K.; Lipton, Howard L.; Delwart, Eric L.
The rodent model of hindlimb unloading has been successfully used to simulate some of the effects of space flight conditions. Previous studies have indicated that mice exposed to hindlimb-unloading conditions have decreased resistance to infections compared to restrained and normally housed control mice. Objective: The purpose of this study was to clarify the mechanisms involved in resistance to infection in
A rodent-based spaceflight study is conducted to investigate physiological changes in rats vs humans and the effects of changes in the design of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) and the Animal Enclosure Module (AEM). Rats were housed in the AEM and the RAHF, and controls were kept in identical flight hardware on earth subjected to the same flight-environmental profile. Biosamples and organ weights are taken to compare the rats before and after flight, and food/water intake are also compared. Weight gain, body weight, and food consumptions in the flight rats are significantly lower than corresponding values for the control subjects. Flight rats tend to have smaller postexperiment spleens and hearts, and flight rats consumed more water in the AEM than in the RAHF. The rodents' behavior is analogous to humans with respect to physiological and reconditioning effects, showing that the rat is a good model for basic research into the effects of spaceflight on humans.
Jahns, G.; Meylor, J.; Fast, T.; Hawes, N.; Zarow, G.
Defining the properties of postnatal stem cells is of interest given their relevance for tissue homeostasis and therapeutic applications, such as skin tissue engineering for burn patients. In hair follicles, the bulge region of the outer root sheath houses stem cells. We show that explants from the prominent bulge area, but not the bulb, in rodent vibrissa follicles can produce
Danielle Larouche; Xuemei Tong; Julie Fradette; Pierre A. Coulombe; Lucie Germain
This paper evaluates six housing programs: two supply-subsidy programs (cost reduction and public housing), two recent-regulation programs (Section 8 existing, housing assistance and rent control), and two demand-subsidy programs (housing allowances and u...
The report presents an overview of the housing need in the village of Baldwinsville, based on current demographic data. General population, economic and housing characteristics are analyzed as they relate to housing need. The particular housing needs of t...
Operating room fires are a rare but preventable danger in modern healthcare operating rooms. Optimal outcomes depend on all operating room personnel being familiar with their roles in fire prevention and fire management. Despite the recommendations of major safety institutes, this familiarity is not the current practice in many healthcare facilities. Members of the anesthesiology and the surgery departments are commonly not actively involved in fire safety programs, fire drills, and fire simulations that could lead to potential delays in prevention and management of intraoperative fires.
INTERIOR VIEW OF DEBITEUSE ROOM. MONORAIL USED TO MOVE DEBIS IS FROM ORIGINAL CLAY HOUSE. VIEW SHOWS WORKER USING AIR HAMMER TO BEGIN FINISH ON DEBI. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Debiteuse, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA
46. INTERIOR VIEW, MUSIC ROOM LOCATED AT THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF THE HOUSE ON THE FIRST FLOOR, LOOKING TO THE FIREPLACE IN THE EAST WALL (DUPLICATE OF HABS No. AL-424-32) - Arlington Place, 331 Cotton Avenue, Southwest, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL
45. MAIN MEETING ROOM COLUMNS. Ends of gallery columns identified at the time of removal for transfer to the George School for re-erection. The stamp reads, 'REMOVED FROM 12th ST. MTG HSE PHILA 1972'. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
9. FIRST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, NORTHEAST WALL, SHOWING DOORWAYS TO BOXED WINDER STAIRWAYS, UP ON FAR RIGHT AND DOWN TO RIGHT OF FIREPLACE, WITH SHUTTERS OVER FIREPLACE CLOSED - High Farm, House, Creek Road, 1 mile West of Easton Road, Pipersville, Bucks County, PA
8. FIRST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, NORTHEAST WALL SHOWING DOORWAYS TO BOXED WINDER STAIRWAYS, UP ON FAR RIGHT AND DOWN TO RIGHT OF FIREPLACE, WITH SHUTTERS OPEN - High Farm, House, Creek Road, 1 mile West of Easton Road, Pipersville, Bucks County, PA
There has been a proliferation of application-sensitive, normally gas efficient recombining VRLA batteries. In many applications this product is housed in relatively small rooms with minimal control of ambient temperature or battery charge current. At less than extreme excesses of these variables the recombination of the hydrogen and oxygen evolving from the battery becomes inefficient. Under these conditions potentially explosive
In recent years, there has been a proliferation of application-sensitive, normally gas efficient recombining VRLA batteries. In many applications, this product is housed in relatively small rooms with minimal control of ambient temperature or battery charge current. At less than extreme excesses of these variables, the recombination of the hydrogen and oxygen evolving from the battery becomes inefficient. Under these
30. VIEW OF STEEL STAIRCASE FROM MAIN 1889 WAITING ROOM IN HEAD HOUSE, LOOKING EAST TO PASSENGER CONCOURSE AT SECOND LEVEL OF FERRY PORTION - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ
Within the last 4 years, four one-room school houses have been restored for use as educational museum facilities. These include the Pleasant Valley School in Stillwater, Oklahoma; the Rose Hill School at Perry, Oklahoma; the old school located on the grounds of the Harn Homestead Museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and the Old Roll School, located…
5. FIRST FLOOR FRONT ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS (THE LATTER FLOOR WAS REMOVED MANY YEARS AGO), See also PA-1436 B-12 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
VIEW THROUGH DECORATIVE GRILLE OF LIVING ROOM, WITH SLIDING DOORS ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE. VIEW FACING NORTH - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
VIEW OF DINING ROOM WITH SLIDING DOORS IN CLOSED POSITION. WINDOWS ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE HAVE VIEWS INTO THE CARPORT. VIEW FACING NORTH - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
UTILITY ROOM SHOWING THE JALOUSIE PANEL REAR DOOR. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, U-SHAPED TWO-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
DINING ROOM. NOTE THE RECESSED PULLS ON THE SLIDING DOORS. VIEW FACING EAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, U-SHAPED TWO-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
KITCHEN. NOTE THE DINING ROOM DOOR TO THE CARPORT IN THE BACKGROUND. VIEW FACING EAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, U-SHAPED TWO-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
DINING ROOM DOOR TO THE CARPORT. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, U-SHAPED TWO-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
VIEW OF DINING ROOM ENTRY (VIA CARPORT), SHOWING VINYL SIDING AND PANELING THAT HAS BEEN APPLIED. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
INTERIOR VIEW OF DINING ROOM WITH PANTRY ON THE RIGHT. NOTE THE TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOORING, PAIRED SLINGING DOORS TO THE LANAI, AND TELEPHONE NICHE IN THE BEDROOM HALL (LEFT BACKGROUND). VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type B, 704 Julian Avenue , Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI
20. MAIN MEETING ROOM, NORTHEAST CORNER. The stairway against the north wall on the men's side is original to 1812-13. The glass vestibule partition was added in 1885. It is believed the east stair was added at that time. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Detail of screened door to furnace room 1-1 near the southeast main entrance, view is to the east, through the doorway to the lounge - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA
KITCHEN SHOWING THE PASS THRU TO DINING ROOM. NOTE THE CANEC PANEL CEILING. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
DINING ROOM SHOWING DOOR TO LANAI AND PASS THRU TO KITCHEN (RIGHT). VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
VIEW OF DINING ROOM DOOR TO THE LANAI THROUGH THE KITCHEN PASS-THRU. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, U-SHAPED THREE-BEDROOM DUPLEX TYPE 4, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive and Elm Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
KITCHEN WITH DOOR AND PASS-THRU TO THE DINING ROOM. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, U-SHAPED THREE-BEDROOM DUPLEX TYPE 4, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive and Elm Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
VIEW INTO KITCHEN, SHOWING PASS-THRU TO DINING ROOM ON RIGHT HAND SIDE. VIEW FACING WEST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
DINING ROOM WITH THE WINDOW TO CARPORT AT REAR WALL AND PASS-THRU TO THE KITCHEN AT RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, M-SHAPED FOUR-BEDROOM DUPLEX TYPE 5, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.
Noise levels in dishwashing rooms have been a continuing problem in Army dining facilities. This study has measured, recorded, and analyzed noise levels at Army and civilian facilities of various sizes. Study results show that noise levels increase with n...
Inside Hangar S at the White Room Facility at Cape Canaveral, Florida, Mercury astronaut M. Scott Carpenter examines the honeycomb protective material on the main pressure bulkhead (heat shield) of his Mercury capsule nicknamed 'Aurora 7.'
14. Interior. Balance room for chemistry laboratory. Storage room for glassware and reference room with frequently used chemistry and chemical engineering texts. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, West Orange, Essex County, NJ
8. Interior. Balance room for chemistry laboratory. Storage room for glassware and reference room with frequently used chemistry and chemical engineering texts. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, West Orange, Essex County, NJ
15. Readiness Crew Building interior, Room 105, former briefing room, looking northwest. Projection room in at the back wall. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility S-6, 1300 Alert Road, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO
Rodent models of human disease are essential to obtain a better understanding of disease pathology, the mechanism of action underlying conventional treatments, as well as for the generation of novel therapeutic approaches. There are a number of rodent models of schizophrenia based on either genetic manipulations, acute or sub-chronic drug administration, or developmental disturbances. The prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rodent model is a developmental disruption model gaining increased attention because it displays a number of histological, neurophysiological and behavioral deficits analogous to those observed in schizophrenia patients. This unit describes the procedures required to safely induce the MAM phenotype in rats. In addition, we describe a simple behavioral procedure, amphetamine-induced hyper-locomotion, which can be utilized to verify the MAM phenotype.
Evaluation of the immunotoxicity potential of some pharmaceuticals, including immunomodulatory chemicals and biologics, cannot be limited to testing in rodents. Thus, immune function tests have also been applied in studies with non-human primates and more recently dogs that assess various components of the immune system. These assays include TDAR responses with various immunogens, lymphocyte phenotyping, natural-killer cell activity, delayed-type hypersensitivity, and macrophage function assays. Approaches for incorporating immune function testing in non-rodent species, results from these tests, their interpretation and limitations with respect to drug safety assessment will be reviewed. PMID:18958726
75. BUILDING NO. 555, AIR DRY HOUSE FOR DOUBLE BASE RIFLE AND CANNON POWDERS, INTERIOR OF DRYING ROOM NO. 2, SHOWING COPPER EXHAUST VENT DUCT IN CORNER, HOT AIR INLET VENT IN CEILING. TWO TYPICAL DRYING RACKS LEANING AGAINST WALL, BOTTOM SIDE SHOWING ON LEFT RACK, TOP SIDE ON RIGHT RACK. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ
In this article, the author explores and weighs all the options in choosing furniture for student housing. The first step in acquiring or upgrading residence hall furniture is to research. The Internet and colleagues on campus or at other institutions are options for gathering information. After researching product choices, administrators need to…
In an inner ring suburb of Boston there sits a home that is over 350 years old. The home was constructed in 1640 in Dedham, and it is considered the oldest timber frame house identified in North America. Visitors to the Boston region area shouldn't miss it, however those who are unable to visit can learn more about this remarkable domicile on this website. Visitors will find plenty of interesting information in the sections titled "The House", "History", and "The Family". In "The House" section, visitors can learn about the houses' unusual history, and view a slideshow of images of the exterior and the interior. Moving over to "History", visitors will find period photographs and documents that provide insightful stories into the house's past inhabitants. Finally, the site also has a fine archaeological blog which talks about the various work that has been done on the house and the grounds.
The NASA Technology Utilization House, called Tech House, was designed and constructed at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, to demonstrate new technology that is available or will be available in the next several years and how the application of aerospace technology could help advance the homebuilding industry. Solar energy use, energy and water conservation, safety, security, and cost were major considerations in adapting the aerospace technology to the construction of Tech House.
The administration of chemicals at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in standard animal cancer tests is postulated to increase cell division (mitogenesis), which in turn increases rates of mutagenesis and thus carcinogenesis. The animal data are consistent with this mechanism, because a high proportionâabout halfâof all chemicals tested (whether natural or synthetic) are indeed rodent carcinogens. The authors conclude that
A clarification of the mechanism of carcinogenesis is developing at a rapid rate. This new understanding undermines many assumptions of current regulatory policy toward rodent carcinogens and necessitates rethinking the utility and meaning of routine animal cancer tests. At a recent watershed meeting on carcinogenesis, much evidence was presented suggesting that mitogenesis plays a dominant role in carcinogenesis. Our own
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent female endocrine disorder, affecting 5%-10% of women, causing infertility due to dysfunctional follicular maturation and ovulation, distinctive multicystic ovaries and hyperandrogenism, together with metabolic abnormalities including obesity, hyperinsulinism, an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of PCOS is unclear, and decisive clinical studies are limited by ethical and logistic constraints. Consequently treatment is palliative rather than curative and focuses on symptomatic approaches. Hence, a suitable animal model could provide a valuable means with which to study the pathogenesis of the characteristic reproductive and metabolic abnormalities and thereby identify novel and more effective treatments. So far there is no consensus on the best experimental animal model, which should ideally reproduce the key features associated with human PCOS. The prenatally androgenized rhesus monkey displays many characteristics of the human condition, including hyperandrogenism, anovulation, polycystic ovaries, increased adiposity, and insulin insensitivity. However, the high cost of nonhuman primate studies limits the practical utility of these large-animal models. Rodent models, on the other hand, are inexpensive, provide well-characterized and stable genetic backgrounds readily accessible for targeted genetic manipulation, and shorter reproductive life spans and generation times. Recent rodent models display both reproductive and metabolic disturbances associated with human PCOS. This review aimed to evaluate the rodent models reported to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the distinct rodent models used to investigate this complex endocrine disorder. PMID:22337333
Walters, Kirsty A; Allan, Charles M; Handelsman, David J
SUMMARY Mycoplasmas are the smallest known free-living form of life, and differ from bacteria in a number of characteristics. They are widely distributed in the animal kingdom and may give rise to both acute and latent infections as well as being present as normal flora. The three principal rodent pathogens so far described are Mycoplasma pulmonis, Mycoplasma arthritidis and Mycoplasma
From 26 to 28 May 2004 an international seminar was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, about current knowledge and advice on rodent management on organic pig and poultry farms in Western Europe. This paper summarizes the discussions. Rodent management is necessary to protect the food production chain from health hazards to livestock and humans. Some organic farmers prefer biological rodent
B. G. Meerburg; M. Bonde; F. W. A. Brom; S. Endepols; A. N. Jensen; H. Leirs; J. Lodal; G. R. Singleton; H.-J. Pelz; T. B. Rodenburg; A. Kijlstra
From 26 to 28 May 2004 an international seminar was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, about current knowledge and advice on rodent management on organic pig and poultry farms in Western Europe. This paper summarizes the discussions. Rodent management is necessary to protect the food production chain from health hazards to livestock and humans. Some organic farmers prefer biological rodent
B. G. Meerburg; M. Bonde; F. W. A. Brom; S. Endepols; A. N. Jensen; H. Leirs; J. Lodal; G. R. Singleton; H.-J. Pelz; T. B. Rodenburg; A. Kijlstra
Wash room, bunkhouse, first floor interior. This room is a screened porch with the original sinks extant. Light and ventilation was borrowed from the wash room into the toilets and bathing rooms. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA
An increasing number of rodents are housed in individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems, as these seem to be very effective for the protection of animals against infections, as well as protecting the staff against allergens. For the IVC systems to be properly ventilated, a huge amount of air has to be blown into the cage, which may cause a draught at animal level inside the cage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preferences of mice for differing levels of air speeds and air changes inside the cage. It has been concluded that mice do react to draughts, whereas they do not seem to be affected by a high number of air changes delivered without draught, which underlines the importance of applying draught-free IVC systems for mice. PMID:20610471
Background Many disabling human retinal disorders involve the central retina, particularly the macula. However, the commonly used rodent models in research, mouse and rat, do not possess a macula. The purpose of this study was to identify small laboratory rodents with a significant central region as potential new models for macular research. Methodology/Principal Findings Gerbillus perpallidus, Meriones unguiculatus and Phodopus campbelli, laboratory rodents less commonly used in retinal research, were subjected to confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO), fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) using standard equipment (Heidelberg Engineering HRA1 and Spectralis™) adapted to small rodent eyes. The existence of a visual streak-like pattern was assessed on the basis of vascular topography, retinal thickness, and the topography of retinal ganglion cells and cone photoreceptors. All three species examined showed evidence of a significant horizontal streak-like specialization. cSLO angiography and retinal wholemounts revealed that superficial retinal blood vessels typically ramify and narrow into a sparse capillary net at the border of the respective area located dorsal to the optic nerve. Similar to the macular region, there was an absence of larger blood vessels in the streak region. Furthermore, the thickness of the photoreceptor layer and the population density of neurons in the ganglion cell layer were markedly increased in the visual streak region. Conclusions/Significance The retinal specializations of Gerbillus perpallidus, Meriones unguiculatus and Phodopus campbelli resemble features of the primate macula. Hence, the rodents reported here may serve to study aspects of macular development and diseases like age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema, and the preclinical assessment of therapeutic strategies.
This notice announces the availability on HUD's Web site of the annual factors for determining the on-going administrative fee for housing agencies administering the rental voucher and moderate rehabilitation programs, including Single Room Occupancy during Calendar Year (CY)...
Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)
Presents auditoriums/music rooms considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client, total…
This photo shows workers completing the excavation at the site for the conference room in the new Audubon NWR Headquarters. This project, funded by the Recovery Act, will allow the Refuge to replace the current headquarters and visitor facility, which is approximately 52 years old and has had four a...
According to the standard plastination procedures, the dehydration by freeze substitution in acetone is normally achieved at -25°C and the forced impregnation of specimens at -15 C C to -25°C in a deep freezer. Now, we have been able to modify the dehydration procedure and use room temperature for dehydration. We also developed a new silicone polymer that can be
The CSRR program represents a paradigm shift in the way radio room equipment is procured in the submarine fleet. This program is managed under PEO C4I by SPAWAR PMW 770. This thesis examines the cost, schedule, and performance parameters of the CSRR progr...
The function and construction of wiping cloths offered for use in clean rooms are discussed, and the reasons for selecting knit, filamentary, polyester cloths are given. The generally used methods for testing wipers for particulate contamination are described and evaluated. A simple screening test is described and results are presented of using the test on several commercial wipers. The additional work needed is stated.
Explains how proper athletic facility locker-room design can save time and money. Design factors that address who will be using the facility are discussed as are user requirements, such as preparation areas, total storage area per user, grooming area, and security areas. Final comments address maintenance and operations issues. (GR)
1. HOUSE, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE ARE IN THE BACKGROUND - Kiel Farmstead, House, East side State Route 4, one half mile south of U.S. Route 64, Mascoutah, St. Clair County, IL
The document discusses the following topics: Housing policy in Sweden; Interaction in a local market (The supply of housing, The demand structure, Simulation of the market processes); Disaggregated demand models (Analyses of local housing markets, Modelli...
Housing is the most important component of wealth for many New Zealanders. Its location is fixed and its value is influenced by economic and other factors specific to that location. Hence when people live in owner-occupied homes their wealth is strongly associated with their local economic conditions. Housing is also a major factor in influencing migration decisions and, hence, regional
Information contained in this document is directed toward promoting an awareness of the urgent housing and housing-related issues in the State of Maryland. Identification of specific problems and obstacles provide a basis from which a set of objectives fo...
A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.
Donoho, II, Michael R. (Edelstein, IL); Elliott; Christopher M. (Metamora, IL)
Preview the newest installment in public television's hands-on history series, following Frontier House, Manor House, and 1900 House. Set in 1628, Colonial House will be broadcast in May. At the website, there are audio and video diaries in which the twenty-eight colonists from the UK and US give accounts of their experiences learning to live in 1628. Also provided is a map of the village and essays by the experts consulted for the show to insure historical authenticity. One such piece is _A Historian Awakens 1628_, by Emerson "Tad" Baker, a specialist on the early history of Maine, which is where Colonial House was filmed. There's also a Meet the Colonists gallery with photos and 21st and 17th century biographies of the settlers, lesson plans and activities for teachers, and a Resources section, with related Web sites and books.
GOALS OF THIS STUDY WERE TO: (1) develop distributional maps of modern rodent genera throughout the countries of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland by georeferencing museum specimens; (2) assess habitat preferences for genera by cross-referencing locality position with South African vegetation; and (3) identify mean annual precipitation and temperature range where the genera are located. Conterminous South Africa including the countries of Lesotho and Swaziland Digital databases of rodent museum specimens housed in the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, South Africa (DM), and the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, United States (NMNH), were acquired and then sorted into a subset of specimens with associated coordinate data. The coordinate data were then used to develop distributional maps for the rodent genera present within the study area. Percent habitat occupation and descriptive statistics for six climatic variables were then determined for each genus by cross-referencing locality positions with vegetation and climatic maps. This report presents a series of maps illustrating the distribution of 35 rodent genera based on 19,471 geo-referenced specimens obtained from two major collections. Inferred habitat use by taxon is provided for both locality and specimen percent occurrence at three hierarchical habitat levels: biome, bioregion, and vegetation unit. Descriptive statistics for six climatic variables are also provided for each genus based on locality and specimen percent incidence. As rodent faunas are commonly used in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, an accurate assessment of rodent environmental tolerance ranges is necessary before confidence can be placed in an actualistic model. While the data presented here represent only a subset of the modern geographic distributions for many of the taxa examined, a wide range of environmental regimes are observed, suggesting that more research is necessary in order to accurately reconstruct an environmental signature when these taxa are found in the fossil record. PMID:23170221
Campbell, Timothy L; Lewis, Patrick J; Thies, Monte L; Williams, Justin K
The paper discusses test methods to characterize particulate matter (PM) emissions and deposition rates in a research house. In a room in the research house, specially configured for PM source testing, a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered air supply system, used for...
A preliminary study was undertaken before a large scale project for construction and survey of about a hundred solar houses was launched. The notion of solar house was defined and the use of solar energy (hot water preparation, heating of rooms, heating o...
V. Bundschuh J. W. Grueter M. Kleemann M. Melis H. J. Stein
Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments are discussed and presented with the goal of avoiding dosage group biases related to cage location. Considerations in selecting a cage design are first discussed in general terms. Specific designs are presented for use in experiments involving three, four, and five dose groups and with one, four, and five rodents per cage. Priorities for balancing treatment groups include horizontal position on shelf and shelf of rack, nearest neighbor balance, and male-female balance. It is proposed that these balance criteria be considered together with practical issues, such as the ability to accurately conform to a design and to determine a sensible and efficient design for each experiment. PMID:1295494
Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments are discussed and presented with the goal of avoiding dosage group biases related to cage location. Considerations in selecting a cage design are first discussed in general terms. Specific designs are presented for use in experiments involving three, four, and five dose groups and with one, four, and five rodents per cage. Priorities for balancing treatment groups include horizontal position on shelf and shelf of rack, nearest neighbor balance, and male-female balance. It is proposed that these balance criteria be considered together with practical issues, such as the ability to accurately conform to a design and to determine a sensible and efficient design for each experiment. PMID:17539183
Recently, missense mutations in the gene TARDBP encoding TDP-43 have been linked to familial ALS. The discovery of genes encoding these RNA binding proteins, such as TDP-43 and FUS/TLS, raised the notion that altered RNA metabolism is a major factor underlying the pathogenesis of ALS. To begin to unravel how mutations in TDP-43 cause dysfunction and death of motor neurons, investigators have employed both gain- and loss-of-function studies in rodent model systems. Here, we will summarize major findings from the initial sets of TDP-43 transgenic and knockout rodent models, identify their limitations, and point to future directions toward clarification of disease mechanism(s) and testing of therapeutic strategies that ultimately may lead to novel therapy for this devastating disease.
Tsao, William; Jeong, Yun Ha; Lin, Sophie; Ling, Jonathan; Price, Donald L.; Chiang, Po-Min; Wong, Philip C.
66. LOOKING NORTH INSIDE THE CAST HOUSE FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. THE IRON RUNNER IS IN THE FOREGROUND, AND THE BLOWERS CONTROL ROOM IS IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPHER. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA
4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far left background), one-room log cabin (left of center background), log root cellar (center), post-and-beam center in foreground, and blacksmith shop (far right foreground). View to southeast. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT
VIEW OF BUILDING 778 LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST. BUILDING 778 HOUSED LAUNDRY FACILITIES, SHOWERS, LOCKER ROOMS, SANITARY FACILITIES, AN ELECTRIC SHOP, MACHINE SHOP, SHEET METAL SHOP, AND INERT GAS STORAGE. (12/7/90) - Rocky Flats Plant, Laundry Facility, Northeast quad of Plant between buildings 776/777 & 707, Golden, Jefferson County, CO
Affordable housing is an elusive commodity for students in Paris and much of the rest of Europe. Many European universities are in cities where property values have soared in recent years--along with higher-education enrollment figures and the number of students vying for rooms. Few of the universities have dormitories, and students are left…
The Market and Trade Economics Division of US Department of Agriculture's Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) (reviewed in the July 2, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics) supplies general information and data on the Brazilian economy at the Brazil Briefing Room. The site mainly focuses on Brazil's current agricultural economic condition. Maps, trade policy information, and ERS projections for principal crop and livestock products are available as well as in-depth macroeconomic summaries with detailed bibliographies for further research.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is among the most relevant causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Research is complicated by a lack of accessible small animal models. The systematic investigation of viruses of small mammals could guide efforts to establish such models, while providing insight into viral evolutionary biology. We have assembled the so-far largest collection of small-mammal samples from around the world, qualified to be screened for bloodborne viruses, including sera and organs from 4,770 rodents (41 species); and sera from 2,939 bats (51 species). Three highly divergent rodent hepacivirus clades were detected in 27 (1.8%) of 1,465 European bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and 10 (1.9%) of 518 South African four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio). Bats showed anti-HCV immunoblot reactivities but no virus detection, although the genetic relatedness suggested by the serologic results should have enabled RNA detection using the broadly reactive PCR assays developed for this study. 210 horses and 858 cats and dogs were tested, yielding further horse-associated hepaciviruses but none in dogs or cats. The rodent viruses were equidistant to HCV, exceeding by far the diversity of HCV and the canine/equine hepaciviruses taken together. Five full genomes were sequenced, representing all viral lineages. Salient genome features and distance criteria supported classification of all viruses as hepaciviruses. Quantitative RT-PCR, RNA in-situ hybridisation, and histopathology suggested hepatic tropism with liver inflammation resembling hepatitis C. Recombinant serology for two distinct hepacivirus lineages in 97 bank voles identified seroprevalence rates of 8.3 and 12.4%, respectively. Antibodies in bank vole sera neither cross-reacted with HCV, nor the heterologous bank vole hepacivirus. Co-occurrence of RNA and antibodies was found in 3 of 57 PCR-positive bank vole sera (5.3%). Our data enable new hypotheses regarding HCV evolution and encourage efforts to develop rodent surrogate models for HCV. PMID:23818848
Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Lukashev, Alexander N; Gmyl, Anatoly; Coutard, Bruno; Adam, Alexander; Ritz, Daniel; Leijten, Lonneke M; van Riel, Debby; Kallies, Rene; Klose, Stefan M; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Binger, Tabea; Annan, Augustina; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Oppong, Samuel; Bourgarel, Mathieu; Rupp, Daniel; Hoffmann, Bernd; Schlegel, Mathias; Kümmerer, Beate M; Krüger, Detlev H; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Setién, Alvaro Aguilar; Cottontail, Veronika M; Hemachudha, Thiravat; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Osterrieder, Klaus; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Matthee, Sonja; Beer, Martin; Kuiken, Thijs; Reusken, Chantal; Leroy, Eric M; Ulrich, Rainer G; Drosten, Christian
A large variety of ectoparasites parasitizing on livestock, dogs, and rodents are documented throughout the world, of which several are proven vectors for major (including zoonotic) diseases affecting humans and/or livestock. However, there remains a significant lack of knowledge in regard to the ectoparasite fauna in remote regions of the developing world, such as southeastern Bangladesh, and an urgent need to investigate this fauna to improve diagnostic options. In the course of the present study, more than 5,300 ectoparasites were collected by flag dragging and handpicking of livestock, dogs, and rodents in the District of Bandarban (Chittagong Hill Tracts) in southeastern Bangladesh. Three tick species were identified: Haemaphysalis bispinosa (flagging, cattle, goats, and dogs), Rhipicephalus microplus (cattle, goats), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs, goats, and flagging). H. bispinosa was the dominant tick species on mammalian hosts as well as on vegetation. Furthermore, Ctenocephalides canis (dogs, goats) and Linognatus sp. (goat) were found. Overall, 73 rodents of eight different species (e.g., Mus musculus, Rattus sikkimensis, Bandicota bengalensis, and Niviventer sp.) hosted a variety of ectoparasites such as mites (Laelaps nuttali, Laelaps echidninus, Lyponissoides sp. and Ornithonyssus bacoti), fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), and one myiasis-causing dipteran species. Monitoring the ectoparasite burden of livestock and other mammals is urgently needed in order to control ectoparasites associated with social and economic burden (e.g., reduced milk production, weight loss). Several zoonotic diseases can be transmitted by ectoparasites in this area, where the majority of the population live in basic housing conditions and in direct contact with livestock, dogs, and rodents. PMID:22576854
Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Igel, Petra; Treiber, Moritz; Baumann, Timo A; Riedl, Julia; Swoboda, Paul; Joachim, Anja; Noedl, Harald
The epidemiology of many rodent-borne diseases in South-East Asia remains ill-defined. Scrub typhus and lep-tospirosis are common and medically significant, while other zoonotic diseases, such as spotted fever group Rickettsiae have been identified, but their overall medical significance is unknown. Rodent surveillance was conducted from June 2002 to July 2004 in 18 provinces from Thailand. Traps were set up for one to three nights. Blood and serum samples and animal tissue samples (liver, spleen, kidney and urinary bladder) were collected. Chiggermites, ticks and fleas were removed from captured rodents. A total of 4536 wild-caught rodents from 27 species were captured over two years of animal trapping. Rattus rattus was the dominant species, followed by Rattus exulans and Bandicota indica. Almost 43 000 ectoparasites were removed from the captured animals. Approximately 98% of the ectoparasites were chigger-mites, of which 46% belonged to the genus Leptotrombidium (scrub typhus vector). Other genera included Schoengastia and Blankaartia. Tick and flea specimens together comprised less than 1% of the sample. Among the five species of ticks collected, Haemaphysalis bandicota was the predominant species caught, followed by Ixodes granulatus other Haemaphysalis spp., Rhipicephalus spp. and Dermacentor spp. Only two species of fleas were collected and Xenopsylla cheopis (rat flea) was the predominant species. Using both commercial diagnostic kits and in-house molecular assays, animal tissue samples were examined and screened for zoonotic diseases. Seven zoonotic diseases were detected: scrub typhus, leptospirosis, murine typhus, tick typhus, bartonella, babesiosis and trypanosomiasis. Most samples were positive for scrub typhus. Other zoonotic diseases still under investigation include borrelosis, ehrlichiosis, the plague, and other rickettsial diseases. Using geographic information systems, global positioning systems and remote sensing technology, epidemiological and environmental data were combined to assess the relative risk in different biotopes within highly endemic areas of scrub typhus in Thailand. PMID:21396076
This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The lot that Dana is buying for her new one story house is 35 yards by 50 yards. Danaâs house plans show that her house will cover 1,600 square feet of...
Diabetes mellitus, especially type 2 diabetes (T2DM), is one of the most common chronic diseases and continues to increase in numbers with large proportion of health care budget being used. Many animal models have been established in order to investigate the mechanisms and pathophysiologic progress of T2DM and find effective treatments for its complications. On the basis of their strains, features, advantages, and disadvantages, various types of animal models of T2DM can be divided into spontaneously diabetic models, artificially induced diabetic models, and transgenic/knockout diabetic models. Among these models, the spontaneous rodent models are used more frequently because many of them can closely describe the characteristic features of T2DM, especially obesity and insulin resistance. In this paper, we aim to investigate the current available spontaneous rodent models for T2DM with regard to their characteristic features, advantages, and disadvantages, and especially to describe appropriate selection and usefulness of different spontaneous rodent models in testing of various new antidiabetic drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Glomerular diseases remain the leading cause of chronic and end-stage kidney disease. Significant advances in our understanding of human glomerular diseases have been enabled by the development and better characterization of animal models. Diseases of the glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) account for the majority of proteinuric diseases. Rodents have been extensively used experimentally to better define mechanisms of disease induction and progression, as well as to identify potential targets and therapies. The development of podocyte-specific genetically modified mice has energized the research field to better understand which animal models are appropriate to study acquired podocyte diseases. In this review we discuss inducible experimental models of acquired nondiabetic podocyte diseases in rodents, namely, passive Heymann nephritis, puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis, adriamycin nephrosis, liopolysaccharide, crescentic glomerulonephritis, and protein overload nephropathy models. Details are given on the model backgrounds, how to induce each model, the interpretations of the data, and the benefits and shortcomings of each. Genetic rodent models of podocyte injury are excluded. PMID:18784259
Pippin, Jeffrey W; Brinkkoetter, Paul T; Cormack-Aboud, Fionnualla C; Durvasula, Raghu V; Hauser, Peter V; Kowalewska, Jolanta; Krofft, Ronald D; Logar, Christine M; Marshall, Caroline B; Ohse, Takamoto; Shankland, Stuart J
A field and a household survey, the latter of which included inspections and interviews with the residents of a total of 1370 properties, were conducted in 2004 in 30 villages of the city of Luang Prabang, Lao PDR, in order to assess the degree of rodent infestation and to identify potential factors influencing infestations. Roof rats, Rattus rattus, and the Polynesian rat, Rattus exulans, were the only rodents found in the city, and trapping results showed a clear dominance of roof rats (80-90% of all individuals). Measurements of rodent activity using tracking patches correlated positively with the trapping data, and revealed a significantly higher degree of rat infestation during the rainy season (September) than during the dry season (November). If households in the vicinity of the sampling locations were considered, villagers' accounts of indoor rodent infestations recorded during the household survey correlated positively with measurements of rodent activity. At least every second household reported indoor infestations. Using explorative statistical analyses (classification trees, factor analysis) we checked the predictive or explanatory value of up to 28 variables assessed during household inspections for villagers' observations on rodent infestation as the dependent variable. Trophic factors such as exposed food (indoors) and garbage (outdoors), and structural features such as open ceilings (indoors) and rat harborage in gardens (outdoors) ranked highest as explanatory variables. Assessment of a small sample of roof rat droppings collected inside houses revealed the presence of the potential disease agents Salmonella javiana, Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and the parasitic nematode Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica). These results underline the need for an appropriate rodent management strategy for the city, whereby simple sanitation and rodent-proofing measures could be cheap means of reducing rat infestation rates. PMID:21396046
DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING SOUTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North , Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL
DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North , Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL
DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North , Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL
DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 4, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North , Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL
8. CONTROL AND EQUIPMENT ROOM INTERIOR. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM AT RIGHT AND ENTRANCE AT LEFT. Looking east. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA
16. Readiness Crew Building interior, Room 105, former briefing room, looking southeast. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility S-6, 1300 Alert Road, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO
DETAIL VIEW OF FOURTH FLOOR CONFERENCE ROOM, BETWEEN FIRING ROOM NOS. 1 AND 2, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North , Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL
13. Interior view of conference room looking into break room beyond; along west side of upper level; view to southwest. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess Hall & Administration Building, 1301 Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD
14. Door leading from Boiler Room to Pattern Room. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Engine Boiler & Pattern Building, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA
INTERIOR VIEW OF A TYPICAL ROOM (ROOM NO. 209), FACING NORTH. THE SINK AND MIRROR MAY HAVE BEEN FROM THE ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bachelor Officer Quarters, Dealy Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
Interior of Room T120, looking north-northeast at pump room - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Moscow Radar Site Transmit Sector One Transmitter Building, At the end of Steam Road, Moscow, Somerset County, ME
91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS 101 AND 72; BUILDING 101 IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH HOUSED SCRAP METAL CLEANING AND PROCESSING FACILITIES; BUILDING 72 AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED MELTING FURNACES AND CONTINUOUS CASTING MACHINERY - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT
There has been a growing emphasis in housing policy and its impacts on sub-regional economies. Yet the arguments linking housing and economic competitiveness are typically described in very general terms. First of all, this paper is based on research providing a spatial picture of house prices utilising housing data from the UK government's Land Registry and presenting key findings from
The study uses both statistical data and informed expert opinion to identify consumer preference changes in housing. Possible benefits for government agencies, private industry and consumers from more complete information on consumer preferences are ident...
Describes discussion at a recent program of the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) regarding the trend toward privatized student housing; discussion highlighted market conditions, financing, and operations. (EV)
Rehabilitation of housing offers an alternative to deterioration of existing residential structures; in effect, it creates sound units where otherwise units would be withdrawn from the market. However, as with new construction, high costs may, and often d...
Commander's conference room (room 202), closet and hallway to bathroom and bedroom, leading to conference room 211. Viewing windows look down on the display area. View to north - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA
Anxiety disorders are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. A well-known example for gene x environment interactions in psychiatry is the low activity (s) allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) that in the context of stress increases risk for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previously, we observed robust anxiety-related phenotypes, such as an impairment in fear extinction, in 5-HTT knockout (5-HTT-/-) versus wild-type (5-HTT+/+) rats housed in open cages. Recently, housing conditions were changed from open cages to individually ventilated cages (IVC), which are associated with a high ventilation fold and noise. This switch in housing conditions prompted an unplanned 5-HTT gene x environment interaction study in our rats. The current study shows that lifetime stress by means of IVC cage housing abolished genotype differences in fear extinction between 5-HTT-/- and 5-HTT+/+ rats. Although this effect was not attributed specifically to either the 5-HTT+/+ or the 5-HTT-/- genotype, the findings are in agreement with the modulatory role of serotonin in the processing of environmental stimuli. Our findings also underline the possibility that housing conditions confound the interpretation of anxiety-related behaviours in rodents. PMID:24658187
Background De-institutionalization has led to the provision of various forms of housing with or without support for people with mental\\u000a illness in the community. In this paper, we review the conceptual issues related to the provision of supported housing schemes,\\u000a the characteristics of residents, research methods and outcomes, and the factors influencing the quality of care provided.\\u000a Methods A Medline
Walid K. H. Fakhoury; Alison Murray; Geoff Shepherd; Stefan Priebe
The connection between housing and health is well established. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the child's home, such as cleanliness, moisture, pests, noise, accessibility, injury risks, and other forms of housing environmental quality, all have the potential to influence multiple aspects of the health and development of children. Basic sanitation, reduced household crowding, other improvements in housing and expanded, and improved housing regulations have led to advances in children's health. For example, lead poisoning prevention policies have profoundly reduced childhood lead exposure in the United States. This and many other successes highlight the health benefits for families, particularly children, by targeting interventions that reduce or eliminate harmful exposures in the home. Additionally, parental mental health problems, food insecurity, domestic violence, and the presence of guns in children's homes all are largely experienced by children in their homes, which are not as yet considered part of the Healthy Homes agenda. There is a large movement and now a regulatory structure being put in place for healthy housing, which is becoming closely wedded with environmental health, public health, and the practice of pediatrics. The importance of homes in children's lives, history of healthy homes, asthma, and exposures to lead, carbon monoxide, secondhand/thirdhand smoke, radon, allergy triggers is discussed, as well as how changes in ambient temperature, increased humidity, poor ventilation, water quality, infectious diseases, housing structure, guns, electronic media, family structure, and domestic violence all affect children's health. PMID:23953987
Weitzman, Michael; Baten, Ahmareen; Rosenthal, David G; Hoshino, Risa; Tohn, Ellen; Jacobs, David E
GUARD HOUSE AND SOUTH FIRE HOUSE, VICINITY MAP. (Shows the Guard House and Barracks, and South Fire House in relation to nearby roads, railroad tracks, and the piers). Navy Yard, Mare Island, California. P.W. Drawing No. C-1899, approved 1941; file no. 930-C-1. Scale one inch to forty feet. 72 cn x 97 cm. Ink on vellum - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA
Side-by-side energy testing and monitoring was conducted on two houses in Louisville, KY between January--March 1993. Both houses were identical except that one house was constructed with conventional US 2 by 4 studs and a truss roof while the other house was constructed with stress-skin insulated core panels for the walls and second floor ceiling. Air-tightness testing included fan pressurization by blower door, hour long tracer tests using sulphur hexafluoride, and two-week long time-averaged tests using perfluorocarbon tracers. An average of all the air-tightness test results showed the SSIC panel house to have 22 percent less air infiltration than the frame house. Air-tightness testing resulted in a recommendation that both houses have a fresh air ventilation system installed to provide 0.35 air changes per hour continuously. Thermal insulation quality testing was by infrared imaging. Pressure differential testing resulted in recommendations to use sealed combustion appliances, and to allow for more return air flow from closed rooms. This can be accomplished by separate return ducts or transfer ducts which simply connect closed rooms to the main body with a short duct. The SSIC house UA was lower in both cases. By measurement, co-heating tests showed the SSIC panel house total UA to be 12 percent lower than the frame house. Short-term energy monitoring was also conducted for the two houses. A 17 day period of electric heating and a 14 day period of gas furnace heating was evaluated. Monitoring results showed energy savings for the panel house to be 12 percent during electric heating and 15 percent during gas heating. A comparison of the two monitoring periods showed that the lumped efficiency of the gas furnace and air distribution system for both houses was close to 80 percent. Simple regression models using Typical Meteorological Year weather data gave a preliminary prediction of seasonal energy savings between 14 and 20 percent.
6. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO CENTER, FLUSH FRONT DOOR WITH GLAZING AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND OPEN PANELED DOOR TO BEDROOM NO. 2 AT LEFT PHOTO CENTER. DECORATIVE WOOD STRIPPING ON WALLS AND CEILING IS CARRIED THROUGHOUT REST OF ORIGINAL PORTION OF HOUSE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA
Early prototype caging for the rodent Advanced Animal Habitat (P-AAH) for the International Space Station (ISS) is currently being tested. In this five week study, effects of the wire-bottom P-AAH cages and specialized NASA rodent food bars (FB) were compared to standard vivarium cages (VIV) with corn-cob, litter-filled bottoms, and standard Purina rat chow (CH). Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four treatment groups (24 rats/treatment): Group 1) VIV+CH, Group 2) P-AAH+CH, Group 3) VIV+FB, and Group 4) P-AAH+FB. Each VIV and P-AAH cage housed three and six rats, respectively. After five weeks of treatment rats were weighed, euthanized, and blood samples were collected. Weights of liver (LIV), kidney (KID), brain (BRN), epididymal fat (EPI), and perirenal fat (PERI) were also measured. Statistical analysis to compare differences between groups was performed by standard analysis of variance procedures (ANOVA) with a significance level of pLO.05. Results indicated P-AAH housed rats had significantly lower body weights (BW), LIV weights, and LIV/BW than VIV housed rats. FB fed rats had significantly lower blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels and LIV/BW than CH fed rats. In addition, FB fed rats had significantly higher cholesterol (CHOL) levels, EPI/BW, PERI/BW, and total fat (EPI+PERI)/BW than CH fed rats. The P-AAH+FB group had significantly lower EPI, BRN, and total fat than VIV+FB rats. VIV+FB rats had significantly higher BRN, EPI, PERI, and total fat than VIV+CH rats. Triglycerides (TG), KID, KID/BW, and BRN/BW were not significantly different among treatment groups. These findings provide valuable information regarding cage design and food bar suitability for long-term use on the ISS.
Lau, Angela; Ramirez, J.; Pruitt, S.; Melson, E.; Zirkle-Yoshida, M.; Girten, B.; Apseloff, G.
Field measurements of instantaneous air temperature and velocity were performed in 19 rooms with exhaust, mixing and displacement type mechanical ventilation. Large air temperature fluctuations, up to 3 °C, were measured in rooms with exhaust mechanical ventilation and window slots. In the remaining rooms the standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations was less than 0.5 °C. The frequency of the
A. K. Melikov; U. Krüger; G. Zhou; T. L. Madsen; G. Langkilde
...false What housing services are available under the Housing Improvement Program? 256.7... HOUSINGHOUSING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM Â§ 256.7 What housing services are available under the Housing Improvement Program?...
...false What housing services are available under the Housing Improvement Program? 256.7... HOUSINGHOUSING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM Â§ 256.7 What housing services are available under the Housing Improvement Program?...
...false What housing services are available under the Housing Improvement Program? 256.7... HOUSINGHOUSING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM Â§ 256.7 What housing services are available under the Housing Improvement Program?...
As one booklet in a series on rodent control, this training guide has been developed to assist administrators, rodent-control operators, and others responsible for rodent-control operations in the training of employees in this field. Topics covered include rodents and human welfare, description and habits of domestic rats and mice, rodent-borne…
Members of the genus Trichinella are small nematodes that can infect a wide range of animal hosts. However, their infectivity varies depending on the parasite and host species combination. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of 4 species of laboratory rodents, i.e., mice, rats, hamsters, and gerbils to Trichinella papuae, an emerging non-encapsulated Trichinella species. Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis were also included in this study for comparison. Fifteen animals of each rodent species were infected orally with 100 muscle larvae of each Trichinella species. Intestinal worm burden was determined at day 6 and 10 post-inoculation (PI). The numbers of muscle larvae were examined at day 45 PI. The reproductive capacity index (RCI) of the 3 Trichinella species in different rodent hosts was determined. By day 6 PI, 33.2-69.6% of the inoculated larvae of the 3 Trichinella species became adult worms in the small intestines of the host animals. However, in rats, more than 96% of adult worms of all 3 Trichinella species were expelled from the gut by day 10 PI. In gerbils, only 4.8-18.1% of adult worms were expelled by day 10 PI. In accordance with the intestinal worm burden and the persistence of adults, the RCI was the highest in gerbils with values of 241.5±41.0 for T. papuae, 432.6±48 for T. pseudospiralis, and 528.6±20.6 for T. spiralis. Hamsters ranked second and mice ranked third in susceptibility in terms of the RCI, Rats yielded the lowest parasite RCI for all 3 Trichinella species. Gerbils may be an alternative laboratory animal for isolation and maintenance of Trichinella spp. PMID:24516265
For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this - it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population. PMID:24825357
Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate
For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing – single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this – it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population.
Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate
We present a cost-utility analysis based on data from the Housing and Health (H&H) Study of rental assistance for homeless and unstably housed persons living with HIV in Baltimore, Chicago and Los Angeles. As-treated analyses found favorable associations of housing with HIV viral load, emergency room use, and perceived stress (an outcome that can be quantitatively linked to quality of life). We combined these outcome data with information on intervention costs to estimate the cost-per-quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) saved. We estimate that the cost-per-QALY-saved by the HIV-related housing services is $62,493. These services compare favorably (in terms of cost-effectiveness) to other well-accepted medical and public health services. PMID:22588529
Holtgrave, David R; Wolitski, Richard J; Pals, Sherri L; Aidala, Angela; Kidder, Daniel P; Vos, David; Royal, Scott; Iruka, Nkemdiri; Briddell, Kate; Stall, Ron; Bendixen, Arturo Valdivia
The paper presents a survey of nematodes found in 49 rodents of 4 species from 17 localities of the Jelenia Góra district (SW Poland). The following parasites were found: Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Dujardin, 1845) Boulanger, 1922; Heligmosomoides glareoli Baylis, 1928; Heligmosomum mixtum Schulz, 1929; Heligmosomoides sp.; Heligmosomidae gen. sp.; Trichostrongyloidea gen. sp.; Syphacia frederici Roman, 1945; Syphacia montana Yamaguti, 1943; Syphacia stroma (Linstow, 1884) Morgan, 1932; Syphacia nigeriana Baylis, 1928; Aonchoteca murissylvatici (Diesing, 1851) Lopez-Neyra, 1947; Trichuris muris (Schrank, 1788) Hall, 1916. PMID:16865978
If one were to showcase new housing technologies and innovative designs in Australia, it wouldn't be a bad idea to place such an exhibit next to one of the most instantly recognizable structures in the world. Well, that is precisely what the Australian government (in collaboration with private industry groups) did when they placed this remarkable "Houses of the Future" exhibition next to the Sydney Opera House. While the exhibit has since moved on to a new location, visitors who are curious about the future of the built environment (particularly in terms of domestic architecture and construction) will enjoy this interactive website. The website features six homes that are part of a "new generation of prefabricated dwellings emerging around the globe". The requirements for each new housing type were that they be prefabricated for easy transportation, environmentally sustainable, designed by an architect, and "futuristic in appearance and use of domestic space". On the site, visitors may look within each house, all the while learning about each structure's historical precedents, environmental features, and of course, its architects. For those interested in the potential of domestic architecture, this website will be quite a treat.
We examined the effects of a 16-day spaceflight mission on the size of muscle fibers in the rectus abdominis, external oblique and transversus abdominis muscles of adult male Fisher rats. The rats were individually housed in orbit, in contrast to the one previous spaceflight investigation of the same muscles, where the rats were group-housed pregnant females. The cross-sectional area of the muscle fibers was used as a measure of muscle atrophy or hypertrophy. The transversus, which is presumed to be the primary expiratory muscle and consequently works against internal hydrostatic pressures that are not likely to change much between 1 G and weightlessness, did not change in size. However, both the rectus abdominis (a spinal flexor) and the external oblique (a rotator of the torso), which resist gravity in the 1 G environment, showed significant signs of atrophy after extended exposure to microgravity. The atrophy of the external oblique was diametrically opposite to hypertrophy of the same muscle observed in group-housedrodents previously exposed to spaceflight. Although the two missions differed in several factors, such as the gender of the rats and mission duration, we believe that housing of the animals was the key factor that accounted for the different responses of the external oblique. Previous research has shown that group-housed rats in spaceflight exhibited seven times more rotations of their torsos than matched ground controls. Thus unloading of the musculoskeletal system may not be achieved in weightlessness when animals have the freedom to interact with each other. PMID:11241404
In the last decade the significance of indoor air pollution to human health has increased because of improved thermal insulation of buildings to save energy: air turnover is reduced and air quality is impaired. The most frequent air pollutants are tobacco smoke, radioactive radon gas emanating from the soil, formaldehyde from furniture and insulation material, nitrogen oxides from gas stoves, as well as solvents from cleaning agents. The most important pollutants leading to health hazards are tobacco smoke and air pollutants which are emitted continuously from building materials and furniture. Such pollutants have to be eliminated by reducing the emission rate. A fresh air supply is necessary to reduce the pollutants resulting from the inhabitants and their activities, the amount depending on the number of inhabitants and the usage of the room. The carbon dioxide level should not exceed 1500 ppm. PMID:3962506
The objective of our research was to quantify the increased risk of suicide associated with registering in local hotels/motels. Medical examiner case files of suicide in King County, Washington, were reviewed for years 2002-2004. The incidence of suicide in local residents registering in local hotels/motels was 223/100,000 which is significantly greater than the incidence of suicide in the general population of King County (11.7/100,000 p < 0.0001). Hotel/motel guests from outside Washington had a significantly reduced incidence of suicide (3.9/100,000 p = 0.002). The study results suggest that there is an increased risk of suicide in local residents who register in local hotel rooms. PMID:17087636
The Petroleum Systems Data Room Web site is provided by Oil Tracers L.L.C. Visitors have access to several databases including the Oil Library, which is a searchable database of information on more than 30,000 oil samples owned by various analytical laboratories around the world. The other main product of the site is a database that "contains over 10,000 petroleum geochemistry-related citations and is a searchable reference list for over 300,000 pages of petroleum geochemistry literature drawn from hundreds of sources" called OilRef. The other free reference (after registering) is a petroleum dictionary and encyclopedia, rounding out this easy-to-use and very helpful set of recourses.
In every-day listening the auditory event perceived by a listener is determined not only by the sound signal that a sound emits but also by a variety of environmental parameters. These parameters are the position, orientation and directional characteristics of the sound source, the listener's position and orientation, the geometrical and acoustical properties of surfaces which affect the sound field and the sound propagation properties of the surrounding fluid. A complete set of these parameters can be called an Acoustic Environment. If the auditory event perceived by a listener is manipulated in such a way that the listener is shifted acoustically into a different acoustic environment without moving himself physically, a Virtual Acoustic Environment has been created. Here, we deal with a special technique to set up nearly arbitrary Virtual Acoustic Environments, the Binaural Room Simulation. The purpose of the Binaural Room Simulation is to compute the binaural impulse response related to a virtual acoustic environment taking into account all parameters mentioned above. One possible way to describe a Virtual Acoustic Environment is the concept of the virtual sound sources. Each of the virtual sources emits a certain signal which is correlated but not necessarily identical with the signal emitted by the direct sound source. If source and receiver are non moving, the acoustic environment becomes a linear time-invariant system. Then, the Binaural Impulse Response from the source to a listener' s eardrums contains all relevant auditory information related to the Virtual Acoustic Environment. Listening into the simulated environment can easily be achieved by convolving the Binaural Impulse Response with dry signals and representing the results via headphones.
Received 1 Sept. 2000—Final 3 May 2001 Open-field behavioral assays are commonly used to test both locomotor activity and emotional- ity in rodents. We performed open-field tests on house mice ( Mus domesticus) from four repli- cate lines genetically selected for high voluntary wheel-running for 22 generations and from four replicate random-bred control lines. Individual mice were recorded by video
Anne M. Bronikowski; Patrick A. Carter; John G. Swallow; Isabelle A. Girard; Justin S. Rhodes; Theodore Garland
In a bookshop established to increase educational opportunities through the sale of books, a special children's room sponsors literary programs for children and allows them to browse, read, and choose books. (JM)
On January 19, 1999, Tony Blair's government announced the most radical restructuring of the House of Lords, the UK's second chamber, in its 600-year existence. Honoring the Labour Party election manifesto, the Bill will remove all 759 hereditary peers, those with an automatic right to sit by virtue of birthright, within the year. In the meantime, a Royal Commission will formulate proposals for a new upper house and issue a report by December 31, 1999. A fully reformed chamber is expected to be in place by 2002, and in the meantime, publicly nominated "People's Peers" may sit in the Lords in addition to the politically appointed Life Peers. The full text of the Bill as it was introduced in the House of Commons is available at the site.
This patent describes a portable air purification apparatus comprising a housing including a base portion and cover means, the base portion including an air deflection means and a plate means mounted in spaced relationship to the air deflection means so as to create a substantially continuous air exhaust opening therebetween. A centrifugal fan means is disposed between the plate means and the air deflection means and is mounted so as to direct air radially outwardly therefrom through the air exhaust opening, at least one opening through the plate means to permit air flow therethrough to the centrifugal fan means. The motor means carried by the base portion and extends upwardly with respect to the opening in the plate means, the motor means having drive shaft means for driving the centrifugal fan means. An air filter means is mounted between the base portion and the cover means so that air is drawn therethrough toward the centrifugal fan means, and a means for secures the cover means relative to the base means to thereby retain the air filter means therebetween.
Imagine that you are blindfolded inside an unknown room. You snap your fingers and listen to the room’s response. Can you hear the shape of the room? Some people can do it naturally, but can we design computer algorithms that hear rooms? We show how to compute the shape of a convex polyhedral room from its response to a known sound, recorded by a few microphones. Geometric relationships between the arrival times of echoes enable us to “blindfoldedly” estimate the room geometry. This is achieved by exploiting the properties of Euclidean distance matrices. Furthermore, we show that under mild conditions, first-order echoes provide a unique description of convex polyhedral rooms. Our algorithm starts from the recorded impulse responses and proceeds by learning the correct assignment of echoes to walls. In contrast to earlier methods, the proposed algorithm reconstructs the full 3D geometry of the room from a single sound emission, and with an arbitrary geometry of the microphone array. As long as the microphones can hear the echoes, we can position them as we want. Besides answering a basic question about the inverse problem of room acoustics, our results find applications in areas such as architectural acoustics, indoor localization, virtual reality, and audio forensics.
Dokmanic, Ivan; Parhizkar, Reza; Walther, Andreas; Lu, Yue M.; Vetterli, Martin
Nowadays, house dust mites have showed themselves as one of the health problem worldwide. They have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of allergy particularly in children. House dust mites were collected from eight different areas in Great Cairo. Nine species of mites were recovered from indoors. In order of abundance, they were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Tyrophagous putrescentiae, Acarus siro, Cheyletus malaccensis, Blomia kulagini, Acheles graciles, Ornithonyssus bacoti and Lepidoglyphus destructor. All these mites were collected mainly from Bolak Al Dakrour (28.8%) and Al Wayly (27.6%). The least number (1.8%) and species (only three) were collected from Madent Al Salam. Pet and stray dogs and cats, domestic birds and commensal rodents were more or less reported in the majority of the examined areas. Also, patients with history of allergy of unknown cause, were reported in ten out of 80 houses examined (12.5%). The role played by house dust mites in causing allergic manifestations was important environmental disease agents. PMID:12561892
We screened Orientia tsutsugamushi from 385 domestic rodents and 19 humans with scrub typhus in rural Tai’an District, Shandong Province, a new scrub typhus epidemic area in northern China. Sequence analysis identified 7 genotypes in the rodents, of which 2 were also identified in the humans.
Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis is a powerful method for localizing disease genes, but identifying the causal gene remains difficult. Rodent models of disease facilitate QTL gene identification, and causal genes underlying rodent QTL are often associated with the corresponding human diseases. Recently developed bioinformatics methods, including comparative genomics, combined cross analysis, interval-specific and genome-wide haplotype analysis, followed by sequence
Keith DiPetrillo; Xiaosong Wang; Ioannis M. Stylianou; Beverly Paigen
Rodent parvoviruses, Helicobacter spp., murine norovirus, and several other previously unknown infectious agents have “emerged” in laboratory rodents relatively recently. These agents have been discovered serendipitously or through active investigation of atypical serology results, cell culture contamination, unexpected histopathology, or previously unrecognized clinical disease syndromes. The potential research impact of these agents is not fully known. Infected rodents have demonstrated immunomodulation, tumor suppression, clinical disease (particularly in immunodeficient rodents), and histopathology. Perturbations of organismal and cellular physiology also likely occur. These agents posed unique challenges to laboratory animal resource programs once discovered; it was necessary to develop specific diagnostic assays and an understanding of their epidemiology and transmission routes before attempting eradication, and then evaluate eradication methods for efficacy. Even then management approaches varied significantly, from apathy to total exclusion, and such inconsistency has hindered the sharing and transfer of rodents among institutions, particularly for genetically modified rodent models that may not be readily available. As additional infectious agents are discovered in laboratory rodents in coming years, much of what researchers have learned from experiences with the recently identified pathogens will be applicable. This article provides an overview of the discovery, detection, and research impact of infectious agents recently identified in laboratory rodents. We also discuss emerging syndromes for which there is a suspected infectious etiology, and the unique challenges of managing newly emerging infectious agents.
Besselsen, David G.; Franklin, Craig L.; Livingston, Robert S.; Riley, Lela K.
The biogeographical examination of rodent faunas associated with arenaviruses reveals two distinct patterns. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus is associated primarily with a single murid species, Mus musculus, although it is also known to cause laboratory infections in other species. On the other hand, the arenaviruses from the Western hemisphere are associated exclusively with a large and diverse group of cricetid rodents. Studies to date, although limited, have not demonstrated their association with any other rodent groups, although in South America alone at least twelve other rodent families are known. Evidence at the present time indicates that Lassa virus is only associated with a common African rodent, Mastomys natalensis. From this limited evidence it is as yet difficult to determine whether Lassa virus will follow the pattern of the South American arenaviruses, most of which are known from several species of rodents, or that of LCM virus, which appears to be associated with only a single rodent species. In this paper, the history and structure of South American, Eurasian, and African rodent faunas are described.
Brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis) and prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) responded with higher rates of tongue flicking to rodent saliva than to water. Both materials were presented on cotton-tipped applicators touched gently to the snakes' lips. Rattlesnakes also struck more frequently at applicators bearing saliva than at control applicators. Since rodents frequently lick themselves during bouts of grooming behavior, saliva
Predictive simulation modeling for antiandrogen impacts on rodent prostate HA Barton1, RW Setzer1, LK Potter1,2 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC Changes in rodent prostate weight and functi...
Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west end of the complex near Highway 101. Detail of Holloshaft pump. View to the south. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA
1. Keeper's house, light tower and boat house, view southwest, northeast and northwest sides - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME
SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE AND HOUSE, VIEW TO WEST/ SOUTHWEST - Kiel Farmstead, Summer Kitchen & Smokehouse, East side State Route 4, one half mile south of U.S. Route 64, Mascoutah, St. Clair County, IL
This report analyzes survey data from a Housing Assistance Supply Experiment to determine the influence of household characteristics and program features on the decision to enroll in a housing allowance program. The voluntary program provided eligible hou...
EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF CARRIAGE HOUSE SHOWING RELATIONSHIP TO MILK HOUSE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. (The carriage house was built by William B. Engle at the end of the 19th century, with carriage storage on the ground floor and a workshop above. Later, his son, Ralph Engle, used the ground floor as a car garage.) - Engle Farm, Carriage House, 89 South Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA
This applet allows students to freely build shapes by stacking cubes and "explore the relation between a building (house) consisting of cubes and the height numbers representing the height of the different parts of the building." This exercise helps students visualize and understand the concepts of volume and three-dimensional, measurable space.
Target costs for the University Residential Building System (URBS) Project of the University of California are presented. Findings depict the effectiveness of building design and material applications and should be useful in guiding future student housing design work, whether the design utilizes the URBS system or not. Ten recently constructed…
California Univ., Berkeley. Univ. Residential Building System.
The report is intended as a manual for use by U. S. military advisors engaged in the supervision and construction of housing for refugee native populations in the Republic of Vietnam. Use of indigenous materials, manpower, and methods in self-help operati...
1. In order to conduct this anniversary review, 10 excellent papers were carefully selected from the 148 available papers published on housing and husbandry in British Poultry Science (BPS) over the past 50 years. 2. The 10 selected papers on this subject covered mainly the housing and husbandry of laying hens, but two of them dealt with various aspects of broiler production. 3. Aspects of housing considered included a wide range of intensive and extensive systems of broiler and egg production. Specific topics included the effects of husbandry system on bird welfare, including skeletal damage in laying hens and contact dermatitis in broiler chickens, as well as the design and management of nest boxes, perches, feeders and drinkers, conventional laying cages (CCs), furnished laying cages (FCs) and non-cage systems (NCs). 4. A variety of the findings in these and related papers have enlightened our understanding of many aspects of poultry housing and husbandry; most of them have found application in the poultry industry and thus improved its efficiency. PMID:20711899
Chapters 5-10 of a World Health Organization PDF on medical pests of importance in PDF format. Chatpers 5,6 cover Cockroaches and House flies respectively, remaining chapters go on to discuss guinea worm, fresh water snails, and proper pesticide application. These are extremely thorough control strategy texts with a great deal of information.
The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.
One of the most crucial responsibilities of any fast-growing area is that of providing housing for all segments of its population. As pressures for growth are increasingly exerted on Dutchess County, it will be all the more important for the area to know ...
Television serves a number of useful purposes in the operating room. For the operating room supervisor, television surveillance provides an easy, economical method of keeping abreast of surgical and turnaround activities in each operating room. For the surgeon it provides an excellent vehicle for teaching, record keeping, remote viewing, and two way communication with the clinical pathology and x-ray departments, as well as with other consultants. PMID:1154271
As elsewhere in the world, rodents are responsible for very considerable economic losses in tropical Africa because of their depredations on both growing crops and stored food products. Unfortunately, few accurate data are available on the extent of these losses but there is evidence that they are considerable. The public health importance of rodents, both as reservoirs and vectors of disease in tropical Africa, is also great; plague, leptospirosis, murine typhus, and Lassa fever are among the diseases associated with rodent hosts. Scientifically based rodent control programmes have been carried out in very few areas of Africa and there is urgent need for studies and demonstrations on rodent control in both urban and rural areas. The problems likely to be encountered are reviewed and methods of control proposed.
This paper discusses some requirements of an ideal rodent chemosterilant, analyses the advantages of chemosterilants over other control methods, and compares the potential values of chemosterilants that affect females, males, and both sexes. Examples are given of specific situations where chemosterilants will be valuable in rodent control, together with suggested methods of applying them. The theory and practicability of using genetics in rodent control are also discussed. Neither the chemosterilant nor the genetic method is expected to become a panacea, but their eventual application will be a significant advance in rodent-control technology. Since both approaches are based on sound biological principles and are relatively safe, they should be helpful in regulating rodent populations in the future.
In this paper, the moderately and lightly doped porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs) were fabricated by the `one-pot procedure' metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) method in the HF/H2O2/AgNO3 system at room temperature. The effects of H2O2 concentration on the nanostructure of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were investigated. The experimental results indicate that porous structure can be introduced by the addition of H2O2 and the pore structure could be controlled by adjusting the concentration of H2O2. The H2O2 species replaces Ag+ as the oxidant and the Ag nanoparticles work as catalyst during the etching. And the concentration of H2O2 influences the nucleation and motility of Ag particles, which leads to formation of different porous structure within the nanowires. A mechanism based on the lateral etching which is catalyzed by Ag particles under the motivation by H2O2 reduction is proposed to explain the PSiNWs formation.
Downturn of housing markets is a fact leading to falling prices and lower volume of sales. In the Icelandic case this has led to problem because of fewer contracts and missing prices. This has caused difficult measurement problems that are outlined. This paper descripes also the Icelandic house price index, the development of housing sales and prices 2000-2009 and falling
Imagine that you are blindfolded inside an unknown room. You snap your fingers and listen to the room's response. Can you hear the shape of the room? Some people can do it naturally, but can we design computer algorithms that hear rooms? We show how to compute the shape of a convex polyhedral room from its response to a known sound, recorded by a few microphones. Geometric relationships between the arrival times of echoes enable us to "blindfoldedly" estimate the room geometry. This is achieved by exploiting the properties of Euclidean distance matrices. Furthermore, we show that under mild conditions, first-order echoes provide a unique description of convex polyhedral rooms. Our algorithm starts from the recorded impulse responses and proceeds by learning the correct assignment of echoes to walls. In contrast to earlier methods, the proposed algorithm reconstructs the full 3D geometry of the room from a single sound emission, and with an arbitrary geometry of the microphone array. As long as the microphones can hear the echoes, we can position them as we want. Besides answering a basic question about the inverse problem of room acoustics, our results find applications in areas such as architectural acoustics, indoor localization, virtual reality, and audio forensics. PMID:23776236
Dokmanic, Ivan; Parhizkar, Reza; Walther, Andreas; Lu, Yue M; Vetterli, Martin
Background Leptospirosis is the most common bacterial zoonoses and has been identified as an important emerging global public health problem in Southeast Asia. Rodents are important reservoirs for human leptospirosis, but epidemiological data is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled rodents living in different habitats from seven localities distributed across Southeast Asia (Thailand, Lao PDR and Cambodia), between 2009 to 2010. Human isolates were also obtained from localities close to where rodents were sampled. The prevalence of Leptospira infection was assessed by real-time PCR using DNA extracted from rodent kidneys, targeting the lipL32 gene. Sequencing rrs and secY genes, and Multi Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on DNA extracted from rat kidneys for Leptospira isolates molecular typing. Four species were detected in rodents, L. borgpetersenii (56% of positive samples), L. interrogans (36%), L. kirschneri (3%) and L. weilli (2%), which were identical to human isolates. Mean prevalence in rodents was approximately 7%, and largely varied across localities and habitats, but not between rodent species. The two most abundant Leptospira species displayed different habitat requirements: L. interrogans was linked to humid habitats (rice fields and forests) while L. borgpetersenii was abundant in both humid and dry habitats (non-floodable lands). Conclusion/Significance L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii species are widely distributed amongst rodent populations, and strain typing confirmed rodents as reservoirs for human leptospirosis. Differences in habitat requirements for L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii supported differential transmission modes. In Southeast Asia, human infection risk is not only restricted to activities taking place in wetlands and rice fields as is commonly accepted, but should also include tasks such as forestry work, as well as the hunting and preparation of rodents for consumption, which deserve more attention in future epidemiological studies.
This training manual, designed for training applicants who wish to obtain certification in pesticide application relative to rodent control, covers the following topics: economic factors, public health factors, biological characteristics of domestic rodents, rat and mouse signs, trapping, repellents, poisons, baits, poisoned water, dumps, sewers,…
The report identifies existing housing conditions in the City of Foley. Objectives and implementing actions which are necessary to alleviate housing problems are discussed. Community activities needed to carry out the recommended program are identified. (...
The housing element update presents a series of realistic goals and obstacles to their implimentatons. It also provides a capsule overview of accomplishments and projected projects needed to more clearly understand the area housing deficits and demands.
This document focuses specifically on manufactured housing. The Roadmap offers a vision of how the factory built housing industry, already the nation's primary supplier of affordable homes, will continue to create and apply new technologies that increase ...
... mattress pad, blankets, and bedspread WEEKLY in hot water. Water at a temperature of 130 degrees or higher ... control house dust mites. Although washing in hot water kills house dust mites, the bedding will soon ...
Rabbits used in the production of antibodies can be housed individually or in groups. This study compared the serum chemistries, antibody production, physiologic plasma cortisol levels, and white blood cell (WBC) counts of female New Zealand White rabbits housed in 2 different housing systems. The control group was housed individually in stainless steel cages, and the experimental group was group-housed on aspen shavings spread on the floor of the animal room. Plastic crates were placed in the group-housing area to provide opportunities for rabbits to hide, and a litter box was available at all times. Both groups received the same food and water and similar environmental enrichment devices. Clinical pathology laboratory evaluations of serum chemistries, immune responses, physiologic parameters such as plasma cortisol, and WBC counts were compared. The group-housed animals had lower WBC counts and higher levels of plasma cortisol than did rabbits individually housed. In addition, the group-housed animals had significantly less weight gain during the first week. Antibody production did not differ between the 2 groups. Group housing appeared to be an appropriate method of housing rabbits for use in research.
Uveitis is a common cause of vision loss, accounting for 10-15 % of all cases of blindness worldwide and affects individuals of all ages, genders, and races. Uveitis represents a broad range of intraocular inflammatory conditions due to complications of autoimmune diseases, bacterial infections, viral infections, and chemical and metabolic injuries. Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rodents is an efficient experimental model to investigate the pathological mechanism and pharmacological efficacy of potential drug agents. EIU is characterized by clinically relevant classical signs of inflammation, including inflammatory exudates and cells in the anterior and vitreous chambers. EIU in small animal models such as rats, mice, and rabbits is a short-lived uveal inflammation that can be developed subsequent to administration of bacterial endotoxin, such as lipopolysaccharide. Here, we present a reproducible, reliable, and simplified protocol to induce EIU in mice. This method could be used with similar efficacy for EIU induction in other small animals as well. PMID:23824898
We have studied the influence of intraperitoneal introduction of a selective blocker of mitochondrial translocation protein 18kD PK11195 (5 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 and 10 mg/kg), finasteride (5 and 15 mg/kg), and neurosteroid pregnenolone (20 mg/kg) on the exploratory behavior of male BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, and Wistar rats in open-field test. It is found that treatment with PK11195 weakens the exploratory behavior in open-field test in mice of both strains. Finasteride and indomethacin decrease the exploratory responses in rodents regardless of the species or type of stress emotional response phenotype. Pregnenolone possesses activating effect in open-field in open-field test, but enhances the inhibitory effect of finasteride in BALB/c mice. PMID:24791332
In this paper, we estimate a model of housing demand with neighbourhood effects. We exploit special features of the national sample of the American Housing Survey and properties of housing markets that allow us to create 'natural' instruments and therefore identify the impact of social interactions. We find evidence of both endogenous and contextual neighbourhood effects. We report two alternative
In the housing market, new properties sometimes experience delays before they are sold. Such delays reflect the preferences of buyers in respect of the homes’ characteristics. Therefore, it is important for managerial purposes to identify the causes of housing sales delays. After analysing the delays in sales of housing in Beijing City, China, the principal finding of this study is
Carlos Pestana Barros; Zhongfei Chen; Luis A. Gil-Alana
In the housing market, new properties sometimes experience delays before they are sold. Such delays reflect the preferences of buyers in respect of the homes’ characteristics. Therefore, it is important for managerial purposes to identify the causes of housing sales delays. After analysing the delays in sales of housing in Beijing City, China, the principal finding of this study is
Carlos Pestana Barros; Zhongfei Chen; Luis A. Gil-Alana
Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…
The report provides an analysis of the Binghamton housing market using data supplied by the 1970 census of population and housing. The document is intended to serve as a source for future studies of the Binghamton housing market, as well as a preliminary ...
The purpose of this book is to update housing professionals on the current issues and future trends facing college and university apartment operations in the 21st century. Its chapters are: (1) "The History of Apartment Housing" (Rena Buchan); (2) "Research in Apartment Housing" (Donald Whalen); (3) "Community Services and Programming: A Search…
A project to assess and initiate passive solar energy retrofits to US Navy family housing is described. The current data base for Navy housing (ECOP), and its enhancement for passive solar purposes options proposed for Navy housing are explained. The analysis goals and methods to evaluate the retrofits are discussed. An educational package to explain the retrofits is described.
By comparing the sperm parameters of small rodents trapped at contaminated terrestrial sites and nearby habitat-matched noncontaminated locations, the patent-pending Rodent Sperm Analysis (RSA) method provides a direct health status appraisal for the maximally chemical-exposed mammalian ecological receptor in the wild. RSA outcomes have consistently allowed for as definitive determinations of receptor health as are possible at the present time, thereby streamlining the ecological risk assessment (ERA) process. Here, we describe the unanticipated discovery, at a contaminated US EPA Superfund National Priorities List site, of a population of Hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), with a high percentage of adult males lacking sperm entirely (azoospermia). In light of the RSA method's role in streamlining ERAs and in bringing contaminated Superfund-type site investigations to closure, we consider the consequences of the discovery. The two matters specifically discussed are (1) the computation of a population's average sperm count where azoospermia is present and (2) the merits of the RSA method and its sperm parameter thresholds-for-effect when azoospermia is masked in an otherwise apparently healthy rodent population. PMID:18437443
Tannenbaum, Lawrence V; Thran, Brandolyn H; Willams, Keith J
In rodents, airway dendritic cells (DCs) capture inhaled Ag, undergo maturation, and migrate to the draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) to initiate the Ag-specific T cell response. However, the role of human DCs in the pathogenesis of the Th2 cell- mediated disease asthma remains to be clarified. Here, by using SCID mice engrafted with T cells from either house dust
Hamida Hammad; Bart N. Lambrecht; Pierre Pochard; Philippe Gosset
The report covers six aspects of the Cumberland County North Carolina housing market: community housing goals; overall housing supply and demand; housing needs for low and moderate income families; the role of the mobile home; amount and distribution of s...
Rodent behavioural tasks are indispensable to advance the understanding of gene × environment interactions in neuropsychiatric disorders and the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Yet, the actual translation of rodent data to humans, and thereby the understanding of the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders is limited. The main reason for the translational flaw is that many behavioural tasks for rodents are based on face or predictive validity, whereas these types of validity often lack a pathophysiological basis. Furthermore, many behavioural tasks for rodents do not implement human task parameters or use task parameters in a controlled manner, whereas they are parameters that provide the environmental challenges to test gene function. The aim of this perspective is to address the status quo of behavioural tasks for rodents, their limitations and their strengths, and the reasons why they could lead to suboptimal translational research. I also suggest an approach to come closer to neuropsychiatric behavioural tasks for rodents, namely a more careful implementation of human task parameters and subdivision of behaviour into perceptional, motivational, activational and switching domains. Finally, I will touch upon behavioural tasks for rodents that are currently lacking and needed to catch up neuropsychiatric research. PMID:22982186
Summer certainly isn't a bad time to start a new home (or apartment) improvement project, whether it be a gut rehab or just fixing a wobbly toilet seat. Fortunately, the This Old House television program website is a good place to look for a wide range of information about just such endeavors. While the site certainly has a number of advertisements on it, there is still a good deal of very reliable content for use by the general public. The homepage contains a number of "Improvement Highlights", ranging from how to install a garage floodlight to how to tile a floor. Of course, most users will also want to check out some video highlights from the popular television show. Users may also want to submit a question for consideration by the This Old House staff.
The MOST Clearing House site, provided by UNESCO's Management of Social Transformations Programme, promotes international comparative social science research. "The overall long-term objective of MOST is to establish sustainable links between the scientific and policy communities and to emphasize the relevance of social science research for policy-formulation." The site offers up-to-date information on current projects, publications, and activities of the Programme. Present topics include poverty and social exclusion, growing up in cities, and public policy and ethnic conflict. The strongest feature of the site is the "Best Practices" databank, which aims to "create a bridge between empirical solutions, research and policy-makers" by offering information and links to programs around the world that have introduced creative and sustainable responses to social and environmental problems. Additional features of this site include an internal search engine, an e-mail announcement service, and a reference service providing links to the partners in the Clearing House Network.
This page features a collection of more than 30 experiments for elementary and secondary science classrooms, all culled from teacher training workshops by The Science House. Each lab introduces a topic in a real-world context: for example, students make ice cream as they experiment with adding solutes to lower the freezing point of a solvent. Topics include conservation of mass, chemical reactions, density, radioactive decay, chromatography, gas properties, and more. The Science House is a project based at North Carolina State University. It sponsors teacher training programs, curriculum development, web-based experiments for use in K-12 classrooms, long-term loans of laboratory equipment, summer student research programs, and community outreach.
This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.
House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy. PMID:22477664
An unprecedented bubble in U.S. housing prices began to inflate in the first quarter of 1998 and then popped in the second quarter of 2006. This study examines the causes of this bubble and the effects of its deflation on U.S. housing and housing-related ...
After a decade of wide-ranging social welfare reforms in New Zealand, that have resulted in a considerable restructuring of the role of the state in housing provision, the introduction of new housing legislation in 2000 marked a significant attempt to reassert the notion of social provision. This article examines the manner in which housing policy has recast the role of
Part 1 presents the progress made in the past year (1970-71) in implementing the community's Five Year Housing Program and in providing housing for the low income population. Part 2 shifts the attention on housing problems from the urban to the rural area...
Apollo 7 and 8 flight crews sign a commemorative document to be hung in the Treaty Room of the White House honoring the occasion. Those signing are from left to right: Apollo 7 Astronauts: Walter Cunningham, Donn F. Eisele, and Walter M. Schirra. Apollo 8 Astronauts: William A. Anders, James A. Lovell, Jr., and Frank Borman. Standing are: Charles A. Lindbergh (also a signer) Lady Bird Johnson President Lyndon B. Johnson NASA Administrator James E. Webb, Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey.
As a unique room designed by renowned late 19th - early 20th century architect and designer Stanford White, the library of the William Watts Sherman House is considered an exemplary representation of American decorative art and architecture.\\u000aThe purpose of this report is to analyze and make recommendations to Salve Regina University, the present owner of the building, in regards
Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared with traditional homes built from poorer construction materials. Methodology/Principal Findings Surveys were carried out in the Nam Theun 2 resettlement area and a nearby traditional rice farming area in 2010. Mosquitoes were sampled in bedrooms using CDC light traps in 96 resettlement houses and 96 traditional houses and potential risk factors for mosquito house entry were recorded. Risk of mosquito house entry was more than twice as high in traditional bamboo houses compared with those newly constructed from wood (Putative Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vector incidence rate ratio (IRR)?=?2.26, 95% CI 1.38–3.70, P?=?0.001; Anopheline IRR?=?2.35, 95% CI: 1.30–4.23, P?=?0.005). Anophelines were more common in homes with cattle compared against those without (IRR?=?2.32, 95% CI: 1.29–4.17, P?=?0.005).Wood smoke from cooking fires located under the house or indoors was found to be protective against house entry by both groups of mosquito, compared with cooking in a separate room beside the house (Putative JE vector IRR?=?0.43, 95% CI: 0.26–0.73, P?=?0.002; Anopheline IRR?=?0.22, 95% CI: 0.10–0.51, P<0.001). Conclusions/Significance Construction of modern wooden homes should help reduce human-mosquito contact in the Lao PDR. Reduced mosquito contact rates could lead to reduced transmission of diseases such as JE and malaria. Cattle ownership was associated with increased anopheline house entry, so zooprophylaxis for malaria control is not recommended in this area. Whilst wood smoke was protective against putative JE vector and anopheline house entry we do not recommend indoor cooking since smoke inhalation can enhance respiratory disease.
Hiscox, Alexandra; Khammanithong, Phasouk; Kaul, Surinder; Sananikhom, Pany; Luthi, Ruedi; Brey, Paul T.; Lindsay, Steve W.
Although human subjects are widely used to study sleep and sleep disorders, animals have been invaluable in developing our understanding of the physiology of sleep and underlying mechanisms of sleep disorders. Environmental stimuli are likely to modify sleep in both animals and people, suggesting that environmental stability must be controlled carefully by both husbandry and research staff to allow collection of valid results with minimal numbers of animals. However, few studies have measured the effects of cage condition on sleep parameters in mice. Current guidelines recommend social housing and environmental enrichment for standard rodenthousing. Environmental factors such as these create potential confounds in studies for which facets of sleep are outcome measures. We therefore sought to determine whether cage changes, group housing, or single housing with a shelter altered measures of sleep in C57BL/6J mice. The resulting data indicate that 1) cage changing disrupts sleep for approximately 3 h; 2) group housing is associated with shorter bouts of rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and less slow-wave sleep (SWS) during the light phase and with more REMS during the dark phase; and 3) mice housed with a shelter spend less time awake and more time in SWS, with longer bouts of SWS during the dark phase. In additional, both group housing and housing with a shelter were associated with less locomotor activity than occurred in individually housed mice without a shelter. These findings provide evidence for long-held beliefs that housing conditions must be controlled carefully in studies that require assessment of sleep.
Febinger, Heidi Y; George, Amrita; Priestley, Jill; Toth, Linda A; Opp, Mark R
The growth of superinsulated houses and growth of double-envelope houses are discussed. The two new fields are described in general and compared. The main principles used are explained and the merits of individual design features are considered. Some possible improvements are noted and specifics of three historic superinsulated houses (the University of Illinois Lo-Cal House, Leger House, and the Saskatchewan House) are summarized. Details on four historic double-envelope houses (Lake Tahoe House, Burns House in New Hampshire, Beford House in New York, and Mastin House in Rhode Island) are included. The Norwegian House at Aas is described. It differs from superinsulated and double-envelope houses. (MCW)
Hydrogen evolution is examined beginning with Tafel data and the Ideal Gas Law. Equations and methods of efficiently venting this gas are detailed. In many applications gas recombining battery product is housed in relatively small rooms with minimal control of ambient temperature and battery charge current. Improper control of these variablesi and tardy replacement of the battery can result in
UTILITY ROOM. VIEW FACING WEST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
Head direction (HD) cells in the rodent brain have been investigated for a number of years, providing us with a detailed understanding of how the rodent brain codes for allocentric direction. Allocentric direction refers to the orientation of the external environment, independent of one's current (egocentric) orientation. The presence of neural activity related to allocentric directional coding in humans has also been noted but only recently directly tested. Given the current status of both fields, it seems beneficial to draw parallels between this rodent and human research. We therefore discuss how findings from the human retrosplenial cortex (RSC), including its "translational function" (converting egocentric to allocentric information) and ability to code for permanent objects, compare to findings from the rodent RSC. We conclude by suggesting critical future experiments that derive from a cross-species approach to understanding the function of the human RSC. PMID:24672459
Arboreal rodents in Douglas-fir forests west of the Cascade crest in Oregon and Washington include (listed in decreasing order of dependence on trees) red tree vole (Phenacomys longicaudus), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), Douglas' squirrel...
A new cable sheath system has been developed for fiber optic cables having strength elements in the sheath. This new primary sheath offers rodent, lightning, and mechanical protection in a configuration much smaller and lighter than previous designs using...
A water dispensing system for rodents has been developed for use in chronic research studies involving hypobaric chambers. The system removes an existing problem that has restricted long-term animal exposures due to limitations inherent in the typical wat...
Head direction (HD) cells in the rodent brain have been investigated for a number of years, providing us with a detailed understanding of how the rodent brain codes for allocentric direction. Allocentric direction refers to the orientation of the external environment, independent of one’s current (egocentric) orientation. The presence of neural activity related to allocentric directional coding in humans has also been noted but only recently directly tested. Given the current status of both fields, it seems beneficial to draw parallels between this rodent and human research. We therefore discuss how findings from the human retrosplenial cortex (RSC), including its “translational function” (converting egocentric to allocentric information) and ability to code for permanent objects, compare to findings from the rodent RSC. We conclude by suggesting critical future experiments that derive from a cross-species approach to understanding the function of the human RSC.
A novel technique for remote determination of breathing frequency in unrestrained rodents using microwave radiation is described. Single mice were placed inside a rectangular waveguide operating at 2450 MHz. Because mice efficiently absorb radio frequency energy at 2450 MHz, any ...
This is a visual activity where students must visualize a shape and then identify it in the room. Students will learn to see how everyday objects are geometric and remember what they look like for the exam.
We examined rodent dispersal of Dioscorea japonica bulbils. Bulbils dispersed by rodents may travel farther from their parent plants than those dispersed by gravity alone.\\u000a To confirm the presence of secondary dispersal and the types of vector, we used an automatic camera to photograph animals\\u000a that approached bulbils. To clarify secondary dispersal distance, we set marked bulbils at eight sites
The number of rodent species examined by modern comparative genomic approaches, particularly chromosome painting, is limited. The use of human whole-chromosome painting probes to detect regions of homology in the karyotypes of the rodent index species, the mouse and rat, has been hindered by the highly rearranged nature of their genomes. In contrast, recent studies have demonstrated that non-murid rodents display more conserved genomes, underscoring their suitability for comparative genomic and higher-order systematic studies. Here we provide the first comparative chromosome maps between human and representative rodents of three major rodent lineages Castoridae, Pedetidae and Dipodidae. A comprehensive analysis of these data and those published for Sciuridae show (1) that Castoridae, Pedetidae and Dipodidae form a monophyletic group, and (2) that the European beaver Castor fiber (Castoridae) and the birch mouse Sicista betulina (Dipodidae) are sister species to the exclusion of the springhare Pedetes capensis (Pedetidae), thus resolving an enduring trifurcation in rodent higher-level systematics. Our results together with published data on the Sciuridae allow the formulation of a putative rodent ancestral karyotype (2n = 50) that is thought to comprise the following 26 human chromosomal segments and/or segmental associations: HSA1pq, 1q/10p, 2pq, 2q, 3a, 3b/19p, 3c/21, 4b, 5, 6, 7a, 7b/16p, 8p/4a/8p, 8q, 9/11, 10q, 12a/22a, 12b/22b, 13, 14/15, 16q/19q, 17, 18, 20, X and Y. These findings provide insights into the likely composition of the ancestral rodent karyotype and an improved understanding of placental genome evolution. PMID:18266061
A new low-concentration formulation of Feracol paste containing 0.4% concentration cholecalciferol was tested for efficacy against possums in cage trials, and against possums and rodents in a single unreplicated field trial. A new low-concentration 0.4% cholecalciferol cereal pellet was also tested in the field against possums and rodents. 20 wild-caught possums, held in individual cages, were presented with 15 g
S Hix; P Aylett; L Shapiro; D MacMorran; S Sam; JG Ross; A Miller; SC Ogilvie
Herpetosoma is a homogenous subgenus of several dozen named species that are often described as morphologically indistinguishable T. lewisi-like parasites. These trypanosomes normally infect rodents and utilize fleas as vectors. Although this trypanosome subgenus is considered non-pathogenic to normal hosts, some of them are on rare occasion reported in association with human disease. Recently, a T. lewisi-like infection was detected in a sick Thai infant, thus the objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of T. lewisi infections among different rodents indigenous to Thailand in order to identify possible sources of human cases. Blood was collected from a total of 276 rodents trapped from urban and rural areas of three Thai provinces between 2006 and 2007. These samples were processed for DNA isolation and tested with a PCR assay universal for the genus Trypanosoma, followed by internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) sequence analysis to identify infections in positive samples. Herpetosoma known as T. lewisi-like trypanosomes were present among Rattus (14.3%) and Bandicota (18.0%) rodent species and salivarian trypanosomes closely related to T. evansi were detected in Leopoldamys (20%) and Rattus (2.0%) species. Herpetosoma were prevalent among rodents associated with both human and sylvatic habitats, while three of the four salivaria-positive rodents were from a forest biotope. A Herpetosoma ITS-1 sequence amplified from one of these samples was 97.9% identical to that reported for T. lewisi in an experimentally infected rat and 96.4% identical to the sequence amplified from blood from a Thai infant. Habitats where rodents were collected significantly affect rodent infection, at least for T. lewisi, suggesting that the degree of anthropization may influence the transmission of Trypanosoma spp. These results suggest that multiple Herpetosoma species or strains are enzootic to Thailand, and that Rattus and Bandicota species are possible sources of human exposure to these parasites. PMID:17904918
Jittapalapong, S; Inpankaew, T; Sarataphan, N; Herbreteau, V; Hugot, J P; Morand, S; Stich, R W
How do cell number and size determine brain size? Here, we show that, in the order Rodentia, increased size of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and remaining areas across six species is achieved through greater numbers of neurons of larger size, and much greater numbers of nonneuronal cells of roughly invariant size, such that the ratio between total neuronal and nonneuronal mass remains constant across species. Although relative cerebellar size remains stable among rodents, the number of cerebellar neurons increases with brain size more rapidly than in the cortex, such that the cerebellar fraction of total brain neurons increases with brain size. In contrast, although the relative cortical size increases with total brain size, the cortical fraction of total brain neurons remains constant. We propose that the faster increase in average neuronal size in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum as these structures gain neurons and the rapidly increasing glial numbers that generate glial mass to match total neuronal mass at a fixed glia/neuron total mass ratio are fundamental cellular constraints that lead to the relative expansion of cerebral cortical volume across species.
Studies in cocaine-dependent human subjects have shown differences in white matter on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) compared to non-drug using controls. It is not known whether the FA differences seen on DTI in white matter regions of cocaine-dependent humans result from a pre-existing predilection for drug use or purely from cocaine abuse. To study the effect of cocaine on brain white matter, DTI was performed on 24 rats after continuous infusion of cocaine or saline for 4 weeks, followed by brain histology. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed 18% decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the splenium of corpus callosum (CC) in cocaine-administered animals relative to saline controls (P = 0.0001). On histology, significant increase in neurofilament expression (125%, P=0.0044) and decrease in myelin basic protein (40%, P = 0.031) was observed in the same region in cocaine-administered animals. This study supports the hypothesis that chronic cocaine use alters white matter integrity in human CC. Unlike humans, where the FA in the genu differed between cocaine users and non-users, the splenium was affected in rats. These differences between rodent and human findings could be due to a several factors that include differences in the brain structure and function between species and/or the dose, timing, and duration of cocaine administration.
Narayana, Ponnada A.; Ahobila-Vajjula, Pallavi; Ramu, Jaivijay; Herrera, Juan; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) participates in a manifold of cognitive functions, including visual attention, working memory, spatial processing, and movement planning. Given the vast interconnectivity of PPC with sensory and motor areas, it is not surprising that neuronal recordings show that PPC often encodes mixtures of spatial information as well as the movements required to reach a goal. Recent work sought to discern the relative strength of spatial vs. motor signaling in PPC by recording single unit activity in PPC of freely behaving rats during selective changes in either the spatial layout of the local environment or in the pattern of locomotor behaviors executed during navigational tasks. The results revealed unequivocally a predominant sensitivity of PPC neurons to locomotor action structure, with subsets of cells even encoding upcoming movements more than 1 s in advance. In light of these and other recent findings in the field, I propose that one of the key contributions of PPC to navigation is the synthesis of goal-directed behavioral sequences, and that the rodent PPC may serve as an apt system to investigate cellular mechanisms for spatial motor planning as traditionally studied in humans and monkeys.
In rats, the long facial whiskers (mystacial macrovibrissae) are repetitively and rapidly swept back and forth during exploration in a behaviour known as ‘whisking’. In this paper, we summarize previous evidence from rats, and present new data for rat, mouse and the marsupial grey short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) showing that whisking in all three species is actively controlled both with respect to movement of the animal's body and relative to environmental structure. Using automatic whisker tracking, and Fourier analysis, we first show that the whisking motion of the mystacial vibrissae, in the horizontal plane, can be approximated as a blend of two sinusoids at the fundamental frequency (mean 8.5, 11.3 and 7.3 Hz in rat, mouse and opossum, respectively) and its second harmonic. The oscillation at the second harmonic is particularly strong in mouse (around 22 Hz) consistent with previous reports of fast whisking in that species. In all three species, we found evidence of asymmetric whisking during head turning and following unilateral object contacts consistent with active control of whisker movement. We propose that the presence of active vibrissal touch in both rodents and marsupials suggests that this behavioural capacity emerged at an early stage in the evolution of therian mammals.
Mitchinson, Ben; Grant, Robyn A.; Arkley, Kendra; Rankov, Vladan; Perkon, Igor; Prescott, Tony J.
The problem of sound decay in a trapezoidal room with a nonuniform distribution of wall absorption is considered. It is shown that the sound energy decay may be either anomalously slow, obeying the law ˜1/ t, or fast, obeying an exponential law. It is found that the type of the decay law depends on the presence of stable ray trajectories in the room. Manifestations of stable ray trajectories in both laboratory and field experiments are demonstrated.
A control room for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects labelled 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 in the drawing are no less than four inches from walls labelled 10.2. A ceiling contains cooling fins that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates. A concrete slab is poured over the plates. Studs are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete. 6 figures.
A control room 10 for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 are no less than four inches from walls 10.2. A ceiling 32 contains cooling fins 35 that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates 34. A concrete slab 33 is poured over the plates. Studs 36 are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete.
Lamuro, Robert C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)
Aesthetics, attitudes, and acceptance of earth-covered buildings are examined initially, followed by an examination of land, money, water, earth, design, heat, and interior factors. Contributions made by architect Frank Lloyd Wright are discussed and reviewed. Contemporary persons, mostly designers, who contribute from their experiences with underground structures are Andy Davis; Rob Roy; Malcolm Wells; John Barnard, Jr.; Jeff Sikora; and Don Metz. A case study to select the site, design, and prepare to construct Earthtech 6 is described. Information is given in appendices on earth-protected buildings and existing basements; financing earth-sheltered housing; heating-load calculations and life-cycle costing; and designer names and addresses. (MCW)
Poor quality housing is an infringement on the rights of all humans to a standard of living adequate for health. Among the many vulnerabilities of those without adequate shelter is the risk of disease spread by rodents and other pests. One such disease is Lassa fever, an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. Lassa virus is maintained in the rodent Mastomys natalensis, commonly known as the "multimammate rat," which frequently invades the domestic environment, putting humans at risk of Lassa fever. The highest reported incidence of Lassa fever in the world is consistently in the Kenema District of Sierra Leone, a region that was at the center of Sierra Leone's civil war in which tens of thousands of lives were lost and hundreds of thousands of dwellings destroyed. Despite the end of the war in 2002, most of Kenema's population still lives in inadequate housing that puts them at risk of rodent invasion and Lassa fever. Furthermore, despite years of health education and village hygiene campaigns, the incidence of Lassa fever in Kenema District appears to be increasing. We focus on Lassa fever as a matter of human rights, proposing a strategy to improve housing quality, and discuss how housing equity has the potential to improve health equity and ultimately economic productivity in Sierra Leone. The manuscript is designed to spur discussion and action towards provision of housing and prevention of disease in one of the world's most vulnerable populations. PMID:23282054
Kelly, J Daniel; Barrie, M Bailor; Ross, Rachel A; Temple, Brian A; Moses, Lina M; Bausch, Daniel G
Poor quality housing is an infringement on the rights of all humans to a standard of living adequate for health. Among the many vulnerabilities of those without adequate shelter is the risk of disease spread by rodents and other pests. One such disease is Lassa fever, an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. Lassa virus is maintained in the rodent Mastomys natalensis, commonly known as the “multimammate rat,” which frequently invades the domestic environment, putting humans at risk of Lassa fever. The highest reported incidence of Lassa fever in the world is consistently in the Kenema District of Sierra Leone, a region that was at the center of Sierra Leone’s civil war in which tens of thousands of lives were lost and hundreds of thousands of dwellings destroyed. Despite the end of the war in 2002, most of Kenema’s population still lives in inadequate housing that puts them at risk of rodent invasion and Lassa fever. Furthermore, despite years of health education and village hygiene campaigns, the incidence of Lassa fever in Kenema District appears to be increasing. We focus on Lassa fever as a matter of human rights, proposing a strategy to improve housing quality, and discuss how housing equity has the potential to improve health equity and ultimately economic productivity in Sierra Leone. The manuscript is designed to spur discussion and action towards provision of housing and prevention of disease in one of the world’s most vulnerable populations.
Recent evidence suggests that reverberant energy can provide listeners with important spatial information regarding the distance of a sound source. However, relatively little is known about the perceptual attributes of the reverberation itself, and how these attributes may be related to physical properties of the environment that also potentially impact perceived spatial location. Here, perceived similarity among 15 reverberant rooms simulated using virtual auditory space techniques was examined. Room size and surface absorption properties were varied, along with aspects of the virtual simulation including the use of individualized head-related transfer function (HRTF) measurements and properties of the room acoustic simulation. Seven listeners rated perceived similarity on a 100-point scale between all possible pairs of simulated rooms using a speech source signal. Multidimensional scaling techniques were used to estimate scales of perceived room reverberation. Although the resulting scales were complex and somewhat unique to individual listeners, it is clear that the perceptual effects of manipulating properties of the reverberant sound are much larger than the effects due to either nonindividualized HRTFs or nonoptimal room simulation methods. [Work supported by NIDCD.
Hantaviruses, similar to several emerging zoonotic viruses, persistently infect their natural reservoir hosts, without causing overt signs of disease. Spillover to incidental human hosts results in morbidity and mortality mediated by excessive proinflammatory and cellular immune responses. The mechanisms mediating the persistence of hantaviruses and the absence of clinical symptoms in rodent reservoirs are only starting to be uncovered. Recent studies indicate that during hantavirus infection, proinflammatory and antiviral responses are reduced and regulatory responses are elevated at sites of increased virus replication in rodents. The recent discovery of structural and non-structural proteins that suppress type I interferon responses in humans suggests that immune responses in rodent hosts could be mediated directly by the virus. Alternatively, several host factors, including sex steroids, glucocorticoids, and genetic factors, are reported to alter host susceptibility and may contribute to persistence of hantaviruses in rodents. Humans and reservoir hosts differ in infection outcomes and in immune responses to hantavirus infection; thus, understanding the mechanisms mediating viral persistence and the absence of disease in rodents may provide insight into the prevention and treatment of disease in humans. Consideration of the coevolutionary mechanisms mediating hantaviral persistence and rodent host survival is providing insight into the mechanisms by which zoonotic viruses have remained in the environment for millions of years and continue to be transmitted to humans.
23. Photocopy of ca. 1890 photograph showing DRAWING ROOM (see also PA-1524-12). Photographed during the occupancy of Dr. and Mrs. Erwin Agnew. Note the following furnishings: 1) Chandeliers, possibly by Cornelius and Sons of Philadelphia; 2) Ceiling painting at top of photocopy is copy of Guido Reni's Aurora, one of the two most popular Renaissance paintings in the mid-19th century; 3) Scagliola columns; 4) 'Turkish' upholstered chairs (typical of the period); 5) Neo-renaissance mirror at extreme left - Parry House, 1921 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Amid the successes of new residential housing developments throughout the United States, there are many policy analysts and community activists who remain concern about the general lack of affordable housing in some parts of the country. One such group is the National Low Income Housing Coalition, which is primarily focused on the creation and maintenance of housing for persons in the lowest income brackets. The site itself is quite rich in materials, including the AdvocateÃ¢ÂÂs Guide which contains short chapters describing more than 60 housing-related programs, proposals, and issues. Another very useful set of documents are the Ã¢ÂÂOut of ReachÃ¢ÂÂ annual reports, which offer statistical data and summaries of the affordability (or lack of affordability) of housing options in different regions of the country.
Located on the campus of the University of Illinois at Chicago in the Windy CityÃÂ¢Ã¢ÂÂ¬Ã¢ÂÂ¢s West Side, the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum serves as "a dynamic memorial to social reformer Jane Addams." Addams was the first woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize and she worked to transform the lives of immigrants and others through her social service work. Visitors to the site can look through four primary areas: Home, Learn, Program & Events, and Museum. These formal areas contain key materials about the House's activities, and visitors should also look through over areas like Stories as Resistance, How Do We Build Peace and Create More Justice in Chicago?, and Chicago Amplified. One key area is Immigrant City-Chicago, which brings together 94 works that respond to the topic of immigration. Visitors can view poems and works of art around themes such as Our Home and Solidarity. Additionally, the site also contains the Women's History Bus Tour, which is a pdf guidebook that focuses on "women's imprint on the social fabric and life found on the Near West Side and in Pilsen."
In this article, the author talks about The Trove, a children's space--library doesn't quite cut it--located in the White Plains Public Library, New York. Sandra Miranda, the library's director, came up with the idea for The Trove, although it took the work of many--from her staff to the architects to theatrical designers and fabrications--to…
Background In many parts of continental Africa house construction does not appear to impede entry of malaria vectors and, given their generally late biting cycle, the great majority of transmission takes place indoors. In contrast, many houses in São Tomé, 140 km off the coast of Gabon, are raised on stilts and built of wooden planks. Building on stilts is a time-honoured, but largely untested, way of avoiding mosquito bites. Exposure may also be affected by mosquito activity times and age composition of host-seeking females. A study was therefore undertaken on the island of São Tomé to determine if exposure to Anopheles gambiae, the only vector on the island, varied with house construction or time of the night. Methods A series of all-night landing collections were undertaken out of doors at ground level, inside houses at ground level, on the verandas of, and inside houses built on stilts. The gonotrophic age of an unselected sample of insects from the first three hours of landing collection (18:00–21:00) was determined by dissection. In addition, 1,149 miniature light-trap collections were obtained from 125 houses in the study area. Numbers collected were related to house construction. Results Biting of An. gambiae took place primarily outside at ground level. Less than one third of biting occurred inside houses. Houses built on stilts had half the number of An. gambiae in them compared to those built at ground level. Conversely houses with an eaves gap had more An. gambiae in them than houses without such a gap. Gonotrophic age did not affect house entry rates in An. gambiae. House construction affected Culex quinquefasciatus less than An. gambiae. Mean density per house, derived from a series of 1,490 randomly assigned light-trap collections, was over-dispersed with 18% of houses having 70% of the vectors. Conclusion House construction plays an important role in determining exposure to malaria vectors in São Tomé. Neighbours can have very different exposure levels. Recommendations for improvement in control are given.
Charlwood, J Derek; Pinto, Joao; Ferrara, Patrica R; Sousa, Carla A; Ferreira, Conceicao; Gil, Vilfrido; do Rosario, Virgillo E
Traumatic brain injury resulting from an explosive blast is one of the most serious wounds suffered by warfighters, yet the effects of explosive blast overpressure directly impacting the head are poorly understood. We developed a rodent model of direct cranial blast injury (dcBI), in which a blast overpressure could be delivered exclusively to the head, precluding indirect brain injury via thoracic transmission of the blast wave. We constructed and validated a Cranium Only Blast Injury Apparatus (COBIA) to deliver blast overpressures generated by detonating .22 caliber cartridges of smokeless powder. Blast waveforms generated by COBIA replicated those recorded within armored vehicles penetrated by munitions. Lethal dcBI (LD(50) ? 515?kPa) was associated with: (1) apparent brainstem failure, characterized by immediate opisthotonus and apnea leading to cardiac arrest that could not be overcome by cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (2) widespread subarachnoid hemorrhages without cortical contusions or intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhages; and (3) no pulmonary abnormalities. Sub-lethal dcBI was associated with: (1) apnea lasting up to 15?sec, with transient abnormalities in oxygen saturation; (2) very few delayed deaths; (3) subarachnoid hemorrhages, especially in the path of the blast wave; (4) abnormal immunolabeling for IgG, cleaved caspase-3, and ?-amyloid precursor protein (?-APP), and staining for Fluoro-Jade C, all in deep brain regions away from the subarachnoid hemorrhages, but in the path of the blast wave; and (5) abnormalities on the accelerating Rotarod that persisted for the 1 week period of observation. We conclude that exposure of the head alone to severe explosive blast predisposes to significant neurological dysfunction. PMID:21639724
Normative housing deficits are introduced into an analysis of the propensity to move as intervening variables between socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and satisfaction. The findings support the use of residential satisfaction and normative housing deficits as predictors of the propensity to move. (Author)
As a campus or fraternal housing administrator, you have the duty to provide a safe environment for the college students housed in your facilities. You are faced with a number of different issues competing for your attention and for the limited resources ...
PHOTO OF THE BOAT HOUSE, GATE HOUSE, UPSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAYS LOOKING EAST; WATER INTAKE AND LOG BOOMS ARE SEEN ON RESERVOIR. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA
The NASA\\/Baltimore Applications Project operating at the Goddard Space Flight Center was called upon by the Housing Authority of Baltimore City to consider the problems of providing low cost public housing because of increased energy costs and suggest methods for correction and alleviation. The first step chosen was to elicit as many different options for solution as possible through means
The purpose of the Fuel Handling Facility Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements Calculation is to determine a preliminary estimate of the space required to house the backup central communications room in the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF). This room provides backup communications capability to the primary communication systems located in the Central Control Center Facility. This calculation will help guide FHF designers in allocating adequate space for communications system equipment in the FHF. This is a preliminary calculation determining preliminary estimates based on the assumptions listed in Section 4. As such, there are currently no limitations on the use of this preliminary calculation. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Design and Engineering and are intended solely for the use of Design and Engineering in its work regarding the FHF Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from Design and Engineering should be consulted before the use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Design and Engineering.
The model of a housing market, introduced by Shapley and Scarf in 1974 , captures a fundamental situation in an economy where each agent owns exactly one unit of some indivisible good: a house. We focus on an extension of this model where duplicate houses may exist. As opposed to the classical setting, the existence of an economical equilibrium is no longer ensured in this case. Here, we study the deficiency of housing markets with duplicate houses, a notion measuring how close a market can get to an economic equilibrium. We investigate the complexity of computing the deficiency of a market, both in the classical sense and also in the context of parameterized complexity.
Anaemia was detected in housed lambs by clinical and haematological investigation. Conjunctival pallor was used as a clinical test for anaemia and the results indicate that this has high specificity (91 per cent to 95 per cent) and low sensitivity (53 per cent to 55 per cent). The haematological results indicated a non-regenerative anaemia with low packed cell volume, red blood cell count and haemoglobin. In a subset of lambs examined biochemically, anaemia was associated with low serum iron concentration and low serum iron binding: cobalt levels were within normal ranges and blood copper levels were slightly raised. At present it is unclear whether this is a primary or secondary iron deficiency. PMID:8337479
The weak housing market has been one of the most important business stories of 2007. A weak housing market decreases the value of a house. As a result, the wealth of the individual consumer drops, decreasing their financial security. There are many ways to measure the weakness in the housing market such as the number of house sales, foreclosure rates,
This interactive tool allows the user to view global housing prices by country and time frame, and housing price index, the percentage of change over time, housing price in real terms, house prices compared to rents, or house price against average income.
A highly automated monitoring and control system for studying radon and radon-daughter behavior in residences has been designed and built. The system has been installed in a research house, a test space contained in a two-story wood-framed building, which allows us to conduct controlled studies of (1) pollutant transport within and between rooms, (2) the dynamics of radon daughter behavior, and (3) techniques for controlling radon and radon daughters. The system's instrumentation is capable of measuring air-exchange rate, four-point radon concentration, individual radon daughter concentrations, indoor temerature and humidity, and outdoor weather parameters (temperature, humidity, modules, wind speed, and wind direction). It is also equipped with modules that control the injection of radon and tracer gas into the test space, the operation of the forced-air furnace, the mechanical ventilation system, and the mixing fans located in each room. A microcomputer controls the experiments and records the data on magnetic tape and on a printing terminal. The data on tape is transferred to a larger computer system for reduction and analysis. In this paper we describe the essential design and function of the instrumentation system, as a whole, singling out those components that measure ventilation rate, radon concentration, and radon daughter concentrations.
Background Avian influenza viruses are known to productively infect a number of mammal species, several of which are commonly found on or near poultry and gamebird farms. While control of rodent species is often used to limit avian influenza virus transmission within and among outbreak sites, few studies have investigated the potential role of these species in outbreak dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings We trapped and sampled synanthropic mammals on a gamebird farm in Idaho, USA that had recently experienced a low pathogenic avian influenza outbreak. Six of six house mice (Mus musculus) caught on the outbreak farm were presumptively positive for antibodies to type A influenza. Consequently, we experimentally infected groups of naïve wild-caught house mice with five different low pathogenic avian influenza viruses that included three viruses derived from wild birds and two viruses derived from chickens. Virus replication was efficient in house mice inoculated with viruses derived from wild birds and more moderate for chicken-derived viruses. Mean titers (EID50 equivalents/mL) across all lung samples from seven days of sampling (three mice/day) ranged from 103.89 (H3N6) to 105.06 (H4N6) for the wild bird viruses and 102.08 (H6N2) to 102.85 (H4N8) for the chicken-derived viruses. Interestingly, multiple regression models indicated differential replication between sexes, with significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of avian influenza RNA found in females compared with males. Conclusions/Significance Avian influenza viruses replicated efficiently in wild-caught house mice without adaptation, indicating mice may be a risk pathway for movement of avian influenza viruses on poultry and gamebird farms. Differential virus replication between males and females warrants further investigation to determine the generality of this result in avian influenza disease dynamics.
Shriner, Susan A.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Mooers, Nicole L.; Ellis, Jeremy W.; Sullivan, Heather J.; Root, J. Jeffrey; Pelzel, Angela M.; Franklin, Alan B.
...Redelegation of Authority Regarding Single Family Housing Programs AGENCY: Office of the...comprehensive delegation of authority for single family housing programs. This notice amends...Assistant Secretary for the Office of Single Family Housing, Office of Housing,...
Discusses the influence of residence halls in supporting a college's admissions and recruiting process for attracting highly qualified students. It explores the trends in student housing needs and how a school can meet those needs, and examines possible funding solutions for dormitory renovations. Recommendations for developing housing strategies…
In this paper it is intended to place the recent experience of the Irish housing market in the context of economic and property market cycles, how these interact over a property cycle and lessons from recent policy experience including interventions in the housing area. In spatial terms the currenthousing market can be seen as the result of an ad-hoc development
The study demonstrates a direct link between housing uncertainty and children's time preferences, or patience. We show that students who face housing uncertainties through mortgage foreclosures and eviction learn impatient behavior and are therefore at greater risk of making poor intertemporal choices such as dropping out of school. We find that…
A reduction in inflation can fuel run-ups in housing prices if people suffer from money illusion. For example, investors who decide whether to rent or buy a house by simply comparing monthly rent and mortgage payments do not take into account that inflation lowers future real mortgage costs. We decompose the price-rent ratio in a rational component -- meant to
A House system is planned for Cypress Junior College, California, for an expected enrollment of 12,000. This idea of a residence hall where students live and work together may be organized around a major field (science, engineering, arts) or for a deliberate interdisciplinary mix. Usually a House plan brings living and learning together to…
Nonprofit organizations play a critical role in U.S. housing policy, a role typically justified by the claim that their housing investments produce significant neighbor-hood spillover benefits. However, little work has actually been done to measure these impacts on neighborhoods. This paper compares the neighborhood spillover effects of…
The Social capital literature documents a connection between social connection and economic outcomes of interest ranging from government quality to economic growth. Popular authors suggest that housing and architecture are important determinants of social connection. This paper examines the connection between housing structure and social connection. We find that residents of large apartment buildings are more likely to be socially
The social capital literature documents a connection between social connection and economic outcomes of interest ranging from government quality to economic growth. Popular authors suggest that housing and architecture are important determinants of social connection. This paper examines the connection between housing structure and social connection. We find that residents of large apartment buildings are more likely to be socially
Houses, some with floor space of less then 100 square feet, can leave a small carbon footprint. This article describes those "tiny houses," and gives additional reasons some people choose to live in them. Photos of several are included. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.
In this paper, we examine the importance of accessibility to employment and transportation system attributes for residential location choice, car ownership and house values. Using the 1980 Census of Housing and Journey to Work data merged with transportation system data, we find strong evidence of residential sorting based on employment location. We find that suburban areas with good commuter rail
When exploring biological determinants of spontaneous physical activity (SPA), it is critical to consider whether methodological factors differentially affect rodents and the measured SPA. We determined whether acclimation time, sensory stimulation, vendor, or chamber size affected measures in rodents with varying propensity for SPA. We used principal component analysis to determine which SPA components (ambulatory and vertical counts, time in SPA, and distance traveled) best described the variability in SPA measurements. We compared radiotelemetry and infrared photobeams used to measure SPA and exploratory activity. Acclimation time, sensory stimulation, vendor, and chamber size independently influenced SPA, and the effect was moderated by the propensity for SPA. A 24-h acclimation period prior to SPA measurement was sufficient for habituation. Principal component analysis showed that ambulatory and vertical measurements of SPA describe different dimensions of the rodent's SPA behavior. Smaller testing chambers and a sensory attenuation cubicle around the chamber reduced SPA. SPA varies between rodents purchased from different vendors. Radiotelemetry and infrared photobeams differ in their sensitivity to detect phenotypic differences in SPA and exploratory activity. These data highlight methodological considerations in rodent SPA measurement and a need to standardize SPA methodology. PMID:24598463
Teske, Jennifer A; Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M
ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegivirus (HPgV or GB virus C) are globally distributed and infect 2 to 5% of the human population. The lack of tractable-animal models for these viruses, in particular for HCV, has hampered the study of infection, transmission, virulence, immunity, and pathogenesis. To address this challenge, we searched for homologous viruses in small mammals, including wild rodents. Here we report the discovery of several new hepaciviruses (HCV-like viruses) and pegiviruses (GB virus-like viruses) that infect wild rodents. Complete genome sequences were acquired for a rodent hepacivirus (RHV) found in Peromyscus maniculatus and a rodent pegivirus (RPgV) found in Neotoma albigula. Unique genomic features and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that these RHV and RPgV variants represent several novel virus species in the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera within the family Flaviviridae. The genetic diversity of the rodent hepaciviruses exceeded that observed for hepaciviruses infecting either humans or non-primates, leading to new insights into the origin, evolution, and host range of hepaciviruses. The presence of genes, encoded proteins, and translation elements homologous to those found in human hepaciviruses and pegiviruses suggests the potential for the development of new animal systems with which to model HCV pathogenesis, vaccine design, and treatment.
Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Scheel, Troels K. H.; Hjelle, Brian; Cullen, John M.; Burbelo, Peter D.; Chauhan, Lokendra V.; Duraisamy, Raja; Sanchez Leon, Maria; Jain, Komal; Vandegrift, Kurt Jason; Calisher, Charles H.; Rice, Charles M.; Lipkin, W. Ian
A serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii was conducted on 766 domestic and peridomestic rodents from 46 trapping sites throughout the city of Niamey, Niger. A low seroprevalence was found over the whole town with only 1.96% of the rodents found seropositive. However, differences between species were important, ranging from less than 2% in truly commensal Mastomys natalensis, Rattus rattus and Mus musculus, while garden-associated Arvicanthis niloticus displayed 9.1% of seropositive individuals. This is in line with previous studies on tropical rodents - that we reviewed here - which altogether show that Toxoplasma seroprevalence in rodent is highly variable, depending on many factors such as locality and/or species. Moreover, although we were not able to decipher statistically between habitat or species effect, such a contrast between Nile grass rats and the other rodent species points towards a potentially important role of environmental toxoplasmic infection. This would deserve to be further scrutinised since intra-city irrigated cultures are extending in Niamey, thus potentially increasing Toxoplasma circulation in this yet semi-arid region. As far as we are aware of, our study is one of the rare surveys of its kind performed in Sub-Saharan Africa and the first one ever conducted in the Sahel.
The Neotropics have many plant species that seem to be adapted for seed dispersal by megafauna that went extinct in the late Pleistocene. Given the crucial importance of seed dispersal for plant persistence, it remains a mystery how these plants have survived more than 10,000 y without their mutualist dispersers. Here we present support for the hypothesis that secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents has facilitated the persistence of these large-seeded species. We used miniature radio transmitters to track the dispersal of reputedly megafaunal seeds by Central American agoutis, which scatter-hoard seeds in shallow caches in the soil throughout the forest. We found that seeds were initially cached at mostly short distances and then quickly dug up again. However, rather than eating the recovered seeds, agoutis continued to move and recache the seeds, up to 36 times. Agoutis dispersed an estimated 35% of seeds for >100 m. An estimated 14% of the cached seeds survived to the next year, when a new fruit crop became available to the rodents. Serial video-monitoring of cached seeds revealed that the stepwise dispersal was caused by agoutis repeatedly stealing and recaching each other’s buried seeds. Although previous studies suggest that rodents are poor dispersers, we demonstrate that communities of rodents can in fact provide highly effective long-distance seed dispersal. Our findings suggest that thieving scatter-hoarding rodents could substitute for extinct megafaunal seed dispersers of tropical large-seeded trees.
Jansen, Patrick A.; Hirsch, Ben T.; Emsens, Willem-Jan; Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica; Wikelski, Martin; Kays, Roland
The Neotropics have many plant species that seem to be adapted for seed dispersal by megafauna that went extinct in the late Pleistocene. Given the crucial importance of seed dispersal for plant persistence, it remains a mystery how these plants have survived more than 10,000 y without their mutualist dispersers. Here we present support for the hypothesis that secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents has facilitated the persistence of these large-seeded species. We used miniature radio transmitters to track the dispersal of reputedly megafaunal seeds by Central American agoutis, which scatter-hoard seeds in shallow caches in the soil throughout the forest. We found that seeds were initially cached at mostly short distances and then quickly dug up again. However, rather than eating the recovered seeds, agoutis continued to move and recache the seeds, up to 36 times. Agoutis dispersed an estimated 35% of seeds for >100 m. An estimated 14% of the cached seeds survived to the next year, when a new fruit crop became available to the rodents. Serial video-monitoring of cached seeds revealed that the stepwise dispersal was caused by agoutis repeatedly stealing and recaching each other's buried seeds. Although previous studies suggest that rodents are poor dispersers, we demonstrate that communities of rodents can in fact provide highly effective long-distance seed dispersal. Our findings suggest that thieving scatter-hoarding rodents could substitute for extinct megafaunal seed dispersers of tropical large-seeded trees. PMID:22802644
Jansen, Patrick A; Hirsch, Ben T; Emsens, Willem-Jan; Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica; Wikelski, Martin; Kays, Roland
Seoul virus, an Old World hantavirus, is maintained in brown rats and causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. We captured rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana and tested them for the presence of Old World hantaviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with sequencing, cell culture, and electron microscopy; 6 (3.4%) of 178 rodents captured--all brown rats--were positive for a Seoul virus variant previously coined Tchoupitoulas virus, which was noted in rodents in New Orleans in the 1980s. The finding of Tchoupitoulas virus in New Orleans over 25 years since its first discovery suggests stable endemicity in the city. Although the degree to which this virus causes human infection and disease remains unknown, repeated demonstration of Seoul virus in rodent populations, recent cases of laboratory-confirmed HFRS in some US cities, and a possible link with hypertensive renal disease warrant additional investigation in both rodents and humans. PMID:24639295
Cross, Robert W; Waffa, Bradley; Freeman, Ashley; Riegel, Claudia; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew; Safronetz, David; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Feldmann, Heinz; Voss, Thomas G; Bausch, Daniel G
Sixty-four samples of house dust from 16 long-established households in the Denver, Colorado area were analyzed for the presence of house dust mites (Dermatophagoides sp.). No mites were found in house dust from 12 of the sampled houses and small numbers (10 to 40 mites/g of house dust) were found from the other four. In an additional four houses which contained furniture recently imported from other areas, 100 to 360 mites/g of dust were found, and 2 years later up to 200 mites/g were still present. Twenty-eight percent of the mites in repeat collections from the latter homes were alive. The mite allergen content of house dust samples was analyzed by RAST inhibition against pooled sera from mite allergic patients. When dust from four long-established Denver households where no mites were found was employed, there was an average binding of 37.2%; with dust from the four Denver households with low levels of mites and no imported furniture, binding averaged 39.5%. In contrast, with house dust from four "positive control" homes in California and New York there was only 26.1% binding (P less than .005). The results of this study suggest that there are small numbers of nonintroduced house dust mites in some Denver houses, but that they contribute little mite antigen and are probably of minimal clinical significance in mite-sensitive patients. Large numbers of mites can be introduced with furnishings and may persist for at least 2 years. Similar small mite populations might be expected in other areas with comparable relative humidity. PMID:4061975
This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women. PMID:12347277
No mammal has yet undergone birth, or parturition, in the microgravity of space. Previous studies (Ronco & Alberts, 2000) have shown that mid-pregnant rat dams exposed to spaceflight (0-g) and landed 48-72 hrs before term successfully delivered robust, healthy offspring Microgravity-exposed dams exhibited twice the expected numbers of labor contractions whereas length of pregnancy, duration of labor, fetal wastage, number of neonates born and litter gender ratios were identical to controls. In the present study, we report the results of rodent pregnancy and parturition at the opposite end of the gravity spectrum, in hypergravity. Dams exposed to either: 1.0-g, 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g from Gestational day (G) 11 and throughout the births of their litters had comparable pregnancy and labor durations, fetal wastage, numbers of neonates born and litter Tender ratios. During parturition, hypergravity-exposed dams exhibited significantly fewer labor contractions as compared to 1.0-g controls. Dams that underwent birth in hypergravity had significantly fewer offspring surviving the immediate postpartum period (P1: 1.0-g, 11.92 +/- 2.84; 1.5-g, 10.88 +/- 2.17; 1.75-g, 9.22 +/-1.99; 2.0-g, 8.83 +/- 3.31). Within 24 hrs postpartum, neonatal survival was further diminished in hypergravity [P2: 100% (1.0-g); 96% (1.5-g); 96% (1.75-g); 73% (2.0-g)] and continued to decline (P10: 100%(1.0-g.); 90%(1.5-g); 87%(1.75-g), 40%(2.0-g)]. Neonatal losses stabilized by P5 for the 1.5-g andl.75-g conditions but continued until P9 for the 2.0-g condition. Together, these findings show that postnatal, but not prenatal, survival is compromised following birth in hypergravity, Maternal and neonatal factors that contribute to peri-parturitional vulnerability to altered gravity environments will be discussed.
Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Mills, N. A.; Wade, C. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)
According to the latest data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention 17%, or 12.5 million, of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years in the United States are obese. Physical inactivity is designated as one of the actual causes of US deaths and undoubtedly contributes to the obesity epidemic in children and adults. Examining the effects of inactivity on physiological homeostasis during youth is crucial given that 58% of children between the ages 6-11 yr old fail to obtain the recommended 60 min/day of physical activity and 92% of adolescents fail to achieve this goal [Troiano et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 40, 2008]. Nonetheless, invasive mechanistic studies in children linking diminished physical activity with metabolic maladies are lacking for obvious ethical reasons. The rodent wheel lock (WL) model was adopted by our laboratory and others to study how different organ systems of juvenile rats respond to a cessation of daily physical activity. Our WL model houses rats in cages equipped with voluntary running wheels starting at 28 days of age. After a certain period of voluntary running (3 to 6 wk), the wheels are locked, thus preventing the rats' primary source of physical activity. The studies discussed herein suggest that obesity-associated maladies including skeletal muscle insulin resistance, hypothalamic leptin resistance, fatty acid oxidation impairments in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and endothelial dysfunction are initiated in juvenile animals that are restrained from voluntary exercise via WL. The use of the juvenile rodent WL or other inactivity models will continue to provide a powerful clinical translational tool that can be used for primordial prevention of human childhood obesity. PMID:22696577
Roberts, Michael D; Company, Joseph M; Brown, Jacob D; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Laughlin, M Harold; Booth, Frank W
...provided only to married students). (b) Housing provided by recipient...concerning occupancy by its students of housing other than that provided...provides all or part of such housing to students of only one...
...provided only to married students). (b) Housing provided by recipient...concerning occupancy by its students of housing other than that provided...provides all or part of such housing to students of only one...
...provided only to married students). (b) Housing provided by recipient...concerning occupancy by its students of housing other than that provided...provides all or part of such housing to students of only one...
...provided only to married students). (b) Housing provided by recipient...concerning occupancy by its students of housing other than that provided...provides all or part of such housing to students of only one...
...provided only to married students). (b) Housing provided by recipient...concerning occupancy by its students of housing other than that provided...provides all or part of such housing to students of only one...
...provided only to married students). (b) Housing provided by recipient...concerning occupancy by its students of housing other than that provided...provides all or part of such housing to students of only one...
Population, economic, social and physical information are documented in the report to provide a background in the consideration of housing. Initial studies and analyses are also documented that identify existing housing conditions, housing needs, and prob...
This photo shows the Righmeyer House at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, which will be rehabilitated with Recovery Act funding to house the refuge's offices. Related to the R5GA ? Repair Rightmeyer House ? Back Bay NWR project....
...to apply for occupancy. Marketing must not rely on âword of mouthâ advertising. (A) Advertising. (1 ) Frequency...opportunity logotype (the house and equal sign, with the words equal housing opportunity underneath the house); the...
...to apply for occupancy. Marketing must not rely on âword of mouthâ advertising. (A) Advertising. (1 ) Frequency...opportunity logotype (the house and equal sign, with the words equal housing opportunity underneath the house); the...
This regulation sets fotth responsibilities and provides guidance on liaison with the White House, processing and reporting actions on White House communications, and inspections of DA activities at the White House.
This report is the second of two reports resulting from our Audit of the White House Communications Agency. The Chairman, House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight; the Chairman, House Subcommittee on National Security, International Affairs, and...
Provides examples on ways to make locker room maintenance easier and their use more student-friendly. Improvements include use of indoor-outdoor carpeting with numerous floor drains to cut mildew buildup, adequate ventilation to reduce musty smells, better hot water management, ceramic tiles to reduce water-damage repair and painting needs, and…
Thirty-one cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred after exposure in the emergency room at the National Taiwan University Hospital. The index patient was linked to an outbreak at a nearby municipal hospital. Three clusters were identified over a 3-week period. The first cluster (5 patients) and the second cluster (14 patients) occurred among patients, family members, and nursing
Offers advice on heavy-use locker-room design that provides easier maintenance and vandal resistance. Design features and materials used for flooring, ceilings, and walls are addressed as are built-in systems and equipment, toilet and shower fixtures and partitions, lockers, and mechanical and electrical systems. (GR)
This syllabus is intended for the use of training personnel in drawing up training programs for room-maids in hotels. Its main objective is to produce fully trained maids, thereby maintaining and raising standards. The syllabus is divided into three sections: Introducing to Housekeeping, Basic Tasks Performed by the Majority of Housekeeping…
Hotel and Catering Industry Training Board, Wembley (England).
Previous research indicates that predation risk may influence activity patterns, habitat partitioning, and community structure of nocturnal desert rodents. Shrub microhabitat is typically considered safer than open microhabitat for these small mammals. We investigated predation risk for Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii), which are diurnal desert rodents that detect predators visually and use burrows for refuge. Our results suggested that shrub cover may increase risk for these squirrels by decreasing their ability to escape from predators. Our field experiment indicated that running speeds of juvenile squirrels were lower in shrub (Ceratoides lanata) habitat than in open areas. Shrub cover was also associated with shorter predator-detection distances (mammalian and avian) and fewer refuges (burrow entrances per hectare) than in open areas in one year but not in another. Our study demonstrated that the visual and locomotive obstruction of vegetative cover may increase predation risk for diurnal desert rodents and that elements of habitat-dependent risk may be temporally dynamic.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a powerful method for exploring emotional and cognitive brain responses in humans. However rodent fMRI has not previously been applied to the analysis of learned behaviour in awake animals, limiting its use as a translational tool. Here we have developed a novel paradigm for studying brain activation in awake rats responding to conditioned stimuli using fMRI. Using this method we show activation of the amygdala and related fear circuitry in response to a fear-conditioned stimulus and demonstrate that the magnitude of fear circuitry activation is increased following early life stress, a rodent model of affective disorders. This technique provides a new translatable method for testing environmental, genetic and pharmacological manipulations on emotional and cognitive processes in awake rodent models.
Brydges, Nichola M.; Whalley, Heather C.; Jansen, Maurits A.; Merrifield, Gavin D.; Wood, Emma R.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Wynne, Sara-Madge; Day, Mark; Fleetwood-Walker, Sue; Steele, Douglas; Marshall, Ian; Hall, Jeremy; Holmes, Megan C.
Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.
Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji
This article describes the first fossils recorded in the Hernandarias Formation (Pleistocene) in Entre Ríos province (eastern Argentina). They are represented by three teeth assigned to the caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) Aenigmys diamantensis gen. et sp. nov. and Eumysops. To establish the phylogenetic affinities of the two most enigmatic teeth, their enamel microstructure was studied. Aenigmys diamantensis is considered the most primitive taxon of a clade formed by Dinomyidae-Neoepiblemidae-Heptaxodontidae. Evidence of the close relationships among these families also is presented herein. The new fossils reinforce previous hypotheses about the survival of primitive Brazilian taxa after their extinction in the Pampas and Patagonia of southern South America. They also show that the diversity of caviomorph rodents during the Quaternary was greater than supposed and that an important Quaternary extinction, not previously detected, affected several lineages. With the available evidence, it is not possible to determine if these rodents indicate a warm pulse or a particular biogeographic situation in Entre Ríos.
Vucetich, María G.; Vieytes, Emma C.; Verzi, Diego H.; Noriega, Jorge I.; Tonni, Eduardo P.
After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents. PMID:19424861
Gorbunova, Vera; Bozzella, Michael J; Seluanov, Andrei
In this study of the constraints of low-income migrants in securing decent housing in Quito, Ecuador (a rapidly growing city), there is a literature review of Latin American intraurban mobility and housing, the development of a theoretical model, and a bivariate analysis. John Turner's model of the three stages in the life cycle of migrants and the three concentric zones of urbanization provides the initial framework for examining Quito migration. Quito differs from other Third World and Latin American cities in that its origins are pre-Colombian, and physical barriers surround the city. Data were obtained from housing data collected independently in 1990 and 1991 and survey data on households living in 1000 inadequate housing units in 1989. 35.5% of Quito's population live in inadequate housing (poor building materials, poor construction, deterioration, or lack of basic services). Three concentric and elongated zones are constructed based on distance from the center city and periphery and are representative of shelter types (rented rooms, shanty, house, and apartment). Shelter improves with type of ownership status. The attitudes of local officials influences the proportion of the poor living in rental or self-help housing. 36% of Quito's low-income residents live in rented rooms, and 38% live in shanties and houses. Bridgeheaders (new migrants who are usually young single males) tend to live in rented rooms for under five years and to move over time to shanties and then houses. Colonial preservation in central Quito and landlords' incentives for encouraging migrants to stay in rental housing interferes with the third phase of the model. Mixed housing throughout the city fits the third phase. Local laws prevent squatters and self-help housing. Rented rooms are primarily in the central city. Occupant income increases with shifts from rented rooms, to shanties, to houses. Shelter, geographic, and mobility patterns that do not fit the model are identified. Urban circumstance may not be linear and evolutionary as predicted, but the pattern is not diverse enough to warrant abandoning the model. The recommendation is for a flexible model for adapting a universal model to local and global conditions. PMID:12344752
Abstract Rodents are important reservoirs for a large number of zoonotic pathogens. We examined the occurrence of 11 viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents in rodent populations in Austria, including three different hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox virus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Toxoplasma gondii. In 2008, 110 rodents of four species (40 Clethrionomys glareolus, 29 Apodemus flavicollis, 26 Apodemus sylvaticus, and 15 Microtus arvalis) were trapped at two rural sites in Lower Austria. Chest cavity fluid and samples of lung, spleen, kidney, liver, brain, and ear pinna skin were collected. We screened selected tissue samples for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, Leptospira, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., C. burnetii, and T. gondii by RT-PCR/PCR and detected nucleic acids of Tula hantavirus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia afzelii, Rickettsia spp., and different Bartonella species. Serological investigations were performed for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, and Rickettsia spp. Here, Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus-, Tula hantavirus-, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-, orthopox virus-, and rickettsia-specific antibodies were demonstrated. Puumala hantavirus, C. burnetii, and T. gondii were neither detected by RT-PCR/PCR nor by serological methods. In addition, multiple infections with up to three pathogens were shown in nine animals of three rodent species from different trapping sites. In conclusion, these results show that rodents in Austria may host multiple zoonotic pathogens. Our observation raises important questions regarding the interactions of different pathogens in the host, the countermeasures of the host's immune system, the impact of the host-pathogen interaction on the fitness of the host, and the spread of infectious agents among wild rodents and from those to other animals or humans. PMID:24915446
The majority of energy, approximately 40% of total energy usage, is today spent in buildings. The largest energy consuming subsystem in a building is heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In this work we focus on efficient energy usage for heating and cooling in a simple house that consists of three rooms. We use model predictive control to fully
A comparison of slums in Dehli and Amritsar, India, shows the slum dwellers to be quite similar in terms of social class, but indicates significant differences in various aspects of their housing environment. Slum residents in Amritsar tended to live in better quality dwellings with more rooms, more floor space, and a greater number of basic amenities. The results are
The reports present detailed housing data collected on a sample basis in the 1970 census. Data are shown for the following geographic identifications: the state (by urban and rural residence), standard metropolitan statistical areas, urbanized areas, plac...
The reports present detailed housing data collected on a sample basis in the 1970 census. Data are shown for the following geographic identifications: the state (by urban and rural residence), standard metropolitan statistical areas, urbanized areas, plac...
...requirements. The following additional performance requirements apply to congregate housing: (1) The unit must contain a refrigerator of appropriate size. (2) There must be central kitchen and dining facilities on the premises. These facilities:...
The mission of the Syracuse Housing Authority (SHA, Syracuse, N.Y.) is to provide clean, safe, and affordable housing for low-income citizens of the city of Syracuse. In doing so, it has worked to be innovative. SHA owns and manages 12 federally funded housing developments and one New York state-funded project, in addition to managing two buildings owned by the city. After nearly 60 years of success in providing affordable housing in the Syracuse area, the pioneering SHA took on another daunting mission in the 1990s: modernization of waste collection and recycling. By the beginning of 1990, SHA was facing two mandates: to initiate a recycling program by July 1, as mandated by Onondaga County law, and to reduce its trash bill significantly.
Foote, K.C. [Onondaga Country Resource Recovery Agency, North Syracuse, NY (United States); DeVoe, J.F. [Syracuse Housing Agency, NY (United States)
Four thousand, five hundred and sixteen rodents of 27 species were captured in widely separated localities in South Africa over a period of ten years. Samples of spleen, lung, heart, liver and rectal tissue with faeces were tested for the presence of zoonotic bacteria and 109 isolations of Pasteurella pneumotropica were made from 11 species. Latent infection with the organism was found to be widespread although there were temporal fluctuations in prevalence. Field and laboratory evidence suggest that P. pneumotropica may be associated with, but not the primary cause of, rodent epizootics in the wild.
We report results of the first study to investigate the distribution and diversity of Bartonella in rodents from Thailand. Whole blood from 195 rodents, representing six species, was tested for the presence of Bartonella species using standard culture techniques. Isolates were obtained from 17 (8.7%) of the samples, and 14 of those isolates represented distinct strains, based upon partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates and other Bartonella species indicated that five unique isolates from Bandicota indica form a cluster that may represent a new Bartonella species. Two additional isolates from B. indica clustered together, and were nearly identical to an isolate from Apodemus draco collected in southern China. Importantly, a number of the isolates from Thailand rodents are closely related to B. grahamii and B. elizabethae, species which have been associated with human illness. PMID:15100459
Castle, Kevin T; Kosoy, Michael; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Phelan, Lori; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L; Leepitakrat, Warisa; Monkanna, Taweesak; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Chandranoi, Kirkvich; Jones, James W; Coleman, Russell E
Social housing of nonhuman primates (NHP) in an infectious disease setting presents unique challenges, and individual housing is often scientifically justified. At our institute, we recognized an opportunity to limit individual housing to the minimal period necessary by pair-housing NHP after quarantine and separating them just before they are moved into holding rooms for infectious disease studies. To alleviate concerns that pair-housing followed by separation affects the immune system of NHP and makes them unfit as research candidates, we designed a short-term pair-housing study. After a 3-wk baseline period, juvenile rhesus macaques (age, 3 to 4 y) were paired for 7 wk and then separated for 7 wk. During the study, serum cortisol, lymphocyte subsets, and proinflammatory cytokines were measured. The average values for all parameters were significantly lower after separation than during the baseline period. We conclude that short-term pair housing is a viable option at our institute for social housing of NHP.
Benton, Carrie G; West, Michael W; Hall, Shane M; Marko, Shannon T; Johnson, Joshua C
Two high performance prototype houses were built in Carbondale, Colorado, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America (BA) Program. Each prototype was a 1256 ft2 (117 m2), 1-story, 3-bedroom house, and met the local requirements for affordable housing. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed short-term field testing and DOE-2.2 simulations in support of this project at the end of December 2004. We also installed long-term monitoring equipment in one of the houses, and are currently tracking the performance of key building systems under occupied conditions. One of the houses (designated H1) included a package of cost-effective energy efficiency features that placed it well above the Energy Star level, targeting a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score of 88-89. The other (designated H2) was a BA research house, targeting a HERS score of 94-95, and 45% whole-house energy savings compared to the BA Benchmark. Preliminary results from the field evaluation indicate that the energy savings for both houses will exceed the design targets established for the project, although the performance of certain building systems, including the ventilation and foundation systems, leave some room for improvement.
Two house mouse subspecies occur in Europe, eastern and northern Mus musculus musculus (Mmm) and western and southern Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd). A secondary hybrid zone occurs where their ranges meet, running from Scandinavia to the Black Sea. In this paper, we tested a hypothesis that the apicomplexan protozoan species Cryptosporidium tyzzeri has coevolved with the house mouse. More specifically, we assessed to what extent the evolution of this parasite mirrors divergence of the two subspecies. In order to test this hypothesis, we analysed sequence variation at five genes (ssrRNA, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP), thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of Cryptosporidium 1 (TRAP-C1), actin and gp60) in C. tyzzeri isolates from Mmd and Mmm sampled along a transect across the hybrid zone from the Czech Republic to Germany. Mmd samples were supplemented with mice from New Zealand. We found two distinct isolates of C. tyzzeri, each occurring exclusively in one of the mouse subspecies (C. tyzzeri-Mmm and C. tyzzeri-Mmd). In addition to genetic differentiation, oocysts of the C. tyzzeri-Mmd subtype (mean: 4.24×3.69?m) were significantly smaller than oocysts of C. tyzzeri-Mmm (mean: 4.49×3.90 ?m). Mmm and Mmd were susceptible to experimental infection with both C. tyzzeri subtypes; however, the subtypes were not infective for the rodent species Meriones unguiculatus, Mastomys coucha, Apodemus flavicollis or Cavia porcellus. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that C. tyzzeri is coevolving with Mmm and Mmd. PMID:23791796
With the East Room of the White House flush with Nobel laureates and government officials, including freshly sworn-in U.S. National Science Foundation director Subra Suresh, President Barack Obama honored dozens of students who participated in a White House science fair on 18 October. The fair—many of whose participants have won other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions—is part of a series of events that culminated 23-24 October in the USA Science and Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D. C., and at 50 satellite events around the country. “We welcome championship sports teams to the White House to celebrate their victories,” Obama said, noting that the Los Angeles Lakers basketball team, New Orleans Saints football team, and others have been to the White House. “I thought we ought to do the same thing for the winners of science fair and robotic contests and math competitions, because often we don’t give these victories the attention that they deserve. When you win first place at a science fair, nobody is rushing the field or dumping Gatorade over your head [in celebration].”
The Hispanic Reading Room site from the Library of Congress brings together over a dozen digital collections crafted from primary and secondary source materials related to Luso-Hispanic cultural history. The collections offered on this site include the Kraus Collection of Sir Francis Drake as well as a collection on Puerto Rico and the Dawn of the Modern Age. This last area contains a small gallery of cartographic items as well as a short essay on national identity. Moving on, the Exhibits and Pictorial Collections contain wonderful visual explorations of the Spanish-American War and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Of additional note, visitors on the hunt for a specific photograph or hard-to-find item may wish to consult the Reading Room's list of free-lance picture researchers who may be able to search for these items for a small fee.
In view of the fact that a considerable proportion of the population particularly at risk (the aged, children, the sick, etc.) spend many hours of the day indoors, the authors report the results of an investigation carried out on the building characteristics of 1833 houses sampled in four towns in the Marches region. The questionnaire of Fusillo et al. was used. The results show an excellent situation with regard both to the quality of outdoor air and acoustic pollution (only 27% of the sample complained of the vicinity of their house to zones of intense traffic). The low index of overcrowding (0.7 inhabitants per room) as well as the overall surface area of the houses (in 60% more than 100 m2), the large number of bathrooms (almost 50% of the houses with two, and another 15% with three or more), and the prevalence of detached houses are factors that show how the Marchean population pay particular attention to building criteria. However, even though from the structural standpoint the housing situation might seem a very good one, specific problems can be found, also common to other Italian regions, regarding building techniques and the materials adopted (e.g. the use of reinforced concrete, which together with the undoubted advantages it offers also has a number of disadvantages). The authors therefore stress the need for incentivating a bioecologically based building tradition, even if this is economically more costly, and give guidelines on how to conciliate the bioecological and economic aspects with regard to choice and use of materials. Finally, they express the hope that the "EC" symbol foreseen for building materials by Law No. 246 of 21 April 1993 will be adequately used in the ways laid down in appendix A to that law. PMID:9409927
Bernardini, C; Grappasonni, I; Petrelli, F; Cocchioni, M; Pellegrini, M G
Complete energy balances were obtained for two typical Swedish houses. The measurements made included temperatures, heat flow, wind velocity, solar or sky radiation, energy supply and ventilation. The results clearly showed the effects of thermal insulati...
The performance was investigated of well insulated houses in Aberdeen (Scotland). Condensation problems were reported in two areas, the bedroom ceilings adjacent to outside walls and in the loft. It was found that misalignment of insulation material above...
G. W. Brundrett G. Poultney J. Waddington R. Bentley
Describes the application of the turnkey" approach at three universities in which a developer plans, designs, and builds new housing to meet the institution's specifications at a predetermined, fixed cost. (JF)
Most states have a housing development authority; MichiganÃÂ¢Ã¢ÂÂ¬Ã¢ÂÂ¢s SHDA is well known for its work in encouraging downtown redevelopment projects and a range of creative solutions to providing long-term housing solutions for the state's residents. On the homepage, visitors can look over the Spotlight area to learn about the long-term projects that the SHDA is working on. On the left hand side of the page, visitors can look over fifteen different thematic areas, including Historic Preservation, Homeownership, and Property Managers. Contractors and other groups may want to pay close attention to the RFP's and Grants area, which includes information about applying for statewide housing grants and information on key statewide programs, such as the Housing and Community Development Fund. Visitors can also set up email alerts to learn when new material is added to the site.
The report is part of the Public Housing Management Improvement Program. This part of the program developed a tenant's recreation system. With the active involvement of tenants in the planning and development, the program aims at development of constructi...
To coordinate planning for and encourage the elimination of substandard housing and the alleviation of related conditions causing neighborhood blight, this report has been prepared to present to those concerned officials and interested citizens, a tabulat...
4. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST This view shows the concrete roof covering the airways and the engine room. The reinforced concrete roof is supported by metal beams. Note how the airshaft, in the foreground, widens to create an airway on either side for the double inlet fan. The brick fan housing is capped by a curved sheet metal roof whose segments are bolted together. The brick updraft chimney, capped with concrete, is to the rear (northeast). Also evident on the wall is the cover over the air velocity indicator. The Hollenback Cemetery, which adjoins the Dorrance Colliery property is in the background. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA
At the authors' facility, housing arrangements for Xenopus laevis were cumbersome and labor-intensive, requiring technicians to wash frog tanks by hand several times a week. The authors describe an alternative housing solution they implemented by modifying a rack system that was originally used to maintain zebrafish. The rack's self-contained water circulation and filtration system saved technicians time and labor, and a commercial chiller attached to the mechanism efficiently controlled frogs' environmental temperature. PMID:18356915
White-James, Jaime; McAndrew, Dustin; Badman, James; McGarry, Michael
Shortfalls of low?rent units are repeatedly cited as the rationale for programs to expand the supply of affordable housing. But the poverty?level rents studied fall well below those of major supply programs. To reassess whether HOME and the low?income housing tax credit (LIHTC) address actual shortfalls, this article compares numbers of units with renters by measuring both affordability and incomes
The performance of a hypothetical thermal envelope house is evaluated based on the results of a year-long thermal network simulation. The house has a floor area of 1500 ftÂ² (139 mÂ²) and 360 ftÂ² (33.5 mÂ²) south-facing double glazing, half vertical and half at a 45Â° tilt. The above grade inner and outer envelope walls have nominal resistances of R-11
Laboratory house mice (Mus musculus) with the XXY condition can be generated with ease and have been used as a biomedical model. However, although the XXY constitution\\u000a has been described in humans and many domestic and wild mammal species, and a very large number of wild house mice have been\\u000a karyotyped previously, no wild individuals of M. musculus with an
Heidi C. Hauffe; Mabel D. Giménez; Silvia Garagna; Jeremy B. Searle
A study has been made of the morphology of spermatozoa recovered from the female genital tract shortly after coitus, including spermatozoa entering and within eggs, in five rodent species. Elevation and loss of the acrosome was observed to occur in actively motile golden-hamster spermatozoa found in the cumulus oophorus and tubal fluid. Motile spermatozoa lacking the acrosome were also seen
PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) DISRUPTS THE THYROID STATUS IN LABORATORY RODENTS. C. Lau, J.R. Thibodeaux, R.G. Hanson, B.E. Gray and J.M. Rogers. Reprod. Tox. Div. NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. PFOS is an environmental contaminant ubiquitously found in h...
Oxygen isotope compositions of tooth phosphate (?18Op) were measured in 107 samples defined on the basis of teeth obtained from 375 specimens of extant rodents. These rodents were sampled from pellets collected in Europe from 38°N (Portugal) to 65°N (Finland) with most samples coming from sites located in France and Spain. Large oxygen isotopic variability in ?18Op is observed both at the intra- and inter-species scale within pellets from a given location. This isotopic variability is partly explained by heterochrony in tooth formation related to the short time of mineralization for all rodent species as well as the duration of mineralization that is species-dependent. Consequently, tooth phosphate of rodents records a short seasonal interval in the oxygen isotope compositions of meteoric waters (?18Omw). In addition, inter-species isotopic variability observed in the same pellets suggests behavioural differences implying distinct isotopic compositions for species living in the same location. At the scale of Europe, a robust linear oxygen isotope fractionation equation was determined for Muroidea between the midrange ?18Op values and ?18Omw values: ?18Op=1.21(±0.20)?18Omw+24.76(±2.70) with R2=0.79 (n=9; p<0.0001).
Serologic and genetic analyses indicate that a Juquitiba-like hantavirus circulates in Maldonado, Uruguay. This virus is carried by 2 rodent species, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Oxymycterus nasutus. The same hantavirus in 2 nonrelated species can be explained by a spillover infection or a host-switching event.
Delfraro, Adriana; Tome, Lorena; D'Elia, Guillermo; Clara, Mario; Achaval, Federico; Russi, Jose C.
In general, rapid morphological change in mammals has been infrequently documented. Examples that do exist are almost exclusively of rodents on islands. Such changes are usually attributed to selective release or founder events related to restricted gene flow in island settings. Here we document rapid morphological changes in rodents in 20 of 28 museum series collected on four continents, including 15 of 23 mainland sites. Approximately 17,000 measurements were taken of 1302 rodents. Trends included both increases and decreases in the 15 morphological traits measured, but slightly more trends were towards larger size. Generalized linear models indicated that changes in several of the individual morphological traits were associated with changes in human population density, current temperature gradients, and/or trends in temperature and precipitation. When we restricted these analyses to samples taken in the US (where data on human population trends were presumed to be more accurate), we found changes in two additional traits to be positively correlated with changes in human population density. Principle component analysis revealed general trends in cranial and external size, but these general trends were uncorrelated with climate or human population density. Our results indicate that over the last 100+ years, rapid morphological change in rodents has occurred quite frequently, and that these changes have taken place on the mainland as well as on islands. Our results also suggest that these changes may be driven, at least in part, by human population growth and climate change.
The role of interspecific competition in shaping animal and plant communities has formed one of the major issues in ecology for decades. Small mammals, mainly rodents, have been among the model systems used for research on interspecific competition. Most studies within small mammal systems in the past have examined effects of competition on population attributes such as on population size,
Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified. PMID:25062275
Lack of an accurate generative model makes it hard to use classical MAP segmentation algorithms to jointly segment the epi- and the endocardium in ultrasound rodent cardiac images. This paper proposes an alternate methodology for such segmentation. The methodology directly models the posterior probability of segmentation using penalized logistic models. A level-set segmentation algorithm is developed using direct posterior models.
Furan is a liver toxicant and carcinogen in rodents. Although humans are most likely exposed to furan through a variety of sources, the effect of furan exposure on human health is still unknown. In rodents, furan requires metabolism to exert its toxic effects. The initial product of the cytochrome P450 2E1-catalyzed oxidation is a reactive ?,?-unsaturated dialdehyde, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA). BDA is toxic and mutagenic and consequently is considered responsible for the toxic effects of furan. The urinary metabolites of furan in rats are derived from the reaction of BDA with cellular nucleophiles, and precursors to these metabolites are detected in furan-exposed hepatocytes. Many of these precursors are 2-(S-glutathionyl)butanedial-amine cross-links in which the amines are amino acids and polyamines. Because these metabolites are derived from the reaction of BDA with cellular nucleophiles, their levels are a measure of the internal dose of this reactive metabolite. To compare the ability of human hepatocytes to convert furan to the same metabolites as rodent hepatocytes, furan was incubated with cryopreserved human and rodent hepatocytes. A semiquantitative liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed for a number of the previously characterized furan metabolites. Qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of the metabolites demonstrated that furan is metabolized in a similar manner in all three species. These results indicate that humans may be susceptible to the toxic effects of furan. PMID:24751574
Gates, Leah A; Phillips, Martin B; Matter, Brock A; Peterson, Lisa A
Serologic and genetic analyses indicate that a Juquitiba-like hantavirus circulates in Maldonado, Uruguay. This virus is carried by 2 rodent species, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Oxymycterus nasutus. The same hantavirus in 2 nonrelated species can be explained by a spillover infection or a host-switching event. PMID:18760017
Delfraro, Adriana; Tomé, Lorena; D'Elía, Guillermo; Clara, Mario; Achával, Federico; Russi, José C; Arbiza Rodonz, Juan R
The time course of optical intrinsic signals was examined in order to characterize the evolution of response in human and rodent cortex. Both subtraction\\/ratio and principal component analyses were used to construct time-course curves. The time course began at a prestimulus baseline, responded with a finite delay, overcompensated, reduced to a maintenance level, and then disappeared. The magnitude, spatial involvement,
Andrew F. Cannestra; Anne J. Blood; Keith L. Black; Arthur W. Toga
This article describes the first fossils recorded in the Hernandarias Formation (Pleistocene) in Entre Ríos province (eastern Argentina). They are represented by three teeth assigned to the caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) Aenigmys diamantensis gen. et sp. nov. and Eumysops. To establish the phylogenetic affinities of the two most enigmatic teeth, their enamel microstructure was studied. Aenigmys diamantensis is considered the
María G. Vucetich; Emma C. Vieytes; Diego H. Verzi; Jorge I. Noriega; Eduardo P. Tonni
Recent advances in molecular genetics and phylogenetic reconstruction have the potential to transform ecology by providing new insights into the historical evolution of ecological communities. This study by Stevens and collaborators complements decades of previous research on desert rodents, by combining data from a field study and a phylogenetic tree for Mojave Desert rodents to address patterns and processes of community assembly. The number of coexisting rodent species is positively correlated, and the average phylogenetic distance among these species is negatively correlated with perennial plant species richness. As rodent species diversity increases along a gradient of increasing environmental heterogeneity, communities are composed of increasingly related species: there is a consistent pattern of phylogenetic structure from over-dispersed through random to clumped. I discuss this pattern in the light of complementary results of previous studies. This paper is noteworthy for calling attention to still unanswered questions about how the historical events of speciation, colonization, extinction, and trait evolution and their relationship to past climates and vegetation have given rise to current patterns of community organization. PMID:22324970
We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted. PMID:24447689
Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of acute and chronic liver disease worldwide. The progressive nature of ALD is well described however the complex interactions under which these pathologies evolve remain to be fully elucidated. Clinically there are no clear biomarkers or universally accepted, effective treatment strategies for ALD. Experimental models of ALD are an important component in identifying underlying mechanisms of alcohol-induced injury to develop better diagnostic markers, predictors of disease progression, and therapeutic targets to manage, halt, or reverse disease progression. Rodents remain the most accessible model for studying ALD pathology. Effective rodent models must mimic the natural history of ALD while allowing examination of complex interactions between multiple hepatic, and non-hepatic, cell types in the setting of altered metabolic or oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammatory responses, and sensitivity to cytotoxic stress. Additionally, mode and duration of alcohol delivery influences hepatic response and presents unique challenges in understanding disease pathology. This review provides an overview of rodent models of ALD, their strengths and weaknesses relative to human disease states, and provides insight of the potential to develop novel rodent models to simulate the course of human ALD.
Brandon-Warner, Elizabeth; Schrum, Laura W.; Schmidt, C. Max; McKillop, Iain H.
This paper describes a turbocharger. It comprises: a center housing, a compressor housing, and a turbine housing, means for securing the turbine housing and the compressor housing to the center housing, the center housing including a circumferentially extending wall defining a cavity therewithin, means carried by the center housing for rotatably supporting a shaft in the cavity, the shaft including
Utilization of non-native seeds by seed-eating rodents and ants was studied experimentally in the field. It was found that patterns of granivory in the Israeli deserts are very similar to those reported for the same groups in the deserts of North America. Rodents are more efficient than ants at finding and harvesting seeds. Only rodents can find and harvest seeds
The touchscreen testing method for rodents is a computer-automated behavioral testing method that allows computer graphic stimuli to be presented to rodents and the rodents to respond to the computer screen via a nose-poke directly to the stimulus. The advantages of this method are numerous; however, a systematic study of the parameters that…
Bussey, Timothy J.; Padain, Tina L.; Skillings, Elizabeth A.; Winters, Boyer D.; Morton, A. Jennifer; Saksida, Lisa M.
When the coding regions of 11 genes from rodents (mouse or rat) and man are compared with those from another mammalian species (usually bovine), it is found that rodents evolve significantly faster than man. The ratio of the number of nucleotide substitutions in the rodent lineage to that in the human lineage since their divergence is 2.0 for synonymous substitutions
Summary 1. The rodent Psammomys obesus is the main reservoir host for Leishmania major, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia, much of North Africa and mid-western Asia. An understanding of the population dynamics of this rodent is essential to establish a preventive control strategy based on the early prediction of rodent outbreaks. 2. The study of P. obesus
E. Fichet-Calvet; I. Jomaa; B. Zaafouri; R. W. Ashford; R. Ben-Ismail; P. DELATTREx
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful tool for pharmacokinetics studies in rodents during the preclinical phase of drug and tracer development. However, rodent organs are small as compared to the scanner's intrinsic resolution and are affected by physiological movements. We present a new method for the segmentation of rodent whole-body PET images that takes these two difficulties into account
Renaud Maroy; Raphaël Boisgard; Claude Comtat; Vincent Frouin; Pascal Cathier; Edouard Duchesnay; Freédéric Dolle; Peter E. Nielsen; Régine Trébossen; Bertrand Tavitian
We conducted a statewide survey of Oklahoma small mammals to test for antibod- ies against rodent-borne viral diseases. Four rodent species had antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the primary causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syn- drome (HPS), and two species had antibody to Whitewater Arroyo virus, an arenavirus associated with human fatalities. The rodent reservoirs for other HPS- causing
Richard A. Nisbett; Michael D. Stuart; Gloria M. Caddell; Charles H. Calisher
...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 8.33 Section 8.33 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary...HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Program Accessibility Â§ 8.33 Housing adjustments. A recipient shall...
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 8.33 Section 8.33 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary...HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Program Accessibility Â§ 8.33 Housing adjustments. A recipient shall...
Housing investment is largely undiversified and differs from financial assets (e.g. stocks) in that it serves the dual purpose of investment and consumption. Transaction costs and liquidity risk are also much higher for housing assets. These important differences among financial and housing assets suggest that idiosyncratic volatility may play an important role in explaining investment returns in the U.S. housing
Third in a series on how the nation's citizens are housed, this volume focuses on the physical adequacy and affordability of housing for blacks. The housing of blacks is more than twice as often physically flawed as is the housing of the total population....
This article summarizes the empirical evidence for the effect of housing mobility policies on health outcomes. Our focus derived from our interest in housing policies that might help reduce health disparities and our finding that, excluding policies concerned with the physical characteristics of housing (e.g., exposure to lead), only housing mobility has been evaluated for its effects on health.We reviewed
Theresa L. Osypuk; Rebecca E. Werbel; Ellen R. Meara; David M. Cutler; Lisa F. Berkman
This Web site, developed by the EPA, educates children about the many household products used in their homes. The main part of the site is an interactive tour through the rooms of a house to locate all the chemicals. Children can learn the substance's applications, its contents, and the health and safety precautions that one must follow when using the products. Viewers can also learn indispensable specifics about what to do if an accident occurs as well as the importance of reading labels. After viewing the site, users can test their chemical knowledge.